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Sample records for swedish arable soils

  1. Net sulfur mineralization potential in Swedish arable soils in relation to long-term treatment history and soil properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Kristin; Nilsson, S Ingvar; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    accumulated net S mineralization (SAccMin) and a number of soil physical and chemical properties were determined. Treatments and soil differences in SAccMin, as well as correlations with soil variables, were tested with single and multivariate analyses. Long-term FYM application resulted in a significantly (p......The long-term treatment effect (since 1957-1966) of farmyard manure (FYM) application compared with crop residue incorporation was investigated in five soils (sandy loam to silty clay) with regards to the net sulfur (S) mineralization potential. An open incubation technique was used to determine...... = 0.012) higher net S mineralization potential, although total amounts of C, N, and S were not significantly (p soils within this treatment. The measured soil variables were not significantly correlated...

  2. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in arable soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Miętkiewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of soil were taken from arable field and from balk. Larvae of Galleria mellonella and Ephestia kühniella were used as an "insect bait" for isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soil. Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were isolated from both kind of soil. but Beauveria bassiana was present only in soil taken from balk.

  3. Carbon Dioxide in Arable Soil Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Plauborg, Finn; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2014-01-01

    ; however, differences may occur in response to soil spatial variability. A better coverage of spatial variability is more easily addressed using manually operated systems whereas temporal variability can be covered using the automated system. Depending on the aim of the study, the two systems may be used......Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in arable soil profiles are influenced by autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration as well as soil physical properties that regulate gas transport. Whereas different methods have been used to assess dynamics of soil CO2 concentrations, our understanding...... on the comparability of results obtained using different methods is limited. We therefore aimed to compare the dynamics in soil CO2 concentrations obtained from an automated system (GMP343 sensors) to those from a manually operated measurement system (i.e., soil gas sampled using stainless steel needles and rods...

  4. Relations between Agronomic Practice and Earthworms in Norwegian Arable Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Pommeresche, Reidun; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Norwegian studies of earthworms (density, biomass, burrows density, species, juvenile to adult ratios) in arable soil in Norway conducted during the last 20 years. The effects of crop rotations, fertilization, soil tillage and compaction on earthworms are presented, based on various field experiments. Geophagous (soil eating) species such as Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. rosea dominate the earthworm fauna in Norwegian arable soil. Lumbricus terrestris is also present; in ...

  5. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ajol.infoand www.bioline.org.br/ja. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable ..... saturation with natural gas. Proceeding of. American Soil Science Society 24: 41-45. Amare, T (2014). Effect of weed management methods on weeds and.

  6. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on the yield and agronomic characters of Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss. ... If properly managed and stimulated, fungi can contribute significantly to improving soil health, thus improving food security in a sustainable manner. Keywords: Mycoaugmentation ...

  7. Soil conservation practices among Arable Crop Farmers In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil conservation practices among Arable Crop Farmers In Enugu – North Agricultural Zone, Nigeria: Implications for Climate Change. ... The paper recommends concerted efforts to promote among farmers the conservation practices that aid mitigation and adaptation to climate change and at the same time enhance ...

  8. Topographic variability influences the carbon sequestration potential of arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Elsgaard, Lars; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2012-01-01

    There is presently limited knowledge on the influence of field spatial variability on the carbon (C) sink-source relationships in arable landscapes. This is accompanied by the fact that our understanding of soil profile C dynamics is also limited. This study aimed at investigating how spatial...

  9. Spatial Distribution of Fungal Communities in an Arable Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Moll

    Full Text Available Fungi are prominent drivers of ecological processes in soils, so that fungal communities across different soil ecosystems have been well investigated. However, for arable soils taxonomically resolved fine-scale studies including vertical itemization of fungal communities are still missing. Here, we combined a cloning/Sanger sequencing approach of the ITS/LSU region as marker for general fungi and of the partial SSU region for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF to characterize the microbiome in different maize soil habitats. Four compartments were analyzed over two annual cycles 2009 and 2010: a ploughed soil in 0-10 cm, b rooted soil in 40-50 cm, c root-free soil in 60-70 cm soil depth and d maize roots. Ascomycota was the most dominant phylum across all compartments. Fungal communities including yeasts and AMF differed strongly between compartments. Inter alia, Tetracladium, the overall largest MOTU (molecular operational taxonomic unit, occurred in all compartments, whereas Trichosporon dominated all soil compartments. Sequences belonging to unclassified Helotiales were forming the most abundant MOTUs exclusively present in roots. This study gives new insights on spatial distribution of fungi and helps to link fungal communities to specific ecological properties such as varying resources, which characterize particular niches of the heterogeneous soil environment.

  10. Modelling soil organic carbon concentration of mineral soils in arable lands using legacy soil data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suuster, E; Ritz, Christian; Roostalu, H

    2012-01-01

    as to the advantages and shortcomings of the different commonly used prediction methods. Therefore, we compared and evaluated the merits of the median approach, analysis of covariance, mixed models and random forests in the context of prediction of SOC concentrations of mineral soils under arable management in the A......Soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration is an essential factor in biomass production and soil functioning. SOC concentration values are often obtained by prediction but the prediction accuracy depends much on the method used. Currently, there is a lack of evidence in the soil science literature......-horizon. Three soil properties were used in all of the developed models: soil type, physical clay content (particle size

  11. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  12. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.

    2002-01-01

    the Hanes-Wolf transformation of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Soil samples from 6 to 13 cm depth were collected in the early spring as undisturbed blocks from 10 arable soils with different physico-chemical properties and cultivation history. Significant correlations were found between soil suppresiveness....... From the preliminary results obtained, it is proposed that the cellulolytic activity can be used as an enzymatic approach to study the microbial turnover of organic matter in soils and as indicator of seedling blight of barley caused by F. culmorum. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Enhancement of late successional plants on ex-arable land by soil inoculations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carbajo

    Full Text Available Restoration of species-rich grasslands on ex-arable land can help the conservation of biodiversity but faces three big challenges: absence of target plant propagules, high residual soil fertility and restoration of soil communities. Seed additions and top soil removal can solve some of these constraints, but restoring beneficial biotic soil conditions remains a challenge. Here we test the hypotheses that inoculation of soil from late secondary succession grasslands in arable receptor soil enhances performance of late successional plants, especially after top soil removal but pending on the added dose. To test this we grew mixtures of late successional plants in arable top (organic soil or in underlying mineral soil mixed with donor soil in small or large proportions. Donor soils were collected from different grasslands that had been under restoration for 5 to 41 years, or from semi-natural grassland that has not been used intensively. Donor soil addition, especially when collected from older restoration sites, increased plant community biomass without altering its evenness. In contrast, addition of soil from semi-natural grassland promoted plant community evenness, and hence its diversity, but reduced community biomass. Effects of donor soil additions were stronger in mineral than in organic soil and larger with bigger proportions added. The variation in plant community composition was explained best by the abundances of nematodes, ergosterol concentration and soil pH. We show that in controlled conditions inoculation of soil from secondary succession grassland into ex-arable land can strongly promote target plant species, and that the role of soil biota in promoting target plant species is greatest when added after top soil removal. Together our results point out that transplantation of later secondary succession soil can promote grassland restoration on ex-arable land.

  14. Soil structure and earthworm activity in an marine silt loam under pasture versus arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, A.G.; Pulleman, M.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural management influences soil organic matter (SOM) and earthworm activity which interact with soil structure. We aimed to describe the change in earthworm activity and related soil (micro)structure and SOM in a loamy Eutrodept as affected by permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable

  15. Biochar Decelerates Soil Organic Nitrogen Cycling but Stimulates Soil Nitrification in a Temperate Arable Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50–80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies. PMID:24497947

  16. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prommer

    Full Text Available Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  17. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  18. Effects of spent engine oil pollution on arable soil of Nekede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disposing automobile wastes in the environment; especially spent engine oil on arable soils around mechanic villages is a common practice in Nigeria. Consequently this investigation was carried out in order to assess the effect of spent engine oil on selected soil physical and chemical properties and the ...

  19. The dissolved organic matter as a potential soil quality indicator in arable soils of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Tibor; Draskovits, Eszter; Szabó, József; Koós, Sándor; László, Péter; Szalai, Zoltán

    2015-07-01

    Although several authors have suggested that the labile fraction of soils could be a potential soil quality indicator, the possibilities and limitations of using the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction for this purpose have not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that DOM is an adequate indicator of soil quality. To test this, the soil quality indices (SQI) of 190 arable soils from a Hungarian dataset were estimated, and these values were compared to DOM parameters (DOC and SUVA254). A clear difference in soil quality was found between the soil types, with low soil quality for arenosols (average SQI 0.5) and significantly higher values for gleysols, vertisols, regosols, solonetzes and chernozems. The SQI-DOC relationship could be described by non-linear regression, while a linear connection was observed between SQI and SUVA. The regression equations obtained for the dataset showed only one relatively weak significant correlation between the variables, for DOC (R (2) = 0.157(***); n = 190), while non-significant relationships were found for the DOC and SUVA254 values. However, an envelope curve operated with the datasets showed the robust potential of DOC to indicate soil quality changes, with a high R (2) value for the envelope curve regression equation. The limitations to using the DOM fraction of soils as a quality indicator are due to the contradictory processes which take place in soils in many cases.

  20. Heavy metals relationship in arable and greenhouse soils of SE Spain using a geostatistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Carlos; Joaquin Ramos-Miras, Jose; Rodríguez Martín, Jose Antonio; Boluda, Rafael; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    This study compares heavy metals contents and the main edaphic parameters in greenhouse soils from the W Almería region one of the most productive agricultural systems in Europe, with agricultural soils (arable soils) in western Andalusia, SW Spain. Heavy metals input in agricultural soils mainly occur through pesticides and phytosanitary control products. The hazardousness of the studied elements (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd) is particularly relevant in soils used for intensive greenhouse farming where such agricultural practices, which centre on maximising production, end up with products that finally enter the human food chain directly. Here we explore a total of 199 greenhouse soils and 142 arable soils, representing two scales of variation in this Mediterranean area. Despite their similar edaphic characteristics, the main differences between arable soils and greenhouse soils lie in nutrients contents (P and K) and in certain heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn), which reflect widespread use of pesticides in greenhouse farming. One of the most toxic metals is Cd given its mobility, whose concentrations triple in greenhouse soils, although it does not exceed the limits set by Spanish legislation. We conclude that despite anthropic heavy metals input, the association patterns of these elements were similar on the two spatial variability scales. Cd, Pb and Zn contents, and partly those of Cu, are related with agricultural practices. On the short spatial scale, grouping these heavy metals shows very high contents in greenhouse soils in the central northern area of the W Almería region. On the other hand, the associations of Cr and Ni suggest a lithogenic influence combined with a pedogenic effect on spatial maps. This natural origin input becomes more marked on the long spatial scale (arable soils) where the main Cr and Ni contents are found in the vicinity of the Gádor Mountain Range.

  1. SoilBioHedge, harnessing hedgerow soil biodiversity for restoration of arable soil quality and resilience to climatic extremes and land use changes: The impacts of arable to ley conversion on soil hydrological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Richard; Holden, Joseph; Chapman, Pippa; Hunt, Sarah; Leake, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Modern agricultural practices pose a significant threat to soil security. Continuous conventional cultivation has been observed to deplete soil organic matter, degrade soil structure, reduce water drainage and water holding capacity, increase nitrate leaching, damage the ecosystem engineer earthworm and mycorrhiza populations and increase the susceptibility of soil and crops to the impacts of climatic stress through decreased resilience to flood and drought conditions. The SoilBioHedge project aims to determine the effectiveness of using grass-clover leys linking hedgerows to arable fields in restoring functional biodiversity, soil quality and resilience to drought and excess rainfall in arable farming. Paired 70m long ley strips have been inserted in to 4 fields. Within each field one ley is connected to the margin while in the other a small 1m fallow area and a steel mesh barrier inserted to bedrock is being used to disconnect the ley and margin and prevent macrofaunal movement from the margin to the ley. As part of the SoilBioHedge project we are undertaking a range of analyses to establish the impacts of arable to ley conversion on key hydrological properties of agricultural soils. Soil moisture is being continuously monitored at three depths at 48 separate locations, in addition monthly manual measurements are being taken at 1158 locations. Arable-to-ley conversion is expected to increase soil macrofaunal activity especially in locations closer to hedgerows, enhancing macropore development. Therefore the proportion of water percolating into macropores, mesopores and micropores is being measured using tension infiltrometers which also allow the calculation of saturated hydraulic conductivity. Soil cores have been extracted to examine impacts on bulk and particle density and subsequently porosity, with hydraulic conductivity being measured using a lab permeameter. Here we present the results of these analyses over the first 24 months of the project. This

  2. Neonicotinoid concentrations in arable soils after seed treatment applications in preceding years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ainsley; Harrington, Paul; Turnbull, Gordon

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticides clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid were determined in arable soils from a variety of locations in England. In soil samples taken from the central area of fields, concentrations of clothianidin ranged from 0.02 to 13.6 µg kg(-1) . Thiamethoxam concentrations were between clothianidin and thiamethoxam were lower in soil samples taken from the edges of fields than from the centres of fields, but this difference was less pronounced for imidacloprid. This work gives a clear indication of the levels of neonicotinoids in arable soils after typical use of these compounds as seed dressings in the United Kingdom. There was evidence that imidacloprid was more persistent in the soils studied than clothianidin and thiamethoxam. As clothianidin and thiamethoxam have largely superseded imidacloprid in the United Kingdom, neonicotinoid levels were lower than suggested by predictions based on imidacloprid alone. © 2014 Crown copyright. Pest Management Science © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. On the role of soil organic matter for crop production in European arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijbeek, Renske

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to improve understanding of the role of organic inputs and soil organic matter (SOM) for crop production in contemporary arable farming in Europe. For this purpose, long-term experiments were analysed on the additional yield effect of organic inputs and savings in

  4. Effect of vegetation manipulation of abandoned arable land on soil microbial properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maly, S.; Korthals, G.W.; Van Dijk, C.; Van der Putten, W.H.; De Boer, W.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of vegetation composition on various soil microbial properties in abandoned arable land was investigated 2 years after agricultural practice had terminated. Microbial numbers and processes were determined in five replicate plots of each of the following treatments: continued agricultural

  5. On the role of soil organic matter for crop production in European arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijbeek, Renske

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to improve understanding of the role of organic inputs and soil organic matter (SOM) for crop production in contemporary arable farming in Europe. For this purpose, long-term experiments were analysed on the additional yield effect of organic inputs and savings in mineral

  6. Remediation of degraded arable steppe soils in Moldova using vetch as green manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeier, M.; Lungu, M.; Hübner, R.; Cerbari, V.

    2015-05-01

    In the Republic of Moldova, non-sustainable arable farming led to severe degradation and erosion of fertile steppe soils (Chernozems). As a result, the Chernozems lost about 40% of their initial amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). The aim of this study was to remediate degraded arable soils and promote carbon sequestration by implementation of cover cropping and green manuring in Moldova. Thereby, the suitability of the legume hairy vetch (Vicia sativa) as cover crop under the dry continental climate of Moldova was examined. At two experimental sites, the effect of cover cropping on chemical and physical soil properties as well as on yields of subsequent main crops was determined. The results showed a significant increase of SOC after incorporation of hairy vetch mainly due to increases of aggregate-occluded and mineral-associated OC. This was related to a high above- and belowground biomass production of hairy vetch associated with a high input of carbon and nitrogen into arable soils. A calculation of SOC stocks based on equivalent soil masses revealed a sequestration of around 3 t C ha-1yr-1 as a result of hairy vetch cover cropping. The buildup of SOC was associated with an improvement of the soil structure as indicated by a distinct decrease of bulk density and a relative increase of macroaggregates at the expense of microaggregates and clods. As a result, yields of subsequent main crops increased by around 20%. Our results indicated that hairy vetch is a promising cover crop to remediate degraded steppe soils, control soil erosion and sequester substantial amounts of atmospheric C in arable soils of Moldova.

  7. Physical and chemical factors influencing radionuclide behaviour in arable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauret, G.; Vidal, M.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Kruglov, S.V.; Cremers, A.; Wauters, J.; Valcke, E.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides integrates plant physiological and soil chemical aspects. Therefore, it is necessary to study the factors affecting the equilibrium of the radionuclides between solid and soil solution phases. Desorption and adsorption studies were applied to the podsolic and peat soils considered in the ECP-2 project. In the desorption approach, both sequential extraction and 'infinite bath' techniques were used. In the adsorption approach, efforts were directed at predicting Cs and Sr-K D on the basis of soil properties and soil solution composition. Desorption approach predicts time-dynamics of transfer with time but it is un sufficient for comparatively predicting transfer. Adsorption studies informs about which are the key factors affecting radionuclide transfer. For Sr, availability depends on the CEC and on the concentration of the Ca + Mg in the soil solution. For Cs, availability is mainly dependent on the partitioning between FES -frayed edge sites-, which are highly specific and REC -regular exchange complex-, with low selectivity for Cs. Moreover, availability depends on the K and NH 4 , levels in the soil solution and fixation properties of the soil. Considering these factors, the calculation of the in situ K D values helps to predict the relative transfer of radionuclides. The calculation of the K D of the materials that could be used as countermeasures could permit the prediction of its suitability to decrease transfer and therefore to help in producing cleaner agricultural products

  8. Microbial biodiversity in arable soils is affected by agricultural practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolińska, Agnieszka; Górniak, Dorota; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Goryluk-Salmonowicz, Agata; Kuźniar, Agnieszka; Stępniewska, Zofia; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the differences in microbial community structure as a result of agricultural practices. Sixteen samples of cultivated and the same number of non-cultivated soils were selected. Gel bands were identified using the GelCompar software to create the presence-absence matrix, where each band represented a bacterial operational taxonomic unit. The data were used for principal-component analysis and additionally, the Shannon- Weaver index of general diversity, Simpson index of dominance and Simpson index of diversity were calculated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles clearly indicated differentiation of tested samples into two clusters: cultivated and non-cultivated soils. Greater numbers of dominant operational taxonomic units (65) in non-cultivated soils were noted compared to cultivated soils (47 operational taxonomic units). This implies that there was a reduction of dominant bacterial operational taxonomic units by nearly 30% in cultivated soils. Simpson dominance index expressing the number of species weighted by their abundance amounted to 1.22 in cultivated soils, whereas a 3-fold higher value (3.38) was observed in non-cultivated soils. Land-use practices seemed to be a important factors affected on biodiversity, because more than soil type determined the clustering into groups.

  9. The content and solubility of lead in arable soils of the Podlasie Province (eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukowski Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the estimation of total content of lead and its fraction in arable soils and permanent grassland of Podlasie Province, eastern Poland. The research material included 104 soil samples from Podlasie Province, which were collected in years 2011–2013 from the topsoil (0–30 cm after plant harvest. The following basic physicochemical properties of soil samples were determined: granulometric composition, organic carbon content and pH in 1 mol·dm−3 KCl solution. Based on the granulometric composition soils were divided into three groups: very light and light, medium and organic soils. The total lead and its content in fractions was determined by means of GFAAS technique using Varian AA-100 apparatus. The fractions of lead were extracted by BCR method. In the case of very light and light soils the lowest percentage share of Pb on average was noted in exchangeable fraction (16.3% of total content and the highest in fraction bound to Fe/Mn oxides (43.5%. Similarly in medium and organic soils the highest amount of Pb was stated in reducible fraction, 43.7 and 41.3% of total content, respectively, and the lowest in exchangeable fraction, 16.5 and 12.2%, respectively. It was found that content of total lead was typical for arable uncontaminated soils.

  10. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2002-01-01

    Vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements in lysimetric laboratory conditions applying irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year (except radioiodine). A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, allowing us to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The data from the time dependence of the depth activity distribution (radionuclide concentration along the vertical soil profile) were used to test the model. The migration rate constants and migration rates were found to be affected by the contaminating radionuclides as well as by the site, type and depth of the soil. The relaxation times of the radionuclides in the soil horizons were calculated. The effects on the rate parameters of the permanent grass cover and the zeolite applied onto the arable soil surfaces were also investigated

  11. Studies on mycoflora colonizing raw keratin wastes in arable soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Korniłłowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present studies showed that feathers placed in soil demonstrated the succesion of physiologically differentiated communities of micromycetes. The first colonizers were sugar fungi. The second phase of feather colonization showed the prevalence of nutritively undeveloped polyphages and "root" celulolytic fungi. The final phase of colonization was dominated by keratinophilic fungi together with microflora that involved the forms known mainly for their strong proteolytic abilities. It was found that both the Chemical structure of substrate and soil properties with its pH determined the qualitative composition of fungal flora.

  12. Trade-offs in soil fertility management on arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jules F.F.P.; Berge, ten Hein F.M.; Verhagen, Jan; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Crop production and soil fertility management implies a multitude of decisions and activities on crop choice, rotation design and nutrient management. In practice, the choices to be made and the resulting outcomes are subject to a wide range of objectives and constraints. Objectives are economic

  13. Transformation towards more sustainable soil management on Dutch arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claus, Sebastien; Egdom, van Ilona; Suter, Bruno; Sarpong, Clara; Pappa, Aikaterini; Miah, Imtiaz; Luppa, Caterina; Potters, J.I.

    2017-01-01

    Currently a debate is ongoing in the Netherlands on how to increase soil sustainable management in general and specifically in short term lease. Sustainable practices may not be adopted by farmers because of an interplay between EU, national and provincial legislation, short-term land lease system,

  14. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The use of pesticide, although increases agricultural yield and improves public health is also fraught with a number of ecologic, agronomic and health concerns. This research investigated the impact of an ex-situ mycostimulation of one of the in-situ soil fungi on some agronomic characters and yield of Talinum ...

  15. Erosion Losses of Soils on Arable Land in the European part of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, K. A.; Yermolaev, O. P.

    2018-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of potential soil losses in arable lands of the European part of Russia is carried out in the article. The assessment was carried out using a mathematical model based on the mathematical dependencies of the universal soil loss equation and the mathematical dependencies of the State Hydrological Institute of Russia. Assessment of potential soil losses was performed using calculations in a geographic information system. To perform the calculations the database was created containing information on: the relief; properties of soils; climate and land use. The raster model of data organization was used to create the database and subsequent calculations. The assessment shows that the average amount of soil loss in the plowed land of the European territory of Russia is 11 t/ha per year. At the same time, about half of the territories are located in conditions where the soil loss value does not exceed 0.5 t/ha per year. The potential loss of soil taking into account the soil protection role of vegetation is 3.3 tons/ha per year. In addition, a spatial analysis of the distribution of soil loss by landscape zones shows that there is a consistent reduction in the potential loss of soil from the forest zone (20.92 t/ha per year) to the forest-steppe (10.84 t / ha per year), steppe (8.13 t/ha per year) and semi-desert (4.7 tons/ha per year) zone.

  16. Restoration of species-rich grasslands on ex-arable land: Seed addition outweighs soil fertility reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardol, P.; Van der Wal, A.; Bezemer, T.M.; De Boer, W.; Duyts, H.; Holtkamp, R.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    A common practice in biodiversity conservation is restoration of former species-rich grassland on ex-arable land. Major constraints for grassland restoration are high soil fertility and limited dispersal ability of plant species to target sites. Usually, studies focus on soil fertility or on methods

  17. Effects of a copper tolerant grass (Agrostis capillaris) on the ecosystem of a copper-contaminated arable soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, G.T.; Bouwman, L.A.; Bloem, J.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    To test how a dysfunctioning ecosystem of a severely metal-polluted soil responds to renewed plant growth, a pot experiment was conducted with soil from an experimental arable field with pH and copper gradients imposed 13 years ago. In this experimentfour pH/copper combinations from this field were

  18. Potential carbon sequestration of European arable soils estimated by modelling a comprehensive set of management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Bampa, Francesca; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca; Jones, Arwyn

    2014-11-01

    Bottom-up estimates from long-term field experiments and modelling are the most commonly used approaches to estimate the carbon (C) sequestration potential of the agricultural sector. However, when data are required at European level, important margins of uncertainty still exist due to the representativeness of local data at large scale or different assumptions and information utilized for running models. In this context, a pan-European (EU + Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Norway) simulation platform with high spatial resolution and harmonized data sets was developed to provide consistent scenarios in support of possible carbon sequestration policies. Using the CENTURY agroecosystem model, six alternative management practices (AMP) scenarios were assessed as alternatives to the business as usual situation (BAU). These consisted of the conversion of arable land to grassland (and vice versa), straw incorporation, reduced tillage, straw incorporation combined with reduced tillage, ley cropping system and cover crops. The conversion into grassland showed the highest soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates, ranging between 0.4 and 0.8 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , while the opposite extreme scenario (100% of grassland conversion into arable) gave cumulated losses of up to 2 Gt of C by 2100. Among the other practices, ley cropping systems and cover crops gave better performances than straw incorporation and reduced tillage. The allocation of 12 to 28% of the European arable land to different AMP combinations resulted in a potential SOC sequestration of 101-336 Mt CO2 eq. by 2020 and 549-2141 Mt CO2 eq. by 2100. Modelled carbon sequestration rates compared with values from an ad hoc meta-analysis confirmed the robustness of these estimates. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The use of soil gypsum concentration as an indicator of arable land degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Irene; Marqués Pérez, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Zulimar; Carral, Pilar; Crittenden, Stephen; Sastre, Blanca; Bienes, Ramón

    2017-04-01

    Gypsiferous soils are frequent in arid and semi-arid areas. These soils can be used for farming but shallow soils and steep slopes are detrimental to establishing their profitability. Tillage of sloping land increases risk of soil erosion processes that lead to diminished thickness of the richer topsoil layer. Topsoil loss exposes subsoil layers with higher gypsum concentration. This increased gypsum concentration can influence the potential biomass production and agricultural suitability of gypsiferous soils. In the literature, soils having more than 15% gypsum tend to have weak soil structure and inhibited root growth. Consequently, there is a need to diagnose these eroded soils and to develop a soil protection strategy for arable land if continued soil loss is to be abated and productivity is to be restored or maintained. Indicators to establish the level of degradation are needed, particularly ones that are easy to measure. We hypothesize that pale soil colours indicate proximity to soil conditions linked to high concentrations of gypsum that are detrimental to plant growth. Spain leads the list of European countries having gypsiferous soils, with an area of approximately 35 000 sq km covered. Gypsiferous soils analysed in this study are located at the centre of Spain, where average temperature is 16°C and soils receive around 400 mm of rainfall per year. Sampling was conducted in various areas of a sloping agricultural land with olive trees. Topsoil disturbed samples were randomly collected, in addition, six 70 cm deep soil core were collected. Two soil cores at the top, two in the middle, and two at the bottom slope areas were taken. Colour and gypsum concentration were analysed in the soil samples and also for sub-samples each 5 cm of the core samples. Gypsum was analysed by chemical and thermogravimetric methods. Other parameters like aggregate stability, electrical conductivity, water retention, and bulk density were also analysed. Gypsum concentration

  20. Pyrogenic Carbon Lacks Long-Term Persistence in Temperate Arable Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lutfalla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic organic carbon (PyOC derived from incomplete burning of biomass is considered the most persistent fraction of soil organic carbon (SOC, being expected to remain in soil for centuries. However, PyOC persistence has seldom been evaluated under field conditions. Based on a unique set of soils from five European long-term bare fallows (LTBF, i.e., vegetation-free field experiments, we provide the first direct comparison between PyOC and SOC persistence in temperate arable soils. We found that soil PyOC contents decreased more rapidly than expected from current concepts, the mean residence time (MRT of native PyOC being just 1.6 times longer than that of SOC. At the oldest experimental site, 55% of the initial PyOC remained after 80 years of bare fallow. Our results suggest that while the potential for long-term C storage exists, the persistence of PyOC in soil may currently be overestimated.

  1. Plant litter decomposition and carbon sequestration for arable soils. Final report of works. April 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recous, S.; Barrois, F.; Coppens, F.; Garnier, P.; Grehan, E.; Balesdent, J.; Dambrine, E.; Zeller, B.; Loiseau, P.; Personeni, E.

    2002-01-01

    The general objective of this project was to contribute to the evaluation of land use and management impacts on C sequestration and nitrogen dynamics in soils. The land used through the presence/absence of crops and their species, and the land management through tillage, localisation of crop residues, fertilizer applications,... are important factors that affect the dynamics of organic matters in soils, particularly the mineralization of C and N, the losses to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, the retention of carbon into the soil. This project was conducted by four research groups, three of them having expertise in nutrient cycling of three major agro-ecosystems (arable crops, grasslands, forests) and the fourth one having expertise in modelling long term effects of land use on C storage into the soils. Within this common project one major objective was to better understand the fate of plant litter entering the soil either as above litter or as root litter. The focus was put on two factors that particularly affect decomposition: the initial biochemical quality of plant litter, and the location of the decomposing litter. One innovative aspect of the project was the use of stable isotope as 13 C for carbon, based on the use of enriched or depleted 13 C material, the only option to assess the dynamics of 'new' C entering the soil on the short term, in order to reveal the effects of decomposition factors. Another aspect was the simultaneous study of C and N. The project consisted in experiments relevant for each agro-ecosystem, in forest, grassland and arable soils for which interactions between residue quality and nitrogen availability on the one hand, residue quality and location on the other hand, was investigated. A common experiment was set up to investigate the potential degradability of the various residue used (beech leaf rape straw, young rye, Lolium and dactylic roots) in a their original soils and in a single soil was assessed. Based on these experiments, the

  2. Acid-base status and changes in Swedish forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karltun, Erik; Stendahl, Johan; Lundin, Lars

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use data from the Swedish National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation (NSFSV) to evaluate the present acid-base status of forest soils to try to answer the following questions. Which role do anthropogenic and biological acidification play for the present acid-base status of the soil profile? What is the present acid-base status of Swedish forest soils and how large areas may be considered as severely acidified? Do the current tendencies in soil acid-base status correspond with the positive development in surface waters?

  3. Assessment of sampling and analytical uncertainty of trace element contents in arable field soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczko, Uwe; Kuchenbuch, Rolf O; Ubelhör, Walter; Nätscher, Ludwig

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of trace element contents in soils is required in Germany (and other countries) before sewage sludge application on arable soils. The reliability of measured element contents is affected by measurement uncertainty, which consists of components due to (1) sampling, (2) laboratory repeatability (intra-lab) and (3) reproducibility (between-lab). A complete characterization of average trace element contents in field soils should encompass the uncertainty of all these components. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the magnitude and relative proportions of uncertainty components for the metals As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl and Zn in three arable fields of different field-scale heterogeneity, based on a collaborative trial (CT) (standardized procedure) and two sampling proficiency tests (PT) (individual sampling procedure). To obtain reference values and estimates of field-scale heterogeneity, a detailed reference sampling was conducted. Components of uncertainty (sampling person, sampling repetition, laboratory) were estimated by variance component analysis, whereas reproducibility uncertainty was estimated using results from numerous laboratory proficiency tests. Sampling uncertainty in general increased with field-scale heterogeneity; however, total uncertainty was mostly dominated by (total) laboratory uncertainty. Reproducibility analytical uncertainty was on average by a factor of about 3 higher than repeatability uncertainty. Therefore, analysis within one single laboratory and, for heterogeneous fields, a reduction of sampling uncertainty (for instance by larger numbers of sample increments and/or a denser coverage of the field area) would be most effective to reduce total uncertainty. On the other hand, when only intra-laboratory analytical uncertainty was considered, total sampling uncertainty on average prevailed over analytical uncertainty by a factor of 2. Both sampling and laboratory repeatability uncertainty were highly variable

  4. Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Arable Soils in Bijiang Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Wei-heng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been paid much attention to soil heavy metal pollution in the Bijiang watershed caused by the Lanping lead-zinc mine. We collected 35 arable soil samples along Bijiang, then sampled and tested the contents of As, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg. And then with Nemerow Multi-Factor Index and the Potential Ecological Risk Index method, we evaluated the heavy metal pollution risk. The results showed:(1The accumulation of Pb, Zn, Cd was in a relatively high level, the average was 1 146.97, 579.15, 4.85 mg·kg-1 respectively, which was seriously polluted; the average accumulation of As was 26.85 mg·kg-1; but Cu, Hg was slightly polluted. (2Statistical analysis showed that Lanping area was a main point source pollution of As, Zn, Pb, Cd, while Cu, Hg was pollution caused by different non-point source pollution.(3Within this basin, the Nemerow index was 17.69, which was serious heavy metal pollution, while the comprehensive potential ecological risk index was 773.38, which was a strong potential ecological risk. The contribution of pollutants was Cd > Pb > Zn> As> Hg > Cu. (4As a whole, the soil heavy metal pollution of paddy field was higher than of the dry land.

  5. Wettability, soil organic matter and structure-properties of typical chernozems under the forest and under the arable land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Galina; Umarova, Aminat; Tyugai, Zemfira; Milanovskiy, Evgeny; Shein, Evgeny

    2017-04-01

    Intensive tillage affects the properties of soil: decrease in content of soil organic matter and in hydrophobicity of the soil's solid phase, the reduction of amount of water stable aggregates - all this leads to deterioration of the structure of the soil and affects the process of movement of moisture in the soil profile. One of the hypotheses of soil's structure formation ascribes the formation of water stable aggregates with the presence of hydrophobic organic substances on the surface of the soil's solid phase. The aim of this work is to study the effect of tillage on properties of typical chernozems (pachic Voronic Chernozems, Haplic Chernozems) (Russia, Kursk region), located under the forest and under the arable land. The determination of soil-water contact angle was performed by a Drop Shape Analyzer DSA100 (Krüss GmbH, Germany) by the static sessile drop method. For all samples the content of total and organic carbon by dry combustion in oxygen flow and the particle size distribution by the laser diffraction method on the device Analysette 22 comfort, FRITCH, Germany were determined. The estimation of aggregate composition was performed by dry sieving (AS 200, Retsch, Germany), the content of water stable aggregates was estimated by the Savvinov method. There was a positive correlation between the content of organic matter and soil's wettability in studied soils, a growth of contact angle with the increasing the content of organic matter. Under the forest the content of soil organic matter was changed from 6,41% on the surface up to 1,9% at the depth of 100 cm. In the Chernozem under the arable land the organic carbon content in arable horizon is almost two times less. The maximum of hydrophobicity (78.1o) was observed at the depth of 5 cm under the forest. In the profile under the arable land the contact angle value at the same depth was 50o. The results of the structure analysis has shown a decrease in the content of agronomically valuable and water

  6. Earthworm impact on the global warming potential of a no-tillage arable soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, M.; Hurme, T.; Mikola, J.; Regina, K.; Nuutinen, V.

    2015-04-01

    We studied the effect of the deep-burrowing earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and global warming potential (GWP) of arable no-till soil using both field measurements and a controlled 15 week laboratory experiment. In the field, the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were on average 43 and 32% higher in areas occupied by L. terrestris (the presence judged by the surface midden) than in adjacent, unoccupied areas (with no midden). The fluxes of methane (CH4) were variable and had no consistent difference between the midden and non-midden areas. Removing the midden did not affect soil N2O and CO2 emissions. The laboratory results were consistent with the field observations in that the emissions of N2O and CO2 were on average 27 and 13% higher in mesocosms with than without L. terrestris. Higher emissions of N2O were most likely due to the higher content of mineral nitrogen and soil moisture under the middens, whereas L. terrestris respiration fully explained the observed increase in CO2 emissions. The activity of L. terrestris increased the GWP of field and laboratory soil by 50 and 18%, but only 6 and 2% of this increase was due to the enhanced N2O emission. Our results suggest that high N2O emissions commonly observed in no-tillage soils can partly be explained by the abundance of L. terrestris under no-till management and that L. terrestris can markedly regulate the climatic effects of different cultivation practises.

  7. Soil organic carbon accumulation in afforested/abandoned arable fields in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Han; Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation or abandonment of arable fields has been proposed as a way to increase terrestrial carbon storage and mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. When the arable fields are afforested or abandoned, the accumulation in soil organic carbon (SOC) is a key pool to sequestrate carbon. However, high uncertainties still exist in the tropics and subtropics because of fast SOC turnover rates and variable land use managements in these areas. In this study, a total of eleven sites with afforested/abandoned age over 15 years and elevation ranging from 16 to 2,056 m were investigated. We examined the increments of SOC by comparing with the adjacent tilled (e.g. croplands) and non-tilled (e.g. tea plantation or orchards) fields in two sampling layers, 0 - 10 and 10 - 20 cm in depth. In addition, density fractionation of SOC was also conducted in order to differentiate SOC into light fraction, intra-aggregate fraction, and heavy fraction to gain more information about the mechanism of SOC sequestration. Our results indicated that the increments of SOC concentration and stock varied with elevation, land use management, and soil depth. For the sites with elevation below 500 m, the SOC concentration and stock in the abandoned fields were 14.3 ± 0.9 mg C g-1 and 14.6 ± 4.6 Mg C ha-1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, and 10.2 ± 6.3 mg C g-1and 6.4 ± 6.2 Mg C ha-1 higher than the adjacent non-tilled fields for surface 0-10 cm. For the sites with elevation above 500 m, the SOC concentration in the abandoned arable fields were 22.8 ± 12.8 mg C g-1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, but the SOC stock might not be different due to high stone content in abandoned field. Moreover, the SOC concentration and stock in abandoned field were not different or even less than non-tilled fields where organic amendments were frequently applied. The increments of SOC for 10-20 cm soils were less evident than those for surface 0-10 cm soils, and the differences were only

  8. Effect of Phosphate Addition on Cadmium Precipitation and Adsorption in Contaminated Arable Soil with a Low Concentration of Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Un; Owens, Vance N; Kim, Yong Gyun; Lee, Sang Mong; Park, Hyean Cheal; Kim, Keun Ki; Son, Hong Joo; Hong, Chang Oh

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the phosphorus (P) level required to induce cadmium (Cd) precipitation in a contaminated arable soil with low concentrations of Cd and (2) the primary mechanism of Cd immobilization at different P levels. Phosphorus was added at levels of 0 800, 1600, and 16,000 mg P kg(-1) to a soil containing 5.57 mg Cd kg(-1). The concentration of 1 M NH4OAc extractable Cd decreased significantly with P levels up to 1600 mg kg(-1) due to an increase in soil pH and negative charge of soil (psoil containing low levels of this heavy metal.

  9. Heavy metal contamination in arable soils and vegetables around a sulfuric acid factory, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Wang, Jin; Li, Xiangping; Chen, Yongheng; Wu, Yingjuan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Qi, Jianying [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (SCIES-MEP), Guangzhou (China); Wang, Chunlin [Research Center for Environmental Science, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-07-15

    This study was designed to investigate heavy metal (Tl, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni) contamination levels of arable soils and vegetables grown in the vicinity of a sulfuric acid factory in the Western Guangdong Province, China. Health risks associated with these metals by consumption of vegetables were assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ). The soils show a most significant contamination of Tl, followed by Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni. The heavy metal contents ({mu}g/g, dry weight basis) in the edible parts of vegetables range from 5.60 to 105 for Tl, below detection limit to 227 for Pb, 5.0-30.0 for Cu, 10.0-82.9 for Zn, and 0.50-26.0 for Ni, mostly exceeding the proposed maximum permissible level in Germany or China. For the studied vegetables, the subterranean part generally bears higher contents of Tl and Zn than the aerial part, while the former has lower contents of Cu and Ni than the latter. In addition, the results reveal that Tl is the major risk contributor for the local people since its HQ values are mostly much higher than 1.0. The potential health risk of Tl pollution in the food chain and the issue of food safety should be highly concerned and kept under continued surveillance and control. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Soil structure and soil hydraulic properties of Haplic Luvisol used as arable land and grassland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Jirků, V.; Kodeš, V.; Mühlhanselová, M.; Nikodem, A.; Žigová, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 2 (2011), s. 154-161 ISSN 0167-1987 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : soil water retention curve * hydraulic conductivity, * soil micromorphology * conventional tillage, * grassland * soil structure amelioration Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2011

  11. Differences in ice nucleation behavior of arable and desert soil dust in deposition nucleation regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Romy; Vogel, Franziska; Möhler, Ottmar; Höhler, Kristina; Schiebel, Thea

    2017-04-01

    Soil dust from arid and semi-arid regions is one of the most abundant aerosol types in the atmosphere with emission rates of about 1600 Tg per year (Andreae et al. (2009)). Therewith, soil dust plays an important role for the atmospheric radiative transfer and also for the formation of clouds. Soil dust refers to dust sampled from agricultural used areas, to dust from bare soil as well as to dust from desert regions. By mass-spectrometric measurements of the chemical composition of ice residuals, mineral dust as component of soil dust was found to be the major heterogeneous ice nucleating particle (INP) type (e.g. Cziczo et al. (2013)), in particular in the upper troposphere. Also in laboratory studies the ice nucleation efficiency of the different soil dusts was investigated. It was shown that desert dusts (Ullrich et al. (2017)) as well as soil dusts from arable regions (O'Sullivan et al. (2014), Tobo et al. (2014)) are efficient INP. However, there is still a lack of data for ice nucleation on soil dusts for temperatures below about 220 K. With the AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud chamber, we are able to characterize the ice nucleation efficiency for different aerosol types to temperatures down to 180 K and high ice supersaturations. In order to extend the already existing AIDA data base for deposition nucleation on desert dusts and agricultural soil dusts, new experiments were done in the upper tropospheric temperature regime. This contribution will show the results of the new experiments with desert dust in comparison to existing data for higher temperatures. The first data analysis confirms the temperature dependent trend of the ice nucleation activity as discussed and parameterized in a recent paper by Ullrich et al. (2017). Furthermore, the update and extension of the recently published parameterization of deposition nucleation for desert dust to lower temperatures will be discussed. The experiments with agricultural soil

  12. Assessment of various practices of the mitigation of N2O emissions from the arable soils of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosulski Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This review assesses the adaptability and effectiveness of the basic practices to mitigate the N2O emissions from the arable land in the climate, soil and agricultural conditions of Poland. We have analyzed the decrease in the nitrogen-based fertilization, selection of the fertilizer nitrogen forms, use of biological inhibitors of nitrogen transformation in the soil, control of the acidic soil reaction, reduction in the natural fertilizers use and afforestation of the low productive soils. The challenge evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation practices lies in the inadequacy of the national data on N2O soil emissions in particular agrotechnical conditions. In Poland, circumstances that favor intensive N2O emissions from the arable soils occur uncommonly, as shows the analysis of the literature reporting on the country climate, soil and agricultural conditions alongside the N2O emissions from soils under various cultivation conditions. Consequently, the effectiveness of mitigation practices that relies on an extensification of plant production may be insufficient. It can be assumed that, at the doses of nitrogen fitting the nutritional needs of crops, the soil N2O emissions are low and do not meaningfully differ from the emissions from untreated soils (literature data point to limited N2O emission from arable soils treated with N doses of ≤150-200 kg N·ha-1. The effectiveness of the nitrogen fertilization reduction as an N2O emissions mitigation practice is restricted to intensive farming. A universal registry of the mineral and natural fertilization use could help identify the agricultural holdings with a potential for high N2O emission and foster a targeted application of mitigation practices. It is suggested that normalization and maintenance of the optimum (i.e. close to neutral soil pH should become a more common practice of N2O emissions mitigation in Poland in view of the extent of arable soils acidification and the literature data

  13. Response of rhizosphere microbial community structure and diversity to heavy metal co-pollution in arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linjing; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng; Lu, Lunhui; Chen, Xunfeng; Chen, Ming; Wu, Haipeng; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to heavy metals, concern about the soil quality of farming lands near manufacturing district is increasing. Investigating the function of soil microorganisms exposed to long-term heavy metal contamination is meaningful and important for agricultural soil utilization. This article studied the potential influence of several heavy metals on microbial biomass, activity, abundance, and community composition in arable soil near industrial estate in Zhuzhou, Hunan province, China. The results showed that soil organic contents (SOC) were significantly positive correlated with heavy metals, whereas dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was greatly depressed by the heavy metal stress. Negative correlation was found between heavy metals and basal soil respiration (BSR), and no correlation was found between heavy metals and microbial biomass content (MBC). The quantitative PCR (QPCR) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis could suggest that heavy metal pollution has significantly decreased abundance of bacteria and fungi and also changed their community structure. The results could contribute to evaluate heavy metal pollution level in soil. By combining different environmental parameters, it would promote the better understanding of heavy metal effect on the size, structure, and activity of microbial community in arable soil.

  14. Dynamics of the agrochemical fertility parameters of arable soils in the southwestern region of Central Chernozemic zone of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Data of the agrochemical survey of arable soils in Belgorod oblast during the period from 1964 to 2014 have been analyzed. The soil cover mainly consists of typical chernozems (Haplic Chernozems) and leached chernozems (Luvic Chernozems) in the forest-steppe zone and ordinary chernozems (Calcic Chernozems) in the steppe zone. Under long-term agricultural use (from 1964 to 2014), the content of mobile phosphorus in arable soils of the region under study has increased from 55 to 137 mg/kg, and the content of mobile potassium has increased from 105 to 147 mg/kg. During the period of 1976-2014, the share of acid soils has increased from 22.8 to 45.8%, including medium-acid soils from 1.5 to 12.6%. No significant changes in the weighted average content of soil organic matter are revealed for the period from 1985 to 2014. The value of this parameter is within the range of 4.8-5.0%. In the 2010-2014, 95.0% of arable soils belonged to the category of low supplied with mobile sulfur; 99.2, 96.9, 94.1, and 54.4% of soils were poorly supplied with zinc, copper, cobalt, and manganese, respectively. During the same period, the maximum average productivity of the crop area (3710 f. u./ha) was noted at the application of 4.8 t/ha organic fertilizers and 97.9 kg/ha organic fertilizers on the average. The maximum long-term yields of sugar beet (36.8 t/ha) and corn grain (4.97 t/ha) were obtained at the application of relatively low fertilizer rates.

  15. Estimation of '"effective"" soil hydraulic properties by top soil moisture and evaporation modelling applied to an arable site in Central Spain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouweleeuw, B.T.; vd Griend, A.A.; Owe, M.

    1996-01-01

    A surface moisture model for large-scale semiarid land application has been extended with a moisture flow routine for capillary flow. The model has been applied to a field-scale data set of topsoil moisture and latent heat flux of an arable site in central Spain. A comparison of the soil hydraulic

  16. Land use and soil organic matter in South Africa 2: A review on the influence of arable crop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson N.S. Mnkeni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The decline of soil organic matter as a result of agricultural land use was identified for a review with the ultimate aim of developing a soil protection strategy and policy for South Africa. Such a policy is important because organic matter, especially the humus fraction, influences the characteristics of soil disproportionately to the quantities thereof present. Part 1 of this review dealt with the spatial variability of soil organic matter and the impact of grazing and burning under rangeland stock production. In this second part of the review, the impact of arable crop production on soil organic matter is addressed. A greater number of studies have addressed the degradation of soil organic matter that is associated with arable crop production than the restoration. However, cropping under dryland has been found to result in significant losses of soil organic matter, which is not always the case with cropping under irrigation. Restoration of soil organic matter has been very slow upon the introduction of conservational practices like zero tillage, minimal tillage, or mulch tillage. Reversion of cropland to perennial pasture has also been found to result in discouragingly slow soil organic matter restoration. Although increases or decreases in soil organic matter levels have occurred in the upper 300 mm, in most instances this took place only in the upper 50 mm. The extent of these changes was dependent inter alia on land use, soil form and environmental conditions. Loss of soil organic matter has resulted in lower nitrogen and sulphur reserves, but not necessarily lower phosphorus reserves. Depletion of soil organic matter coincided with changes in the composition of amino sugars, amino acids and lignin. It also resulted in a decline of water stable aggregates which are essential in the prevention of soil erosion. Although much is known about how arable crop production affects changes in soil organic matter, there are still

  17. Responses of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and bacterial taxa to (fluoro)quinolones-containing manure in arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenguang; Sun, Yongxue; Ding, Xueyao; Zhang, Yiming; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Liang, Wenfei; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the fate of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and the disturbance of soil bacterial communities posed by (fluoro)quinolones (FQNs)-containing manure in arable soil. Representative FQNs (enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR)), PMQR genes (qepA, oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS) and bacterial communities in untreated soil, +manure and +manure+FQNs groups were analyzed using culture independent methods. The significantly higher abundance of oqxA, oqxB and aac(6')-Ib-cr, and significantly higher abundance of qnrS in +manure group than those in untreated soil disappeared at day 30 and day 60, respectively. All PMQR genes (oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS) dissipated 1.5-1.7 times faster in +manure group than those in +manure+FQNs group. The disturbance of soil bacterial communities posed by FQNs-containing manure was also found. The results indicated that significant effects of PMQR genes (oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib and qnrS) on arable soils introduced by manure disappeared 2 month after manure application. FQNs introduced by manure slowed down the dissipation of PMQR genes. The presence of high FQNs provided a selective advantage for species affiliated to the phylum including Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes while suppressing Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, S.; Landner, L. [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this report is to review available information on the fluxes of cadmium (Cd) to agricultural soils and crops in Sweden from phosphorus fertilizers (P-fertilizer) and other sources, and to discuss how the content of Cd in soil, crops and human food may be influenced by the specific environmental conditions in Sweden, as well as by the agricultural practices used in the country 62 refs, 15 figs, 18 tabs. With 5 page summary in Swedish

  19. Crop residue decomposition, residual soil organic matter and nitrogen mineralization in arable soils with contrasting textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matus, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of cropping, soil texture and soil structure for the decomposition of 14C- and 15N-labelled crop residues, a study was conducted in a sand and a

  20. Effects of organic versus conventional arable farming on soil structure and organic matter dynamics in a marine loam in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulleman, M.M.; Jongmans, A.G.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Bouma, J.

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of conventional and organic arable farming on soil organic matter (SOM) content, soil structure, aggregate stability and C and N mineralization, which are considered important factors in defining sustainable land management. Within one soil series, three different farming

  1. A method to assess ecosystem services developed from soil attributes with stakeholders and data of four arable farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, M; van Wijnen, H J; Schouten, A J; Mulder, C; Kuiten, A M P; Brussaard, L; Breure, A M

    2012-01-15

    Ecosystem-service indicators and related accounting units are crucial for the development of decision frameworks for sustainable land management systems. With a management concept using ecosystem services, land-use expectations can be linked to quantifiable soil features in a defendable and transparent way. A method to define a set of site-specific ecosystem services and indication system for quantification was set-up and run. First, we interviewed a wide group of land users profiting from ecosystem services of the soil at four arable farms in the polder Hoeksche Waard (S-SE of Rotterdam, the Netherlands). Subsequently, site-specific ecosystem services were defined and weighted according to land use expectations at different spatial and temporal scales. Second, a practical set of indicators was taken from 'Best Professional Judgment' and used to quantify the performance of the ecosystem services for these four farms. The indicators were derived from biotic and abiotic soil parameters. The performance of ecosystem services was related to a reference situation (MEP: maximum ecological potential) with the same land use and soil type combination (i.e., arable fields on silt loam) taken from the database of our national soil survey. In many cases, the performance of ecosystem services was relatively poor if compared to MEP. However, the performances of natural attenuation and/or climate-related services were better. In addition, the different management of these farms (i.e. conventional, intensive and organic farming) was reflected in the performance of the ecosystem services of their soils. Third, land management measures to improve the targeted ecosystem services were incorporated in the outlined method, but not worked out with illustrative field data in this study. Together with concordant data, we show opportunities for a quantification of ecosystem services to improve land-users' awareness and to assess management sustainability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  2. Different impacts of manure and chemical fertilizers on bacterial community structure and antibiotic resistance genes in arable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Jia, Shuyu; He, Xiwei; Zhang, Xuxiang; Ye, Lin

    2017-12-01

    Both manure and chemical fertilizers are widely used in modern agriculture. However, the impacts of different fertilizers on bacterial community structure and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in arable soils still remain unclear. In this study, high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR were employed to investigate the bacterial community structure, ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) influenced by the application of different fertilizers, including chemical fertilizers, piggery manure and straw ash. The results showed that the application of fertilizers could significantly change the soil bacterial community and the abundance of Gaiella under phylum Actinobacteria was significantly reduced from 12.9% in unfertilized soil to 4.1%-7.4% in fertilized soil (P cause a transient effect on soil resistome composition and the relative abundance of ARGs increased from 7.37 ppm to 32.10 ppm. The abundance of aminoglycoside, sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes greatly increased after manure fertilization and then gradually returned to normal levels with the decay of some intestinal bacteria carrying ARGs. In contrast, the application of chemical fertilizers and straw ash significantly changed the bacterial community structure but exerted little effect on soil resistome. Overall, the results of this study illustrated the different effects of different fertilizers on the soil resistome and revealed that the changes of soil resistome induced by manure application mainly resulted from alteration of bacteria community rather than the horizontal gene transfer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combining a coupled FTIR-EGA system and in situ DRIFTS for studying soil organic matter in arable soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Demyan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An optimized spectroscopic method combining quantitative evolved gas analysis via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-EGA in combination with a qualitative in situ thermal reaction monitoring via diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situT DRIFTS is being proposed to rapidly characterize soil organic matter (SOM to study its dynamics and stability. A thermal reaction chamber coupled with an infrared gas cell was used to study the pattern of thermal evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2 in order to relate evolved gas (i.e., CO2 to different qualities of SOM. Soil samples were taken from three different arable sites in Germany: (i the Static Fertilization Experiment, Bad Lauchstädt (Chernozem, from treatments of farmyard manure (FYM, mineral fertilizer (NPK, their combination (FYM + NPK and control without fertilizer inputs; (ii Kraichgau; and (iii Swabian Alb (Cambisols areas, Southwest Germany. The two latter soils were further fractionated into particulate organic matter (POM, sand and stable aggregates (Sa + A, silt and clay (Si + C, and NaOCl oxidized Si + C (rSOC to gain OM of different inferred stabilities; respiration was measured from fresh soil samples incubated at 20 °C and 50% water holding capacity for 490 days. A variable long path length gas cell was used to record the mid-infrared absorbance intensity of CO2 (2400 to 2200 cm−1 being evolved during soil heating from 25 to 700 °C with a heating rate of 68 °C min−1 and holding time of 10 min at 700 °C. Separately, the heating chamber was placed in a diffuse reflectance chamber (DRIFTS for measuring the mid-infrared absorbance of the soil sample during heating. Thermal stability of the bulk soils and fractions was measured via the temperature of maximum CO2 evolution (CO2max. Results indicated that the FYM + NPK and FYM treatments of the Chernozem soils had a lower CO2max as compared to both NPK and CON treatments. On average, CO2max of the

  4. Effect of the natural reforestation of an arable land on the organic matter composition in soddy-podzolic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhova, A. A.; Makarov, M. I.; Morgun, E. G.; Ryzhova, I. M.

    2014-11-01

    The dynamics of the organic matter composition in soddy-podzolic soils during the natural reforestation of an arable land in the southern taiga zone have been discussed. It has been shown that the contents of the total and labile carbon in the old plow horizon increase with the age of the fallow in the chronosequence of soils established in the Parfen'evo district of Kostroma oblast. The parameters characterizing the labile soil organic matter include the contents of the carbon extractable by mild chemical extractants (distilled water, 0.1 M K2SO4 solution, 0.1 M neutral Na4P2O7 solution), the microbial biomass, and the light fraction. The granulo-densimetric fractionation has shown that the contents of carbon in the light and organomineral fractions of the soil vary in the course of the postagrogenic succession. The content of the clay-fraction carbon increases and its portion in the total carbon of the soil decreases at the transition from the plowland to the forest. The reforestation of agrosoddy-podzolic soils enhances the physical protection of the soil organic matter due to the increase in the portion of microaggregate carbon.

  5. Oribatida (Acari) in grassy arable fallows are more affected by soil properties than habitat age and plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissuwa, Janet; Salamon, Jörg-Alfred; Frank, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Oribatid mites are one of the numerically dominant arthropod groups in soils. They play an important role in soil food webs via regulating the decomposition of organic matter and propagating microorganisms within the soil. To our knowledge, the influence of different plant functional groups on oribatid mites has not been studied in abandoned farmland with undisturbed succession before. The density and assemblage structure of oribatid mites in nine grassy arable fallows relative to three habitat age classes (2-3, 6-8, 12-15 years) and three selected plant species (legume: Medicago sativa , forb: Taraxacum officinale , grass: Bromus sterilis ) were investigated in soil associated with single plants. Mite density declined marginally not significant with habitat age because of high abundances of the ubiquitous species Tectocepheus velatus sarekensis and Punctoribates punctum in young and mid-aged fallows and their subsequent decline in old fallows. Oribatid mite density and species assemblage were not affected by plant species. Only P. punctum had significantly higher densities in B. sterilis samples than in T. officinale samples due to a higher amount of fine roots. Distance-based linear models revealed that 65% of the variation in mite assemblage was explained by soil properties, soil type, exposition and geographic position, while habitat age was of minor importance. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the mite assemblage was best explained by soil organic and microbial carbon, water content and pH.

  6. Oribatida (Acari) in grassy arable fallows are more affected by soil properties than habitat age and plant species☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissuwa, Janet; Salamon, Jörg-Alfred; Frank, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Oribatid mites are one of the numerically dominant arthropod groups in soils. They play an important role in soil food webs via regulating the decomposition of organic matter and propagating microorganisms within the soil. To our knowledge, the influence of different plant functional groups on oribatid mites has not been studied in abandoned farmland with undisturbed succession before. The density and assemblage structure of oribatid mites in nine grassy arable fallows relative to three habitat age classes (2–3, 6–8, 12–15 years) and three selected plant species (legume: Medicago sativa, forb: Taraxacum officinale, grass: Bromus sterilis) were investigated in soil associated with single plants. Mite density declined marginally not significant with habitat age because of high abundances of the ubiquitous species Tectocepheus velatus sarekensis and Punctoribates punctum in young and mid-aged fallows and their subsequent decline in old fallows. Oribatid mite density and species assemblage were not affected by plant species. Only P. punctum had significantly higher densities in B. sterilis samples than in T. officinale samples due to a higher amount of fine roots. Distance-based linear models revealed that 65% of the variation in mite assemblage was explained by soil properties, soil type, exposition and geographic position, while habitat age was of minor importance. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the mite assemblage was best explained by soil organic and microbial carbon, water content and pH. PMID:26109839

  7. Effect of almond shell biochar addition on the hydro-physical properties of an arable Central Valley soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, V.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar is composed of any carbonaceous matter pyrolyzed under low oxygen exposure. Its use as a soil amendment to address soil infertility has been accelerated by studies reporting positive effects of enhanced nutrient retention, cation exchange capacity, microbial activity, and vegetative growth over time. Biochar has also been considered as a carbon sequestration method because of its reported environmental persistence. While the aforementioned effects are positive benefits of biochar's use, its impact on soil physical properties and water flow are equally important in maintaining soil fertility. This study aims to show how soil physical and hydraulic properties change over time with biochar addition. To address these aims, we conducted a 9 week microcosm incubation experiment with local arable loamy sand soils amended with biochar. Biochar was created from locally collected almond shells and differs by pyrolysis temperatures (350°C, 700°C) and size (water flow properties were analyzed by infiltration or pressure cell experiments immediately after creating our soil-biochar mixtures. These experiments were repeated during and after the incubation period to observe if and how flow is altered over time. Following incubation and hydraulic experiments, a water drop penetration time (WDPT) test was conducted to observe any alterations in surface hydrophobicity. Changes in soil physical properties were analyzed by determining content of water stable aggregates remaining after wet sieving. This series of experiments is expected to provide a greater understanding on the impact biochar addition on soil physical and hydraulic properties. Furthermore, it provides insight into whether or not converting local agricultural waste into biochar for soil use will be beneficial, especially in agricultural systems undergoing climate stress.

  8. 137Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M.; Johanson, Karl J.; Taylor, Andy F.S.

    2004-01-01

    The 137 Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of 137 Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m -2 in a peat soil and 47-189 g m -2 in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the 137 Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total 137 Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%

  9. Response of microbial community of organic-matter-impoverished arable soil to long-term application of soil conditioner derived from dynamic rapid fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiaqi; Li, Mingxiao; Mao, Xuhui; Hao, Yan; Ding, Jie; Liu, Dongming; Xi, Beidou; Liu, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Rapid fermentation of food waste can be used to prepare soil conditioner. This process consumes less time and is more cost-effective than traditional preparation technology. However, the succession of the soil microbial community structure after long-term application of rapid fermentation-derived soil conditioners remains unclear. Herein, dynamic rapid fermentation (DRF) of food waste was performed to develop a soil conditioner and the successions and diversity of bacterial communities in an organic-matter-impoverished arable soil after six years of application of DRF-derived soil conditioner were investigated. Results showed that the treatment increased soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and strawberry yield by 5.3 g/kg and 555.91 kg/ha, respectively. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Firmicutes became the dominant phyla, occupying 65.95%-77.52% of the bacterial sequences. Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that the soil bacterial communities were largely influenced by the treatment. Redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that the relative abundances of Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, and Firmicutes were significantly correlated with soil TC, TN, TP, NH4+-N, NO3--N, OM, and moisture. These communities were all distributed in the soil samples collected in the sixth year of application. Long-term treatment did not enhance the diversity of bacterial species but significantly altered the distribution of major functional bacterial communities in the soils. Application of DRF-derived soil conditioner could improve the soil quality and optimize the microbial community, ultimately enhancing fruit yields.

  10. Effects of a copper-tolerant grass (Agrostis capillaris) on the ecosystem of a copper-contaminated arable soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boon, G.T. [State Univ. Groningen (Netherlands); Bouwman, L.A.; Bloem, J.; Roemkens, P.F.A.M. [Research Inst. for Agrobiology and Soil Fertility, Haren (Netherlands)

    1998-10-01

    To test how a dysfunctioning ecosystem of a severely metal-polluted soil responds to renewed plant growth, a pot experiment was conducted with soil from an experimental arable field with pH and copper gradients imposed 13 years ago. In this experiment, four pH/copper combinations from this field were either planted with a pH- and copper-resistant grass cultivar or remained fallow. During a 10-week period, the dynamics of the microbial activity and of the abundances of bacteria, protozoa. and nematodes were measured, as were the dynamics of several chemical soil parameters. After 13 years of copper, which had resulted in severely reduced crop growth, no effects were observed on bacterial numbers, respiration, or protozoan numbers, but bacterial growth was strongly reduced in the low pH plots, and even more so in low pH plots enriched with copper. Of the organisms, only nematodes were negatively affected under conditions of high copper load at low pH. In these plots, numbers belonging to all feeding categories were strongly reduced. Planting of a copper-tolerant grass variety, Agrostis capillaris L. var. Parys Mountain, resulted within 10 weeks in faster bacterial growth and more protozoa and bacterivorous nematodes in comparison with fallow controls; these effects were markedly strongest in the acidic, copper-enriched soils. During incubation, fungivorous nematodes increased in all treatments, in fallow and in planted pots and in the pots with high-copper, low-pH soil. The results of this experiment suggest that introduction of plant growth is one of the major causes of increased biological activity in acidic contaminated soils. Planting such soils with metal-tolerant plant species can reestablish the necessary food base to support soil organism growth, and this can lead to numerous positive effects, reversing the loss of soil functions due to the high copper levels under acidic conditions.

  11. Effects of agricultural tillage practise on green house gas balance of an arable soil in a long term field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Jean Charles; Schilling, Rolf; Ruth, Bernhard; Fuss, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Soils are an important part of the global carbon cycle. A large proportion of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is released from soils, though carbon sequestration occurs. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of soils are also believed to contribute significantly to the green house effect as well as the stratospheric ozone depletion. An important source of N2O emissions is denitrification of nitrate from nitrogen fertilized soils. Although it is desirable to minimize these emissions while maintaining high crop yields it is still poorly understood how green house gas emissions may be steered by agricultural management practise, i.e. tillage and fertilization systems . In an ongoing long term field experiment at the research farm Scheyern, Bavaria, a arable field with one homogenous soil formation was transformed into plots in a randomized design 14 years ago. Since then, they are managed using conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) as well as low and high fertilization. A conventional crop rotation is maintained on the field. Starting 2007, CO2 and N2O emissions were monitored continuously for 2.5 years. Furthermore water content, temperature and redox potential were measured in-situ as they are major factors on microbial activity and denitrification. Soil was sampled from the Ap horizons of the plots about twice a month and extracts from these soil samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). According to the results soil density and hydrology are clearly affected by tillage practise. DOC is more affected by tillage while concentration of nitrogen species is controlled mainly by fertilization. There are distinct differences in redox potential between CT and NT plots with CT plots having more anaerobic periods. CO2 and N2O emissions exhibit a clear seasonal pattern and are affected by both tillage system and fertilization

  12. An examination of the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship in arable soil microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, B.S.; Ritz, K.; Wheatley, R.; Kuan, H.L.; Boag, B.; Christensen, S.; Ekelund, F.; Sorensen, S.J.; Muller, S.; Bloem, J.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial communities differing in biodiversity were established by inoculating sterile agricultural soil with serially diluted soil suspensions prepared from the parent soil. Three replicate communities of each dilution were allowed to establish an equivalent microbial biomass by incubation for 9

  13. Combining a coupled FTIR-EGA system and in situ DRIFTS for studying soil organic matter in arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyan, M. S.; Rasche, F.; Schütt, M.; Smirnova, N.; Schulz, E.; Cadisch, G.

    2013-05-01

    An optimized spectroscopic method combining quantitative evolved gas analysis via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-EGA) in combination with a qualitative in situ thermal reaction monitoring via diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situT DRIFTS) is being proposed to rapidly characterize soil organic matter (SOM) to study its dynamics and stability. A thermal reaction chamber coupled with an infrared gas cell was used to study the pattern of thermal evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to relate evolved gas (i.e., CO2) to different qualities of SOM. Soil samples were taken from three different arable sites in Germany: (i) the Static Fertilization Experiment, Bad Lauchstädt (Chernozem), from treatments of farmyard manure (FYM), mineral fertilizer (NPK), their combination (FYM + NPK) and control without fertilizer inputs; (ii) Kraichgau; and (iii) Swabian Alb (Cambisols) areas, Southwest Germany. The two latter soils were further fractionated into particulate organic matter (POM), sand and stable aggregates (Sa + A), silt and clay (Si + C), and NaOCl oxidized Si + C (rSOC) to gain OM of different inferred stabilities; respiration was measured from fresh soil samples incubated at 20 °C and 50% water holding capacity for 490 days. A variable long path length gas cell was used to record the mid-infrared absorbance intensity of CO2 (2400 to 2200 cm-1) being evolved during soil heating from 25 to 700 °C with a heating rate of 68 °C min-1 and holding time of 10 min at 700 °C. Separately, the heating chamber was placed in a diffuse reflectance chamber (DRIFTS) for measuring the mid-infrared absorbance of the soil sample during heating. Thermal stability of the bulk soils and fractions was measured via the temperature of maximum CO2 evolution (CO2max). Results indicated that the FYM + NPK and FYM treatments of the Chernozem soils had a lower CO2max as compared to both NPK and CON treatments. On average, CO2max of the Chernozem

  14. Changes in the Metagenome of Prokaryotic Community as an Indicator of Fertility of Arable Soddy-Podzolic Soils upon Fertilizer Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naliukhin, A. N.; Khamitova, S. M.; Glinushkin, A. P.; Avdeev, Yu. M.; Snetilova, V. S.; Laktionov, Yu. V.; Surov, V. V.; Siluyanova, O. V.; Belozerov, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of different systems of fertilization and liming on the changes in the taxonomic structure of prokaryotic community in arable soddy-podzolic soil (Albic Retisol (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Differentic, Ochric)) was studied in a stationary field experiment of Vologda State Dairy Farming Academy with the use of high-performance sequencing method of gene 16S rRNA. The 25-year-old fallow plot, in which the intensity of microbiological processes was close to that in the virgin soddy-podzolic soils, was used as a control. At the first stage, dominant phyla were identified: Proteobacteria (45.3-56.2%), Actinobacteria (13.6-20.4%), Bacteroidetes (7.2-19.3%), Acidobacteria (7.1-11.5%), and Verrucomicrobia (4.3-10.3%). Several groups of microorganisms-indicators, whose portion changes in the arable soil under the influence of liming, fertilizer application, and soil treatment in comparison with the control, were determined. The applied approach made it possible to relate the taxonomic structure of the soil microbial cenosis with external factors for assessing changes in the structure of soil microbial complex under the impact of different uses of the arable soil.

  15. Effect of bio-fertilizers application on microbial diversity and physiological profiling of microorganisms in arable soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Javoreková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In laboratory assay, the diversity of bacteria and microscopic fungi and the community-level physiological profiling (CLPP of microorganisms were observed after the addition of bio-sludge (40 t.ha-1 from a biogas station and addition of bio-fertlizers - AZOTER (10 dm-3.ha-1 to the arable soil with PCR-DGGE and BIOLOG® method (Eco Plates. The differences were recorded in the microbial diversity (bacteria and microscopic fungi among variants according to the Shannon index. The differences in community of microscopic fungi were markedly higher among the soil samples with the additions of both bio-fertilizers compared to control soil samples. The occurrence of individual OTUs (operational taxonomic units bacteria and microscopic fungi were different after 105 days of incubation from the status after the 1st day of incubation. The community metabolic diversity (CMD was influenced by the incubation time (105 days as well, but not by application of bio-fertilizers. We observed a significant decrease (LSD test, P <0.05 in community metabolic diversity (CMD and average metabolic response (AMR of microorganisms in samples collected on the 105th day of the experiment compared to samples collected on the 1st day of the experiment in all tested samples.

  16. Dynamics of 14C-labeled glucose and ammonium in saline arable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuelvas-Solorzano, Alma; Hernandez-Matehuala, Rosalina; Conde-Barajas, Eloy; Cardenas-Manriquez, Marcela; Luna-Guido, Marco L.; Dendooven, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Organic matter dynamics and nutrient availability in saline agricultural soils of the State of Guanajuato might provide information for remediation strategies. 14 C labeled glucose with or without 200 mg kg - 1 of NH 4 + -N soil was added to two clayey agricultural soils with different electrolytic conductivity (EC), i.e. 0.94 dS m - 1 (low EC; LEC) and 6.72 dS m - 1 (high EC; HEC), to investigate the effect of N availability and salt content on organic material decomposition. Inorganic N dynamics and production of CO 2 and 14 CO 2 were monitored. Approximately 60 % of the glucose- 14 C added to LEC soil evolved as 14 CO 2 , but only 20 % in HEC soil after the incubation period of 21 days. After one day, 14 C was extractable from LEC soil, but > 500 mg 14 C from HEC soil. No N mineralization occurred in the LEC and HEC soils and glucose addition reduced the concentrations of inorganic N in unamended soil and soil amended with NH 4 + -N. The NO 2 - and NO 3 - concentrations were on average higher in LEC than in HEC soil, with exception of NO 2 - in HEC amended with NH 4 + -N. It was concluded that increases in soil EC reduced mineralization of the easily decomposable C substrate and resulted in N-depleted soil. (author)

  17. Soil temperature manipulation to study global warming effects in arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Raveendra H.; Laegdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2013-01-01

    -Apr). This study clearly showed the efficacy of buried heating-cable technique in simulating soil temperature, and thus offers a simple, effective and alternative technique to study soil biogeochemical processes under warmer climates. This technique, however, decouples below-ground soil responses from...... that of above-ground vegetation response as this method heats only the soil. Therefore, using infrared heaters seems to represent natural climate warming (both air and soil) much more closely and may be used for future climate manipulation field studies....... in a plough layer. Temperature sensors were placed at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 m depths in soil, and 0.1 m above the soil surface in all plots, which were connected to an automated data logger. Soil-warming setup was able to maintain a mean seasonal temperature difference of 5.0 ± 0.005 oC between heated...

  18. Offsetting global warming-induced elevated greenhouse gas emissions from an arable soil by biochar application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamminger, Chris; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Global warming will likely enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils. Due to its slow decomposability, biochar is widely recognized as effective in long-term soil carbon (C) sequestration and in mitigation of soil GHG emissions. In a long-term soil warming experiment (+2.5 °C, since July 2008) we studied the effect of applying high-temperature Miscanthus biochar (0, 30 t/ha, since August 2013) on GHG emissions and their global warming potential (GWP) during 2 years in a temperate agroecosystem. Crop growth, physical and chemical soil properties, temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (R s ), and metabolic quotient (qCO 2 ) were investigated to yield further information about single effects of soil warming and biochar as well as on their interactions. Soil warming increased total CO 2 emissions by 28% over 2 years. The effect of warming on soil respiration did not level off as has often been observed in less intensively managed ecosystems. However, the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was not affected by warming. Overall, biochar had no effect on most of the measured parameters, suggesting its high degradation stability and its low influence on microbial C cycling even under elevated soil temperatures. In contrast, biochar × warming interactions led to higher total N 2 O emissions, possibly due to accelerated N-cycling at elevated soil temperature and to biochar-induced changes in soil properties and environmental conditions. Methane uptake was not affected by soil warming or biochar. The incorporation of biochar-C into soil was estimated to offset warming-induced elevated GHG emissions for 25 years. Our results highlight the suitability of biochar for C sequestration in cultivated temperate agricultural soil under a future elevated temperature. However, the increased N 2 O emissions under warming limit the GHG mitigation potential of biochar. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Soil temperature manipulation to study global warming effects in arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Raveendra H.; Laegdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2013-01-01

    in a plough layer. Temperature sensors were placed at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 m depths in soil, and 0.1 m above the soil surface in all plots, which were connected to an automated data logger. Soil-warming setup was able to maintain a mean seasonal temperature difference of 5.0 ± 0.005 oC between heated...... that of above-ground vegetation response as this method heats only the soil. Therefore, using infrared heaters seems to represent natural climate warming (both air and soil) much more closely and may be used for future climate manipulation field studies....

  20. Soil Temperature Manipulation to Study Global Warming Effects in Arable Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, R H; Laegdsmand, M; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    Buried heating-cable method for manipulating soil temperature was designed and tested its performance in large concrete lysimeters grown with the wheat crop in Denmark. Soil temperature in heated plots was elevated by 5℃ compared with that in control by burying heating-cable at 0.1 m depth...... clearly showed the efficacy of buried heating-cable technique in simulating soil temperature, and thus offers a simple, effective and alternative technique to study soil biogeochemical processes under warmer climates. This technique, however, decouples below-ground soil responses from that of above...

  1. Impact of earthworm Lumbricus terrestris living sites on the greenhouse gas balance of no-till arable soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, M.; Hurme, T.; Mikola, J.; Regina, K.; Nuutinen, V.

    2015-09-01

    We studied the effect of the deep-burrowing earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and global warming potential (GWP) of arable no-till soil using both field measurements and a controlled 15-week laboratory experiment. In the field, the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were on average 43 and 32 % higher in areas occupied by L. terrestris (the presence judged by the surface midden) than in adjacent, unoccupied areas (with no midden). The fluxes of methane (CH4) were variable and had no consistent difference between the midden and non-midden areas. Removing the midden did not affect soil N2O and CO2 emissions. The laboratory results were consistent with the field observations in that the emissions of N2O and CO2 were on average 27 and 13 % higher in mesocosms with than without L. terrestris. Higher emissions of N2O were most likely due to the higher content of mineral nitrogen and soil moisture under the middens, whereas L. terrestris respiration fully explained the observed increase in CO2 emissions in the laboratory. In the field, the significantly elevated macrofaunal densities in the vicinity of middens likely contributed to the higher emissions from areas occupied by L. terrestris. The activity of L. terrestris increased the GWP of field and laboratory soil by 50 and 18 %, but only 6 and 2 % of this increase was due to the enhanced N2O emission. Our results suggest that high N2O emissions commonly observed in no-till soils can partly be explained by the abundance of L. terrestris under no-till management and that L. terrestris can markedly regulate the climatic effects of different cultivation practises.

  2. Soil carbon varies between different organic and conventional management schemes in arable agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Teng; Sørensen, Peter; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2018-01-01

    a range of arable organic and conventional crop systems at three sites (Jyndevad, Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in Denmark through long-term experiments initiated in 1997. The experimental treatments in the organic farming systems included use of whole-year green manure crops, catch crops and animal manure (as...... in measured topsoil SOC. From 2005–2008, the first 4 years of comparison between organic and conventional farming at all three sites, organic farming with animal manure had 0.3 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 higher estimated C input, but SOC measurements showed that conventional farming accumulated 0.4 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 more...... SOC than organic farming. At Foulum from 2005 to 2012, organic farming with animal manure had 0.7 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 more input, and topsoil SOC measurements showed a higher accumulation of 0.4 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 in organic compared with conventional farming. Regressions of changes in topsoil SOC against...

  3. Dynamics of {sup 14}C-labeled glucose and ammonium in saline arable soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuelvas-Solorzano, Alma; Hernandez-Matehuala, Rosalina [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya Gto. (Mexico). Dept. de Ing. Bioquimica. Lab. de Bioingenieria; Conde-Barajas, Eloy; Cardenas-Manriquez, Marcela [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya Gto. (Mexico). Dept. de Ing. Ambiental. Lab. de Bioingenieria], e-mail: marcela@itc.mx; Luna-Guido, Marco L.; Dendooven, Luc [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Cinvestav), D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria. Lab. de Ecologia de Suelos], e-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx

    2009-07-15

    Organic matter dynamics and nutrient availability in saline agricultural soils of the State of Guanajuato might provide information for remediation strategies. {sup 14}C labeled glucose with or without 200 mg kg{sup -}1 of NH{sub 4} {sup +}-N soil was added to two clayey agricultural soils with different electrolytic conductivity (EC), i.e. 0.94 dS m{sup -}1 (low EC; LEC) and 6.72 dS m{sup -}1 (high EC; HEC), to investigate the effect of N availability and salt content on organic material decomposition. Inorganic N dynamics and production of CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} were monitored. Approximately 60 % of the glucose-{sup 14}C added to LEC soil evolved as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, but only 20 % in HEC soil after the incubation period of 21 days. After one day, < 200 mg {sup 14}C was extractable from LEC soil, but > 500 mg {sup 14}C from HEC soil. No N mineralization occurred in the LEC and HEC soils and glucose addition reduced the concentrations of inorganic N in unamended soil and soil amended with NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations were on average higher in LEC than in HEC soil, with exception of NO{sub 2}{sup -} in HEC amended with NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. It was concluded that increases in soil EC reduced mineralization of the easily decomposable C substrate and resulted in N-depleted soil. (author)

  4. Assessment of Benefits of Conservation Agriculture on Soil Functions in Arable Production Systems in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bhim Bahadur Ghaley; Teodor Rusu; Taru Sandén; Heide Spiegel; Cristina Menta; Giovanna Visioli; Lilian O’Sullivan; Isabelle Trinsoutrot Gattin; Antonio Delgado; Mark A. Liebig; Dirk Vrebos; Tamas Szegi; Erika Michéli; Horia Cacovean; Christian Bugge Henriksen

    2018-01-01

    Conventional farming (CONV) is the norm in European farming, causing adverse effects on some of the five major soil functions, viz. primary productivity, carbon sequestration and regulation, nutrient cycling and provision, water regulation and purification, and habitat for functional and intrinsic biodiversity. Conservation agriculture (CA) is an alternative to enhance soil functions. However, there is no analysis of CA benefits on the five soil functions as most studies addressed individual ...

  5. Emissions of nitrous oxide from arable organic and conventional cropping systems on two soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, N.; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Albert, Kristian Rost

    2010-01-01

    Conventional cropping systems rely on targeted short-term fertility management, whereas organic systems depend, in part, on long-term increase in soil fertility as determined by crop rotation and management. Such differences influence soil nitrogen (N) cycling and availability through the year...

  6. An examination of the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship in arable soil microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, B.S.; Ritz, Karl; Wheatley, R.

    2001-01-01

    , nitrate accumulation, respiratory growth response, community level physiological profile and decomposition). Neither was there a direct effect of biodiversity on the variability of the processes, nor on the stability of decomposition when the soils were perturbed by heat or copper. The biodiversity of......Microbial communities differing in biodiversity were established by inoculating sterile agricultural soil with serially diluted soil suspensions prepared from the parent soil. Three replicate communities of each dilution were allowed to establish an equivalent microbial biomass by incubation for 9...... months at 15°C, after which the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship was examined for a range of soil processes. Biodiversity was determined by monitoring cultivable bacterial and fungal morphotypes, directly extracted eubacterial DNA and protozoan taxa. In the context of this study biodiversity...

  7. Soil types will alter the response of arable agroecosystems to future rainfall patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, J. G.; Schwarz, T.; Hall, R.; Ziss, E.; von Hohberg und Buchwald, C.; Hösch, J.; Baumgarten, A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional climate change scenarios for eastern Austria (pannonian region) predict fewer but heavier rains during the vegetation period without substantial changes in the total annual amount of rainfall. While many studies investigated the effects of rainfall patterns on ecosystem properties, very little is known on how different soil types might alter ecosystem responses. In order to test this, we conducted an experiment at the AGES lysimeter station using 18 3 m2 lysimeters where we simultaneously manipulated rainfall patterns according to regional climate scenarios (current vs. prognosticated rain) on the three main soil types of the region (sandy calcaric phaeozem, gleyic phaeozem and calcic chernozem). Lysimeters were cultivated according to good farming practice using crop varieties and crop rotations typically for the region. Here, we present results of the response of field peas (Pisum sativum) on important agricultural parameters. Lysimeters under progn. rain showed lower crop cover than under curr. rain while soil types had no effect. Total aboveground biomass production (comprising crops plus weeds) was significantly lower under progn. rain; sandy calcaric phaeozem showed the lowest plant biomass. Pea yields under progn. rain were substantially lower than under curr. rain; again, yields under sandy soils were lower than under the other two soil types. Root growth was significantly higher in progn. rain than in curr. rain; there was a trend towards less root growth in the gleyic soils. Mycorrhization of roots was not influenced by soil types, however under progn. rain colonization rates were lower than under curr. rain. Weed establishment and growth was increased under progn. rain in gleyic soils but decreased in the other soil types. Weed biomass was not affected by rainfall, however sandy soils had less weed biomass than the other soil types. Abundance of the insect pest pea moth (Cydia nigricana) was almost twice as high under progn. rain than under curr

  8. Modelling soil borne fungal pathogens of arable crops under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manici, L M; Bregaglio, S; Fumagalli, D; Donatelli, M

    2014-12-01

    Soil-borne fungal plant pathogens, agents of crown and root rot, are seldom considered in studies on climate change and agriculture due both to the complexity of the soil system and to the incomplete knowledge of their response to environmental drivers. A controlled chamber set of experiments was carried out to quantify the response of six soil-borne fungi to temperature, and a species-generic model to simulate their response was developed. The model was linked to a soil temperature model inclusive of components able to simulate soil water content also as resulting from crop water uptake. Pathogen relative growth was simulated over Europe using the IPCC A1B emission scenario derived from the Hadley-CM3 global climate model. Climate scenarios of soil temperature in 2020 and 2030 were compared to the baseline centred in the year 2000. The general trend of the response of soil-borne pathogens shows increasing growth in the coldest areas of Europe; however, a larger rate of increase is shown from 2020 to 2030 compared to that of 2000 to 2020. Projections of pathogens of winter cereals indicate a marked increase of growth rate in the soils of northern European and Baltic states. Fungal pathogens of spring sowing crops show unchanged conditions for their growth in soils of the Mediterranean countries, whereas an increase of suitable conditions was estimated for the areals of central Europe which represent the coldest limit areas where the host crops are currently grown. Differences across fungal species are shown, indicating that crop-specific analyses should be ran.

  9. Assessment Of Heavy Metal Contamination Of Arable Soils In Central Bekaa Plain, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.; Jomaa, I.; Khawlie, M.; Mýýuller, H. W.; Moller, A.

    2004-01-01

    The study area is located in the Bekaa plain of Lebanon totaling about 12753 ha. It lies between the eastern foothills of Mount Lebanon chain and expands across the Litani River towards the foothills of the eastern Anti-Lebanon Mountains. Its characteristics, i.e. natural terrain, climate and socio-economy, make it vulnerable especially due to soil pollution. This paper tries to identify the nature and level of soil pollution by heavy metals. Valley slopes represent a complex landform and lithology that contributed to the formation of different soil. Agriculture in the plain is being practiced mainly with cash, field crops and vegetables. Throughout the central part of the plain, groundwater table is abundant and relatively high (<1.0 m. locally) that multiplies the vulnerability of the soil-groundwater system. There are different sources of pollution, such as industrial (tanneries, batteries, leather manufacturing), solid and liquid wastes, and agricultural due to uncontrolled application of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. Meanwhile, no local criteria for land contamination with heavy metals are adapted yet. A total of 131 soil samples from 41 soil profiles were collected from sites representing different soil types and cropping systems. Additionally, five water samples were collected to get tentative idea about the extent of water contamination from surface and groundwater bodies. Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties and wet digested in aqua regia for the determination of the heavy metal content on the atomic absorption. Results of the total heavy metal content in the soils of the Central Bekaa showed normal values for main metals except Cr and Ni, which showed a relatively high level reaching, according to Eckamn Kloke, 1993-2000 criteria the tolerance level II. This is hazardous in an area of intensive vegetable production designed for fresh consumption. Point sources of pollution are equally found for Pb and Cd. The level

  10. Mobility of fertiliser-derived uranium in arable soils and its contribution to uranium concentrations in groundwater and tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, Geerd Ahlrich

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) mineral fertilisers are found to contain high concentrations of uranium (U) (up to 206 mg U kg -1 ) and other trace elements (TE), such as Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Nb, Sr, V, and rare earth elements. The content of U and other trace elements is depended on the sedimentary of igneous origin of the rock phosphate. In this study, the production of P fertilisers has been shown to contaminate top soil horizons with U and other trace elements in the close vicinity of a factory located in Southern Brazil. In contrast to this point source, agricultural P fertilisation leads to a diffuse contamination of the agro-ecosystem with U and other fertiliser-derived trace elements on a large scale. Top soil horizons of arable land accumulate fertiliser-derived U. According to the geochemical behaviour of U(VI) species under oxidising conditions, the mobilisation capacity for U in top soil horizons is considered to be high, contrary to other fertiliser-derived heavy metals (e.g. Cd). Hence, it is assumed that U can be leached to shallow groundwater and can reach fresh water resources potentially used for drinking water supply. The aims of this study were to investigate the concentration of U and other contaminants in P fertilisers, to identify geochemical processes of fertiliser-derived U mobility and mobilisation from arable top soil horizons to the groundwater, and to evaluate the origin of U in German groundwater and tap water. This study presents the broadest recent data set on regional distribution of U concentrations in German tap water to which 76 % of the German population has access. The mean U concentration was 0.68 μg L -1 , the median 0.50 μg L -1 . 1.3 % or 1 million of the 80.6 million inhabitants in Germany are exposed to U concentrations in tap water which are higher than the German drinking water threshold limit of 10 μg L -1 . The regional distribution of U concentrations largely agrees with the geological setting reported for mineral waters

  11. Daily dynamics of cellulase activity in arable soils depending on management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrent'eva, E. V.; Semenov, A. M.; Zelenev, V. V.; Chzhun, Yu.; Semenova, E. V.; Semenov, V. M.; Namsaraev, B. B.; van Bruggen, A. H. C.

    2009-08-01

    The daily dynamics of cellulase activity was studied during 27 days by the cellophane membrane method on soils managed using the conventional high-input farming system (application of mineral fertilizers and pesticides) and the biological conservation farming system (application of organic fertilizers alone) in a microfield experiment. The regular oscillatory dynamics of the cellulase activity were revealed and confirmed by the harmonic (Fourier) analysis. The oscillatory dynamics of the cellulase activity had a self-oscillatory nature and was not directly caused by the disturbing impacts of both the uncontrolled (natural) changes in the temperature and moisture (rainfall) and the controlled ones (the application of different fertilizers). The disturbing impacts affected the oscillation amplitude of the cellulase activity but not the frequency (periods) of the oscillations. The periodic oscillations of the cellulase activity were more significant in the soil under the high-input management compared to the soil under the biological farming system.

  12. Emissions of nitrous oxide from Irish arable soils: effects of tillage and reduced N input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, M.; Jones, M.B.; Ambus, Per

    2010-01-01

    and reduced N fertilizer on seasonal fluxes and emission factors of N2O and to study the relationship between crop yield and N-induced fluxes of N2O. The soil is classified as a sandy loam with a pH of 7.4 and a mean organic carbon and nitrogen content at 15 cm of 19 and 1.9 g kg(-1) dry soil, respectively...... nitrogen fertilizer by 50% compared to the normal field rate, N2O emissions could be reduced by 57% with no significant decrease on grain yield or quality. This was consistent over the 2 years of measurements....

  13. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palágyi, Š.; Palágyiová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 257, č. 2 (2003), s. 353-359 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : radionuclides migration * model s of migration * soil profiles Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2003

  14. Conversion of Forests to Arable Land and its Effect on Soil Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in six locations; Ugbo-lyOkpara ( L1), Ugbo-nabo (L2) , Ugwogo-Nike (L3) , Iyi-Ukwu (L4) , Edem( L5) and Ngwo (L6) in Enugu State, southeastern Nigeria to determine the changes in selected soil physical properties ( particle size distribution, bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, macro porosity micro ...

  15. Population dynamics of active and total ciliate populations in arable soil amended with wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, F.; Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.

    2002-01-01

    Soil protozoa are characterized by their ability to produce cysts, which allows them to survive unfavorable conditions (e.g., desiccation) for extended periods. Under favorable conditions, they may rapidly excyst and begin feeding, but even under optimal conditions, a large proportion of the popu......Soil protozoa are characterized by their ability to produce cysts, which allows them to survive unfavorable conditions (e.g., desiccation) for extended periods. Under favorable conditions, they may rapidly excyst and begin feeding, but even under optimal conditions, a large proportion...... microcosms, the active and total populations of ciliates, their potential prey (bacteria and small protozoa), their potential competitors (amoebae, flagellates, and nematodes), and their potential predators (nematodes). We sampled with short time intervals (2 to 6 days) and generated a data set, suitable...... why protozoan growth in soil is less than that in aquatic systems. Internally governed encystment may be an essential adaptation to an unpredictable environment in which individual protozoa cannot predict when the soil will dry out and will survive desiccation only if they have encysted in time....

  16. Daily dynamics of cellulase activity in arable soils depending on management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, A.M.; Zelenev, V.V.; Chzhun, Yu; Semenova, E.V.; Semenov, V.M.; Namsaraev, B.B.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    The daily dynamics of cellulase activity was studied during 27 days by the cellophane membrane method on soils managed using the conventional high-input farming system (application of mineral fertilizers and pesticides) and the biological conservation farming system (application of organic

  17. Occurrence of Chlorotriazine herbicides and their transformation products in arable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Kerstin E; Bielská, Lucie; Kosubová, Petra; Dinisová, Petra; Hvězdová, Martina; Šimek, Zdeněk; Hofman, Jakub

    2017-03-01

    Chlorotriazine herbicides (CTs) are widely used pest control chemicals. In contrast to groundwater contamination, little attention has been given to the circumstances of residue formation of parent compounds and transformation products in soils. Seventy-five cultivated floodplain topsoils in the Czech Republic were sampled in early spring of 2015, corresponding to a minimum of six months (current-use terbuthylazine, TBA) and a up to a decade (banned atrazine, AT and simazine, SIM) after the last herbicide application. Soil residues of parent compounds and nine transformation products were quantified via multiple residue analysis using liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry of acetonitrile partitioning extracts (QuEChERS). Using principal component analysis (PCA), their relation to soil chemistry, crops and environmental parameters was determined. Of the parent compounds, only TBA was present in more than one sample. In contrast, at least one CT transformation product, particularly hydroxylated CTs, was detected in 89% of the sites, or 54% for banned triazines. Deethylated and bi-dealkylated SIM or AT residues were not detectable. PCA suggests the formation and/or retention of CT hydroxy-metabolite residues to be related to low soil pH, and a direct relation between TBA and soil organic carbon, and between deethyl-TBA and clay or Ca contents, respectively, the latter pointing towards distinct sorption mechanisms. The low historic application of simazine contrasted by the high abundance of its residues, and the co-occurrence with AT residues suggests the post-ban application of AT and SIM banned triazines as a permitted impurity of TBA formulations as a recent, secondary source. The present data indicate that topsoils do not contain abundant extractable residues of banned parent chlorotriazines, and are thus likely not the current source for related ground- and surface water contamination. In contrast, topsoils might pose a long-term source of TBA and CT

  18. Specificity of Cs-137 redistribution in toposequence of arable soils cultivated after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Baranchukov, Vladimir; Berezkin, Victor; Moiseenko, Fedor; Kirov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Investigations performed after the Chernobyl accident showed high spatial variation of radionuclide contamination of the soil cover in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) that characterize catena's structure. Our studies of Cs-137 distribution along and cross the slopes of local ridges in natural forested key site revealed a cyclic character of variation of the radionuclide surface activity along the studied transections (Korobova et al, 2008; Korobova, Romanov, 2009; 2011). We hypothesized that the observed pattern reflects a specific secondary migration of Cs-137 with water, and that this process could have taken place in any ELGS. To test this hypothesis a detailed field measurement of Cs-137 surface activity was performed in ELGS in agricultural area cultivated after the Chernobyl accident but later withdrawn from land-use. In situ measurements carried out by field gamma-spectrometry were accompanied by soil core sampling at the selected points. Soil samples were taken in increments of 2 cm down to 20 cm and of 5 cm down to 40 cm. The samples were analyzed for Cs-137 in laboratory using Canberra gamma-spectrometer with HP-Ge detector. Obtained results confirmed the fact of area cultivation down to 20 cm that was clearly traced by Cs-137 profile in soil columns. At the same time, the measurements also showed a cyclic character of Cs-137 variation in a sequence of ELGS from watershed to the local depression similar to that found in woodland key site. This proved that the observed pattern is a natural process typical for matter migration in ELGS independently of the vegetation type and ploughing. Therefore, spatial aspect is believed to be an important issue for development of adequate technique for a forecast of contamination of agricultural production and remediation of the soil cover on the local scale within the contaminated areas. References Korobova, E.M., Romanov, S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial

  19. utilization of bio fertilizers and organic sources in arable soils under saline conditions using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, O.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, more attention has been paid to conserve and save surrounding environment via minimizing the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and, in general, the agrochemicals applied in heavy quantities in agricultural agroecosystems. Therefore, the attention of most of agronomists was turned towards the use of so called clean agriculture or organic farming. Many of organic systems was pointed out such as the recycling of farm wastes i.e. crop residues, animal manure, organic conditioners for reclamation of soil and in the same time enhancement of plant growth and improving yield quality. The application of organic wastes combined with or without microbial inoculants to plant media are considered as a good management practice in any agricultural production system because it improves, plant quality and soil fertility. Therefore, we have the opportunity to conduct some experiments for achieving the clean agriculture approach, combating the adverse effects of salinity and avoiding the environmental pollution. Series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the impact of (1) potent isolated fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus) on degrading plant residues (Leucaena and Acacia green parts), and (2) biofertilizers (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Azospirillum brasilense, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in assessing barley and spinach plants to combat salinity of soil and irrigation water. 15 N-tracer technique that considered unique and more reliable technique may benefits in clarifying the responsible mechanisms related to plant growth and gave us the opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to spinach and barley plants grown on sandy saline soil and irrigated with saline water.

  20. Impact of manure-related DOM on sulfonamide transport in arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Arenz-Leufen, Martina Gesine; Jacques, Diederik; Lichtner, Peter; Engelhardt, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Field application of livestock manure introduces colloids and veterinary antibiotics, e.g. sulfonamides (SAs), into farmland. The presence of manure colloids may potentially intensify the SAs-pollution to soils and groundwater by colloid-facilitated transport. Transport of three SAs, sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), and sulfamoxole (SMOX), was investigated in saturated soil columns with and without manure colloids from sows and farrows, weaners, and fattening pigs. Experimental results showed that colloid-facilitated transport of SMOX was significant in the presence of manure colloids from fattening pigs with low C/N ratio, high SUVA280 nm and protein C, while manure colloids from sows and farrows and weaners had little effect on SMOX transport. In contrast, only retardation was observed for SDZ and SMPD when manure colloids were present. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of colloids and SAs were replicated well by a newly developed numerical model that considers colloid-filtration theory, competitive kinetic sorption, and co-transport processes. Model results demonstrate that mobile colloids act as carriers for SMOX, while immobile colloids block SMOX from sorbing onto the soil. The low affinity of SMOX to sorb on immobile colloids prevents aggregation and also promotes SMOX's colloid-facilitated transport. Conversely, the high affinity of SDZ and SMPD to sorb on all types of immobile colloids retarded their transport. Thus, manure properties play a fundamental role in increasing the leaching risk of hydrophobic sulfonamides.

  1. Impact of manure-related DOM on sulfonamide transport in arable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Arenz-Leufen, Martina Gesine; Jacques, Diederik; Lichtner, Peter; Engelhardt, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Field application of livestock manure introduces colloids and veterinary antibiotics, e.g. sulfonamides (SAs), into farmland. The presence of manure colloids may potentially intensify the SAs-pollution to soils and groundwater by colloid-facilitated transport. Transport of three SAs, sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), and sulfamoxole (SMOX), was investigated in saturated soil columns with and without manure colloids from sows and farrows, weaners, and fattening pigs. Experimental results showed that colloid-facilitated transport of SMOX was significant in the presence of manure colloids from fattening pigs with low C/N ratio, high SUVA280nm and protein C, while manure colloids from sows and farrows and weaners had little effect on SMOX transport. In contrast, only retardation was observed for SDZ and SMPD when manure colloids were present. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of colloids and SAs were replicated well by a newly developed numerical model that considers colloid-filtration theory, competitive kinetic sorption, and co-transport processes. Model results demonstrate that mobile colloids act as carriers for SMOX, while immobile colloids block SMOX from sorbing onto the soil. The low affinity of SMOX to sorb on immobile colloids prevents aggregation and also promotes SMOX's colloid-facilitated transport. Conversely, the high affinity of SDZ and SMPD to sorb on all types of immobile colloids retarded their transport. Thus, manure properties play a fundamental role in increasing the leaching risk of hydrophobic sulfonamides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Redox-controlled release dynamics of thallium in periodically flooded arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić-Mladenović, Svetlana; Frohne, Tina; Kresović, Mirjana; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Savić, Dubravka; Ličina, Vlado; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first work to mechanistically study the impact of the redox potential (E H ) and principal factors, such as pH, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), chlorides (Cl - ) and sulfates (SO 4 2- ), on the release dynamics of thallium (Tl) in periodically flooded soil. We simulated flooding using an automated biogeochemical microcosm system that allows for systematical control of pre-defined redox windows. The E H value was increased mechanistically at intervals of approximately 100 mV from reducing (-211 mV) to oxidizing (475 mV) conditions. Soluble Tl levels (0.02-0.28 μg L -1 ) increased significantly with increases in E H (r = 0.80, p Thallium mobilization was found to be related to several simultaneous processes involving the gradual oxidation of Tl-bearing sulfides, reductive dissolution of Fe-Mn oxides and desorption from mineral sorbents. Manganese oxides did not appear to have a considerable effect on Tl retention under oxidizing conditions. Before conducting the microcosm experiment, Tl geochemical fractionation was assessed using the modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. The BCR revealed a majority of Tl in the residual fraction (77.7%), followed by reducible (13.3%) and oxidizable fractions (5.9%). By generating high levels of Tl toxicity at low doses, Tl released under oxidizing conditions may pose an environmental threat. In the future, similar studies should be conducted on various soils along with a determination of the Tl species and monitoring of the Tl content in plants to achieve more detailed insight into soluble Tl behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Disentangling the root- and detritus-based food chain in the micro-food web of an arable soil by plant removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Glavatska

    Full Text Available Soil food web structure and function is primarily determined by the major basal resources, which are living plant tissue, root exudates and dead organic matter. A field experiment was performed to disentangle the interlinkage of the root-and detritus-based soil food chains. An arable site was cropped either with maize, amended with maize shoot litter or remained bare soil, representing food webs depending on roots, aboveground litter and soil organic matter as predominant resource, respectively. The soil micro-food web, i.e. microorganisms and nematodes, was investigated in two successive years along a depth transect. The community composition of nematodes was used as model to determine the changes in the rhizosphere, detritusphere and bulk soil food web. In the first growing season the impact of treatments on the soil micro-food web was minor. In the second year plant-feeding nematodes increased under maize, whereas after harvest the Channel Index assigned promotion of the detritivore food chain, reflecting decomposition of root residues. The amendment with litter did not foster microorganisms, instead biomass of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi declined in the rooted zone. Likely higher grazing pressure by nematodes reduced microbial standing crop as bacterial and fungal feeders increased. However, populations at higher trophic levels were not promoted, indicating limited flux of litter resources along the food chain. After two years of bare soil microbial biomass and nematode density remained stable, pointing to soil organic matter-based resources that allow bridging periods with deprivation. Nematode communities were dominated by opportunistic taxa that are competitive at moderate resource supply. In sum, removal of plants from the system had less severe effects than expected, suggesting considerable food web resilience to the disruption of both the root and detrital carbon channel, pointing to a legacy of

  4. Disentangling the root- and detritus-based food chain in the micro-food web of an arable soil by plant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatska, Olena; Müller, Karolin; Butenschoen, Olaf; Schmalwasser, Andreas; Kandeler, Ellen; Scheu, Stefan; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Ruess, Liliane

    2017-01-01

    Soil food web structure and function is primarily determined by the major basal resources, which are living plant tissue, root exudates and dead organic matter. A field experiment was performed to disentangle the interlinkage of the root-and detritus-based soil food chains. An arable site was cropped either with maize, amended with maize shoot litter or remained bare soil, representing food webs depending on roots, aboveground litter and soil organic matter as predominant resource, respectively. The soil micro-food web, i.e. microorganisms and nematodes, was investigated in two successive years along a depth transect. The community composition of nematodes was used as model to determine the changes in the rhizosphere, detritusphere and bulk soil food web. In the first growing season the impact of treatments on the soil micro-food web was minor. In the second year plant-feeding nematodes increased under maize, whereas after harvest the Channel Index assigned promotion of the detritivore food chain, reflecting decomposition of root residues. The amendment with litter did not foster microorganisms, instead biomass of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi declined in the rooted zone. Likely higher grazing pressure by nematodes reduced microbial standing crop as bacterial and fungal feeders increased. However, populations at higher trophic levels were not promoted, indicating limited flux of litter resources along the food chain. After two years of bare soil microbial biomass and nematode density remained stable, pointing to soil organic matter-based resources that allow bridging periods with deprivation. Nematode communities were dominated by opportunistic taxa that are competitive at moderate resource supply. In sum, removal of plants from the system had less severe effects than expected, suggesting considerable food web resilience to the disruption of both the root and detrital carbon channel, pointing to a legacy of organic matter

  5. Influence of conventional biochar and ageing biochar application to arable soil on soil fertility and plant yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Záhora, Jaroslav; Elbl, Jakub; Kynický, Jindřich; Hladký, Jan; Brtnický, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Biochar represents very controversial material which is product of pyrolysis. According to many studies biochar has positive effect on physical and chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, aggregates stability etc. Unfortunately biochar is product of combustion, so it can content toxic substance as are aromatic compound. These substances may have a negative effect on yield and microbial activities in soil. Our aim was eliminated concentration of toxic compound but preserved positive effect of biochar on soil properties. We was ageing/ activating of biochar in water environment and for soil inoculum we used native soil from landscape. Moreover two types of biochar was tested by pot experiment with seven variants, where conventional biochar from residual biomass and ageing biochar were applied in different doses: 10 t/ha, 20t/ha and 50 t/ha. Pots were placed in green house for 90 days and after the end of experiment the following parameters of soil fertility, health and quality were evaluated: content of soil organic matter, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of Lactuca sativa L. roots, leaching of mineral nitrogen, changes in plant available nutrient content, EC and pH. Above all the total yield of indicator plant was observed. The significant (P plant yield and soil properties were found. The application of conventional biochar didn't have positive effect on plant yield in comparison with ageing biochar. The positive effect of ageing biochar addition on soil fertility was directly proportional to the dose which were applied - increasing in dose of ageing biochar resulted in increase of plant yield. Moreover the special experimental containers were used, where we was able to monitor the development of root in soil with and without addition of biochar (conventional or ageing). The positive influence of ageing biochar addition into soil on development of Lactuca sativa L. roots was observed.

  6. Vertical distribution of soil organic carbon originated from a prior peatland in Greece and impacts on the landscape, after conversion to arable land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayrotis, Theodore; Charoulis, A.; Vavoulidou, E.; Tziouvalekas, M.

    2010-05-01

    The vertical distribution and the status of soil organic carbon (Corg.) in 66 surface and subsurface soil samples were investigated. These soils originated mainly from organic deposits of Philippoi (northern Greece) have been classified as Histosols and belong to the suborder of Saprists. The present study consisted of an area of 10,371 ha where about 90% of the soils are organic. The main crops are maize (Zea mays L.), sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).The surface horizons consist mainly of well-humified organic materials mixed with mineral soil particles. Usually, they have moderate or insufficient drainage regime and conditions become favorable for microbial growth. Microbes decompose and transform the soil organic compounds into mineral forms, which are then available as nutrients for the crop. The organic matter was derived primarily from Cyperaceae (Cladium mariscus, various Carex species, etc.) and from decomposed residues of arable crops. The dominant features of these soils are the high content of organic matter and the obvious stratification of soil horizons. In contrast, most arable soils in Greece are characterized by low organic matter content. The stratification differentiates the physical and chemical properties and the groundwater table even during dry summers lies at depths,150 cm beneath surface. The Corg. content was high and varied greatly among the examined samples. In the surface layers ranged between 3.57 and 336.50 g kg2 (mean 199.26 g kg2) and between 22.10 and 401.10 g kg2 in the subsurface horizons (mean 258.89 g kg2). It can be argued that surface layers are drier and part of soil organic matter was seriously affected by the process of oxidation. At drier sites, soil subsidence was appeared as a consequence of soil organic matter oxidation. Increased contents were found in the northern part of the

  7. Health risks of thallium in contaminated arable soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater from a sulfuric acid plant in western Guangdong province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng; Liu, Juan; Wang, Jin; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Yongbo; Liu, Yimin

    2013-04-01

    Thallium (Tl) contamination in soils poses a significant threat to human health due to the high toxicity of Tl and its ready assimilation by crops. Consumption of food crops contaminated with Tl is a major food chain route for human exposure. The health risks of Tl in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater from a sulfuric acid factory were investigated in this paper. Results indicate that long-term Tl-containing wastewater irrigation resulted in Tl contamination of arable soils and crops. The pollution load index values indicated that the arable soils were moderately enriched with Tl. Tl was highly accumulated in the crops. The content of Tl in the edible plant portions of crops ranged from 1.2 mg/kg to 104.8 mg/kg, exceeding the recommended permissible limits for food crops. The daily intake of metals (DIM) values of Tl for both adults and children via the consumption of the food crops except soya beans were higher than the reference oral dose (RfD) limit recommend by the United States environmental protection agency (US-EPA). Health risk index (HRI) values were generally higher than 1, indicating that health risks associated with Tl exposure are significant and assumed to be dangerous to the health of local villagers. Therefore, much attention should be paid to avoid consumption of these Tl-contaminated crops that can cause great potential risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of the denitrification in soil monoliths from grassland and arable soil by means of 15N techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.; Foerster, I.

    1980-01-01

    Losses of fertilizer nitrogen by denitrification were determined in soil monoliths from two sites (loess chernozem and clay ranker). The monoliths were isolated by driving plastic pipes into the plots, and fertilized with 15 N-labelled ammonium nitrate. Emission spectrometric techniques were applied to measure the N 2 and N 2 O quantities released in the isolated atmospheric layer above the monolith. The considerable losses, especially on grassland soils (up to a maximum of 30 kg N/ha), indicate the influence of rainfalls and mean temperature at the 5 dates of sampling (end of March to mid-October). (author)

  9. METHODS OF THE GEOMORPHOMETRY, REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN STUDY OF THE 40K RADIONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION IN SOIL OF ARABLE SLOPES, COMPLICATED WITH EROSION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trofimetz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 40K radioisotope is involved into the erosion processes on the arable slopes. Application of the very high resolution satellite images, GISs, geomorphometry methods and traditional agrochemical research techniques helped to identify the location of areas on the concave parts of the slopes, where 40K radioactivity in the soil is increased; and location of areas on the convex parts, where 40K radioactivity is low. High content of humus or high content of clay fractions in the soil can cause increase of the radioisotope content. The application prospects are shown for all abovementioned methods in study of the 40K isotope lateral distribution in the soils of agrocenoses.

  10. Water balance in afforestation chronosequences of common oak and Norway spruce on former arable soils in Denmark as evaluated using the DAISY model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, O.; Hansen, S.; Abrahamsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    afforestation is likely to occur on abandoned cropland, and evaluation of the future impacts of this land use change will require projections with models that include combined cropland-forest modules. This study used the agro-based DAISY model (Version 4.93 to investigate changes in the soil water balance over...... four decades following afforestation of a homogeneous area of former arable land on a sandy loam in Denmark. Hydrological data collected during nine hydrological years (April 2001-March 2010) were used to test the DAISY model. Monthly data on soil water content at 0-90 cm used for calibration were......%) agreed satisfactorily with measured monthly soil water content during the calibration period (April 2001- December 2002). Similarly, in the oldest oak stand, long- term monitoring observations and predictions of monthly water content were in satisfactory agreement during the period January 2003-March...

  11. Selenium-rich dissolved organic matter determines selenium uptake in wheat grown on Low-selenium arable land soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supriatin, Supriatin; Weng, Liping; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The study aimed to find soil parameters that are best related to Se plant uptake for low Se soils with predominantly organic Se, and to explore the mechanisms that control Se bioavailability in the soils under study. Methods: A pot experiment using nineteen soil samples taken from different

  12. Dynamics of mineral N, water-soluble carbon and potential nitrification in band-steamed arable soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    the effect of band-steaming on N and C dynamics in a sandy loam soil that was steamed in situ to maximal temperatures of 70-90°C using a prototype band-steamer. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were collected during 90 days from band-steamed soil, undisturbed control soil, and control soil treated just...

  13. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen and carbon losses from arable soils in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leip

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of policy impact on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from agricultural soils requires careful consideration of both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact assessment with the biogeochemistry model DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition to simulate GHG fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on a wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (GHG emissions, air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analyzed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists of four steps: (i definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii designing environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv aggregating results for interpretation. We show the first results of the nitrogen budget in croplands in fourteen countries of the European Union and discuss possibilities to improve the detailed assessment of nitrogen and carbon fluxes from European arable soils.

  14. Interspecific competition of early successional plant species in ex-arable fields as influenced by plant–soil feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Y.; Bezemer, T.M.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback can affect plants that belong to the same (intraspecific feedback) or different species (interspecific feedback). However, little is known about how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks influence interspecific plant competition. Here, we used plants and soil from

  15. Thallium contamination in arable soils and vegetables around a steel plant-A newly-found significant source of Tl pollution in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Xuwen; Wang, Jin; Xiao, Tangfu; Chen, Diyun; Sheng, Guodong; Yin, Meiling; Lippold, Holger; Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng

    2017-05-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare element. Severe Tl poisoning can cause neurological brain damage or even death. The present study was designed to investigate contents of Tl and other associated heavy metals in arable soils and twelve common vegetables cultivated around a steel plant in South China, a newly-found initiator of Tl pollution. Potential health risks of these metals to exposed population via consumption of vegetables were examined by calculating hazard quotients (HQ). The soils showed a significant contamination with Tl at a mean concentration of 1.34 mg/kg. The Tl levels in most vegetables (such as leaf lettuce, chard and pak choy) surpassed the maximum permissible level (0.5 mg/kg) according to the environmental quality standards for food in Germany. Vegetables like leaf lettuce, chard, pak choy, romaine lettuce and Indian beans all exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCF) and transfer factors (TF) for Tl higher than 1, indicating a hyperaccumulation of Tl in these plants. Although the elevated Tl levels in the vegetables at present will not immediately pose significant non-carcinogenic health risks to residents, it highlights the necessity of a permanent monitoring of Tl contamination in the steel-making areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavy metals and health risk assessment of arable soils and food crops around Pb-Zn mining localities in Enyigba, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiora, Smart C.; Chukwu, Anthony; Davies, Theophilus C.

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the heavy metals concentration in arable soils and associated food crops around the Pb-Zn mines in Enyigba, Nigeria, and metal transfer factors were calculated. Air-dried samples of the soils and food crops were analyzed for 8 known nutritional and toxic heavy metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. Eighty seven percent of all the 20 sampled soils contain Pb in excess of the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) set by Canadian Environmental Quality Guideline (CCME) and European Union (EU) Standard, while Zn in thirty-one percent of the samples exceeded the CCME for MAC of 200 mg/kg. All the food crops, with the exception of yam tuber, contain Pb which exceeded the 0.43 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg MAC standards of EU and WHO/FAO respectively, with the leafy vegetables accumulating more Pb than the tubers. The metal transfer factors in the tubers and the leafy vegetables were in the order: Mo > Cu > Zn > Mn > As > Cd > Cr > Ni > Pb and Cd > Cu > Zn > Mn > Mo > As > Ni > Pb > Cr, respectively. Risk assessment studies revealed no health risk in surrounding populations for most of the heavy metals. However, Pb had a high health risk index (HRI) of 1.1 and 1.3, in adults and children, respectively for cassava tuber; Pb had HRI > 1 in lemon grass while Mn also had HRI > 1 in all the leafy vegetables for both adult and children. This high level of HRI for Pb and Mn is an indication that consumers of the food crops contaminated by these metals are at risk of health problems such as Alzheimers' disease and Manganism, associated with excessive intake of these metals. Further systematic monitoring of heavy metal fluxes in cultivable soils around the area of these mines is recommended.

  17. Fate of metal-associated POM in a soil under arable land use contaminated by metallurgical fallout in northern France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labanowski, J.; Sebastia, J.; Foy, E.; Jongmans, T.; Lamy, I.; Oort, van F.

    2007-01-01

    Organic matter is a major metal-retaining constituent in soils. Among the diversity of organic components in soils, particulate organic matter (POM) accumulates large amounts of metals, but the fate of such metal-associated POM is unknown. We studied different POM size fractions and their

  18. Modelling C and N mineralisation in soil food webs during secondary succession on ex-arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtkamp, R.; Wal, van der A.; Kardol, P.; Putten, van der W.H.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Dekker, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    The rate of secondary succession after land abandonment depends on the interplay between aboveground and belowground processes. Changes in vegetation composition lead to altered amounts and composition of soil organic matter (SOM) with consequences for the abundance and functioning of the soil food

  19. The Dutch programme on soil ecology of arable farming systems : farm management monitoring programme and general results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebbink, G.; Faassen, van H.G.; Ouwerkerk, van C.; Brussaard, L.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison was made between conventional farm management (CONV) and integrated farm management (INT) on a calcareous silty clay loam soil, with a crop rotation of winter wheat, sugar beet, spring barley and potatoes. Both types of management were started at two levels of soil organic matter, 2.2%

  20. Influence of humic substances and iron and aluminum ions on the sorption of acetamiprid to an arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murano, Hirotatsu; Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Kayada, Saori; Saito, Mitsuhiko; Yuge, Naoya; Arishiro, Takuji; Watanabe, Akira; Isoi, Toshiyuki

    2018-02-15

    Humic substances (HS) in soil and sediments, and surface water influence the behavior of organic xenobiotics in the environment. However, our knowledge of the effects of specific HS fractions, i.e., humic acids (HAs), fulvic acids (FAs), and humin (HM), on the sorption of organic xenobiotics is limited. The neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid is thought to contribute to the collapse of honeybee colonies. To understand the role that soil organic matter plays in the fate of acetamiprid, interactions between acetamiprid and the above HS fractions were examined. Batch experiments were conducted using various combinations of a field soil sample and the above 3 HS fractions prepared from the same soil, and differences in isotherm values for acetamiprid sorption were investigated based on the structural differences among the HS fractions. The sorption of acetamiprid to soil minerals associated with HM (MHM) (Freundlich isotherm constant, K f : 6.100) was reduced when HAs or FAs were added (K f : 4.179 and 4.756, respectively). This can be attributed to hydrophobic interactions between HM and HAs or FAs in which their dissociated carboxyl and phenolic groups become oriented to face the soil solution. The amount of acetamiprid that was adsorbed to (MHM+HA) or (MHM+FA) increased when aluminum ions were added (K f : 6.933 and 10.48, respectively), or iron ions were added (K f : 7.303 and 11.29, respectively). Since acetamiprid has no affinity for inorganic components in soil, the formation of HS-metal complexes by cation bridging may have oriented the hydrophobic moieties in the HAs or FAs to face the soil solution and may also have resulted in the formation of dense structures, resulting in an increase in the amount of acetamiprid that becomes adsorbed to these structures. These results highlight the importance of interactions among soil components in the pedospheric diffusion of acetamiprid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF MINIMUM TILLAGE SYSTEMS UPON THE SOIL PROPERTIES, YIELD AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SOME ARABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor RUSU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the conventional ploughing tillage technology in comparison with the minimum tillage, upon the soil properties, weed control, yield and energy efficiency in the case of maize (Zea mays L., soyabean (Glycine hispida L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in a three years crop rotation. For all cultures within the crop rotation, the weed encroachment is maximum for the disc harrow and rotary harrow soil tillage, followed by the chisel and paraplow. The weed encroachment is minimum for the conventional ploughing tillage technology. The results of investigations showed that the yield is a conclusion soil tillage systems influence on soil properties, plant density assurance and on weed control.

  3. Fate of the herbicides glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, phenmedipham, ethofumesate and metamitron in two Finnish arable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Pirkko; Siimes, Katri; Eronen, Liisa; Rämö, Sari; Welling, Leena; Oinonen, Seija; Mattsoff, Leona; Ruohonen-Lehto, Marja

    2006-06-01

    The fate of five herbicides (glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, phenmedipham, ethofumesate and metamitron) was studied in two Finnish sugar beet fields for 26 months. Soil types were sandy loam and clay. Two different herbicide-tolerant sugar beet cultivars and three different herbicide application schedules were used. Meteorological data were collected throughout the study and soil properties were thoroughly analysed. An extensive data set of herbicide residue concentrations in soil was collected. Five different soil depths were sampled. The study was carried out using common Finnish agricultural practices and represents typical sugar beet cultivation conditions in Finland. The overall observed order of persistence was ethofumesate > glyphosate > phenmedipham > metamitron > glufosinate-ammonium. Only ethofumesate and glyphosate persisted until the subsequent spring. Seasonal variation in herbicide dissipation was very high and dissipation ceased almost completely during winter. During the 2 year experiment no indication of potential groundwater pollution risk was obtained, but herbicides may cause surface water pollution. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry

  4. Preferential colonization of Solanum tuberosum L. roots by the fungus Glomus intraradices in arable soil of a potato farming area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Patrizia; van Tuinen, Diederik; Copetta, Andrea; Chatagnier, Odile; Berta, Graziella; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Lingua, Guido

    2008-09-01

    The symbiosis between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has been shown to affect both the diversity and productivity of agricultural communities. In this study, we characterized the AM fungal communities of Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) roots and of the bulk soil in two nearby areas of northern Italy, in order to verify if land use practices had selected any particular AM fungus with specificity to potato plants. The AM fungal large-subunit (LSU) rRNA genes were subjected to nested PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. One hundred eighty-three LSU rRNA sequences were analyzed, and eight monophyletic ribotypes, belonging to Glomus groups A and B, were identified. AM fungal communities differed between bulk soil and potato roots, as one AM fungal ribotype, corresponding to Glomus intraradices, was much more frequent in potato roots than in soils (accounting for more than 90% of sequences from potato samples and less than 10% of sequences from soil samples). A semiquantitative heminested PCR with specific primers was used to confirm and quantify the AM fungal abundance observed by cloning. Overall results concerning the biodiversity of AM fungal communities in roots and in bulk soils from the two studied areas suggested that potato roots were preferentially colonized by one AM fungal species, G. intraradices.

  5. {sup 137}Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M. [Department of General Ecology, University of Agriculture and Ecology, Stary Blvd. 7, Zhytomyr 10001 (Ukraine); Johanson, Karl J.; Taylor, Andy F.S. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, Uppsala S-750 07 (Sweden)

    2004-05-05

    The {sup 137}Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of {sup 137}Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m{sup -2} in a peat soil and 47-189 g m{sup -2} in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the {sup 137}Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%.

  6. Study of soil erosion dynamics on the arable lands of Lublin Upland using isotope techniques (137Cs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zglobicki, W.; Reszka, M.

    2002-01-01

    One of the consequences of agricultural activity are changes of significant element of the environment, that is terrain relief. Since sixties the radioactive isotope of cesium, 137 Cs, is applied in the examination of the dynamics of the erosion processes. This method is based on the idea that the circulation of this isotope in the environment accompanies to physical transport of soil. Studies proved that cesium is firmly bond by adsorption complex of the soil. Chemical and biochemical processes have limited influence on the transportation of the cesium. By the examination of the horizontal changes of the total cesium activity one can determine a type and intensity of the processes responsible for its migration and thus the migration of the soil particles

  7. Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions from organic and inorganic fertilizer-based arable cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2010-01-01

    and inclusion of catch crops generally increased soil respiration, PMN and PAO. At field capacity, relative gas diffusivity at 0–5 cm depth was >50% higher in the organic than the inorganic fertilizer-based system (P generally lower in the low-input organic rotations than......Organic and conventional farming practices differ in the use of several management strategies, including use of catch crops, green manure, and fertilization, which may influence soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and productivity of agroecosystems. An 11-yr-old field experiment on a sandy...... conducted in plots with winter wheat. In April 2008, prior to field operations, intact soil cores were collected at two depths (0–5 and 5–10 cm) in plots under winter wheat. Water retention characteristics of each core were determined and used to calculate relative gas diffusivity (DP/Do). Finally, crop...

  8. A method to assess ecosystem services developed from soil attributes with stakeholders and data of four arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Wijnen, van H.J.; Schouten, A.J.; Mulder, C.; Kuiten, A.M.P.; Brussaard, L.; Breure, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem-service indicators and related accounting units are crucial for the development of decision frameworks for sustainable land management systems. With a management concept using ecosystem services, land-use expectations can be linked to quantifiable soil features in a defendable and

  9. Concentration and vertical distribution of total soil phosphorus in relation to time of abandonment of arable fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, A.; De Boer, W.; Lubbers, I.M.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Abandonment of agricultural soils is a common practice in Western Europe to increase the area of nature and to counteract agricultural overproduction. However, it has been suggested that abrupt changes in management of land, such as abandonment of heavily fertilized agricultural fields, could

  10. Copper, zinc, and cadmium in various fractions of soil and fungi in a Swedish forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinichuk, Mykhailo M

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi profoundly affect forest ecosystems through mediating nutrient uptake and maintaining forest food webs. The accumulation of metals in each transfer step from bulk soil to fungal sporocarps is not well known. The accumulation of three metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface, fungal mycelium and sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi in a Swedish forest were compared. Concentrations of all three metals increased in the order: bulk soil terms of accumulation, fungi (mycelium and sporocarps) preferred Cd to Zn and Cu. Zinc concentration in sporocarps and to a lesser extent in mycelium depended on the concentration in soil, whereas, the uptake of Cu and Cd by both sporocarps and mycelium did not correlate with metal concentration in soil. Heavy metal accumulation within the fungal mycelium biomass in the top forest soil layer (0-5 cm) might account for ca. 5-9% of the total amount of Cu, 5-11% of Zn, and 16-32% of Cd. As the uptake of zinc and copper by fungi may be balanced, this implied similarities in the uptake mechanism.

  11. Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The evaluation of the effect of land use change on accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) requires reliable data obtained from georeferenced sites with land use history records. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long term changes in the reserves of SOC in a typical Argiudol of the Pergamino series after the introduction of agriculture. Measures of soil organic carbon concentration and bulk density of Ap and A12 horizons were carried out in three sites of the Pergamino County (N of Buenos Aires province): a reference field with untilled pristine soil (33° 57' S; 60° 34' W), a field with 31 years (1980-2011) of agriculture (31Y) located next to the former, and a third field (33° 46' S; 60° 37' W) with 80 years (1910/1990) of agriculture (80Y). 31Y has been under continuous soybean cultivation with conventional tillage (CT) that consists of moldboard plow or double disk harrowing. At 80K the cultivation sequence was: 44 years of corn + 9 years of flax + 2 years of wheat + 17 years of wheat/soybean double cropping + 1 year of lentil; mostly under CT, some years under chisel plow during the 70's and a few years under zero tillage in soybean after wheat sown with conventional tillage during the 80's. Before the introduction of mechanical harvesting (1947) crop residues were burnt as well as the wheat stubble during the conventional double cropping period (1970-1980). Soil texture (23±1% clay, with predominance of illite) and field slopes (fractions produced by the burnt stubble. We conclude that current agricultural systems of the Rolling Pampas are not sustainable.

  12. Carbon Sequestration in Arable Soils is Likely to Increase Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Offsetting Reductions in Climate Radiative Forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changsheng Li; Frolking, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2005-01-01

    Strategies for mitigating the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils and vegetation of terrestrial ecosystems. Carbon and nitrogen (N) move through terrestrial ecosystems in coupled biogeochemical cycles, and increasing C stocks in soils and vegetation will have an impact on the N cycle. We conducted simulations with a biogeochemical model to evaluate the impact of different cropland management strategies on the coupled cycles of C and N, with special emphasis on C-sequestration and emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Reduced tillage, enhanced crop residue incorporation, and farmyard manure application each increased soil C-sequestration, increased N2O emissions, and had little effect on CH4 uptake. Over 20 years, increases in N2O emissions, which were converted into CO2-equivalent emissions with 100-year global warming potential multipliers, offset 75-310% of the carbon sequestered, depending on the scenario. Quantification of these types of biogeochemical interactions must be incorporated into assessment frameworks and trading mechanisms to accurately evaluate the value of agricultural systems in strategies for climate protection

  13. Temporal variations in microbial biomass C and cellulolytic enzyme activity in arable soils: effects of organic matter input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pedersen, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    growth, i.e. by factors common to both systems but not differences in organic matter input. Pronounced and constant increases in beta-glucosidase activity (40%) and endocellulase activity (30%) in high-OM were detected across all sampling periods. The increases in microbial biomass C concentration......Temporal variations in soil microbial biomass C concentration and in activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were investigated in a field experiment after eight years of cultivation with either low organic matter input (low-OM) or high organic matter input (high......-OM). The cultivation systems differed in whether their source of fertiliser was mainly mineral or organic, in whether a winter cover crop was grown, and whether straw was mulched or removed. Sampling occurred at approximately monthly intervals, over a period of two years. Distinct temporal variations in microbial...

  14. Temporal variations in microbial biomass C and cellulolytic enzyme activity in arable soils: effects of organic matter input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pedersen, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    Temporal variations in soil microbial biomass C concentration and in activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were investigated in a field experiment after eight years of cultivation with either low organic matter input (low-OM) or high organic matter input (high......-OM). The cultivation systems differed in whether their source of fertiliser was mainly mineral or organic, in whether a winter cover crop was grown, and whether straw was mulched or removed. Sampling occurred at approximately monthly intervals, over a period of two years. Distinct temporal variations in microbial...... growth, i.e. by factors common to both systems but not differences in organic matter input. Pronounced and constant increases in beta-glucosidase activity (40%) and endocellulase activity (30%) in high-OM were detected across all sampling periods. The increases in microbial biomass C concentration...

  15. Do cover crops enhance N₂O, CO₂ or CH₄ emissions from soil in Mediterranean arable systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cobena, A; García-Marco, S; Quemada, M; Gabriel, J L; Almendros, P; Vallejo, A

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of planting three cover crops (CCs) (barley, Hordeum vulgare L.; vetch, Vicia villosa L.; rape, Brassica napus L.) on the direct emission of N₂O, CO₂ and CH₄ in the intercrop period and the impact of incorporating these CCs on the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) from the forthcoming irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) crop. Vetch and barley were the CCs with the highest N₂O and CO₂ losses (75 and 47% increase compared with the control, respectively) in the fallow period. In all cases, fluxes of N₂O were increased through N fertilization and the incorporation of barley and rape residues (40 and 17% increase, respectively). The combination of a high C:N ratio with the addition of an external source of mineral N increased the fluxes of N₂O compared with -Ba and -Rp. The direct emissions of N₂O were lower than expected for a fertilized crop (0.10% emission factor, EF) compared with other studies and the IPCC EF. These results are believed to be associated with a decreased NO₃(-) pool due to highly denitrifying conditions and increased drainage. The fluxes of CO₂ were in the range of other fertilized crops (i.e., 1118.71-1736.52 kg CO₂-Cha(-1)). The incorporation of CC residues enhanced soil respiration in the range of 21-28% for barley and rape although no significant differences between treatments were detected. Negative CH₄ fluxes were measured and displayed an overall sink effect for all incorporated CC (mean values of -0.12 and -0.10 kg CH₄-Cha(-1) for plots with and without incorporated CCs, respectively). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Significant alteration of soil bacterial communities and organic carbon decomposition by different long-term fertilization management conditions of extremely low-productivity arable soil in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Guishan; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-06-01

    Different fertilization managements of red soil, a kind of Ferralic Cambisol, strongly affected the soil properties and associated microbial communities. The association of the soil microbial community and functionality with long-term fertilization management in the unique low-productivity red soil ecosystem is important for both soil microbial ecology and agricultural production. Here, 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S recombinant ribonucleic acid genes and GeoChip4-NimbleGen-based functional gene analysis were used to study the soil bacterial community composition and functional genes involved in soil organic carbon degradation. Long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization-induced soil acidification and fertility decline and significantly altered the soil bacterial community, whereas long-term organic fertilization and fallow management improved the soil quality and maintained the bacterial diversity. Short-term quicklime remediation of the acidified soils did not change the bacterial communities. Organic fertilization and fallow management supported eutrophic ecosystems, in which copiotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. However, long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization treatments supported oligotrophic ecosystems, in which oligotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of recalcitrant-C-degrading genes but a lower intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. Quicklime application increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic taxa and crop production, although these effects were utterly inadequate. This study provides insights into the interaction of soil bacterial communities, soil functionality and long-term fertilization management in the red soil ecosystem; these insights are important for improving the fertility of unique low-productivity red soil. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effectiveness Of Miraba an Indigenous Soil and Water Conservation Measures On Reducing Runoff And Soil Loss In Arable Land Of Western Usambara Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msita, H. B.; Kimaro, D. N.; Mtakwa, P. W.; Msanya, B. M.; Dondyene, S.; Poesen, J.; Deckers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion by water is rampant mainly in mountainous areas of Tanzania leading to environmental hazards, low land productivity, low income and increased poverty. Despite the severity of the soil erosion problem, there is not much quantitative data on the erosion effects and effectiveness of indigenous soil and water conservation (SWC) measures. The consequence is that indigenous knowledge in SWC planning is ignored. The on-farm field experiment was conducted for three years in Migambo village, Lushoto district in Tanzania, to determine the effectiveness of improved Miraba (IM) an indigenous soil erosion control measure on reducing runoff and soil loss. Management practices were tested viz: control that is without any soil conservation measure (C), Miraba alone (M), Miraba with farmyard manure and mulching (MFM) replicated three times in CRD setting. Maize (Zea mays) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were used as test crops, due to their importance as food crops and the high erosion rates on fields with these crops. The crops were planted in rotation, maize and beans in short and long rains respectively. Gerlach troughs and runoff plots were used to evaluate the physical effectiveness. Results show significant effects of IM against control on crop yields, soil loss, surface runoff and moisture retention. MFM is the most effective measure in reducing soil and water losses followed by MF and M. The results further showed that these management practices can be implemented to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses in the study area and areas with similar ecological setting. To facilitate adoption of these practices further research works is recommended for identifying economically feasible indigenous SWC measures under different biophysical and socio-economic conditions.

  18. Plant litter decomposition and carbon sequestration for arable soils. Final report of works. April 2005; Biodegradation des litieres et sequestration du carbone dans les ecosystemes cultives et perennes. Rapport final des travaux Avril 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recous, S.; Barrois, F.; Coppens, F.; Garnier, P.; Grehan, E. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Unite d' Agronomie Laon-Reims-Mons (France); Balesdent, J. [CNRS-CEA-Univ.de la Mediterranee, UMR 6191, Lab. d' Ecologie Microbienne de la Rhizosphere, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Dambrine, E.; Zeller, B. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Unite Biogeochimie des Ecosystemes Forestiers, 54 - Nancy (France); Loiseau, P.; Personeni, E. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Unite d' Agronomie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2002-07-01

    The general objective of this project was to contribute to the evaluation of land use and management impacts on C sequestration and nitrogen dynamics in soils. The land used through the presence/absence of crops and their species, and the land management through tillage, localisation of crop residues, fertilizer applications,... are important factors that affect the dynamics of organic matters in soils, particularly the mineralization of C and N, the losses to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, the retention of carbon into the soil. This project was conducted by four research groups, three of them having expertise in nutrient cycling of three major agro-ecosystems (arable crops, grasslands, forests) and the fourth one having expertise in modelling long term effects of land use on C storage into the soils. Within this common project one major objective was to better understand the fate of plant litter entering the soil either as above litter or as root litter. The focus was put on two factors that particularly affect decomposition: the initial biochemical quality of plant litter, and the location of the decomposing litter. One innovative aspect of the project was the use of stable isotope as {sup 13}C for carbon, based on the use of enriched or depleted {sup 13}C material, the only option to assess the dynamics of 'new' C entering the soil on the short term, in order to reveal the effects of decomposition factors. Another aspect was the simultaneous study of C and N. The project consisted in experiments relevant for each agro-ecosystem, in forest, grassland and arable soils for which interactions between residue quality and nitrogen availability on the one hand, residue quality and location on the other hand, was investigated. A common experiment was set up to investigate the potential degradability of the various residue used (beech leaf rape straw, young rye, Lolium and dactylic roots) in a their original soils and in a single soil was assessed. Based on

  19. Swedish Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik

    2005-01-01

    .... The military research work presented here includes the three military administrations, FOI -- Swedish Defence Research Agency, FMV -- Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and SNDC -- Swedish...

  20. Crop residue management in arable cropping systems under a temperate climate. Part 2: Soil physical properties and crop production. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiel, MP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Residues of previous crops provide a valuable amount of organic matter that can be used either to restore soil fertility or for external use. A better understanding of the impact of crop residue management on the soil-water-plant system is needed in order to manage agricultural land sustainably. This review focuses on soil physical aspects related to crop residue management, and specifically on the link between soil structure and hydraulic properties and its impact on crop production. Literature. Conservation practices, including crop residue retention and non-conventional tillage, can enhance soil health by improving aggregate stability. In this case, water infiltration is facilitated, resulting in an increase in plant water availability. Conservation practices, however, do not systematically lead to higher water availability for the plant. The influence of crop residue management on crop production is still unclear; in some cases, crop production is enhanced by residue retention, but in others crop residues can reduce crop yield. Conclusions. In this review we discuss the diverse and contrasting effects of crop residue management on soil physical properties and crop production under a temperate climate. The review highlights the importance of environmental factors such as soil type and local climatic conditions, highlighting the need to perform field studies on crop residue management and relate them to specific pedo-climatic contexts.

  1. Potential short-term losses of N2O and N2 from high concentrations of biogas digestate in arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sebastian Rainer; Augustin, Jürgen; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Jurasinski, Gerald; Gusovius, Bertram; Glatzel, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Biogas digestate (BD) is increasingly used as organic fertilizer, but has a high potential for NH3 losses. Its proposed injection into soils as a countermeasure has been suggested to promote the generation of N2O, leading to a potential trade-off. Furthermore, the effect of high nutrient concentrations on N2 losses as they may appear after injection of BD into soil has not yet been evaluated. Hence, we performed an incubation experiment with soil cores in a helium-oxygen atmosphere to examine the influence of soil substrate (loamy sand, clayey silt), water-filled pore space (WFPS; 35, 55, 75 %) and application rate (0, 17.6 and 35.2 mL BD per soil core, 250 cm3) on the emission of N2O, N2 and CO2 after the usage of high loads of BD. To determine the potential capacity for gaseous losses, we applied anaerobic conditions by purging with helium for the last 24 h of incubation. Immediate N2O and N2 emissions as well as the N2 / (N2O+N2) product ratio depended on soil type and increased with WFPS, indicating a crucial role of soil gas diffusivity for the formation and emission of nitrogenous gases in agricultural soils. However, emissions did not increase with the application rate of BD. This is probably due to an inhibitory effect of the high NH4+ content of BD on nitrification. Our results suggest a larger potential for N2O formation immediately following BD injection in the fine-textured clayey silt compared to the coarse loamy sand. By contrast, the loamy sand showed a higher potential for N2 production under anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that short-term N losses of N2O and N2 after injection may be higher than probable losses of NH3 following surface application of BD.

  2. Chemometric Modelling and Remote Sensing of Arable Land Soil Organic Carbon as Mediterranean Land Degradation Indicator - A Case Study in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    BOETTCHER Kristin; KEMPER Thomas; MACHWITZ Miriam; MEHL Wolfgang; SOMMER Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The application of chemometric models for the quantitative estimation of soil organic matter (SOM) from laboratory reflectance data from samples taken on the regional/national level from Italian sites is explored in Part 1 of this report. In addition, the possibility to transfer the developed models from the spectral resolution of lab/field instrumentation to the one of operational satellite systems has been evaluated, by using the laboratory spectra to simulate the respective soil reflectanc...

  3. Spatial and temporal diversification of crops dynamics in soil erosion modelling. A case study in the arable land of the upper Enziwigger River, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Alewell, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Accelerated soil erosion by water is a widespread phenomenon that affects several Mediterranean and Alpine landscapes causing on-site and off-site environmental impacts. Recognized in the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection as one of the major threats to European soils (COM(2006)231), accelerated soil erosion is a major concern in landscape management and conservation planning (UN SDG 2.4). Agriculture and associated land-use change is the primary cause of accelerated soil erosion. This, because the soil displacement by water erosion mainly occurs when bare-sloped soil surfaces are exposed to the effect of rainfall and overland flow. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and other RUSLE-based models (which account for more than 90% of current worldwide modelling applications) describe the effect of the vegetation in the so called cover and management factor (C). The C-factor is generally the most challenging modelling component to compute over large study sites. To run a GIS-based RUSLE modelling for a study site greater than few hectares, the use of a simplified approach to assess the C-factor is inevitably necessary. In most of the cases, the C-factor values are assigned to the different land-use classes according to i) the C-values proposed in the literature, and ii) through land-use classifications based on vegetation indices (VI). In previous national (Land Use Policy, 50, 408-421, 2016) and pan-European (Environmental Science & Policy, 54, 438-447, 2015) studies, we computed regional C-values through weighted average operations combining crop statistics with remote sensing and GIS modelling techniques. Here, we present the preliminary results of an object-oriented change detection approach that we are testing to acquire spatial as well temporal crops dynamics at field-scale level in complex agricultural systems.

  4. Responses of bacterial communities in arable soils in a rice-wheat cropping system to different fertilizer regimes and sampling times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Soil physicochemical properties, soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structures in a rice-wheat cropping system subjected to different fertilizer regimes were investigated in two seasons (June and October. All fertilizer regimes increased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Both fertilizer regime and time had a significant effect on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure. The combined application of inorganic fertilizer and manure organic-inorganic fertilizer significantly enhanced the bacterial diversity in both seasons. The bacterial communities across all samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi at the phylum level. Permutational multivariate analysis confirmed that both fertilizer treatment and season were significant factors in the variation of the composition of the bacterial community. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances further revealed that bacterial communities were separated primarily by season. The effect of fertilizer treatment is significant (P = 0.005 and accounts for 7.43% of the total variation in bacterial community. Soil nutrients (e.g., available K, total N, total P and organic matter rather than pH showed significant correlation with the majority of abundant taxa. In conclusion, both fertilizer treatment and seasonal changes affect soil properties, microbial biomass and bacterial community structure. The application of NPK plus manure organic-inorganic fertilizer may be a sound fertilizer practice for sustainable food production.

  5. Heavy metal contamination of arable soil and corn plant in the vicinity of a zinc smelting factory and stabilization by liming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang Oh; Gutierrez, Jessie; Yun, Sung Wook; Lee, Yong Bok; Yu, Chan; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-02-01

    The heavy metal contamination in soils and cultivated corn plants affected by zinc smelting activities in the vicinity of a zinc smelting factory in Korea was studied. Soils and corn plants were sampled at the harvesting stage and analyzed for cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentration, as well as Cd and Zn fraction and other chemical properties of soils. Cd and Zn were highly accumulated in the surface soils (0-20 cm), at levels higher than the Korean warning criteria (Cd, 1.5; Zn, 300 mg kg(-1)), with corresponding mean values of 1.7 and 407 mg kg(-1), respectively, but these metals decreased significantly with increasing soil depth and distance from the factory, implying that contaminants may come from the factory through aerosol dynamics (Hong et al., Kor J Environ Agr 26(3):204-209, 2007a; Environ Contam Toxicol 52:496-502, 2007b) and not from geological sources. The leaf part had higher Cd and Zn concentrations, with values of 9.5 and 1733 mg kg(-1), compared to the stem (1.6 and 547 mg kg(-1)) and grain (0.18 and 61 mg kg(-1)) parts, respectively. Cd and Zn were higher in the oxidizable fraction, at 38.5% and 46.9% of the total Cd (2.6 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (407 mg kg(-1)), but the exchangeable + acidic fraction of Cd and Zn as the bioavailable phases was low, 0.2 and 50 mg kg(-1), respectively. To study the reduction of plant Cd and Zn uptake by liming, radish (Raphanus sativa L.) was cultivated in one representative field among the sites investigated, and Ca(OH)(2) was applied at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 8 mg ha(-1). Plant Cd and Zn concentrations and NH(4)OAc extractable Cd and Zn concentrations of soil decreased significantly with increasing Ca(OH)(2) rate, since it markedly increases the cation exchange capacity of soil induced by increased pH. As a result, liming in this kind of soil could be an effective countermeasure in reducing the phytoextractability of Cd and Zn.

  6. Effect of climate change on soil temperature in Swedish boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungqvist, Gunnar; Oni, Stephen K; Teutschbein, Claudia; Futter, Martyn N

    2014-01-01

    Complex non-linear relationships exist between air and soil temperature responses to climate change. Despite its influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes, soil temperature has received less attention in climate impact studies. Here we present and apply an empirical soil temperature model to four forest sites along a climatic gradient of Sweden. Future air and soil temperature were projected using an ensemble of regional climate models. Annual average air and soil temperatures were projected to increase, but complex dynamics were projected on a seasonal scale. Future changes in winter soil temperature were strongly dependent on projected snow cover. At the northernmost site, winter soil temperatures changed very little due to insulating effects of snow cover but southern sites with little or no snow cover showed the largest projected winter soil warming. Projected soil warming was greatest in the spring (up to 4°C) in the north, suggesting earlier snowmelt, extension of growing season length and possible northward shifts in the boreal biome. This showed that the projected effects of climate change on soil temperature in snow dominated regions are complex and general assumptions of future soil temperature responses to climate change based on air temperature alone are inadequate and should be avoided in boreal regions.

  7. COMPARISON OF THE CHOSEN ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES OF THE ARABLE LAND AND FALLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Włodek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results and analysis of the chosen physico-chemical soil properties of the fallow, which was not cultivated for 7 years and of the arable land, situated close to it, are presented in this work. Soil moisture content was higher and the weed infestation rate was bigger on the arable land in comparison to fallow. Significant increase of C.org. as well as P, K and Mg availability for plant was noticed on the fallow. On the arable land segetal species were common, whereas on the fallow ruderal species occurred as well. In spite of the close neighborhood of fallow with Solidago gigantea and Solidago canadensis species domination, this species was not reported on the arable land.

  8. The radium distribution in some Swedish soils and its effects on radon emanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edsfeldt, Cecilia

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study has been to clarify how the radium distribution in soils affects the radon emanation. The distribution of radium, uranium and thorium has been determined using sequential extractions. In the study, soils from two different locations were investigated. In the first part the applicability of the sequential extraction method for determining Ra distribution in different soil types was investigated, using a simple sequential extraction method. Sampled soils were clay, sand and till from the vicinity of the Stockholm Esker. The main part of Rn emanating Ra was associated with Fe oxides in the soil. The methods applied provided information about the radon risk of the soil, but, in order to gain more information on the processes governing Ra distribution and radon emanation in soils, a more detailed sequential extraction procedure would be desirable. The second part consisted of a detailed study of the radionuclide distribution and the geochemistry in a podzolised glacial till from Kloten in northern Vaestmanland. A more detailed sequential extraction procedure was used, and the specific surface area of samples was measured. Samples were taken from E, B, and C horizons; radium and thorium were enriched in the B horizon, whereas uranium had its maximum concentration in the C horizon. Extractable radium primarily occurred in the exchangeable pool, possibly organically complexed, whereas extractable uranium and thorium were mainly Fe oxide bound. Oxide-bound Ra was important only in the B horizon. The radon emanation was not correlated with the amount of exchangeable Ra, but instead with the oxide bound Ra. However, the amount of oxide-bound Ra was too small to account for all the emanated Rn, thus, exchangeable Ra was interpreted as the main source of emanated Rn. This exchangeable Ra was more emanative in the B horizon than in the C horizon. The explanation is the larger surface area of the B horizon samples; the specific surface area appears to be the

  9. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  10. Earthworm-induced distribution of organic matter in macro-aggregates from differently managed arable fields.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Hillenaar, S.I.

    1997-01-01

    To study the influence of soil structure on organic matter decomposition, and the possible role of earthworms therein, aggregates of the size of earthworm casts (3-4.8 mm) were sieved from air-dry soil of three arable fields. Due to different management histories (in terms of manuring and pesticide

  11. Response of coniferous forest ecosystems on mineral soils to nutrient additions: A review of Swedish experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the only nutrient that promotes forest growth when given individually. An extra stem growth of 15 m 3 /ha is obtained during a 10 yr period following an application of 150 kg N/ha. Larger growth increases have often been the result of more intensive N fertilization. Lime or wood ash give a minor growth stimulation on sites with a carbon (C) to N ratio below 30 in the humus layer, while the opposite effect prevails on N-poor sites. Nutrients given as soluble fertilizers are readily taken up by trees. Boron deficiency may be induced in northern Sweden after N fertilization or liming. The ground vegetation may be altered by single-shot N fertilization, but long-term effects occur only for intensive regimes. Lime or wood ash may modify the flora if soil pH is significantly altered: the change will be in response to N availability. Fruit-body production of mycorrhizal fungi is disfavoured by chronic N input, but also by lime or ash. However, the mycorrhizal structures on root tips are less affected. Faunistic studies are not common and those present are mostly devoted to soil fauna. A practical N dose of 150 kg N/ha has no clear effect, but higher doses may reduce the abundance in some groups. Hardened wood ash does not significantly affect the soil fauna. Lime favours snails and earthworms, while other groups are often disfavoured. The response of aquatic fauna to terrestrial treatments has hardly been studied. N fertilization generally results in insignificant effects on fish and benthic fauna. Lime and wood ash reduce the acidity of the topsoil, but practical doses (2-3 t/ha) are too low to raise the alkalinity of runoff unless outflow areas are treated. N fertilizer use in forestry and N-free fertilizers lack effects on acidification. N fertilization may, however, be strongly acidifying if nitrification is induced and followed by nitrate leaching. N fertilization often results in increased long-term C retention in trees and soil, but does not promote

  12. Regional Variability of Cd, Hg, Pb and C Concentrations in Different Horizons of Swedish Forest Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alriksson, A.

    2001-01-01

    Contents of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and carbon(C) in the O, B and C horizons of podzolized forest soils in Sweden were surveyed. Concentrations and storage of Cd, Hg and Pb in the O and B horizons were high in southern Sweden and gradually decreased towards the north, though with considerable local variability. This pattern reflects the influence of anthropogenic emissions of these metals, as well as the effects of soil-forming processes. Parent till material, as represented by the C horizon concentration of the respective metal, accounted for little of the variation in metal concentration in the O horizon. For Cd and Pb, the correlations were not significant or slightly negative (R 2 = 0.12 and 0.09 respectively) depending on region, while for Hg the correlation was not significant or slightly positive (R 2 = 0.03 and 0.08). Furthermore, parent till material accounted for more of the variation in metal concentrations in the B horizons in the northern part of Sweden than in the middle and southernmost parts, where the concentration of total carbon had more influence. The correlation between the metal concentrations in the B and C horizon was strongest for Pb (R 2 = 0.63 and 0.36 in the two northernmost regions), lower for Cd (R 2 = 0.19 and 0.16) and not significant for Hg. For all soil horizons, total C concentration accounted for much of the variation in Hg concentration in particular (O-horizon R 2 = 0.15-0.69, B horizon R 2 = 0.36-0.50, C horizon R 2 = 0.23-0.50 and ns in one region). Ratios of metal concentrations between the B and C horizons were highest for Hg(maximum value of 30), indicating a relatively larger addition or retention of Hg compared to Cd and Pb (maximum value of 10)in the B horizon. This study indicate that factors other than parent material account for the large scale variation in O horizon concentrations of metals but patterns correspond well with those of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and acidifying substances

  13. Deposition, transfer and migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in Swedish agricultural environments, and use of 137Cs for erosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haak, E.; Rydberg, T.

    1998-01-01

    Intensive atmospheric tests of nuclear bombs in the late 1950s and early 1960s resulted in fallout on Sweden of 3 kBq/m 2 137 Cs and 2 kBq/m 2 90 Sr. To determine how soil characteristics influence radionuclide transfer to red clover, pot experiments with 137 Cs and 90 Sr were made with 178 Swedish mineral soils; significant negative correlations were obtained the with levels of P, K and Ca. To quantify impact in field conditions, experiments with artificial depositions on microplots were started in 1961. Transfer to barley on 12 topsoils combined with sandy and clay subsoils, and to grass on two contrasting pastures, was followed over two decades. The subsoil type was found to be important. Fallout of 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident, up to 200 kBq/m 2 in some areas of Sweden, was studied between 1986 and 1994. As in the microplot experiments, transfer of 137 Cs to grass was higher than to arable crops. Transfer rates were high in the first year(s), and then decreased differently from year to year, as shown by a new Tar (i.e. annual reduction rate in nuclide transfer) concept. The use of Chernobyl fallout to investigate soil redistribution on arable fields is briefly discussed; a frame-scrape soil-sampling procedure is proposed to improve the accuracy and precision of the 137 Cs technique for evaluation of soil erosion. (author)

  14. Anthrosols in Iron Age Shetland: Implications for Arable and Economic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guttmann, Erika B.; Simpson, Ian A.; Nielsen, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The soils surrounding three Iron Age settlements on South Mainland, Shetland, were sampled and compared for indicators of soil amendment. Two of the sites (Old Scatness and Jarlshof) were on lower-lying, better-drained, sheltered land; the third (Clevigarth) was in an acid, exposed environment...... soils at Old Scatness had extremely high phosphorus levels, while the soil at Jarlshof had lower levels of enhancement. At Clevigarth, where charcoal from the buried soil was 14C dated to the Neolithic and Bronze Age, there was no evidence of arable activity or soil amendment associated with the Iron...

  15. BIOLOGICAL WAYS OF STRUGGLE AGAINST WATER EROSION ON ARABLE SLOPES OF THE CENTRAL RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana ANISIMOVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In article are proved a choice of ways of struggle against water erosion of arable slopes on the basis of harnessing the potential of bio-based agrocenosis. Efficiency of use long-term lupine in quality green manure and phyto-ameliorant on eroded soddy-podzolic sandy soils of the Vladimir area is shown.

  16. Species richness and weed abundance in the vegetation of arable field boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.

    1997-01-01


    In the modem arable landscape, the vegetation of perennial field boundaries have important ecological functions such as providing a habitat for farmland wildlife, providing overwintering sites for predatory insects, providing movement corridors, reducing soil erosion and acting as an

  17. OK-Net Arable online knowledge platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær; Jensen, Allan Leck; Jørgensen, Margit Styrbæk

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of organic farming requires farmers to have a very high level of knowledge and skills, but exchange on organic farming techniques remains limited. In order to increase productivity and quality in organic arable cropping in Europe, the thematic network OK-Net Arable under Horizon 2020...... has the aim to improve the exchange of innovative and traditional knowledge among farmers, farm advisers and scientists. An online platform for knowledge exchange has been created, offering innovative education and end-user material as well as communication between stakeholders. A number of specific...

  18. Task-based agricultural mobile robots in arable farming: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, K.R.; Raja, P.; Pérez-Ruiz, M.

    2017-09-01

    In agriculture (in the context of this paper, the terms “agriculture” and “farming” refer to only the farming of crops and exclude the farming of animals), smart farming and automated agricultural technology have emerged as promising methodologies for increasing the crop productivity without sacrificing produce quality. The emergence of various robotics technologies has facilitated the application of these techniques in agricultural processes. However, incorporating this technology in farms has proven to be challenging because of the large variations in shape, size, rate and type of growth, type of produce, and environmental requirements for different types of crops. Agricultural processes are chains of systematic, repetitive, and time-dependent tasks. However, some agricultural processes differ based on the type of farming, namely permanent crop farming and arable farming. Permanent crop farming includes permanent crops or woody plants such as orchards and vineyards whereas arable farming includes temporary crops such as wheat and rice. Major operations in open arable farming include tilling, soil analysis, seeding, transplanting, crop scouting, pest control, weed removal and harvesting and robots can assist in performing all of these tasks. Each specific operation requires axillary devices and sensors with specific functions. This article reviews the latest advances in the application of mobile robots in these agricultural operations for open arable farming and provide an overview of the systems and techniques that are used. This article also discusses various challenges for future improvements in using reliable mobile robots for arable farming.

  19. Task-based agricultural mobile robots in arable farming: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravind, K.R.; Raja, P.; Pérez-Ruiz, M.

    2017-01-01

    In agriculture (in the context of this paper, the terms “agriculture” and “farming” refer to only the farming of crops and exclude the farming of animals), smart farming and automated agricultural technology have emerged as promising methodologies for increasing the crop productivity without sacrificing produce quality. The emergence of various robotics technologies has facilitated the application of these techniques in agricultural processes. However, incorporating this technology in farms has proven to be challenging because of the large variations in shape, size, rate and type of growth, type of produce, and environmental requirements for different types of crops. Agricultural processes are chains of systematic, repetitive, and time-dependent tasks. However, some agricultural processes differ based on the type of farming, namely permanent crop farming and arable farming. Permanent crop farming includes permanent crops or woody plants such as orchards and vineyards whereas arable farming includes temporary crops such as wheat and rice. Major operations in open arable farming include tilling, soil analysis, seeding, transplanting, crop scouting, pest control, weed removal and harvesting and robots can assist in performing all of these tasks. Each specific operation requires axillary devices and sensors with specific functions. This article reviews the latest advances in the application of mobile robots in these agricultural operations for open arable farming and provide an overview of the systems and techniques that are used. This article also discusses various challenges for future improvements in using reliable mobile robots for arable farming.

  20. Task-based agricultural mobile robots in arable farming: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaswamy R. Aravind

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture (in the context of this paper, the terms “agriculture” and “farming” refer to only the farming of crops and exclude the farming of animals, smart farming and automated agricultural technology have emerged as promising methodologies for increasing the crop productivity without sacrificing produce quality. The emergence of various robotics technologies has facilitated the application of these techniques in agricultural processes. However, incorporating this technology in farms has proven to be challenging because of the large variations in shape, size, rate and type of growth, type of produce, and environmental requirements for different types of crops. Agricultural processes are chains of systematic, repetitive, and time-dependent tasks. However, some agricultural processes differ based on the type of farming, namely permanent crop farming and arable farming. Permanent crop farming includes permanent crops or woody plants such as orchards and vineyards whereas arable farmingincludestemporary crops such as wheat and rice. Major operations in open arable farming include tilling, soil analysis, seeding, transplanting, crop scouting, pest control, weed removal and harvesting and robots can assist in performing all of these tasks. Each specific operation requires axillary devices and sensors with specific functions. This article reviews the latest advances in the application of mobile robots in these agricultural operations for open arable farming and provide an overview of the systems and techniques that are used. This article also discusses various challenges for future improvements in using reliable mobile robots for arable farming.

  1. Do organic inputs matter – a meta-analysis of additional yield effects for arable crops in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijbeek, R.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Berge, Ten H.F.M.; Gort, G.; Spiegel, H.; Whitmore, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Organic inputs have a positive effect on the soil organic matter balance. They are therefore an important asset for soil fertility and crop growth. This study quantifies the additional yield effect due to organic inputs for arable crops in Europe when macro-nutrients are not

  2. Ecological impacts of arable intensification in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoate, C.; Boatman, N.D.; Borralho, R.J.; Rio Carvalho, C.; Snoo, de G.R.; Eden, P.

    2001-01-01

    Although arable landscapes have a long history, environmental problems have accelerated in recent decades. The effects of these changes are usually externalised, being greater for society as a whole than for the farms on which they operate, and incentives to correct them are therefore largely

  3. Phosphorus leaching in relation to soil type and soil phosphorus content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djodjic, Faruk; Börling, Katarina; Bergström, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorus losses from arable soils contribute to eutrophication of freshwater systems. In addition to losses through surface runoff, leaching has lately gained increased attention as an important P transport pathway. Increased P levels in arable soils have highlighted the necessity of establishing a relationship between actual P leaching and soil P levels. In this study, we measured leaching of total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) during three years in undisturbed soil columns of five soils. The soils were collected at sites, established between 1957 and 1966, included in a long-term Swedish fertility experiment with four P fertilization levels at each site. Total P losses varied between 0.03 and 1.09 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), but no general correlation could be found between P concentrations and soil test P (Olsen P and phosphorus content in ammonium lactate extract [P-AL]) or P sorption indices (single-point phosphorus sorption index [PSI] and P sorption saturation) of the topsoil. Instead, water transport mechanism through the soil and subsoil properties seemed to be more important for P leaching than soil test P value in the topsoil. In one soil, where preferential flow was the dominant water transport pathway, water and P bypassed the high sorption capacity of the subsoil, resulting in high losses. On the other hand, P leaching from some soils was low in spite of high P applications due to high P sorption capacity in the subsoil. Therefore, site-specific factors may serve as indicators for P leaching losses, but a single, general indicator for all soil types was not found in this study.

  4. Magnetic Measurements as a Useful Tool for the Evaluation of Spatial Variability of the Arable Horizon Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattakhova, Leysan; Shinkarev, Alexandr; Ryzhikh, Lyudmila; Kosareva, Lina

    2017-04-01

    In normal practice, the thickness of the arable horizon is determined on the basis of field morphological descriptions, allowing the subjectivity of perception and judgment at the crucial role of experience of the researcher. The subject of special interest are independent analytical and technically relatively simple in design approaches to the diagnosis of the lower boundary of the blended plowing the profiles part. Theoretical premises to use spectrophotometry and magnetometry to arable horizon depth diagnose is based on the concept of regular color and magnetic properties vertical differentiation in a profile of virgin soils. This work is devoted to the comparative assessment of the possibility to objectively and reliably diagnose the lower boundary of the arable horizon in gray forest soils by determining the color characteristics and the magnetic susceptibility of their layer-wise samples. It was shown with arable gray forest soil (Cutanic Luvisols (Anthric)) as example that the magnetic susceptibility profile distribution curves can provide more reliable and objective assessment of the arable horizon thickness spatial variability than the profile curves of the color characteristics in the CIELAB coordinates. Therefore, magnetic measurements can be a useful tool for the tillage erosion estimation in the monitoring of soil characteristics in connection with the development of precision agriculture technologies and the organizing of agricultural field plot experiments.

  5. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification.

  6. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  7. Influence of cover crops and crop residue treatment on soil organic carbon stocks evaluated in Swedish long-term field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in agricultural soils are strongly controlled by management. In this study we quantified the effect of cover crops and crop residue management on SOC stocks in Swedish long-term experiments. Eight pairs of cover crop (undersown ryegrass) vs. no cover crop were investigated in Swedish long-term field experiments (16 to 24 years). Yields of the main crop were not affected by the cover crop. Cover crops significantly increased SOC stocks, with a mean carbon sequestration rate in all experiments (excluding one) of 0.32±0.29 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Interestingly, this sequestration is similar to that estimated for a U.S.experiment, where ryegrass growth is much less temperature- and light-limited than under Swedish conditions. This sequestration rate is also the same as that recently reported for many other cover crops in a global meta-analysis but less than SOC changes in ley-dominated rotations which under Nordic conditions were shown to accumulate in average 0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 more carbon compared to exclusively annual cropping systems. Thus, originally introduced in agricultural rotations to reduce nitrate leaching, cover crops are also an effective practice to increase SOC stocks, even at relatively high latitudes. The effect of crop residue treatment was studied in 16 pairs of straw incorporated (SI) vs. straw removed (SR) treatments in six Swedish long-term field experiments. Data series on SOC with 5-28 sampling dates during 27-53 years were analysed using ICBM, a dynamic SOC model. At five out of six sites, the humification coefficient for straw (hlitter; the fraction of straw C that is entering the slow C pool) was much smaller (0-0.09) than the ICBM default h-value for plant material estimated in previous studies (0.125). The derived hlitter-values and thus the stabilization of straw-derived carbon increased significantly with clay content. For an Italian site (with five pairs of SI vs. SR) that was used for model validation we found

  8. OK-Net Arable online knowledge platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær; Jensen, Allan Leck; Jørgensen, Margit Styrbæk

    2017-01-01

    of specific tools – providing information about how to put existing knowledge from research and practice into use – have been chosen. They are presented on the platform with the possibility to find solutions, evaluate them, comment and discuss them or ask questions about them and to suggest new tools......The complexity of organic farming requires farmers to have a very high level of knowledge and skills, but exchange on organic farming management techniques remains limited. The thematic network OK-Net Arable under Horizon 2020 has the aim to improve the exchange of innovative and traditional...... knowledge among farmers, farm advisers and scientists to increase productivity and quality in organic arable cropping in Europe. An online platform for knowledge exchange has been created, offering innovative education and end-user material as well as communication opportunities between actors. A number...

  9. Effects of subsoil compaction on hydraulic properties and preferential flow in a Swedish clay soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossadeghi-Björklund, M; Arvidsson, J.; Keller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Soil compaction by vehicular traffic modifies the pore structure and soil hydraulic properties. These changes potentially influence the occurrence of preferential flow, which so far has been little studied. Our aim was to study the effect of compaction on soil hydraulic and transport properties......-by-track with a three-axle dumper with a maximum wheel load of 5.8 Mg. After one year, undisturbed soil columns (20 cm height 20 cm diameter) from both trafficked and control plots at a depth of 30–50 cm were sampled. The columns were analyzed using X-ray CT imaging, together with measures of the degree of preferential...

  10. How much Nitrous Oxide is produced in cultivation of biofuels on arable land in Sweden?; Hur mycket lustgas blir det vid odling av biobraenslen paa aakermark i Sverige?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Aasa (Univ. of Goeteborg, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Goeteborg (Sweden). Physical Geography)

    2010-03-15

    Several methods that can be used to estimate the emission of nitrous oxide from arable land are discussed, all of them with their pros and cons. 1 The base for all estimation methods is field measurements, well executed with a technique designed for the production of high quality data. Published field data of good quality were collected from areas in north Europe and America, both from grain and rape crops and unfertilised grasslands where natural background emission is assumed. The compilation shows that grasslands emit in average 0.3 +- 0.1 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. In crop systems where a high amount of nitrogen is repeatedly added to the soil, the soil N store will contribute to N{sub 2}O emission coming years. This is one reason why emission is higher for unfertilised arable land (where nitrogen have been added previous years) compared to unfertilised grassland, 1 +- 0.1 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. Fertilised arable lands have higher emission, in average around 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. In comparison, field measurements in Sweden have shown lower emission, 0.6 and 2 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year from clay and sandy soil respectively. 2 The IPCC method is the best known, where the emission from arable land is estimated as a function of added nitrogen. In reality there is no correlation between a low N-addition and the emission of nitrous oxide since the N-addition needs to be high to have influence on the nitrous oxide emission..25 or the new factor 1% of added N has been used in many LCA's as an estimator for nitrous oxide and the uncertainty span of 0,3 and 3% is seldom used. The method underestimates the size of nitrous oxide emission in many systems and cannot estimate a true emission from individual fields. 3 Globally there is a connection between the increase in reactive nitrogen and the increase of atmospheric nitrous oxide, which is the base for a method suggested by Crutzen et al. Nitrous oxide emission has been estimated to be 3-5% of both biological nitrogen

  11. Heavy Metals Technogenic Pollution of Plough Lands Arable Layer in the Chelyabinsk Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantorova, G. F.

    2017-11-01

    Environmental protection and rational use of natural resources in agriculture are the main directions of this scientific research. Contamination is caused by the substances of chemical, radiation and biological origin above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC). The main source of soil contamination in the arable land, hayfields and pastures is the waste of livestock complexes, agricultural chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides), motor vehicle exhausts, industrial emissions, sewage from settlements, etc. The ecological state of the soil and vegetation cover is largely determined by agricultural activities. The agricultural production technology complicating is accompanied by increase in the degree of environmental risk, especially in the chemicalization of agriculture. Pollution also enters the soil with atmospheric precipitation, surface waste. They are also introduced into the soil layer by soil and groundwater. The most dangerous for human health is considered to be contamination with heavy metals (HM)-lead, mercury and cadmium. However, the concentration of the rest elements is no less harmful. The paradox of heavy metals is that in certain quantities they are necessary to ensure the normal life of plants and organisms but their excess can lead to serious diseases and even death. A nutritional cycle causes harmful compounds to enter the human body and often cause great harm to health. The present work reveals the results of the research of a long-term experience on accumulation and distribution of heavy metals on the arable layer profile depending on the concentration in humus soil and the system of ground processing.

  12. Do organic inputs matter – a meta-analysis of additional yield effects for arable crops in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hijbeek, R.; Ittersum, van, M.K.; Berge, Ten, H.F.M.; Gort, G.; Spiegel, H.; Whitmore, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Organic inputs have a positive effect on the soil organic matter balance. They are therefore an important asset for soil fertility and crop growth. This study quantifies the additional yield effect due to organic inputs for arable crops in Europe when macro-nutrients are not a limiting factor. Methods: A meta-analysis was performed using data from 20 long-term experiments in Europe. Maxima of yield response curves to nitrogen were compared, with and without organic inputs...

  13. Dynamics of 14C-labeled glucose and ammonium in saline arable soils Dinâmica de glicose marcada com 14C e amônio em solos salinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Vuelvas-Solórzano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter dynamics and nutrient availability in saline agricultural soils of the State of Guanajuato might provide information for remediation strategies. 14C labeled glucose with or without 200 mg kg-1 of NH4+-N soil was added to two clayey agricultural soils with different electrolytic conductivity (EC, i.e. 0.94 dS m-1 (low EC; LEC and 6.72 dS m-1 (high EC; HEC, to investigate the effect of N availability and salt content on organic material decomposition. Inorganic N dynamics and production of CO2 and 14CO2 were monitored. Approximately 60 % of the glucose-14C added to LEC soil evolved as 14CO2, but only 20 % in HEC soil after the incubation period of 21 days. After one day, 500 mg 14C from HEC soil. No N mineralization occurred in the LEC and HEC soils and glucose addition reduced the concentrations of inorganic N in unamended soil and soil amended with NH4+-N. The NO2- and NO3- concentrations were on average higher in LEC than in HEC soil, with exception of NO2- in HEC amended with NH4+-N. It was concluded that increases in soil EC reduced mineralization of the easily decomposable C substrate and resulted in N-depleted soil.Os conhecimentos sobre a dinâmica da matéria orgânica e disponibilidade de nutrientes em solos salinos podem ser úteis para nortear a adoção de estratégias de recuperação e manejo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da condutividade elétrica (EC e presença de N inorgânico na decomposição da matéria orgânica a dois solos salinos localizados em Guanajuato (México. Nesse sentido, glicose marcada com 14C com ou sem amônio na dose de 200 mg kg-1 de N foi adicionada em dois tipos de solo com valores de condutividade elétrica de 0,94 dS m-1 (baixo EC; LEC e 6,72 dS m-1 (alta EC; HEC. Amostras de solos foram incubadas durante 21 dias e, ao longo desse tempo, foram avaliadas as concentrações de N inorgânico e a produção de 12CO2 e 14CO2. Após o período de incubação, aproximadamente 60

  14. New uses of clover-grass mixtures in the structure of fodder crops on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Sláma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of clover-grasses in the structure of fodder crops grown on arable soil, especially those with intergeneric hybrids as the main component part, could avert the negative current trend, i.e. further decreasing the area of perennial fodder plants or fodder crops as a whole on arable soil. They have an irreplaceable role in crop sequences and in preserving the cultural character of the countryside, above all due to the fact that they improve soil fertility and microbial life in the soil and that they have an excellent pre-produce value, and, at the same time, they are applied in various farming systems (both conventional and ecological and in various climatic conditions, and agricultural businesses are well equipped for growing, harvesting and storing them. In the Czech Republic, the area of fodder crops grown on arable soil was decreased from 1,019.9 thousand hectares to mere 396.7 thousand hectares between 1980 and 2009, which is 15.6 % of the total area of arable soil whereas perennial fodder plants only take up 8.5 %. Fodder from clover crops and clover-grass growths on arable soil are one of the main resources of voluminous fodder for dairy cows. Most of this fodder is preserved through a fermentation process (silages, hay storage; a smaller part is fed as fresh fodder, or serves for production of hay. Silages made with perennial fodder plants are the most important source of both proteins and other nutrients for ruminants, especially for high-yielding milch cows. The basis of fodder production systems are the conservative elements of the landscape area (geomorphology in combination with the progressive elements (weather conditions, plants and human labour and relict ones, the representative of which is the soil. The fodder production systems in Europe are divided into five main fodder production zones. From this point of view, the areas where short-term clover-grass mixtures are grown on arable soil could be classed with Zone 4, i

  15. Observation of high seasonal variation in community structure of denitrifying bacteria in arable soil receiving artificial fertilizer and cattle manure by determining T-RFLP of nir gene fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemé, Anders; Wolsing, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variation of communities of soil denitrifying bacteria at sites receiving mineral fertilizer (60 and 120 kg N ha-1 year-1) and cattle manure (75 and 150 kg N ha-1 year-1) were explored using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of PCR amplified...... nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) gene fragments. The analyses were done three times during the year: in March, July and October. nirK gene fragments could be amplified in all three months, whereas nirS gene fragments could be amplified only in March. Analysis of similarities in T-RFLP patterns revealed...... a significant seasonal shift in the community structure of nirK-containing bacteria. Also, sites treated with mineral fertilizer or cattle manure showed different communities of nirK-containing denitrifying bacteria, since the T-RFLP patterns of soils treated with these fertilizers were significantly different...

  16. County-scale temporal-spatial distribution and variability tendency of heavy metals in arable soils influenced by policy adjustment during the last decade: a case study of Changxing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhi, Yuyou; Shi, Jiachun; Zeng, Lingzao; Wu, Laosheng

    2015-11-01

    The widespread "pertinacious illness" for environmental management soil contamination by toxic metals has inevitably led to announcement of gradual adjustment for the local government to curb the notorious pollution. An extensive survey was conducted in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, to investigate the contents of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) and characterize the spatial-temporal change pattern to elucidate the current state and performance of policy adjustment. Geostatistic methods were applied in the mapping and characterizing processes to assess the concentrations of heavy metals at unsampled sites. Enrichment factor analysis indicated obvious Cd and As enrichment in the west and northwest of the county. Ordinary kriging interpolation combined with semivariogram revealed that the four heavy metals possessed distinct spatial distribution patterns. However, the distribution patterns for the elevated Cd and Pb concentrations exhibited a similar geographic drift, corresponding primarily to industrial distribution. Compared with the investigation findings in 2003, the results indicated an uptrend of Cd and As and downtrend of Cu, while Pb was a mixture of increase and decrease. However, strengthened actions aimed at restraining heavy metal contamination are still needed to establish a mechanism to secure residents' health and livelihood.

  17. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  18. ESTIMATION OF EROSION ACTIVITY IN THE RAVINE COMPLEX OF ARABLE SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trofimetz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the results of the evaluation of erosion on arable slopes (in the thalweg part of the ancient microravines, no more than 400 m in length. The radiocesium method has been applied, augmented by the methods of the topographic survey, remote sensing and GIS analysis. It has been shown that layer-by-layer soil sampling in the thalwegs of the modern streams (which are clearly visible on arable slopes allows obtaining the dependence of soil runoff (in centimeters of layer from the activity of Cesium-137 presented in the arable horizon. Conversion of Cesium-137 activities onto a common time scale (by taking into account the radioactive decay made it possible to increase the analyzed data series (in comparison to the previously published data and to obtain the linear dependence with the correlation coefficient of 0.98 (significant at confidence level p=0.05. The 1 cm soil layer was washed out during 26 years on the watershed surface, according to the obtained dependence. About 6 cm layer over the same period was washed out in the thalwegs of the ravines in the lower part of the slope (in its concave part that is accumulation zone. We have found that very high resolution satellite imagery, or aerial photographs, of field surveys are needed for the correct implementation of the GIS analysis when modeling erosion activity of the streambeds. These supporting data have to be collected during the period of snowmelt or rainfall to understand the behavior of streams in the accumulation zones identified by negative values of profile curvature of the relief.

  19. Exploring the Patterns and Mechanisms of Reclaimed Arable Land Utilization under the Requisition-Compensation Balance Policy in Wenzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arable land in China is undergoing significant changes, with massive losses of arable land due to rapid urbanization and the reclamation of arable land from other lands to compensate for these losses. Many studies have analyzed arable land loss, but less attention has been paid to land reclamation, and the utilization of reclaimed land remains unclear. The goal of our study was to characterize the patterns and efficiency of the utilization of reclaimed land and to identify the factors influencing the land utilization process in Wenzhou using remote sensing, geographic information systems and logistic regression. Our results showed that only 37% of the total reclaimed land area was under cultivation, and other lands were still bare or had been covered by trees and grasses. The likelihood that reclaimed land was used for cultivation was highly correlated with the land use type of its neighboring or adjacent parcels. Reclaimed land utilization was also limited at high elevations in lands with poor soil fertility and in lands at a great distance from rural residential areas. In addition, parcels located in the ecological protection zone were less likely to be cultivated. Therefore, we suggest that the important determinants should be considered when identifying the most suitable land reclamation areas.

  20. Continuous measurements of N2O emissions from arable fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallman, Magdalena; Lammirato, Carlo; Rütting, Tobias; Delin, Sofia; Weslien, Per; Klemedtsson, Leif

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture represents 59 % of the anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, according to the IPCC (Ciais et al. 2013). N2O emissions are typically irregular and vary widely in time and space, which makes it difficult to get a good representation of the emissions (Henault et al. 2012), particularly if measurements have low frequency and/or cover only a short time period. Manual measurements are, for practical reasons, often short-term and low-frequent, or restricted to periods where emissions are expected to be high, e.g. after fertilizing. However, the nature of N2O emissions, being largely unpredictable, calls for continuous or near-continuous measurements over long time periods. So far, rather few long-term, high resolution measurements of N2O emissions from arable fields are reported; among them are Flessa et al. (2002) and Senapati et al. (2016). In this study, we have a two-year data set (2015-2017) with hourly measurements from ten automatic chambers, covering unfertilized controls as well as different nitrogen fertilizer treatments. Grain was produced on the field, and effects of tillage, harvest and other cropping measures were covered. What we can see from the experiment is that (a) the unfertilized control plots seem to follow the same emission pattern as the fertilized plots, at a level similar to the standard mineral fertilized plots (120 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and (b) freeze/thaw emissions are comparable in size to emissions after fertilizing. These two findings imply that the importance of fertilizing to the overall N2O emissions from arable soils may be smaller than previously expected. References: Ciais, P., C. Sabine, G. Bala, L. Bopp, V. Brovkin, J. Canadell et al. 2013: Carbon and Other Biogeochemical Cycles. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung et

  1. Effects of three management strategies on the seedbank, emergence and the need for hand weeding in an organic arable cropping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, M.M.; Groeneveld, R.M.W.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Kropff, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of three different weed management strategies on the required input of hand weeding in an arable organic farming system, the weed seedbank in the soil and the emerging weed seedling emergence were studied from 1996 to 2003. Strategies were based on population dynamic models and aimed for

  2. Managing Bioenergy Production on Arable Field Margins for Multiple Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Andrea; Serra, Paolo; Amaducci, Stefano; Trevisan, Marco; Puglisi, Edoardo

    2013-04-01

    Growing crops for bioenergy is increasingly viewed as conflicting with food production. However, energy use continues to rise and food production requires fuel inputs, which have increased with intensification. The debate should shift from "food or fuel" to the more challenging target: how the increasing demand for food and energy can be met in the future, particularly when water and land availability will be limited. As for food crops, also for bioenergy crops it is questioned whether it is preferable to manage cultivation to enhance ecosystem services ("land sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand ("land sparing" strategy). Energy crop production systems differ greatly in the supply of ecosystem services. The use of perennial biomass (e.g. Switchgrass, Mischantus, Giant reed) for energy production is considered a promising way to reduce net carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. In addition, regulating and supporting ecosystem services could be provided when specific management of bioenergy crops is implemented. The idea of HEDGE-BIOMASS* project is to convert the arable field margins to bioenergy crop production fostering a win-win strategy at landscape level. Main objective of the project is to improve land management to generate environmental benefits and increase farmer income. The various options available in literature for an improved field boundary management are presented. The positive/unknown/negative effects of growing perennial bioenergy crops on field margins will be discussed relatively to the following soil-related ecosystem services: (I) biodiversity conservation and enhancement, (II) soil nutrient cycling, (III) climate regulation (reduction of GHG emissions and soil carbon sequestration/stabilization, (IV) water regulation (filtering and buffering), (V) erosion regulation, (VI) pollination and pest regulation. From the analysis of available

  3. Planting of different-sized tree transplants on arable soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálek, J.; Weber, M.; Matula, S.; Frantík, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2009), s. 574-584 ISSN 1895-104X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : windbreak * growth rate * seedling size Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2009

  4. Influence of conservation tillage and zero tillage on arable weeds in organic faba bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung, Rüdiger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2010 on a Gleyic Cambisol near Goettingen, Lower Saxony, Germany. A crop sequence of summer barley, winter cover crops (intercropped oat and sunflower and summer faba bean was examined under organic farming conditions. Emphasis was given to the studying of arable weeds in faba beans. However, enhancing symbiotic nitrogen fixation of summer faba beans by accumulation of soil-nitrogen by winter cover crops was a second objective in these experiments. The faba bean field plots had been cultivated with three different tillage systems: 1. zero tillage, sowing with cross-slottechnique, 2. conservation tillage (wing share cultivator, rotary harrow sowing with cross-slot-technique and 3. conventional tillage with mouldboard plough followed by rotary harrow, sowing with precision monoseeder. In plots with zero tillage preceding cover crops were left as mulch on the soil surface. Cover crops accumulated adequate nitrogen amounts and following faba beans reacted with significant increase (up to 10% in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Maximum of arable weed biomass was observed in zero tillage-plots at the end of May or early in June. The abundance of the predominant weed wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis increased with tillage intensity, whereas the abundance of creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense increased in 2010 with decreasing tillage intensity. Average grain yield of faba beans was low with only 3.0 and 2.4 t ha-1 in 2009 and 2010, respectively.

  5. Direct and Indirect Short-term Effects of Biochar on Physical Characteristics of an Arable Sandy Loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Moldrup, Per; Elsgaard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soil is reported in several studies to reduce climate gas emissions, boost carbon storage, and improve soil fertility and crop productivity. These effects may be partly related to soil physical changes resulting from biochar amendment, but knowledge of how biochar...... application mechanistically affects soil physical characteristics is limited. This study investigated the effect of biochar application on soil structural and functional properties, including specific surface area, water retention, and gas transport parameters. Intact soil cores were taken from a field...... experiment on an arable sandy loam that included four reference plots without biochar and four plots with 20 tons ha(-1) biochar incorporated into the upper 20 cm 7 months before sampling. Water retention was measured at matric potentials ranging from wet (pF 1.0) to extremely dry conditions (pF similar to 6...

  6. Assessing and analysing the impact of land take pressures on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aksoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Land, and in particular soil, is a finite and essentially non-renewable resource. Across the European Union, land take, i.e. the increase of settlement area over time, annually consumes more than 1000 km2 of which half is actually sealed and hence lost under impermeable surfaces. Land take, and in particular soil sealing, has already been identified as one of the major soil threats in the 2006 European Commission Communication Towards a Thematic Strategy on Soil Protection and the Soil Thematic Strategy and has been confirmed as such in the report on the implementation of this strategy. The aim of this study is to relate the potential of land for a particular use in a given region with the actual land use. This allows evaluating whether land (especially the soil dimension is used according to its (theoretical potential. To this aim, the impact of several land cover flows related to urban development on soils with good, average, and poor production potentials were assessed and mapped. Thus, the amount and quality (potential for agricultural production of arable land lost between the years 2000 and 2006 was identified. In addition, areas with high productivity potential around urban areas, indicating areas of potential future land use conflicts for Europe, were identified.

  7. Assessing and analysing the impact of land take pressures on arable land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Ece; Gregor, Mirko; Schröder, Christoph; Löhnertz, Manuel; Louwagie, Geertrui

    2017-06-01

    Land, and in particular soil, is a finite and essentially non-renewable resource. Across the European Union, land take, i.e. the increase of settlement area over time, annually consumes more than 1000 km2 of which half is actually sealed and hence lost under impermeable surfaces. Land take, and in particular soil sealing, has already been identified as one of the major soil threats in the 2006 European Commission Communication Towards a Thematic Strategy on Soil Protection and the Soil Thematic Strategy and has been confirmed as such in the report on the implementation of this strategy. The aim of this study is to relate the potential of land for a particular use in a given region with the actual land use. This allows evaluating whether land (especially the soil dimension) is used according to its (theoretical) potential. To this aim, the impact of several land cover flows related to urban development on soils with good, average, and poor production potentials were assessed and mapped. Thus, the amount and quality (potential for agricultural production) of arable land lost between the years 2000 and 2006 was identified. In addition, areas with high productivity potential around urban areas, indicating areas of potential future land use conflicts for Europe, were identified.

  8. Simulating the impacts of land use in northwest Europe on Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE): the role of arable ecosystems, grasslands and forest plantations in climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mohamed; Saunders, Matthew; Hastings, Astley; Williams, Mike; Smith, Pete; Osborne, Bruce; Lanigan, Gary; Jones, Mike B

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we compared measured and simulated Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) values from three wide spread ecosystems in the southeast of Ireland (forest, arable and grassland), and investigated the suitability of the DNDC (the DeNitrification-DeComposition) model to estimate present and future NEE. Although, the field-DNDC version overestimated NEE at temperatures >5 °C, forest-DNDC under-estimated NEE at temperatures >5 °C. The results suggest that the field/forest DNDC models can successfully estimate changes in seasonal and annual NEE from these ecosystems. Differences in NEE were found to be primarily land cover specific. The annual NEE was similar for the grassland and arable sites, but due to the contribution of exported carbon, the soil carbon increased at the grassland site and decreased at the arable site. The NEE of the forest site was an order of magnitude larger than that of the grassland or arable ecosystems, with large amounts of carbon stored in woody biomass and the soil. The average annual NEE, GPP and Reco values over the measurement period were -904, 2379 and 1475 g C m(-2) (forest plantations), -189, 906 and 715 g C m(-2) (arable systems) and -212, 1653 and 1444 g C m(-2) (grasslands), respectively. The average RMSE values were 3.8 g C m(-2) (forest plantations), 0.12 g C m(-2) (arable systems) and 0.21 g C m(-2) (grasslands). When these models were run with climate change scenarios to 2060, predictions show that all three ecosystems will continue to operate as carbon sinks. Further, climate change may decrease the carbon sink strength in the forest plantations by up to 50%. This study supports the use of the DNDC model as a valid tool to predict the consequences of climate change on NEE from different ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Swedish vineyards: a utopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårtensson A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Mårtensson,1 Thord Karlsson,2 Jan-Gunnar Gustafsson31Department of Soil and Environment, 2Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; 3Bio Evaluation AB, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: As there is an increasing interest for setting up vineyards and wineries in Sweden, a cost analysis is becoming necessary. In this study, we assessed the potential for wine production in Sweden. The estimated annual costs varied from €15.1/per L for production of 1800 L wine per ha to €41.9 for 525 L per ha. For an annual production of 1800 L per ha potentially achieved in an established vineyard, the capital requirement is €730,000. It would take 6 years for the investment to be paid off if the wine was sold for €37.5 per L. The high production costs mean that the only viable option for success is to orientate production towards the exclusive upper segment.Keywords: cold climate conditions, wine production costs, wine quality

  10. Carbon footprints of crops from organic and conventional arable crop rotations – using a life cycle assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    was incorporated in the soil in the ‘Mulching’ rotation and removed and used for biogas production in the ‘Biogas’ rotation (and residues from biogas production were simulated to be returned to the field). A method was suggested for allocating effects of fertility building crops in life cycle assessments......Many current organic arable agriculture systems are challenged by a dependency on imported livestock manure from conventional agriculture. At the same time organic agriculture aims at being climate friendly. A life cycle assessment is used in this paper to compare the carbon footprints of different...... organic arable crop rotations with different sources of N supply. Data from long-term field experiments at three different locations in Denmark were used to analyse three different organic cropping systems (‘Slurry’, ‘Biogas’ and ‘Mulching’), one conventional cropping system (‘Conventional’) and a “No...

  11. Purchase of Catastrophe Insurance by Dutch Dairy and Arable Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogurtsov, V.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzed the impact of risk perception, risk attitude, and other farmer personal and farm characteristics on the actual purchase of catastrophe insurance by Dutch dairy and arable farmers. The specific catastrophe insurance types considered were hail–fire–storm insurance for buildings,

  12. Determinants of seasonal arable crop production among selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, was conducted with a view to identify factors influencing the choice of crop production and seasonal cropping activities of the farm households. A multistage random sampling procedure was used to select 200 arable crop farmers across the four operational zones, comprising Abeokuta, Ilaro, Ikenne and Ijebu, ...

  13. Dedicated biomass crops can enhance biodiversity in the arable landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Alison J; Bohan, David A; Clark, Suzanne J; Mallott, Mark D; Mallott, Victoria; Sage, Rufus; Karp, Angela

    2016-11-01

    Suggestions that novel, non-food, dedicated biomass crops used to produce bioenergy may provide opportunities to diversify and reinstate biodiversity in intensively managed farmland have not yet been fully tested at the landscape scale. Using two of the largest, currently available landscape-scale biodiversity data sets from arable and biomass bioenergy crops, we take a taxonomic and functional trait approach to quantify and contrast the consequences for biodiversity indicators of adopting dedicated biomass crops on land previously cultivated under annual, rotational arable cropping. The abundance and community compositions of biodiversity indicators in fields of break and cereal crops changed when planted with the dedicated biomass crops, miscanthus and short rotation coppiced (SRC) willow. Weed biomass was consistently greater in the two dedicated biomass crops than in cereals, and invertebrate abundance was similarly consistently higher than in break crops. Using canonical variates analysis, we identified distinct plant and invertebrate taxa and trait-based communities in miscanthus and SRC willows, whereas break and cereal crops tended to form a single, composite community. Seedbanks were shown to reflect the longer term effects of crop management. Our study suggests that miscanthus and SRC willows, and the management associated with perennial cropping, would support significant amounts of biodiversity when compared with annual arable crops. We recommend the strategic planting of these perennial, dedicated biomass crops in arable farmland to increase landscape heterogeneity and enhance ecosystem function, and simultaneously work towards striking a balance between energy and food security.

  14. Farm size - productivity relationships among arable crops farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to analyze the relationship between farm size and resource productivity among arable crop farmers in Imo state, and isolate the major determinants of agricultural productivity. Data used for the study were collected from a sample of 120 farmers randomly selected from Okigwe and Orlu agricultural ...

  15. Utilization of Agro-meteorological Services among Arable Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed arable crop farmers' utilization of agro-meteorological services in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was employed for this study. Oyo State was stratified into rainforest and savannah. One local government each was randomly selected from each of the vegetation zones, which were ...

  16. Determinant factors influencing efficiency of Fadama Arable crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... their levels of completion; ascertained the impact of the sub projects on farm income, output, productivity and farm size and determined factors influencing Fadama farmer's efficiency. ... Keywords: Agriculture, arable crop, efficiency, Fadama, farmer, rural labor ...

  17. Swedish Government Minister at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  18. Predicting soil particle density from clay and soil organic matter contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; McBride, R.A.; Keller, T.

    2017-01-01

    Soil particle density (Dp) is an important soil property for calculating soil porosity expressions. However, many studies assume a constant value, typically 2.65Mgm−3 for arable, mineral soils. Fewmodels exist for the prediction of Dp from soil organic matter (SOM) content. We hypothesized that b...

  19. Impacts of future biological-technological progress on arable farming

    OpenAIRE

    GOTSCH, NIKOLAUS; BERNEGGER, URS; RIEDER, PETER

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with biological-technological developments in crop production and their impacts on arable farming within the next 20 years. Possible future technological developments are evaluated with the help of a Delphi survey. The impacts of promising new technologies are estimated by means of a Linear Programming model under three different scenarios. An important outcome of the model calculations is that crop production is strongly influenced by the economic and political environment...

  20. Uses of glyphosate in German arable farming – operational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiese, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the most frequently used herbicide active ingredient in Germany. Studies regarding its usage in non-GMO arable farming are still rare even though it plays an important role in several agronomic situations. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive survey, which was carried out among conventional German farms in Winter 2014/2015. Based on the results of this survey we analyzed via cluster analysis how types of farms differ in terms of glyphosate usage. An illustration of seven clusters allows deep insights into arable farm structures. The farm types can be distinguished regarding their tillage system and similar to this differentiation also concerning their intensity of glyphosate application. Furthermore, it becomes obvious that farm clusters with a higher level of glyphosate usage are characterized by a lower number of labourers per hectare, more arable land and/or enhanced cover cropping. Moreover, groups of farmers who rely more on glyphosate are more likely to state that they need glyphosate for herbicide resistance management. Farmers’ assessments of the economic importance of glyphosate usage vary depending on the type of farm. By means of the farm clusters, the most important situations of glyphosate usage can be further analyzed economically and scenarios for impact assessments can be made.

  1. Patterns of bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danguolė Andriušaitytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research data on bryophyte diversity in arable land throughout the territory of Lithuania. The bryoflora was analyzed regarding systematic structure and morphological forms, life-history strategies, mode of reproduction and frequency of species. Bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania was compared with that of Slovakia and the British Isles, which are positioned in different geographical regions of Europe. A total of 97 species of bryophytes of 25 families and 48 genera were ascertained. Dominance of acrocarpous mosses and thalloid liverworts, high representation of Pottiaceae, Bryaceae, Mielichhoferiaceae and Ricciaceae families as well as Bryum, Dicranella, Pohlia and Riccia genera, wide distribution of annual shuttles and ephemeral colonists, high reproduction effort of the species (frequent sporophytes and asexual propagules were specific features of the bryophytes of the studied habitats as a result of adaptations to regular disturbances. The distribution of species into six frequency groups seemed to be uneven. The most abundant group of species with the lowest frequency (1–3 records covered 53.6% of all species. The group contained about 90% of all many-year potential life span species recorded in the habitat. Species with short life span were distributed quite evenly throughout frequency groups. No regionally-specific species were ascertained in the studied habitat. Most of arable-land-specific species recorded in Lithuania is distributed throughout different regions of Europe.

  2. Anthropogenic soil formation and agricultural history of the open fields of Valthe (Drenthe, the Netherlands) in mediaeval and early modern times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeerdijk, van D.G.; Spek, T.; Kooistra, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    An interdisciplinary study on anthropogenic arable soils in the Dutch Province of Drenthe resulted in valuable information on reclamation history, soil formation and arable farming in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times. This paper describes a genetic typology of Drenthe plaggen soils, based on

  3. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Non-Chemical Weed Management in Reduced Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolan, N.; Schwarz, J.

    2012-01-01

    consumption appears to be slightly higher as compared to plough based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and stickywilly often constitute the principal weed problems when the soil is not inverted because crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign......Non-inversion tillage with tine or disc based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape (canola) and maize (corn) in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use may hinder further...

  4. The Swedish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...... development, highlighting both the reasons for the rapid industrialization in the late 19th century and the subsequent shift from raw materials to human capital and knowledge as the main competitive advantages. The second part turns to the development of welfare state, stressing the gradual increase...

  5. The Swedish financial system

    OpenAIRE

    Stenfors, Alexis; Clark, Eric; Farahani, Ilia; Hansen, Anders Lund; Passarella, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the Swedish financial system since the 1980s. The concept of financialisation, with its different elements and perspectives, is used as a lens through which the key historical developments are analysed. The aim of the study is two-fold. First, by highlighting some unique country-specific features, it addresses the profound changes that have taken place in the Swedish financial system during the last decades in relation to the ‘rise and fall’ of the so-...

  6. Effects of remedial measures on long term transfer of radiocaesium from soil to agricultural products as calculated from Swedish field experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loensjoe, H.; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive studies on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to agricultural products under long term field conditions have been performed in Sweden since 1961. Effects of various remedial measures to be taken after farm land contamination have been studied in long term microplot experiments, in ploughing experiments and in conventional field experiments in Chernobyl fallout areas. Furthermore, the transfer of radiocaesium in various farm ecosystems, as influenced by farm management practices and the line of production applied, has been calculated. Fertilization with potassium has been found to effectively reduce the transfer of radiocaesium from the soil to various crops. The best effects were found on peat and sandy soils in the Chernobyl fallout areas, where a reduction by a factor of 2-5 or more has been recorded. Also, on clay soils heavy K application was found to depress the Cs transfer appreciably. Placement of the nuclide below the normal ploughing depth reduced the Cs transfer by a factor of 2-3 as compared with the effect of a homogeneous distribution in the plough layer. With a combination of deep placement and K fertilization a reduction by a factor of 10 or more has been obtained. It seems possible to reduce the caesium transfer from soil to food by a factor of 5-10 by changing the line of production on a farm in various ways. (author). 12 refs, 5 tabs

  7. Can Arable Land Alone Ensure Food Security? The Concept of Arable Land Equivalent Unit and Its Implications in Zhoushan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong Tan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The requisition–compensation balance of farmlands (RCBF is a strict Chinese policy that aims to ensure food security. However, the process of supplementing arable land has substantially damaged the ecological environment through the blind development of grasslands, woodlands, and wetlands to supplement arable land. Can arable land alone ensure food security? To answer this question, this study introduced the concepts of arable land equivalent unit (ALEU and food equivalent unit (FEU based on the idea of food security. Zhoushan City in Zhejiang Province, China was selected as the research area. This study analyzed the ALEU supply and demand capabilities in the study area and presented the corresponding policy implications for the RCBF improvement. The results showed that the proportion of ALEU from arable land and waters for aquaculture is from 46:54 in 2009 to 31:69 in 2015, thereby suggesting that aquaculture waters can also be important in food security. Under three different living standards (i.e., adequate food and clothing, well-off, and affluence, ALEU from arable land can barely meet the needs of the permanent resident population in the study area. However, ALEU from aquaculture waters can provide important supplementation. Therefore, we suggest that food supply capability from land types other than the arable land be taken seriously. Furthermore, RCBF can be improved with ALEU as core of the balance.

  8. Distinct germination response of endangered and common arable weeds to reduced water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, A T; Eckstein, R L; Otte, A; Donath, T W

    2016-01-01

    Arable weeds are one of the most endangered species groups in Europe. Modern agriculture and intensive land-use management are the main causes of their dramatic decline. However, besides the changes in land use, climate change may further challenge the adaptability of arable weeds. Therefore, we investigated the response pattern of arable weeds to different water potential and temperature regimes during the phase of germination. We expected that endangered arable weeds would be more sensitive to differences in water availability and temperature than common arable weeds. To this end, we set up a climate chamber experiment where we exposed seeds of five familial pairs of common and endangered arable weed species to different temperatures (5/15, 10/20 °C) and water potentials (0.0 to -1.2 MPa). The results revealed a significant relationship between the reaction of arable weed species to water availability and their Red List status. The effects of reduced water availability on total germination, mean germination time and synchrony were significantly stronger in endangered than in common arable weeds. Therefore, global climate change may present a further threat to the survival of endangered arable weed species. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Factors Influencing the Conversion of Arable Land to Urban Use and Policy Implications in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daquan Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urban land expansion and the resulting arable land loss have put food security in China at risk. This paper investigates the characteristics and mechanism of arable land conversion in Beijing using a logistic model based on land-use data for 2001 and 2010. The results suggest that (1 arable land conversion tends to occur near built-up areas, city centers and major roads; (2 arable land that lies closer to irrigation canals and country roads is less likely to be converted to urban use; (3 arable land that is bigger in size and has a more regular shape has a lower probability of conversion to urban use; and (4 the Prime Farmland Protection policy and related land-use plan have played a positive role in preserving arable land, demonstrated by the probability for arable land conversion inside a prime farmland boundary is 63.9 percent less than for land outside the boundary. Based on these findings and on sustainable-development principles, we suggest that, rather than an exclusive focus on controlling the quantity of arable land, the location and characteristics of the arable land should be a primary consideration when designing urban policies and plans.

  10. Influence of multi-year Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis on the abundance of B. cereus group populations in Swedish riparian wetland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Schneider, Salome; Tajrin, Tania

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is a soil-born bacterium affiliated to the B. cereus group (Bcg, a group including the pathogens B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis) and used in biocontrol products against nematoceran larvae. However, knowledge is limited on how long...

  11. Evolution of Arability and Land Use, Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Deverel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We used available data to estimate changes in land use and wet, non-farmable, and marginally farmable (WNMF areas in the Delta from 1984 to 2012, and developed a conceptual model for processes that affect the changes observed. We analyzed aerial photography, groundwater levels, land–surface elevation data, well and boring logs, and surface water elevations. We used estimates for sea level rise and future subsidence to assess future vulnerability for the development of WNMF areas. The cumulative WNMF area increased linearly about 10-fold, from about 274 hectares (ha in 1984 to about 2,800 ha in 2012. Moreover, several islands have experienced land use changes associated with reduced ability to drain the land. These have occurred primarily in the western and central Delta where organic soils have thinned; there are thin underlying mud deposits, and drainage ditches have not been maintained. Subsidence is the key process that will contribute to future increased likelihood of WNMF areas by reducing the thickness of organic soils and increasing hydraulic gradients onto the islands. To a lesser extent, sea level rise will also contribute to increased seepage onto islands by increasing groundwater levels in the aquifer under the organic soil and tidal mud, and increasing the hydraulic gradient onto islands from adjacent channels. WNMF develop from increased seepage under levees, which is caused by changing flow paths as organic soil thickness has decreased. This process is exacerbated by thin tidal mud deposits. Based primarily on projected reduced organic soil thickness and land–surface elevations, we delineated an additional area of about 3,450 ha that will be vulnerable to reduced arability and increased wetness by 2050.

  12. The Balanced Scorecard as a Management Tool for Arable Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Paustian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Management requirements for crop farming are high and will rise in the future. Arable farms are challenged by volatile markets, growing administrative burdens, increasing operating costs and growing competition for land. Management skills have become much more important for farmers in recent years and this trend will continue in the future. There are numerous instruments like accounting software or crop field cards integrated in daily management practice, but there is a deficiency of a fully integrated management system to give an overview of all areas of the farming business. This gap can be closed by the management tool Balanced Scorecard (BSC that provides an overview of all production and management activities on a farm. Therefore, with the aim to transfer the BSC concept to crop farming, German farmers and agricultural advisors were surveyed to get insights into the success factors and key performance indicators in the four BSC perspectives they consider most relevant for the operational success of arable farms. By the use of a cluster analysis, three different farm types were identified according to their visions and strategies. For the three farm types the key performance indicators that the respondents considered most relevant for farm performance were figured out. Implementation of the BSC to crop farming can result in a big benefit for management practice. The BSC focuses vision and long-term strategy with the main goal to ensure consistency of the farm and increase farm performance.

  13. Biological nitrogen fixation in three long-term organic and conventional arable crop rotation experiments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Arjun; Li, Fucui; Askegaard, Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    Biological nitrogen (N) fixation (BNF) by legumes in organic cropping systems has been perceived as a strategy to substitute N import from conventional sources. However, the N contribution by legumes varies considerably depending on legumes species, as well as local soil and climatic conditions...... of legumes. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate BNF in long-term experiments with a range of organic and conventional arable crop rotations at three sites in Denmark varying in climate and soils (coarse sand, loamy sand and sandy loam) and to identify possible causes of differences in the amount of BNF....... The experiment included 4-year crop rotations with three treatment factors in a factorial design: (i) rotations, i.e. organic with a year of grass-clover (OGC), organic with a year of grain legumes (OGL), and conventional with a year of grain legumes (CGL), (ii) with (+CC) and without (−CC) cover crops, and (iii...

  14. Breeding skylarks (Alauda arvensis) on organic and conventional arable farms in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragten, S.; Trimbos, K.B.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of differences in cropping pattern between organic and conventional arable farms on the breeding activity of skylarks and to assess the effects of arable crop management on skylark nest survival. Skylark nest density was seven times higher on organic

  15. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  16. Influence of multi-year Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis on the abundance of B. cereus group populations in Swedish riparian wetland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Schneider, Salome; Tajrin, Tania

    -term Bti application affects the structure of indigenous Bcg communities as well as the overall abundance of Bti. Based on new primers, group-specific quantitative PCR assays for Bcg and Bti in environmental samples were developed. On six occasions during the vegetation season, soil samples were collected......’t correlate with the number of Bti applications, indicating that Bti use influenced abundances of Bti on the short term while on the long term the number of treatments had only a limited effect. The findings illustrate the value of such investigations for understanding the ecology of Bti applications, which...

  17. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  18. The swedish challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregouet, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  19. Soil management by shallow mouldboard ploughing in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, J.K.; Perdok, U.D.; Oomen, G.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the soil in the arable layer is controlled by tillage, soil biota activities and weathering, whereas the structure below this layer is mainly the result of the activities of soil biota. Organic farmers tend to minimise the depth of the main tillage operation to encourage soil biota

  20. Assessing soil carbon lability by near infrared spectroscopy and NaOCL oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quantifying labile organic matter (OM) in arable soils and for predicting soil refractory OM fractions was tested on 37 soils varying in texture and soil carbon (C) content. Three sets of arable soils (0-20 cm depth) were sampled from 1) long...... incubated for 34 weeks while refractory OM was obtained by NaOCl oxidation. The labile fraction of the soil C accounted for 2-12% of the total soil C content. No systematic relationship between labile C content and total soil C or clay was found, but NIR spectra could be correlated well with the labile C...

  1. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  2. Evaluation of mitigation strategies to reduce ammonia losses from slurry fertilisation on arable lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, M., E-mail: marco.carozzi@unimi.it [University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrara, R.M.; Rana, G. [Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry Environments, via C. Ulpiani, 5 – 70125 Bari (Italy); Acutis, M. [University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the best practices in reducing ammonia (NH{sub 3}) losses from fertilised arable lands, six field trials were carried out in three different locations in northern Italy. NH{sub 3} emissions from cattle slurry were estimated considering the spreading techniques and the field incorporation procedures. The measurements were performed using long term exposure samplers associated to the determination of the atmospheric turbulence and the use of the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model WindTrax. The results obtained indicate that the NH{sub 3} emission process was exhausted in the first 24–48 h after slurry spreading. The slurry incorporation technique was able to reduce the NH{sub 3} losses with respect to the surface spreading, where a contextual incorporation led to reductions up to 87%. However, the best abatement strategy for NH{sub 3} losses from slurry applications has proved to be the direct injection into the soil, with a reduction of about 95% with respect to the surface spreading. The results obtained highlight the strong dependence of the volatilisation phenomenon by soil and weather conditions. - Highlights: ► Ammonia emissions from land-application of slurry were quantified. ► We examined and compared six different agronomic treatments in three locations. ► The faster was the soil-incorporation of slurry, the lower was the ammonia loss. ► The direct injection of slurry was found to be the best abatement strategy. ► The environmental factors were able to strongly influence the ammonia emission.

  3. Reconciling Pesticide Reduction with Economic and Environmental Sustainability in Arable Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechenet, Martin; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Boissinot, François; Petit, Marie-Sophie; Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas M.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.). We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded) and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management. PMID:24887494

  4. Reconciling pesticide reduction with economic and environmental sustainability in arable farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lechenet

    Full Text Available Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.. We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management.

  5. Reconciling pesticide reduction with economic and environmental sustainability in arable farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechenet, Martin; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Boissinot, François; Petit, Marie-Sophie; Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas M

    2014-01-01

    Reducing pesticide use is one of the high-priority targets in the quest for a sustainable agriculture. Until now, most studies dealing with pesticide use reduction have compared a limited number of experimental prototypes. Here we assessed the sustainability of 48 arable cropping systems from two major agricultural regions of France, including conventional, integrated and organic systems, with a wide range of pesticide use intensities and management (crop rotation, soil tillage, cultivars, fertilization, etc.). We assessed cropping system sustainability using a set of economic, environmental and social indicators. We failed to detect any positive correlation between pesticide use intensity and both productivity (when organic farms were excluded) and profitability. In addition, there was no relationship between pesticide use and workload. We found that crop rotation diversity was higher in cropping systems with low pesticide use, which would support the important role of crop rotation diversity in integrated and organic strategies. In comparison to conventional systems, integrated strategies showed a decrease in the use of both pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers, they consumed less energy and were frequently more energy efficient. Integrated systems therefore appeared as the best compromise in sustainability trade-offs. Our results could be used to re-design current cropping systems, by promoting diversified crop rotations and the combination of a wide range of available techniques contributing to pest management.

  6. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  7. [Microbial biomass and growth kinetics of microorganisms in chernozem soils under different farm land use modes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskiĭ, S A; Bogomolova, I N; Blagodatskaia, E V

    2008-01-01

    The carbon content of microbial biomass and the kinetic characteristics of microbial respiration response to substrate introduction have been estimated for chernozem soils of different farm lands: arable lands used for 10, 46, and 76 years, mowed fallow land, non-mowed fallow land, and woodland. Microbial biomass and the content of microbial carbon in humus (Cmic/Corg) decreased in the following order: soils under forest cenoses-mowed fallow land-10-year arable land-46- and 75-year arable land. The amount of microbial carbon in the long-plowed horizon was 40% of its content in the upper horizon of non-mowed fallow land. Arable soils were characterized by a lower metabolic diversity of microbial community and by the highest portion of microorganisms able to grow directly on glucose introduced into soil. The effects of different scenarios of carbon sequestration in soil on the reserves and activity of microbial biomass are discussed.

  8. fertilizer−manure substitution among arable crop farmers in akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Due to population pressure and rapid urbanization, the former cropping system was no longer sustainable in term of enhancing soil fertility and increased yield of crops. Hence continuous cropping without appropriate soil management leads to deterioration in soil physical, chemical and biological properties (Chinedu et al., ...

  9. Root and soil carbon distribution at shoulderslope and footslope positions of temperate toposequences cropped to winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Roncossek, Svenja Doreen; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2014-01-01

    Crop root residues are an important source of soil organic carbon (SOC) in arable systems. However, the spatial distribution of root biomass in arable systems remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined the spatial distribution of macro-root and shoot biomass of winter wheat at shoulder...

  10. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    the best potential type of phyto remediation method varies. Various phyto remediation methods (remediation, control or increased natural attenuation) are shown together with a brief description of the species convenient for each method. The advantages in using phyto remediation are for example low remediation cost, less transportation, less use of land for landfill, less use of other new resources etc. Phyto remediation can also be a useful complement to more conventional remediation methods. For example very high contaminated masses can be excavated and site areas with lower concentrations are phyto remediated. In this study the maximum arable area of the potential contaminated sites in Sweden was assessed. In this context, arable area is defined as an area that can be used for growing biomass (e.g. for production of biofuels) or that can be phyto-remediated or contained and stabilized through a plantation. The total area of contaminated sites has been estimated to 3000 km2, about 0.7% of the size of Sweden. The total arable area of contaminated sites in Sweden was estimated to almost 800 km2. This is about 0.2% of the size of Sweden and constitutes 26% of the total contaminated area. It has to be noted that this is a first estimate based on several assumptions and should thus be seen just as a first attempt to estimate the maximum arable area of contaminated land in Sweden. Knowledge about phyto remediation methods and projects in Sweden is rare, and the results from the phyto remediation projects are not yet fully available. Consequently, there are no good examples showing the benefits, costs and timescales. The present legislation and praxis is based on total concentrations left in the soil and not based on soil functionality or risk based land management. In Sweden, areas of highest priority for remediation are sites with very high contaminant concentrations. Such sites are in urgent need of remediation and the contamination level is high, and thus there is risk

  11. Organizing data in arable farming : towards an ontology of processing potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Top, J.L.; Verdenius, F.

    2006-01-01

    Arable farmers and their suppliers, consultants and procurers are increasingly dealing with gathering and processing of large amounts of data. Data sources are related to mandatory and voluntary registration (certification, tracing and tracking, quality control). Besides data collected for

  12. Relation between N input and nitrate concentration of groundwater on arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van P.J.; Boumans, L.M.J.; Kloet, C.J.; Oenema, O.; Duijvenbooden, van W.

    1990-01-01

    A statistically significant relation was found between the NO3--N concentration of the shallow groundwater under intensively farmed arable fields in the northern Netherlands and the surplus of N (N supply minus N removal via crops), groundwater level

  13. Radioecological monitoring of small vertebrates from reserves and arable lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtovich, A.M.; Afonin, V.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The radioecological monitoring of small vertebrates (frogs and mice) from wild populations was performed. The animals were caught in the heavily radiocontaminated area of Polesskij Radioecological Reserve, Berezinskij Biosphere Reserve and arable lands. Animals from more radiocontaminated areas displayed the highest Cs 137 and Sr 90 accumulation, especially in the first years after the Chernobyl disaster. The radionuclide concentration (Cs 137, Sr 90 and Pu 239,240) in frogs in the vicinity of Cherikov (Mogilev region) is characteristic of water soluble forms of radionuclides. The short-time tendency to concentration of .(-.emitted radionuclides was revealed in frogs in the areas of Berezinskij Reserve and in Minsk district. Incorporated Cs 137 was the main internal dose-forming factor for animals. Contribution of Sr 90 to the absorbed dose was significant in frogs till 1990. The next generations did not have such a high level of Sr 90 accumulation. The Cs 137 accumulation in rodents was the highest in 1990 and then dropped. The Sr 90 accumulation in bank voles was stable with slow tendency to growth. In the territory of Polesskij Reserve in 1991 the hot particles were registered in mice lungs and Pu 239 was observed in liver. In 10...15 year after Chernobyl disaster the highest Cs 137 content was registered in frogs and mice from more contaminated with radiation sites in Polesskij Reserve. In recent years the osteotropic radionuclides form the main dose-forming factor. (authors)

  14. Ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae diversity in Finnish arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. HELENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabid data compiled from six independent studies, consisting of 97 799 individuals trapped by pitfalls from Finnish agricultural fields and identified to 111 species were analyzed. Shannon-Wiener H' diversity index was typically around 2.5 and expected species number rarefied to 600 trapped individuals was typically around 30 species. The five most abundant species accounted for 42% of the total catch, and the thirty most abundant species made up 98% of the total catch. Percentage similarities among the assemblages by PS-index were from 16% to 48%. In comparison to published data about carabid diversity in boreal forests, which form the dominating habitat matrix in which Finnish farmland is embedded as relatively small patches, arable fields harbor more species rich assemblages, with more even rank-abundance distributions but variable species composition. Importance of landscape (regional level, instead of spatial level of crop fields, in understanding carabid diversity in farmland is discussed. Inclusion of carabids into monitoring schemes of agro-biodiversity at landscape level is suggested.

  15. Cereal density and N-fertiliser effects on the flora and biodiversity value of arable headlands

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Markus; Bullock, James M.; Hulmes, Lucy; Hulmes, Sarah; Pywell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Modern intensive farming caused pronounced changes to the European arable flora. Many species adapted to less intensive traditional farming declined severely, as did the potential of unsown arable vegetation to support higher trophic levels. To reverse these trends, various agri-environment measures were introduced. One such measure is to manage cereal headlands as conservation headlands, involving strict restrictions on pesticide and fertiliser use. An additional modification to management w...

  16. Soil fertility assessment and mapping of spatial variability at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on soil fertility assessment and mapping of arable land helps to design appropriate soil fertility management practices. Experiment was conducted at Amaregenda-Abajarso sub-watershed to assess the fertility status and mapping the spatial variability of selected soil fertility parameters. Based on land use type, ...

  17. Emission of fumigants from soil and dispersion in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den F.

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands, soil fumigants are used on a large scale for nematode control in arable farming. After injecting the fumigant into the soil, a fraction of the dosage of 1,3-dichloropropene and methyl isothiocyanate (formed from metham-sodium) diffuses up to the soil surface and escapes

  18. Soil Characteristics, Microbial Compostion of Plot, Leaf Count and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted in the Experimental Garden, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology. The soil was subjected to analysis at the Soil Science Department, University of Benin to determine its characteristics and suitability for the growth of these arable crops. The soil microbial count was 6.25 X 105 and 1.34 ...

  19. Fertility Status of Fadama Soils in Gantsare Village, Wamakko Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Almost all parameters determined were found to be statistically significant (P <. 0.01). OC was found to be lower in ... Key words:Cement dust, fertility status, fadama soils, soil chemical properties, soil management. INTRODUCTION. Arable lands close to ... of the dust and water molecules to form various products. This could ...

  20. Back to acid soil fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti Zunin, Marcos; Eeuwijk, van Fred

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma

  1. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  2. Fate of airborne metal pollution in soils as related to agricultural management. 1. Zn and Pb distributions in soil profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, C.; Labanowski, J.; Cambier, P.; Jongmans, A.G.; Oort, van F.

    2007-01-01

    The fate of airborne metal pollutants in soils is still relatively unknown. We studied the incorporation of such airborne metal pollution in two soils under long-term permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable land (CA). Both soils were located at an almost equal distance from a former zinc

  3. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  4. Importance de la terre arable dans la recolonisation vegetale des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural resources' mining, especially quarrying contributes to the soil degradation and biodiversity loss. ... that the authorities responsible for the management of quarries and the local authorities must work for the improvement of management plans of quarries with a particular emphasis on the restoration of removed soils.

  5. Estimation of Arable Land Loss in Shandong Province, China based on BFAST Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    With the rapid development of national economy and rise of industrialization, China has been one of the countries which has the fastest urbanization process. From 2001 to 2005, China lost over 2000 km2 fertile arable land every year because of urban expansion. Arable land area declining continuously poses a threat to China's food security. Land survey is the direct way to statistic the arable land status, which lasts long time and needs mounts of financial support. Remote sensing is a perfect way to survey land use and its dynamics at large scale. This paper aims to evaluate the detailed status of agricultural land loss of Shandong Province, China by using BFAST (Breaks for Additive Seasonal and Trend) model. First, the 30m spatial resolution global land cover products GlobeLand30 in 2000 and 2010 are used to locate pixels transforming from agricultural land to artificial cover during this period. Within a MODIS pixel (250m) area, if over half of GlobeLand30 pixels have changed from arable land to artificial cover, then the responding MODIS pixel is classified as changed area, whose phenology reflected by NDVI time series curve will also change. Then, BFAST is used to detect the break point which represents the time of change occurred using MODIS NDVI time series data. From 2002 to 2010, Shandong Province lost its 1063.03 km2 arable land in total. Arable land loss has a declining trend in each year and most loss occurred in 2002 and 2003. Spatially, cities which has higher level of economic development in central and eastern regions lost more arable land. Finally, compare this result with statistical data from China's national Bureau of Statistics, there is a strong positive relationship.

  6. Variability in the Water Footprint of Arable Crop Production across European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gobin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop growth and yield are affected by water use during the season: the green water footprint (WF accounts for rain water, the blue WF for irrigation and the grey WF for diluting agri-chemicals. We calibrated crop yield for FAO’s water balance model “Aquacrop” at field level. We collected weather, soil and crop inputs for 45 locations for the period 1992–2012. Calibrated model runs were conducted for wheat, barley, grain maize, oilseed rape, potato and sugar beet. The WF of cereals could be up to 20 times larger than the WF of tuber and root crops; the largest share was attributed to the green WF. The green and blue WF compared favourably with global benchmark values (R2 = 0.64–0.80; d = 0.91–0.95. The variability in the WF of arable crops across different regions in Europe is mainly due to variability in crop yield ( c v ¯ = 45% and to a lesser extent to variability in crop water use ( c v ¯ = 21%. The WF variability between countries ( c v ¯ = 14% is lower than the variability between seasons ( c v ¯ = 22% and between crops ( c v ¯ = 46%. Though modelled yields increased up to 50% under sprinkler irrigation, the water footprint still increased between 1% and 25%. Confronted with drainage and runoff, the grey WF tended to overestimate the contribution of nitrogen to the surface and groundwater. The results showed that the water footprint provides a measurable indicator that may support European water governance.

  7. Simulation and validation of greenhouse gas emissions and SOC stock changes in arable land using the ECOSSE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. I.; Richards, M.; Osborne, B.; Williams, M.; Müller, C.

    2013-12-01

    Model simulations of C and N dynamics, based on country-specific agricultural and environmental conditions, can provide information for compiling national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories, as well as insights into potential mitigation options. A multi-pool dynamic model, ‘ECOSSE’ (v5 modified), was used to simulate coupled GHGs and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock changes. It was run for an equivalent time frame of 8 years with inputs from conventionally-tilled arable land cropped with spring barley receiving N fertilizer as calcium ammonium nitrate at 135-159 kg N ha-1 and crop residues (3 t ha-1 yr-1). The simulated daily N2O fluxes were consistent with the measured values, with R2 of 0.33 (p losses were 0.39-0.60% of the N applied, with a modelled estimate of 0.23-0.41%. In contrast, the measured annual N2O loss (integrated) was 0.35% and the corresponding simulated value of 0.45% increased to 0.59% when the sum of the daily fluxes was taken into account. This indicates intermittent gas samplings may miss the peak fluxes. On an 8-year average the modelled N2O emission factor (EF) was 0.53 ± 0.03%. The model successfully predicted the daily heterotrophic respiration (RH), with an R2 of 0.45 (p loss of 516 kg C ha-1 yr-1 was indicated, which is within the uncertainty range for temperate regions. Results suggest that the model is suitable for estimating the GHG balance of arable fields. However, further refinements and analyses to fully determine and narrow down the uncertainty ranges for GHG estimates are required.

  8. The spectrum and occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soils from apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marjańska-Cichoń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum and occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in orchard soil and arable soil were evaluated using an "insect bait method". Soil samples taken in autumn and spring from sward, herbicides fallow and arable soil were baited with Galleria mellonella larvae. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill., Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize Brown et Smith were isolated from three species of orchards soil and adjacent arable soil. Infection levels of G. mellonella larvae were depended from species of soil . M. anisoopliae caused most frequent infections of bait insects in light loamy sand and P. fumosoroseus in alluvial silt and coarse sand. B. bassiana was dominated in alluvial silt. It was established that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana infected more larvae in autumn than in spring. In case of P. fumosoroseus an opposite tendency was observed. Generaly in arable soil and sward number of infected larvae was higher than other stands. In case of light loamy sand more infections of G. mellonella larvae were found in samples from herbicides fallow. Irrespective of soil type B. bassiana was the dominated species isolated from herbicides fallow, M. anisopliae from sward and P. fumosoroseus - from arable soil.

  9. An econometric analysis of changes in arable land utilization using multinomial logit model in Pinggu district, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueqing; McNamara, Paul; Wu, Yanfang; Dong, Yue

    2013-10-15

    Arable land in China has been decreasing as a result of rapid population growth and economic development as well as urban expansion, especially in developed regions around cities where quality farmland quickly disappears. This paper analyzed changes in arable land utilization during 1993-2008 in the Pinggu district, Beijing, China, developed a multinomial logit (MNL) model to determine spatial driving factors influencing arable land-use change, and simulated arable land transition probabilities. Land-use maps, as well as social-economic and geographical data were used in the study. The results indicated that arable land decreased significantly between 1993 and 2008. Lost arable land shifted into orchard, forestland, settlement, and transportation land. Significant differences existed for arable land transitions among different landform areas. Slope, elevation, population density, urbanization rate, distance to settlements, and distance to roadways were strong drivers influencing arable land transition to other uses. The MNL model was proved effective for predicting transition probabilities in land use from arable land to other land-use types, thus can be used for scenario analysis to develop land-use policies and land-management measures in this metropolitan area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visual Soil Evaluation (VSE) provides land users and environmental authorities with the tools to assess soil quality for crop performance. This book describes the assessment of the various structural conditions of soil, especially after quality degradation such as compaction, erosion or organic...... matter loss. Covering a broad range of land types from abandoned peats to prime arable land, this useful handbook assesses yield potential across a range of scales. It also appraises the use of VSE in determining the potential of different land types for carbon storage, greenhouse gas emissions...

  11. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  12. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  13. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system

  14. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  15. Is the Swedish FRAX model appropriate for Swedish immigrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, H; Odén, A; Lorentzon, M; McCloskey, E; Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Karlsson, M K; Mellström, D

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population born in Sweden. Thus, the use of a FRAX® model in immigrants overestimates the risk of fracture, and the use of country of origin-specific models may be more appropriate. Age-specific fracture and mortality rates vary between countries so that FRAX tools are country-specific. In the case of immigrants, it is not known whether the model for the original or the new country is most appropriate. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hip fractures in foreign-born and Swedish-born individuals residing in Sweden. We studied the incidence of hip fracture in all men and women aged 50 years or more in Sweden between 1987 and 2002. The population comprised 2.8 million Swedish-born and 270,000 foreign-born individuals. Incident hip fractures occurred in 239,842 Swedish-born and 12,563 foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence rose with age for both groups and was higher for women than men amongst both Swedish-born and foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence for the Swedish-born cohort was approximately twice that of immigrants. For example, at the age of 70 years, the annual hip fracture incidence (per 100,000) was 450 (95 % CI 446-454) for a Swedish-born woman and 239 (95 % CI 223-257) for a foreign-born woman at the time of immigration. The hip fracture incidence rose slowly with time from immigration (0.6 % per annum, 95 % CI 0.5-0.8 %) but remained significantly lower than for Swedish-born individuals even after 40 years of residence. The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population native to Sweden. Although there was a small rise in age- and sex-specific incidence after immigration, the incidence remained markedly lower than that observed in Swedish-born individuals. Thus, the use of a FRAX model for Sweden will overestimate the risk of fracture for foreign-born individuals living

  16. How does different arable management affect potential N mineralisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Heide; Sandén, Taru; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The production of food and animal feed on agricultural soils and an increasing need to generate biomass for material and energy use on the limited resource soil require optimal nutrient storage and cycling. Especially nitrogen (N) should be managed as accurate as possible to ensure beneficial yields and product qualities and to avoid adverse environmental effects, e.g. N leaching into waters and gaseous losses into the atmosphere. One biological indicator to assess the site specific potential to release N is the "potential N mineralisation". This parameter can be measured by routine analysis with the anaerobic incubation method (KEENEY, 1982), modified according to KANDELER (1993) on dried soils. The results of the potential N mineralisation measurements can be classified (high: > 70 mg N kg-1 7 d-1, medium and low: 35-70 mg and ≤ 35 N kg-1 7d-1, respectively) according to the Austrian guidelines for appropriate fertilisation (BMLFUW, 2017). The results of this biological soil parameter provide information about soil fertility and the nutrient status to the farmers and can be used to adjust N fertilisation recommendations. Furthermore, AGES runs long-term field experiments since several decades. We have evaluated the effects of different agricultural management, such as organic and mineral fertilisation and tillage, on the potential N mineralisation at different sites in Austria. Our results indicate that the potential N mineralisation increases significantly after long-term organic fertilisation (farmyard manure (FYM)), after long-term incorporation of crop residues and the reduction of tillage.

  17. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  18. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G. Lindqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  19. Rapid determination of soil quality and earthworm impacts on soil microbial communities using fluorescence-based respirometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast-Miller, Miranda T.; Thurston, Josh; Taylor, Joe; Helgason, Thorunn; Ashauer, Roman; Hodson, Mark E.

    2017-04-01

    We applied a fluorescence-based respirometry method currently devised for aquatic ecotoxicology studies to rapidly measure soil microbial oxygen consumption as a function of soil quality. In this study, soil was collected from an arable wheat field and the field margin. These two soil habitats are known to differ in their soil quality due to differences in their use and management as well as plant, microbial and earthworm community. The earthworm Lumbricus terrestris was incubated in arable or margin soil for three weeks. After this initial phase, a transfer experiment was then conducted to test the hypothesis that earthworm 'migration' alters soil microbial community function and diversity. In this transfer experiment, earthworms incubated in margin soil were transferred to arable soil. The converse transfer (i.e. earthworms incubated in arable soil) was also conducted. Soils of each type with no earthworms were also incubated as controls. After a further four week incubation, the impact of earthworm migration on the soil microbial community was tested by measuring oxygen consumption. Replicated soil slurry subsamples were aliquoted into individual respirometer wells (600 μl volume) on a glass 24-well microplate (Loligo Systems, Denmark) fitted with non-invasive, reusable oxygen sensor spots. The sealed microplate was then attached to an oxygen fluorescence sensor (SDR SensorDish Reader, PreSens, Germany). Oxygen consumption was measured in real-time over a 2 hr period following standard operating procedures. Soil microbial activity was measured with and without an added carbon source (glucose or cellulose, 50 mg C L-1). Using this system, we were able to differentiate between soil type, earthworm treatment and C source. Earthworm-driven impacts on soil microbial oxygen consumption were also supported by changes in soil microbial community structure and diversity revealed using DNA-based sequencing techniques. This method provides a simple and rapid system for

  20. Correspondence of ectomycorrhizal diversity and colonisation of willows (Salix spp.) grown in short rotation coppice on arable sites and adjacent natural stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Toljander, Ylva K; Baum, Christel; Fransson, Petra M A; Taylor, Andy F S; Weih, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are mycorrhizal tree species sometimes cultivated as short rotation coppice (SRC) on arable sites for energy purposes; they are also among the earliest plants colonising primary successional sites in natural stands. The objective of this study was to analyse the degree of colonisation and diversity of ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities on willows grown as SRC in arable soils and their adjacent natural or naturalized stands. Arable sites usually lack ectomycorrhizal host plants before the establishment of SRC, and adjacent natural or naturalized willow stands were hypothesized to be a leading source of ectomycorrhizal inoculum for the SRC. Three test sites including SRC stands (Salix viminalis, Salix dasyclados, and Salix schwerinii) and adjacent natural or naturalized (Salix caprea, Salix fragilis, and Salix × mollissima) stands in central Sweden were investigated on EM colonisation and morphotypes, and the fungal partners of 36 of the total 49 EM fungi morphotypes were identified using molecular tools. The frequency of mycorrhizas in the natural/naturalized stands was higher (two sites) or lower (one site) than in the corresponding cultivated stands. Correspondence analysis revealed that some EM taxa (e.g. Agaricales) were mostly associated with cultivated willows, while others (e.g. Thelephorales) were mostly found in natural/naturalized stands. In conclusion, we found strong effects of sites and willow genotype on EM fungi formation, but poor correspondence between the EM fungi abundance and diversity in SRC and their adjacent natural/naturalized stands. The underlying mechanism might be selective promotion of some EM fungi species by more effective spore dispersal.

  1. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on animal husbandry and production, from a Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    About 20% of the Swedish land area was considerably contaminated by radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986. However, less than 10% of the arable land was contaminated. The heavy contamination was closely correlated with the amount of rain received during the first days of May 1986. Immediate restrictions on grazing limited the early uptake of contaminants in animal products. Changes in management of animals, especially sheep, goats, and reindeer in the contaminated areas have effectively reduced the transfer of radionuclides to human beings. One important factor was the possibility of obtaining uncontaminated feeds from unaffected parts of the country. The direct costs during the first 2 years after the accident were approximately +10 million for analyses and +90 million for compensation to farmers for condemned products (milk, mutton, and reindeer meat) and reimbursement for purchase of uncontaminated feeds from other parts of the country

  2. SoilEffects - start characterization of the experimental soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun

    aggregate size distribution was measured in the seedbed of the arable system plots. This confirmed that the predominant structure of the soil may be described as ‘single-grain’, with only 16 % aggregates of 2-6 mm and 16 % aggregates > 6 mm. There was little variation between Blocks in the aggregate size...... P-AL 2.87/2.31; K-AL 5.25/5.24; Mg-AL 4.34/3.53; Ca-AL 107.6/80.7; K-HNO3 122.4/175 mg of nutrient 100 g-1 dry soil in the grass/arable system. The pH value (H2O) was 5.82/5.87. The accumulated soil respiration and the microbial community structure differed between the grass and the arable system....... Soil respiration seemed to be influenced both by manure Application and cropping system. In 2011, no significant change in the soil microbial community structure was found five days after manure application. This, however, may change with repeated manure applications over several years. Five earthworm...

  3. Earthworm assemblages in an ecotone between forest and arable field and their relations with soil properties Comunidades de minhocas em um ecótono entre floresta e campo arável e suas relações com as propriedades do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zeithaml

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of a forest-field ecotone on earthworm assemblages. Five sites (blocks differing in the type of crop rotation used in the field were studied in Central Bohemia, Czech Republic. In each block, sampling was carried out in seven parallel rows perpendicular to a transect from a forest (oak or oak-pine to the centre of a field, both in spring and autumn 2001-2003. Individual rows were located in the forest (5 m from the edge, in the forest edge, and in the field (at 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 m distances from the forest edge. The density and biomass of earthworms were lowest in the forest, increased markedly in the forest edge, decreased again at 5 or 10 m distance from the forest edge and then continuously increased along the distance to the field boundary. The highest number of species was found in the forest edge and in the field boundary. Individual species differed in their distribution along the transect. Both density and biomass of earthworms were correlated with distance from forest edge, soil organic matter content, soil porosity, and water infiltration rate.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de um ecótono entre floresta e campo arável sobre comunidades de minhocas. Cinco locais (blocos com diferentes tipos de rotação de culturas utilizados no campo foram estudados na Boêmia Central, República Tcheca. Em cada bloco, amostragens foram feitas em sete linhas paralelas perpendiculares a um transecto de floresta (carvalho ou carvalho e pinheiro, em direção ao centro de um campo, na primavera e no outono de 2001-2003. Linhas individuais foram marcadas na floresta (a 5 m da borda, na borda da floresta e no campo (a 5, 10, 25, 50 e 100 m da borda da floresta. A densidade e biomassa das minhocas foi menor na floresta, aumentou marcadamente na borda da floresta, decaiu novamente a 5 ou 10 m de distância da borda da floresta e aumentou continuamente com a distância até o limite do

  4. Mineralization of nitrogen by protozoan activity in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuikman, P.

    1990-01-01

    In general, more than 95% of the nitrogen in soils is present in organic forms. This nitrogen is not directly available to plants unless microbial decomposition takes place with the release of mineral nitrogen. In modern agriculture, nitrogen is often applied to arable soils as a fertilizer

  5. Analysis, fate and effects of the antibiotic sulfadiazine in soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schauss, K.; Focks, A.; Heuer, H.; Kotzerke, A.; Schmitt, H.; Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Smalla, K.; Wilke, B.M.; Matthies, M.

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge about the interplay between fate and effects of the antibiotic sulfadiazine in soil ecosystems. In applying manure from antibiotic-treated animals to arable soils, sulfadiazine can reach the environment, but fate and transformation processes and the

  6. Selenium speciation and extractability in Dutch agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supriatin, Supriatin; Weng, Liping; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to understand selenium (Se) speciation and extractability in Dutch agricultural soils. Top soil samples were taken from 42 grassland fields and 41 arable land fields in the Netherlands. Total Se contents measured in aqua regia were between 0.12 and 1.97mgkg-1(on average

  7. Cadmium mobility and accumulation in soils of the European Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ

    1993-01-01

    In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions in the life-cycle of carrots and tomatoes. Methods, data and results from a study of the types and amounts of carrots and tomatoes consumed in Sweden. With arable land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika

    1997-03-01

    Methods, data and results from an assessment of the arable land use and some greenhouse gas emissions during part of the life-cycle of the consumed carrots and tomatoes in Sweden during 1992-1993 are presented in the report. The life-cycle was delineated to transportation, storage, farm production and production of fertilizers. Carrots from six countries and tomatoes from four countries were analyzed. The study is reported with full transparency. The results are presented as the use of arable land (in m{sup 2}) and as the amount of greenhouse gas emissions (in g CO{sub 2} equivalents) required to sustain current Swedish consumption patterns of carrots and tomatoes. Emissions per kg of consumed tomato were 10 times higher than for carrots. Emissions from carrots were lowest when they were produced within or close to Sweden, while the opposite was the case for tomatoes. The key issues in the life-cycle of the analyzed carrots and tomatoes are identified and discussed. The general conclusions are that storage may be a key issue for vegetables with a long durability and adapted to a northern European climate. For vegetables with short durability, the key issue may be transportation if they are not adapted to a northern European climate but still cultivated in the open. The key issue for vegetables with a short durability may be energy requirements during farm production if the vegetables are not adapted to a northern European climate and therefore cultivated under glass. 3 figs, 57 tabs

  9. The Swedish Academy Dictionary Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    language, heavily influenced by Low German. During the period of Early Modern Swedish (1526–1732), several bilingual or multilingual dictionaries were written to facilitate the learning of other lan- guages, such as Latin, German, English and French. It also brought the first attempt at a descriptive monolingual dictionary of ...

  10. Projekt OK-NET-ARABLE : mahetootmiseks vajalik teave tuleb tuua praktikuteni / Airi Vetemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetemaa, Airi

    2015-01-01

    OK-NET-ARABLE, mida võiks tõlkida kui põllukultuuride kasvatuse alast maheteabe võrgustikku, on ELi teadusrahastu Horisont 2020 projekt, mille eesmärk on vahendada innovaatilist ja traditsioonilist teavet mahetootjate, nõustajate ja teadlaste vahel, suurendamaks mahepõllukultuuride produktiivsust ja kvaliteeti üle Euroopa

  11. Reducing pesticide use and pesticide impact by productivity growth: the case of dutch arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs a dynamic Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to measure the composition of productivity growth of pesticides and the environmental impacts of pesticides. The application focuses on panel data of Dutch arable farms over the period 2003–07. A bootstrap regression model is used to

  12. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...

  13. Analysing Profits and Economic Behaviour of Organic and Conventional Dutch arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Jensma, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses a micro-econometric model to analyse differences in variable profits and economic behaviour between organic and conventional arable farms. Insight in factors underlying these differences is essential in designing policy measures that aim at encouraging the transition to a more

  14. Sensitive indicators of side-effects of pesticides on the epigeal fauna of Arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible impact of pesticides on epigeal arthropods in arable land. It was also envisaged to develop a predictive model for possible undesirable effects of pesticides on the epigeal arthropod fauna using an indicator species from

  15. Region-wise development of prototypes of integrated arable farming and outdoor horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, F.G.; Vereijken, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands integrated arable farming systems (IFS) are being developed at three regional experimental farms, with region-specific crop rotations and cropping systems. Most pesticide and fertilizer inputs appear to be replacable by non-chemical methods and organic manure, with economic

  16. Effect of land use on some soil chemical properties and P fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use directly or indirectly affects the soil chemical properties and phosphorus fractions. Two different land use types were studied. Soil chemical analysis and phosphorus fractionation of the soils was then done and the results were highly significant (p<0.001). Total C, N and P were low under the arable land use as ...

  17. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring

  18. Evaluation of the Fertility Status and Suitability of some Soils for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the fertility status and suitability of some soils for arable cropping in the newly established Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Minna. Nigeria. Four soil units designated as 1, 2, 3, and 4 were identified through a rapid reconnaissance soil survey. A profile pit was dug to ...

  19. Plant adaptation to acid soils: the molecular basis for crop aluminum resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity on acid soils is a significant limitation to crop production worldwide, as approximately 50% of the world’s potentially arable soils are acidic. Because acid soils are such an important constraint to agriculture, understanding the mechanisms and genes conferring resistance to ...

  20. Coffee farming and soil management in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Graaff, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is the cornerstone of Rwanda's economy. The authors review how the sector has changed and specifically what soil management practices are now being implemented to enhance coffee production. Coffee covers around 2.3% of total cultivated arable land, and is grown mainly by smallholder

  1. Fluxes of total reactive atmospheric nitrogen (ΣNr using eddy covariance above arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe R. Flechard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The amount and timing of reactive nitrogen exchange between agricultural land and the atmosphere play a key role in evaluating ecosystem productivity and in addressing atmospheric nitrogen budgets and transport. With the recent development of the Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter (TRANC apparatus, a methodology has been provided for continuous measurement of the sum of all airborne nitrogen containing species (ΣNr allowing for diurnal and seasonal investigations. We present ΣNr concentration and net flux data from an 11-month field campaign conducted at an arable field using the TRANC system within an eddy-covariance setup. Clear diurnal patterns of both ΣNr concentrations and fluxes with significant dependencies on atmospheric stability and stomatal regulation were observed in the growing season. TRANC data were compared with monthly-averaged concentrations and dry deposition rates of selected Nr compounds using DELTA denuders and ensemble-averages of four inferential models, respectively. Similar seasonal trends were found for Nr concentrations from DELTA and TRANC measurements with values from the latter being considerably higher than those of DELTA denuders. The variability of the difference between these two systems could be explained by seasonally changing source locations of NOx contributions to the TRANC signal. As soil and vegetation Nr emissions to the atmosphere are generally not treated by inferential (dry deposition models, TRANC data showed lower monthly deposition rates than those obtained from inferential modelling. Net ΣNr exchange was almost neutral (~0.072 kg N ha−1 at the end of the observation period. However, during most parts of the year, slight but permanent net ΣNr deposition was found. Our measurements demonstrate that fertilizer addition followed by substantial ΣNr emissions plays a crucial role in a site's annual atmospheric nitrogen budget. As long-term Nr measurements with high temporal

  2. Effects of Unburned Lime on Soil pH and Base Cations in Acidic Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Nduwumuremyi, Athanase; Ruganzu, Vicky; Mugwe, Jayne Njeri; Cyamweshi Rusanganwa, Athanase

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture is threatened by the widespread soil acidity in many arable lands of Rwanda. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of unburned limes and their effects on soil acidity and base cations in acidic soils of high land of Buberuka. The lime materials used were agricultural burned lime and three unburned lime materials, Karongi, Musanze, and Rusizi. The test crop was Irish Potato. All lime materials were analyzed for Calcium Carbonate Equivalent (CCE) and Finenes...

  3. Potential conflict between the coal and arable land resources in australia: A case for corporate responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkamp, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    Background information on possible surface-coal-mining operations in arable agricultural areas in Australia is provided. The major co-occurrence of the coal and arable land resources was in the Darling Downs region of Queensland and the Liverpool Plains region of New South Wales; however, coal development will probably only occur in the former region over the next decade. Analysis of the situation in the Darling Downs region, which consists of 11 Shires, found five companies conducting prefeasibility projects for surface-coal development and the size of exploration areas concerned far exceeding final mined-land disturbance estimates. Most of the land included in the prefeasibility studies was classified as “arable with moderate crop restrictions requiring intensive management” (classes II IV). The total area of land that may be disturbed at some time in the future was less than 2% of the arable land in the Shires concerned. Project mutual exclusivity and ongoing rehabilitation of disturbed areas further reduce arable land out of production at any one time. It is suggested that, if self-regulation by the coal industry in Australia on rehabilitation issues is to remain a viable option in these areas, an understanding between the corporate and public sectors on the extent and limitations of its responsibilities must be obtained. The current development of a National Conservation Strategy for Australia should assist this to proceed. Research on various rehabilitation issues may be required prior to project commitment to ensure the responsibilities identified are realizable. Integrative problem-solving, incorporating audit procedures, was suggested as a suitable method to achieve these aims and corporate responsiveness was seen as a necessary first step.

  4. Comparison of energetic productivity in differently renaturalized arable land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskaite-Jadzevice, Asta; Marcinkonis, Saulius; Baksiene, Eugenija

    2014-05-01

    Soil renaturalization or ecological recovery has been studied from local to global scales. On a global scale - it's one of the ways of carbon fixation, preservation of natural diversity, locally - renaturalization processes help to solve problems of damaged (eroded and polluted) and infertile soils areas. Efficient land use can improve soil structure and therefore be attractive as a renewable energy resource that can encourage thermal energy, fuel production and installation of new technologies. Soil renaturalization is very important not only in that it helps to decrease the impact on the environment, but it can produce higher energy value of biomass at a lower cost. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare different renaturalization methods through analyzing biomass yields and chemical composition (pine afforested, fallowing, manage grassland - Alfalfa and cropland) carried out during almost two decades (1995 - 2012). The four stationary experimental sites were set up in 1995 in Vilnius district, Lithuania. Common sandy soils prevail in the region, and the agronomic value of soil is very low. All sites were arranged in one row (the divided sides is 400 m2 each). Managed grassland and cropland areas were subdivided into fertilized and unfertilized subplots. The size of the subdivided plots was 200 m2 each. Gross productions (straw, grain, hay, pine biomass) was recalculated into total energy amount (in the calculationswere used K. Neringa and R. Siman equation) expressed in MJ and the site's productivity data compared. Gross productions total energy amount of pine afforestration was recalculated into trees volume using diameter (DBH), height and density of pines. Observed data suggest that the difference between fertilized and unfertilized plots in the cropland site was on average 1.62 times and made up an average of 20 339 MJ y-1 ha-1. The grassland site was characterized by higher productivity and a bigger difference of total energy between fertilized

  5. Effects of slurry from sulfadiazine- (SDZ) and difloxacin- (DIF) medicated pigs on the structural diversity of microorganisms in bulk and rhizosphere soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichel, R.; Rosendahl, I.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Focks, A.; Groeneweg, K.J.I.; Bierl, R.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional farming still consumes considerable amounts of antibiotics such as sulfadiazine (SDZ) or difloxacin (DIF) to protect livestock from infectious diseases. Consequently, slurries from medicated animals are applied to arable soils. Antibiotics, co-applied with pig slurry, are increasingly

  6. Soil friability - Concept, Assessment and Effects of Soil Properties and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    Soil friability is a key soil physical property yielding valuable information on the ease of productin a favorable seed- and root beds during tillage operations. Therefore, soil friability is acrucial soil property in relation to the ability of soil to support plant growth and to minimzethe energ...... in the light of the present renewed focus on global food security together with a focus on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in crop production. Certainly, the demand for well-functioning, arable soils is rising to meet the global challenges....

  7. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  8. Survival and transport of faecal bacteria in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina Bundgaard

    Today, there is yearly applied 34 million tonnes of animal waste to arable land in Denmark. This waste may contain pathogenic zoonotic bacteria and/or antibiotic resistant bacteria, and when applied to arable land there is a risk of contaminating groundwater, surface water, feeding animals or fresh...... produce. Prediction of faecal bacterial survival and transport in the soil environment will help minimize the risk of contamination, as best management practices can be adapted to this knowledge. The aim of this Ph.D. is to study factors influencing faecal bacteria survival and transport in soil...

  9. Swedish minister rebuilds scientists' trust

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylwan, P

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Ostros, Sweden's new science minister is aiming to improve links with the science community, severely strained during the tenure of Carl Tham. Significantly, he confirmed that he will not be making any further changes to the managment of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. He also announced a 5 per cent increase in government funding for science which will be used to strengthen basic research and education (1 page).

  10. Soil nutrient content, soil moisture and yield of Katumani maize in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    matter levels in the latter. Luna-Suarez et al. (1998) found significantly higher NO3-N in incubated soils of a natural ecosystem of mesquite trees than in arable fields of maize and beans in the central highlands of Mexico. They attributed this to the higher inorganic nitrogen content of such ecosystems. This was also the case ...

  11. Swedish earthquakes and acceleration probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1979-03-01

    A method to assign probabilities to ground accelerations for Swedish sites is described. As hardly any nearfield instrumental data is available we are left with the problem of interpreting macroseismic data in terms of acceleration. By theoretical wave propagation computations the relation between seismic strength of the earthquake, focal depth, distance and ground accelerations are calculated. We found that most Swedish earthquake of the area, the 1904 earthquake 100 km south of Oslo, is an exception and probably had a focal depth exceeding 25 km. For the nuclear power plant sites an annual probability of 10 -5 has been proposed as interesting. This probability gives ground accelerations in the range 5-20 % for the sites. This acceleration is for a free bedrock site. For consistency all acceleration results in this study are given for bedrock sites. When applicating our model to the 1904 earthquake and assuming the focal zone to be in the lower crust we get the epicentral acceleration of this earthquake to be 5-15 % g. The results above are based on an analyses of macrosismic data as relevant instrumental data is lacking. However, the macroseismic acceleration model deduced in this study gives epicentral ground acceleration of small Swedish earthquakes in agreement with existent distant instrumental data. (author)

  12. Soil carbon varies between different organic and conventional management schemes in arable agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Teng; Sørensen, Peter; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2018-01-01

    change disappeared, because cuttings of the grass-clover was removed whereas before 2005 they were mulched in the field, albeit there was still a small extra estimated C input of 0.2 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. An estimated higher C input of 0.7 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 with catch crops did not result in significant increase...

  13. Conversion of Forests to Arable Land and its Effect on Soil Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Macroporosity (Pma) = 100 Eqn (2). Microporosity. (Pmi) = Pt – Pm. Eqn (3). Micro porosity was calculated as the difference between total porosity (Pt) and macro porosity (Pm). The hydraulic conductivity was determined using the Klute and Dirksen (1986) method. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was calculated as.

  14. Earthworm assemblages in an ecotone between forest and arable field and their relations with soil properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeithaml, J.; Pižl, Václav; Sklenička, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 8 (2009), s. 922-927 ISSN 0100-204X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : edge effect * landscape mosaic * Lumbricidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2009

  15. Soil processes as a guiding principle in precision agriculture : a case study for Dutch arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, van J.

    2002-01-01

    The fact that conventional agricultural practices have many detrimental effects is widely acknowledged (Rabbinge, 1997). To mitigate these effects, Dutch policy makers have implemented environmental laws that are essentially based on characteristic indicators for groundwater quality. This

  16. Subsoil carbon accumulation on an arable Mollisol is retention dominated, in contrast to input driven carbon dynamics in topsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey; Lehmann, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The majority of the world's soil organic carbon (OC) stock is stored below 30 cm in depth, yet sampling for soil OC assessment rarely goes below 30 cm. Recent studies suggest that subsoil OC is distinct from topsoil OC in quantity and quality: subsoil OC concentrations are typically much lower and turnover times are much longer, but the mechanisms involved in retention and input of OC to the subsoil are not well understood. Improving our understanding of subsoil OC is essential for balancing the global carbon budget and confronting the challenge of global climate change. This study was undertaken to assess the relationship between OC stock and potential drivers of OC dynamics, including both soil properties and environmental covariates, in topsoil (0 to 30 cm) versus subsoil (30 to 75 cm). The performance of commonly used depth functions in predicting OC stock from 0 to 75 cm was also assessed. Depth functions are a useful tool for extrapolating OC stock below the depth of sampling, but may poorly model "hot spots" of OC accumulation, and be inadequate for modelling the distinct dynamics of topsoil and subsoil OC when applied with a single functional form. We collected two hundred soil cores on an arable Mollisol, sectioned into five depth increments (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50, and 50-75 cm), and performed the following analyses on each depth increment: concentration of OC, inorganic C, permanganate oxidizable carbon (POXC), and total N, as well as texture, pH, and bulk density; a digital elevation model was used to calculate elevation, slope, curvature, and soil topographic wetness index. We found that topsoil OC stocks were significantly correlated (p 7.0), flat topography, a high OC to total N ratio, and a high ratio of POXC to OC. These findings suggest that at this site, topsoil OC stock is input driven, while OC accumulation in the subsoil is retention dominated. Accordingly, a new depth function is proposed that uses a linear relationship to model OC stock

  17. Soil structural quality assessment for soil protection regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Boivin, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality assessment is rapidly developing worldwide, though mostly focused on the monitoring of arable land and soil fertility. Soil protection regulations assess soil quality differently, focusing on priority pollutants and threshold values. The soil physical properties are weakly considered, due to lack of consensus and experimental difficulties faced with characterization. Non-disputable, easy to perform and inexpensive methods should be available for environmental regulation to be applied, which is unfortunately not the case. As a consequence, quantitative soil physical protection regulation is not applied, and inexpensive soil physical quality indicators for arable soil management are not available. Overcoming these limitations was the objective of a research project funded by the Swiss federal office for environment (FOEN). The main results and the perspectives of application are given in this presentation. A first step of the research was to characterize soils in a good structural state (reference soils) under different land use. The structural quality was assessed with field expertise and Visual Evaluation of the Soil Structure (VESS), and the physical properties were assessed with Shrinkage analysis. The relationships between the physical properties and the soil constituents were linear and highly determined. They represent the reference properties of the corresponding soils. In a second step, the properties of physically degraded soils were analysed and compared to the reference properties. This allowed defining the most discriminant parameters departing the different structure qualities and their threshold limits. Equivalent properties corresponding to these parameters but inexpensive and easy to determine were defined and tested. More than 90% of the samples were correctly classed with this method, which meets, therefore, the requirements for practical application in regulation. Moreover, result-oriented agri-environmental schemes for soil quality

  18. Changes in the Bacterial Community Structure of Remediated Anthracene-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Delgado-Balbuena

    Full Text Available Mixing soil or adding earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 accelerated the removal of anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, from a pasture and an arable soil, while a non-ionic surfactant (Surfynol® 485 inhibited the removal of the contaminant compared to the untreated soil. It was unclear if the treatments affected the soil bacterial community and consequently the removal of anthracene. Therefore, the bacterial community structure was monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the pasture and arable soil mixed weekly, amended with Surfynol® 485, E. fetida or organic material that served as food for the earthworms for 56 days. In both soils, the removal of anthracene was in the order: mixing soil weekly (100% > earthworms applied (92% > organic material applied (77% > untreated soil (57% > surfactant applied (34% after 56 days. There was no clear link between removal of anthracene from soil and changes in the bacterial community structure. On the one hand, application of earthworms removed most of the contaminant from the arable soil and had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes, and an increase in that of the Proteobacteria compared to the unamended soil. Mixing the soil weekly removed all anthracene from the arable soil, but had little or no effect on the bacterial community structure. On the other hand, application of the surfactant inhibited the removal of anthracene from the arable soil compared to the untreated soil, but had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of Cytophagia (Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes and an increase in that of the Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Additionally, the removal of anthracene was similar in the different treatments of both the arable and pasture soil

  19. Changes in the Bacterial Community Structure of Remediated Anthracene-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Bello-López, Juan M.; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Rodríguez-Valentín, Analine; Luna-Guido, Marco L.; Dendooven, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Mixing soil or adding earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826)) accelerated the removal of anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, from a pasture and an arable soil, while a non-ionic surfactant (Surfynol® 485) inhibited the removal of the contaminant compared to the untreated soil. It was unclear if the treatments affected the soil bacterial community and consequently the removal of anthracene. Therefore, the bacterial community structure was monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the pasture and arable soil mixed weekly, amended with Surfynol® 485, E. fetida or organic material that served as food for the earthworms for 56 days. In both soils, the removal of anthracene was in the order: mixing soil weekly (100%) > earthworms applied (92%) > organic material applied (77%) > untreated soil (57%) > surfactant applied (34%) after 56 days. There was no clear link between removal of anthracene from soil and changes in the bacterial community structure. On the one hand, application of earthworms removed most of the contaminant from the arable soil and had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes, and an increase in that of the Proteobacteria compared to the unamended soil. Mixing the soil weekly removed all anthracene from the arable soil, but had little or no effect on the bacterial community structure. On the other hand, application of the surfactant inhibited the removal of anthracene from the arable soil compared to the untreated soil, but had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of Cytophagia (Bacteroidetes), Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes and an increase in that of the Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes) and Proteobacteria. Additionally, the removal of anthracene was similar in the different treatments of both the arable and pasture soil, but the

  20. The assessment of water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes above arable crops - a comparison of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaaf, S.; Daemmgen, U.; Burkart, S. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Inst. of Agroecology, Braunschweig (Germany); Gruenhage, L. [Justus-Liebig-Univ., Inst. for Plant Ecology, Giessen (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Vertical fluxes of water vapour and carbon dioxide obtained from gradient, eddy covariance (closed and open path systems) and chamber measurements above arable crops were compared with the directly measured energy balance and the harvested net biomass carbon. The gradient and chamber measurements were in the correct order of magnitude, whereas the closed path eddy covariance system showed unacceptably small fluxes. Correction methods based on power spectra analysis yielded increased fluxes. However, the energy balance could not be closed satisfactorily. The application of the open path system proved to be successful. The SVAT model PLATIN which had been adapted to various arable crops was able to depict the components of the energy balance adequately. Net carbon fluxes determined with the corrected closed path data sets, chamber, and SVAT model equal those of the harvested carbon. (orig.)

  1. Variability in the Water Footprint of Arable Crop Production across European Regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gobin, A.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Eitzinger, Josef; Trnka, Miroslav; Hlavinka, Petr; Takáč, J.; Kroes, J.; Ventrella, D.; Dalla Marta, A.; Deelstra, J.; Lalic, B.; Nejedlík, P.; Orlandini, S.; Peltonen-Sainio, P.; Rajala, A.; Saue, T.; Saylan, L.; Stricevic, R.; Vucetic, V.; Zoumides, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 93. ISSN 2073-4441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : simulate yield response * climate-change * virtual water * impact * green * model * blue * agriculture * irrigation * reduction * water footprint * arable crops * cereals * Europe * crop water use * yield Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Water resources Impact factor: 1.832, year: 2016

  2. Climate change impact research on arable weeds – data, methods and applications at various scale levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitsameter, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, a large number of studies have examined various aspects of possible consequences of climate change for the biology and damage potential of arable weeds. However, there are merely a few examples that have comprehensively investigated individual weed species or arable crop systems within a clearly delimited geographical area. In the frame of the research co-operation KLIFF (Climate change impact and adaptation research for Lower Saxony, we tested an approach that combines a number of methods to span several scale levels and types of environmental factors, which was intended to provide as accurate as possible an estimate of the potential distribution and performance of individual arable weed species under the predicted future climate conditions. This approach was put to practice for the species Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Datura stramonium, Iva xanthiifolia and Setaria viridis. We combined projections of the potential future distribution of the individual weed species based on a correlative distribution modelling approach (regional scale level with pot experiments (local scale level on the vegetative and generative performance of these species under climatic conditions predicted for the end of the current century for Lower Saxony. A synopsis revealed that the results obtained from the different approaches corresponded to a large extent. For A. retroflexus, D. stramonium, E. crus-galli, and S. viridis, both approaches indicated a neutral or positive effect of the predicted future climate on their potential distribution and performance, whereas the opposite was found for I. xanthiifolia. Merely for A. theophrasti, results of the two methods did not fully concur. Altogether, our results highlight that investigating climate change impact on weeds by combining several methods to span several scale levels allows fitting various data sets to a comprehensive picture for a delimited region. It has

  3. Impact of heat and drought stress on arable crop production in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gobin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling approaches are needed to accelerate understanding of adverse weather impacts on crop performances and yields. The aim was to elicit biometeorological conditions that affect Belgian arable crop yield, commensurate with the scale of climatic impacts. The regional crop model REGCROP (Gobin, 2010 enabled to examine changing weather patterns in relation to the crop season and crop sensitive stages of six arable crops: winter wheat, winter barley, winter rapeseed, potato, sugar beet and maize. The sum of vapour pressure deficit during the growing season is the single best predictor of arable yields, with R2 ranging from 0.55 for sugar beet to 0.76 for wheat. Drought and heat stress, in particular during the sensitive crop stages, occur at different times in the crop season and significantly differ between two climatic periods, 1947–1987 and 1988–2008. Though average yields have risen steadily between 1947 and 2008, there is no evidence that relative tolerance to stress has improved.

  4. Easily degradable carbon - an indicator of microbial hotspots and soil degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolińska, Agnieszka; Banach, Artur; Szafranek-Nakonieczna, Anna; Stępniewska, Zofia; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław

    2018-01-01

    The effect of arable soil was quantified against non-cultivated soil on easily degradable carbon and other selected microbiological factors, i.e. soil microbial biomass, respiration activity, and dehydrogenase activity. The intent was to ascertain whether easily degradable carbo can be useful as a sensitive indicator of both soil biological degradation and microbial hot-spots indication. As a result, it was found that soil respiration activity was significantly higher (p soils. Dehydrogenase activity was significantly lower in the arable soil (down to 35-40% of the control values, p soil type. The microbial biomass was also significantly higher at the non-cultivated soil (512-2807 vs. 416-1429 µg g-1 d.m., p soil and 497-877 mg kg-1 arable soil (p soil properties by significantly reducing the levels of the studied parameters in relation to the control soils. The significant correlations of easily degradable carbon-respiration activity (ρ = 0.77*), easily degradable carbon-dehydrogenase activity (ρ = 0.42*), and easily degradable carbon-microbial biomass (ρ = 0.53*) reveal that easily degradable carbon is a novel, suitable factor indicative of soil biological degradation. It, therefore, could be used for evaluating the degree of soil degradation and for choosing a proper management procedure.

  5. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  6. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well...... as the behaviour of the parasites were studied after the termination of hibernation. Twelve species of parasites were found. Six of them, Polystoma integerrimum, Pleurogenes claviger (Trematoda), Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and Oxysomatium brevicauda- tum (Nematoda), have...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  7. The sustainable arable land use pattern under the tradeoff of agricultural production, economic development, and ecological protection-an analysis of Dongting Lake basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guanyi; Liu, Liming; Jiang, Xilong

    2017-11-01

    To find a solution regarding sustainable arable land use pattern in the important grain-producing area during the rapid urbanization process, this study combined agricultural production, locational condition, and ecological protection to determine optimal arable land use. Dongting Lake basin, one of the major grain producing areas in China, was chosen as the study area. The analysis of land use transition, the calculation of arable land barycenter, the landscape indices of arable land patches, and the comprehensive evaluation of arable land quality(productivity, economic location, and ecological condition) were adopted in this study. The results showed that (1) in 1990-2000, the arable land increased by 11.77%, and the transformation between arable land and other land use types actively occurred; in 2000-2010, the arable land decreased by 0.71%, and more ecological area (forestland, grassland, and water area) were disturbed and transferred into arable land; (2) urban expansion of the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan city cluster (the major economy center of this area) induced the northward movement of the arable land barycenter; (3) the landscape fragmentation and decentralization degree of arable land patches increased during 1990-2010; (4) potential high-quality arable land is located in the zonal area around Dongting Lake, which contains the Li County, Linli County, Jinshi County, Taoyuan County, Taojiang County, Ningxiang County, Xiangxiang County, Shaoshan County, Miluo County, and Zhuzhou County. The inferior low-quality arable land is located in the northwestern Wuling mountainous area, the southeastern hilly area, and the densely populated big cities and their surrounding area. In the optimized arable land use pattern, the high-quality land should be intensively used, and the low-quality arable land should be reduced used or prohibitively used. What is more, it is necessary to quit the arable land away from the surrounding area of cities appropriately, in order to

  8. Assessment of Relationships between Earthworms and Soil Abiotic and Biotic Factors as a Tool in Sustainable Agricultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Kanianska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are a major component of soil fauna communities. They influence soil chemical, biological, and physical processes and vice versa, their abundance and diversity are influenced by natural characteristics or land management practices. There is need to establish their characteristics and relations. In this study earthworm density (ED, body biomass (EB, and diversity in relation to land use (arable land—AL, permanent grasslands—PG, management, and selected abiotic (soil chemical, physical, climate related and biotic (arthropod density and biomass, ground beetle density, carabid density indicators were analysed at seven different study sites in Slovakia. On average, the density of earthworms was nearly twice as high in PG compared to AL. Among five soil types used as arable land, Fluvisols created the most suitable conditions for earthworm abundance and biomass. We recorded a significant correlation between ED, EB and soil moisture in arable land. In permanent grasslands, the main climate related factor was soil temperature. Relationships between earthworms and some chemical properties (pH, available nutrients were observed only in arable land. Our findings indicate trophic interaction between earthworms and carabids in organically managed arable land. Comprehensive assessment of observed relationships can help in earthworm management to achieve sustainable agricultural systems.

  9. Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water Conservation in Konso, Wolaita and Wello, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshah, T.

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is an old problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mountainous and undulating landscapes, coupled with the expansion of arable farming on steep areas due to population pressure have aggravated the soil erosion problem in the country. Prompted by one of the great famines in the

  10. Changes in the Structure of a Nigerian Soil under Different Land Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Olalekan Ogunwole

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of soil physical quality (SPQ and pore size distribution (PSD can assist understanding of how changes in land management practices influence dynamics of soil structure, and this understanding could greatly improve the predictability of soil physical behavior and crop yield. The objectives of this study were to measure the SPQ index under two different land management practices (the continuous arable cropping system and natural bush fallow system, and contrast the effects of these practices on the structure of PSD using soil water retention data. Soil water retention curves obtained from a pressure chamber were fitted to van Genuchten’s equation, setting m (= 1-1/n. Although values for soil bulk density were high, soils under the continuous arable cropping system had good SPQ, and maintained the capacity to support root development. However, soils under the natural bush fallow system had a worse structure than the continuous arable system, with restrictions in available water capacity. These two management systems had different PSDs. Results showed the inferiority of the natural bush fallow system with no traffic restriction (which is the common practice in relation to the continuous arable cropping system in regard to physical quality and structure.

  11. Density fractions of soil macroorganic matter and microbial biomass as predictors of C and N mineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.

    1995-01-01

    Macroorganic matter of arable soils which had received different inputs of organic residues for 25 y and grassland soils that had been under grass for at least 8 y was fractionated into light, intermediate and heavy fractions using a stable silica suspension as heavy liquid. For all residue

  12. Earthworms (Aporrectodea spp.; Lumbricidae) cause soil structure problems in young Dutch polders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Rozen, van K.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of earthworms in relation to clay soil structure problems in arable fields in the Flevopolders (the Netherlands) was studied. Recently, farmers in this area have had difficulty in harvesting potatoes in predominantly wet years. After a dry period, soil particles in the top layer of the

  13. Earthworms, soil-aggregates and organic matter decomposition in agro-ecosystems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The relationships between earthworm populations, soil aggregate stability and soil organic matter dynamics were studied at an experimental farm in The Netherlands.

    Arable land in general is not favourable for earthworm growth. In the Lovinkhoeve fields under conventional management

  14. Changes in some surface soil properties of an Alfisol under long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated changes in selected soil physical and chemical properties of an Alfisol under different land uses (citrus plantation, continuous arable land, bush-fallow land, and pasture). Soil samples were collected from a plot of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 h) under these land uses and analyzed in the laboratory for selected ...

  15. Methane uptake by a selection of soils in Ghana with different land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemé, Anders; Christensen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    We measured the oxidation of atmospheric methane in tropical soils in Ghana covering a moisture gradient from the moist forest zone to the savanna zone at the onset of the rainy season. Land use at the sites covered undisturbed (forest and savanna) and cultivated soil, including burning. Generally......, the methane oxidation rates in the tropical forest and savanna soils were low (range from 9 to 26 µg CH4 m-2 h-1) compared to, for example temperate forest soils. In the savanna soil, annual fire had decreased soil methane oxidation rates to 5 µg CH4 m-2 h-1 compared to 9 µg CH4 m-2 h-1 at a site...... h-1 after the rain. These rates are comparable to other reports from arable soils in tropical and temperate regions. Thus arable agriculture and, to a lesser extent, biomass burning decreased methane oxidation rates by the investigated soils....

  16. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõlli, Raimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  17. Changing soils : belowground food webs during secondary succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtkamp, R.

    2010-01-01

    Reclaiming arable land is a method to increase and connect nature areas in the Netherlands. A frequent applied method is land abandonment of sandy soils to promote secondary succession towards a heathland. In practice this development takes place very slowly. The rate of transition from an

  18. Soil friability - Concept, Assessment and Effects of Soil Properties and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    Soil friability is a key soil physical property yielding valuable information on the ease of productin a favorable seed- and root beds during tillage operations. Therefore, soil friability is acrucial soil property in relation to the ability of soil to support plant growth and to minimzethe energy...... required for tillage. The topic has interested farmers and soil scientiest for centuries, but is was the paper by Utomo and Dexter (1981) that significantly put the topic on the soil science agenda. The awareness of soil friability is growing, both in practiceand in soil science. This must be viewed...... in the light of the present renewed focus on global food security together with a focus on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in crop production. Certainly, the demand for well-functioning, arable soils is rising to meet the global challenges....

  19. Exploring how to engage Swedish Millennials with pension planning

    OpenAIRE

    LÖVGREN, ANDREAS; MAGNUSSON, MATTIAS

    2016-01-01

    An aging Swedish population is putting an increased pressure on the Swedish pension system. To address this, the Swedish pension system was reformed in the late 1990s. This reformation resulted in an increased individual responsibility for pension investments among the Swedish population. The individual responsibility has shown to be challenging for many since they feel a great uncertainty in this area. Adding to the notion that the Swedish population is aging; young Swedes are also entering ...

  20. Soil, crop and emission responses to seasonal-controlled traffic in organic vegetable farming on loam soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2009-01-01

    Some organic arable and vegetable farms in the Netherlands use cm-precise guidance of machinery to restrict wheel traffic to fixed traffic lanes and to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimized soil structure in between the lanes. Contrary to controlled traffic farming (CTF) the traffic

  1. Assessing biodiversity in arable farmland by means of indicators: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockstaller Christian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining biodiversity is one of the key issues of sustainable agriculture. It is now stated that innovation to enhance biodiversity in arable land requires operational assessment tools like indicators. The goal of the article is to provide an overview of available indicators. Besides measured indicators and simple indicators based on management data, we focus on predictive indicators derived from operational models and adapted to ex ante assessment in innovative cropping design. The possibility of use for each indicator type is discussed.

  2. Prospects for arable farm uptake of Short Rotation Coppice willow and miscanthus in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glithero, Neryssa J; Wilson, Paul; Ramsden, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    Biomass will play a role in the UK meeting EU targets on renewable energy use. Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and miscanthus are potential biomass feedstocks; however, supply will rely on farmer willingness to grow these crops. Despite attractive crop establishment grants for dedicated energy crops (DECs) in the UK, uptake remains low. Drawing on results from an on-farm survey with 244 English arable farmers, 81.6% (87.7%) of farmers would not consider growing miscanthus (SRC), while respectively, 17.2% (11.9%) would consider growing and 1.2% (0.4%) were currently growing these crops. Farmer age, location, land ownership, farm type, farm size and farmer education level were not significant factors in determining acceptance of DECs. The main reasons cited for not growing DECs were impacts on land quality, lack of appropriate machinery, commitment of land for a long period of time, time to financial return and profitability. Reasons cited for willingness to grow DECs included land quality, ease of crop management, commitment of land for a long period of time, and profitability. Farmers cited a range of 'moral' (e.g. should not be using land for energy crops when there is a shortage of food), land quality, knowledge, profit and current farming practice comments as reasons for not growing DECs, while those willing to grow DECs cited interest in renewable energy, willingness to consider new crops, and low labour needs as rationale for their interest. Farm business objectives indicated that maximising profit and quality of life were most frequently cited as very important objectives. Previous research in the UK indicates that farmers in arable areas are unlikely to convert large areas of land to DECs, even where these farmers have an interest and willingness to grow them. Assuming that those farmers interested in growing DECs converted 9.29% (average percentage of arable land set-aside between 1996 and 2005) of their utilised agricultural area to these crops, 50,700

  3. To be or not to be - common and endangered arable weed species in the face of Global Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rühl, Anna Theresa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arable weeds are one of the most endangered species groups in Europe. Modern agriculture and intensive land use management with the application of herbicides and fertilisers, enhanced seed cleaning, simplified crop rotations and abandonment of marginal arable sites are the main causes for the continuous decline of arable weeds. However, besides these changes in land use also global climate change may challenge the adaptability of arable weeds. Most scientists agree that the frequency of extreme meteorological conditions will increase in the future. As a consequence, plants of Central Europe will be subject to higher temperatures and reduced water supply due to longer intervals without precipitation during the growing season. We exposed seeds of five common and five endangered arable weed species to different temperatures and water potentials to study i how this plant group responds to higher temperatures and lower moisture during germination in general and ii whether there is a significant difference between common and endangered species in this respect.

  4. Predominant discourses in Swedish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Pilhammar-Anderson, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the predominant discourse in the field of Swedish nursing in 2000, 25 years after nursing was introduced as an academic discipline in Sweden. The method used was content analysis and deconstructive analysis of discourses. Laws, statutes, regulations, and examination requirements, including official reports, recruitment campaigns, and media coverage, were analyzed. The findings uncovered competing discourses striving to gain hegemony. In the public sector, official requirements competed against the media fixation on gender stereotypes and the realities of local recruitment campaigns. Media has a major role in disseminating prevailing conceptions and conventions pertaining to the nursing profession. As a result, decision makers, students, patients, and family members could get lower expectations of the professional competence of nursing practitioners than would otherwise have been the case in the absence of media exposure.

  5. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book

  6. Soil organic phosphorus in soils under different land use systems in northeast Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slazak, Anna; Freese, Dirk; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is commonly known as a major plant nutrient, which can act as a limiting factor for plant growth in many ecosystems, including different land use systems. Organic P (Po), transformations in soil are important in determining the overall biological availability of P and additionally Po depletion is caused by land cultivation. It is expected that changes of land use modifies the distribution of soil P among the various P-pools (Ptotal, Plabile, Po), where the Plabile forms are considered to be readily available to plants and Po plays an important role with P nutrition supply for plants. The aim of the study was to measure the different soil P pools under different land use systems. The study was carried out in northeast of Brandenburg in Germany. Different land use systems were studied: i) different in age pine-oak mixed forest stands, ii) silvopastoral land, iii) arable lands. Samples were taken from two mineral soil layers: 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Recently, a variety of analytical methods are available to determine specific Po compounds in soils. The different P forms in the soil were obtained by a sequential P fractionation by using acid and alkaline extractants, which mean that single samples were subjected to increasingly stronger extractants, consequently separating the soil P into fractions based on P solubility. The soil Ptotal for the forest stands ranged from 100 to 183 mg kg -1 whereas Po from 77 to 148 mg kg -1. The Po and Plabile in both soil layers increased significantly with increase of age-old oak trees. The most available-P fraction was Plabile predominate in the oldest pine-oak forest stand, accounting for 29% of soil Ptotal. For the silvopasture and arable study sites the Ptotal content was comparable. However, the highest value of Ptotal was measured in the 30 years old silvopastoral system with 685 mg kg-1 and 728 mg kg-1 at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively than in arable lands. The results have shown that the 30 years old

  7. Biomass and Swedish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    The use of biomass in Sweden has increased by 44% between 1990 and 1999. In 1999 it was 85 TWh, equivalent to 14% of the total Swedish energy supply. The existence of large forest industry and district heating systems has been an essential condition for this expansion. The tax reform in 1991 seems, however, to have been the most important factor responsible for the rapid bioenergy expansion. Through this reform, the taxation of fossil fuels in district heating systems increased by approximately 30-160%, depending on fuel, whereas bioenergy remained untaxed. Industry is exempted from the energy tax and pays reduced carbon tax. No tax is levied on fossil fuels used for electricity production. Investment grants have existed for biomass-based electricity production but these grants have not been large enough to make biomass-based electricity production economically competitive in a period of falling electricity prices. Despite this, the biomass-based electricity production has increased slightly between 1990 and 1999. A new taxation system aiming at a removal of the tax difference between the industry, district heating and electricity sectors has recently been analysed by the Swedish government. One risk with such a system is that it reduces the competitiveness for biomass in district heating systems as it seems unlikely that the taxes on fossil fuels in the industry and electricity sectors will increase to a level much higher than in other countries. A new system, based on green certificates, for supporting electricity from renewable energy sources has also been proposed by the government.

  8. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed.

  9. Determination of Soil Endangerment by Wind Erosion with Consideration of Legislative Changes in Acceptable Soil Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streďanský Jozef

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Value tightening of acceptable soil loss by wind erosion in amendment to the Act No. 220/2004 on Protection and Use of Agricultural Land in the Slovak Republic from 1st of April 2013 is necessary to reconsider wind erosion intensity in agricultural territories. The paper presents results of wind erosion intensity calculation by using Wind Erosion Equation (WEQ that is recommended by Act No. 220/2004. As observed we choose cadastral area Moèenok territory and had determined and compared changes in levels of soil endangerment of arable land by wind and spatial delamination of wind erosion in specific territory of Moèenok. According to WEQ calculation, we determined that soil loss from 3778.85 ha arable land is 1220.52 ha, which is highly endangerment by wind erosion. By defining levels of soil erosion endangerment (LSEE, we found out that area in 3rd class of endangerment rose from 1.48% to 43.37% after changing acceptable soil from 40 to 15 t ha-1 year-1. Results enable us to specify priority areas where to implement erosion control measures in according to sustainable use and protection of arable land in model area.

  10. Growth rate of Heterobasidion annosum in Picea abies established on forest land and arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz-Hellgren, M.; Johansson, Martin; Swedjemark, G.; Stenlid, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Brandtberg, P.O. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1999-07-01

    The growth rates of Heterobasidion annosum in Norway spruce were investigated in southern Sweden. In one study, stump and tree roots in stands established on previous forest or arable land were inoculated with H. annosum-infested sawdust. After 1-3 yrs, the linear extent of colonization by the fungus was measured, based on detection of its conidiophores on incubated samples. The average growth rate was 25 cm yr{sup -1} in stump roots and 9 cm yr{sup -1} in tree roots, neither of which differed significantly between forest and arable land. The feeling of a decayed tree could enhance the spread of H. annosum within root systems. In the second study, the height of discoloration and extent of colonization by H. annosum, measured as above, were assessed in naturally infected trees. On average, discoloration moved through the roots and stem at a rate of 36 cm yr{sup -1}. Heterobasidion annosum was found 60 cm in advance of the discoloration, corresponding to a growth rate of 52 cm yr{sup -1}.

  11. Pre-study Tierp. Soils, rocks and deformation zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.; Johansson, Rune; Linden, A.H.; Rudmark, L.; Stephens, M.; Isaksson, Hans; Lindroos, H.

    1999-12-01

    Soil and geology of the Tierp area is described, as well as the Baltic area Loevstabukten. It is found that several areas might be of interest for further investigations as potential sites for a Swedish repository for spent fuels

  12. Possibilities for modelling the effect of compression on mechanical and physical properties of various Dutch soil types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, U.D.; Kroesbergen, B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    The state of compactness of the arable soil layer changes during the growing season as a result of tillage and traction. The aim of this study was to assess and predict some soil mechanical and physical properties governing machine performance and crop response. The following mechanical properties

  13. Importance of soil NO emissions for the total atmospheric NOxbudget of Saxony, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Herrera, Saúl; Haas, Edwin; Grote, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    Soils are a significant source for the secondary greenhouse gas NO and assumed to be a significant source of tropospheric NOxin rural areas. Here we tested the LandscapeDNDC model for its capability to simulate magnitudes and dynamics of soil NO emissions for 22 sites differing in land use (arabl...

  14. Investigation of the dynamics of ephemeral gully erosion on arable land of the forest-steppe and steppe zone of the East of the Russian Plain from remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platoncheva, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    Spatio-temporal estimation of the erosion of arable soils is still an urgent task, in spite of the numerous methods of such assessments. Development of information technologies, the emergence of high and ultra-high resolution images allows reliable identification of linear forms of erosion to determine its dynamics on arable land. The study drew attention to the dynamics of the most active erosion unit - an ephemeral gully. The estimation of the dynamics was carried out on the basis of different space images for the maximum possible period (from 1986 to 2016). The cartographic method was used as the main research method. Identification of a belt of ephemeral gully erosion based on materials of multi-zone space surveys and GIS-technology of their processing was carried out. In the course of work with satellite imagery and subsequent verification of the received data on the ground, the main signs of deciphering the ephemeral gully network were determined. A methodology for geoinformation mapping of the dynamics of ephemeral gully erosion belt was developed and a system of indicators quantitatively characterizing its development on arable slopes was proposed. The evaluation of the current ephemeral gully network based on the interpretation of space images includes the definition of such indicators of ephemeral gully erosion as the density of the ephemeral gully net, the density of the ephemeral gullies, the area and linear dynamics of the ephemeral gully network. Preliminary results of the assessment of the dynamics of the belt erosion showed an increase in all quantitative indicators of ephemeral gully erosion for the observed period.

  15. Impact of soil types and management practices on soil microbiological properties - a case study in salt affected area of Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Ravi Kumar; Makádi, Marianna; Michéli, Erika; Weldmichael, Tsedekech G.; Szegi, Tamás

    2017-04-01

    The impact of different land use systems on soil microbiological properties in salt affected soils were investigated in the Nádudvar region of Hajdu-Bihar County, Hungary. The study area is characterized by associations of Solonetz and Chernozem soils. Soils were collected from both arable (cultivated) and pasture (non-cultivated) land from the upper 15 cm, in May, 2016. Besides soil physical and chemical properties (SOM, pH, CaCO3, EC, E4/E6, available macro, meso and micro nutrients and moisture content), soil microbiological properties were also investigated, phosphatase and dehydrogenase activities of the samples were measured, as well as soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil microbiological respiration. The results were statistically compared on the different soil types and land uses. It was concluded that land management has greater impact on soil microbiology than inherent properties or soil types.

  16. Modeling past and future acidification of Swedish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldan, Filip; Cosby, Bernard J; Wright, Richard F

    2013-09-01

    Decades of acid deposition have caused acidification of lakes in Sweden. Here we use data for 3000 lakes to run the acidification model MAGIC and estimate historical and future acidification. The results indicate that beginning in about 1920 a progressively larger number of lakes in Sweden fell into the category of "not naturally acidified" (∆pH > 0.4). The peak in acidification was reached about 1985; since then many lakes have recovered in response to lower levels of acid deposition. Further recovery from acidification will occur by the year 2030 given implementation of agreed legislation for emissions of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) in Europe. But the number of catchments with soils being depleted in base cations will increase slightly. MAGIC-reconstructed history of acidification of lakes in Sweden agrees well with information on fish populations. Future acidification of Swedish lakes can be influenced by climate change as well as changes in forest harvest practices.

  17. Climate Strategic Soil Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex and strong link between soil degradation, climate change and food insecurity is a global challenge. Sustainable agricultural systems must be integral to any agenda to address climate change and variability, improve renewable fresh water supply and quality, restore degraded soils and ecosystems and advance food security. These challenges are being exacerbated by increasing population and decreasing per capita arable land area and renewable fresh water supply, the increasing frequency of extreme events, the decreasing resilience of agroecosystems, an increasing income and affluent lifestyle with growing preference towards meat-based diet and a decreasing soil quality and use efficiency of inputs. Reversing these downward spirals implies the implementation of proven technologies, such as conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, precision agriculture, agroforestry systems, etc. Restoration of degraded soil and desertified ecosystems and the creation of positive soil and ecosystem C budgets are important. Urban agriculture and green roofs can reduce the energy footprint of production chains for urban and non-urban areas and enhance the recycling of by-products. Researchable priorities include sustainable land use and soil/water management options, judicious soil governance and modus operandi towards payments to land managers for the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  18. Integrated crop protection and environment exposure to pesticides: methods to reduce use and impact of pesticides in arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    Prototypes of Integrated Farming Systems for arable farming are being developed in the Netherlands based on a coherent methodology elaborated in an European Union concerted action. The role of crop protection in Integrated systems is, additional to all other methods, to efficiently control the

  19. Manual for prototyping integrated and ecological arable farming systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.

    1999-01-01

    A manual for prototyping Integrated and Ecological Arable Farming Systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms is presented. It concerns a comprehensive and consistent approach of 5 steps. Step 1 is establishing a hierarchy of objectives considering the shortcomings of current farming systems in

  20. The Use of Organic vs. Chemical Fertilizer with a Mineral Losses Tax: The Case of Dutch Arable Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feinerman, E.; Komen, M.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on farm-level nitrogen fertilization strategies of Dutch arable farmers for analyzing the substitution of organic fertilizers (manure) with chemical fertilizers. The model developed investigates the impact of the major parameters affecting the inferiority of manure compared with

  1. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced-Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolain, N.M.; Charles, R.; Wirth, J.; Schwarz, J.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Bonin, L.; Jensen, P.K.; Kudsk, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of

  2. Effects of disease control by fungicides on greenhouse gas emissions by U.K. arable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David J; West, Jonathan S; Atkins, Simon D; Gladders, Peter; Jeger, Michael J; Fitt, Bruce Dl

    2011-09-01

    The U.K. government has published plans to reduce U.K. agriculture's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, the goal of global food security requires an increase in arable crop yields. Foliar disease control measures such as fungicides have an important role in meeting both objectives. It is estimated that U.K. winter barley production is associated with GHG emissions of 2770 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) of crop and 355 kg CO2 eq. t(-1) of grain. Foliar disease control by fungicides is associated with decreases in GHG emissions of 42-60 kg CO2 eq. t(-1) in U.K. winter barley and 29-39 kg CO2 eq. t(-1) in U.K. spring barley. The sensitivity of these results to the impact of disease control on yield and to variant GHG emissions assumptions is presented. Fungicide treatment of the major U.K. arable crops is estimated to have directly decreased U.K. GHG emissions by over 1.5 Mt CO2 eq. in 2009. Crop disease control measures such as fungicide treatment reduce the GHG emissions associated with producing a tonne of grain. As national demand for food increases, greater yields as a result of disease control also decrease the need to convert land from non-arable to arable use, which further mitigates GHG emissions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  4. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced -Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Charles, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Non-inversion tillage with tine or disc based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use may hinder further expansion of reduced...... tillage systems. European agriculture is asked to become less dependent on pesticides and promote crop protection programmes based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Conventional non-inversion tillage systems rely entirely on the availability of glyphosate products, and herbicide consumption...... is mostly higher as compared to plough-based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and catchweed bedstraw often constitute the principal weed problems in non-inversion tillage systems and crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign cropping systems...

  5. Weed Biomass and Weed Species Diversity of Juvenile Citrus Trees Intercrop with some Arable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Mojibade OLORUNMAIYE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the performances of eight crops in the intercrop of citrus with arable crops at the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT Ibadan, Nigeria. Eight arable crops: maize, cucumber, sweet potato, Corchorus olitorius, large green, grain amaranth, Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, and groundnut were intercropped with young citrus trees in the early planting season of 2010 with sole citrus as control. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Data were collected on weed flora, weed density and weed dry weight. Results showed that the relative frequencies of weeds in all the plots were less than 4% at both 6 and 9WAP. Gomphrena celosoides, Oldenlandia corymbosa and Tridax procumbens were most preponderant in appearing in all the plots. Tridax procumbens had a consistent relative frequency (2.34% in all the plots except in citrus/maize plot (0.78% at 9 WAP. Significantly lower broadleaf weed densities were obtained in citrus/sweet potato, citrus/large green, control plot and citrus/cucumber (28.67, 45.00, 50.00 and 76.33 m-2 respectively than in citrus/groundnut plot (143.00 m-2. Similarly, significantly lower grass weed densities were produced in citrus/Mucuna and citrus/sweet potato (0.33 m-2 each plots than the control plot (11.33 m-2. Whereas citrus/corchorus plot produced significantly lower broadleaf weed dry weight (37.59 g m-2 than citrus/Mucuna plot (126.47 g m-2 at 3WAP, citrus/large green plot (16.15 g m-2 and citrus/groundnut plot (123.25 g m-2 followed the same trend at 6 WAP. Sedges dry weights were less than 7 g m-2 in all the plots compared with control plot.

  6. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  7. Changing mineral phase associated organic matter due to 150 years cultivation of a forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Gergely; Rieder, Ádám; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key component that determines most properties of the soil. SOM is responsible for soil structure, porosity, fertility, cation exchange capacity, hydrological properties and puffer capacity. SOM is a heterogeneous mixture of organism derived molecules with various size and composition. Actual environmental circumstances affect SOM composition directly (flora, decomposition dynamics, tillage) and indirectly (climate, mineral composition of the soil, hydrological properties), however each clue of former environmental impacts is stored as well. Various SOM components are presumed to be located by different forces on different mineralogical particles. Present study aims to compare SOM quantity and composition of the same topsoil under different land uses. Soil under continuous forest is compared to the arable field where forest clearance was done 150 years before. Soil organic carbon (SOC) content of the arable soil decreased to 50% due to land use change, though aggregate stability did not change substantially. Under both land uses 80% of the bulk samples were found in aggregated form, while SOM within the aggregates was less polymerized under arable crops. On the other hand SOC content of the particulate organic matter fraction under arable crops increased. Based on the dynamic light scattering (DLS) results each individual SOM fraction has a polydispers distribution, that indicates the presence of the whole molecular size palette in each sample. Nevertheless some specific molecular size values such as 460 nm in case of arable land and 5500 nm in case of forest seemed to be predominant. DLS results were hardly comparable to those gained using photometric indexes because of the ambiguities. For more precise findings static light scattering method for molecular weight distribution is planned. G. Jakab was supported by the János Bolyai scholarship of the HAS, which is kindly acknowledged here.

  8. PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND SOLUBILITY OF HEAVY METALS IN URBAN AND SUBURBAN SOILS OF RAVENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gatti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Three location types with of different environmental impacts were considered in the district of Ravenna, a city park, a suburban pinewood and arable fields. In this paper we report the preliminary results about the relationship between land use and soil management with chemical fractionation of heavy metals. The distribution and solubility of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb was determined by water and LMWOAs extraction procedures in horizons A1 and A2 of 13 soils. In general the maximum potentially toxic element concentrations were associated with soil collected from the pinewood, and they tended to decrease with depth. The upper layer enrichment of the pinewood soils clearly revealed an anthropogenic origin of pollution. Under the pinewood, the extraction power by the single extraction procedures showed a pattern quite similar in terms of ranking of metals extracted, except that Zn and Ni were more dissolved than Cu by the use of LMWOAs. Under the pinewood, the metal levels presented a rather similar distribution pattern in terms of ranking of extractive power by the single extraction procedures, with Zn and Ni being more dissolved than Cu by the use of LMWOAs extractant. However, both readily available pools were demonstrated to be more enriched in Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb compared those of city park and arable soils. City park and arable soils had high contents of  Cu. The highest concentrations were particularly shown by the arable soil under orchard, due to frequent fungicide applications. Single extractions were compared to metals dissoved in aqua regia by bivariate correlations. By comparison, pinewood soils showed higher positive relationships between pseudo-total contents determined by aqua regia and metal concentrations from single extraction procedures than city park and arable soils. The highest correlation coefficients were found for Zn and Cd by water extraction, and for Cu and Pb by LMWOAs extraction. Both water and LMWOAs pools exhibited

  9. Soil CO2 emission of different ecosystems and soil microbial community respiration (European Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, Sofia; Ananyeva, Nadezhda; Ivashchenko, Kristina; Vasenev, Vyacheslav

    2017-04-01

    Soil CO2 emission is mainly provided by soil microorganisms and plant roots respiration. Our study focuses on finding a relationship between soil CO2 emission of different ecosystems and soil microbial community functioning. Soil CO2 emission was monthly measured (LI-820) from May to October 2015 in the 5-th spatially distributed points of forest, meadow (steppe), arable (bare fallow), urban of subtaiga and forest-steppe vegetation subzones (Albeluvisol and Chernozems, Moscow and Kursk regions, respectively). Soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic, substrate-induced respiration method), basal respiration (BR), organic carbon content (Corg), pHw and soil C/N ratio were measured in soil samples (0-10 cm, litter excluded, n = 240). Specific respiration of soil microbial biomass (qCO2) was calculated as BR / Cmic. Soil CO2 emission of different ecosystems was ranged 0.2-87.4 and 1.1-87.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1 for subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. It was reached on average 20.5, 33.5, 3.8, 28.4 and 15.0, 23.8, 3.7, 15.3 g CO2 m-2 d-1 for forest, meadow, arable, urban of subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. The high soil CO2 emission was found in grassland ecosystems, the low - in arable, however it was quite high in urban. Soil organic carbon content of different ecosystems was ranged 1.0-3.3% and 1.4-3.7%, pH was 4.7-7.6 and 6.1-8.2, C/N = 10.8-16.0 and 12.0-18.1 for subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. Soil Cmic of different ecosystems was ranged 60-1294 and 178-2531 μg C g-1 for subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. The Cmic of forest, meadow, arable, urban in subtaiga and forest-steppe was reached on average 331, 549, 110, 517 and 1525, 1430, 320, 482 μg C g-1, respectively. Soil BR of different ecosystems was ranged 0.14-2.23 and 0.15-2.80 μg C-CO2 g-1 h-1 for subtaiga and forest-steppe, respectively. Moreover, the BR of forest, meadow, arable, urban in subtaiga and forest-steppe was on average 0.87, 0.92, 0.42, 0.47 and 1.20, 1.42, 0.33, 0.64 μg C

  10. Ambassadors of the Swedish Nation: National Images in the Teaching of the Swedish Lecturers in Germany 1918-1945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching of Swedish language lecturers active in Germany during the first half of the twentieth century. It shows the centrality of literature and literary constructions and analyses images of Swedishness and the Swedish nation present in the teaching material of that time in relation to the national image present in…

  11. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  12. Analysis of Multi-Scale Changes in Arable Land and Scale Effects of the Driving Factors in the Loess Areas in Northern Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, statistical data on the national economic and social development, including the year-end actual area of arable land, the crop yield per unit area and 10 factors, were obtained for the period between 1980 and 2010 and used to analyze the factors driving changes in the arable land of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi, China. The following areas of arable land, which represent different spatial scales, were investigated: the Baota District, the city of Yan’an, and the Northern Shaanxi region. The scale effects of the factors driving the changes to the arable land were analyzed using a canonical correlation analysis and a principal component analysis. Because it was difficult to quantify the impact of the national government policies on the arable land changes, the contributions of the national government policies to the changes in arable land were analyzed qualitatively. The primary conclusions of the study were as follows: between 1980 and 2010, the arable land area decreased. The trends of the year-end actual arable land proportion of the total area in the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City were broadly consistent, whereas the proportion in the Baota District had no obvious similarity with the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City. Remarkably different factors were shown to influence the changes in the arable land at different scales. Environmental factors exerted a greater effect for smaller scale arable land areas (the Baota District. The effect of socio-economic development was a major driving factor for the changes in the arable land area at the city and regional scales. At smaller scales, population change, urbanization and socio-economic development affected the crop yield per unit area either directly or indirectly. Socio-economic development and the modernization of agricultural technology had a greater effect on the crop yield per unit area at the large-scales. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis

  13. Swedish Fashion 1930–1960 : Rethinking the Swedish Textile and Clothing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kyaga, Ulrika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the development of Swedish fashion between 1930 and 1960 by examining the textile and clothing industry from the wider perspective of fashion production. It was during this period that Sweden was transformed into a leading industrial nation, which laid the foundation for increased prosperity in the post-war period. This historical and empirical study is predominantly based on systematic analysis of Swedish official statistics and close reading of the fashi...

  14. Effects of afforestation on soil structure formation in two climatic regions of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Podrazsky; O. Holubik; J. Vopravil; T. Khel; W. K. Moser; H. Prknova

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of agricultural land afforestation on soil characteristics. Two sites in two regions of the Czech Republic were evaluated, at lower as well as higher submountain elevations: in the regions of the Orlicke hory Mts. and Kostelec nad Cernymi lesy, afforested, arable and pasture lands were compared for basic chemical and...

  15. Training Entrepreneurship at Universities: A Swedish Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofsten, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    The Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Program trains Swedish individuals in the startup of technology- or knowledge-based enterprises. Built on the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior, the program features a holistic outlook, a network of established entrepreneurs, mentoring, a mix of theory and practice, and focus on the…

  16. Science communication and the Swedish acrylamide "alarm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofstedt, Ragnar E

    2003-01-01

    On April 24, 2002 the Swedish National Food Administration along with a group of researchers at the University of Stockholm raised an alarm regarding potential health risks associated with eating fried and baked foods such as potatoes and bread. Scientists had found high levels of acrylamide (up to 500 times more acrylamide than that allowed in drinking water by the World Health Organisation), a substance widely believed to cause cancer, in cooked high starch foods. The outcomes of this "alarm" were immediate. In Sweden sales of chips fell by 30-50 percent over a 3-day period following the press conference, and share prices among several fried food manufacturers fell substantially, as stock analysts were fearful that consumption of fried foods would decrease significantly. Four days after the press conference, however, consumers began eating fried food as normal and a number of researchers and journalists in Sweden and elsewhere took the view that the alarm had been both exaggerated and ill placed. In this study, I evaluate the science communication process associated with the scare, based on a content analysis of a select group of Swedish broad sheets from just previous to the April 2002 press conference to the present time (December 2002). In addition, the study is based on interviews with the various Swedish regulators involved in the process itself (in particular at the Swedish National Food Administration) as well as with the scientists responsible for the study at Stockholm University and relevant journalists and politicians.

  17. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  18. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  19. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  20. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  1. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    the organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  2. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...... of these reforms on public support for the welfare state....

  3. The Widening Gap--A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandell, Gerd; Hemmi, Kristi; Thunberg, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Transition problems from secondary to tertiary level in mathematics have been a recurrent issue in Sweden. This paper summarises the development during the last decades. Results from two recent research studies that illuminate the transition problem are presented. The first one, based on empirical data from a major Swedish technical university,…

  4. Radon chamber for soil gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.

    1987-01-01

    Swedish Geological Co (SGAB) has designed and constructed a chamber for the calibration of detectors and instruments intended for the measurement of radon-222 in soil gas. In the chamber radon detectors may be exposed in a model environment which simulates ground conditions with respect to radon concentration, temperature and humidity. Also included in the research project is the development of methods for calibration procedures, together with test measurements. In general, these measurements indicate that the radon detectors tested are sufficiently accurate and reliable for radon measurements in Swedish soils if they are calibrated in an environment which simulates ground conditions. (orig./HP)

  5. Crop yield, weed infestation and soil fertility responses to contrasted ploughing intensity and manure additions in a Mediterranean organic crop rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Baldivieso-Freitas, P.; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Armengot, Laura; Chamorro, Lourdes; Romanyà, Joan; Sans, F. Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Conservation agriculture and organic farming are two alternative strategies that aim to improve soil quality and fertility in arable cropping systems through the deployment of different practices, that are rarely combined. While conservation agriculture practices include reducing tillage intensity and maintaining soil cover all year round to prevent soil erosion, organic farming focuses on nutrient recycling, using farmyard manure and green manure to enhance soil quality. However, these pract...

  6. Hydrochemistry of rivers in an acid sulphate soil hotspot area in western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ROOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During heavy rains and snow melting, acid sulphate (AS soils on the coastal plains of Finland are flushed resulting in discharge of acidic and metal-rich waters that strongly affect small streams. In this study, the impact of AS soils occurrence and hydrological changes on water quality were determined for 21 rivers (catchment sizes between 96–4122 km2 running through an AS soil hotspot area in western central Finland. Water samples, collected at the outlet, during eight selected events, were analysed for pH, dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity (EC and 32 chemical elements. Based on the correlation with percentage arable land in the catchments (a rough estimate of AS soil occurrences, as up to 50% of the arable land is underlain with these soils, it was possible to categorize variables into those that are enriched in runoff from such land, depleted in runoff from such land (only one element, and not affected by land-use type in the catchments. Of the variables enriched in runoff from arable land, some were leached from AS soils during high-water flows, in particular (aluminium, boron, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, nickel, sulphur, silicon, thorium, thallium, uranium, and zinc and others occurred in highest concentrations during lower flows (calcium, EC, potassium, magnesium, sodium, rubidium and strontium. Molybdenum and phosphorus were not leached from AS soils in larger amounts than from other soils and thus related to other factors connected to the arable land. Based on the concentrations of potentially toxic metals derived from AS soils, the 21 rivers were ranked from the least (Lestijoki River, Lapväärtinjoki River and Perhonjoki River to the most (Sulvanjoki River, Vöyrinjoki River and Maalahdenjoki River heavily AS soil impacted. It has been decided that Vöyrinjoki is to be dredged along a ca. 20 km distance. This is quite alarming considering the high metal concentrations in the river.;

  7. Soil sampling strategies: Evaluation of different approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e Protezione dell' Ambiente del Veneto, ARPA Veneto, U.O. Centro Qualita Dati, Via Spalato, 14-36045 Vicenza (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2{sigma}, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies.

  8. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  9. Chernobyl fallout in a Swedish spruce forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Johanson, K.J.; Fawaris, B.H.; Nielsen, S.P.; Horrill, A.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; Barbayiannis, N.; Veresoglou, D.S.; Dawson, D.E.; Colgan, P.A.; McGarry, A.T

    2000-03-01

    An assessment of the distribution of Chernobyl fallout in a Swedish forest was carried out and showed more than 95% of the {sup 137}Cs in the system to be of Chernobyl origin. The data show that approximately 87% of total fallout is found in soils, 6% in the bryophyte layer and 7% in standing biomass of trees. The mean deposition of {sup 137}Cs in the system (including soils, bryophytes, understorey vegetation, fungi, trees, moose and roe deer) was 54 kBq m{sup -2}. Fungi, understorey vegetation and ruminant populations collectively contained approximately 1% of total radiocaesium in the system. However, actual concentrations in these sample types were higher than in any other category, mostly exceeding the limit of 1500 Bq kg{sup -1} for consumption of wild produce in Sweden. These categories represent the principal foodstuffs responsible for radiation transfer to man from the system and though negligible in total biomass there is potential for significant dose transfer to individuals who are regular consumers of wild forest produce.

  10. Chernobyl fallout in a Swedish spruce forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, E.J.; Synnott, H.J.; Johanson, K.J.; Fawaris, B.H.; Nielsen, S.P.; Horrill, A.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; Barbayiannis, N.; Veresoglou, D.S.; Dawson, D.E.; Colgan, P.A.; McGarry, A.T.

    2000-01-01

    An assessment of the distribution of Chernobyl fallout in a Swedish forest was carried out and showed more than 95% of the 137 Cs in the system to be of Chernobyl origin. The data show that approximately 87% of total fallout is found in soils, 6% in the bryophyte layer and 7% in standing biomass of trees. The mean deposition of 137 Cs in the system (including soils, bryophytes, understorey vegetation, fungi, trees, moose and roe deer) was 54 kBq m -2 . Fungi, understorey vegetation and ruminant populations collectively contained approximately 1% of total radiocaesium in the system. However, actual concentrations in these sample types were higher than in any other category, mostly exceeding the limit of 1500 Bq kg -1 for consumption of wild produce in Sweden. These categories represent the principal foodstuffs responsible for radiation transfer to man from the system and though negligible in total biomass there is potential for significant dose transfer to individuals who are regular consumers of wild forest produce

  11. Prediction of in situ soil nitrogen mineralisation using artificial neural networks: a promising way to improve model accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Matthieu; Lek, Sovan; Justes, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The ability of artificial nural networ (ANN) to predict soil N mineralisation in fiels conditions using simple soil characteristics was tested on 74 unfertilised arable crop fields distributed all over France. In situ N mineralisation of soil mineral N and water contents. The ANN method used was the multilayer feed forward neuronal network trained by back propagation algorithm. A set of 56 sites was selected for ANN imput variables (clay content, log transformed CaCO3 content, organic N stock...

  12. Spatiotemporal Pattern and Driving Forces of Arable Land-Use Intensity in China: Toward Sustainable Land Management Using Emergy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The level of arable land-use intensity has important impacts on food security and rural sustainable development. Using the emergy method, we investigate the spatial disparities and driving forces of arable land-use intensity in China from 1999 to 2008 at the national, regional and provincial levels. The empirical results show that chemical fertilizer was the largest component of agricultural inputs and that agricultural diesel oil recorded the highest growth rate. The degree of heterogeneities in arable land-use intensity in China showed a decreasing trend, which resulted mainly from the differences among the eastern, northeastern, central and western regions. The regional disparities in labor, pesticides and plastic sheeting decreased from 1999 to 2008. The per capita annual net incomes of household operations and the agricultural policies had a significant positive correlation with total inputs, fertilizer inputs, pesticide inputs and agricultural plastic sheeting. In addition, the nonagricultural population had a greater impact on agricultural plastic sheeting. Finally, we suggest that there is an urgent need to focus on the effects of chemical fertilizer and pesticide inputs on the ecological environment. Agricultural support policies should be introduced for the poor agricultural production provinces.

  13. Biodegradability of pharmaceutical compounds in agricultural soils irrigated with treated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossberger, Amnon; Hadar, Yitzhak; Borch, Thomas; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) are introduced into agricultural soils via irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW). Our data show that carbamazepine, lamotrigine, caffeine, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole and sildenafil are persistent in soils when introduced via TWW. However, other PCs, namely diclofenac, ibuprofen, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and naproxen were not detected in soils when introduced via TWW. This is likely due to rapid degradation as confirmed in our microcosm studies where they exhibited half-lives (t 1/2 ) between 0.2–9.5 days when soils were spiked at 50 ng/g soil and between 3 and 68 days when soils were spiked at 5000 ng/g soil. The degradation rate and extent of PCs observed in microcosm studies were similar in soils that had been previously irrigated with TWW or fresh water. This suggests that pre-exposure of the soils to PCs via irrigation with TWW does not enhance their biodegradation. This suggests that PCs are probably degraded in soils via co-metabolism. Highlights: • Some pharmaceuticals are highly persistent in arable soils. • Weak acid pharmaceuticals are readily degradable in agricultural soils. • Irrigation with treated wastewater does not enhance degradation of pharmaceuticals. • Degradation of pharmaceuticals in soil is probably occurred via co-metabolism. -- Some pharmaceutical compounds are persistent in arable soils when introduced via irrigation with treated wastewater

  14. A simple approach to estimate soil organic carbon and soil co/sub 2/ emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, F.

    2013-01-01

    SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) and soil CO/sub 2/ (Carbon Dioxide) emission are among the indicator of carbon sequestration and hence global climate change. Researchers in developed countries benefit from advance technologies to estimate C (Carbon) sequestration. However, access to the latest technologies has always been challenging in developing countries to conduct such estimates. This paper presents a simple and comprehensive approach for estimating SOC and soil CO/sub 2/ emission from arable- and forest soils. The approach includes various protocols that can be followed in laboratories of the research organizations or academic institutions equipped with basic research instruments and technology. The protocols involve soil sampling, sample analysis for selected properties, and the use of a worldwide tested Rothamsted carbon turnover model. With this approach, it is possible to quantify SOC and soil CO/sub 2/ emission over short- and long-term basis for global climate change assessment studies. (author)

  15. Inferences About Radionuclide Mobility in Soils Based on the Solid/Liquid Partition Coefficients and Soil Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohlenius, Gustav; Saetre, Peter; Norden, Sara; Grolander, Sara; Sheppard, Steve

    2013-01-01

    To assist transport modeling in assessments of the radiological impact of a geological repository for radioactive wastes, the mobility of various elements was studied in arable and wetland soils in the Forsmark region, Sweden. Pore water and total element contents were determined for five types of unconsolidated deposits (regolith), spanning a wide range of soil properties with respect to pH and organic matter content. Two soil depths were sampled to capture element mobility in regolith layers affected and unaffected by soil-forming processes. The solid/liquid partition coefficients (K d values) for most elements varied significantly among regolith types. For most elements, the observed variations in K d values could be explained by variations in soil properties. For many elements, mobility increased with decreasing soil pH. The results provide a significant addition of data on radionuclide retention in soils, taking account of soil properties and processes

  16. Impacts of the Conversion of Forest to Arable Land and Long Term Agriculture Practices on the Water Pathways in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinet, J.; Minella, J. P. G.; Schlesner, A.; Lücke, A.; Ameijeiras-Marino, Y.; Opfergelt, S.; Vanderborght, J.; Gerard, G.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in runoff pathways affect many environmental processes. Land use change (LUC), and more specifically forest conversion to arable land, is one of the controls of water fluxes at the hillslope or catchment scale. Still, the long term effects of forest conversion and agricultural activities in (sub-) tropical environments have been relatively understudied. Our objective was therefore to study the impact of deforestation and land degradation through agriculture on runoff pathways. We selected two small catchments with contrasting land use (agriculture vs. natural forest) in a subtropical region in the south of Brazil. Stream-, pore-, subsurface- and rainwater were monitored, sampled and analyzed for Dissolve Silicon concentration (DSi) and δ18O isotopic signature. Both forested and agricultural catchments were highly responsive to rainfall event and only 2 runoff components contributed to the stream discharge were identified: baseflow and peak flow components. The δ18O peak flow signal in the agricultural catchment was closely related to the δ18O rainfall signal. In the forested catchment, the δ18O peak flow signal was similar to a seasonally averaged signal. This suggested that most peak flow was derived from current rainfall events in the agricultural catchment, while being derived from a mixed reservoir in the forested one. The DSi of the peak flow was low in both catchments. Hence, the mixing in the forested catchment cannot have taken place in the soil matrix as the soil pore water contained high DSi concentrations. Instead, the mixing must have taken place in a reservoir with a relatively short residence time and isolated, to some extent, from the soil matrix. The dense channel network left by decayed roots in the forest soil above a clay-rich water-impeding B horizon is the most likely candidate and this was confirmed by visual observations. Contributions of other, deeper reservoirs are unlikely given the quick response time of the catchment

  17. Heat cost in a Swedish agrothermal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.

    1978-01-01

    Low-grade heat is of rapidly increasing importance in Sweden and, therefore, so is the economic evaluation of such heat. The present heat cost is based on a detailed feasibility study of large-scale heated horticulture combined with electricity production from a Swedish boiling water reactor power plant. To estimate judiciously the cost of heat from a dual-purpose plant--such as a large-scale horticultural installation combined with and using low-grade waste heat from an electric power plant--is an almost classical problem: a measure of arbitrarity is unavoidable. The opportunity cost approach shown has presumably some new features. It results in an estimated cost of heat delivered from the turbine condenser heater in the power plant of 1.4 $/GJ (or 6.1 Swedish Crwn/GJ) in 1980, which is less than one-third of the cost of fuel only with conventional oil-fired heaters

  18. Effects of Swedish massage on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aourell, Moa; Skoog, Martina; Carleson, J

    2005-11-01

    Swedish massage technique includes mechanically activated muscular tissue and also skin, tendons, fascias, and connected tissue, which indirectly regulates the tonus of the autonomous nervous system. This study set out to examine the effects of Swedish massage on blood pressure. Healthy males were given massage treatment at the Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Treatment was over a 12-week period divided into three parts, each consisting of 4 weeks. Two treatment periods contained massage treatment either on back, neck and chest (BNC), or leg, arm and face (LAF), with an in between washout period. The first treatment period with massage decreased systolic blood pressure directly after treatment (BNC: Pmassage decreased systolic (Pmassage (Pmassage on the BNC resulted in a minor decrease in blood pressure possibly due to sympathetic inhibition. It may be suggested that massage may be tried as a complementary therapy in patients suffering from increased blood pressure due to stress.

  19. Swedish subseabed store - phase 1 nears completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, James

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the storage of radioactive waste in the subseabed in Sweden. The wastes are low- and intermediate-level reactor wastes arising from the Swedish nuclear power programme. The repository is a cavern which has been excavated under the seabed in the Baltic Sea, about a kilometre out from shore. The specifications of the repository are given, along with the volume of the radioactive wastes to be stored in it. (UK)

  20. Diversity Work in a Swedish Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Risberg, Annette

    2013-01-01

    This paper builds on a case study of diversity work in a Swedish municipality, Malmö. It focuses on certain actors partaking in the diversity work done in the municipality that of a gender and diversity committee and its members – here called diversity ambassadors. I will describe the work of the diversity ambassadors and discuss what impact they could possibly have on the organization. Organizational efforts to change inequalities at the workplace may take different forms. The literature ...

  1. The swedish challenge; Le pari Suedois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregouet, R

    2006-07-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  2. Spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisman, Jonas; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Olin, Anna-Carin; Torén, Kjell; Bake, Björn

    2017-11-01

    New spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults are required. Three different older sets of reference equations clinically used in Sweden have various drawbacks and the recently published 'The Global Lung Function 2012 (GLI) equations' have been shown not to be adequate for Swedish normal, healthy non-smokers. We have recently concluded that a piecewise linear model presented by Lubinski and Gólczewski accurately describes the distribution of spirometric variables in a large Swedish random population sample. This piecewise linear model also offers the important advantage of implementing easily physiologically interpretable coefficients. The present study aimed at presenting piecewise linear reference equations for Swedish adults based on a random population sample of 6685 individuals aged 25-75 years. Predicted normal values by the piecewise linear reference equations and lower limit normal (LLN) were compared with the three reference equations frequently used clinically in Sweden and the GLI equations. We found predicted normal values according to the present piecewise linear reference equations close to 100% predicted normal as expected, whereas the other equations either overestimated or underestimated normal subjects. Concerning LLN, the present equations, i.e. 1·645 × RSD, showed the least deviation from the expected 5% and, e.g., the GLI equations systematically identified too few subjects below LLN. We conclude that the present piecewise linear reference equations, based on a relatively large general population sample, ought to be considered for clinical use in Sweden. Application of 1·645 × RSD below predicted value gave an acceptably accurate LLN. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Swedish reactor safety. Barsebaeck risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    probabilistic safety analysis of the Barsebaeck reactor, a Swedish-designed Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), was done using design and reliability information from Barsebaeck and similar Swedish reactors. The methodology of the Reactor Safety (WASH-1400) was employed to the extent possible to determine the probability of major accidents at Barsebaeck. It is concluded that an accident at the Barsebaeck nuclear plant could potentially affect a large segment of the population of Sweden and of neighbouring countries. The risk consists not only of potential harm to the current population, but of possible harm to future population due to the very long lives of the radioactive materials involved. However the complexity of nuclear systems, the relatively scant data base on which to make long-term predictions of equipment reliability, and little experience in accident consequences make the uncertainty bounds of this typype of studies very broad. Thus, in the end, the decision on the question of continuation of the Swedish nuclear power program must be made outside of, but with the assistance of, the technical community. The acceptance of nuclear power as an energy source in a country becomes a decision of social acceptability and, of necessity, must be made by the social structure's appointed representatives. (E.R.)

  4. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. Intrinsic and induced isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Brian J.; Papanikolaou, Niki D.; Wilcox, Ronah K.

    2005-01-01

    The catabolic activity with respect to the systemic herbicide isoproturon was determined in soil samples by 14 C-radiorespirometry. The first experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples that represented three dissimilar soil series under arable cultivation. Results showed average extents of isoproturon mineralisation (after 240 h assay time) in the three soil series to be low. A second experiment assessed the impact of addition of isoproturon (0.05 μg kg -1 ) into these soils on the levels of catabolic activity following 28 days of incubation. Increased catabolic activity was observed in all three soils. A third experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples representing a single soil series managed under either conventional agricultural practice (including the use of isoproturon) or organic farming practice (with no use of isoproturon). Results showed higher (and more consistent) levels of isoproturon mineralisation in the soil samples collected from conventional land use. The final experiment assessed the impact of isoproturon addition on the levels of inducible catabolic activity in these soils. The results showed no significant difference in the case of the conventional farm soil samples while the induction of catabolic activity in the organic farm soil samples was significant. - Dissimilar levels of isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use influence inferred risk

  6. Radio biogeochemical assessment of the soil near the Issyk-Kul region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldybaev, B.; Djenbaev, B.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : Soil is one of the main natural resources, providing for the sustainable development of the country. For environmentally well founded and balanced use and protection of land resources it is necessary to create the optimal structure of arable farming, minimizing negative impacts on the land of diverse of agricultural activities. Determination of chemical elements in the soil was conducted by the methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis and radionuclide by the methods of instrumental gamma spectrometry

  7. Ecological Intensification Through Pesticide Reduction: Weed Control, Weed Biodiversity and Sustainability in Arable Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Gaba, Sabrina; Cordeau, Stéphane; Lechenet, Martin; Mézière, Delphine; Colbach, Nathalie

    2015-11-01

    Amongst the biodiversity components of agriculture, weeds are an interesting model for exploring management options relying on the principle of ecological intensification in arable farming. Weeds can cause severe crop yield losses, contribute to farmland functional biodiversity and are strongly associated with the generic issue of pesticide use. In this paper, we address the impacts of herbicide reduction following a causal framework starting with herbicide reduction and triggering changes in (i) the management options required to control weeds, (ii) the weed communities and functions they provide and (iii) the overall performance and sustainability of the implemented land management options. The three components of this framework were analysed in a multidisciplinary project that was conducted on 55 experimental and farmer's fields that included conventional, integrated and organic cropping systems. Our results indicate that the reduction of herbicide use is not antagonistic with crop production, provided that alternative practices are put into place. Herbicide reduction and associated land management modified the composition of in-field weed communities and thus the functions of weeds related to biodiversity and production. Through a long-term simulation of weed communities based on alternative (?) cropping systems, some specific management pathways were identified that delivered high biodiversity gains and limited the negative impacts of weeds on crop production. Finally, the multi-criteria assessment of the environmental, economic and societal sustainability of the 55 systems suggests that integrated weed management systems fared better than their conventional and organic counterparts. These outcomes suggest that sustainable management could possibly be achieved through changes in weed management, along a pathway starting with herbicide reduction.

  8. Nitrogen removal in shallow groundwater below three arable land systems in a high nitrogen loading region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Zhou, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Taihu Lake region (TLR) is one of the most intensive agricultural regions with high nitrogen (N) loading in eastern China. Large inputs of synthetic N fertilizer have led to a series of environmental problems including eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate (NO3-) pollution of groundwater. To fully evaluate the risk of NO3- on groundwater environments, it is necessary to know the natural NO3- removal ability. In this study, denitrification capacity was assessed for two years through measuring the concentration of different N species (NO3-, NH4+, TN, excess N2 and dissolved N2O) in groundwater below three typical agricultural land-use types in the TLR. The results suggested that the conversion of paddy field (PF) to vineyard (VY) and vegetable (VF) significantly increased the groundwater NO3-N concentration, but denitrification consumed 76%, 83% and 65% of the groundwater NO3-N in VY, VF and PF, respectively. Because of the low O2 and high DOC concentrations in groundwater, denitrification activity was high in the study sites, resulting in high excess N2 accumulation in groundwater, and the concentration even exceeded the total active N in the deep layer. The large amounts of excess N2 observed in the VY and VF over all the sample times indicated that considerable N was stored as gaseous N2 in groundwater and should not be ignored in balancing N budgets in aquifers where denitrification is high. Our results also demonstrated that the indirect N2O emission factor (EF5-g) in VY (0.0052)and VF (0.0057)was significantly higher than PF (0.0011)as well as higher than the IPCC default values (0.0025. In view of the increasing trend of paddy fields being converted to uplands combined with the low GWT in the TLR, we thus concluded that the risk of NO3- contamination in groundwater and indirect N2O emission will intensify below arable land.

  9. Ecological Intensification Through Pesticide Reduction: Weed Control, Weed Biodiversity and Sustainability in Arable Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Gaba, Sabrina; Cordeau, Stéphane; Lechenet, Martin; Mézière, Delphine; Colbach, Nathalie

    2015-11-01

    Amongst the biodiversity components of agriculture, weeds are an interesting model for exploring management options relying on the principle of ecological intensification in arable farming. Weeds can cause severe crop yield losses, contribute to farmland functional biodiversity and are strongly associated with the generic issue of pesticide use. In this paper, we address the impacts of herbicide reduction following a causal framework starting with herbicide reduction and triggering changes in (i) the management options required to control weeds, (ii) the weed communities and functions they provide and (iii) the overall performance and sustainability of the implemented land management options. The three components of this framework were analysed in a multidisciplinary project that was conducted on 55 experimental and farmer's fields that included conventional, integrated and organic cropping systems. Our results indicate that the reduction of herbicide use is not antagonistic with crop production, provided that alternative practices are put into place. Herbicide reduction and associated land management modified the composition of in-field weed communities and thus the functions of weeds related to biodiversity and production. Through a long-term simulation of weed communities based on alternative (?) cropping systems, some specific management pathways were identified that delivered high biodiversity gains and limited the negative impacts of weeds on crop production. Finally, the multi-criteria assessment of the environmental, economic and societal sustainability of the 55 systems suggests that integrated weed management systems fared better than their conventional and organic counterparts. These outcomes suggest that sustainable management could possibly be achieved through changes in weed management, along a pathway starting with herbicide reduction.

  10. Phosphorus flows to and from Swedish agriculture and food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Kersti; Mattsson, Jan Erik; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus flows in Swedish agriculture and food chain were studied by material flow analysis. The system studied included agriculture, food consumption, related waste and wastewater from private households and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Swedish farmland had net annual phosphorus inputs of ~12, 600 metric tons (4.1 kg P ha(-1)) in 2008-2010. The total import of phosphorus in food and feed to Sweden exceed imports of phosphorus in fertilizers. Despite strict animal density regulations relating to manure phosphorus content, phosphorus is accumulating on Swedish animal farms. The total quantity of manure produced greatly exceeds imported mineral phosphorus fertilizer and almost equals total phosphorus inputs to Swedish farmland.

  11. Plant and soil community assembly in secondary succession on ex-arable land. Fundamental and applied approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardol, P.

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural land is converted into semi-natural ecosystems in order to counteract the current loss of species-rich grasslands and heathlands. However, efforts to restore such plant communities on former agricultural land have shown variable success. Secondary succession is the process of species

  12. Statistical test for tolerability of effects of an antifungal biocontrol strain on fungal communities in three arable soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antweiler, K.; Schreiter, S.; Keilwagen, J.; Baldrian, Petr; Kropf, S.; Smalla, K.; Grosch, R. (ed.); Heuer, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 434-449 ISSN 1751-7907 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : QUANTUM SEMICONDUCTOR CRYSTALLITES * CANDIDA-ALBICANS BIOFILMS * LIESEGANG RING FORMATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.513, year: 2016

  13. Soil-to-plant halogens transfer studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Str.7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN/DEI/SECRE), Cadarache bat 159, BP 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: claude.colle@irsn.fr; Zvarich, S. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Str.7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Yoschenko, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Str.7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Levchuk, S. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Str.7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Lundin, S. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Str.7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine)

    2005-07-01

    Long-term controlled experiments under natural conditions in the field have been carried out in the Chernobyl Exclusion zone in order to determine the parameters governing radioiodine transfer to plants from four types of soils (podzoluvisol, greyzem and typical and meadow chernozem) homogeneously contaminated in the 20-cm upper layer with an addition of {sup 125}I. An absence of {sup 125}I depletion in arable soil layers due to volatilization was noted up to one year after contamination. During one year, depletion due to the vertical migration of radioiodine from the arable layer of each of the soils did not exceed 4% of the total {sup 125}I content. Radioiodine concentration ratios (CR) were obtained in radish roots, lettuce leaves, bean pods, and wheat grain and straw. The highest CR values were observed in podzoluvisol: 0.01-0.03 for radish roots and lettuce leaves, 0.003-0.004 for bean pods and 0.001 for wheat grains. In the other three soils, these values were one order of magnitude lower. The parameters relating to changes in radioiodine bioavailability were determined, based on the contamination dynamics of plants in field conditions.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Changes in Salinity of Arable Lands in Shah Bandar Tehsil, Thatta District, Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shella Bano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivable lands are reducing significantly in hot and dry arid regions of the world due to soil salinity and sodicity resulting in yield losses. Similarly, the coastal Shah Bandar Tehsil of Thatta district is also severely affected by different levels of soil salinity and sodicity. The topography of the area is uneven, so ill drained depressions and saline creeks are common. This area was worst affected by floods of 2010 and 2011. The flood water kept standing for several months causing water logging in the area. Irrigation is done with perennial and non perennial canals, as groundwater is highly saline due to saltwater flooding and seawater intrusion. In order to identify spatial and temporal variations in soil salinity and sodicity, 48 soil samples were collected from six sites of Shah Bandar Tehsil during Post and Pre monsoon seasons of 2011-2013. Physicochemical data indicate that average pHe of soil ranges between 7.4 and 7.8 during Post and Pre monsoon seasons of 2011-2013. While soil salinity (ECe and sodicity (SAR ranged from 1.09 to 47.10 dS/m and 2.43 to 43.79 during Post monsoon seasons of 2011 and 2013 respectively. Whereas, during Pre-monsoon seasons of 2012 and 2013, EC and SAR ranged from 2.30 to 65.8 dS/m and 3.12 to 50.51 respectively. Thus, soil salinity and sodicity vary from site to site and season to season due to arid climate, high evapotranspiration and fallow lands because of reduced flow of freshwater and seawater intrusion. Data show that the soil quality improved significantly as indicated by reduced soil salinity and sodicity due to floods of 2010 and 2011.

  15. [The Swedish ambulance services 1935-1936 of Gunnar Agge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Pär; Nilsson, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    The fact that Sweden has been spared from war on its soil for almost 200 years, has not stopped Swedish citizens from participating in conflicts worldwide during this period. This has been described, especially from the soldiers perspective. The contribution of Swedish physicians has not been written about to the same extent. When Mussolini's Italy in October 1935 invaded the poor and underdeveloped country of Ethiopia (former Abyssinia) an ambulance was immediately organized by the Swedish Red Cross. To lead such an expedition, a great knowledge of Ethiopian culture och maybe most importantly, of the weather and geographical conditions, was undoubtedly demanded. Therefore, the Swedish Red Cross turned to two Ethiopian veterans. Doctor Fride Hylander, a missionary-son who had been working on a hospital project in the Ethiopian province of Harrar and his friend since school years, doctor Gunnar Agge, were assigned the leadership of the ambulance. Dr Agge had also participated in improving the Ethiopian health care both in Harrar and later as civilian and military doctor in the province of Ogaden, where he was medically responsible for the more than 9 000 men strong army that the Ethiopian emperor had stationed there after Italian provocations. Most of the other members of the ambulance were handpicked by these two leaders and many of them had, just like themselves, a stong religious belief. A money-raise was immediately initiated and in less than six weeks 700 000 Swedish crowns had been collected, more then twice the sum the ambulance was calculated to cost. In early november 1935 the ambulance was clear to go. Their primary objective was to travel through British Somaliland and establish a field-hospital in the province of Harrar. However, the Ethiopian emperor had other things in mind. He wanted to reorganize the ambulance and divide it in two and place it closer to the front line. The ambulance decided to go along with his wish. Both groups started eventually

  16. Soil profile dynamics in an eroding soil landscape - a catena through a kettle hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Horst H.; Kaczorek, Danuta; Hierold, Wilfried; Deumlich, Detlef; Koszinski, Sylvia; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Sommer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The arable hummocky ground moraine soil landscapes are characterized by a spatial continuum of more or less eroded soils at hilltops and slopes, and by colluviated soils in topographic depressions. After removal of forest in the middle ages, colluvium started covering the pre-existing Histosols and Gleysols within and Luvisols in the vicinity of kettle holes. A catena through originally peat-filled kettle-hole has hardly been described with respect to ongoing pedological modifications according to changes in landscape and hydrology. The objective was to derive the lateral continuum of soil horizons by identifying the location of the lateral boundaries between regions of clay mobilization/migration and gleisation (gleyic conditions), peat accumulation, and secondary carbonate accumulation. Data from an intensively-sampled field in northeastern Germany are presented. The start of colluviation could be dated by tree ring analyses of a buried stem. The location of the fossil topsoil A and peat horizons was determined from a dense grid of auger holes and geophysical explorations. In addition to older processes in the landscape, also younger redoximorphic processes were indicating changes in soil hydraulic properties and a modified hydrology of the arable soil landscape. We found in micromorphological analyses of soil thin sections that clay migration is an ongoing process; samples indicated vertical gradients in C-contents and secondary carbonate accumulation. The clay mobilization in the colluvium and the migration into the fossil horizons seemed to depend on the direction of soil water movement; anisotropic hydraulic conductivity indicated a potential for lateral water movement. The catena data suggest that the soil landscape development was relatively dynamic; the results may allow the reconstruction of former land surfaces, soil distributions, and erosion rates and may help predicting future developments.

  17. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    -generation forest plantations on ex-arable land and re-planted clear-cuts on continuously forested land. There was no recruitment following the experimental sowing of six commonwoody species (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Frangula alnus, Sambucus nigra, Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus intermedia). Thus......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...

  18. The dynamics of cultivation and floods in arable lands of Central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Viglizzo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Although floods in watersheds have been associated with land-use change since ancient times, the dynamics of flooding is still incompletely understood. In this paper we explored the relations between rainfall, groundwater level, and cultivation to explain the dynamics of floods in the extremely flat and valuable arable lands of the Quinto river watershed, in central Argentina. The analysis involved an area of 12.4 million hectare during a 26-year period (1978–2003, which comprised two extensive flooding episodes in 1983–1988 and 1996–2003. Supported by information from surveys as well as field and remote sensing measurements, we explored the correlation among precipitation, groundwater levels, flooded area and land use. Flood extension was associated to the dynamics of groundwater level. While no correlation with rainfall was recorded in lowlands, a significant correlation (P<0.01 between groundwater and rainfall in highlands was found when estimations comprise a time lag of one year. Correlations between groundwater level and flood extension were positive in all cases, but while highly significant relations (P<0.01 were found in highlands, non significant relations (P>0.05 predominate in lowlands. Our analysis supports the existence of a cyclic mechanism driven by the reciprocal influence between cultivation and groundwater in highlands. This cycle would involve the following stages: (a cultivation boosts the elevation of groundwater levels through decreased evapotranspiration; (b as groundwater level rises, floods spread causing a decline of land cultivation; (c flooding propitiates higher evapotranspiration favouring its own retraction; (d cultivation expands again following the retreat of floods. Thus, cultivation would trigger a destabilizing feedback self affecting future cultivation in the highlands. It is unlikely that such sequence can work in lowlands. The results suggest that rather than responding directly

  19. Swedish Chemists and Discovery of the Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Volker

    1996-10-01

    All of the elements not already known from antiquity were discovered in Europe and North America. So which country ranks number one on the discovery list? The question occurred to me while leafing through reference 1 in search of thermodynamic data on silicon. Never having seen such a tabulation, I wondered if it might prove useful in teaching. The question has a sports-related flavor that will appeal to many students. Personally, I picked England or Germany for #1. The actual result is surprising. The ranking considering only up to atomic number 103 is as follows: Note: Where two or more independent discoveries have been made, each country is credited. In the "others" category Austria and Denmark each has two discoveries. The remaining countries, with one each, are Finland, Italy, Mexico, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Spain. The high place for the USA is primarily due to the work done at Berkeley and Los Alamos on the transuranics. Without these discoveries, the US would have tied with Switzerland at three elements. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this tabulation is that Swedish chemists have discovered the most elements. Four chemists alone account for twelve of the 20 discoveries: Baron Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) is credited with four elements. His pupil, friend, and assistant, Carl Gustav Mosander (1797-1858) discovered three. P. T. Cleve also found three elements and Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) discovered two. Biographical research on the Swedish chemists is a suitable assignment at the introductory level. Reasons for the predominance of Swedish chemists presents a challenging student research topic in the history of chemistry. Another interesting question at the introductory level is, transuranics aside, who discovered the most elements? At the more advanced level the question becomes, why? Literature Cited: 1. Emsley, J. The Elements; Clarendon: Oxford, 1989.

  20. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  1. The nuclear waste issue in Swedish mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, P.

    1991-04-01

    This is an investigation of the representation given in the Swedish mass media of questions concerning the nuclear waste. The investigation covers the period from 1979 to 1989 of 8 newspapers of different political colours and the Swedish radio and television. (KAE)

  2. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  3. Irradiated fuel storage and transport: A Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the views of the author and may not correspond to the views of the Swedish industry or the licensing authority. The views are based on experience from consultation to the Swedish licensing authority and from participation in international cooperation, in particular in the OECD/NEA NSC Working Group on Burnup Credit. (author)

  4. GENIUS & the Swedish Fast Reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, Janne

    2012-01-01

    Concluding remarks: Sweden’s growing fast reactor programme focuses on LFR technology, but we also participate in ASTRID. • An innovative facility for UN fabrication, an LBE thermal hydraulics loop and a lead corrosion facility are operational. • A plutonium fuel fabrication lab is is under installation (this week!) • The government is assessing the construction of ELECTRA-FCC, a centre for Gen IV-system R&D, at a tentative cost of ~ 140±20 M€. • Location: Oskarshamn (adjacent to intermediate repository) • Date of criticality: 2023 (best case) • Swedish participation in IAEA TWG-FR should intensify

  5. Barriers between international students and Swedish companies

    OpenAIRE

    Qytyku, Silvana Agolli and Sokol

    2008-01-01

    Title: Barriers between international student’s and Swedish companies Course: Master thesis in business administration, 15 ECTS Date: June 2008 Authors: Silvana Agolli and Sokol Qytyku Supervisor: Dr. Per Eisele In this thesis report we have conduct a primary research on Blekinge area, while it is a shortage of IT workers and at the same time there were a lot of internationals students that graduated every year and didn’t get those available jobs. In this investigation we wanted to find out t...

  6. A History of the Swedish Pension System

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    This report provides an extensive overview of the history of the Swedish pension system. Starting with the implementation of the world's first universal public pension system in 1913, the report discusses the political as well as the economic background to each major public pension reform up until today. It presents the rules and the institutional details of these reforms and discuss their implications for retirement behavior, the general state of the economy and the political environment. Pa...

  7. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... the preparatory work, the rationales of diversity on the market and entrepreneurship were added, while the original rationales of efficiency, price pressure, and better usage of medicines were abandoned. The reform can be seen as a typical New Public Management reform influenced by the notion that private actors...

  8. Alpine ski sport injuries in Swedish Lapland

    OpenAIRE

    Made, Curt

    2009-01-01

    Downhill skiing is associated with recreation, youth, speed, aerials and crowded courses which carry increased risk of injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate downhill sport injuries in a Swedish ski resort. Material and methodsIn a case-control study ongoing 1989/90–2006/07, 3,696 injured skiers were registered. After informed consent the injured were assessed by a physician and asked to answer a questionnaire concerning skier, skiing and injury. ResultsAfter three years 481 injured ...

  9. Five pesticides decreased oxidation of atmospheric methane in a forest soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemé, Anders; Ekelund, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    We found that five tested pesticides (the insecticide Dimethoat 40 EC, the herbicide Tolkan, and the fungicides Tilt 250 EC, Tilt Top, and Corbel) decreased the oxidation of atmospheric methane in slurries from a Danish forest soil. Dimethoat 40 EC was the most toxic with an EC50 value (i...... the oxidation of atmospheric methane at concentrations expected in natural soil after application of the pesticides. Pesticides, therefore, may be partly responsible for the lowered methane oxidation rates in arable soils compared to forest soils....

  10. Migration of radionuclides in the soil-crop-food product system and assessment of agricultural countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Ageyets, V.

    1996-01-01

    Studies on dynamics of redistribution of radionuclides through of profile of the different soils on uncultivated agricultural lands of Belarus during the 1986-1995 period show that vertical migration occurs with low rate. In arable soils the radionuclides are distributed in comparatively uniform way through the whole depth of the 25-30 cm cultivated layer. Investigations on migration of radionuclides with wind erosion on the drained series of wet sandy and peat soils and water erosion on sloping lands show that one should take into consideration the secondary contamination of soils while forecasting a possible accumulation of radionuclides in farm products

  11. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Emnova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.

  12. RESOURCES AND STRUCTURE OF USE THE EARTH’S SURFACE AND SOILS IN THE PODKARPACKIE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Kaniuczak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Use the resources and structure of the soil has been studied in Podkarpackie province in the years 1946-2005, divided into three periods of time due to administrative changes in the country and the region (I: 1946-1970, II: 1975-1995, III: 2000-2005. The three time periods studied decreased share of agricultural land and arable land in the general area of the province. In the years 2000-2005 has increased significantly the share of forests and other lands, at the expense of the exclusion of the arable lands and grasslands in agricultural production, which turned into fallow and uncultivated land. The farms 32.7% of arable lands was excluded from the cultivation and has evolved into a fallow and uncultivated land. The holdings of the public sector, this situation was even more unfavorable as it was, and took 86.1% of arable lands for fallow and outfield. During the study period, the structure of individual crops sown undergone substantial changes in the direction of simplification cereal monoculture. The soils of Podkarpackie province are acidic and urgently require liming treatment. Unfavorably was presented a richness soils of available forms macronutrients (P and K in Podkarpackie province, especially in available phosphorus, which was the result of limitations of organic fertilization and low consumption of mineral fertilizers. Over 90% of agricultural soils of Podkarpackie province exhibits natural content of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The aim of the study was to analyze the structure of the Earth's land use and soils, taking into account the structure of crops and some elements of soil fertility and degradation in the context of a slowdown adverse changes.

  13. Herbicide impact on the growth and reproduction of characteristic and rare arable weeds of winter cereal fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotchés-Ribalta, Roser; Boutin, Céline; Blanco-Moreno, José M; Carpenter, David; Sans, F Xavier

    2015-07-01

    The decline of arable species characteristic of winter cereal fields has often been attributed to different factors related to agricultural intensification but most importantly to herbicide use. Herbicide phytotoxicity is most frequently assessed using short-term endpoints, primarily aboveground biomass. However, short-term sensitivity is usually not sufficient to detect actual effects because plants may or may not recover over time following sublethal herbicide exposures. Therefore, it is important to assess the long-term effects of herbicide applications. Annual species rely on renewable seed production to ensure their persistence; hence, assessment of herbicide sensitivity is more accurately estimated through effects on reproduction. Here we aim to assess the phytotoxicity of two commonly used herbicides: tribenuron and 2,4-D on eight plant species belonging to four families, each with one rare and one more common species. Specifically we examined the pattern of sensitivity using short-term and long-term endpoints (total aboveground biomass, total seed biomass and number of seeds) of these species; we determined the levels of and time to recovery in terms of stem length and fruit number, and assessed whether their rarity relates to their sensitivity to herbicide application. Our results suggest that although differences in herbicide sensitivity are not a direct cause of rarity for all species, it may be an important driver of declining arable plants.

  14. A Swedish perspective on research ethics review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius, M.D., G.P., Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I have participated in writing ethical approval applications for research projects in Sweden a dozen times. I am also since some years a member of the local ethics advisory board in a mostly rural area serving 180.000 people. From that position I advise on what types of local project applications will have to be sent further to the regional ethics committee, REPN in Sweden. With that background I will try to give a brief Swedish perspective on research ethics reviews in general and regarding CGT (classic grounded theory studies using qualitative data in particular.The most famous Swedish example of unethical research is the 1947-1951 Vipeholm sugar trial (Krasse, 2001. Several hundred intellectually and mentally challenged persons at the Vipeholm institution were for years given an excess amount of sugar, mostly in the shape of candy. This resulted in caries that totally ruined the teeth of 50 persons. Of course participants did not give informed consent. Yet, at the time the research was not considered unethical. At least there was no debate about it.

  15. Environmental Orientation in Swedish Local Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Alpenberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the environmental orientation in Swedish local governments. Environmental concerns over potential risk factors have become more important and popular among public organizations and environmental improvement efforts are made to create a sustainable ecosystem for the actors doing business, living and working in the area. Prior research indicates that public organizations have started to become more environmentally oriented in order to take on more responsibilities for reducing their own environmental impact as well as influencing the citizens and local businesses in the direction of a more sustainable way of living and working. Through a survey of Swedish local governments we conclude that they are taking on a key role in developing a sustainable ecosystem through becoming more environmentally oriented. This includes developing a framework for setting environmental goals, identifying suitable environmental indicators and reporting to a wide range of stakeholders. A factor that explains the increasing environmental orientation in the public sector is the implementation of digitalized performance measurement systems. We find that the environmental performance measurements are used to motivate different internal and external stakeholders in the efforts to create a multi-actor ecosystem.

  16. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind ....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading......Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...

  17. The Swedish programme for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurstroem, S.; Forsstroem, H.

    1986-10-01

    The following systems and facilities are currently in operation and under implementation: a sea transportation system for all kinds of nuclear waste, a central facility for interim storage of spent fuel (CLAB) and a central underground repository for final disposal of low and medium level reactor waste (SFR). For the remaining steps - final disposal of highly active and longlived radioactive residues - a concept, based on encapsulation of the fuel elements in copper canisters and final storage of the canisters in a repository situated 500 m down in crystalline rock (KBS-3), has been developed and approved by the government in accordance with the Swedish nuclear legislation. Although a feasible method for final disposal of the highly active residues has been shown, the Swedish legislation requires that research be carried out to reach the best possible base for the final decision around the year 2000. In parallel with this a geological investigation programme is carried out to find a suitable site for a final repository. The final site selection is foreseen at the end of the 1990's. All costs for the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants are carried by a fee determined annually. The fee is 0.019 SEK/kWh for 1986

  18. Impact of agricultural extensification on the relation between soil biodiversity and ecosystem services (soil structure maintenance, water regulation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J.; Pérès, G.; Groot, A. de

    Introduction – There are increasing pressures on soil biodiversity and soil degradation remains a pertinent issue. In this context, one aim of the EcoFINDERS European project was to assess the impact of agricultural extensification, across a broad range of European land-use systems, on the relati...... biodiversity, providing better soil structure and water infiltration. These results provide more quantitative insights that allow for ecohydrological modelling (forecasting) and economic valuation......., on the relationships between soil biodiversity and ecosystem services. Special attention was given to the relation between i) soil biodiversity and aggregate stability, and ii) earthworms and soil macroporosity and water infiltration.  Method - Data from seven long-term field studies (France, Germany, United......-Kingdom, Slovenia, Denmark) on replicated plots of different land management scenarios (grassland, arable cropping, mixed crop-grassland, reduced or conventional tillage) were analysed. Earthworms were sampled using hand sorting and chemical extraction. Aggregate stability was measured using wet sieving method...

  19. The Swedish nuclear industry way to approach higher demands on characterisation prior to clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Hellsten, Erik; Berglund, Malin; Larsson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) has introduced new regulations for clearance SSMFS 2011:2 'Regulations concerning clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil from activities with ionizing radiation'. The new regulations came into force January 1, 2012. Compared to the previous regulations these new regulations have a broader scope and have introduced new conditions such as nuclide specific clearance levels. Clearance is practiced to reduce the amount of radioactive waste generated. Cleared material can be reused, recycled or if these two possibilities are not available, disposed of as conventional waste. To be able to meet the requirements for clearance the Swedish nuclear industry has jointly developed guidance for clearance in the form of a handbook and a training course covering the competence requirements in the new regulations. The handbook was developed by a team of representatives from the Swedish nuclear license holders managed by Studsvik on behalf of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The training program was developed in co-operation between Nuclear Safety and training Company (KSU) and Studsvik on behalf of the Swedish nuclear license holders. A major challenge in the adoption to the new regulations is how to provide robust yet cost effective characterisation data. This is especially difficult for mobile materials and equipment which cannot be fully tracked but also for other materials and areas where the nuclide fingerprint has varied over the years. To be able to deal with these issues a lot of attention has to be paid to the historical inventory records and traceability in the clearance process. Materials, rooms and buildings have been divided in four categories with different requirements on frequency and requirements of measurements. The categories are named 'extremely small risk', 'small risk', 'risk' and 'known contamination above clearance levels'. The two day training course is dived into seven parts

  20. Towards an agronomic assessment of N2O emissions: a case study for arable crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van J.W.; Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Kessel, van C.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural soils are the main anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O), largely because of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use. Commonly, N2O emissions are expressed as a function of N application rate. This suggests that smaller fertilizer applications always lead to smaller N2O emissions. Here we

  1. Quantifying movement of the predator carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius in arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allema, A.B.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Werf, van der W.; Hemerik, L.; Groot, J.C.J.; Steingröver, E.G.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on entomophagous arthropod distribution and movement patterns, in particular for soil-dwelling predators, is insufficient to provide advice on how a production landscape should be re-arranged to maximally benefit from biological pest control. Movement has mainly been measured in

  2. Improving natural pest suppression in arable farming: field margins and the importance of ground dwelling predators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebeek, van F.A.N.; Kamstra, J.H.; Kruistum, van G.; Visser, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Overwintering of soil dwelling arthropods and especially carabid beetles was much higher in unmown perennial field margins than in mown grass strips or barren crop fields. Over 200 generalist predators per m2 were trapped in field margin enclosures after hibernation. Predator exclusion experiments

  3. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, Thomas

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue. During this period

  4. Effects of heavy metals on soil microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dian

    2018-02-01

    Soil is one of the most important environmental natural resources for human beings living, which is of great significance to the quality of ecological environment and human health. The study of the function of arable soil microbes exposed to heavy metal pollution for a long time has a very important significance for the usage of farmland soil. In this paper, the effects of heavy metals on soil microbial community were reviewed. The main contents were as follows: the effects of soil microbes on soil ecosystems; the effects of heavy metals on soil microbial activity, soil enzyme activities and the composition of soil microbial community. In addition, a brief description of main methods of heavy metal detection for soil pollution is given, and the means of researching soil microbial community composition are introduced as well. Finally, it is concluded that the study of soil microbial community can well reflect the degree of soil heavy metal pollution and the impact of heavy metal pollution on soil ecology.

  5. THE NUTRIENTS BALANCE OF CROP ROTATION AS AN INDICATOR OF SUSTAINABLE FARMING ON ARABLE LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hanáčková

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient balance of five crop rotation systems under conventional and minimal tillage with interaction of different fertilization treatments was investigated at the experimental station of Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra Dolná Malanta, during 2004-2005. The five-field crop rotation of maize (Zea mays L. - winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. - spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. underseeded with red clover - red clover (Trifolium pratense - common pea (Pisum sativum L. and mustard as catch crop was used. The most serious deficit of nitrogen (- 62.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1, phosphorus (- 24.0 kg.ha-1.yr-1 and potassium (- 89.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 was on control treatments. Deficit of nitrogen was also found-out in treatments with mineral fertilizers application. However higher deficit of nitrogen (- 25.4 kg.ha-1.yr- 1 was registered under conventional tillage. In treatment fertilized with mineral fertilizers together with by - product of pre - crop incorporation into soil (PZ, small balance surplus of nitrogen (8 kg.ha-1.yr-1 - B1, 11.5 kg. ha-1.yr-1 - B2, respectively was calculated. The positive balance of phosphorus achieved in treatments with into soil incorporated by - products of pre - crops (in both systems of soil cultivation amounting value of 3.9 kg.ha-1.yr-1 can contribute to good supply of phosphorous in soil. The negative balance of potassium fluctuating from - 89.2 kg.ha-1.yr-1 (control treatment to - 22 kg.ha-1.yr-1 (PZ is acceptable owing to high content of available potassium in soil of experimental stand.

  6. Changes in microbial activity of soils during the natural restoration of abandoned lands in central Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsepyan, Lilit; Mostovaya, Anna; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Kurganova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Most changes in land use affect significantly the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) and alter the nutrition status of soil microbial community. The arable lands withdrawal induced usually the carbon sequestration in soil, the significant shifts in quality of soil organic matter and structure of microbial community. This study was aimed to determine the microbial activity of the abandoned lands in Central Russia due to the process of natural self-restoration. For the study, two representative chronosequences were selected in Central Russia: (1) deciduous forest area, DFA (Moscow region, 54o49N'; 37o34'E; Haplic Luvisols) and (2) forest steppe area, FSA (Belgorod region 50o36'N, 36o01'E Luvic Phaeozems). Each chronosequence included current arable, abandoned lands of different age, and forest plots. The total soil organic carbon (Corg, automatic CHNS analyzer), carbon immobilized in microbial biomass (Cmic, SIR method), and respiratory activity (RA) were determined in the topsoil (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm layers) for each plots. Relationships between Corg, Cmic, and RA were determined by liner regression method. Our results showed that the conversion of croplands to the permanent forest induced the progressive accumulation Corg, Cmic and acceleration of RA in the top 10-cm layer for both chronosequences. Carbon stock increased from 24.1 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 45.3 Mg C ha-1 in forest soil (Luvic Phaeozems, Belgorod region). In Haplic Luvisols (Moscow region), SOC build up was 2 time less: from 13.5 Mg C ha-1 in arable to 27.9 Mg C ha-1 in secondary forest. During post-agrogenic evolution, Cmic also increased significantly: from 0.34 to 1.43 g C kg-1 soil in Belgorod region and from 0.34 to 0.64 g C kg-1 soil in Moscow region. RA values varied widely in soils studied: from 0.54-0.63 mg C kg-1h-1 in arable plots to 2.02-3.4 mg C kg-1h-1 in forest ones. The close correlations between Cmic, RA and Corg in the top 0-5cm layer (R2 = 0.81-0.90; PSports.

  7. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  8. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-09-01

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions have been

  9. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...... authority, support and conflicts at work are predictive of depressive symptoms in the general Swedish working population....... Survey 2003. Work demands, decision authority, support and conflicts at work were measured in 2003. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 2006 by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: After adjusting...

  10. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  11. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  12. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2015-01-01

    networks. Although still in their infancy, these networks are, as expected, creating new demands for their home bases in terms of demands for formalisation of work processes, systems development and managerial capability related to orchestrating operations across national borders, but more fundamentally......This paper examines how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale and how this affects their home bases in terms of operations requirements and priorities. In order to relate SMEs’ offshoring initiatives with their operations configuration attributes, we...... draw on the operations networks literature and survey responses from 675 Danish and 410 Swedish companies. On the basis of the survey results, we find that although the SMEs are less experienced and less advanced in their offshoring ventures than large companies, they are building dispersed operations...

  13. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  14. Perceived employability trajectories: A Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnroos Née Kirves, Kaisa; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-07-27

    This study identified perceived employability trajectories and their associations with sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms over time. The sample was part of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey on Health from 2008 to 2014 (n=4,583). Two stable trajectories (high and low perceived employability over time) and three trajectories with changes (increasing, decreasing, and V-shaped perceived employability over time) were identified. Workers with stable low perceived employability reported more sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms than those who perceived high or increasing employability. Perceived employability is a rather stable personal resource, which is associated with well-being over time. However, changes in perceived employability do not seem to be echoed in well-being, at least not as immediately as theoretically expected.

  15. Fostering Perspectives on Swedish and Indian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harveen Kaur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection of cultural differences recorded by the author during her research visit to Sweden in the year 2017 (February-March month. The objectives of the research visit included understanding official dialects of both countries, existing education system and work environments, variant food habits, family structure and associations, available transport systems, sustainable living options and cultural exchange within India and Sweden. The information was first collected through existing literature and was supported by information collected through observation method, informal discussions and interactions with the Swedish people. It can be concluded that both countries are culturally very different and different parts of each country further exhibit alteration in cultural practices, languages and food preferences. Some variations are also due to population size in both countries. For instance, transportation is very well developed in developed countries due to the availability of advanced technology and less population.

  16. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  17. Digital Components in Swedish NPP Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mattias; Eriksson, Tage

    2015-01-01

    Swedish nuclear power plants have over the last 20 years of operation modernised or exchanged several systems and components of the electrical power system. Within these works, new components based on digital technology have been employed in order to realize functionality that was previously achieved by using electro-mechanical or analogue technology. Components and systems such as relay protection, rectifiers, inverters, variable speed drives and diesel-generator sets are today equipped with digital components. Several of the systems and components fulfil functions with a safety-role in the NPP. Recently, however, a number of incidents have occurred which highlight deficiencies in the design or HMI of the equipment, which warrants questions whether there are generic problems with some applications of digital components that needs to be addressed. The use of digital components has presented cost effective solutions, or even the only available solution on the market enabling a modernisation. The vast majority of systems using digital components have been operating without problems and often contribute to improved safety but the challenge of non-detectable, or non-identifiable, failure modes remain. In this paper, the extent to which digital components are used in Swedish NPP power systems will be presented including a description of typical applications. Based on data from maintenance records and fault reports, as well as interviews with designers and maintenance personnel, the main areas where problems have been encountered and where possible risks have been identified will be described. The paper intends to investigate any 'tell-tales' that could give signals of unwanted behaviour. Furthermore, particular benefits experienced by using digital components will be highlighted. The paper will also discuss the safety relevance of these findings and suggest measures to improve safety in the application of digital components in power systems. (authors)

  18. Physical and water properties of selected Polish heavy soils of various origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarek Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of selected physical, chemical, and water properties of four mineral arable soils characterized with heavy and very heavy texture. Soil samples from genetic horizons of black earths from areas near Kętrzyn, Gniew and Kujawy, and alluvial soils from Żuławy were used. The following properties were determined in the samples of undisturbed and disturbed structure: texture, particle density, bulk density, porosity, natural and hygroscopic moistures, maximal hygroscopic capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, potential of water bonding in soil, total and readily available water, total retention in the horizon of 0–50 cm, drainage porosity, content of organic carbon and total nitrogen Parent rocks of these soils were clays, silts and loams of various origin. High content of clay fraction strongly influenced the values of all the analyzed properties. All the examined soils had high content of organic carbon and total nitrogen and reaction close to neutral or alkaline. High content of mineral and organic colloids and, what follows, beneficial state of top horizons’ structure, determined – apart from heavy texture – low soil bulk density and high porosity. The investigated soils were characterized by high field water capacity and wide scopes of total and readily available water. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was low and characteristic to heavy mineral arable soils. The parameter which influenced the variability of analyzed parameters most was texture.

  19. The role of production risks in the conversion to more sustainable arable farming = [De rol van productierisico's in de omschakeling naar een meer duurzame akkerbouw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, de A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the role of production risks in the conversion to more sustainable production systems of arable farming in The Netherlands. More specifically, the research goals were: (1) to specify the typical production risks that prevent

  20. Long-term effectiveness of sowing high and low diversity seed mixtures to enhance plant community development on ex-arable fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepš, J.; Doležal, J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Brown, V.K.; Hedlund, K.; Igual Arroyo, M.; Jørgensen, H.B.; Lawson, C.S.; Mortimer, S.R.; Peix Geldart, A.; Rodríguez Barrueco, C.; Santa Regina, I.; Smilauer, P.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Questions: How is succession on ex-arable land affected by sowing high and low diversity mixtures of grassland species as compared to natural succession? How long do effects persist? Location: Experimental plots installed in the Czech Republic, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

  1. The ability of cover crops to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus losses from arable land in southern Scandinavia and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, H.; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge from the literature and experimental studies on the role of cover crops (CCs) in reducing nitrogen (N) leaching and phosphorus (P) losses to waters under the marine and humid continental climate conditions of southern Scandinavia and Finland. Field leaching...... CC biomass. CCs have been implemented to varying degrees into agri-environmental programs. They are mandatory in Denmark and subsidized in Norway, Sweden, and Finland. CCs are grown on 8% of arable land in Denmark, 5% in Sweden, 1% in Finland, and 0.5% in Norway, but CC area is now increasing...... systems with harvesting of biomass). There is also a need to devise balanced solutions for maintaining and increasing the frequency of CCs in crop rotations to exploit the possible benefits of CCs in reducing nutrient losses....

  2. Climate change adaptation in arable land use, and impact on nitrogen load at catchment scale in northern agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Rankinen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Prolongation of the growing season due to a warming climate could represent new opportunities for northern agriculture. Climatic and biotic constraints may challenge future crop production. The objective of this study was to speculate how a range of arable land use patterns, resulting from various policy driven choices, could be introduced into a farming system, and how they would affect the risks associated with nutrient leaching. We found that while adaptation to climate change must include consideration of crop choices, there are conflicts associated with allocations and rotations for various market and policy situations. The expected increase in nutrient loading in the simulations caused by climate change was moderate. The increase can partly be compensated for by changes in farmland use, more in the shorter term than in the longer term to mid-century. In the future, adaptation at cropping system level is potentially an efficient way to manage nutrient load risks.

  3. Possibilities of implementing nitrogen removal at Swedish wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultman, Bengt; Plaza, Elzbieta; Tendaj-Xavier, Marta

    1987-01-01

    Problems related to eutrophication and oxygen consumption have been considered as the major factors in deterioration of the water quality in Swedish lakes, rivers and coastal areas. Technical solutions to reduce oxygen-consuming materials and eutrophication have up to now been directed towards the removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and phosphorus. Thus, biological and chemical treatment of municipal wastewater is usually prescribed, and at present about 90% of the municipal wastewater from Swedish urban areas is treated both biologically and chemically. Most plants are designed for post-precipitation, although the treatment plants may now be operated in a modified way, for example, with the use of preprecipitation, two-point precipitation or recirculation of chemical sludges. Hultman and Moore (1982) have presented an overview of Swedish practice in municipal wastewater treatment. Although Swedish treatment of municipal wastewater concentrates on the removal of biochemical oxygen demand and phosphorus, the environmental and operational effects of nitrogen have been discussed for many years

  4. Simulating the impact of land use and climate change on the German soil-carbon, -nitrogen- and -water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, P.; Lasch, P.; Suckow, F.; Hattermann, F.; Luettger, A.; Wechsung, F.

    2012-04-01

    The regional application of state-of-the-art soil organic matter models usually lack an explicit representation of landscape hydrology. While the soil water status is generally simulated along the horizontal soil profile, lateral fluxes are not taken into account. Here, we present the coupling of the semi-distributed eco-hydrological model SWIM (Soil and Water Integrated Model) and a soil carbon and nitrogen module. The modelling framework allows the simulation of the impact of process-based simulated hydrological fluxes on soil carbon and soil nitrogen dynamics at landscape scale. While forest and grassland ecosystem remain to a greater or lesser extent constant over time in terms of vegetation cover type and human management arable systems are subject to a high, year-to-year dynamic in terms of soil disturbances, bare or covered soil conditions, different crops and different fertilizer regimes. To account for the variable environmental and human induced conditions of arable soils a crop-sequence generator approach is implemented. The generation of realistic crop rotations is based on statistical distribution of crops in time and space within a reference area (e.g. county). Regionalised climate change scenarios are provided by the statistical climate model STAR. This integrated approach is applied to the whole territory of Germany to assess the impact of climate and land use change scenarios on the soil-carbon, -nitrogen- and -water household of Germany. In respect of sustainability different land management strategies can thus be evaluated and optimised.

  5. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land: Does the regional and local climate respond? Germany as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, Merja H.; Gutjahr, Oliver; Busch, Gerald; Thiele, Jan C.

    2014-03-01

    The extent and magnitude of land cover change effect on local and regional future climate during the vegetation period due to different forms of bioenergy plants are quantified for extreme temperatures and energy fluxes. Furthermore, we vary the spatial extent of plant allocation on arable land and simulate alternative availability of transpiration water to mimic both rainfed agriculture and irrigation. We perform climate simulations down to 1 km scale for 1970-1975 C20 and 2070-2075 A1B over Germany with Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling in Climate Mode. Here an impact analysis indicates a strong local influence due to land cover changes. The regional effect is decreased by two thirds of the magnitude of the local-scale impact. The changes are largest locally for irrigated poplar with decreasing maximum temperatures by 1°C in summer months and increasing specific humidity by 0.15 g kg-1. The increased evapotranspiration may result in more precipitation. The increase of surface radiative fluxes Rnet due to changes in latent and sensible heat is estimated by 5 W m-2locally. Moreover, increases in the surface latent heat flux cause strong local evaporative cooling in the summer months, whereas the associated regional cooling effect is pronounced by increases in cloud cover. The changes on a regional scale are marginal and not significant. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land may result in local temperature changes but not in substantial regional climate change in Germany. We show the effect of agricultural practices during climate transitions in spring and fall.

  6. Conversion of forest to arable land in Southern Brazil has led to an increase in dissolved silicon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinet, Jérémy; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Vanderborght, Jan; Opfergelt, Sophie; Govers, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    Hydrology plays a major role in controlling biogeochemical fluxes at various scales. Among the various controlling factors of water fluxes at the hillslope or catchment scale, land use change is a direct human effect which has been relatively under-examined despite its potential important impact. The overall objective of this research is therefore to investigate how land use change can affect water fluxes and how these changes may, on their turn, affect biogeochemical fluxes, with a particular focus on silicon (Si) dynamic. We selected two small catchments with contrasting land use (agriculture vs. natural forest) in a subtropical region in the south of Brazil. The conversion of forest to arable land in the agricultural catchment is relatively recent, as deforestation started at the beginning of the 20th century. Stream, pore and groundwater were monitored, sampled and analyzed for major elements concentrations and δ18O. Preliminary results showed that deforestation and agriculture led to an increase in solute export at the catchment outlet, with for example dissolved Si (DSi) concentration and flux two times higher for the agricultural catchment. δ18O and DSi concentration data showed the importance of preferential flow in macropores in the forested catchment, probably because of the high root and low bulk densities. This led to a reduced mobilization of the pore water during rainfall event, contrarily to the agricultural catchment. As a result, there is almost no contribution of this relatively DSi-enriched pool to the river discharge in the forested environment. Those results indicate that the conversion of forest to arable land has had a significant impact on the biogeochemical fluxes, highlighted in this study with observed changes in DSi flux. Those changes could be partially attributed to changes in water fluxes and pathways.

  7. Influence of physical and chemical properties of different soil types on optimal soil moisture for tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zebec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil plasticity is the area of soil consistency, i.e. it represents a change in soil condition due to different soil moisture influenced by external forces activity. Consistency determines soil resistance in tillage, therefore, the aim of the research was to determine the optimum soil moisture condition for tillage and the influence of the chemical and physical properties of the arable land horizons on the soil plasticity on three different types of soil (fluvisol, luvisol and humic glaysol. Statistically significant differences were found between all examined soil types, such as the content of clay particles, the density of packaging and the actual and substitution acidity, the cation exchange capacity and the content of calcium. There were also statistically significant differences between the examined types of soil for the plasticity limit, liquid limit and the plasticity index. The average established value of plasticity limit as an important element for determining the optimal moment of soil tillage was 18.9% mass on fluvisol, 24.0% mass on luvisol and 28.6% mass on humic glaysol. Very significant positive direction correlation with plasticity limits was shown by organic matter, clay, fine silt, magnesium, sodium and calcium, while very significant negative direction correlation was shown by hydrolytic acidity, coarse sand, fine sand and coarse silt. Created regression models can estimate the optimal soil moisture condition for soil cultivation based on the basic soil properties. The model precision is significantly increased by introducing a greater number of agrochemical and agrophysical soil properties, and the additional precision of the model can be increased by soil type data.

  8. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbance...

  9. Doctrinal Imbalance: A Study of Swedish Army Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    patience with endless grammar and spelling corrections. Furthermore, Dr. Sterrett also involved his wife, military historian Dr. Corinne Mahaffey, and his...provocative statement of the Swedish supreme commander. The Swedish Army teaches that doctrine derives from a balance between resources, national...it comes to writing a new doctrine, but none of them evaluates doctrine against a specific scenario using the actual forces the doctrine is supposed

  10. Gendered Resource Access and Utilisation in Swedish Family Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Elias; Lidestav, Gun

    2014-01-01

    Gendered relations in resource access and farming are two important intersecting themes of gender studies in a northern rural context. However, conventional analysis and perceptions of the economy conceal the contribution of women within families, in businesses and in the labor market. This article demonstrate the significance of capital to farming women’s engagement with agriculture using a Swedish case study, based on descriptive analyses of data from the Federation of Swedish Farmers. To d...

  11. Analysis of Swedish consumers’ attitude to Chinese food

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out what’s attitude Swedish consumers have to Chinese food. The questionnaires based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) are handed out to 100 Swedish respondents in order to investigate their motivation on Chinese food choice. 78 questionnaires which were filled completely were selected for this study. Eleven factors involved in the questionnaire are labeled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, ...

  12. Role of antecedent conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus mobilisation observed in a lowland arable catchment in eastern England: insights from high-frequency monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Faye; Hiscock, Kevin; Dugdale, Stephen; Lovett, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    In order to reduce annual riverine loadings of nutrients which are responsible for degradation of ecosystems downstream and in near coastal areas, it is important to first understand the mobilisation and pathways responsible for transporting them from source to river and how these pathways vary in space and time. The Blackwater tributary of the River Wensum in Norfolk, England, has been equipped with a sensor network as part of the Demonstration Test Catchments project, which has the aim of reducing pollution from agriculture to river systems whilst maintaining food security by the trial of mitigation measures on working farms at the sub-catchment level. The River Wensum is a lowland chalk catchment with intensive arable agriculture and high occurrence of tile drainage on heavier soils. Three hydrological years of high-frequency data have been gathered in the Blackwater since October 2011, including rainfall, half hourly measurements of discharge and groundwater level coupled with hydrochemical parameters including nitrate, total phosphorus (TP) and total reactive phosphorus (TRP). In the three years of data collection, there were distinct departures from long-term rainfall averages as the winter of 2011-12 was extremely dry following a drought from the previous hydrological year, followed by a summer which was unseasonably wet, which continued into the following winter. The relationship between rainfall, storage and discharge was found to be complex, which in turn had an impact on the dominant controls transporting nutrients from the landscape to the river network. Thirty three storms occurred throughout the three year period which have been analysed in the context of the range of hydrometeorological conditions observed throughout the dataset. Discharge-concentration hysteretic responses of nitrogen, TP and TRP have been used alongside statistical analysis of storm characteristics including antecedent hydrological conditions. The nitrate storm response showed

  13. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  14. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research

  15. TOTAL AND HOT-WATER EXTRACTABLE CARBON RELATIONSHIP IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT CROPPING SYSTEMS AND LAND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Šeremešić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the hot water extractable organic carbon (HWOC in 9 arable and 3 non arable soil samples on Haplic Chernozem. The hot water extractable carbon represents assimilative component of the total organic matter (OM that could contain readily available nutrients for plant growth. The obtained fraction of organic carbon (C makes up only a small percentage of the soil OM and directly reflects the changes in the rhizosphere. This labile fraction of the organic matter was separated by hot water extraction at 80°C. In our study the HWOC content in different samples ranged from 125 mg g-1 to 226 mg g-1. On the plots that are under native vegetation, higher values were determined (316 mg g-1 to 388 mg g-1. Whereas samples from arable soils were lower in HWOC. It was found that this extraction method can be successfully used to explain the dynamics of the soil OM. Soil samples with lower content of the total OM had lower HWOC content, indicating that the preservation of the OM depends on the renewal of its labile fractions.

  16. "Lou soil", a fertile anthropogenic soil with thousands of years of cultivating history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Liang, B.; Yan, J.; Zhao, W.

    2012-12-01

    in a warming earth. Our micro-plot experiment with 15N-labeled fertilizer in the long-term fertilizer trial found that the use efficiency of N fertilizer (NUE) in MNPK soil was higher than the NPK soil and NF soil in both wheat-summer fallow and winter wheat and summer corn rotation system. However, the N fertilizer losses in MNPK soil was lower than the NPK soil and NF soil in the two systems. We concluded that the long-term combined application of manure and inorganic fertilizers improves N synchrony between the supply and crop demand, and reduces its loss. Since the 1980s, however, the application of manure to arable fields has declined in Guanzhong Plain, and in other parts of China, due to the increasing use of inorganic fertilizers, and labor costs to apply manure. The nutrient input of the arable fields are heavily dependent on inorganic fertilizers. It changes the biogeochemical cycling of the ecosystem, and results in a series of problems, including eutrophication, greenhouse gas emission, and nitrate leaching. Therefore, we need to find the alternatives to solve the problems, to conserve this old anthropogenic soil while producing enough food to feed the growing population.

  17. Mapping vegetation patterns in arable land using the models STICS and DAISY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Antje; Casper, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Several statistical methods exist to detect spatial and / or temporal variability with regard to ecological data-analysis: Semivariance-analysis, Trend surface analysis, Kriging, Voronoi polygons, Moran's I and Mantel-test, to mention just some of them. In this contribution, we concentrate on spatial vegetation patterns within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVAT) system. Using variography, spatial analysis with a geographic information system and self-organizing maps, spatial patterns of yield have been isolated in an agro-ecosystem (see poster contribution EGU 2009, EGU2009-8948). Data were derived from two agricultural plots, each about 5 hectare, in the area of Newel, located in Western Palatinate, Germany. The plots have been conventionally cultivated with a crop rotation of winter rape, winter wheat and spring barley. The aim of the present study is to find out if the existing natural spatial patterns can be mapped by means of SVAT models. If so, the discretization of a landscape according to its spatial patterns could be the basis for parameterization of SVAT models in order to model soil-vegetation-atmosphere interaction over a large area, that is for up-scaling. For this purpose the SVAT models STICS (developed by INRA, France) and DAISY (developed at Tåstrup University, Denmark) are applied. After a wide sensitivity analysis both models are parameterized with field data according to the given situation of each of the detected spatial patterns. The results of the simulation per representative location of a pattern are validated first with field data concerning yield, soil water content and soil nitrogen; besides, above ground dry matter, root depth and specific stress indices are used for validation. The conclusions that can be made with regard to up-scaling are discussed in detail. In a second step the results of the STICS model are compared with those of the DAISY model to analyse the models' behaviour, to get further knowledge about the inner structure

  18. Soil acidity and mobile aluminum status in pseudogley soils in Čačak-Kraljevo basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đalović Ivica G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil acidity and aluminum toxicity are considered most damaging soil conditions affecting the growth of most crops. This paper reviews the results of tests of pH, exchangeable acidity and mobile aluminum (Al concentration in profiles of pseudogley soils from Čačak-Kraljevo basin. For that purpose, 102 soil pits were dug in 2009 in several sites around Čačak- Kraljevo basin. The tests encompassed 54 field, 28 meadow, and 20 forest soil samples. Samples of soil in the disturbed state were taken from the Ah and Eg horizons (102 samples, from the B1tg horizon in 39 field, 24 meadow and 15 forest pits (a total of 78 samples and from the B2tg horizon in 14 field, 11 meadow, and 4 forest pits (a total of 29 samples. Mean pH values (1M KCl of the tested soil profiles were 4.28, 3.90 and 3.80 for the Ah, Eg and B1tg horizons, respectively. Soil pH of forest samples was lower than those in meadow and arable land samples (mean values of 4.06, 3.97 and 3.85 for arable land, meadow and forest samples, respectively. Soil acidification was especially intensive in deep horizons, as 27% (Ah, 77% (Eg and 87% (B1tg soil samples had the pH value below 4.0. Mean values of total exchangeable acidity (TEA were 1.55, 2.33 and 3.40 meq 100 g-1 for the Ah, Eg and B1tg horizons, respectively. The TEA values in forest soils were considerably higher (3.39 meq 100 g-1 than those in arable soils and meadow soils (1.96 and 1.93, respectively. Mean mobile Al contents of tested soil samples were 11.02, 19.58 and 28.33 mg Al 100 g-1 for the Ah, Eg and B1tg horizons, respectively. According to the pH and TEA values, mobile Al was considerably higher in the forest soils (the mean value of 26.08 mg Al 100 g-1 than in the arable soils and meadow soils (the mean values of 16.85 and 16.00 mg Al 100 g-1, respectively. The Eg and B1tg horizons of the forest soil had especially high mobile Al contents (the mean values of 28.50 and 32.95 mg Al 100 g-1, respectively. High levels of

  19. The influence of reduced tillage on water regime and nutrient leaching in a loamy soil

    OpenAIRE

    Baigys, Giedrius; Gaigalis, Kazimieras; Kutra, Ginutis

    2006-01-01

    The effect of tillage technologies and terms on soil moisture regime and nitrate leaching was studied in field trials carried out on 0.76-1.36-ha fields. The study site was arranged in Pikeliai village (Kėdainiai district). The soil prevailing in the study site is Endocalcari - Endohypogleic Cambisol, sandy light loam and sandy loam on deeper layers of sandy loam and sandy light loam. The arable horizon contains sandy light loam, which is characteristic of the soils prevailing in the Middle L...

  20. Investigations of Gamasina mites in natural and man-affected soils in Latvia (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    OpenAIRE

    Salmane, I.

    2003-01-01

    Investigations of Gamasina mites in natural and man-affected soils in Latvia (Acari: Mesostigmata) A short overview is presented on Gamasina material collected in 22 natural and man-disturbed habitats in Latvia. Species diversity, average density and species dominance were investigated. Altogether 167 Gamasina species from 14 families were found. The highest number of species was found for field margins and the lowest for pine forests and arable lands affected by calciferous dust. The highest...

  1. Spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide losses in a small Swedish agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Maria; Piikki, Kristin; Jarvis, Nicholas; Larsbo, Mats; Bishop, Kevin; Kreuger, Jenny

    2017-04-01

    Research at catchment and regional scales shows that losses of pesticides to surface water often originate from a relatively small fraction of the agricultural landscape. These 'hydrologic source areas' represent areas of land that are highly susceptible to fast transport processes, primarily surface runoff or rapid subsurface flows through soil macropores, either to subsurface field drainage systems or as shallow interflow on more strongly sloping land. A good understanding of the nature of transport pathways for pesticides to surface water in agricultural landscapes is essential for cost-effective identification and implementation of mitigation measures. However, the relative importance of surface and subsurface flows for transport of pesticides to surface waters in Sweden remains largely unknown, since very few studies have been performed under Swedish agro-environmental conditions. We conducted a monitoring study in a small sub-surface drained agricultural catchment in one of the main crop production regions in Sweden. Three small sub-catchments were selected for water sampling based on a high-resolution soil map developed from proximal sensing data; one sub-catchment was dominated by clay soils, another by coarse sandy soils while the third comprised a mix of soil types. Samples were collected from the stream, from field drains discharging into the stream and from within-field surface runoff during spring and early summer in three consecutive years. LC-MS/MS analyses of more than 100 compounds, covering the majority of the polar and semi-polar pesticides most frequently used in Swedish agriculture, were performed on all samples using accredited methods. Information on pesticide applications (products, doses and timing) was obtained from annual interviews with the farmers. There were clear and consistent differences in pesticide losses between the three sub-catchments, with the largest losses occurring in the area with clay soils, and negligible losses from the

  2. Soil Degradation, Land Scarcity and Food Security: Reviewing a Complex Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil health, along with water supply, is the most valuable resource for humans, as human life depends on the soil’s generosity. Soil degradation, therefore, poses a threat to food security, as it reduces yield, forces farmers to use more inputs, and may eventually lead to soil abandonment. Unfortunately, the importance of preserving soil health appears to be overlooked by policy makers. In this paper, I first briefly introduce the present situation concerning agricultural production, natural resources, soil degradation, land use and the challenge ahead, to show how these issues are strictly interwoven. Then, I define soil degradation and present a review of its typologies and estimates at a global level. I discuss the importance of preserving soil capital, and its relationship to human civilization and food security. Trends concerning the availability of arable agricultural land, different scenarios, and their limitations, are analyzed and discussed. The possible relation between an increase in a country’s GNP, population and future availability of arable land is also analyzed, using the World Bank’s database. I argue that because of the many sources of uncertainty in the data, and the high risks at stake, a precautionary approach should be adopted when drawing scenarios. The paper ends with a discussion on the key role of preserving soil organic matter, and the need to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. I also argue that both our relation with nature and natural resources and our lifestyle need to be reconsidered.

  3. 137Cs concentration distribution in among feeds and various soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csupka, S.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of 137 Cs in four types of arable land and soil with grass cover (chernozem, serozem, gely soddy soil and meadow calcareous soil) is different. In arable land the penetration of 137 Cs into greater depths is higher than under the grasscover, where the main proportion of 137 Cs is retained by the upper layers in the depth of 0 to 5 cm. The only exception is gley soddy soil, where the upper layers allow the passage of radionuclides into greater depths. In the soil horizon to a depth of 50 cm out or the total content of 137 Cs from 16 to 47% is bound in exchangeable form and from 53 to 84% in a form available to plants according to the soil type. The relationship between exchangeable 137 Cs and that available to plants in soils is given by the coefficient of desorption and the relation between the 137 Cs content in the plant and in the soil is given by the coefficient of concentration. Their value varies within the range of 0.1 to 2.6. (author)

  4. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny von Salomé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171, or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86. The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1

  5. Pollution of intensively managed greenhouse soils by nutrients and heavy metals in the Yellow River Irrigation Region, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaole; Cao, Jing; Tang, Rangyun; Zhang, Shengqiang; Dong, Fang

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and nutrient accumulation in polytunnel greenhouse soils in the Yellow River irrigation region (YRIR), Northwest China, and to identify the potential sources of these heavy metals using principal component analysis. Contents of available nitrogen (AN), phosphorus (AP), and potassium (AK) in the surface polytunnel greenhouse soils (0-20 cm) varied from 13.42 to 486.78, from 39.10 to 566.97, and from 21.64 to 1,156.40 mg kg(-1), respectively, as well as AP, soil organic matter (SOM) and AK contents tended to increase significantly at the 0-20- and 20-40-cm soil layers. Heavy metal accumulations occurred in the polytunnel greenhouse soils as compared to arable soils, especially at a depth of 20 cm where Cd, Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher than arable soil. Cd and As were found to be the two main polluting elements in the greenhouse soils because their contents exceeded the thresholds established for greenhouse vegetable production HJ333-2006 in China and the background of Gansu province. It has been shown that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at the 0-20-cm soil layer were derived mainly from agricultural production activities, whereas contents of Cr and Ni at the same soil layer were determined by 'natural' factors and As originated from natural sources, deposition and irrigation water.

  6. The total trace element content of some Scottish soils by spark source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ure, A.M.; Bacon, J.R.; Berrow, M.L.; Watt, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative methods of analysis by spark source mass spectrometry have been used to determine the total trace element content of the surface horizons of 10 arable Scottish soils derived from parent materials of different geological origin and used for earlier trace element surveys. Other methods have been used to supplement these analyses for 12 elements including the major elements, and results for a total of 62 elements in the 10 soils are reported. The results are discussed in terms of the geological nature of the soil parent material making use of 62-element soil fingerprints for visual comparison. It is concluded that the total trace element contents of a Scottish soil corresponds to that expected on the basis of the geochemistry of its parent materials and that the influence of agricultural operations on soil contents is of secondary importance. Average soil contents for most elements are closely similar to published values for crustal abundance. (Auth.)

  7. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental...... factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: (1) catch crop (with and without), and (2) manure (with and without). The four-course crop rotation was spring barley undersown with grass/clover - grass/clover - winter wheat or wheat rye - pulse crop. All cuttings of the grass-clover were...... not significantly affect yield. The use of catch crops interacts with other management factors, including row spacing and weed control, and this may have contributed to the negligible effects of catch crops. There was considerable variation in the amount of N (100-600 kg N ha-1 year-1) accumulated in the mulched...

  8. Enhanced Yields in Organic Arable Crop Production by Eco-Functional Intensification using Intercropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Bedoussac, Laurent; Carlsson, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Organic agriculture (OA) faces challenges to enhance food production per unit area and simultaneously reduce the environmental and climate impacts, e.g. nitrate leaching per unit land and green-houses gases (GHG) emissions per kg product. Eco-functional intensification (EFI) is suggested as a means...... as an efficient tool for weed management, enhanced product quality (i.e. grain protein concentration of the intercropped cereal). We discuss how ICs contribute to efficient use of soil N sources and minimized losses of N by leaching via “ecological precision farming”. It is concluded, that crop diversification...... in space by intercropping, fitted into the organic crop rotation, has a strong potential to increase yield and hereby reduce the global environmental effects performance such as GHG per kg organic grain. Finally, we discuss likely barriers for increased use of intercropping in organic farming and suggest...

  9. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Van Hees, M.

    2005-01-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 and to fibres 1.0 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12 300 kBq m -2 ). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination -2 ). Use of stems as biofuel is restricted to areas with contamination levels of -2 for flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 ) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care

  10. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M

    2005-01-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80x10(-3) m2 kg(-1). TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6x10(-3) m2 kg(-1). For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5x10(-3) m2 kg(-1) and to fibres 1.0x10(-3) m2 kg(-1). Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12,300kBq m(-2)). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3x10(-3) m2 kg(-1)) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care.

  11. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  13. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Torkelson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the national public opinion poll agency. The collected data consist of a stratified sample whose composition is identical to the working population in Sweden (N = 3001. The results show that almost three quarters of the respondents had been the target of coworker incivility and 52% of supervisor incivility at least one to two times in the past year. Of the respondents, 75% had witnessed coworkers and 58% witnessed a supervisor treating others in an uncivil way. Furthermore, 66% had instigated uncivil acts toward others. The results also show that female and younger employees are slightly more targeted by incivility from coworkers and younger employees and supervisors are slightly more prone to instigate incivility. Moreover, it was found that that experienced incivility was the strongest predictor of low well-being and that witnessed incivility was the strongest predictor of instigated incivility.

  14. Swedish Radiation Protection Institute: information activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of SSI's Information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfill other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Stralskyddsnytt and SSI News. Stralskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,000 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,800. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSI also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information on radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialized research library. (author)

  15. Personality disorders in a Swedish peacekeeping unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2005-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about the incidence of personality disorders and their consequences among peacekeepers. Moreover, most studies are follow-up studies in which, if at all, personality traits are screened for after the soldiers have left their service abroad. The aim of this paper was to study personality disorders in a longitudinal perspective. The method used was to screen the personnel in a Swedish mechanized battalion serving in Bosnia from March until October 1996 on four occasions: before deployment, immediately after deployment, 6 months after deployment and 1 year after deployment. Serving in the battalion were 724 individuals of whom 516 took part in the survey. The screening instrument used was the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire (DIP-Q). The result shows that the rate of personality disorders were on the same level, or a little bit lower, than in the general population. Moreover, personality disorders were related to impaired general mental health and to reported traumatic experiences. Personality disorders also seemed to contribute to poor mental health 1 year after returning home from a mission abroad. The implications of these results for the future selection of peacekeepers are discussed.

  16. Swedish entrepreneurs' use of occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Josephson, Malin

    2011-10-01

    Small-scale enterprises are less often covered by occupational health services and have insufficient awareness about health and risks in the work environment. This study investigated how Swedish entrepreneurs in small-scale enterprises use occupational health services. The study used a questionnaire sent in two waves, 5 years apart. At baseline, 496 entrepreneurs responded, and 251 participated 5 years later. The questionnaire included items about affiliation with and use of occupational health services, physical and psychosocial work environments, work environment management, sources of work environment information, and membership in professional networks. Only 3% of entrepreneurs without employees and 19% of entrepreneurs with employees were affiliated with an occupational health service. Entrepreneurs affiliated with occupational health services were more active in work environment management and gathering information about the work environment. The occupational health services most used were health examinations, health care, and ergonomic risk assessments. Affiliation with occupational health services was 6% at both measurements, 4% at baseline, and 10% 5 years later. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Swedish radiation protection institute. Information activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of SSI's information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfil other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Straalskyddsnytt and SSI News. Straalskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,400 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,500. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSi also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information of radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialised research library. (au)

  18. Tolerable versus actual soil erosion rates in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, F. G. A.; Jones, R. J. A.; Rickson, R. J.; Smith, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    . Actual soil erosion rates for tilled, arable land in Europe are, on average, 3 to 40 times greater than the upper limit of tolerable soil erosion, accepting substantial spatio-temporal variation. This paper comprehensively reviews tolerable and actual soil erosion in Europe and highlights the scientific areas where more research is needed for successful implementation of an effective European soil monitoring system.

  19. Impact of Collimonas bacteria on community composition of soil fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppener-Ogawa, Sachie; Leveau, Johan H J; Hundscheid, Maria P J; van Veen, Johannes A; de Boer, Wietse

    2009-06-01

    The genus Collimonas consists of soil bacteria that have the potential to grow at the expense of living fungal hyphae. However, the consequences of this mycophagous ability for soil fungi are unknown. Here we report on the development of fungal communities after introduction of collimonads in a soil that had a low abundance of indigenous collimonads. Development of fungal communities was stimulated by addition of cellulose or by introducing plants (Plantago lanceolata). Community composition of total fungi in soil and rhizosphere and of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots was examined by PCR-DGGE. The introduction of collimonads altered the composition of all fungal communities studied but had no effects on fungal biomass increase, cellulose degrading activity or plant performance. The most likely explanation for these results is that differences in sensitivity of fungal species to the presence of collimonads result in competitive replacement of species. The lab and greenhouse experiments were complemented with a field experiment. Mesh bags containing sterile sand with or without collimonads were buried in an ex-arable field and a forest. The presence of collimonads had an effect on the composition of fungi invading these bags in the ex-arable site but not in the forest site.

  20. Agricultural management impact on physical and chemical functions of European peat soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piayda, Arndt; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Dettmann, Ullrich; Bechtold, Michel; Buschmann, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Peat soils offer numerous functions from the global to the local scale: they constitute the biggest terrestrial carbon storage on the globe, form important nutrient filters for catchments and provide hydrological buffer capacities for local ecosystems. Peat soils represent a large share of soils suitable for agriculture in temperate and boreal Europe, pressurized by increasing demands for production. Cultivated peat soils, however, show extreme mineralization rates of the organic substance and turn into hotspots for green house gas emissions, are highly vulnerable to land surface subsidence, soil and water quality deterioration and thus crop failure. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of past agricultural management on soil physical and chemical functions of peat soils in six European countries. We conducted standardized soil mapping, soil physical/chemical analysis, ground water table monitoring and farm business surveys across 7 to 10 sites in Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark, Estonia, Finland and Sweden. The results show a strong impact of past agricultural management on peat soil functions across Europe. Peat soil under intensive arable land use consistently offer lowest bearing capacities in the upper 10 cm compared to extensive and intensive grassland use, which is a major limiting factor for successful agricultural practice on peat soils. The difference can be explained by root mat stabilization solely, since soil compaction in the upper 25cm is highest under arable land use. A strong decrease of available water capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity is consequently observed under arable land use, further intensifying hydrological problems like ponding, drought stress and reductions of hydrological buffer capacities frequently present on cultivated peat soils. Soil carbon stocks clearly decrease with increasing land use intensity, showing highest carbon stocks on extensive grassland. This is supported by the degree of decomposition, which

  1. Environmental risk assessment of antibiotics in the Swedish environment with emphasis on sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Richard H; Björklund, Karin; Rendahl, Per; Johansson, Magnus I; Tysklind, Mats; Andersson, Barbro A V

    2007-02-01

    The potential risks associated with antibiotics present in the Swedish environment were assessed using concentrations found in hospital effluent, and sewage treatment waters and sludge, in combination with data on their environmental effects obtained from the literature. For the aqueous environment, measured environmental concentrations and effect/no observed effect concentration ratios were much lower than one in most cases. The only exceptions, where concentrations of the investigated substances were high enough to pose potential risks, were the concentrations of the two fluoroquinolones, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, in the hospital effluent. Treating digested dewatered sludge by heat did not fully eliminate norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin, thus pellets may still contain high amounts of these substances (sub to low mgkg(-1)dw). In leaching tests less than 1% of the amounts of these fluoroquinolones in the sludge or pellets reached the aqueous phase, indicating that their mobility is limited if sludge is used to fertilize soil.

  2. Antibiotic resistance of microorganisms in agricultural soils in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, N. V.; Galitskaya, P. Yu; Selivanovskaya, S. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotics are medicines that are widely used in livestock production not only for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, but also for accelerating the growth of animals. The application of manure for fertilizing agricultural soils leads to the entry into the soil ecosystem not only of the antibiotics themselves, but also the resistance genes to them. In this study, 30 samples of arable soils were tested for the presence of the tet(X) gene, which encodes bacterial resistance to antibiotics of the tetracycline group. Using real-time PCR, it was found that 27 out of 30 soil samples contained tet(X). 52% of these samples were heavily contaminated, 34% had a medium level of contamination and 14% were slightly contaminated by the resistance gene tet(X).

  3. Study and monitoring of the contamination of cultivated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Grauby, A.

    1960-07-01

    Arable lands are directly concerned by radioactive fallouts as a large part of radio-elements is fixed in the soil first centimetres in which roots of many plants are growing. The authors report the study of fixations at the level of roots, of the movements of radio-elements in the soil solution at their neighbourhood, and of the influence of leaching (by rainfalls or irrigation). Variations of soil content in calcium and strontium have been achieved to highlight dispersion and inhibition factors. The authors present the implemented experimental method, i.e. how soils have been contaminated, how crop pots have been prepared, and how the experiment is performed. Experiments are performed by using ray grass as a crop. The authors assessed radioactive uptake by aerial parts of the plant, studied the rhizosphere, and discussed radiographies obtained on different pots (contaminated, seeded or not, watered or not, with addition of different quantities of strontium or calcium compound)

  4. Reduction of Cs-137 levels in plants and fungi after potassium fertilization in a Swedish forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, I.

    1998-01-01

    The uptake of 137 Cs in plants in forest ecosystems are much higher than in agricultural ecosystems. One reason could be that the concentrations of mineral nutrients usually are at much lower levels in forest soils compared to soil from arable land. On the other hand there are often rather weak correlation between the concentrations of exchangeable potassium in forest soils and the levels of 137 Cs in, e. g., dwarf-shrubs. The variations of the potassium levels are rather small in forest soils. This deficit can be offset by fertilization with potassium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of potassium fertilization on the uptake of 137 Cs in a rather nutrient poor forest ecosystem - a rocky area with a rather shallow soil layer with high organic content. The potassium was spread in May 1992 by using normal agricultural equipment in efforts to get to 200 kg of potassium chloride per hectare. Three plots about 200 m 2 each were selected on the fertilized area and used for sampling of blueberry, lingonberry and heather. One sampling was performed before the spreading and then at least once a year up to 1997. During the mushroom season, the fruit bodies of the commonest species of fungi were collected within the 3 plots. A closely located rocky area was selected as the control area. The 137 Cs levels in blueberry and lingonberry only showed a minor decrease during the 1992 vegetation period. In contrast, heather showed a marked decrease of about 50 % already the first year. In mushrooms (Lactarius rufus and Rozites caperatus) the decrease was even more pronounced. In 1997, 5 vegetation periods after the fertilization, the Cs-137 levels in blueberry, lingonberry and heather were 633, 926 and 3,22 Bq/kg, respectively, amounting to 23%, 53%, and 24% of the control levels (2767, 1741 and 13,2 Bq/kg, respectively). Even fruit bodies of the fungi showed 137 Cs levels around 30 to 50 % of that in the control area. Thus, potassium fertilization appears

  5. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research, Radioecology Section, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)]. E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be; Van Hees, M. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research, Radioecology Section, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} and to fibres 1.0 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12 300 kBq m{sup -2}). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination <740 kBq m{sup -2}). Use of stems as biofuel is restricted to areas with contamination levels of <250 and 1050 kBq m{sup -2} for flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care.

  6. Deregulation and internationalisation - impact on the Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haukeland, Sverre R.

    2010-01-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 was well known in advance, and the nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as their main suppliers, made early preparations for a this new situation. In a study - performed by the author at Malardalen University in Sweden - it is concluded that the electricity industry, including the nuclear power plants, was fundamentally transformed in conjunction with market liberalisation. Two large foreign companies, E-on and Fortum, entered the Swedish market and became part-owners of the nuclear plants. After deregulation, the electricity market in Sweden is dominated by these two companies and the large national company Vattenfall. Similarly, Vattenfall has recently grown into an international energy company, acquiring generation capacity in Northern Europe outside of Sweden, including nuclear power plants in Germany. Restructuring of the nuclear industry on the supplier side started in the 1980's, when the Swedish company ASEA and BBC of Switzerland merged to become ABB. Several years later the Swedish nuclear plant supplier ABB-Atom became part of Westinghouse Electric Company, today owned by Toshiba. The Swedish experience thus confirms an international trend of mergers and consolidation in the nuclear industry. (authors)

  7. Pain assessment practices in Swedish and Norwegian neonatal care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Randi Dovland; Munsters, Josanne M A; Vederhus, Bente Johanne; Gradin, Maria

    2017-12-28

    The use of measurement scales to assess pain in neonates is considered a prerequisite for effective management of pain, but these scales are still underutilised in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to describe and compare pain assessment practices including the use of pain measurement scales in Norwegian and Swedish neonatal care units. A unit survey investigating practices regarding pain assessment and the use of pain measurement scales was sent to all neonatal units in Sweden and Norway (n = 55). All Norwegian and 92% of Swedish units responded. A majority of the participating units (86.5%) assessed pain. Swedish units assessed and documented pain and used pain measurement scales more frequently than Norwegian units. The most frequently used scales were different versions of Astrid Lindgren's Pain Scale (ALPS) in Sweden and Echelle Douleur Inconfort Noveau-Ne (EDIN), ALPS and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) in Norway. Norwegian head nurses had more confidence in their pain assessment method and found the use of pain measurement scales more important than their Swedish colleagues. The persisting difference between Swedish and Norwegian units in pain assessment and the use of pain measurement scales are not easily explained. However, the reported increased availability and reported use of pain measurement scales in neonatal care units in both countries may be seen as a contribution towards better awareness and recognition of pain, better pain management and potentially less suffering for vulnerable neonates. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared to th...... with these three PISA units. In the paper we claim that in spite of detailed and strongly controlled methods for achieving translations of high standard used by the PISA, important and perhaps even decisive, differences between the four versions exist.......This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...... to the English and French original versions. Differences that occur as a result of the translation process concerning words’ meaning are demonstrated. The possible consequences of such differences are exemplified by an excerpt from a situation in which Swedish 15-year-old students collaboratively worked...

  9. Deregulation and internationalisation - impact on the Swedish nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukeland, Sverre R. [Swedish Nuclear Society, Vattenfall Research and Development, 162 89 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 was well known in advance, and the nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as their main suppliers, made early preparations for a this new situation. In a study - performed by the author at Malardalen University in Sweden - it is concluded that the electricity industry, including the nuclear power plants, was fundamentally transformed in conjunction with market liberalisation. Two large foreign companies, E-on and Fortum, entered the Swedish market and became part-owners of the nuclear plants. After deregulation, the electricity market in Sweden is dominated by these two companies and the large national company Vattenfall. Similarly, Vattenfall has recently grown into an international energy company, acquiring generation capacity in Northern Europe outside of Sweden, including nuclear power plants in Germany. Restructuring of the nuclear industry on the supplier side started in the 1980's, when the Swedish company ASEA and BBC of Switzerland merged to become ABB. Several years later the Swedish nuclear plant supplier ABB-Atom became part of Westinghouse Electric Company, today owned by Toshiba. The Swedish experience thus confirms an international trend of mergers and consolidation in the nuclear industry. (authors)

  10. Demonstration and Dialogue: Mediation in Swedish Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Lidberg, Maria; Soneryd, Linda; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2009-01-01

    This report analyses mediation and mediators in Swedish nuclear waste management. Mediation is about establishing agreement and building common knowledge. It is argued that demonstrations and dialogue are the two prominent approaches to mediation in Swedish nuclear waste management. Mediation through demonstration is about showing, displaying, and pointing out a path to safe disposal for inspection. It implies a strict division between demonstrator and audience. Mediation through dialogue on the other hand, is about collective acknowledgements of uncertainty and suspensions of judgement creating room for broader discussion. In Sweden, it is the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) that is tasked with finding a method and a site for the final disposal of the nation's nuclear waste. Two different legislative frameworks cover this process. In accordance with the Act on Nuclear Activities, SKB is required to demonstrate the safety of its planned nuclear waste management system to the government, while in respect of the Swedish Environmental Code, they are obliged to organize consultations with the public. How SKB combines these requirements is the main question under investigation in this report in relation to materials deriving from three empirical settings: 1) SKB's safety analyses, 2) SKB's public consultation activities and 3) the 'dialogue projects', initiated by other actors than SKB broadening the public arena for discussion. In conclusion, an attempt is made to characterise the long- term interplay of demonstration and dialogue in Swedish nuclear waste management

  11. Assessing the environmental performance of English arable and livestock holdings using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, D B; Park, J R; Mauchline, A L; Crane, R T; Mortimer, S R

    2011-03-01

    Agri-environment schemes (AESs) have been implemented across EU member states in an attempt to reconcile agricultural production methods with protection of the environment and maintenance of the countryside. To determine the extent to which such policy objectives are being fulfilled, participating countries are obliged to monitor and evaluate the environmental, agricultural and socio-economic impacts of their AESs. However, few evaluations measure precise environmental outcomes and critically, there are no agreed methodologies to evaluate the benefits of particular agri-environmental measures, or to track the environmental consequences of changing agricultural practices. In response to these issues, the Agri-Environmental Footprint project developed a common methodology for assessing the environmental impact of European AES. The Agri-Environmental Footprint Index (AFI) is a farm-level, adaptable methodology that aggregates measurements of agri-environmental indicators based on Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques. The method was developed specifically to allow assessment of differences in the environmental performance of farms according to participation in agri-environment schemes. The AFI methodology is constructed so that high values represent good environmental performance. This paper explores the use of the AFI methodology in combination with Farm Business Survey data collected in England for the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN), to test whether its use could be extended for the routine surveillance of environmental performance of farming systems using established data sources. Overall, the aim was to measure the environmental impact of three different types of agriculture (arable, lowland livestock and upland livestock) in England and to identify differences in AFI due to participation in agri-environment schemes. However, because farm size, farmer age, level of education and region are also likely to influence the environmental performance of a

  12. Field Scale Studies on the Spatial Variability of Soil Quality Indicators in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arable lands are needed for sustainable agricultural systems to support an ever-growing human population. Soil quality needs to be defined to assure that new land brought into crop production is sustainable. To evaluate soil quality, a number of soil attributes will need to be measured, evaluated, and integrated into a soil-quality index using the multivariable indicator kriging (MVIK procedure. This study was conducted to determine the spatial variability and correlation of indicator parameters on a field scale with respect to soil quality and suitability for use with MVIK. The variability of the biological parameters decreased in the order of respiration > enzyme assays and qCO2 > microbial biomass C. The distribution frequency of all parameters except respiration were normal although the spatial distribution across the landscape was highly variable. The biological parameters showed little correlation with each other when all data points were considered; however, when grouped in smaller sections, the correlations were more consistent with observed patterns across the field. To accurately assess soil quality, and arable land use, consideration of spatial and temporal variability, soil conditions, and other controlling factors must be taken into account.

  13. Assessment of properties of Swedish reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.; Aittola, J.P.; Broden, K.; Andersson, K.; Wingefors, S.

    1984-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-level reactor waste has been produced in Sweden for many years, but only recently have plans for its final disposal been presented. According to these plans the waste will be transported from the nuclear power stations and research facilities to a final repository in hard rock under the Baltic Sea. It is anticipated that a series of waste handling and disposal operations will be commenced within the next ten years. For realization of these operations the waste forms must fulfil certain, as yet not clearly defined, quality requirements. A programme is outlined for the identification and quantification of those properties which are of importance for the safe handling, transportation and intermediate storage of the waste. The programme includes the following steps: (1) Collection of data concerning existing plant inventories (waste), raw material, solidification processes, waste composition, etc.; (2) Categorization of the waste; within each category the properties should be similar and expected to fall within certain intervals; (3) Identification of those properties which are of interest for each category with respect to both normal and abnormal handling situations; (4) Development and evaluation of methods for sampling and testing important properties; (5) Survey of existing R and D and test data, together with supplementary investigations and measurements; (6) Assessment of the properties of relevance for each waste category. This work was initiated by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate in 1981 and is being performed in close cooperation with the nuclear power industry. The results will be used by the concerned parties as a basis for the definition and stipulation of quality requirements for the various categories of waste, and the confirmation and introduction of quality control and quality assurance procedures. (author)

  14. Structural patterns in Swedish health policy: a 30-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B

    2015-04-01

    This perspective reviews key institutional and organizational patterns in Swedish health care over the last 30 years, probing the roots of several complicated policy questions that concern present-day Swedish decision-makers. It explores in particular the ongoing structural tension between stability, on the one hand, and the necessary levels of innovation and dynamism demanded by the current period of major clinical, technological, economic, social and supranational (EU) change. Where useful, the article compares Swedish developments with those in the other three European Nordic countries as well as other northern European health systems. Sweden's health sector evolution can provide valuable insight for other countries into the complexity involved in re-thinking tradeoffs between policies that emphasize stability as against those that encourage innovation in health sector governance and provision.

  15. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.

  16. A Dip into the World of Particles for Swedish Teachers

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    For three full days, forty-one Swedish secondary school physics teachers were introduced to the rudiments of the particle physics. This series of courses is celebrating its tenth anniversary. The Swedish teachers followed lectures, visited CERN experiments... ... and analysed the latest DELPHI data. 'I am sure that, as in previous years, many of these teachers will return to CERN with their students. It is an excellent way of encouraging young people to orient themselves towards physics.' Staffan Hörnberg, Vice President of the International Centre for Education and Development, is enthusiastic about the repercussions of the teaching programme for Swedish teachers that he organises with CERN physicist, Richard Jacobsson. For the tenth consecutive year, this series of introductory courses to particle physics was a success. Forty-one teachers came from schools all over Sweden to take part in lectures and visits on the theme of particle physics, its methods of investigation, and its applications. San...

  17. Modeling of the cesium 137 air transfer taking account of dust-making distinction on arable and long-fallow lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.P.; Zhmura, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical model for air transfer of cesium 137 out from the contaminated regions which takes into account of dust-making distinction on arable and long-fallow lands is suggested. The calculation results of near-ground concentrations of cesium 137 for several towns of Belarus are presented. The sources of the contamination of the atmosphere in each calculated point have been analysed

  18. Systematic analysis of secondary life cycle inventories when modelling agricultural production: A case study for arable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Sara; Castellani, Valentina; Zampori, Luca; Sala, Serenella

    2018-01-20

    Analysis of agricultural production with life cycle based methodologies is data demanding. To build comprehensive life cycle inventories, secondary datasets are commonly used when primary data are not available. However, different inventory data and modelling approaches are used to populate secondary datasets, leading to different results. The present study analyses the features of twelve secondary datasets to support datasets selection and proper interpretation of results. We assess twelve datasets for arable crop production in France, as modelled in three databases often used in the LCA field (Agri-footprint, ecoinvent and AGRIBALYSE). First, we compared system boundaries and general assumptions. Second, we focused on foreground systems comparing, inventory data, data sources and modelling approaches. Third, we performed a contribution analysis of impact assessment results to identify modelling choices that contribute most to differences in the results. Nine relevant elements were identified and assessed: definition of system boundaries and modelling of agricultural practices, characteristics of inventory data, agricultural operations, fertiliser application and fate, plant protection products application and fate, heavy metals inputs to the agricultural system and fate, irrigation assumptions, land use and transformation. The datasets differ greatly with respect to these elements. Hence, recommendations are drawn from the datasets comparison, supporting the selection of the datasets coherently with the goal and scope of a study and interpretation of results.

  19. The Medieval Swedish Horror Ballad in the Romantic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhr, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many......” by Baggesen, in turn based on German and English sources. Anna Maria Lenngren followed with several ballads, often based on Danish sources. One more purely Swedish medieval ballad is “Varulven”. From 1810 unto 1971 thirteen versions of this Swedish ballad was discovered and printed. I place the focus...

  20. What are the effects of agricultural management on soil organic carbon in boreo-temperate systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddaway, Neal R.; Hedlund, Katarina; Jackson, Louise E.

    2015-01-01

    intensification has led to practices that may decrease soil organic carbon (SOC), and agricultural management has the potential to be a powerful tool for climate change mitigation and increased soil fertility through SOC sequestration. Here, we systematically map evidence relating to the impacts of agricultural......Background Soils contain the largest stock of organic carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems and changes in soil C stocks may significantly affect atmospheric CO2. A significant part of soil C is present in cultivated soils that occupy about 35 % of the global land surface. Agricultural...... management on SOC in arable systems of the warm temperate and snow climate zones (subset of temperate and continental climates: Köppen–Geiger Classification)....