WorldWideScience

Sample records for swedish arable soils

  1. Net sulfur mineralization potential in Swedish arable soils in relation to long-term treatment history and soil properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Kristin; Nilsson, S Ingvar; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    accumulated net S mineralization (SAccMin) and a number of soil physical and chemical properties were determined. Treatments and soil differences in SAccMin, as well as correlations with soil variables, were tested with single and multivariate analyses. Long-term FYM application resulted in a significantly (p......The long-term treatment effect (since 1957-1966) of farmyard manure (FYM) application compared with crop residue incorporation was investigated in five soils (sandy loam to silty clay) with regards to the net sulfur (S) mineralization potential. An open incubation technique was used to determine...... = 0.012) higher net S mineralization potential, although total amounts of C, N, and S were not significantly (p soils within this treatment. The measured soil variables were not significantly correlated...

  2. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in arable soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Miętkiewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of soil were taken from arable field and from balk. Larvae of Galleria mellonella and Ephestia kühniella were used as an "insect bait" for isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soil. Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were isolated from both kind of soil. but Beauveria bassiana was present only in soil taken from balk.

  3. Ecology of microarthropods in arable soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeken - Buijs, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Soil microarthropods are all free-living mites and collembolans, living in the soil. The study presented in this thesis formed part of the Dutch Programme on Soil Ecology of Arable Farming Systems, an integrated multidisciplinary research programme, focused on the functioning of two

  4. Carbon Dioxide in Arable Soil Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Plauborg, Finn; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2014-01-01

    on the comparability of results obtained using different methods is limited. We therefore aimed to compare the dynamics in soil CO2 concentrations obtained from an automated system (GMP343 sensors) to those from a manually operated measurement system (i.e., soil gas sampled using stainless steel needles and rods......Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in arable soil profiles are influenced by autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration as well as soil physical properties that regulate gas transport. Whereas different methods have been used to assess dynamics of soil CO2 concentrations, our understanding...... systems. Within the measurement range for the GMP343 sensors (0-20,000 ppm), mean results from the two systems were similar within the plough layer at the upslope (P = 0.060) and footslope (P = 0.139) position, and also below the plough layer at the upslope position (P = 0.795). However, results from...

  5. Relations between Agronomic Practice and Earthworms in Norwegian Arable Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Pommeresche, Reidun; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Norwegian studies of earthworms (density, biomass, burrows density, species, juvenile to adult ratios) in arable soil in Norway conducted during the last 20 years. The effects of crop rotations, fertilization, soil tillage and compaction on earthworms are presented, based on various field experiments. Geophagous (soil eating) species such as Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. rosea dominate the earthworm fauna in Norwegian arable soil. Lumbricus terrestris is also present; in ...

  6. Topographic variability influences the carbon sequestration potential of arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Elsgaard, Lars; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2012-01-01

    There is presently limited knowledge on the influence of field spatial variability on the carbon (C) sink-source relationships in arable landscapes. This is accompanied by the fact that our understanding of soil profile C dynamics is also limited. This study aimed at investigating how spatial...... results indicated that variability across arable landscapes makes footslope soils both a larger sink of buried soil C and a bigger potential CO2 source than upslope soils....

  7. A RAINFALL SIMULATOR STUDY OF INFILTRATION INTO ARABLE SOILS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERDA, A; VEEN, AWL

    Since Hortonian surface runoff is one possible mechanism for the fast transport of agricultural chemicals from arable soils to surface water, more information is needed on its significance in agricultural areas. The present study concerns the sandy soils of the Dutch Cover Sands area, and is based

  8. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on the yield and agronomic characters of Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss. ... If properly managed and stimulated, fungi can contribute significantly to improving soil health, thus improving food security in a sustainable manner. Keywords: Mycoaugmentation ...

  9. Soil conservation practices among Arable Crop Farmers In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil conservation practices among Arable Crop Farmers In Enugu – North Agricultural Zone, Nigeria: Implications for Climate Change. ... The paper recommends concerted efforts to promote among farmers the conservation practices that aid mitigation and adaptation to climate change and at the same time enhance ...

  10. Quick test for infiltration of arable soils

    OpenAIRE

    Liebl, Boris; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The quick test makes the consequences of soil compaction on water infiltration and the yield of agricultural crops visible. It promotes an understanding of the effects of soil compaction and the importance of soil-conserving cultivation.

  11. VARIABILITY OF ARABLE AND FOREST SOILS PROPERTIES ON ERODED SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wiśniewski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic method of reducing soil and land erosion is a change of land use, for example, from arable to forest. Particularly effective as a protective role – according to the Polish law – soil-protecting forests. The thesis presents differences in the deformation of the basic soil properties on moraine slopes, depending on land use. There has been presented the function and the efficiency of the soil-protecting forests in erosion control. The soil cross section transects and soil analysis displayed that soil-protecting forests are making an essential soil cover protection from degradation, inter alia, limiting the decrease of humus content, reduction of upper soil horizons and soil pedons layer. On the afforested slopes it was stated some clear changes of grain size and chemical properties of soils in relation to adjacent slopes agriculturally used.

  12. Modelling soil organic carbon concentration of mineral soils in arable lands using legacy soil data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suuster, E; Ritz, Christian; Roostalu, H

    2012-01-01

    is appropriate if the study design has a hierarchical structure as in our scenario. We used the Estonian National Soil Monitoring data on arable lands to predict SOC concentrations of mineral soils. Subsequently, the model with the best prediction accuracy was applied to the Estonian digital soil map...

  13. Soil health: a comparison between organically and conventionally managed arable soils in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Blok, W.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Ariena, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of 13 organic and 13 neighboring conventional arable farming systems was conducted in the Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils were analyzed using a polyphasic approach combining traditional

  14. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  15. Soil organic (14)C dynamics : Effects of pasture installation on arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkens, P.F A M; Hassink, J; van der Plicht, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    In a study addressing composition and recovery of soil carbon following pasture installation on arable land, radiocarbon isotope ratios were measured in size- and density-separated soil organic matter (SOM) fractions in a pasture and maize plot. The average soil carbon age increased with depth from

  16. Conversion of Forests to Arable Land and its Effect on Soil Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Conversion of Forests to Arable Land and its Effect on Soil ... greater hydraulic conductivity than those under cultivation and this may indicate greater pore ... stability and clay dispersion index were 10% higher and 28% lower in the .... degraded the physical properties, making the soil more prone to soil erosion by water.

  17. Soil structure and earthworm activity in an marine silt loam under pasture versus arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, A.G.; Pulleman, M.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural management influences soil organic matter (SOM) and earthworm activity which interact with soil structure. We aimed to describe the change in earthworm activity and related soil (micro)structure and SOM in a loamy Eutrodept as affected by permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable

  18. Soil organic 14C dynamics: effects of pasture installation on arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Plicht, van der J.; Hassink, J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study addressing composition and recovery of soil carbon following pasture installation on arable land, radiocarbon isotope ratios were measured in size-and density-separated soil organic matter (SOM) fractions in a pasture and maize plot. The average soil carbon age increased with depth from

  19. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prommer

    Full Text Available Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  20. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  1. Biochar Decelerates Soil Organic Nitrogen Cycling but Stimulates Soil Nitrification in a Temperate Arable Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50–80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies. PMID:24497947

  2. Relationship between soil cellulolytic activity and suppression of seedling blight of barley in arable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Knudsen, I.; Elmholt, S.

    2002-01-01

    the Hanes-Wolf transformation of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Soil samples from 6 to 13 cm depth were collected in the early spring as undisturbed blocks from 10 arable soils with different physico-chemical properties and cultivation history. Significant correlations were found between soil suppresiveness......The objective was to investigate the relationship between soil suppression of seedling blight of barley caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Sacc. and the soil cellulolytic activity of beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase and endocellulase. Disease suppression was investigated in bioassays...... with test soils mixed with sand, and barley seeds inoculated with F. culmorum. After 19 days, disease severity was evaluated on the barley seedlings. Soil cellulolytic activities were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl-labelled fluorogenic substrates, and were expressed as V-max values obtained by using...

  3. The dissolved organic matter as a potential soil quality indicator in arable soils of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Tibor; Draskovits, Eszter; Szabó, József; Koós, Sándor; László, Péter; Szalai, Zoltán

    2015-07-01

    Although several authors have suggested that the labile fraction of soils could be a potential soil quality indicator, the possibilities and limitations of using the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction for this purpose have not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that DOM is an adequate indicator of soil quality. To test this, the soil quality indices (SQI) of 190 arable soils from a Hungarian dataset were estimated, and these values were compared to DOM parameters (DOC and SUVA254). A clear difference in soil quality was found between the soil types, with low soil quality for arenosols (average SQI 0.5) and significantly higher values for gleysols, vertisols, regosols, solonetzes and chernozems. The SQI-DOC relationship could be described by non-linear regression, while a linear connection was observed between SQI and SUVA. The regression equations obtained for the dataset showed only one relatively weak significant correlation between the variables, for DOC (R (2) = 0.157(***); n = 190), while non-significant relationships were found for the DOC and SUVA254 values. However, an envelope curve operated with the datasets showed the robust potential of DOC to indicate soil quality changes, with a high R (2) value for the envelope curve regression equation. The limitations to using the DOM fraction of soils as a quality indicator are due to the contradictory processes which take place in soils in many cases.

  4. Neonicotinoid concentrations in arable soils after seed treatment applications in preceding years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ainsley; Harrington, Paul; Turnbull, Gordon

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticides clothianidin, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid were determined in arable soils from a variety of locations in England. In soil samples taken from the central area of fields, concentrations of clothianidin ranged from 0.02 to 13.6 µg kg(-1) . Thiamethoxam concentrations were between clothianidin and thiamethoxam were lower in soil samples taken from the edges of fields than from the centres of fields, but this difference was less pronounced for imidacloprid. This work gives a clear indication of the levels of neonicotinoids in arable soils after typical use of these compounds as seed dressings in the United Kingdom. There was evidence that imidacloprid was more persistent in the soils studied than clothianidin and thiamethoxam. As clothianidin and thiamethoxam have largely superseded imidacloprid in the United Kingdom, neonicotinoid levels were lower than suggested by predictions based on imidacloprid alone. © 2014 Crown copyright. Pest Management Science © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Soil organic matter dynamics after the conversion of arable land to pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Plicht, van der J.; Hassink, J.

    1999-01-01

    Conversion of arable land (maize) to pasture will affect the soil organic matter (SOM) content. Changes in the SOM content were studied using a size- and density-fractionation method and 13C analysis. Twenty-six years of maize cropping had resulted in a depletion of carbon stored in the

  6. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2003-01-01

    The vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements under lysimetric laboratory conditions during irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year, except 131 I. A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, which makes it possible to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The relaxation times of radionuclides in respective soil horizons can also be evaluated. (author)

  7. Physical and chemical factors influencing radionuclide behaviour in arable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauret, G.; Vidal, M.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Kruglov, S.V.; Cremers, A.; Wauters, J.; Valcke, E.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides integrates plant physiological and soil chemical aspects. Therefore, it is necessary to study the factors affecting the equilibrium of the radionuclides between solid and soil solution phases. Desorption and adsorption studies were applied to the podsolic and peat soils considered in the ECP-2 project. In the desorption approach, both sequential extraction and 'infinite bath' techniques were used. In the adsorption approach, efforts were directed at predicting Cs and Sr-K D on the basis of soil properties and soil solution composition. Desorption approach predicts time-dynamics of transfer with time but it is un sufficient for comparatively predicting transfer. Adsorption studies informs about which are the key factors affecting radionuclide transfer. For Sr, availability depends on the CEC and on the concentration of the Ca + Mg in the soil solution. For Cs, availability is mainly dependent on the partitioning between FES -frayed edge sites-, which are highly specific and REC -regular exchange complex-, with low selectivity for Cs. Moreover, availability depends on the K and NH 4 , levels in the soil solution and fixation properties of the soil. Considering these factors, the calculation of the in situ K D values helps to predict the relative transfer of radionuclides. The calculation of the K D of the materials that could be used as countermeasures could permit the prediction of its suitability to decrease transfer and therefore to help in producing cleaner agricultural products

  8. Water balance in afforestation chronosequences of common oak and Norway spruce on former arable land in Denmark and southern Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenqvist, L.; Hansen, K.; Vesterdal, L.; Salm, van der C.

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation, throughfall and soil moisture were measured, and interception, transpiration and water recharge were estimated in four afforestation chronosequences on former arable land at two Danish locations (Vestskoven and Gejlvang) and at one southern Swedish location (Tonnersjoheden).

  9. Mapping of Rill Erosion of Arable Soils Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtanov, A. N.; Vernyuk, Yu. I.; Savin, I. Yu.; Shchepot'ev, V. V.; Dokukin, P. A.; Sharychev, D. V.; Li, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Possibilities of using data obtained from unmanned aerial vehicles for detection and mapping of rill erosion on arable lands are analyzed. Identification and mapping of rill erosion was performed on a key plot with a predominance of arable gray forest soils (Greyzemic Phaeozems) under winter wheat in Tula oblast. This plot was surveyed from different heights and in different periods to determine the reliability of identification of rill erosion on the basis of automated procedures in a GIS. It was found that, despite changes in the pattern of rills during the warm season, only one survey during this season is sufficient for adequate assessment of the area of eroded soils. According to our data, the most reliable identification of rill erosion is based on the aerial survey from the height of 50 m above the soil surface. When the height of the flight is more than 200 m, erosional rills virtually escape identification. The efficiency of identification depends on the type of crops, their status, and time of the survey. The surveys of bare soil surface in periods with maximum possible interval from the previous rain or snowmelt season are most efficient. The results of our study can be used in the systems of remote sensing monitoring of erosional processes on arable fields. Application of multiand hyperspectral cameras can improve the efficiency of monitoring.

  10. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The use of pesticide, although increases agricultural yield and improves public health is also fraught ... mycostimulation of one of the in-situ soil fungi on some agronomic .... and Struwe, 2002) that are vital for degradation of.

  11. Vertical migration of 85Sr, 137Cs and 131I in various arable and undisturbed soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Palagyiova, J.

    2002-01-01

    Vertical migration of 85 Sr, 137 Cs and 131 I in some arable and undisturbed single-contaminated soils was studied by gamma-spectrometry measurements in lysimetric laboratory conditions applying irrigation of the soil profiles with wet atmospheric precipitation for about one year (except radioiodine). A new simple exponential compartment (box) model was derived, allowing us to calculate the migration rate constants and migration rates in the individual soil layers (vertical sections) as well as the total vertical migration rate constants and total vertical migration rates of radionuclides in the bulk soil horizon. The data from the time dependence of the depth activity distribution (radionuclide concentration along the vertical soil profile) were used to test the model. The migration rate constants and migration rates were found to be affected by the contaminating radionuclides as well as by the site, type and depth of the soil. The relaxation times of the radionuclides in the soil horizons were calculated. The effects on the rate parameters of the permanent grass cover and the zeolite applied onto the arable soil surfaces were also investigated

  12. Studies on mycoflora colonizing raw keratin wastes in arable soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Korniłłowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present studies showed that feathers placed in soil demonstrated the succesion of physiologically differentiated communities of micromycetes. The first colonizers were sugar fungi. The second phase of feather colonization showed the prevalence of nutritively undeveloped polyphages and "root" celulolytic fungi. The final phase of colonization was dominated by keratinophilic fungi together with microflora that involved the forms known mainly for their strong proteolytic abilities. It was found that both the Chemical structure of substrate and soil properties with its pH determined the qualitative composition of fungal flora.

  13. Transformation towards more sustainable soil management on Dutch arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claus, Sebastien; Egdom, van Ilona; Suter, Bruno; Sarpong, Clara; Pappa, Aikaterini; Miah, Imtiaz; Luppa, Caterina; Potters, J.I.

    2017-01-01

    Currently a debate is ongoing in the Netherlands on how to increase soil sustainable management in general and specifically in short term lease. Sustainable practices may not be adopted by farmers because of an interplay between EU, national and provincial legislation, short-term land lease system,

  14. Mycostimulation in a glyphosate treated arable soil: implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The use of pesticide, although increases agricultural yield and improves public health is also fraught with a number of ecologic, agronomic and health concerns. This research investigated the impact of an ex-situ mycostimulation of one of the in-situ soil fungi on some agronomic characters and yield of Talinum ...

  15. Fate of metal resistance genes in arable soil after manure application in a microcosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenguang; Zeng, Zhenling; Zhang, Yiming; Ding, Xueyao; Sun, Yongxue

    2015-03-01

    Manure application contributes to the spread and persistence of metal resistance genes (MRGs) in the environment. We investigated the fate of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) resistance genes (pcoA, pcoD and zntA) in arable soil after Cu/Zn-containing manure application. Manure with or without addition of metals (Cu/Zn) was added in a soil microcosm over 2 months. Soil samples were collected for analysis on day 0, 30 and 60. The abundances of all MRGs (pcoA, pcoD and zntA) in manure group were significantly higher than those in untreated soil and manure+metals groups. All MRGs dissipated 1.2-1.3 times faster in manure group (from -90 ± 8% to -93 ± 7%) than those in manure+metals group (from -68 ± 8% to -78 ± 5%). The results indicated that manure from healthy pigs contributed to the occurrence of metals (Cu/Zn) and MRGs (pcoA, pcoD and zntA) in arable soil. The significant effects of manure application on the accumulation of pcoA, pcoD and zntA lasted for 1-2 months. Cu/Zn can slow down the dissipation of pcoA, pcoD and zntA after manure application. This is the first report to investigate the fate of MRGs in soil after manure application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seedling emergence response of rare arable plants to soil tillage varies by species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torra, Joel; Recasens, Jordi; Royo-Esnal, Aritz

    2018-01-01

    Very little information is available on emergence of rare arable plants (RAP) in relation to soil disturbance and seed burial conditions in Europe. This information is essential to design conservation and soil management strategies to prevent the decline of these species in agroecosystems. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of soil cultivation with burial time on the emergence and seed persistence of RAP. Seeds of 30 RAP species were collected from Spanish arable fields and subjected to two tillage treatments: (a) no soil disturbance, and (b) autumnal soil disturbance down to 10 cm depth every year. The treatments simulated no-till and tilled (disking), respectively. In plots under no-till, RAP seeds were sown at 1-cm depth. In the tilled plots, seeds were sown homogeneously mixed in the top 1-10 cm of soil. The trial was established every two consecutive seasons, and each trial was maintained for two years. Annual cumulative plant emergence was calculated each year; whereas the first trial was monitored for a third year to estimate seed longevity using a persistence index. The response in emergence of the 30 RAP to annual tillage varied among species. With burial time (number of years), higher emergence was observed for seeds sown in tilled soil. This was true across all species, and with strong season effects. The persistence index was correlated with seed weight, species with bigger seeds had low persistence indices while no pattern was observed for small seeded species. Most RAP species, particularly those with high persistence, showed induction of secondary dormancy processes, highlighting the importance of tillage to promote RAP emergence, and hence, seed bank replenishment. Therefore, as time passes the absence of soil tillage may represent a driver of RAP seed bank decline for those species with secondary dormancy processes. In conclusion, it is important to design soil management strategies, such as regular tillage to promote

  17. Erosion Losses of Soils on Arable Land in the European part of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltsev, K. A.; Yermolaev, O. P.

    2018-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of potential soil losses in arable lands of the European part of Russia is carried out in the article. The assessment was carried out using a mathematical model based on the mathematical dependencies of the universal soil loss equation and the mathematical dependencies of the State Hydrological Institute of Russia. Assessment of potential soil losses was performed using calculations in a geographic information system. To perform the calculations the database was created containing information on: the relief; properties of soils; climate and land use. The raster model of data organization was used to create the database and subsequent calculations. The assessment shows that the average amount of soil loss in the plowed land of the European territory of Russia is 11 t/ha per year. At the same time, about half of the territories are located in conditions where the soil loss value does not exceed 0.5 t/ha per year. The potential loss of soil taking into account the soil protection role of vegetation is 3.3 tons/ha per year. In addition, a spatial analysis of the distribution of soil loss by landscape zones shows that there is a consistent reduction in the potential loss of soil from the forest zone (20.92 t/ha per year) to the forest-steppe (10.84 t / ha per year), steppe (8.13 t/ha per year) and semi-desert (4.7 tons/ha per year) zone.

  18. Ecotoxicological Impact of the Bioherbicide Leptospermone on the Microbial Community of Two Arable Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romdhane, Sana; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Barthelmebs, Lise; Calvayrac, Christophe; Bertrand, Cédric; Cooper, Jean-François; Dayan, Franck E.; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    The ecotoxicological impact of leptospermone, a β-triketone bioherbicide, on the bacterial community of two arable soils was investigated. Soil microcosms were exposed to 0 × (control), 1 × or 10 × recommended dose of leptospermone. The β-triketone was moderately adsorbed to both soils (i.e.,: Kfa ~ 1.2 and Koc ~ 140 mL g−1). Its dissipation was lower in sterilized than in unsterilized soils suggesting that it was mainly influenced by biotic factors. Within 45 days, leptospermone disappeared almost entirely from one of the two soils (i.e., DT50 < 10 days), while 25% remained in the other. The composition of the microbial community assessed by qPCR targeting 11 microbial groups was found to be significantly modified in soil microcosms exposed to leptospermone. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed a shift in the bacterial community structure and a significant impact of leptospermone on the diversity of the soil bacterial community. Changes in the composition, and in the α- and β-diversity of microbial community were transient in the soil able to fully dissipate the leptospermone, but were persistent in the soil where β-triketone remained. To conclude the bacterial community of the two soils was sensitive to leptospermone and its resilience was observed only when leptospermone was fully dissipated. PMID:27252691

  19. Restoration of species-rich grasslands on ex-arable land: Seed addition outweighs soil fertility reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardol, P.; Van der Wal, A.; Bezemer, T.M.; De Boer, W.; Duyts, H.; Holtkamp, R.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    A common practice in biodiversity conservation is restoration of former species-rich grassland on ex-arable land. Major constraints for grassland restoration are high soil fertility and limited dispersal ability of plant species to target sites. Usually, studies focus on soil fertility or on methods

  20. Effects of a copper tolerant grass (Agrostis capillaris) on the ecosystem of a copper-contaminated arable soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, G.T.; Bouwman, L.A.; Bloem, J.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    To test how a dysfunctioning ecosystem of a severely metal-polluted soil responds to renewed plant growth, a pot experiment was conducted with soil from an experimental arable field with pH and copper gradients imposed 13 years ago. In this experimentfour pH/copper combinations from this field were

  1. Interspecific competition of early successional plant species in ex-arable fields as influenced by plant-soil feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Jingying; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Van der Putten, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback can affect plants that belong to the same (intraspecific feedback) or different species (interspecific feedback). However, little is known about how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks influence interspecific plant competition. Here, we used plants and soil from early-stage ex-arable fields to examine how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks affect the performance of 10 conditioning species and the focal species, Jacobaea vulgaris. Plants were grown alon...

  2. Potential carbon sequestration of European arable soils estimated by modelling a comprehensive set of management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Bampa, Francesca; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca; Jones, Arwyn

    2014-11-01

    Bottom-up estimates from long-term field experiments and modelling are the most commonly used approaches to estimate the carbon (C) sequestration potential of the agricultural sector. However, when data are required at European level, important margins of uncertainty still exist due to the representativeness of local data at large scale or different assumptions and information utilized for running models. In this context, a pan-European (EU + Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Norway) simulation platform with high spatial resolution and harmonized data sets was developed to provide consistent scenarios in support of possible carbon sequestration policies. Using the CENTURY agroecosystem model, six alternative management practices (AMP) scenarios were assessed as alternatives to the business as usual situation (BAU). These consisted of the conversion of arable land to grassland (and vice versa), straw incorporation, reduced tillage, straw incorporation combined with reduced tillage, ley cropping system and cover crops. The conversion into grassland showed the highest soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates, ranging between 0.4 and 0.8 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) , while the opposite extreme scenario (100% of grassland conversion into arable) gave cumulated losses of up to 2 Gt of C by 2100. Among the other practices, ley cropping systems and cover crops gave better performances than straw incorporation and reduced tillage. The allocation of 12 to 28% of the European arable land to different AMP combinations resulted in a potential SOC sequestration of 101-336 Mt CO2 eq. by 2020 and 549-2141 Mt CO2 eq. by 2100. Modelled carbon sequestration rates compared with values from an ad hoc meta-analysis confirmed the robustness of these estimates. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Plant litter decomposition and carbon sequestration for arable soils. Final report of works. April 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recous, S.; Barrois, F.; Coppens, F.; Garnier, P.; Grehan, E.; Balesdent, J.; Dambrine, E.; Zeller, B.; Loiseau, P.; Personeni, E.

    2002-01-01

    The general objective of this project was to contribute to the evaluation of land use and management impacts on C sequestration and nitrogen dynamics in soils. The land used through the presence/absence of crops and their species, and the land management through tillage, localisation of crop residues, fertilizer applications,... are important factors that affect the dynamics of organic matters in soils, particularly the mineralization of C and N, the losses to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, the retention of carbon into the soil. This project was conducted by four research groups, three of them having expertise in nutrient cycling of three major agro-ecosystems (arable crops, grasslands, forests) and the fourth one having expertise in modelling long term effects of land use on C storage into the soils. Within this common project one major objective was to better understand the fate of plant litter entering the soil either as above litter or as root litter. The focus was put on two factors that particularly affect decomposition: the initial biochemical quality of plant litter, and the location of the decomposing litter. One innovative aspect of the project was the use of stable isotope as 13 C for carbon, based on the use of enriched or depleted 13 C material, the only option to assess the dynamics of 'new' C entering the soil on the short term, in order to reveal the effects of decomposition factors. Another aspect was the simultaneous study of C and N. The project consisted in experiments relevant for each agro-ecosystem, in forest, grassland and arable soils for which interactions between residue quality and nitrogen availability on the one hand, residue quality and location on the other hand, was investigated. A common experiment was set up to investigate the potential degradability of the various residue used (beech leaf rape straw, young rye, Lolium and dactylic roots) in a their original soils and in a single soil was assessed. Based on these experiments, the

  4. [Impacts of rice straw biochar on organic carbon and CO2 release in arable soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yue-Jin; Hu, Xue-Yu; Yi, Qing; Yu, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the stability of biochar and the effect of biochar when added into soil on soil organic carbon, a 130-day incubation experiment was conducted with rice straw biochar produced at 500 degrees C and 700 degrees C (RBC500 and RBC700) and with addition rates of 0% (control), 3%, 6% and 100% (pure biochar), to detect the change of total organic carbon (TOC), easily oxidized carbon (EOC) and status of CO2 release, following addition of biochar in arable soil. Results showed that: the content of both TOC and EOC in soil increased with biochar addition rates comparing with the control. RBC500 had greater contributions to both TOC and EOC increasing amounts than those of RBC700 under the same biochar addition rate. TOC contents of all treatments decreased during the initial 30 days with the largest decreasing amplitude of 15.8%, and tended to be stable in late incubation stages. Same to that of TOC, EOC contents of all treatments also tended to remain stable after 30 days, but in the 30 days of early incubation, EOC in the soil decreased by 72.4% and 81.7% respectively when the added amount of RBC500 was 3% and 6% , while it was reduced by 61.3% and 69.8% respectively when the added amount of RBC700 was 3% and 6%. EOC contents of soil added with biochar produced at the same temperature were similar in the end of incubation. The reduction of soil EOC content in early incubation may be related to mineralization caused by labile fractions of biochar. During the 130-day incubation, the accumulated CO2 releases showed an order of soil and biochar mixtures soil could reduce CO2 release, the largest reduction amplitude is 41.05%. In a long time scale, biochar as a soil amendment is favorable to the deduction of greenhouse gas release and soil carbon immobilization. Biochar could be used as a soil carbon sequestration carrier.

  5. Emission of CO2 from the arable soils polluted by heavy metals of Baikal forest-steppe region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenova, Yu.V.; Pomazkina, L.V.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of arable soil contamination by heavy metals on C0 2 emission in Lake Baikal region had been studied during the period from 1992 till 2005. It was shown, that the way of agroecosystems response on technogenic impact vary from year to year following the changes in both the temperature and humidity. The contamination mostly resulted in soil organic matter mineralization increase and, consequently, increased carbon losses in the form of CO 2 .

  6. Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Arable Soils in Bijiang Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Wei-heng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been paid much attention to soil heavy metal pollution in the Bijiang watershed caused by the Lanping lead-zinc mine. We collected 35 arable soil samples along Bijiang, then sampled and tested the contents of As, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg. And then with Nemerow Multi-Factor Index and the Potential Ecological Risk Index method, we evaluated the heavy metal pollution risk. The results showed:(1The accumulation of Pb, Zn, Cd was in a relatively high level, the average was 1 146.97, 579.15, 4.85 mg·kg-1 respectively, which was seriously polluted; the average accumulation of As was 26.85 mg·kg-1; but Cu, Hg was slightly polluted. (2Statistical analysis showed that Lanping area was a main point source pollution of As, Zn, Pb, Cd, while Cu, Hg was pollution caused by different non-point source pollution.(3Within this basin, the Nemerow index was 17.69, which was serious heavy metal pollution, while the comprehensive potential ecological risk index was 773.38, which was a strong potential ecological risk. The contribution of pollutants was Cd > Pb > Zn> As> Hg > Cu. (4As a whole, the soil heavy metal pollution of paddy field was higher than of the dry land.

  7. Wettability, soil organic matter and structure-properties of typical chernozems under the forest and under the arable land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Galina; Umarova, Aminat; Tyugai, Zemfira; Milanovskiy, Evgeny; Shein, Evgeny

    2017-04-01

    Intensive tillage affects the properties of soil: decrease in content of soil organic matter and in hydrophobicity of the soil's solid phase, the reduction of amount of water stable aggregates - all this leads to deterioration of the structure of the soil and affects the process of movement of moisture in the soil profile. One of the hypotheses of soil's structure formation ascribes the formation of water stable aggregates with the presence of hydrophobic organic substances on the surface of the soil's solid phase. The aim of this work is to study the effect of tillage on properties of typical chernozems (pachic Voronic Chernozems, Haplic Chernozems) (Russia, Kursk region), located under the forest and under the arable land. The determination of soil-water contact angle was performed by a Drop Shape Analyzer DSA100 (Krüss GmbH, Germany) by the static sessile drop method. For all samples the content of total and organic carbon by dry combustion in oxygen flow and the particle size distribution by the laser diffraction method on the device Analysette 22 comfort, FRITCH, Germany were determined. The estimation of aggregate composition was performed by dry sieving (AS 200, Retsch, Germany), the content of water stable aggregates was estimated by the Savvinov method. There was a positive correlation between the content of organic matter and soil's wettability in studied soils, a growth of contact angle with the increasing the content of organic matter. Under the forest the content of soil organic matter was changed from 6,41% on the surface up to 1,9% at the depth of 100 cm. In the Chernozem under the arable land the organic carbon content in arable horizon is almost two times less. The maximum of hydrophobicity (78.1o) was observed at the depth of 5 cm under the forest. In the profile under the arable land the contact angle value at the same depth was 50o. The results of the structure analysis has shown a decrease in the content of agronomically valuable and water

  8. Acid-base status and changes in Swedish forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karltun, Erik; Stendahl, Johan; Lundin, Lars

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use data from the Swedish National Survey of Forest Soils and Vegetation (NSFSV) to evaluate the present acid-base status of forest soils to try to answer the following questions. Which role do anthropogenic and biological acidification play for the present acid-base status of the soil profile? What is the present acid-base status of Swedish forest soils and how large areas may be considered as severely acidified? Do the current tendencies in soil acid-base status correspond with the positive development in surface waters?

  9. Analysing Structure Dynamics in Arable Soils using X-ray Micro-Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, S.; Weller, U.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    Structure is a dynamic property of soil. It interacts with many biotic and abiotic features and controls various soil functions. We analyzed soil structure within different plots of the ''Static Fertilisation Experiment'' at the agricultural research station in Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany) using X-ray micro tomography. The aim was to investigate in how far different levels of organic carbon, increased microbial activity and enhanced plant growth affects structural properties of an arable soil. Since 106 years one plot has experienced a constant application of farmyard manure and fertilisers, whereas the other has never been fertilised in this period. Intact soil cores from the chernozem soil at the two plots were taken from a depth of 5 to 15 cm (Ap-horizon) and 35 to 45 cm (Ah-horizon) to analyse structural changes with depth and in two different seasons (spring and summer) to investigate structure dynamics. The pore structure was analysed by quantifying the mean geometrical and topological characteristics of the pore network as a function of pore size. This was done by a combination of Minkowski functionals and morphological size distibution. For small structural features close to the image resolution the results clearly depend on the applied filtering technique and segmentation thresholds. Therefore the application of different image enhancement techniques is discussed. Furthermore, a new method for an automated determination of grey value thesholds for the segmentation of CT-images into pore space and solid is developed and evaluated. We highlight the relevance of image resolution for structure analysis. Results of the structure analysis reveal that the spring samples of the ploughed layer (Ap-horizon) from the fertilised plot have significantly higher macroporosities (P connectivity of the pore network is better in the fertilised plot and the pore size distribution was found to be different, too. The differences in porosity and pore connectivity increase from

  10. Heavy metal contamination in arable soils and vegetables around a sulfuric acid factory, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Wang, Jin; Li, Xiangping; Chen, Yongheng; Wu, Yingjuan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Qi, Jianying [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection (SCIES-MEP), Guangzhou (China); Wang, Chunlin [Research Center for Environmental Science, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Environmental Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-07-15

    This study was designed to investigate heavy metal (Tl, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni) contamination levels of arable soils and vegetables grown in the vicinity of a sulfuric acid factory in the Western Guangdong Province, China. Health risks associated with these metals by consumption of vegetables were assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ). The soils show a most significant contamination of Tl, followed by Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ni. The heavy metal contents ({mu}g/g, dry weight basis) in the edible parts of vegetables range from 5.60 to 105 for Tl, below detection limit to 227 for Pb, 5.0-30.0 for Cu, 10.0-82.9 for Zn, and 0.50-26.0 for Ni, mostly exceeding the proposed maximum permissible level in Germany or China. For the studied vegetables, the subterranean part generally bears higher contents of Tl and Zn than the aerial part, while the former has lower contents of Cu and Ni than the latter. In addition, the results reveal that Tl is the major risk contributor for the local people since its HQ values are mostly much higher than 1.0. The potential health risk of Tl pollution in the food chain and the issue of food safety should be highly concerned and kept under continued surveillance and control. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Structural properties of dissolved organic carbon in deep soil horizons of an arable and temporarily grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, A.; Chabbi, A.; Croue, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the bio-available fraction of the largest amount of soil organic matter (SOM), even if it does represent only a very small proportion. Because most of the studies on DOC dynamics were mainly restricted to forest soils, studies on the factors governing the dynamics of DOC in deep soil horizons (>1 m) in arable system are still very little limited. The objective of this work is to better define the proportion of DOC in deep soil horizons and indicate their main characteristics and structural properties. The study was conducted on the long term observatory for environmental research- biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity Lusignan site). DOC collected using lysimeters plates inserted to a depth of 105 cm was fractionated into 3 fractions using the two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The HPO (hydrophobic) fraction (i.e. humic substances) isolated from the XAD-8 resin, the TPH (Transphilic) fraction from the XAD-4 resin and the HPI (hydrophilic) fraction which corresponds to the DOC that does not adsorbed onto the two resins under the acid condition used (pH 2). DOM adsorbed onto the resins is recovered with a 75%/25% acetonitrile/water mixture and lyophilized. Depend on the amount of material; the chemical composition of DOC was performed using UV254 nm, fluorescence EEM, NMR and HPSEC/UV/COD. The results show that the concentration and structural properties of DOC in deep soil horizon were similar to those of groundwater (low SUVA (1.2 m-1.L.mg C-1), structures composed mainly of low molecular weight). Because of the relatively recent establishment of the treatment, the monitoring of the dynamics of the DOC concentrations did not show significant differences between arable and grassland. However, the temporal dynamic shows a slight increase in the DOC content regardless of the of land use. DOC concentrations between winter and the middle of spring tend to double going from 1 to 2.5 mg / L and then

  12. Assessment of various practices of the mitigation of N2O emissions from the arable soils of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosulski Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This review assesses the adaptability and effectiveness of the basic practices to mitigate the N2O emissions from the arable land in the climate, soil and agricultural conditions of Poland. We have analyzed the decrease in the nitrogen-based fertilization, selection of the fertilizer nitrogen forms, use of biological inhibitors of nitrogen transformation in the soil, control of the acidic soil reaction, reduction in the natural fertilizers use and afforestation of the low productive soils. The challenge evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation practices lies in the inadequacy of the national data on N2O soil emissions in particular agrotechnical conditions. In Poland, circumstances that favor intensive N2O emissions from the arable soils occur uncommonly, as shows the analysis of the literature reporting on the country climate, soil and agricultural conditions alongside the N2O emissions from soils under various cultivation conditions. Consequently, the effectiveness of mitigation practices that relies on an extensification of plant production may be insufficient. It can be assumed that, at the doses of nitrogen fitting the nutritional needs of crops, the soil N2O emissions are low and do not meaningfully differ from the emissions from untreated soils (literature data point to limited N2O emission from arable soils treated with N doses of ≤150-200 kg N·ha-1. The effectiveness of the nitrogen fertilization reduction as an N2O emissions mitigation practice is restricted to intensive farming. A universal registry of the mineral and natural fertilization use could help identify the agricultural holdings with a potential for high N2O emission and foster a targeted application of mitigation practices. It is suggested that normalization and maintenance of the optimum (i.e. close to neutral soil pH should become a more common practice of N2O emissions mitigation in Poland in view of the extent of arable soils acidification and the literature data

  13. Response of rhizosphere microbial community structure and diversity to heavy metal co-pollution in arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linjing; Zeng, Guangming; Fan, Changzheng; Lu, Lunhui; Chen, Xunfeng; Chen, Ming; Wu, Haipeng; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-10-01

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to heavy metals, concern about the soil quality of farming lands near manufacturing district is increasing. Investigating the function of soil microorganisms exposed to long-term heavy metal contamination is meaningful and important for agricultural soil utilization. This article studied the potential influence of several heavy metals on microbial biomass, activity, abundance, and community composition in arable soil near industrial estate in Zhuzhou, Hunan province, China. The results showed that soil organic contents (SOC) were significantly positive correlated with heavy metals, whereas dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was greatly depressed by the heavy metal stress. Negative correlation was found between heavy metals and basal soil respiration (BSR), and no correlation was found between heavy metals and microbial biomass content (MBC). The quantitative PCR (QPCR) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis could suggest that heavy metal pollution has significantly decreased abundance of bacteria and fungi and also changed their community structure. The results could contribute to evaluate heavy metal pollution level in soil. By combining different environmental parameters, it would promote the better understanding of heavy metal effect on the size, structure, and activity of microbial community in arable soil.

  14. Dynamics of the agrochemical fertility parameters of arable soils in the southwestern region of Central Chernozemic zone of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Data of the agrochemical survey of arable soils in Belgorod oblast during the period from 1964 to 2014 have been analyzed. The soil cover mainly consists of typical chernozems (Haplic Chernozems) and leached chernozems (Luvic Chernozems) in the forest-steppe zone and ordinary chernozems (Calcic Chernozems) in the steppe zone. Under long-term agricultural use (from 1964 to 2014), the content of mobile phosphorus in arable soils of the region under study has increased from 55 to 137 mg/kg, and the content of mobile potassium has increased from 105 to 147 mg/kg. During the period of 1976-2014, the share of acid soils has increased from 22.8 to 45.8%, including medium-acid soils from 1.5 to 12.6%. No significant changes in the weighted average content of soil organic matter are revealed for the period from 1985 to 2014. The value of this parameter is within the range of 4.8-5.0%. In the 2010-2014, 95.0% of arable soils belonged to the category of low supplied with mobile sulfur; 99.2, 96.9, 94.1, and 54.4% of soils were poorly supplied with zinc, copper, cobalt, and manganese, respectively. During the same period, the maximum average productivity of the crop area (3710 f. u./ha) was noted at the application of 4.8 t/ha organic fertilizers and 97.9 kg/ha organic fertilizers on the average. The maximum long-term yields of sugar beet (36.8 t/ha) and corn grain (4.97 t/ha) were obtained at the application of relatively low fertilizer rates.

  15. Crop residue decomposition, residual soil organic matter and nitrogen mineralization in arable soils with contrasting textures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matus, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of cropping, soil texture and soil structure for the decomposition of 14C- and 15N-labelled crop residues, a study was conducted in a sand and a

  16. Net Fluxes of CO2, but not N20 or CH4, are Affected Following Agronomic-Scale Additions of Urea to Prairie and Arable Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial production of carbon dioxide (CO2) increased with nitrogen (N) application rate for both arable and prairie soils incubated at 21 °C. Rate of N applied as urea (0, 11, 56, 112 kg N ha-1) did not affect soil methane consumption and nitrous oxide production for soil collected from either ec...

  17. Effects of organic versus conventional arable farming on soil structure and organic matter dynamics in a marine loam in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulleman, M.M.; Jongmans, A.G.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Bouma, J.

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of conventional and organic arable farming on soil organic matter (SOM) content, soil structure, aggregate stability and C and N mineralization, which are considered important factors in defining sustainable land management. Within one soil series, three different farming

  18. Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, S; Landner, L [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this report is to review available information on the fluxes of cadmium (Cd) to agricultural soils and crops in Sweden from phosphorus fertilizers (P-fertilizer) and other sources, and to discuss how the content of Cd in soil, crops and human food may be influenced by the specific environmental conditions in Sweden, as well as by the agricultural practices used in the country 62 refs, 15 figs, 18 tabs. With 5 page summary in Swedish

  19. Influence of long-term land use (arable and forest) and soil mineralogy on organic carbon stocks as well as composition and stability of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M.; Ellerbrock, R. H.; Wulf, M.; Dultz, S.; Hierath, C.; Sommer, M.

    2009-04-01

    The function of soils to sequester organic carbon (OC) and their related potential to mitigate the greenhouse effect is strongly affected by land use and soil mineralogy. This study is aimed to clarify long-term impacts of arable and forest land use as well as soil mineralogy on topsoil soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks as well as soil organic matter (SOM) composition and stability. Topsoil samples were taken from deciduous forest and adjacent arable sites (within Germany) that are continuously used for more than 100 years. The soils are different in genesis (Albic and Haplic Luvisol (AL, HL), Colluvic and Haplic Regosol (CR, HR), Haplic and Vertic Cambisol (HC, VC), Haplic Stagnosol (HSt)). First, particulate and water soluble organic matter were separated from the topsoil samples (Ap and Ah horizons). From the remaining solid extraction residues the Na-pyrophosphate soluble organic matter fractions (OM(PY)) were extracted, analysed for its OC content (OC(PY)) and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and 14C analyses. The SOC stocks calculated for 0-40 cm depth are in general larger for the forest as compared to the adjacent arable soils (except VC). The largest difference between forest and arable topsoils was detected for the HR site (5.9 kg m-2) and seemed to be caused by a two times larger stock of exchangeable Ca of the forest topsoil. For the arable topsoils multiple regression analyses indicate a strong influence of clay, oxalate soluble Al and pyrophosphate soluble Mg on the content of OC(PY) weighted with its C=O content. Such relation is not found for the forest topsoils. Further, a positive relation between Δ14C values of OM(PY) and the following independent variables: (i) specific mineral surface area, (ii) relative C=O group content in OM(PY) and (iii) soil pH is found for the arable topsoils (pH 6.7 - 7.5) suggesting an increase in OM(PY) stability with increasing interactions between OM(PY) and soil mineral surfaces via cation bridging. A similar

  20. Combining a coupled FTIR-EGA system and in situ DRIFTS for studying soil organic matter in arable soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Demyan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An optimized spectroscopic method combining quantitative evolved gas analysis via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-EGA in combination with a qualitative in situ thermal reaction monitoring via diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situT DRIFTS is being proposed to rapidly characterize soil organic matter (SOM to study its dynamics and stability. A thermal reaction chamber coupled with an infrared gas cell was used to study the pattern of thermal evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2 in order to relate evolved gas (i.e., CO2 to different qualities of SOM. Soil samples were taken from three different arable sites in Germany: (i the Static Fertilization Experiment, Bad Lauchstädt (Chernozem, from treatments of farmyard manure (FYM, mineral fertilizer (NPK, their combination (FYM + NPK and control without fertilizer inputs; (ii Kraichgau; and (iii Swabian Alb (Cambisols areas, Southwest Germany. The two latter soils were further fractionated into particulate organic matter (POM, sand and stable aggregates (Sa + A, silt and clay (Si + C, and NaOCl oxidized Si + C (rSOC to gain OM of different inferred stabilities; respiration was measured from fresh soil samples incubated at 20 °C and 50% water holding capacity for 490 days. A variable long path length gas cell was used to record the mid-infrared absorbance intensity of CO2 (2400 to 2200 cm−1 being evolved during soil heating from 25 to 700 °C with a heating rate of 68 °C min−1 and holding time of 10 min at 700 °C. Separately, the heating chamber was placed in a diffuse reflectance chamber (DRIFTS for measuring the mid-infrared absorbance of the soil sample during heating. Thermal stability of the bulk soils and fractions was measured via the temperature of maximum CO2 evolution (CO2max. Results indicated that the FYM + NPK and FYM treatments of the Chernozem soils had a lower CO2max as compared to both NPK and CON treatments. On average, CO2max of the

  1. Response of microbial community of organic-matter-impoverished arable soil to long-term application of soil conditioner derived from dynamic rapid fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiaqi; Li, Mingxiao; Mao, Xuhui; Hao, Yan; Ding, Jie; Liu, Dongming; Xi, Beidou; Liu, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Rapid fermentation of food waste can be used to prepare soil conditioner. This process consumes less time and is more cost-effective than traditional preparation technology. However, the succession of the soil microbial community structure after long-term application of rapid fermentation-derived soil conditioners remains unclear. Herein, dynamic rapid fermentation (DRF) of food waste was performed to develop a soil conditioner and the successions and diversity of bacterial communities in an organic-matter-impoverished arable soil after six years of application of DRF-derived soil conditioner were investigated. Results showed that the treatment increased soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and strawberry yield by 5.3 g/kg and 555.91 kg/ha, respectively. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Firmicutes became the dominant phyla, occupying 65.95%-77.52% of the bacterial sequences. Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that the soil bacterial communities were largely influenced by the treatment. Redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that the relative abundances of Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, and Firmicutes were significantly correlated with soil TC, TN, TP, NH4+-N, NO3--N, OM, and moisture. These communities were all distributed in the soil samples collected in the sixth year of application. Long-term treatment did not enhance the diversity of bacterial species but significantly altered the distribution of major functional bacterial communities in the soils. Application of DRF-derived soil conditioner could improve the soil quality and optimize the microbial community, ultimately enhancing fruit yields.

  2. Effects of a copper-tolerant grass (Agrostis capillaris) on the ecosystem of a copper-contaminated arable soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boon, G.T. [State Univ. Groningen (Netherlands); Bouwman, L.A.; Bloem, J.; Roemkens, P.F.A.M. [Research Inst. for Agrobiology and Soil Fertility, Haren (Netherlands)

    1998-10-01

    To test how a dysfunctioning ecosystem of a severely metal-polluted soil responds to renewed plant growth, a pot experiment was conducted with soil from an experimental arable field with pH and copper gradients imposed 13 years ago. In this experiment, four pH/copper combinations from this field were either planted with a pH- and copper-resistant grass cultivar or remained fallow. During a 10-week period, the dynamics of the microbial activity and of the abundances of bacteria, protozoa. and nematodes were measured, as were the dynamics of several chemical soil parameters. After 13 years of copper, which had resulted in severely reduced crop growth, no effects were observed on bacterial numbers, respiration, or protozoan numbers, but bacterial growth was strongly reduced in the low pH plots, and even more so in low pH plots enriched with copper. Of the organisms, only nematodes were negatively affected under conditions of high copper load at low pH. In these plots, numbers belonging to all feeding categories were strongly reduced. Planting of a copper-tolerant grass variety, Agrostis capillaris L. var. Parys Mountain, resulted within 10 weeks in faster bacterial growth and more protozoa and bacterivorous nematodes in comparison with fallow controls; these effects were markedly strongest in the acidic, copper-enriched soils. During incubation, fungivorous nematodes increased in all treatments, in fallow and in planted pots and in the pots with high-copper, low-pH soil. The results of this experiment suggest that introduction of plant growth is one of the major causes of increased biological activity in acidic contaminated soils. Planting such soils with metal-tolerant plant species can reestablish the necessary food base to support soil organism growth, and this can lead to numerous positive effects, reversing the loss of soil functions due to the high copper levels under acidic conditions.

  3. Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from arable soils amended with sewage sludge using Thlaspi caerulescens: Development of a predictive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxted, A.P. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Biology Building, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Black, C.R. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); West, H.M.; Crout, N.M.J. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Biology Building, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); McGrath, S.P. [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom); Young, S.D. [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Biology Building, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: scott.young@nottingham.ac.uk

    2007-12-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the potential for using Thlaspi caerulescens as a phytoextraction plant and develop a user-advice model, which can predict the frequency of phytoextraction operation required under prescribed conditions. Pot and field trials were conducted using soil collected from a dedicated sewage sludge disposal facility. Soil amendments (sulphuric acid, potassium chloride and EDTA) intended to increase Cd solubility were also tested. Predictive models of Cd and Zn uptake were developed which were able to reproduce the observed pH-dependence of Cd uptake with an apparent maximum around pH 6. Chemical treatments did not significantly increase the uptake of Cd. The periodic use of phytoextraction with T. caerulescens to maintain soils below statutory metal concentration limits, when modern sewage sludges are repeatedly applied, seems very attractive given the non-intrusive and cost-effective nature of the process. The major limitations lie with the large-scale husbandry of T. caerulescens. - A predictive model of Cd and Zn uptake by Thlaspi caerulescens is presented as a management tool in the phytoextraction of arable soils receiving sewage sludge.

  4. Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from arable soils amended with sewage sludge using Thlaspi caerulescens: Development of a predictive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxted, A.P.; Black, C.R.; West, H.M.; Crout, N.M.J.; McGrath, S.P.; Young, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the potential for using Thlaspi caerulescens as a phytoextraction plant and develop a user-advice model, which can predict the frequency of phytoextraction operation required under prescribed conditions. Pot and field trials were conducted using soil collected from a dedicated sewage sludge disposal facility. Soil amendments (sulphuric acid, potassium chloride and EDTA) intended to increase Cd solubility were also tested. Predictive models of Cd and Zn uptake were developed which were able to reproduce the observed pH-dependence of Cd uptake with an apparent maximum around pH 6. Chemical treatments did not significantly increase the uptake of Cd. The periodic use of phytoextraction with T. caerulescens to maintain soils below statutory metal concentration limits, when modern sewage sludges are repeatedly applied, seems very attractive given the non-intrusive and cost-effective nature of the process. The major limitations lie with the large-scale husbandry of T. caerulescens. - A predictive model of Cd and Zn uptake by Thlaspi caerulescens is presented as a management tool in the phytoextraction of arable soils receiving sewage sludge

  5. Changes in the Metagenome of Prokaryotic Community as an Indicator of Fertility of Arable Soddy-Podzolic Soils upon Fertilizer Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naliukhin, A. N.; Khamitova, S. M.; Glinushkin, A. P.; Avdeev, Yu. M.; Snetilova, V. S.; Laktionov, Yu. V.; Surov, V. V.; Siluyanova, O. V.; Belozerov, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of different systems of fertilization and liming on the changes in the taxonomic structure of prokaryotic community in arable soddy-podzolic soil (Albic Retisol (Loamic, Aric, Cutanic, Differentic, Ochric)) was studied in a stationary field experiment of Vologda State Dairy Farming Academy with the use of high-performance sequencing method of gene 16S rRNA. The 25-year-old fallow plot, in which the intensity of microbiological processes was close to that in the virgin soddy-podzolic soils, was used as a control. At the first stage, dominant phyla were identified: Proteobacteria (45.3-56.2%), Actinobacteria (13.6-20.4%), Bacteroidetes (7.2-19.3%), Acidobacteria (7.1-11.5%), and Verrucomicrobia (4.3-10.3%). Several groups of microorganisms-indicators, whose portion changes in the arable soil under the influence of liming, fertilizer application, and soil treatment in comparison with the control, were determined. The applied approach made it possible to relate the taxonomic structure of the soil microbial cenosis with external factors for assessing changes in the structure of soil microbial complex under the impact of different uses of the arable soil.

  6. Combining a coupled FTIR-EGA system and in situ DRIFTS for studying soil organic matter in arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyan, M. S.; Rasche, F.; Schütt, M.; Smirnova, N.; Schulz, E.; Cadisch, G.

    2013-05-01

    An optimized spectroscopic method combining quantitative evolved gas analysis via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-EGA) in combination with a qualitative in situ thermal reaction monitoring via diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (in situT DRIFTS) is being proposed to rapidly characterize soil organic matter (SOM) to study its dynamics and stability. A thermal reaction chamber coupled with an infrared gas cell was used to study the pattern of thermal evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to relate evolved gas (i.e., CO2) to different qualities of SOM. Soil samples were taken from three different arable sites in Germany: (i) the Static Fertilization Experiment, Bad Lauchstädt (Chernozem), from treatments of farmyard manure (FYM), mineral fertilizer (NPK), their combination (FYM + NPK) and control without fertilizer inputs; (ii) Kraichgau; and (iii) Swabian Alb (Cambisols) areas, Southwest Germany. The two latter soils were further fractionated into particulate organic matter (POM), sand and stable aggregates (Sa + A), silt and clay (Si + C), and NaOCl oxidized Si + C (rSOC) to gain OM of different inferred stabilities; respiration was measured from fresh soil samples incubated at 20 °C and 50% water holding capacity for 490 days. A variable long path length gas cell was used to record the mid-infrared absorbance intensity of CO2 (2400 to 2200 cm-1) being evolved during soil heating from 25 to 700 °C with a heating rate of 68 °C min-1 and holding time of 10 min at 700 °C. Separately, the heating chamber was placed in a diffuse reflectance chamber (DRIFTS) for measuring the mid-infrared absorbance of the soil sample during heating. Thermal stability of the bulk soils and fractions was measured via the temperature of maximum CO2 evolution (CO2max). Results indicated that the FYM + NPK and FYM treatments of the Chernozem soils had a lower CO2max as compared to both NPK and CON treatments. On average, CO2max of the Chernozem

  7. 137Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M.; Johanson, Karl J.; Taylor, Andy F.S.

    2004-01-01

    The 137 Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of 137 Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m -2 in a peat soil and 47-189 g m -2 in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the 137 Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total 137 Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%

  8. Dynamics of 14C-labeled glucose and ammonium in saline arable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuelvas-Solorzano, Alma; Hernandez-Matehuala, Rosalina; Conde-Barajas, Eloy; Cardenas-Manriquez, Marcela; Luna-Guido, Marco L.; Dendooven, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Organic matter dynamics and nutrient availability in saline agricultural soils of the State of Guanajuato might provide information for remediation strategies. 14 C labeled glucose with or without 200 mg kg - 1 of NH 4 + -N soil was added to two clayey agricultural soils with different electrolytic conductivity (EC), i.e. 0.94 dS m - 1 (low EC; LEC) and 6.72 dS m - 1 (high EC; HEC), to investigate the effect of N availability and salt content on organic material decomposition. Inorganic N dynamics and production of CO 2 and 14 CO 2 were monitored. Approximately 60 % of the glucose- 14 C added to LEC soil evolved as 14 CO 2 , but only 20 % in HEC soil after the incubation period of 21 days. After one day, 14 C was extractable from LEC soil, but > 500 mg 14 C from HEC soil. No N mineralization occurred in the LEC and HEC soils and glucose addition reduced the concentrations of inorganic N in unamended soil and soil amended with NH 4 + -N. The NO 2 - and NO 3 - concentrations were on average higher in LEC than in HEC soil, with exception of NO 2 - in HEC amended with NH 4 + -N. It was concluded that increases in soil EC reduced mineralization of the easily decomposable C substrate and resulted in N-depleted soil. (author)

  9. Offsetting global warming-induced elevated greenhouse gas emissions from an arable soil by biochar application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamminger, Chris; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Global warming will likely enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils. Due to its slow decomposability, biochar is widely recognized as effective in long-term soil carbon (C) sequestration and in mitigation of soil GHG emissions. In a long-term soil warming experiment (+2.5 °C, since July 2008) we studied the effect of applying high-temperature Miscanthus biochar (0, 30 t/ha, since August 2013) on GHG emissions and their global warming potential (GWP) during 2 years in a temperate agroecosystem. Crop growth, physical and chemical soil properties, temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (R s ), and metabolic quotient (qCO 2 ) were investigated to yield further information about single effects of soil warming and biochar as well as on their interactions. Soil warming increased total CO 2 emissions by 28% over 2 years. The effect of warming on soil respiration did not level off as has often been observed in less intensively managed ecosystems. However, the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was not affected by warming. Overall, biochar had no effect on most of the measured parameters, suggesting its high degradation stability and its low influence on microbial C cycling even under elevated soil temperatures. In contrast, biochar × warming interactions led to higher total N 2 O emissions, possibly due to accelerated N-cycling at elevated soil temperature and to biochar-induced changes in soil properties and environmental conditions. Methane uptake was not affected by soil warming or biochar. The incorporation of biochar-C into soil was estimated to offset warming-induced elevated GHG emissions for 25 years. Our results highlight the suitability of biochar for C sequestration in cultivated temperate agricultural soil under a future elevated temperature. However, the increased N 2 O emissions under warming limit the GHG mitigation potential of biochar. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Soil Temperature Manipulation to Study Global Warming Effects in Arable Land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, R H; Laegdsmand, M; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    in a plough layer. Temperature sensors were placed at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 m depths in soil, and 0.1 m above the soil surface in all plots, which were connected to an automated data logger. Soil-warming setup was able to maintain a mean seasonal temperature difference of 5.0 ± 0.005℃ between heated and control......-ground vegetation response as this method heats only the soil. Therefore, using infrared heaters seems to represent natural climate warming (both air and soil) much more closely and may be used for future climate manipulation field studies....

  11. Soil temperature manipulation to study global warming effects in arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Raveendra H.; Laegdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2013-01-01

    in a plough layer. Temperature sensors were placed at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.25 m depths in soil, and 0.1 m above the soil surface in all plots, which were connected to an automated data logger. Soil-warming setup was able to maintain a mean seasonal temperature difference of 5.0 ± 0.005 oC between heated...... that of above-ground vegetation response as this method heats only the soil. Therefore, using infrared heaters seems to represent natural climate warming (both air and soil) much more closely and may be used for future climate manipulation field studies....

  12. Investigation of soil erosion in arable land in Hungary using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezsoe, Z.; Szabo, Sz.

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative data on long-term soil erosion rates on agricultural land are an essential requirement for the development of effective soil management and conservation strategies. Although several methods to estimate soil erosion exist, the use of 137 Cs and/or 210 Pb as fallout radionuclides for tracing soil movement overcomes many of the limitations of the traditional methods. Recently, the 137 Cs-technique has been widely accepted and is now commonly used for estimating the magnitude of soil loss. Long-term migration of 137 Cs in the Buekkzserc-Cserepfalu-Bogacs triangle area, at the foot of Buekk mountain (NE Hungary) was studied. The samples were analysed for 137 Cs by gamma spectrometry, using a calibrated high-resolution, low background HPGe coaxial detector. Migration of fallout nuclides in an undisturbed stable soil reflects the influence of a range of physico-chemical and biological processes operating in the soil system. (N.T.)

  13. Dynamics of {sup 14}C-labeled glucose and ammonium in saline arable soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuelvas-Solorzano, Alma; Hernandez-Matehuala, Rosalina [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya Gto. (Mexico). Dept. de Ing. Bioquimica. Lab. de Bioingenieria; Conde-Barajas, Eloy; Cardenas-Manriquez, Marcela [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya Gto. (Mexico). Dept. de Ing. Ambiental. Lab. de Bioingenieria], e-mail: marcela@itc.mx; Luna-Guido, Marco L.; Dendooven, Luc [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional (Cinvestav), D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria. Lab. de Ecologia de Suelos], e-mail: dendoove@cinvestav.mx

    2009-07-15

    Organic matter dynamics and nutrient availability in saline agricultural soils of the State of Guanajuato might provide information for remediation strategies. {sup 14}C labeled glucose with or without 200 mg kg{sup -}1 of NH{sub 4} {sup +}-N soil was added to two clayey agricultural soils with different electrolytic conductivity (EC), i.e. 0.94 dS m{sup -}1 (low EC; LEC) and 6.72 dS m{sup -}1 (high EC; HEC), to investigate the effect of N availability and salt content on organic material decomposition. Inorganic N dynamics and production of CO{sub 2} and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} were monitored. Approximately 60 % of the glucose-{sup 14}C added to LEC soil evolved as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, but only 20 % in HEC soil after the incubation period of 21 days. After one day, < 200 mg {sup 14}C was extractable from LEC soil, but > 500 mg {sup 14}C from HEC soil. No N mineralization occurred in the LEC and HEC soils and glucose addition reduced the concentrations of inorganic N in unamended soil and soil amended with NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations were on average higher in LEC than in HEC soil, with exception of NO{sub 2}{sup -} in HEC amended with NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. It was concluded that increases in soil EC reduced mineralization of the easily decomposable C substrate and resulted in N-depleted soil. (author)

  14. Potential denitrification in arable soil samples at winter temperatures - measurements by 15N gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.; Foerster, I.; Matzel, W.

    1989-01-01

    In samples from the plough horizon of five soils taken after cereal harvest, denitrification was measured as volatilization of N 2 and N 2 O from 15 N nitrate in the absence of O 2 . Nitrate contents lower than 50 ppm N (related to soil dry matter) had only a small effect on denitrification velocity in four of the five soils. In a clay soil dependence on nitrate concentration corresponded to a first-order reaction. Available C was no limiting factor. Even at zero temperatures remarkable N amounts (on average 0.2 ppm N per day) were still denitrified. The addition of daily turnover rates in relation to soil temperatures prevailing from December to March revealed potential turnovers in the 0-to-30-cm layer of the soils to average 28 ± 5 ppm N. (author)

  15. Emissions of nitrous oxide from Irish arable soils: effects of tillage and reduced N input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, M.; Jones, M.B.; Ambus, Per

    2010-01-01

    and reduced N fertilizer on seasonal fluxes and emission factors of N2O and to study the relationship between crop yield and N-induced fluxes of N2O. The soil is classified as a sandy loam with a pH of 7.4 and a mean organic carbon and nitrogen content at 15 cm of 19 and 1.9 g kg(-1) dry soil, respectively....... Reduced tillage had no significant effect on N2O fluxes from soils or crop grain yield. Multiple regression analysis revealed that soil moisture and an interaction between soil moisture and soil nitrate are the main significant factors affecting N2O flux. The derived emission factor was 0...... nitrogen fertilizer by 50% compared to the normal field rate, N2O emissions could be reduced by 57% with no significant decrease on grain yield or quality. This was consistent over the 2 years of measurements....

  16. Assessment of Benefits of Conservation Agriculture on Soil Functions in Arable Production Systems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhim Bahadur Ghaley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional farming (CONV is the norm in European farming, causing adverse effects on some of the five major soil functions, viz. primary productivity, carbon sequestration and regulation, nutrient cycling and provision, water regulation and purification, and habitat for functional and intrinsic biodiversity. Conservation agriculture (CA is an alternative to enhance soil functions. However, there is no analysis of CA benefits on the five soil functions as most studies addressed individual soil functions. The objective was to compare effects of CA and CONV practices on the five soil functions in four major environmental zones (Atlantic North, Pannonian, Continental and Mediterranean North in Europe by applying expert scoring based on synthesis of existing literature. In each environmental zone, a team of experts scored the five soil functions due to CA and CONV treatments and median scores indicated the overall effects on five soil functions. Across the environmental zones, CONV had overall negative effects on soil functions with a median score of 0.50 whereas CA had overall positive effects with median score ranging from 0.80 to 0.83. The study proposes the need for field-based investigations, policies and subsidy support to benefit from CA adoption to enhance the five soil functions.

  17. Emissions of nitrous oxide from arable organic and conventional cropping systems on two soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, N.; Carter, Mette Sustmann; Albert, Kristian Rost

    2010-01-01

    Conventional cropping systems rely on targeted short-term fertility management, whereas organic systems depend, in part, on long-term increase in soil fertility as determined by crop rotation and management. Such differences influence soil nitrogen (N) cycling and availability through the year...

  18. Long-term changes in organic matter of woodland soils cleared for arable cropping in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zingore, S.; Manyame, C.; Nyamugafata, P.; Giller, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Subsistence farmers in Africa depend largely on the soil organic matter to sustain crop productivity. Long-term changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen were measured after woodland clearance for smallholder subsistence farming or for commercial farming. The contents of organic carbon and

  19. Accumulation of sulfonamide resistance genes in arable soils due to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-04-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  20. Soil carbon varies between different organic and conventional management schemes in arable agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Teng; Sørensen, Peter; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2018-01-01

    The effects of organic versus conventional farming systems on changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) has long been debated. The effects of such comparisons may depend considerably on the design of the respective systems and climate and soil conditions under which they are performed. Here, we compar...

  1. An examination of the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship in arable soil microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, B.S.; Ritz, Karl; Wheatley, R.

    2001-01-01

    , nitrate accumulation, respiratory growth response, community level physiological profile and decomposition). Neither was there a direct effect of biodiversity on the variability of the processes, nor on the stability of decomposition when the soils were perturbed by heat or copper. The biodiversity of......Microbial communities differing in biodiversity were established by inoculating sterile agricultural soil with serially diluted soil suspensions prepared from the parent soil. Three replicate communities of each dilution were allowed to establish an equivalent microbial biomass by incubation for 9...... months at 15°C, after which the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship was examined for a range of soil processes. Biodiversity was determined by monitoring cultivable bacterial and fungal morphotypes, directly extracted eubacterial DNA and protozoan taxa. In the context of this study biodiversity...

  2. Modelling soil borne fungal pathogens of arable crops under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manici, L M; Bregaglio, S; Fumagalli, D; Donatelli, M

    2014-12-01

    Soil-borne fungal plant pathogens, agents of crown and root rot, are seldom considered in studies on climate change and agriculture due both to the complexity of the soil system and to the incomplete knowledge of their response to environmental drivers. A controlled chamber set of experiments was carried out to quantify the response of six soil-borne fungi to temperature, and a species-generic model to simulate their response was developed. The model was linked to a soil temperature model inclusive of components able to simulate soil water content also as resulting from crop water uptake. Pathogen relative growth was simulated over Europe using the IPCC A1B emission scenario derived from the Hadley-CM3 global climate model. Climate scenarios of soil temperature in 2020 and 2030 were compared to the baseline centred in the year 2000. The general trend of the response of soil-borne pathogens shows increasing growth in the coldest areas of Europe; however, a larger rate of increase is shown from 2020 to 2030 compared to that of 2000 to 2020. Projections of pathogens of winter cereals indicate a marked increase of growth rate in the soils of northern European and Baltic states. Fungal pathogens of spring sowing crops show unchanged conditions for their growth in soils of the Mediterranean countries, whereas an increase of suitable conditions was estimated for the areals of central Europe which represent the coldest limit areas where the host crops are currently grown. Differences across fungal species are shown, indicating that crop-specific analyses should be ran.

  3. Assessment Of Heavy Metal Contamination Of Arable Soils In Central Bekaa Plain, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.; Jomaa, I.; Khawlie, M.; Mýýuller, H. W.; Moller, A.

    2004-01-01

    The study area is located in the Bekaa plain of Lebanon totaling about 12753 ha. It lies between the eastern foothills of Mount Lebanon chain and expands across the Litani River towards the foothills of the eastern Anti-Lebanon Mountains. Its characteristics, i.e. natural terrain, climate and socio-economy, make it vulnerable especially due to soil pollution. This paper tries to identify the nature and level of soil pollution by heavy metals. Valley slopes represent a complex landform and lithology that contributed to the formation of different soil. Agriculture in the plain is being practiced mainly with cash, field crops and vegetables. Throughout the central part of the plain, groundwater table is abundant and relatively high (<1.0 m. locally) that multiplies the vulnerability of the soil-groundwater system. There are different sources of pollution, such as industrial (tanneries, batteries, leather manufacturing), solid and liquid wastes, and agricultural due to uncontrolled application of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides. Meanwhile, no local criteria for land contamination with heavy metals are adapted yet. A total of 131 soil samples from 41 soil profiles were collected from sites representing different soil types and cropping systems. Additionally, five water samples were collected to get tentative idea about the extent of water contamination from surface and groundwater bodies. Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties and wet digested in aqua regia for the determination of the heavy metal content on the atomic absorption. Results of the total heavy metal content in the soils of the Central Bekaa showed normal values for main metals except Cr and Ni, which showed a relatively high level reaching, according to Eckamn Kloke, 1993-2000 criteria the tolerance level II. This is hazardous in an area of intensive vegetable production designed for fresh consumption. Point sources of pollution are equally found for Pb and Cd. The level

  4. Mobility of fertiliser-derived uranium in arable soils and its contribution to uranium concentrations in groundwater and tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, Geerd Ahlrich

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) mineral fertilisers are found to contain high concentrations of uranium (U) (up to 206 mg U kg -1 ) and other trace elements (TE), such as Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Nb, Sr, V, and rare earth elements. The content of U and other trace elements is depended on the sedimentary of igneous origin of the rock phosphate. In this study, the production of P fertilisers has been shown to contaminate top soil horizons with U and other trace elements in the close vicinity of a factory located in Southern Brazil. In contrast to this point source, agricultural P fertilisation leads to a diffuse contamination of the agro-ecosystem with U and other fertiliser-derived trace elements on a large scale. Top soil horizons of arable land accumulate fertiliser-derived U. According to the geochemical behaviour of U(VI) species under oxidising conditions, the mobilisation capacity for U in top soil horizons is considered to be high, contrary to other fertiliser-derived heavy metals (e.g. Cd). Hence, it is assumed that U can be leached to shallow groundwater and can reach fresh water resources potentially used for drinking water supply. The aims of this study were to investigate the concentration of U and other contaminants in P fertilisers, to identify geochemical processes of fertiliser-derived U mobility and mobilisation from arable top soil horizons to the groundwater, and to evaluate the origin of U in German groundwater and tap water. This study presents the broadest recent data set on regional distribution of U concentrations in German tap water to which 76 % of the German population has access. The mean U concentration was 0.68 μg L -1 , the median 0.50 μg L -1 . 1.3 % or 1 million of the 80.6 million inhabitants in Germany are exposed to U concentrations in tap water which are higher than the German drinking water threshold limit of 10 μg L -1 . The regional distribution of U concentrations largely agrees with the geological setting reported for mineral waters

  5. Mobility of fertiliser-derived uranium in arable soils and its contribution to uranium concentrations in groundwater and tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidt, Geerd Ahlrich

    2011-12-20

    Phosphorus (P) mineral fertilisers are found to contain high concentrations of uranium (U) (up to 206 mg U kg{sup -1}) and other trace elements (TE), such as Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Nb, Sr, V, and rare earth elements. The content of U and other trace elements is depended on the sedimentary of igneous origin of the rock phosphate. In this study, the production of P fertilisers has been shown to contaminate top soil horizons with U and other trace elements in the close vicinity of a factory located in Southern Brazil. In contrast to this point source, agricultural P fertilisation leads to a diffuse contamination of the agro-ecosystem with U and other fertiliser-derived trace elements on a large scale. Top soil horizons of arable land accumulate fertiliser-derived U. According to the geochemical behaviour of U(VI) species under oxidising conditions, the mobilisation capacity for U in top soil horizons is considered to be high, contrary to other fertiliser-derived heavy metals (e.g. Cd). Hence, it is assumed that U can be leached to shallow groundwater and can reach fresh water resources potentially used for drinking water supply. The aims of this study were to investigate the concentration of U and other contaminants in P fertilisers, to identify geochemical processes of fertiliser-derived U mobility and mobilisation from arable top soil horizons to the groundwater, and to evaluate the origin of U in German groundwater and tap water. This study presents the broadest recent data set on regional distribution of U concentrations in German tap water to which 76 % of the German population has access. The mean U concentration was 0.68 μg L{sup -1}, the median 0.50 μg L{sup -1}. 1.3 % or 1 million of the 80.6 million inhabitants in Germany are exposed to U concentrations in tap water which are higher than the German drinking water threshold limit of 10 μg L{sup -1}. The regional distribution of U concentrations largely agrees with the geological setting reported for

  6. Daily dynamics of cellulase activity in arable soils depending on management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrent'eva, E. V.; Semenov, A. M.; Zelenev, V. V.; Chzhun, Yu.; Semenova, E. V.; Semenov, V. M.; Namsaraev, B. B.; van Bruggen, A. H. C.

    2009-08-01

    The daily dynamics of cellulase activity was studied during 27 days by the cellophane membrane method on soils managed using the conventional high-input farming system (application of mineral fertilizers and pesticides) and the biological conservation farming system (application of organic fertilizers alone) in a microfield experiment. The regular oscillatory dynamics of the cellulase activity were revealed and confirmed by the harmonic (Fourier) analysis. The oscillatory dynamics of the cellulase activity had a self-oscillatory nature and was not directly caused by the disturbing impacts of both the uncontrolled (natural) changes in the temperature and moisture (rainfall) and the controlled ones (the application of different fertilizers). The disturbing impacts affected the oscillation amplitude of the cellulase activity but not the frequency (periods) of the oscillations. The periodic oscillations of the cellulase activity were more significant in the soil under the high-input management compared to the soil under the biological farming system.

  7. Carbon dynamics with prolonged arable cropping soils in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounkpatin, Ozias; Welp, Gerhard; Amelung, Wulf

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of natural ecosystems into agricultural land affects the atmospheric CO2 concentration whose increase contributes to global warming. In the low activity clay soils (LAC) of the tropics, farming is largely dependent on the level of soil organic carbon (SOC) for sustainable crop production. In this study, we investigated the changes in SOC in Plinthosols along a cultivation chronosequence in the Dano district (Southwest Burkina-Faso). The chronosequence consisted of undisturbed savannah (Y0) and 11 agricultural fields with short and long histories of cultivation ranging from 1-year-old cropland to 29-year-old cropland (Y29). About 14 soil profiles were described and soil composite samples were taken per horizon. Particulate organic matter (POM) was fractionated according to particle size: fraction 2000 - 250 μm (POM1), 250 μm - 53 μm (POM2), 53 μm - 20 μm (POM3), and POM1 > POM3 > POM2 carbon no matter the duration of land use. However, SOC losses occurred not only in the labile C pools but also in the stabile nonPOM fraction with increasing duration of agricultural land use. Compared to the initial carbon content in the Y0 field, about 59% of carbon content loss occurred in the POM1 (> 250 μm), 53% in the POM2 (250 - 53 μm), 52 % in the POM3 (53 - 20 μm) and 47% in the nonPOM fraction (stabilization, its depletion with increasing cultivation intensity suggests that the destruction of aggregates in these fields increased the vulnerability of this pool to microbial degradation. Keywords: Soil organic carbon, Plinthosols, low activity clay soil, POM

  8. Population dynamics of active and total ciliate populations in arable soil amended with wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, F.; Frederiksen, Helle B.; Ronn, R.

    2002-01-01

    of the population may be encysted. The factors governing the dynamics of active and encysted cells in the soil are not well understood. Our objective was to determine the dynamics of active and encysted populations of ciliates during the decomposition of freshly added organic material. We monitored, in soil...... microcosms, the active and total populations of ciliates, their potential prey (bacteria and small protozoa), their potential competitors (amoebae, flagellates, and nematodes), and their potential predators (nematodes). We sampled with short time intervals (2 to 6 days) and generated a data set, suitable...

  9. Daily dynamics of cellulase activity in arable soils depending on management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, A.M.; Zelenev, V.V.; Chzhun, Yu; Semenova, E.V.; Semenov, V.M.; Namsaraev, B.B.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    The daily dynamics of cellulase activity was studied during 27 days by the cellophane membrane method on soils managed using the conventional high-input farming system (application of mineral fertilizers and pesticides) and the biological conservation farming system (application of organic

  10. Specificity of Cs-137 redistribution in toposequence of arable soils cultivated after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Romanov, Sergey; Baranchukov, Vladimir; Berezkin, Victor; Moiseenko, Fedor; Kirov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Investigations performed after the Chernobyl accident showed high spatial variation of radionuclide contamination of the soil cover in elementary landscape geochemical systems (ELGS) that characterize catena's structure. Our studies of Cs-137 distribution along and cross the slopes of local ridges in natural forested key site revealed a cyclic character of variation of the radionuclide surface activity along the studied transections (Korobova et al, 2008; Korobova, Romanov, 2009; 2011). We hypothesized that the observed pattern reflects a specific secondary migration of Cs-137 with water, and that this process could have taken place in any ELGS. To test this hypothesis a detailed field measurement of Cs-137 surface activity was performed in ELGS in agricultural area cultivated after the Chernobyl accident but later withdrawn from land-use. In situ measurements carried out by field gamma-spectrometry were accompanied by soil core sampling at the selected points. Soil samples were taken in increments of 2 cm down to 20 cm and of 5 cm down to 40 cm. The samples were analyzed for Cs-137 in laboratory using Canberra gamma-spectrometer with HP-Ge detector. Obtained results confirmed the fact of area cultivation down to 20 cm that was clearly traced by Cs-137 profile in soil columns. At the same time, the measurements also showed a cyclic character of Cs-137 variation in a sequence of ELGS from watershed to the local depression similar to that found in woodland key site. This proved that the observed pattern is a natural process typical for matter migration in ELGS independently of the vegetation type and ploughing. Therefore, spatial aspect is believed to be an important issue for development of adequate technique for a forecast of contamination of agricultural production and remediation of the soil cover on the local scale within the contaminated areas. References Korobova, E.M., Romanov, S.L., 2009. A Chernobyl 137Cs contamination study as an example for the spatial

  11. utilization of bio fertilizers and organic sources in arable soils under saline conditions using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, O.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, more attention has been paid to conserve and save surrounding environment via minimizing the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and, in general, the agrochemicals applied in heavy quantities in agricultural agroecosystems. Therefore, the attention of most of agronomists was turned towards the use of so called clean agriculture or organic farming. Many of organic systems was pointed out such as the recycling of farm wastes i.e. crop residues, animal manure, organic conditioners for reclamation of soil and in the same time enhancement of plant growth and improving yield quality. The application of organic wastes combined with or without microbial inoculants to plant media are considered as a good management practice in any agricultural production system because it improves, plant quality and soil fertility. Therefore, we have the opportunity to conduct some experiments for achieving the clean agriculture approach, combating the adverse effects of salinity and avoiding the environmental pollution. Series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the impact of (1) potent isolated fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus) on degrading plant residues (Leucaena and Acacia green parts), and (2) biofertilizers (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Azospirillum brasilense, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in assessing barley and spinach plants to combat salinity of soil and irrigation water. 15 N-tracer technique that considered unique and more reliable technique may benefits in clarifying the responsible mechanisms related to plant growth and gave us the opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to spinach and barley plants grown on sandy saline soil and irrigated with saline water.

  12. Impact of manure-related DOM on sulfonamide transport in arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Arenz-Leufen, Martina Gesine; Jacques, Diederik; Lichtner, Peter; Engelhardt, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Field application of livestock manure introduces colloids and veterinary antibiotics, e.g. sulfonamides (SAs), into farmland. The presence of manure colloids may potentially intensify the SAs-pollution to soils and groundwater by colloid-facilitated transport. Transport of three SAs, sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), and sulfamoxole (SMOX), was investigated in saturated soil columns with and without manure colloids from sows and farrows, weaners, and fattening pigs. Experimental results showed that colloid-facilitated transport of SMOX was significant in the presence of manure colloids from fattening pigs with low C/N ratio, high SUVA280 nm and protein C, while manure colloids from sows and farrows and weaners had little effect on SMOX transport. In contrast, only retardation was observed for SDZ and SMPD when manure colloids were present. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of colloids and SAs were replicated well by a newly developed numerical model that considers colloid-filtration theory, competitive kinetic sorption, and co-transport processes. Model results demonstrate that mobile colloids act as carriers for SMOX, while immobile colloids block SMOX from sorbing onto the soil. The low affinity of SMOX to sorb on immobile colloids prevents aggregation and also promotes SMOX's colloid-facilitated transport. Conversely, the high affinity of SDZ and SMPD to sorb on all types of immobile colloids retarded their transport. Thus, manure properties play a fundamental role in increasing the leaching risk of hydrophobic sulfonamides.

  13. Redox-controlled release dynamics of thallium in periodically flooded arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antić-Mladenović, Svetlana; Frohne, Tina; Kresović, Mirjana; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Savić, Dubravka; Ličina, Vlado; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-07-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first work to mechanistically study the impact of the redox potential (E H ) and principal factors, such as pH, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), chlorides (Cl - ) and sulfates (SO 4 2- ), on the release dynamics of thallium (Tl) in periodically flooded soil. We simulated flooding using an automated biogeochemical microcosm system that allows for systematical control of pre-defined redox windows. The E H value was increased mechanistically at intervals of approximately 100 mV from reducing (-211 mV) to oxidizing (475 mV) conditions. Soluble Tl levels (0.02-0.28 μg L -1 ) increased significantly with increases in E H (r = 0.80, p Thallium mobilization was found to be related to several simultaneous processes involving the gradual oxidation of Tl-bearing sulfides, reductive dissolution of Fe-Mn oxides and desorption from mineral sorbents. Manganese oxides did not appear to have a considerable effect on Tl retention under oxidizing conditions. Before conducting the microcosm experiment, Tl geochemical fractionation was assessed using the modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. The BCR revealed a majority of Tl in the residual fraction (77.7%), followed by reducible (13.3%) and oxidizable fractions (5.9%). By generating high levels of Tl toxicity at low doses, Tl released under oxidizing conditions may pose an environmental threat. In the future, similar studies should be conducted on various soils along with a determination of the Tl species and monitoring of the Tl content in plants to achieve more detailed insight into soluble Tl behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Disentangling the root- and detritus-based food chain in the micro-food web of an arable soil by plant removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Glavatska

    Full Text Available Soil food web structure and function is primarily determined by the major basal resources, which are living plant tissue, root exudates and dead organic matter. A field experiment was performed to disentangle the interlinkage of the root-and detritus-based soil food chains. An arable site was cropped either with maize, amended with maize shoot litter or remained bare soil, representing food webs depending on roots, aboveground litter and soil organic matter as predominant resource, respectively. The soil micro-food web, i.e. microorganisms and nematodes, was investigated in two successive years along a depth transect. The community composition of nematodes was used as model to determine the changes in the rhizosphere, detritusphere and bulk soil food web. In the first growing season the impact of treatments on the soil micro-food web was minor. In the second year plant-feeding nematodes increased under maize, whereas after harvest the Channel Index assigned promotion of the detritivore food chain, reflecting decomposition of root residues. The amendment with litter did not foster microorganisms, instead biomass of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi declined in the rooted zone. Likely higher grazing pressure by nematodes reduced microbial standing crop as bacterial and fungal feeders increased. However, populations at higher trophic levels were not promoted, indicating limited flux of litter resources along the food chain. After two years of bare soil microbial biomass and nematode density remained stable, pointing to soil organic matter-based resources that allow bridging periods with deprivation. Nematode communities were dominated by opportunistic taxa that are competitive at moderate resource supply. In sum, removal of plants from the system had less severe effects than expected, suggesting considerable food web resilience to the disruption of both the root and detrital carbon channel, pointing to a legacy of

  15. Disentangling the root- and detritus-based food chain in the micro-food web of an arable soil by plant removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatska, Olena; Müller, Karolin; Butenschoen, Olaf; Schmalwasser, Andreas; Kandeler, Ellen; Scheu, Stefan; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Ruess, Liliane

    2017-01-01

    Soil food web structure and function is primarily determined by the major basal resources, which are living plant tissue, root exudates and dead organic matter. A field experiment was performed to disentangle the interlinkage of the root-and detritus-based soil food chains. An arable site was cropped either with maize, amended with maize shoot litter or remained bare soil, representing food webs depending on roots, aboveground litter and soil organic matter as predominant resource, respectively. The soil micro-food web, i.e. microorganisms and nematodes, was investigated in two successive years along a depth transect. The community composition of nematodes was used as model to determine the changes in the rhizosphere, detritusphere and bulk soil food web. In the first growing season the impact of treatments on the soil micro-food web was minor. In the second year plant-feeding nematodes increased under maize, whereas after harvest the Channel Index assigned promotion of the detritivore food chain, reflecting decomposition of root residues. The amendment with litter did not foster microorganisms, instead biomass of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as that of fungi declined in the rooted zone. Likely higher grazing pressure by nematodes reduced microbial standing crop as bacterial and fungal feeders increased. However, populations at higher trophic levels were not promoted, indicating limited flux of litter resources along the food chain. After two years of bare soil microbial biomass and nematode density remained stable, pointing to soil organic matter-based resources that allow bridging periods with deprivation. Nematode communities were dominated by opportunistic taxa that are competitive at moderate resource supply. In sum, removal of plants from the system had less severe effects than expected, suggesting considerable food web resilience to the disruption of both the root and detrital carbon channel, pointing to a legacy of organic matter

  16. Natural radioactivity in Swedish agricultural soils and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ake; Rosen, K.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we report on investigations in Sweden of the natural radioactivity of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in the agricultural soils and of 226 Ra in the crops. In addition information is given on factors important for the plant availability of these nuclides to the crop plants. Also, from a number of works, background data on the transfer from soils to plants in different environments are presented. These works show that there is a large variation depending on local conditions and crop type in the accumulation of natural radioactive elements by the plants. Thus, concentration ratios (plant/soil) calculated for fresh crop weight and dry soil weight showed for 238 U in forage crops and in grain a range 0.001-0.005, for 226 Ra a range 0.001-0.03 and for 210 Pb a range 0.0004-0.2. The higher value was limit for vegetative plant parts and the lower value limit for generative parts, seeds and grain. In Swedish early studies, evidence was found that in field crops on the same soils the radium/calcium-ratio in grain was reduced according to the following order winter wheat>spring wheat> barley>oats. Variation among the crops on different soils showed ranges from 1-0.1 to 1-0.4. The radium/calcium-ratio in straw was 4 to 7 times higher than in grain. Also field experiments showed that proper liming on acid soils could reduce the radium/calcium ratio by 40 per cent. Our study shows that the average contents of the nuclides 226 Ra and 232 Th in Bq per kg dry weight is of the same size of order, 40, 50 and 80 Bq per kg in the southern, in the western and in the middle regions of Sweden, respectively. The difference between regions is not occasional. It depends on the type of the mother material and on the different clay contents of the soils, as is indicated also by the potassium content. Considering also the daughters of the nuclide series it is found that the total nuclide activity will reach a sum of 300-600 kBq per square meter of the plough layer. The total activity may

  17. Influence of conventional biochar and ageing biochar application to arable soil on soil fertility and plant yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořáčková, Helena; Záhora, Jaroslav; Elbl, Jakub; Kynický, Jindřich; Hladký, Jan; Brtnický, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Biochar represents very controversial material which is product of pyrolysis. According to many studies biochar has positive effect on physical and chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, aggregates stability etc. Unfortunately biochar is product of combustion, so it can content toxic substance as are aromatic compound. These substances may have a negative effect on yield and microbial activities in soil. Our aim was eliminated concentration of toxic compound but preserved positive effect of biochar on soil properties. We was ageing/ activating of biochar in water environment and for soil inoculum we used native soil from landscape. Moreover two types of biochar was tested by pot experiment with seven variants, where conventional biochar from residual biomass and ageing biochar were applied in different doses: 10 t/ha, 20t/ha and 50 t/ha. Pots were placed in green house for 90 days and after the end of experiment the following parameters of soil fertility, health and quality were evaluated: content of soil organic matter, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation of Lactuca sativa L. roots, leaching of mineral nitrogen, changes in plant available nutrient content, EC and pH. Above all the total yield of indicator plant was observed. The significant (P plant yield and soil properties were found. The application of conventional biochar didn't have positive effect on plant yield in comparison with ageing biochar. The positive effect of ageing biochar addition on soil fertility was directly proportional to the dose which were applied - increasing in dose of ageing biochar resulted in increase of plant yield. Moreover the special experimental containers were used, where we was able to monitor the development of root in soil with and without addition of biochar (conventional or ageing). The positive influence of ageing biochar addition into soil on development of Lactuca sativa L. roots was observed.

  18. Measurement of the denitrification in soil monoliths from grassland and arable soil by means of 15N techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.; Foerster, I.

    1980-01-01

    Losses of fertilizer nitrogen by denitrification were determined in soil monoliths from two sites (loess chernozem and clay ranker). The monoliths were isolated by driving plastic pipes into the plots, and fertilized with 15 N-labelled ammonium nitrate. Emission spectrometric techniques were applied to measure the N 2 and N 2 O quantities released in the isolated atmospheric layer above the monolith. The considerable losses, especially on grassland soils (up to a maximum of 30 kg N/ha), indicate the influence of rainfalls and mean temperature at the 5 dates of sampling (end of March to mid-October). (author)

  19. National monitoring study in Denmark finds increased and critical levels of copper and zinc in arable soils fertilized with pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Bak, Jesper

    2016-07-01

    The increasing consumption of copper and zinc in modern farming is linked to their documented benefit as growth promoting agents and usefulness for controlling diarrhoea. Copper and zinc are inert and non-degradable in the slurry and the environment and thereby introducing new challenges and concern. Therefore, a follow-up to pervious national soil monitoring programs on heavy metals was initiated in 2014 with special focus on the historical trends in soil concentrations of copper and zinc in Danish arable soils. Hereby it is possible to analyse trends for a 28 year period. Data shows that: 1) Amendment of soils with pig slurry has led to a significant increase in soil concentrations of copper and zinc, especially in the latest monitoring period from 1998 to 2014; 2) Predicted no-effect concentrations for soil dwelling species published by the European Union is exceeded for zinc in 45% of all soil samples, with the highest proportion on sandy soils; 3) The current use of zinc and copper in pig production may lead to leaching of metals, especially zinc, from fields fertilized with pig slurry in concentrations that may pose a risk to aquatic species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological impacts of arable intensification in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoate, C; Boatman, N D; Borralho, R J; Carvalho, C R; de Snoo, G R; Eden, P

    2001-12-01

    Although arable landscapes have a long history, environmental problems have accelerated in recent decades. The effects of these changes are usually externalized, being greater for society as a whole than for the farms on which they operate, and incentives to correct them are therefore largely lacking. Arable landscapes are valued by society beyond the farming community, but increased mechanization and farm size, simplification of crop rotations, and loss of non-crop features, have led to a reduction in landscape diversity. Low intensity arable systems have evolved a characteristic and diverse fauna and flora, but development of high input, simplified arable systems has been associated with a decline in biodiversity. Arable intensification has resulted in loss of non-crop habitats and simplification of plant and animal communities within crops, with consequent disruption to food chains and declines in many farmland species. Abandonment of arable management has also led to the replacement of such wildlife with more common and widespread species. Soils have deteriorated as a result of erosion, compaction, loss of organic matter and contamination with pesticides, and in some areas, heavy metals. Impacts on water are closely related to those on soils as nutrient and pesticide pollution of water results from surface runoff and subsurface flow, often associated with soil particles, which themselves have economic and ecological impacts. Nitrates and some pesticides also enter groundwater following leaching from arable land. Greatest impacts are associated with simplified, high input arable systems. Intensification of arable farming has been associated with pollution of air by pesticides, NO2 and CO2, while the loss of soil organic matter has reduced the system's capacity for carbon sequestration. International trade contributes to global climate change through long distance transport of arable inputs and products. The EU Rural Development Regulation (1257/99) provides an

  1. The Application of Soil-Agroclimatic Index for Assessing the Agronomic Potential of Arable Lands in the Forest-Steppe Zone of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgakov, D. S.; Rukhovich, D. I.; Shishkonakova, E. A.; Vil'chevskaya, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    An assessment of the agronomic potential of arable lands in the forest-steppe zone of Russia (by the example of separate soil-agronomic districts) on the basis of the soil-agroclimatic index developed under the supervision of I.I. Karmanov is considered. The agricultural areas (64) separated on the territory of Russia and characterizing soil-agroclimatic conditions for cultivation of major and accompanying crops are differentiated into soil-agronomic districts (SADs) with due account for the administrative division of the country. A large diversity of agroclimatic and agronomical conditions creates the prerequisites for the inclusion of administrative regions into different SADs. The SADs concept implies a detailed analysis of information on the soil properties, geomorphic conditions, and farming conditions. The agronomic potential for major crops in the key SADs in the forest-steppe zone of the East European Plain (Voronezh and Penza oblasts) is high, though it is 25-30% lower than that in the North Caucasus (for winter wheat, sugar beet, sunflower, and spring barley) and in Kaliningrad oblast (for oats). In Western Siberia (Tyumen, Omsk, and Novosibirsk oblasts) and Eastern Siberia (Krasnoyarsk region and Irkutsk oblast), the agronomic potential of spring crops (wheat, barley, and oats) is only utilized by 35-45% in comparison with their European analogues. In the Far East with its monsoon climate and soil conditions (meadow podbels, brown forest soils), the crops characteristic of the European forest-steppe (soybean, rice, sugar beet) and the Trans-Ural forest-steppe (spring wheat) are cultivated. Their biological potential is utilized by only 50-60% in comparison with the European analogues. The materials of this study give us information on the degree of correspondence between the soilagroclimatic potential of the territory and the biological potential of cultivated crops. This is important in the context of improving the natural-agricultural zoning of Russia

  2. Dynamics of mineral N, water-soluble carbon and potential nitrification in band-steamed arable soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    the effect of band-steaming on N and C dynamics in a sandy loam soil that was steamed in situ to maximal temperatures of 70-90°C using a prototype band-steamer. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were collected during 90 days from band-steamed soil, undisturbed control soil, and control soil treated just...

  3. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen and carbon losses from arable soils in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leip

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of policy impact on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from agricultural soils requires careful consideration of both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact assessment with the biogeochemistry model DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition to simulate GHG fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on a wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (GHG emissions, air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analyzed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists of four steps: (i definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii designing environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv aggregating results for interpretation. We show the first results of the nitrogen budget in croplands in fourteen countries of the European Union and discuss possibilities to improve the detailed assessment of nitrogen and carbon fluxes from European arable soils.

  4. Interspecific competition of early successional plant species in ex-arable fields as influenced by plant–soil feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Y.; Bezemer, T.M.; Putten, van der W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback can affect plants that belong to the same (intraspecific feedback) or different species (interspecific feedback). However, little is known about how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks influence interspecific plant competition. Here, we used plants and soil from

  5. Interspecific competition of early successional plant species in ex-arable fields as influenced by plant-soil feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Jingying; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Van der Putten, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant–soil feedback can affect plants that belong to the same (intraspecific feedback) or different species (interspecific feedback). However, little is known about how intra- and interspecific plant–soil feedbacks influence interspecific plant competition. Here, we used plants and soil from

  6. Thallium contamination in arable soils and vegetables around a steel plant-A newly-found significant source of Tl pollution in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Xuwen; Wang, Jin; Xiao, Tangfu; Chen, Diyun; Sheng, Guodong; Yin, Meiling; Lippold, Holger; Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng

    2017-05-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare element. Severe Tl poisoning can cause neurological brain damage or even death. The present study was designed to investigate contents of Tl and other associated heavy metals in arable soils and twelve common vegetables cultivated around a steel plant in South China, a newly-found initiator of Tl pollution. Potential health risks of these metals to exposed population via consumption of vegetables were examined by calculating hazard quotients (HQ). The soils showed a significant contamination with Tl at a mean concentration of 1.34 mg/kg. The Tl levels in most vegetables (such as leaf lettuce, chard and pak choy) surpassed the maximum permissible level (0.5 mg/kg) according to the environmental quality standards for food in Germany. Vegetables like leaf lettuce, chard, pak choy, romaine lettuce and Indian beans all exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCF) and transfer factors (TF) for Tl higher than 1, indicating a hyperaccumulation of Tl in these plants. Although the elevated Tl levels in the vegetables at present will not immediately pose significant non-carcinogenic health risks to residents, it highlights the necessity of a permanent monitoring of Tl contamination in the steel-making areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced European emissions of S and N - Effects on air concentrations, deposition and soil water chemistry in Swedish forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla, E-mail: gunilla.pihl.karlsson@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden); Akselsson, Cecilia, E-mail: cecilia.akselsson@nateko.lu.se [Department of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Lund University, Soelvegatan 12, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Hellsten, Sofie, E-mail: sofie.hellsten@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden); Karlsson, Per Erik, E-mail: pererik.karlsson@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    Changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution in Swedish forests have been assessed in relation to European emission reductions, based on measurements in the Swedish Throughfall Monitoring Network. Measurements were analysed over 20 years with a focus on the 12-year period 1996 to 2008. Air concentrations of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, have decreased. The SO{sub 4}-deposition has decreased in parallel with the European emission reductions. Soil water SO{sub 4}-concentrations have decreased at most sites but the pH, ANC and inorganic Al-concentrations indicated acidification recovery only at some of the sites. No changes in the bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen could be demonstrated. Elevated NO{sub 3}-concentrations in the soil water occurred at irregular occasions at some southern sites. Despite considerable air pollution emission reductions in Europe, acidification recovery in Swedish forests soils is slow. Nitrogen deposition to Swedish forests continues at elevated levels that may lead to leaching of nitrate to surface waters. - Highlights: > S deposition to Swedish forests has decreased in parallel with European emissions. > Soil water pH, ANC and inorganic Al-concentrations indicated a slow recovery. > The bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen over Sweden has not decreased. > Continued N deposition to Swedish forests may cause leaching of N to surface waters. - Reduced European emissions have led to decreased acidic deposition and a slow recovery of soil water but nitrogen deposition remains the same in Swedish forests.

  8. Heavy metals and health risk assessment of arable soils and food crops around Pb-Zn mining localities in Enyigba, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiora, Smart C.; Chukwu, Anthony; Davies, Theophilus C.

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the heavy metals concentration in arable soils and associated food crops around the Pb-Zn mines in Enyigba, Nigeria, and metal transfer factors were calculated. Air-dried samples of the soils and food crops were analyzed for 8 known nutritional and toxic heavy metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. Eighty seven percent of all the 20 sampled soils contain Pb in excess of the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) set by Canadian Environmental Quality Guideline (CCME) and European Union (EU) Standard, while Zn in thirty-one percent of the samples exceeded the CCME for MAC of 200 mg/kg. All the food crops, with the exception of yam tuber, contain Pb which exceeded the 0.43 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg MAC standards of EU and WHO/FAO respectively, with the leafy vegetables accumulating more Pb than the tubers. The metal transfer factors in the tubers and the leafy vegetables were in the order: Mo > Cu > Zn > Mn > As > Cd > Cr > Ni > Pb and Cd > Cu > Zn > Mn > Mo > As > Ni > Pb > Cr, respectively. Risk assessment studies revealed no health risk in surrounding populations for most of the heavy metals. However, Pb had a high health risk index (HRI) of 1.1 and 1.3, in adults and children, respectively for cassava tuber; Pb had HRI > 1 in lemon grass while Mn also had HRI > 1 in all the leafy vegetables for both adult and children. This high level of HRI for Pb and Mn is an indication that consumers of the food crops contaminated by these metals are at risk of health problems such as Alzheimers' disease and Manganism, associated with excessive intake of these metals. Further systematic monitoring of heavy metal fluxes in cultivable soils around the area of these mines is recommended.

  9. Accumulation of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Arable Soils Due to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Holger; Solehati, Qodiah; Zimmerling, Ute; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael; Müller, Tanja; Focks, Andreas; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Smalla, Kornelia

    2011-01-01

    Two soils were amended three times with pig manure. The abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes was determined by quantitative PCR 2 months after each application. In both soils treated with sulfadiazine-containing manure, the numbers of copies of sul1 and sul2 significantly increased compared to numbers after treatments with antibiotic-free manure or a control and accumulated with repeated applications.

  10. Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.

  11. Fate of the herbicides glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, phenmedipham, ethofumesate and metamitron in two Finnish arable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Pirkko; Siimes, Katri; Eronen, Liisa; Rämö, Sari; Welling, Leena; Oinonen, Seija; Mattsoff, Leona; Ruohonen-Lehto, Marja

    2006-06-01

    The fate of five herbicides (glyphosate, glufosinate-ammonium, phenmedipham, ethofumesate and metamitron) was studied in two Finnish sugar beet fields for 26 months. Soil types were sandy loam and clay. Two different herbicide-tolerant sugar beet cultivars and three different herbicide application schedules were used. Meteorological data were collected throughout the study and soil properties were thoroughly analysed. An extensive data set of herbicide residue concentrations in soil was collected. Five different soil depths were sampled. The study was carried out using common Finnish agricultural practices and represents typical sugar beet cultivation conditions in Finland. The overall observed order of persistence was ethofumesate > glyphosate > phenmedipham > metamitron > glufosinate-ammonium. Only ethofumesate and glyphosate persisted until the subsequent spring. Seasonal variation in herbicide dissipation was very high and dissipation ceased almost completely during winter. During the 2 year experiment no indication of potential groundwater pollution risk was obtained, but herbicides may cause surface water pollution. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry

  12. Preferential colonization of Solanum tuberosum L. roots by the fungus Glomus intraradices in arable soil of a potato farming area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Patrizia; van Tuinen, Diederik; Copetta, Andrea; Chatagnier, Odile; Berta, Graziella; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Lingua, Guido

    2008-09-01

    The symbiosis between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has been shown to affect both the diversity and productivity of agricultural communities. In this study, we characterized the AM fungal communities of Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) roots and of the bulk soil in two nearby areas of northern Italy, in order to verify if land use practices had selected any particular AM fungus with specificity to potato plants. The AM fungal large-subunit (LSU) rRNA genes were subjected to nested PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. One hundred eighty-three LSU rRNA sequences were analyzed, and eight monophyletic ribotypes, belonging to Glomus groups A and B, were identified. AM fungal communities differed between bulk soil and potato roots, as one AM fungal ribotype, corresponding to Glomus intraradices, was much more frequent in potato roots than in soils (accounting for more than 90% of sequences from potato samples and less than 10% of sequences from soil samples). A semiquantitative heminested PCR with specific primers was used to confirm and quantify the AM fungal abundance observed by cloning. Overall results concerning the biodiversity of AM fungal communities in roots and in bulk soils from the two studied areas suggested that potato roots were preferentially colonized by one AM fungal species, G. intraradices.

  13. Study of soil erosion dynamics on the arable lands of Lublin Upland using isotope techniques (137Cs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zglobicki, W.; Reszka, M.

    2002-01-01

    One of the consequences of agricultural activity are changes of significant element of the environment, that is terrain relief. Since sixties the radioactive isotope of cesium, 137 Cs, is applied in the examination of the dynamics of the erosion processes. This method is based on the idea that the circulation of this isotope in the environment accompanies to physical transport of soil. Studies proved that cesium is firmly bond by adsorption complex of the soil. Chemical and biochemical processes have limited influence on the transportation of the cesium. By the examination of the horizontal changes of the total cesium activity one can determine a type and intensity of the processes responsible for its migration and thus the migration of the soil particles

  14. Soil properties, crop production and greenhouse gas emissions from organic and inorganic fertilizer-based arable cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngonidzashe; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Porter, John Roy

    2010-01-01

    Organic and conventional farming practices differ in the use of several management strategies, including use of catch crops, green manure, and fertilization, which may influence soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and productivity of agroecosystems. An 11-yr-old field experiment on a sandy...... loam soil in Denmark was used to compare several crop rotations with respect to a range of physical, chemical and biological characteristics related to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) flows. Four organic rotations and an inorganic fertilizer-based system were selected to evaluate effects of fertilizer type...... growth was monitored and grain yields measured at harvest maturity. The different management strategies between 1997 and 2007 led to soil carbon inputs that were on average 18–68% and 32–91% higher in the organic than inorganic fertilizer-based rotations for the sampled winter wheat and spring barley...

  15. Copper, zinc, and cadmium in various fractions of soil and fungi in a Swedish forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinichuk, Mykhailo M

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi profoundly affect forest ecosystems through mediating nutrient uptake and maintaining forest food webs. The accumulation of metals in each transfer step from bulk soil to fungal sporocarps is not well known. The accumulation of three metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface, fungal mycelium and sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi in a Swedish forest were compared. Concentrations of all three metals increased in the order: bulk soil soil-root interface (or rhizosphere) soil and sporocarps occurred against a concentration gradient. In fungal mycelium, the concentration of all three metals was about three times higher than in bulk soil, and the concentration in sporocarps was about two times higher than in mycelium. In terms of accumulation, fungi (mycelium and sporocarps) preferred Cd to Zn and Cu. Zinc concentration in sporocarps and to a lesser extent in mycelium depended on the concentration in soil, whereas, the uptake of Cu and Cd by both sporocarps and mycelium did not correlate with metal concentration in soil. Heavy metal accumulation within the fungal mycelium biomass in the top forest soil layer (0-5 cm) might account for ca. 5-9% of the total amount of Cu, 5-11% of Zn, and 16-32% of Cd. As the uptake of zinc and copper by fungi may be balanced, this implied similarities in the uptake mechanism.

  16. Effect of Conversion from Natural Grassland to Arable Land on Soil Carbon Reserve in the Argentinean Rolling Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriulo, A. E.; Irizar, A. B.; Mary, B.; Wilson, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    The evaluation of the effect of land use change on accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) requires reliable data obtained from georeferenced sites with land use history records. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long term changes in the reserves of SOC in a typical Argiudol of the Pergamino series after the introduction of agriculture. Measures of soil organic carbon concentration and bulk density of Ap and A12 horizons were carried out in three sites of the Pergamino County (N of Buenos Aires province): a reference field with untilled pristine soil (33° 57' S; 60° 34' W), a field with 31 years (1980-2011) of agriculture (31Y) located next to the former, and a third field (33° 46' S; 60° 37' W) with 80 years (1910/1990) of agriculture (80Y). 31Y has been under continuous soybean cultivation with conventional tillage (CT) that consists of moldboard plow or double disk harrowing. At 80K the cultivation sequence was: 44 years of corn + 9 years of flax + 2 years of wheat + 17 years of wheat/soybean double cropping + 1 year of lentil; mostly under CT, some years under chisel plow during the 70's and a few years under zero tillage in soybean after wheat sown with conventional tillage during the 80's. Before the introduction of mechanical harvesting (1947) crop residues were burnt as well as the wheat stubble during the conventional double cropping period (1970-1980). Soil texture (23±1% clay, with predominance of illite) and field slopes (<0.5%) were similar in the three sites. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization rates were minimal due to the low crop response. The results are expressed in Mg ha-1 for an A soil horizon mass of 2500 Mg ha-1. The introduction of agriculture decreased SOC stock: 31Y varied from 68.3 to 40.1 Mg ha-1 (41.3% loss) and 80Y from 68.3 to 47.2 Mg ha-1 (30% loss). The SOC loss was the result of the mineralization of a large amount labile SOC present in the pristine soil and low annual additions of carbon issued from crop residue

  17. Carbon Sequestration in Arable Soils is Likely to Increase Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Offsetting Reductions in Climate Radiative Forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changsheng Li; Frolking, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2005-01-01

    Strategies for mitigating the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils and vegetation of terrestrial ecosystems. Carbon and nitrogen (N) move through terrestrial ecosystems in coupled biogeochemical cycles, and increasing C stocks in soils and vegetation will have an impact on the N cycle. We conducted simulations with a biogeochemical model to evaluate the impact of different cropland management strategies on the coupled cycles of C and N, with special emphasis on C-sequestration and emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Reduced tillage, enhanced crop residue incorporation, and farmyard manure application each increased soil C-sequestration, increased N2O emissions, and had little effect on CH4 uptake. Over 20 years, increases in N2O emissions, which were converted into CO2-equivalent emissions with 100-year global warming potential multipliers, offset 75-310% of the carbon sequestered, depending on the scenario. Quantification of these types of biogeochemical interactions must be incorporated into assessment frameworks and trading mechanisms to accurately evaluate the value of agricultural systems in strategies for climate protection

  18. Temporal variations in microbial biomass C and cellulolytic enzyme activity in arable soils: effects of organic matter input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debosz, K.; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pedersen, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    Temporal variations in soil microbial biomass C concentration and in activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were investigated in a field experiment after eight years of cultivation with either low organic matter input (low-OM) or high organic matter input (high-OM). The cul......Temporal variations in soil microbial biomass C concentration and in activity of extracellular enzymes of the cellulolytic complex were investigated in a field experiment after eight years of cultivation with either low organic matter input (low-OM) or high organic matter input (high......-OM). The cultivation systems differed in whether their source of fertiliser was mainly mineral or organic, in whether a winter cover crop was grown, and whether straw was mulched or removed. Sampling occurred at approximately monthly intervals, over a period of two years. Distinct temporal variations in microbial......) and an endocellulase activity of 44.2 +/- 1.1 nmol g(-1) h(-1). (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. {sup 137}Cs in the fungal compartment of Swedish forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinichuk, Mykhaylo M. [Department of General Ecology, University of Agriculture and Ecology, Stary Blvd. 7, Zhytomyr 10001 (Ukraine); Johanson, Karl J.; Taylor, Andy F.S. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7026, Uppsala S-750 07 (Sweden)

    2004-05-05

    The {sup 137}Cs activities in soil profiles and in the mycelia of four ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in a Swedish forest in an attempt to understand the mechanisms governing the transfer and retention of {sup 137}Cs in forest soil. The biomass of four species of fungi was determined and estimated to be 16 g m{sup -2} in a peat soil and 47-189 g m{sup -2} in non-peat soil to the depth of 10 cm. The vertical distribution was rather homogeneous for two species (Tylospora spp. and Piloderma fallax) and very superficial for Hydnellum peckii. Most of the {sup 137}Cs activity in mycelium of non-peat soils was found in the upper 5 cm. Transfer factors were quite high even for those species producing resupinate sporocarps. In the peat soil only approximately 0.3% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory in soil was found in the fungal mycelium. The corresponding values for non-peat soil were 1.3, 1.8 and 1.9%.

  20. Recovery of soil water, groundwater, and streamwater from acidification at the Swedish integrated monitoring catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan; Aastrup, Mats; Bringmark, Lage; Hultberg, Hans; Lewin-Pihlblad, Lotta; Lundin, Lars; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Thunholm, Bo

    2011-12-01

    Recovery from anthropogenic acidification in streams and lakes is well documented across the northern hemisphere. In this study, we use 1996-2009 data from the four Swedish Integrated Monitoring catchments to evaluate how the declining sulfur deposition has affected sulfate, pH, acid neutralizing capacity, ionic strength, aluminum, and dissolved organic carbon in soil water, groundwater and runoff. Differences in recovery rates between catchments, between recharge and discharge areas and between soil water and groundwater are assessed. At the IM sites, atmospheric deposition is the main human impact. The chemical trends were weakly correlated to the sulfur deposition decline. Other factors, such as marine influence and catchment features, seem to be as important. Except for pH and DOC, soil water and groundwater showed similar trends. Discharge areas acted as buffers, dampening the trends in streamwater. Further monitoring and modeling of these hydraulically active sites should be encouraged.

  1. Plant litter decomposition and carbon sequestration for arable soils. Final report of works. April 2005; Biodegradation des litieres et sequestration du carbone dans les ecosystemes cultives et perennes. Rapport final des travaux Avril 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recous, S.; Barrois, F.; Coppens, F.; Garnier, P.; Grehan, E. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Unite d' Agronomie Laon-Reims-Mons (France); Balesdent, J. [CNRS-CEA-Univ.de la Mediterranee, UMR 6191, Lab. d' Ecologie Microbienne de la Rhizosphere, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Dambrine, E.; Zeller, B. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Unite Biogeochimie des Ecosystemes Forestiers, 54 - Nancy (France); Loiseau, P.; Personeni, E. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), Unite d' Agronomie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2002-07-01

    The general objective of this project was to contribute to the evaluation of land use and management impacts on C sequestration and nitrogen dynamics in soils. The land used through the presence/absence of crops and their species, and the land management through tillage, localisation of crop residues, fertilizer applications,... are important factors that affect the dynamics of organic matters in soils, particularly the mineralization of C and N, the losses to the atmosphere and hydrosphere, the retention of carbon into the soil. This project was conducted by four research groups, three of them having expertise in nutrient cycling of three major agro-ecosystems (arable crops, grasslands, forests) and the fourth one having expertise in modelling long term effects of land use on C storage into the soils. Within this common project one major objective was to better understand the fate of plant litter entering the soil either as above litter or as root litter. The focus was put on two factors that particularly affect decomposition: the initial biochemical quality of plant litter, and the location of the decomposing litter. One innovative aspect of the project was the use of stable isotope as {sup 13}C for carbon, based on the use of enriched or depleted {sup 13}C material, the only option to assess the dynamics of 'new' C entering the soil on the short term, in order to reveal the effects of decomposition factors. Another aspect was the simultaneous study of C and N. The project consisted in experiments relevant for each agro-ecosystem, in forest, grassland and arable soils for which interactions between residue quality and nitrogen availability on the one hand, residue quality and location on the other hand, was investigated. A common experiment was set up to investigate the potential degradability of the various residue used (beech leaf rape straw, young rye, Lolium and dactylic roots) in a their original soils and in a single soil was assessed. Based on

  2. Crop residue management in arable cropping systems under a temperate climate. Part 2: Soil physical properties and crop production. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiel, MP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Residues of previous crops provide a valuable amount of organic matter that can be used either to restore soil fertility or for external use. A better understanding of the impact of crop residue management on the soil-water-plant system is needed in order to manage agricultural land sustainably. This review focuses on soil physical aspects related to crop residue management, and specifically on the link between soil structure and hydraulic properties and its impact on crop production. Literature. Conservation practices, including crop residue retention and non-conventional tillage, can enhance soil health by improving aggregate stability. In this case, water infiltration is facilitated, resulting in an increase in plant water availability. Conservation practices, however, do not systematically lead to higher water availability for the plant. The influence of crop residue management on crop production is still unclear; in some cases, crop production is enhanced by residue retention, but in others crop residues can reduce crop yield. Conclusions. In this review we discuss the diverse and contrasting effects of crop residue management on soil physical properties and crop production under a temperate climate. The review highlights the importance of environmental factors such as soil type and local climatic conditions, highlighting the need to perform field studies on crop residue management and relate them to specific pedo-climatic contexts.

  3. Spatial and temporal diversification of crops dynamics in soil erosion modelling. A case study in the arable land of the upper Enziwigger River, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Alewell, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Accelerated soil erosion by water is a widespread phenomenon that affects several Mediterranean and Alpine landscapes causing on-site and off-site environmental impacts. Recognized in the EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection as one of the major threats to European soils (COM(2006)231), accelerated soil erosion is a major concern in landscape management and conservation planning (UN SDG 2.4). Agriculture and associated land-use change is the primary cause of accelerated soil erosion. This, because the soil displacement by water erosion mainly occurs when bare-sloped soil surfaces are exposed to the effect of rainfall and overland flow. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and other RUSLE-based models (which account for more than 90% of current worldwide modelling applications) describe the effect of the vegetation in the so called cover and management factor (C). The C-factor is generally the most challenging modelling component to compute over large study sites. To run a GIS-based RUSLE modelling for a study site greater than few hectares, the use of a simplified approach to assess the C-factor is inevitably necessary. In most of the cases, the C-factor values are assigned to the different land-use classes according to i) the C-values proposed in the literature, and ii) through land-use classifications based on vegetation indices (VI). In previous national (Land Use Policy, 50, 408-421, 2016) and pan-European (Environmental Science & Policy, 54, 438-447, 2015) studies, we computed regional C-values through weighted average operations combining crop statistics with remote sensing and GIS modelling techniques. Here, we present the preliminary results of an object-oriented change detection approach that we are testing to acquire spatial as well temporal crops dynamics at field-scale level in complex agricultural systems.

  4. Potential short-term losses of N2O and N2 from high concentrations of biogas digestate in arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sebastian Rainer; Augustin, Jürgen; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Jurasinski, Gerald; Gusovius, Bertram; Glatzel, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Biogas digestate (BD) is increasingly used as organic fertilizer, but has a high potential for NH3 losses. Its proposed injection into soils as a countermeasure has been suggested to promote the generation of N2O, leading to a potential trade-off. Furthermore, the effect of high nutrient concentrations on N2 losses as they may appear after injection of BD into soil has not yet been evaluated. Hence, we performed an incubation experiment with soil cores in a helium-oxygen atmosphere to examine the influence of soil substrate (loamy sand, clayey silt), water-filled pore space (WFPS; 35, 55, 75 %) and application rate (0, 17.6 and 35.2 mL BD per soil core, 250 cm3) on the emission of N2O, N2 and CO2 after the usage of high loads of BD. To determine the potential capacity for gaseous losses, we applied anaerobic conditions by purging with helium for the last 24 h of incubation. Immediate N2O and N2 emissions as well as the N2 / (N2O+N2) product ratio depended on soil type and increased with WFPS, indicating a crucial role of soil gas diffusivity for the formation and emission of nitrogenous gases in agricultural soils. However, emissions did not increase with the application rate of BD. This is probably due to an inhibitory effect of the high NH4+ content of BD on nitrification. Our results suggest a larger potential for N2O formation immediately following BD injection in the fine-textured clayey silt compared to the coarse loamy sand. By contrast, the loamy sand showed a higher potential for N2 production under anaerobic conditions. Our results suggest that short-term N losses of N2O and N2 after injection may be higher than probable losses of NH3 following surface application of BD.

  5. Responses of bacterial communities in arable soils in a rice-wheat cropping system to different fertilizer regimes and sampling times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Soil physicochemical properties, soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structures in a rice-wheat cropping system subjected to different fertilizer regimes were investigated in two seasons (June and October. All fertilizer regimes increased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Both fertilizer regime and time had a significant effect on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure. The combined application of inorganic fertilizer and manure organic-inorganic fertilizer significantly enhanced the bacterial diversity in both seasons. The bacterial communities across all samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi at the phylum level. Permutational multivariate analysis confirmed that both fertilizer treatment and season were significant factors in the variation of the composition of the bacterial community. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances further revealed that bacterial communities were separated primarily by season. The effect of fertilizer treatment is significant (P = 0.005 and accounts for 7.43% of the total variation in bacterial community. Soil nutrients (e.g., available K, total N, total P and organic matter rather than pH showed significant correlation with the majority of abundant taxa. In conclusion, both fertilizer treatment and seasonal changes affect soil properties, microbial biomass and bacterial community structure. The application of NPK plus manure organic-inorganic fertilizer may be a sound fertilizer practice for sustainable food production.

  6. Heavy metal contamination of arable soil and corn plant in the vicinity of a zinc smelting factory and stabilization by liming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang Oh; Gutierrez, Jessie; Yun, Sung Wook; Lee, Yong Bok; Yu, Chan; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-02-01

    The heavy metal contamination in soils and cultivated corn plants affected by zinc smelting activities in the vicinity of a zinc smelting factory in Korea was studied. Soils and corn plants were sampled at the harvesting stage and analyzed for cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentration, as well as Cd and Zn fraction and other chemical properties of soils. Cd and Zn were highly accumulated in the surface soils (0-20 cm), at levels higher than the Korean warning criteria (Cd, 1.5; Zn, 300 mg kg(-1)), with corresponding mean values of 1.7 and 407 mg kg(-1), respectively, but these metals decreased significantly with increasing soil depth and distance from the factory, implying that contaminants may come from the factory through aerosol dynamics (Hong et al., Kor J Environ Agr 26(3):204-209, 2007a; Environ Contam Toxicol 52:496-502, 2007b) and not from geological sources. The leaf part had higher Cd and Zn concentrations, with values of 9.5 and 1733 mg kg(-1), compared to the stem (1.6 and 547 mg kg(-1)) and grain (0.18 and 61 mg kg(-1)) parts, respectively. Cd and Zn were higher in the oxidizable fraction, at 38.5% and 46.9% of the total Cd (2.6 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (407 mg kg(-1)), but the exchangeable + acidic fraction of Cd and Zn as the bioavailable phases was low, 0.2 and 50 mg kg(-1), respectively. To study the reduction of plant Cd and Zn uptake by liming, radish (Raphanus sativa L.) was cultivated in one representative field among the sites investigated, and Ca(OH)(2) was applied at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 8 mg ha(-1). Plant Cd and Zn concentrations and NH(4)OAc extractable Cd and Zn concentrations of soil decreased significantly with increasing Ca(OH)(2) rate, since it markedly increases the cation exchange capacity of soil induced by increased pH. As a result, liming in this kind of soil could be an effective countermeasure in reducing the phytoextractability of Cd and Zn.

  7. Archaeal abundance across a pH gradient in an arable soil and its relationship to bacterial and fungal growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Per; Sterngren, Anna E; Rousk, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    Soil pH is one of the most influential factors for the composition of bacterial and fungal communities, but the influence of soil pH on the distribution and composition of soil archaeal communities has yet to be systematically addressed. The primary aim of this study was to determine how total archaeal abundance (quantitative PCR [qPCR]-based estimates of 16S rRNA gene copy numbers) is related to soil pH across a pH gradient (pH 4.0 to 8.3). Secondarily, we wanted to assess how archaeal abundance related to bacterial and fungal growth rates across the same pH gradient. We identified two distinct and opposite effects of pH on the archaeal abundance. In the lowest pH range (pH 4.0 to 4.7), the abundance of archaea did not seem to correspond to pH. Above this pH range, there was a sharp, almost 4-fold decrease in archaeal abundance, reaching a minimum at pH 5.1 to 5.2. The low abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers at this pH range then sharply increased almost 150-fold with pH, resulting in an increase in the ratio between archaeal and bacterial copy numbers from a minimum of 0.002 to more than 0.07 at pH 8. The nonuniform archaeal response to pH could reflect variation in the archaeal community composition along the gradient, with some archaea adapted to acidic conditions and others to neutral to slightly alkaline conditions. This suggestion is reinforced by observations of contrasting outcomes of the (competitive) interactions between archaea, bacteria, and fungi toward the lower and higher ends of the examined pH gradient.

  8. COMPARISON OF THE CHOSEN ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES OF THE ARABLE LAND AND FALLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Włodek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results and analysis of the chosen physico-chemical soil properties of the fallow, which was not cultivated for 7 years and of the arable land, situated close to it, are presented in this work. Soil moisture content was higher and the weed infestation rate was bigger on the arable land in comparison to fallow. Significant increase of C.org. as well as P, K and Mg availability for plant was noticed on the fallow. On the arable land segetal species were common, whereas on the fallow ruderal species occurred as well. In spite of the close neighborhood of fallow with Solidago gigantea and Solidago canadensis species domination, this species was not reported on the arable land.

  9. Pattern and dynamics of the ground vegetation in south Swedish Carpinus betulus forests. Importance of soil chemistry and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Conservation Biology, Uppsala (Sweden); Falkengren-Grerup, U.; Tyler, G. [Plant Ecology, Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The vegetation and environmental conditions of south Swedish horn-beam Carpinus betulus forests are described with data from 35 permanent sample plots. The main floristic gradient of the ground vegetation is closely related to acid-base properties of the top soil: Base saturation, pH and organic matter content. Other floristic differences are related to tree canopy cover and the distance of the sample plots to the Baltic coast. Species richness of herbaceous plants typical of forests increases with soil pH. The number of other herbaceous species, occurring in both forests and open habitats, and of woody species is not related to pH. Comparisons of vegetation data from 1983 and 1993 show relatively small compositional differences of the herbaceous forest flora. The number of other herbaceous species increased considerably in those plots where canopy trees had been cut after 1983. The number of new species in managed plots increases with soil pH. Species losses and gains of the herbaceous forest flora between 1983 and 1993 are generally lower as compared with other herbaceous species and woody species. However, the ground cover of herbaceous forest species, especially of Oxalis acetosella and Lamium galeobdolon, was considerably lower in 1993 as compared to 1983 in both unmanaged and managed plots. Possible explanations for this decrease are current soil acidification and drought during the growing season. (au) 32 refs.

  10. Converting loss-on-ignition to organic carbon content in arable topsoil: pitfalls and proposed procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johannes Lund; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Schjønning, Per

    2018-01-01

    Assessments of changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks depend heavily on reliable values of SOC content obtained by automated high‐temperature C analysers. However, historical as well as current research often relies on indirect SOC estimates such as loss‐on‐ignition (LOI). In this study, we...... revisit the conversion of LOI to SOC using soil from two long‐term agricultural field experiments and one arable field with different contents of SOC, clay and particles fractions were isolated from the arable soil. Samples were analysed for texture, LOI (500...

  11. OK-Net Arable online knowledge platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær; Jensen, Allan Leck; Jørgensen, Margit Styrbæk

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of organic farming requires farmers to have a very high level of knowledge and skills, but exchange on organic farming techniques remains limited. In order to increase productivity and quality in organic arable cropping in Europe, the thematic network OK-Net Arable under Horizon 20...

  12. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p < 0.001) and has a higher variability before 1988 than after 1988. Distribution patterns of VPD and ET0 have relevant impacts on crop yields. The response to rising temperatures depends on the crop's capability to condition its microenvironment. Crops short of water close their stomata, lose their evaporative cooling potential and ultimately become susceptible to heat stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining

  13. Earthworm-induced distribution of organic matter in macro-aggregates from differently managed arable fields.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Hillenaar, S.I.

    1997-01-01

    To study the influence of soil structure on organic matter decomposition, and the possible role of earthworms therein, aggregates of the size of earthworm casts (3-4.8 mm) were sieved from air-dry soil of three arable fields. Due to different management histories (in terms of manuring and pesticide

  14. The radium distribution in some Swedish soils and its effects on radon emanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edsfeldt, Cecilia

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study has been to clarify how the radium distribution in soils affects the radon emanation. The distribution of radium, uranium and thorium has been determined using sequential extractions. In the study, soils from two different locations were investigated. In the first part the applicability of the sequential extraction method for determining Ra distribution in different soil types was investigated, using a simple sequential extraction method. Sampled soils were clay, sand and till from the vicinity of the Stockholm Esker. The main part of Rn emanating Ra was associated with Fe oxides in the soil. The methods applied provided information about the radon risk of the soil, but, in order to gain more information on the processes governing Ra distribution and radon emanation in soils, a more detailed sequential extraction procedure would be desirable. The second part consisted of a detailed study of the radionuclide distribution and the geochemistry in a podzolised glacial till from Kloten in northern Vaestmanland. A more detailed sequential extraction procedure was used, and the specific surface area of samples was measured. Samples were taken from E, B, and C horizons; radium and thorium were enriched in the B horizon, whereas uranium had its maximum concentration in the C horizon. Extractable radium primarily occurred in the exchangeable pool, possibly organically complexed, whereas extractable uranium and thorium were mainly Fe oxide bound. Oxide-bound Ra was important only in the B horizon. The radon emanation was not correlated with the amount of exchangeable Ra, but instead with the oxide bound Ra. However, the amount of oxide-bound Ra was too small to account for all the emanated Rn, thus, exchangeable Ra was interpreted as the main source of emanated Rn. This exchangeable Ra was more emanative in the B horizon than in the C horizon. The explanation is the larger surface area of the B horizon samples; the specific surface area appears to be the

  15. Response of coniferous forest ecosystems on mineral soils to nutrient additions: A review of Swedish experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the only nutrient that promotes forest growth when given individually. An extra stem growth of 15 m 3 /ha is obtained during a 10 yr period following an application of 150 kg N/ha. Larger growth increases have often been the result of more intensive N fertilization. Lime or wood ash give a minor growth stimulation on sites with a carbon (C) to N ratio below 30 in the humus layer, while the opposite effect prevails on N-poor sites. Nutrients given as soluble fertilizers are readily taken up by trees. Boron deficiency may be induced in northern Sweden after N fertilization or liming. The ground vegetation may be altered by single-shot N fertilization, but long-term effects occur only for intensive regimes. Lime or wood ash may modify the flora if soil pH is significantly altered: the change will be in response to N availability. Fruit-body production of mycorrhizal fungi is disfavoured by chronic N input, but also by lime or ash. However, the mycorrhizal structures on root tips are less affected. Faunistic studies are not common and those present are mostly devoted to soil fauna. A practical N dose of 150 kg N/ha has no clear effect, but higher doses may reduce the abundance in some groups. Hardened wood ash does not significantly affect the soil fauna. Lime favours snails and earthworms, while other groups are often disfavoured. The response of aquatic fauna to terrestrial treatments has hardly been studied. N fertilization generally results in insignificant effects on fish and benthic fauna. Lime and wood ash reduce the acidity of the topsoil, but practical doses (2-3 t/ha) are too low to raise the alkalinity of runoff unless outflow areas are treated. N fertilizer use in forestry and N-free fertilizers lack effects on acidification. N fertilization may, however, be strongly acidifying if nitrification is induced and followed by nitrate leaching. N fertilization often results in increased long-term C retention in trees and soil, but does not promote

  16. Regional Variability of Cd, Hg, Pb and C Concentrations in Different Horizons of Swedish Forest Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alriksson, A.

    2001-01-01

    Contents of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and carbon(C) in the O, B and C horizons of podzolized forest soils in Sweden were surveyed. Concentrations and storage of Cd, Hg and Pb in the O and B horizons were high in southern Sweden and gradually decreased towards the north, though with considerable local variability. This pattern reflects the influence of anthropogenic emissions of these metals, as well as the effects of soil-forming processes. Parent till material, as represented by the C horizon concentration of the respective metal, accounted for little of the variation in metal concentration in the O horizon. For Cd and Pb, the correlations were not significant or slightly negative (R 2 = 0.12 and 0.09 respectively) depending on region, while for Hg the correlation was not significant or slightly positive (R 2 = 0.03 and 0.08). Furthermore, parent till material accounted for more of the variation in metal concentrations in the B horizons in the northern part of Sweden than in the middle and southernmost parts, where the concentration of total carbon had more influence. The correlation between the metal concentrations in the B and C horizon was strongest for Pb (R 2 = 0.63 and 0.36 in the two northernmost regions), lower for Cd (R 2 = 0.19 and 0.16) and not significant for Hg. For all soil horizons, total C concentration accounted for much of the variation in Hg concentration in particular (O-horizon R 2 = 0.15-0.69, B horizon R 2 = 0.36-0.50, C horizon R 2 = 0.23-0.50 and ns in one region). Ratios of metal concentrations between the B and C horizons were highest for Hg(maximum value of 30), indicating a relatively larger addition or retention of Hg compared to Cd and Pb (maximum value of 10)in the B horizon. This study indicate that factors other than parent material account for the large scale variation in O horizon concentrations of metals but patterns correspond well with those of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and acidifying substances

  17. Nitrate leaching from organic arable crop rotations is mostly determined by autumn field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, M; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2011-01-01

    Two main challenges facing organic arable farming are the supply of nitrogen (N) to the crop and the control of perennial weeds. Nitrate leaching from different organic arable crop rotations was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotations in a field experiment at three locations....../volunteers had on avg. 30 kg N ha−1, and the largest N leaching losses were found after stubble cultivation (avg. 55 kg N ha−1). The N leaching losses increased with increasing number of autumn soil cultivations...

  18. Task-based agricultural mobile robots in arable farming: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravind, K.R.; Raja, P.; Pérez-Ruiz, M.

    2017-01-01

    In agriculture (in the context of this paper, the terms “agriculture” and “farming” refer to only the farming of crops and exclude the farming of animals), smart farming and automated agricultural technology have emerged as promising methodologies for increasing the crop productivity without sacrificing produce quality. The emergence of various robotics technologies has facilitated the application of these techniques in agricultural processes. However, incorporating this technology in farms has proven to be challenging because of the large variations in shape, size, rate and type of growth, type of produce, and environmental requirements for different types of crops. Agricultural processes are chains of systematic, repetitive, and time-dependent tasks. However, some agricultural processes differ based on the type of farming, namely permanent crop farming and arable farming. Permanent crop farming includes permanent crops or woody plants such as orchards and vineyards whereas arable farming includes temporary crops such as wheat and rice. Major operations in open arable farming include tilling, soil analysis, seeding, transplanting, crop scouting, pest control, weed removal and harvesting and robots can assist in performing all of these tasks. Each specific operation requires axillary devices and sensors with specific functions. This article reviews the latest advances in the application of mobile robots in these agricultural operations for open arable farming and provide an overview of the systems and techniques that are used. This article also discusses various challenges for future improvements in using reliable mobile robots for arable farming.

  19. Task-based agricultural mobile robots in arable farming: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaswamy R. Aravind

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture (in the context of this paper, the terms “agriculture” and “farming” refer to only the farming of crops and exclude the farming of animals, smart farming and automated agricultural technology have emerged as promising methodologies for increasing the crop productivity without sacrificing produce quality. The emergence of various robotics technologies has facilitated the application of these techniques in agricultural processes. However, incorporating this technology in farms has proven to be challenging because of the large variations in shape, size, rate and type of growth, type of produce, and environmental requirements for different types of crops. Agricultural processes are chains of systematic, repetitive, and time-dependent tasks. However, some agricultural processes differ based on the type of farming, namely permanent crop farming and arable farming. Permanent crop farming includes permanent crops or woody plants such as orchards and vineyards whereas arable farmingincludestemporary crops such as wheat and rice. Major operations in open arable farming include tilling, soil analysis, seeding, transplanting, crop scouting, pest control, weed removal and harvesting and robots can assist in performing all of these tasks. Each specific operation requires axillary devices and sensors with specific functions. This article reviews the latest advances in the application of mobile robots in these agricultural operations for open arable farming and provide an overview of the systems and techniques that are used. This article also discusses various challenges for future improvements in using reliable mobile robots for arable farming.

  20. Task-based agricultural mobile robots in arable farming: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, K.R.; Raja, P.; Pérez-Ruiz, M.

    2017-09-01

    In agriculture (in the context of this paper, the terms “agriculture” and “farming” refer to only the farming of crops and exclude the farming of animals), smart farming and automated agricultural technology have emerged as promising methodologies for increasing the crop productivity without sacrificing produce quality. The emergence of various robotics technologies has facilitated the application of these techniques in agricultural processes. However, incorporating this technology in farms has proven to be challenging because of the large variations in shape, size, rate and type of growth, type of produce, and environmental requirements for different types of crops. Agricultural processes are chains of systematic, repetitive, and time-dependent tasks. However, some agricultural processes differ based on the type of farming, namely permanent crop farming and arable farming. Permanent crop farming includes permanent crops or woody plants such as orchards and vineyards whereas arable farming includes temporary crops such as wheat and rice. Major operations in open arable farming include tilling, soil analysis, seeding, transplanting, crop scouting, pest control, weed removal and harvesting and robots can assist in performing all of these tasks. Each specific operation requires axillary devices and sensors with specific functions. This article reviews the latest advances in the application of mobile robots in these agricultural operations for open arable farming and provide an overview of the systems and techniques that are used. This article also discusses various challenges for future improvements in using reliable mobile robots for arable farming.

  1. Ecological impacts of arable intensification in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoate, C.; Boatman, N.D.; Borralho, R.J.; Rio Carvalho, C.; Snoo, de G.R.; Eden, P.

    2001-01-01

    Although arable landscapes have a long history, environmental problems have accelerated in recent decades. The effects of these changes are usually externalised, being greater for society as a whole than for the farms on which they operate, and incentives to correct them are therefore largely

  2. Yield gaps in Dutch arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Vieira da Silva, Joao; Reidsma, Pytrik; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Arable farming systems in the Netherlands are characterized by crop rotations in which potato, sugar beet, spring onion, winter wheat and spring barley are the most important crops. The objectives of this study were to decompose crop yield gaps within such rotations into efficiency, resource and

  3. Nutrient surpluses on integrated arable farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Asperen, van P.; Dongen, van G.J.M.; Wijnands, F.G.

    1996-01-01

    From 1990 to 1993 nutrient fluxes were monitored on 38 private arable farms that had adopted farming strategies aiming at reduced nutrient inputs and substitution of mineral fertilizers by organic fertilizers. The nutrient surplus was defined as the difference between inputs (including inputs

  4. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  5. Abandonment and expansion of arable land in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatna, E.; Bakker, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abandonment of arable land is often assumed to happen mostly in marginal areas where the conditions for arable cultivation are relatively unfavorable, whereas arable expansion is expected to occur mostly in areas with favorable conditions. This assumption, used in many land-use change forecasts, was

  6. Magnetic Measurements as a Useful Tool for the Evaluation of Spatial Variability of the Arable Horizon Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattakhova, Leysan; Shinkarev, Alexandr; Ryzhikh, Lyudmila; Kosareva, Lina

    2017-04-01

    In normal practice, the thickness of the arable horizon is determined on the basis of field morphological descriptions, allowing the subjectivity of perception and judgment at the crucial role of experience of the researcher. The subject of special interest are independent analytical and technically relatively simple in design approaches to the diagnosis of the lower boundary of the blended plowing the profiles part. Theoretical premises to use spectrophotometry and magnetometry to arable horizon depth diagnose is based on the concept of regular color and magnetic properties vertical differentiation in a profile of virgin soils. This work is devoted to the comparative assessment of the possibility to objectively and reliably diagnose the lower boundary of the arable horizon in gray forest soils by determining the color characteristics and the magnetic susceptibility of their layer-wise samples. It was shown with arable gray forest soil (Cutanic Luvisols (Anthric)) as example that the magnetic susceptibility profile distribution curves can provide more reliable and objective assessment of the arable horizon thickness spatial variability than the profile curves of the color characteristics in the CIELAB coordinates. Therefore, magnetic measurements can be a useful tool for the tillage erosion estimation in the monitoring of soil characteristics in connection with the development of precision agriculture technologies and the organizing of agricultural field plot experiments.

  7. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification.

  8. Anthrosols in Iron Age Shetland: Implications for Arable and Economic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guttmann, Erika B.; Simpson, Ian A.; Nielsen, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The soils surrounding three Iron Age settlements on South Mainland, Shetland, were sampled and compared for indicators of soil amendment. Two of the sites (Old Scatness and Jarlshof) were on lower-lying, better-drained, sheltered land; the third (Clevigarth) was in an acid, exposed environment...... at a higher elevation. The hypothesis, based on previous regional assessments, soil thicknesses, and excavations at Old Scatness, was that the lowland sites would have heavily fertilized soils and that the thin upland soil would show little if any amendment. Our findings indicate that the Middle Iron Age...... soils at Old Scatness had extremely high phosphorus levels, while the soil at Jarlshof had lower levels of enhancement. At Clevigarth, where charcoal from the buried soil was 14C dated to the Neolithic and Bronze Age, there was no evidence of arable activity or soil amendment associated with the Iron...

  9. Cadmium exposure in the Swedish environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report gives a thorough description of cadmium in the Swedish environment. It comprises three parts: Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks;, Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure;, and Cadmium in fertilizers, soil, crops and foods - the Swedish situation. Separate abstracts have been prepared for all three parts

  10. Comparison of infiltration capacity of permanent grassland and arable land during the 2011 growing season

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Mašíček; F. Toman; M. Vičanová

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the rate of infiltration and cumulative infiltration in permanent grassland (PG) and in arable land over the course of the 2011 growing season. The measurement of water infiltration into soil was conducted via ponded infiltration method based on the use of two concentric cylinders in field conditions. Kostiakov equations were applied to evaluate the ponded infiltration. Based on field measurements, the dependence of infiltration rate (v) on time (t) was de...

  11. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1993-01-01

    The main sources of the financing of Swedish research on gas technology are listed in addition to names of organizations which carry out this research. The titles and descriptions of the projects carried out are presented in addition to lists of reports published with information on prices. (AB)

  12. Estimation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of radiocesium in 99 wild plant species grown in arable lands 1 year after the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Jun; Enomoto, Takashi; Yamada, Masao; Ono, Toshiro; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Sonoda, Shoji; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    One year after the deposition of radionuclides from the Fukushima 1 Nuclear Power Plant (A formal name is Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station) in March 2011, radiocesium (¹³⁴Cs, ¹³⁷Cs) concentrations ([Cs]) were comprehensively investigated in the wild plants of 99 species most of which were annual or summer green perennial herbs and started to grow from April 2012 at the heavily contaminated fields of paddy (three study sites) and upland (one study site) in Fukushima Prefecture. The survey was conducted three times (April, July and October) in the year. In each site, soils (soil cores of 5-cm depth) and plants (aerial shoots) were collected for determination of [Cs] on a dry weight basis, and then the transfer factor (TF) of radiocesium from soil to plant ([Cs]plant/[Cs]soil) was estimated in each species. The [Cs] values of both soils and plants largely varied. However, some species exhibited relatively high TF values (more than 0.4) (e.g., Athyrium yokoscense, Dryopteris tokyoensis, and Cyperus brevifolius), while others exhibited almost negligible values (less than 0.01) (e.g., Salix miyabeana, Humulus scandens, and Elymus tsukushiensis). In addition, judging from the 11 species grown in both paddy and upland fields, TF values were generally higher in the paddy fields. The estimation of phytoextraction efficiency of soil radiocesium by weed communities in the paddy fields suggests that the weed community is not a practical candidate for phytoremediation technique.

  13. How much Nitrous Oxide is produced in cultivation of biofuels on arable land in Sweden?; Hur mycket lustgas blir det vid odling av biobraenslen paa aakermark i Sverige?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Aasa (Univ. of Goeteborg, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Goeteborg (Sweden). Physical Geography)

    2010-03-15

    Several methods that can be used to estimate the emission of nitrous oxide from arable land are discussed, all of them with their pros and cons. 1 The base for all estimation methods is field measurements, well executed with a technique designed for the production of high quality data. Published field data of good quality were collected from areas in north Europe and America, both from grain and rape crops and unfertilised grasslands where natural background emission is assumed. The compilation shows that grasslands emit in average 0.3 +- 0.1 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. In crop systems where a high amount of nitrogen is repeatedly added to the soil, the soil N store will contribute to N{sub 2}O emission coming years. This is one reason why emission is higher for unfertilised arable land (where nitrogen have been added previous years) compared to unfertilised grassland, 1 +- 0.1 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. Fertilised arable lands have higher emission, in average around 3 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year. In comparison, field measurements in Sweden have shown lower emission, 0.6 and 2 kg N{sub 2}O-N/ha/year from clay and sandy soil respectively. 2 The IPCC method is the best known, where the emission from arable land is estimated as a function of added nitrogen. In reality there is no correlation between a low N-addition and the emission of nitrous oxide since the N-addition needs to be high to have influence on the nitrous oxide emission..25 or the new factor 1% of added N has been used in many LCA's as an estimator for nitrous oxide and the uncertainty span of 0,3 and 3% is seldom used. The method underestimates the size of nitrous oxide emission in many systems and cannot estimate a true emission from individual fields. 3 Globally there is a connection between the increase in reactive nitrogen and the increase of atmospheric nitrous oxide, which is the base for a method suggested by Crutzen et al. Nitrous oxide emission has been estimated to be 3-5% of both biological nitrogen

  14. Factors affecting the species composition of arable field boundary vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Verbeek, M.

    2000-01-01

    1. In recent decades the botanical diversity of arable field boundaries has declined drastically. To determine the most important factors related to the species composition of arable field boundaries, the vegetation composition of 105 herbaceous boundaries, 1-m wide, in the central and eastern

  15. Heavy Metals Technogenic Pollution of Plough Lands Arable Layer in the Chelyabinsk Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantorova, G. F.

    2017-11-01

    Environmental protection and rational use of natural resources in agriculture are the main directions of this scientific research. Contamination is caused by the substances of chemical, radiation and biological origin above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC). The main source of soil contamination in the arable land, hayfields and pastures is the waste of livestock complexes, agricultural chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides), motor vehicle exhausts, industrial emissions, sewage from settlements, etc. The ecological state of the soil and vegetation cover is largely determined by agricultural activities. The agricultural production technology complicating is accompanied by increase in the degree of environmental risk, especially in the chemicalization of agriculture. Pollution also enters the soil with atmospheric precipitation, surface waste. They are also introduced into the soil layer by soil and groundwater. The most dangerous for human health is considered to be contamination with heavy metals (HM)-lead, mercury and cadmium. However, the concentration of the rest elements is no less harmful. The paradox of heavy metals is that in certain quantities they are necessary to ensure the normal life of plants and organisms but their excess can lead to serious diseases and even death. A nutritional cycle causes harmful compounds to enter the human body and often cause great harm to health. The present work reveals the results of the research of a long-term experience on accumulation and distribution of heavy metals on the arable layer profile depending on the concentration in humus soil and the system of ground processing.

  16. Sulfur problems in Swedish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, O

    1959-01-01

    The present paper deals with some aspects of the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture with special emphasis on the importance of and relationships among various sources of sulfur supply. An inventory of the sulfur content of Swedish soils and hay crops includes 649 soil samples and a corresponding number of hay samples from 59 locations. In a special investigation the samples were found to be representative of normal Swedish farm land. It is concluded that the amount of sulfur compounds in the air is the primary factor which determines the amount of sulfur added to the soil from the atmosphere. Compared with values obtained in other countries, the amount of sulfur added by the precipitation in Sweden is very low. The distribution in air and precipitation of sulfur from an industrial source was studied in a special investigation. An initial reason for the present study was the damage to vegetation caused by smoke from an industrial source. It was concluded that the average conditions in the vicinity of the industrial source with respect to smoke constituents in the air and precipitation were unfavorable only to the plants directly within a very narrow region. Relationships among the sulfur contents of air, of precipitation, of soils and of plants have been subject to special investigations. In the final general discussion and conclusions it is pointed out that the results from these investigations indicate evident differences in the sulfur status of Swedish soils. The present trend toward the use of more highly concentrated fertilizers poor in sulfur may be expected to cause a considerable change in the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture. 167 references, 40 figures, 44 tables.

  17. New uses of clover-grass mixtures in the structure of fodder crops on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Sláma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of clover-grasses in the structure of fodder crops grown on arable soil, especially those with intergeneric hybrids as the main component part, could avert the negative current trend, i.e. further decreasing the area of perennial fodder plants or fodder crops as a whole on arable soil. They have an irreplaceable role in crop sequences and in preserving the cultural character of the countryside, above all due to the fact that they improve soil fertility and microbial life in the soil and that they have an excellent pre-produce value, and, at the same time, they are applied in various farming systems (both conventional and ecological and in various climatic conditions, and agricultural businesses are well equipped for growing, harvesting and storing them. In the Czech Republic, the area of fodder crops grown on arable soil was decreased from 1,019.9 thousand hectares to mere 396.7 thousand hectares between 1980 and 2009, which is 15.6 % of the total area of arable soil whereas perennial fodder plants only take up 8.5 %. Fodder from clover crops and clover-grass growths on arable soil are one of the main resources of voluminous fodder for dairy cows. Most of this fodder is preserved through a fermentation process (silages, hay storage; a smaller part is fed as fresh fodder, or serves for production of hay. Silages made with perennial fodder plants are the most important source of both proteins and other nutrients for ruminants, especially for high-yielding milch cows. The basis of fodder production systems are the conservative elements of the landscape area (geomorphology in combination with the progressive elements (weather conditions, plants and human labour and relict ones, the representative of which is the soil. The fodder production systems in Europe are divided into five main fodder production zones. From this point of view, the areas where short-term clover-grass mixtures are grown on arable soil could be classed with Zone 4, i

  18. Effects of subsoil compaction on hydraulic properties and preferential flow in a Swedish clay soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossadeghi-Björklund, M; Arvidsson, J.; Keller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in saturated hydraulic conductivity, air permeability and number of macropores at the second site. At this site, the traffic also significantly reduced the strength of preferential flow, presumably due to compaction-induced disruption of macropore continuity. In apparent contrast, some previous studies have shown......Soil compaction by vehicular traffic modifies the pore structure and soil hydraulic properties. These changes potentially influence the occurrence of preferential flow, which so far has been little studied. Our aim was to study the effect of compaction on soil hydraulic and transport properties...... transport derived from non-reactive tracer breakthrough curves and measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and air permeability at the field moisture content (Ka). Although the traffic treatment did not cause any compaction effects at one of the two sites, it did result in significant reductions...

  19. Observation of high seasonal variation in community structure of denitrifying bacteria in arable soil receiving artificial fertilizer and cattle manure by determining T-RFLP of nir gene fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemé, Anders; Wolsing, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variation of communities of soil denitrifying bacteria at sites receiving mineral fertilizer (60 and 120 kg N ha-1 year-1) and cattle manure (75 and 150 kg N ha-1 year-1) were explored using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of PCR amplified...... nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) gene fragments. The analyses were done three times during the year: in March, July and October. nirK gene fragments could be amplified in all three months, whereas nirS gene fragments could be amplified only in March. Analysis of similarities in T-RFLP patterns revealed...... a significant seasonal shift in the community structure of nirK-containing bacteria. Also, sites treated with mineral fertilizer or cattle manure showed different communities of nirK-containing denitrifying bacteria, since the T-RFLP patterns of soils treated with these fertilizers were significantly different...

  20. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of research activities, concerning heating systems, which were carried out in Sweden during 1991. The main subject areas dealt with under the gas technology group within the area of heating systems were catalytic combustion, polyethylene materials, and gas applications within the paper and pulp industries. A list is given of the titles of project reports published during 1991 and of those begun during that year. Under the Swedish Centre for Gas Technology (SGC), the main areas of research regarding gas applications were polyethylene materials, industrial applications and the reduction of pollutant emissions. A detailed list is given of research projects which were in progress or proposed by March 1992 under the heating system gas technology research group in Sweden. This list also presents the aims and descriptions of the methods, etc. (AB)

  1. ESTIMATION OF EROSION ACTIVITY IN THE RAVINE COMPLEX OF ARABLE SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trofimetz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the results of the evaluation of erosion on arable slopes (in the thalweg part of the ancient microravines, no more than 400 m in length. The radiocesium method has been applied, augmented by the methods of the topographic survey, remote sensing and GIS analysis. It has been shown that layer-by-layer soil sampling in the thalwegs of the modern streams (which are clearly visible on arable slopes allows obtaining the dependence of soil runoff (in centimeters of layer from the activity of Cesium-137 presented in the arable horizon. Conversion of Cesium-137 activities onto a common time scale (by taking into account the radioactive decay made it possible to increase the analyzed data series (in comparison to the previously published data and to obtain the linear dependence with the correlation coefficient of 0.98 (significant at confidence level p=0.05. The 1 cm soil layer was washed out during 26 years on the watershed surface, according to the obtained dependence. About 6 cm layer over the same period was washed out in the thalwegs of the ravines in the lower part of the slope (in its concave part that is accumulation zone. We have found that very high resolution satellite imagery, or aerial photographs, of field surveys are needed for the correct implementation of the GIS analysis when modeling erosion activity of the streambeds. These supporting data have to be collected during the period of snowmelt or rainfall to understand the behavior of streams in the accumulation zones identified by negative values of profile curvature of the relief.

  2. Statistical analysis and modelling of surface runoff from arable fields in central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fiener

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff generation on arable fields is an important driver of flooding, on-site and off-site damages by erosion, and of nutrient and agrochemical transport. In general, three different processes generate surface runoff (Hortonian runoff, saturation excess runoff, and return of subsurface flow. Despite the developments in our understanding of these processes it remains difficult to predict which processes govern runoff generation during the course of an event or throughout the year, when soil and vegetation on arable land are passing many states. We analysed the results from 317 rainfall simulations on 209 soils from different landscapes with a resolution of 14 286 runoff measurements to determine temporal and spatial differences in variables governing surface runoff, and to derive and test a statistical model of surface runoff generation independent from an a priori selection of modelled process types. Measured runoff was related to 20 time-invariant soil properties, three variable soil properties, four rain properties, three land use properties and many derived variables describing interactions and curvilinear behaviour. In an iterative multiple regression procedure, six of these properties/variables best described initial abstraction and the hydrograph. To estimate initial abstraction, the percentages of stone cover above 10% and of sand content in the bulk soil were needed, while the hydrograph could be predicted best from rain depth exceeding initial abstraction, rainfall intensity, soil organic carbon content, and time since last tillage. Combining the multiple regressions to estimate initial abstraction and surface runoff allowed modelling of event-specific hydrographs without an a priori assumption of the underlying process. The statistical model described the measured data well and performed equally well during validation. In both cases, the model explained 71 and 58% of variability in accumulated runoff volume and instantaneous

  3. Exploring the Patterns and Mechanisms of Reclaimed Arable Land Utilization under the Requisition-Compensation Balance Policy in Wenzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arable land in China is undergoing significant changes, with massive losses of arable land due to rapid urbanization and the reclamation of arable land from other lands to compensate for these losses. Many studies have analyzed arable land loss, but less attention has been paid to land reclamation, and the utilization of reclaimed land remains unclear. The goal of our study was to characterize the patterns and efficiency of the utilization of reclaimed land and to identify the factors influencing the land utilization process in Wenzhou using remote sensing, geographic information systems and logistic regression. Our results showed that only 37% of the total reclaimed land area was under cultivation, and other lands were still bare or had been covered by trees and grasses. The likelihood that reclaimed land was used for cultivation was highly correlated with the land use type of its neighboring or adjacent parcels. Reclaimed land utilization was also limited at high elevations in lands with poor soil fertility and in lands at a great distance from rural residential areas. In addition, parcels located in the ecological protection zone were less likely to be cultivated. Therefore, we suggest that the important determinants should be considered when identifying the most suitable land reclamation areas.

  4. Continuous measurements of N2O emissions from arable fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallman, Magdalena; Lammirato, Carlo; Rütting, Tobias; Delin, Sofia; Weslien, Per; Klemedtsson, Leif

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture represents 59 % of the anthropogenic nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, according to the IPCC (Ciais et al. 2013). N2O emissions are typically irregular and vary widely in time and space, which makes it difficult to get a good representation of the emissions (Henault et al. 2012), particularly if measurements have low frequency and/or cover only a short time period. Manual measurements are, for practical reasons, often short-term and low-frequent, or restricted to periods where emissions are expected to be high, e.g. after fertilizing. However, the nature of N2O emissions, being largely unpredictable, calls for continuous or near-continuous measurements over long time periods. So far, rather few long-term, high resolution measurements of N2O emissions from arable fields are reported; among them are Flessa et al. (2002) and Senapati et al. (2016). In this study, we have a two-year data set (2015-2017) with hourly measurements from ten automatic chambers, covering unfertilized controls as well as different nitrogen fertilizer treatments. Grain was produced on the field, and effects of tillage, harvest and other cropping measures were covered. What we can see from the experiment is that (a) the unfertilized control plots seem to follow the same emission pattern as the fertilized plots, at a level similar to the standard mineral fertilized plots (120 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and (b) freeze/thaw emissions are comparable in size to emissions after fertilizing. These two findings imply that the importance of fertilizing to the overall N2O emissions from arable soils may be smaller than previously expected. References: Ciais, P., C. Sabine, G. Bala, L. Bopp, V. Brovkin, J. Canadell et al. 2013: Carbon and Other Biogeochemical Cycles. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung et

  5. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  6. Managing Bioenergy Production on Arable Field Margins for Multiple Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Andrea; Serra, Paolo; Amaducci, Stefano; Trevisan, Marco; Puglisi, Edoardo

    2013-04-01

    Growing crops for bioenergy is increasingly viewed as conflicting with food production. However, energy use continues to rise and food production requires fuel inputs, which have increased with intensification. The debate should shift from "food or fuel" to the more challenging target: how the increasing demand for food and energy can be met in the future, particularly when water and land availability will be limited. As for food crops, also for bioenergy crops it is questioned whether it is preferable to manage cultivation to enhance ecosystem services ("land sharing" strategy) or to grow crops with lower ecosystem services but higher yield, thereby requiring less land to meet bioenergy demand ("land sparing" strategy). Energy crop production systems differ greatly in the supply of ecosystem services. The use of perennial biomass (e.g. Switchgrass, Mischantus, Giant reed) for energy production is considered a promising way to reduce net carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. In addition, regulating and supporting ecosystem services could be provided when specific management of bioenergy crops is implemented. The idea of HEDGE-BIOMASS* project is to convert the arable field margins to bioenergy crop production fostering a win-win strategy at landscape level. Main objective of the project is to improve land management to generate environmental benefits and increase farmer income. The various options available in literature for an improved field boundary management are presented. The positive/unknown/negative effects of growing perennial bioenergy crops on field margins will be discussed relatively to the following soil-related ecosystem services: (I) biodiversity conservation and enhancement, (II) soil nutrient cycling, (III) climate regulation (reduction of GHG emissions and soil carbon sequestration/stabilization, (IV) water regulation (filtering and buffering), (V) erosion regulation, (VI) pollination and pest regulation. From the analysis of available

  7. Effects of three management strategies on the seedbank, emergence and the need for hand weeding in an organic arable cropping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, M.M.; Groeneveld, R.M.W.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Kropff, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of three different weed management strategies on the required input of hand weeding in an arable organic farming system, the weed seedbank in the soil and the emerging weed seedling emergence were studied from 1996 to 2003. Strategies were based on population dynamic models and aimed for

  8. Planting of different-sized tree transplants on arable soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálek, J.; Weber, M.; Matula, S.; Frantík, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2009), s. 574-584 ISSN 1895-104X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : windbreak * growth rate * seedling size Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2009

  9. Soil nutrient content, soil moisture and yield of Katumani maize in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    natural ecosystem of mesquite trees than in arable fields of maize and beans in the central highlands of Mexico. They attributed this to the higher ... Carbon and nitrogen mineralization in tall grass prairie and agricultural soil profiles. Soil. Sci.

  10. Direct and Indirect Short-term Effects of Biochar on Physical Characteristics of an Arable Sandy Loam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Moldrup, Per; Elsgaard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soil is reported in several studies to reduce climate gas emissions, boost carbon storage, and improve soil fertility and crop productivity. These effects may be partly related to soil physical changes resulting from biochar amendment, but knowledge of how biochar...... application mechanistically affects soil physical characteristics is limited. This study investigated the effect of biochar application on soil structural and functional properties, including specific surface area, water retention, and gas transport parameters. Intact soil cores were taken from a field...... experiment on an arable sandy loam that included four reference plots without biochar and four plots with 20 tons ha(-1) biochar incorporated into the upper 20 cm 7 months before sampling. Water retention was measured at matric potentials ranging from wet (pF 1.0) to extremely dry conditions (pF similar to 6...

  11. Soils in transition : dynamics and functioning of fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, Annemieke van der

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on the dynamics and functions of saprotrophic soil fungi during conversion from an arable land into a natural ecosystem (heathland) and to asses their effects on soil ecosystem processes. Chapter 2 describes that fungal biomass in abandoned arable land is not increasing

  12. Assessing and analysing the impact of land take pressures on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aksoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Land, and in particular soil, is a finite and essentially non-renewable resource. Across the European Union, land take, i.e. the increase of settlement area over time, annually consumes more than 1000 km2 of which half is actually sealed and hence lost under impermeable surfaces. Land take, and in particular soil sealing, has already been identified as one of the major soil threats in the 2006 European Commission Communication Towards a Thematic Strategy on Soil Protection and the Soil Thematic Strategy and has been confirmed as such in the report on the implementation of this strategy. The aim of this study is to relate the potential of land for a particular use in a given region with the actual land use. This allows evaluating whether land (especially the soil dimension is used according to its (theoretical potential. To this aim, the impact of several land cover flows related to urban development on soils with good, average, and poor production potentials were assessed and mapped. Thus, the amount and quality (potential for agricultural production of arable land lost between the years 2000 and 2006 was identified. In addition, areas with high productivity potential around urban areas, indicating areas of potential future land use conflicts for Europe, were identified.

  13. Simulating the impacts of land use in northwest Europe on Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE): the role of arable ecosystems, grasslands and forest plantations in climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Mohamed; Saunders, Matthew; Hastings, Astley; Williams, Mike; Smith, Pete; Osborne, Bruce; Lanigan, Gary; Jones, Mike B

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we compared measured and simulated Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) values from three wide spread ecosystems in the southeast of Ireland (forest, arable and grassland), and investigated the suitability of the DNDC (the DeNitrification-DeComposition) model to estimate present and future NEE. Although, the field-DNDC version overestimated NEE at temperatures >5 °C, forest-DNDC under-estimated NEE at temperatures >5 °C. The results suggest that the field/forest DNDC models can successfully estimate changes in seasonal and annual NEE from these ecosystems. Differences in NEE were found to be primarily land cover specific. The annual NEE was similar for the grassland and arable sites, but due to the contribution of exported carbon, the soil carbon increased at the grassland site and decreased at the arable site. The NEE of the forest site was an order of magnitude larger than that of the grassland or arable ecosystems, with large amounts of carbon stored in woody biomass and the soil. The average annual NEE, GPP and Reco values over the measurement period were -904, 2379 and 1475 g C m(-2) (forest plantations), -189, 906 and 715 g C m(-2) (arable systems) and -212, 1653 and 1444 g C m(-2) (grasslands), respectively. The average RMSE values were 3.8 g C m(-2) (forest plantations), 0.12 g C m(-2) (arable systems) and 0.21 g C m(-2) (grasslands). When these models were run with climate change scenarios to 2060, predictions show that all three ecosystems will continue to operate as carbon sinks. Further, climate change may decrease the carbon sink strength in the forest plantations by up to 50%. This study supports the use of the DNDC model as a valid tool to predict the consequences of climate change on NEE from different ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Farm size - productivity relationships among arable crops farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to analyze the relationship between farm size and resource productivity among arable crop farmers in Imo state, and isolate the major determinants of agricultural productivity. Data used for the study were collected from a sample of 120 farmers randomly selected from Okigwe and Orlu agricultural ...

  15. Purchase of Catastrophe Insurance by Dutch Dairy and Arable Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogurtsov, V.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzed the impact of risk perception, risk attitude, and other farmer personal and farm characteristics on the actual purchase of catastrophe insurance by Dutch dairy and arable farmers. The specific catastrophe insurance types considered were hail–fire–storm insurance for buildings,

  16. Utilization of Agro-meteorological Services among Arable Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thomas Kehinde Adesina

    The study assessed arable crop farmers' utilization of agro-meteorological services in ... The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC's Fourth ... the patterns of impact of climate change on agriculture can be classified into ... temperature rise causing fish to inhabit in different ranges. ..... Journal of Human Ecology.

  17. Mechanisms of adaptation of small grains to soil acidity

    OpenAIRE

    Đalović Ivica G.; Maksimović Ivana V.; Kastori Rudolf R.; Jelić Miodrag Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Acid soils limit crop production on 30-40% of the world's arable land and up to 70% of the world's potentially arable land. Over 60% of the total arable lands in Serbia are acid soils. Soil acidity is determined by hydrogen (H+) in soil solution and it is influenced by edaphic, climatic, and biological factors. Major constraints for plant growth on acid mineral soils are toxic concentrations of mineral elements like Al of H+ and/or low mineral nutrient availability due to low solubility (e.g....

  18. Swedish Disarmament Policy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    NPIHP Partners Host Conference on Swedish Disarmament Policy Dec 05, 2012 The Nuclear Proliferation International History Project is pleased to announce a conference on Swedish nuclear disarmament policy, organized and hosted by Stockholm University on 26 november 2012. Organized by Stockholm University Professor Thomas Jonter, Emma Rosengren, Goran Rydeberg, and Stellan Andersson under the aegis of the Swedish Disarmament Resaerch Project, the conference featured keynote addresses by Hans Bl...

  19. About the value of species diversity in arable weeds for weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerowitt, Bärbel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Arable weeds accompany arable land use – we define them based on their affiliation to ar able systems. They are adapted to such a degree that most of them cannot exist without arable land use. Weeds are part of the total biodiversity on arable fields, as primary producers they are basic for important functions within the ecosystem. This paper elaborates the relevance of species diversity in arable weeds for their management. Arable systems can be regarded for the number of different methods for preventive and direct weed control which are realized. Historical arable land use is roughly divided into three periods, which differ concerning the diversity of weed management and the occurring diversity in weed species. Obviously divers weed management in arable systems and diversity in weed species depend on each other, this is illustrated with a simple abstract picture. Arable systems, which are characterised by simpleness, favor the domination of few species which ensure an effective use of the resources within the ecosystem. One consequence under continuous pressure of an overused tool in weed management is that the genetic diversity within a dominating weed population is exploited to ensure this resource use. Current herbicides represent this tool – the results are herbicide resistant biotypes within the weed populations. Species diversity in arable weeds as a rationale within arable production can assist to prevent this development.

  20. Productivity of organic and conventional arable cropping systems in long-term experiments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ambreen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2017-01-01

    manure there was a tendency for increased DM yield over time at all sites, whereas little response was seen in N yield. In the O4 rotation DM and N yields tended to increase at Foulum over time, but there was little change at Flakkebjerg. The DM yield gap between organic and conventional systems in the 3......A field experiment comparing different arable crop rotations was conducted in Denmark during 1997–2008 on three sites varying in climatic conditions and soil types, i.e. coarse sand (Jyndevand), loamy sand (Foulum), and sandy loam (Flakkebjerg). The crop rotations followed organic farm management......, and from 2005 also conventional management was included for comparison. Three experimental factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: 1) crop rotation (organic crop rotations varying in use of whole-year green manure (O1 and O2 with a whole-year green manure, and O4 without...

  1. Statistical analysis and modelling of surface runoff from arable fields

    OpenAIRE

    P. Fiener; K. Auerswald; F. Winter; M. Disse

    2013-01-01

    Surface runoff generation on arable fields is an important driver of (local) flooding, on-site and off-site damages by erosion, and of nutrient and agrochemical transport. In general, three different processes generate surface runoff (Hortonian runoff, saturation excess runoff, and return of subsurface flow). Despite the developments in our understanding of these processes it remains difficult to predict, which processes govern runoff generation during the course of an event or through...

  2. Breeding birds on organic and conventional arable farms

    OpenAIRE

    Kragten, Steven

    2009-01-01

    As a result of agricultural intensification, farmland bird populations have been declining dramatically over the past decades. Organic farming is often mentioned to be a possible solution to stop these declines. In order to see whether farmland birds really benefit from organic farming a study was carried out comparing breeding bird densities, breeding success and bird food abundance between organic and conventional arable farms in Flevoland, the Netherlands. skylark (Alauda arvensis) and lap...

  3. Predicting soil particle density from clay and soil organic matter contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; McBride, R.A.; Keller, T.

    2017-01-01

    Soil particle density (Dp) is an important soil property for calculating soil porosity expressions. However, many studies assume a constant value, typically 2.65Mgm−3 for arable, mineral soils. Fewmodels exist for the prediction of Dp from soil organic matter (SOM) content. We hypothesized...

  4. Uses of glyphosate in German arable farming – operational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiese, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is the most frequently used herbicide active ingredient in Germany. Studies regarding its usage in non-GMO arable farming are still rare even though it plays an important role in several agronomic situations. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive survey, which was carried out among conventional German farms in Winter 2014/2015. Based on the results of this survey we analyzed via cluster analysis how types of farms differ in terms of glyphosate usage. An illustration of seven clusters allows deep insights into arable farm structures. The farm types can be distinguished regarding their tillage system and similar to this differentiation also concerning their intensity of glyphosate application. Furthermore, it becomes obvious that farm clusters with a higher level of glyphosate usage are characterized by a lower number of labourers per hectare, more arable land and/or enhanced cover cropping. Moreover, groups of farmers who rely more on glyphosate are more likely to state that they need glyphosate for herbicide resistance management. Farmers’ assessments of the economic importance of glyphosate usage vary depending on the type of farm. By means of the farm clusters, the most important situations of glyphosate usage can be further analyzed economically and scenarios for impact assessments can be made.

  5. Patterns of bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danguolė Andriušaitytė

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research data on bryophyte diversity in arable land throughout the territory of Lithuania. The bryoflora was analyzed regarding systematic structure and morphological forms, life-history strategies, mode of reproduction and frequency of species. Bryophyte diversity in arable fields of Lithuania was compared with that of Slovakia and the British Isles, which are positioned in different geographical regions of Europe. A total of 97 species of bryophytes of 25 families and 48 genera were ascertained. Dominance of acrocarpous mosses and thalloid liverworts, high representation of Pottiaceae, Bryaceae, Mielichhoferiaceae and Ricciaceae families as well as Bryum, Dicranella, Pohlia and Riccia genera, wide distribution of annual shuttles and ephemeral colonists, high reproduction effort of the species (frequent sporophytes and asexual propagules were specific features of the bryophytes of the studied habitats as a result of adaptations to regular disturbances. The distribution of species into six frequency groups seemed to be uneven. The most abundant group of species with the lowest frequency (1–3 records covered 53.6% of all species. The group contained about 90% of all many-year potential life span species recorded in the habitat. Species with short life span were distributed quite evenly throughout frequency groups. No regionally-specific species were ascertained in the studied habitat. Most of arable-land-specific species recorded in Lithuania is distributed throughout different regions of Europe.

  6. Swedish Government Minister at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research recently visited CERN. The Swedish Minister was greeted by Swedish scientists working at CERN. Signing of the Swedish Computing Memorandum of Understanding. Pär Omling, Director-General of the Swedish Research Council (left), and Jos Engelen, CERN’s Chief Scientific Officer. Lars Leijonborg, the Swedish Minister for Higher Education and Research, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar on 10 March. After an introduction to the Laboratory’s activities, the Minister was given guided tours of the control room, the ATLAS surface hall and experiment cavern and the adjoining LHC tunnel. Mr Leijonborg was then greeted by Swedish scientists and given an overview of the Swedish research programme at CERN. Five Swedish university groups are taking part in LHC research. Swedish universities are notably involved in the manufacture of parts for the sub-detectors of AT...

  7. Swedish Energy Research 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Swedish Energy Research 2009 provides a brief, easily accessible overview of the Swedish energy research programme. The aims of the programme are to create knowledge and skills, as needed in order to commercialise the results and contribute to development of the energy system. Much of the work is carried out through about 40 research programmes in six thematic areas: energy system analysis, the building as an energy system, the transport sector, energy-intensive industries, biomass in energy systems and the power system. Swedish Energy Research 2009 describes the overall direction of research, with examples of current research, and results to date within various thematic areas and highlights

  8. Can Arable Land Alone Ensure Food Security? The Concept of Arable Land Equivalent Unit and Its Implications in Zhoushan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong Tan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The requisition–compensation balance of farmlands (RCBF is a strict Chinese policy that aims to ensure food security. However, the process of supplementing arable land has substantially damaged the ecological environment through the blind development of grasslands, woodlands, and wetlands to supplement arable land. Can arable land alone ensure food security? To answer this question, this study introduced the concepts of arable land equivalent unit (ALEU and food equivalent unit (FEU based on the idea of food security. Zhoushan City in Zhejiang Province, China was selected as the research area. This study analyzed the ALEU supply and demand capabilities in the study area and presented the corresponding policy implications for the RCBF improvement. The results showed that the proportion of ALEU from arable land and waters for aquaculture is from 46:54 in 2009 to 31:69 in 2015, thereby suggesting that aquaculture waters can also be important in food security. Under three different living standards (i.e., adequate food and clothing, well-off, and affluence, ALEU from arable land can barely meet the needs of the permanent resident population in the study area. However, ALEU from aquaculture waters can provide important supplementation. Therefore, we suggest that food supply capability from land types other than the arable land be taken seriously. Furthermore, RCBF can be improved with ALEU as core of the balance.

  9. Distinct germination response of endangered and common arable weeds to reduced water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, A T; Eckstein, R L; Otte, A; Donath, T W

    2016-01-01

    Arable weeds are one of the most endangered species groups in Europe. Modern agriculture and intensive land-use management are the main causes of their dramatic decline. However, besides the changes in land use, climate change may further challenge the adaptability of arable weeds. Therefore, we investigated the response pattern of arable weeds to different water potential and temperature regimes during the phase of germination. We expected that endangered arable weeds would be more sensitive to differences in water availability and temperature than common arable weeds. To this end, we set up a climate chamber experiment where we exposed seeds of five familial pairs of common and endangered arable weed species to different temperatures (5/15, 10/20 °C) and water potentials (0.0 to -1.2 MPa). The results revealed a significant relationship between the reaction of arable weed species to water availability and their Red List status. The effects of reduced water availability on total germination, mean germination time and synchrony were significantly stronger in endangered than in common arable weeds. Therefore, global climate change may present a further threat to the survival of endangered arable weed species. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Evaluation of the Fertility Status and Suitability of some Soils for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Fertility Status and Suitability of some Soils for Arable Cropping In the ... Nigerian Journal of Soil Science ... cropping in the newly established Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Minna.

  11. The Balanced Scorecard as a Management Tool for Arable Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Paustian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Management requirements for crop farming are high and will rise in the future. Arable farms are challenged by volatile markets, growing administrative burdens, increasing operating costs and growing competition for land. Management skills have become much more important for farmers in recent years and this trend will continue in the future. There are numerous instruments like accounting software or crop field cards integrated in daily management practice, but there is a deficiency of a fully integrated management system to give an overview of all areas of the farming business. This gap can be closed by the management tool Balanced Scorecard (BSC that provides an overview of all production and management activities on a farm. Therefore, with the aim to transfer the BSC concept to crop farming, German farmers and agricultural advisors were surveyed to get insights into the success factors and key performance indicators in the four BSC perspectives they consider most relevant for the operational success of arable farms. By the use of a cluster analysis, three different farm types were identified according to their visions and strategies. For the three farm types the key performance indicators that the respondents considered most relevant for farm performance were figured out. Implementation of the BSC to crop farming can result in a big benefit for management practice. The BSC focuses vision and long-term strategy with the main goal to ensure consistency of the farm and increase farm performance.

  12. Combined analysis of climate, technological and price changes on future arable farming systems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Kros, J.; Webber, H.; Zhao, G.; Britz, W.; Reinds, G.J.; Ewert, F.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compare the relative importance of climate change to technological, management, price and policy changes on European arable farming systems. This required linking four models: the SIMPLACE crop growth modelling framework to calculate future yields under climate change for arable

  13. Effects of remedial measures on long term transfer of radiocaesium from soil to agricultural products as calculated from Swedish field experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loensjoe, H.; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive studies on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to agricultural products under long term field conditions have been performed in Sweden since 1961. Effects of various remedial measures to be taken after farm land contamination have been studied in long term microplot experiments, in ploughing experiments and in conventional field experiments in Chernobyl fallout areas. Furthermore, the transfer of radiocaesium in various farm ecosystems, as influenced by farm management practices and the line of production applied, has been calculated. Fertilization with potassium has been found to effectively reduce the transfer of radiocaesium from the soil to various crops. The best effects were found on peat and sandy soils in the Chernobyl fallout areas, where a reduction by a factor of 2-5 or more has been recorded. Also, on clay soils heavy K application was found to depress the Cs transfer appreciably. Placement of the nuclide below the normal ploughing depth reduced the Cs transfer by a factor of 2-3 as compared with the effect of a homogeneous distribution in the plough layer. With a combination of deep placement and K fertilization a reduction by a factor of 10 or more has been obtained. It seems possible to reduce the caesium transfer from soil to food by a factor of 5-10 by changing the line of production on a farm in various ways. (author). 12 refs, 5 tabs

  14. Swedish Cleantech Opportunities 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    A market overview from the Swedish Energy Agency. 'Cleantech (short for clean technologies) refers to energy and environmentally friendly related technologies. Global demand for this kind of products continues to grow and cleantech can thus generate new jobs, growth and tax revenues. The Swedish Energy Agency is active in the energy segment of cleantech and support companies in their early stages of development. This market overview outlines the current status of the sector, in Sweden and globally. It also presents business leaders and innovators in this field.'

  15. Swedish Cleantech Opportunities 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    A market overview from the Swedish Energy Agency. 'Cleantech (short for clean technologies) refers to energy and environmentally friendly related technologies. Global demand for this kind of products continues to grow and cleantech can thus generate new jobs, growth and tax revenues. The Swedish Energy Agency is active in the energy segment of cleantech and support companies in their early stages of development. This market overview outlines the current status of the sector, in Sweden and globally. It also presents business leaders and innovators in this field.'

  16. Influence of multi-year Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis on the abundance of B. cereus group populations in Swedish riparian wetland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Schneider, Salome; Tajrin, Tania

    -term Bti application affects the structure of indigenous Bcg communities as well as the overall abundance of Bti. Based on new primers, group-specific quantitative PCR assays for Bcg and Bti in environmental samples were developed. On six occasions during the vegetation season, soil samples were collected...

  17. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  18. Evaluation of mitigation strategies to reduce ammonia losses from slurry fertilisation on arable lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, M., E-mail: marco.carozzi@unimi.it [University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrara, R.M.; Rana, G. [Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry Environments, via C. Ulpiani, 5 – 70125 Bari (Italy); Acutis, M. [University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the best practices in reducing ammonia (NH{sub 3}) losses from fertilised arable lands, six field trials were carried out in three different locations in northern Italy. NH{sub 3} emissions from cattle slurry were estimated considering the spreading techniques and the field incorporation procedures. The measurements were performed using long term exposure samplers associated to the determination of the atmospheric turbulence and the use of the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model WindTrax. The results obtained indicate that the NH{sub 3} emission process was exhausted in the first 24–48 h after slurry spreading. The slurry incorporation technique was able to reduce the NH{sub 3} losses with respect to the surface spreading, where a contextual incorporation led to reductions up to 87%. However, the best abatement strategy for NH{sub 3} losses from slurry applications has proved to be the direct injection into the soil, with a reduction of about 95% with respect to the surface spreading. The results obtained highlight the strong dependence of the volatilisation phenomenon by soil and weather conditions. - Highlights: ► Ammonia emissions from land-application of slurry were quantified. ► We examined and compared six different agronomic treatments in three locations. ► The faster was the soil-incorporation of slurry, the lower was the ammonia loss. ► The direct injection of slurry was found to be the best abatement strategy. ► The environmental factors were able to strongly influence the ammonia emission.

  19. The arable plant ecosystem as battleground for emergence of human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo eVan Overbeek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease incidences related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica infections by consumption of (fresh vegetables, sprouts and occasionally fruits made clear that these pathogens are not only transmitted to humans via the ‘classical’ routes of meat, eggs and dairy products, but also can be transmitted to humans via plants or products derived from plants. Nowadays, it is of major concern that these human pathogens, especially the ones belonging to the taxonomical family of Enterobacteriaceae, become adapted to environmental habitats without losing their virulence to humans. Adaptation to the plant environment would lead to longer persistence in plants, increasing their chances on transmission to humans via consumption of plant-derived food. One of the mechanisms of adaptation to the plant environment in human pathogens, proposed in this paper, is horizontal transfer of genes from different microbial communities present in the arable ecosystem, like the ones originating from soil, animal digestive track systems (manure, water and plants themselves. Genes that would confer better adaptation to the phytosphere might be genes involved in plant colonization, stress resistance and nutrient acquisition and utilization. Because human pathogenic enterics often were prone to genetic exchanges via phages and conjugative plasmids, it was postulated that these genetic elements may be hold key responsible for horizontal gene transfers between human pathogens and indigenous microbes in agroproduction systems. In analogy to zoonosis, we coin the term phytonosis for a human pathogen that is transmitted via plants and not exclusively via animals.

  20. Soil organic matter distribution and microaggregate characteristics as affected by agricultural management and earthworm activity

    OpenAIRE

    Pulleman, M M; Six, J; van Breemen, N; Jongmans, A G

    2005-01-01

    Stable microaggregates can physically protect occluded soil organic matter (SOM) against decomposition. We studied the effects of agricultural management on the amount and characteristics of microaggregates and on SOM distribution in a marine loam soil in the Netherlands. Three long-term farming systems were compared: a permanent pasture, a conventional-arable system and an organic-arable system. Whole soil samples were separated into microaggregates (53-250 mu m), 20-53 mu m and 20 mu m) ve...

  1. The Swedish Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2012-01-01

    The main characteristics of ‘the Swedish model’ are arguably related to the country's knowledge-intensive industry and its advanced welfare state. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the historical development of these two features of the Swedish economy. The first part looks at industrial...... development, highlighting both the reasons for the rapid industrialization in the late 19th century and the subsequent shift from raw materials to human capital and knowledge as the main competitive advantages. The second part turns to the development of welfare state, stressing the gradual increase...... in benefits and coverage as well as the emphasis on universal rather than means-tested benefits. The final part suggests some policy conclusions for today's developing countries and emerging economies....

  2. Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in Swedish sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspan Anna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat in veterinary medicine and human healthcare. Resistance genes can spread from animals, through the food-chain, and back to humans. Sewage sludge may act as the link back from humans to animals. The main aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE in treated sewage sludge, in a Swedish waste water treatment plant (WWTP, and to compare VRE isolates from sewage sludge with isolates from humans and chickens. Methods During a four month long study, sewage sludge was collected weekly and cultured for VRE. The VRE isolates from sewage sludge were analysed and compared to each other and to human and chicken VRE isolates by biochemical typing (PhenePlate, PFGE and antibiograms. Results Biochemical typing (PhenePlate-FS and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE revealed prevalence of specific VRE strains in sewage sludge for up to 16 weeks. No connection was found between the VRE strains isolated from sludge, chickens and humans, indicating that human VRE did not originate from Swedish chicken. Conclusion This study demonstrated widespread occurrence of VRE in sewage sludge in the studied WWTP. This implies a risk of antimicrobial resistance being spread to new farms and to the society via the environment if the sewage sludge is used on arable land.

  3. The swedish challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tregouet, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  4. Carbon footprints of crops from organic and conventional arable crop rotations – using a life cycle assessment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Many current organic arable agriculture systems are challenged by a dependency on imported livestock manure from conventional agriculture. At the same time organic agriculture aims at being climate friendly. A life cycle assessment is used in this paper to compare the carbon footprints of different....... The results showed significantly lower carbon footprint of the crops from the ‘Biogas’ rotation (assuming that biogas replaces fossil gas) whereas the remaining crop rotations had comparable carbon footprints per kg cash crop. The study showed considerable contributions caused by the green manure crop (grass......-clover) and highlights the importance of analysing the whole crop rotation and including soil carbon changes when estimating carbon footprints of organic crops especially where green manure crops are included....

  5. Organizing data in arable farming : towards an ontology of processing potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkort, A.J.; Top, J.L.; Verdenius, F.

    2006-01-01

    Arable farmers and their suppliers, consultants and procurers are increasingly dealing with gathering and processing of large amounts of data. Data sources are related to mandatory and voluntary registration (certification, tracing and tracking, quality control). Besides data collected for

  6. Weed vegetation ecology of arable land in Salalah, Southern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A

    2013-07-01

    This paper applies multivariate statistical methods to a data set of weed relevés from arable fields in two different habitat types of coastal and mountainous escarpments in Southern Oman. The objectives were to test the effect of environmental gradients, crop plants and time on weed species composition, to rank the importance of these particular factors, and to describe the patterns of species composition and diversity associated with these factors. Through the application of TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA programs on data relating to 102 species recorded in 28 plots and farms distributed in the study area, six plant communities were identified: I- Dichanthium micranthum, II- Cynodon dactylon-D. micranthum, III- Convolvulus arvensis, IV- C. dactylon-Sonchus oleraceus, V- Amaranthus viridis and VI- Suaeda aegyptiaca-Achyranthes aspera. The ordination process (CCA) provided a sequence of plant communities and species diversity that correlated with some anthropogenic factors, physiographic variables and crop types. Therefore, length of time since farm construction, disturbance levels and altitude are the most important factors related to the occurrence of the species. The perennial species correlated with the more degraded mountain areas of new farm stands, whereas most of the annuals correlated with old lowland and less disturbed farms.

  7. Ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae diversity in Finnish arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. HELENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Carabid data compiled from six independent studies, consisting of 97 799 individuals trapped by pitfalls from Finnish agricultural fields and identified to 111 species were analyzed. Shannon-Wiener H' diversity index was typically around 2.5 and expected species number rarefied to 600 trapped individuals was typically around 30 species. The five most abundant species accounted for 42% of the total catch, and the thirty most abundant species made up 98% of the total catch. Percentage similarities among the assemblages by PS-index were from 16% to 48%. In comparison to published data about carabid diversity in boreal forests, which form the dominating habitat matrix in which Finnish farmland is embedded as relatively small patches, arable fields harbor more species rich assemblages, with more even rank-abundance distributions but variable species composition. Importance of landscape (regional level, instead of spatial level of crop fields, in understanding carabid diversity in farmland is discussed. Inclusion of carabids into monitoring schemes of agro-biodiversity at landscape level is suggested.

  8. [Microbial biomass and growth kinetics of microorganisms in chernozem soils under different farm land use modes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskiĭ, S A; Bogomolova, I N; Blagodatskaia, E V

    2008-01-01

    The carbon content of microbial biomass and the kinetic characteristics of microbial respiration response to substrate introduction have been estimated for chernozem soils of different farm lands: arable lands used for 10, 46, and 76 years, mowed fallow land, non-mowed fallow land, and woodland. Microbial biomass and the content of microbial carbon in humus (Cmic/Corg) decreased in the following order: soils under forest cenoses-mowed fallow land-10-year arable land-46- and 75-year arable land. The amount of microbial carbon in the long-plowed horizon was 40% of its content in the upper horizon of non-mowed fallow land. Arable soils were characterized by a lower metabolic diversity of microbial community and by the highest portion of microorganisms able to grow directly on glucose introduced into soil. The effects of different scenarios of carbon sequestration in soil on the reserves and activity of microbial biomass are discussed.

  9. Root and soil carbon distribution at shoulderslope and footslope positions of temperate toposequences cropped to winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Roncossek, Svenja Doreen; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2014-01-01

    Crop root residues are an important source of soil organic carbon (SOC) in arable systems. However, the spatial distribution of root biomass in arable systems remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined the spatial distribution of macro-root and shoot biomass of winter wheat at shoulder...

  10. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  11. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  12. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra [FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Bardos, Paul [r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom); Track, Thomas [DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Keuning, Sytze [Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    the best potential type of phyto remediation method varies. Various phyto remediation methods (remediation, control or increased natural attenuation) are shown together with a brief description of the species convenient for each method. The advantages in using phyto remediation are for example low remediation cost, less transportation, less use of land for landfill, less use of other new resources etc. Phyto remediation can also be a useful complement to more conventional remediation methods. For example very high contaminated masses can be excavated and site areas with lower concentrations are phyto remediated. In this study the maximum arable area of the potential contaminated sites in Sweden was assessed. In this context, arable area is defined as an area that can be used for growing biomass (e.g. for production of biofuels) or that can be phyto-remediated or contained and stabilized through a plantation. The total area of contaminated sites has been estimated to 3000 km2, about 0.7% of the size of Sweden. The total arable area of contaminated sites in Sweden was estimated to almost 800 km2. This is about 0.2% of the size of Sweden and constitutes 26% of the total contaminated area. It has to be noted that this is a first estimate based on several assumptions and should thus be seen just as a first attempt to estimate the maximum arable area of contaminated land in Sweden. Knowledge about phyto remediation methods and projects in Sweden is rare, and the results from the phyto remediation projects are not yet fully available. Consequently, there are no good examples showing the benefits, costs and timescales. The present legislation and praxis is based on total concentrations left in the soil and not based on soil functionality or risk based land management. In Sweden, areas of highest priority for remediation are sites with very high contaminant concentrations. Such sites are in urgent need of remediation and the contamination level is high, and thus there is risk

  13. Biofuel and other biomass based products from contaminated sites - Potentials and barriers from Swedish perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Enell, Anja; Rihm, Thomas; Haglund, Kristina; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja; Angelbratt, Alexandra (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Keuning, Sytze (Bioclear b.v., Groningen (Netherlands))

    2009-07-01

    the best potential type of phyto remediation method varies. Various phyto remediation methods (remediation, control or increased natural attenuation) are shown together with a brief description of the species convenient for each method. The advantages in using phyto remediation are for example low remediation cost, less transportation, less use of land for landfill, less use of other new resources etc. Phyto remediation can also be a useful complement to more conventional remediation methods. For example very high contaminated masses can be excavated and site areas with lower concentrations are phyto remediated. In this study the maximum arable area of the potential contaminated sites in Sweden was assessed. In this context, arable area is defined as an area that can be used for growing biomass (e.g. for production of biofuels) or that can be phyto-remediated or contained and stabilized through a plantation. The total area of contaminated sites has been estimated to 3000 km2, about 0.7% of the size of Sweden. The total arable area of contaminated sites in Sweden was estimated to almost 800 km2. This is about 0.2% of the size of Sweden and constitutes 26% of the total contaminated area. It has to be noted that this is a first estimate based on several assumptions and should thus be seen just as a first attempt to estimate the maximum arable area of contaminated land in Sweden. Knowledge about phyto remediation methods and projects in Sweden is rare, and the results from the phyto remediation projects are not yet fully available. Consequently, there are no good examples showing the benefits, costs and timescales. The present legislation and praxis is based on total concentrations left in the soil and not based on soil functionality or risk based land management. In Sweden, areas of highest priority for remediation are sites with very high contaminant concentrations. Such sites are in urgent need of remediation and the contamination level is high, and thus there is risk

  14. Importance de la terre arable dans la recolonisation vegetale des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural resources' mining, especially quarrying contributes to the soil degradation and biodiversity loss. ... that the authorities responsible for the management of quarries and the local authorities must work for the improvement of management plans of quarries with a particular emphasis on the restoration of removed soils.

  15. Back to acid soil fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, Geraldo; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Malosetti Zunin, Marcos; Eeuwijk, van Fred

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity damages plant roots and limits crop production on acid soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable lands. A major Al tolerance locus on chromosome 3, AltSB, controls aluminum tolerance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] via SbMATE, an Al-activated plasma

  16. Fate of airborne metal pollution in soils as related to agricultural management. 1. Zn and Pb distributions in soil profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, C.; Labanowski, J.; Cambier, P.; Jongmans, A.G.; Oort, van F.

    2007-01-01

    The fate of airborne metal pollutants in soils is still relatively unknown. We studied the incorporation of such airborne metal pollution in two soils under long-term permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable land (CA). Both soils were located at an almost equal distance from a former zinc

  17. Nutrient production from dairy cattle manure and loading on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunggun Won

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Along with increasing livestock products via intensive rearing, the accumulation of livestock manure has become a serious issue due to the fact that there is finite land for livestock manure recycling via composting. The nutrients from livestock manure accumulate on agricultural land and the excess disembogues into streams causing eutrophication. In order to systematically manage nutrient loading on agricultural land, quantifying the amount of nutrients according to their respective sources is very important. However, there is a lack of research concerning nutrient loss from livestock manure during composting or storage on farms. Therefore, in the present study we quantified the nutrients from dairy cattle manure that were imparted onto agricultural land. Methods Through investigation of 41 dairy farms, weight reduction and volatile solids (VS, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP changes of dairy cattle manure during the storage and composting periods were analyzed. In order to support the direct investigation and survey on site, the three cases of weight reduction during the storing and composting periods were developed according to i experiment, ii reference, and iii theoretical changes in phosphorus content (ΔP = 0. Results The data revealed the nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs of VS, TN, and TP on agricultural land were 1.48, 0.60, and 0.66, respectively. These values indicated that the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus was 40% and 34%, respectively, and that there was an increase of VS since bedding materials were mixed with excretion in the barn. Conclusion As result of nutrient-footprint analyses, the amounts of TN and TP particularly entered on arable land have been overestimated if applying the nutrient amount in fresh manure. The NLCs obtained in this study may assist in the development of a database to assess the accurate level of manure nutrient loading on soil and facilitate systematic nutrient management.

  18. Variability in the Water Footprint of Arable Crop Production across European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gobin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop growth and yield are affected by water use during the season: the green water footprint (WF accounts for rain water, the blue WF for irrigation and the grey WF for diluting agri-chemicals. We calibrated crop yield for FAO’s water balance model “Aquacrop” at field level. We collected weather, soil and crop inputs for 45 locations for the period 1992–2012. Calibrated model runs were conducted for wheat, barley, grain maize, oilseed rape, potato and sugar beet. The WF of cereals could be up to 20 times larger than the WF of tuber and root crops; the largest share was attributed to the green WF. The green and blue WF compared favourably with global benchmark values (R2 = 0.64–0.80; d = 0.91–0.95. The variability in the WF of arable crops across different regions in Europe is mainly due to variability in crop yield ( c v ¯ = 45% and to a lesser extent to variability in crop water use ( c v ¯ = 21%. The WF variability between countries ( c v ¯ = 14% is lower than the variability between seasons ( c v ¯ = 22% and between crops ( c v ¯ = 46%. Though modelled yields increased up to 50% under sprinkler irrigation, the water footprint still increased between 1% and 25%. Confronted with drainage and runoff, the grey WF tended to overestimate the contribution of nitrogen to the surface and groundwater. The results showed that the water footprint provides a measurable indicator that may support European water governance.

  19. An econometric analysis of changes in arable land utilization using multinomial logit model in Pinggu district, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueqing; McNamara, Paul; Wu, Yanfang; Dong, Yue

    2013-10-15

    Arable land in China has been decreasing as a result of rapid population growth and economic development as well as urban expansion, especially in developed regions around cities where quality farmland quickly disappears. This paper analyzed changes in arable land utilization during 1993-2008 in the Pinggu district, Beijing, China, developed a multinomial logit (MNL) model to determine spatial driving factors influencing arable land-use change, and simulated arable land transition probabilities. Land-use maps, as well as social-economic and geographical data were used in the study. The results indicated that arable land decreased significantly between 1993 and 2008. Lost arable land shifted into orchard, forestland, settlement, and transportation land. Significant differences existed for arable land transitions among different landform areas. Slope, elevation, population density, urbanization rate, distance to settlements, and distance to roadways were strong drivers influencing arable land transition to other uses. The MNL model was proved effective for predicting transition probabilities in land use from arable land to other land-use types, thus can be used for scenario analysis to develop land-use policies and land-management measures in this metropolitan area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SoilEffects - start characterization of the experimental soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun

    -14). The aim of the SoilEffects project is to identify potential risks and benefits for soil fertility when animal manure is anaerobically digested for biogas production. The field experiment was established on Tingvoll research farm in 2011. A biogas plant was built at this farm in 2010, to digest the manure...... in spring, no legumes are grown, and aboveground plant material is removed at harvest. This practice is intended to stress the maintenance of soil organic matter in the arable system, to possibly reveal clearer effects of the experimental treatments. Within each cropping system, five experimental treatments...... by ignition loss was 11.3 % in the grass and 6.6 % in the arable system. Analyzed by total-C measurements, the corresponding SOM values were 11.03 % and 5.97 %. In Norwegian soil, SOM values between 3 and 6 % are regarded as high humus contents (“moldrik”), whereas values between 6 and 12 % are regarded...

  1. The spectrum and occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soils from apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marjańska-Cichoń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum and occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in orchard soil and arable soil were evaluated using an "insect bait method". Soil samples taken in autumn and spring from sward, herbicides fallow and arable soil were baited with Galleria mellonella larvae. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill., Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize Brown et Smith were isolated from three species of orchards soil and adjacent arable soil. Infection levels of G. mellonella larvae were depended from species of soil . M. anisoopliae caused most frequent infections of bait insects in light loamy sand and P. fumosoroseus in alluvial silt and coarse sand. B. bassiana was dominated in alluvial silt. It was established that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana infected more larvae in autumn than in spring. In case of P. fumosoroseus an opposite tendency was observed. Generaly in arable soil and sward number of infected larvae was higher than other stands. In case of light loamy sand more infections of G. mellonella larvae were found in samples from herbicides fallow. Irrespective of soil type B. bassiana was the dominated species isolated from herbicides fallow, M. anisopliae from sward and P. fumosoroseus - from arable soil.

  2. Corporate Governance in the Swedish Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Palmberg, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the corporate governance structure among Swedish banks. Who controls the Swedish banks and what characteristics does the Swedish banking sector have? Issues related to corporate governance such as ownership structure, board of directors and control-enhancing mechanisms will be studied. The Swedish banking law, how Swedish banks handled the financial crises and government measures to deal with the financial crisis is also analyzed.

  3. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  4. Crop Condition Assessment with Adjusted NDVI Using the Uncropped Arable Land Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crop condition assessment in the early growing stage is essential for crop monitoring and crop yield prediction. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI-based method is employed to evaluate crop condition by inter-annual comparisons of both spatial variability (using NDVI images and seasonal dynamics (based on crop condition profiles. Since this type of method will generate false information if there are changes in crop rotation, cropping area or crop phenology, information on cropped/uncropped arable land is integrated to improve the accuracy of crop condition monitoring. The study proposes a new method to retrieve adjusted NDVI for cropped arable land during the growing season of winter crops by integrating 16-day composite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS reflectance data at 250-m resolution with a cropped and uncropped arable land map derived from the multi-temporal China Environmental Satellite (Huan Jing Satellite charge-coupled device (HJ-1 CCD images at 30-m resolution. Using the land map’s data on cropped and uncropped arable land, a pixel-based uncropped arable land ratio (UALR at 250-m resolution was generated. Next, the UALR-adjusted NDVI was produced by assuming that the MODIS reflectance value for each pixel is a linear mixed signal composed of the proportional reflectance of cropped and uncropped arable land. When UALR-adjusted NDVI data are used for crop condition assessment, results are expected to be more accurate, because: (i pixels with only uncropped arable land are not included in the assessment; and (ii the adjusted NDVI corrects for interannual variation in cropping area. On the provincial level, crop growing profiles based on the two kinds of NDVI data illustrate the difference between the regular and the adjusted NDVI, with the difference depending on the total area of uncropped arable land in the region. The results suggested that the proposed method can be used to improve the assessment of

  5. Innovation in Swedish Restaurant Franchises

    OpenAIRE

    Loikkanen, Jenny; Mazura, Jekaterina; Schrader, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Background – The franchising industry in Sweden has experienced a vast growth in the recent years, and it makes up a significant part of the Swedish economy. The restaurant industry accounts for a large amount of the Swedish franchises. Due to the dynamic business environment today, companies need to increasingly strive for improvement in order to sustain their competitive advantage and to enhance their performance. Innovation may be required, and franchises are no exceptions. However, due to...

  6. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced -Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Charles, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Non-inversion tillage with tine or disc based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use may hinder further expansion of reduc...

  7. Sensitive indicators of side-effects of pesticides on the epigeal fauna of Arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible impact of pesticides on epigeal arthropods in arable land. It was also envisaged to develop a predictive model for possible undesirable effects of pesticides on the epigeal arthropod fauna using an indicator species from

  8. Projekt OK-NET-ARABLE : mahetootmiseks vajalik teave tuleb tuua praktikuteni / Airi Vetemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetemaa, Airi

    2015-01-01

    OK-NET-ARABLE, mida võiks tõlkida kui põllukultuuride kasvatuse alast maheteabe võrgustikku, on ELi teadusrahastu Horisont 2020 projekt, mille eesmärk on vahendada innovaatilist ja traditsioonilist teavet mahetootjate, nõustajate ja teadlaste vahel, suurendamaks mahepõllukultuuride produktiivsust ja kvaliteeti üle Euroopa

  9. Analysing Production Technology and Risk in Organic and Conventional Dutch Arable Farming using Panel Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Chavez Clemente, M.D.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper compares the production technology and production risk of organic and conventional arable farms in the Netherlands. Just–Pope production functions that explicitly account for output variability are estimated using panel data of Dutch organic and conventional farms. Prior

  10. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  11. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  12. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions in the life-cycle of carrots and tomatoes. Methods, data and results from a study of the types and amounts of carrots and tomatoes consumed in Sweden. With arable land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika

    1997-03-01

    Methods, data and results from an assessment of the arable land use and some greenhouse gas emissions during part of the life-cycle of the consumed carrots and tomatoes in Sweden during 1992-1993 are presented in the report. The life-cycle was delineated to transportation, storage, farm production and production of fertilizers. Carrots from six countries and tomatoes from four countries were analyzed. The study is reported with full transparency. The results are presented as the use of arable land (in m{sup 2}) and as the amount of greenhouse gas emissions (in g CO{sub 2} equivalents) required to sustain current Swedish consumption patterns of carrots and tomatoes. Emissions per kg of consumed tomato were 10 times higher than for carrots. Emissions from carrots were lowest when they were produced within or close to Sweden, while the opposite was the case for tomatoes. The key issues in the life-cycle of the analyzed carrots and tomatoes are identified and discussed. The general conclusions are that storage may be a key issue for vegetables with a long durability and adapted to a northern European climate. For vegetables with short durability, the key issue may be transportation if they are not adapted to a northern European climate but still cultivated in the open. The key issue for vegetables with a short durability may be energy requirements during farm production if the vegetables are not adapted to a northern European climate and therefore cultivated under glass. 3 figs, 57 tabs

  14. Potential conflict between the coal and arable land resources in australia: A case for corporate responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkamp, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    Background information on possible surface-coal-mining operations in arable agricultural areas in Australia is provided. The major co-occurrence of the coal and arable land resources was in the Darling Downs region of Queensland and the Liverpool Plains region of New South Wales; however, coal development will probably only occur in the former region over the next decade. Analysis of the situation in the Darling Downs region, which consists of 11 Shires, found five companies conducting prefeasibility projects for surface-coal development and the size of exploration areas concerned far exceeding final mined-land disturbance estimates. Most of the land included in the prefeasibility studies was classified as “arable with moderate crop restrictions requiring intensive management” (classes II IV). The total area of land that may be disturbed at some time in the future was less than 2% of the arable land in the Shires concerned. Project mutual exclusivity and ongoing rehabilitation of disturbed areas further reduce arable land out of production at any one time. It is suggested that, if self-regulation by the coal industry in Australia on rehabilitation issues is to remain a viable option in these areas, an understanding between the corporate and public sectors on the extent and limitations of its responsibilities must be obtained. The current development of a National Conservation Strategy for Australia should assist this to proceed. Research on various rehabilitation issues may be required prior to project commitment to ensure the responsibilities identified are realizable. Integrative problem-solving, incorporating audit procedures, was suggested as a suitable method to achieve these aims and corporate responsiveness was seen as a necessary first step.

  15. Fluxes of total reactive atmospheric nitrogen (ΣNr using eddy covariance above arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe R. Flechard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The amount and timing of reactive nitrogen exchange between agricultural land and the atmosphere play a key role in evaluating ecosystem productivity and in addressing atmospheric nitrogen budgets and transport. With the recent development of the Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter (TRANC apparatus, a methodology has been provided for continuous measurement of the sum of all airborne nitrogen containing species (ΣNr allowing for diurnal and seasonal investigations. We present ΣNr concentration and net flux data from an 11-month field campaign conducted at an arable field using the TRANC system within an eddy-covariance setup. Clear diurnal patterns of both ΣNr concentrations and fluxes with significant dependencies on atmospheric stability and stomatal regulation were observed in the growing season. TRANC data were compared with monthly-averaged concentrations and dry deposition rates of selected Nr compounds using DELTA denuders and ensemble-averages of four inferential models, respectively. Similar seasonal trends were found for Nr concentrations from DELTA and TRANC measurements with values from the latter being considerably higher than those of DELTA denuders. The variability of the difference between these two systems could be explained by seasonally changing source locations of NOx contributions to the TRANC signal. As soil and vegetation Nr emissions to the atmosphere are generally not treated by inferential (dry deposition models, TRANC data showed lower monthly deposition rates than those obtained from inferential modelling. Net ΣNr exchange was almost neutral (~0.072 kg N ha−1 at the end of the observation period. However, during most parts of the year, slight but permanent net ΣNr deposition was found. Our measurements demonstrate that fertilizer addition followed by substantial ΣNr emissions plays a crucial role in a site's annual atmospheric nitrogen budget. As long-term Nr measurements with high temporal

  16. Comparison of energetic productivity in differently renaturalized arable land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskaite-Jadzevice, Asta; Marcinkonis, Saulius; Baksiene, Eugenija

    2014-05-01

    Soil renaturalization or ecological recovery has been studied from local to global scales. On a global scale - it's one of the ways of carbon fixation, preservation of natural diversity, locally - renaturalization processes help to solve problems of damaged (eroded and polluted) and infertile soils areas. Efficient land use can improve soil structure and therefore be attractive as a renewable energy resource that can encourage thermal energy, fuel production and installation of new technologies. Soil renaturalization is very important not only in that it helps to decrease the impact on the environment, but it can produce higher energy value of biomass at a lower cost. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare different renaturalization methods through analyzing biomass yields and chemical composition (pine afforested, fallowing, manage grassland - Alfalfa and cropland) carried out during almost two decades (1995 - 2012). The four stationary experimental sites were set up in 1995 in Vilnius district, Lithuania. Common sandy soils prevail in the region, and the agronomic value of soil is very low. All sites were arranged in one row (the divided sides is 400 m2 each). Managed grassland and cropland areas were subdivided into fertilized and unfertilized subplots. The size of the subdivided plots was 200 m2 each. Gross productions (straw, grain, hay, pine biomass) was recalculated into total energy amount (in the calculationswere used K. Neringa and R. Siman equation) expressed in MJ and the site's productivity data compared. Gross productions total energy amount of pine afforestration was recalculated into trees volume using diameter (DBH), height and density of pines. Observed data suggest that the difference between fertilized and unfertilized plots in the cropland site was on average 1.62 times and made up an average of 20 339 MJ y-1 ha-1. The grassland site was characterized by higher productivity and a bigger difference of total energy between fertilized

  17. Mineralization of nitrogen by protozoan activity in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuikman, P.

    1990-01-01

    In general, more than 95% of the nitrogen in soils is present in organic forms. This nitrogen is not directly available to plants unless microbial decomposition takes place with the release of mineral nitrogen. In modern agriculture, nitrogen is often applied to arable soils as a fertilizer

  18. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system.

  19. The Swedish Energy Market 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The Swedish Energy Market, 2005 is an annual publication that presents information and statistics on the network based energy markets in Sweden, i.e. the markets for electricity, natural gas and district heating. It also provides an overview of the issues that have arisen on these markets during the second half of 2004 and the first half of 2005. Considerable work is being carried out in the EU on creating a single market for electricity and natural gas. This publication therefore describes expansion of the Swedish market towards a Nordic and a European market. The publication normally includes a theme chapter, describing some event of particular interest for the Swedish energy market during the year. This year, the theme chapter is devoted to the Storm Gudrun, which struck the south of the country at the beginning of January, and its effects on electricity supply throughout the country. The chapter is based on the report submitted to the Government by the Energy Markets Inspectorate in the spring of 2005, and also includes a summary of the Inspectorate's proposals for measures to improve the security of electricity transmission. Energy in Sweden, which is another of the Swedish Energy Agency's annual publications, provides information and statistics on the development of the entire Swedish energy system

  20. Contents and composition of organic matter in subsurface soils affected by land use and soil mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Kaiser, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Land use and mineralogy affect the ability of surface as well as subsurface soils to sequester organic carbon and their contribution to mitigate the greenhouse effect. This study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of land use (i.e., arable and forest) and soil mineralogy on contents and composition of soil organic matter (SOM) from subsurface soils. Seven soils different in mineralogy (Albic and Haplic Luvisol, Colluvic and Haplic Regosol, Haplic and Vertic Cambisol, Haplic Stagnosol) were selected within Germany. Soil samples were taken from forest and adjacent arable sites. First, particulate and water soluble organic matter were separated from the subsurface soil samples. From the remaining solid residues the OM(PY) fractions were separated, analyzed for its OC content (OCPY) and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. For the arable subsurface soils multiple regression analyses indicate significant positive relationships between the soil organic carbon contents and the contents of i) exchangeable Ca and oxalate soluble Fe, and Alox contents. Further for the neutral arable subsurface soils the contents OCPY weighted by its C=O contents were found to be related to the contents of Ca indicating interactions between OM(PY) and Ca cations. For the forest subsurface soils (pH <5) the OCPY contents were positively related with the contents of Na-pyrophosphate soluble Fe and Al. For the acidic forest subsurface soils such findings indicate interactions between OM(PY) and Fe3+ and Al3+ cations. The effects of land use and soil mineralogy on contents and composition of SOM and OM(PY) will be discussed.

  1. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on animal husbandry and production, from a Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    About 20% of the Swedish land area was considerably contaminated by radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986. However, less than 10% of the arable land was contaminated. The heavy contamination was closely correlated with the amount of rain received during the first days of May 1986. Immediate restrictions on grazing limited the early uptake of contaminants in animal products. Changes in management of animals, especially sheep, goats, and reindeer in the contaminated areas have effectively reduced the transfer of radionuclides to human beings. One important factor was the possibility of obtaining uncontaminated feeds from unaffected parts of the country. The direct costs during the first 2 years after the accident were approximately +10 million for analyses and +90 million for compensation to farmers for condemned products (milk, mutton, and reindeer meat) and reimbursement for purchase of uncontaminated feeds from other parts of the country

  2. Effect of land use on some soil chemical properties and P fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use directly or indirectly affects the soil chemical properties and phosphorus fractions. Two different land use types were studied. Soil chemical analysis and phosphorus fractionation of the soils was then done and the results were highly significant (p<0.001). Total C, N and P were low under the arable land use as ...

  3. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring

  4. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PESTICIDE TRANSFORMATION RATE AND MICROBIAL RESPIRATION ACTIVITY IN SOIL OF DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil sandy loam soils (ultisol) from forest (coniferous and deciduous), pasture, and arable ecosystems were sampled (0-10 cm) in the vicinity of Athens, GA, USA. Soil from each site was subdivided into three portions, consisting of untreated soil (control) as well as live and s...

  5. Plant adaptation to acid soils: the molecular basis for crop aluminum resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity on acid soils is a significant limitation to crop production worldwide, as approximately 50% of the world’s potentially arable soils are acidic. Because acid soils are such an important constraint to agriculture, understanding the mechanisms and genes conferring resistance to ...

  6. Obstetric Thromboprophylaxis: The Swedish Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G. Lindqvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric thromboprophylaxis is difficult. Since 10 years Swedish obstetricians have used a combined risk estimation model and recommendations concerning to whom, at what dose, when, and for how long thromboprophylaxis is to be administrated based on a weighted risk score. In this paper we describe the background and validation of the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis in women with moderate-high risk of VTE, that is, at similar or higher risk as the antepartum risk among women with history of thrombosis. The risk score is based on major risk factors (i.e., 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolism. We present data on the efficacy of the model, the cost-effectiveness, and the lifestyle advice that is given. We believe that the Swedish guidelines for obstetric thromboprophylaxis aid clinicians in providing women at increased risk of VTE with effective and appropriate thromboprophylaxis, thus avoiding both over- and under-treatment.

  7. Coffee farming and soil management in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nzeyimana, I.; Hartemink, A.E.; Graaff, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is the cornerstone of Rwanda's economy. The authors review how the sector has changed and specifically what soil management practices are now being implemented to enhance coffee production. Coffee covers around 2.3% of total cultivated arable land, and is grown mainly by smallholder

  8. Sustainable Soil Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Evgrafova, Alevtina; Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This report provides an overview on new technologies for integrate sustainable and resilient management practices in arable ecosystems for advanced farmers, consultants, NGOs and policy makers. By following sustainable soil...... and soil quality in short- and long-terms. This report also illustrates the importance to combine a system approach for plant production by assessing field readiness, managing in-field traffic management, implementing the sitespecific controlled as well as sensor-controlled seedbed preparation, seeding...

  9. Environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Finnveden, Goeran; Wadeskog, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture, including upstream and downstream effects. The analysis is based on environmentally extended input-output analysis, but it is also supplemented with data from other sources. The analysis shows that direct effects by the Swedish agriculture are the most important, while indirect effects from other sources including mobile and impacts abroad are also considerable. The most important impacts from Swedish agriculture according to the analysis are eutrophication, global warming and resource use. The agricultural sector produces a large share of the Swedish emissions causing both global warming and eutrophication. In addition, current agricultural practice causes problems with loss of biodiversity. The most important actors in the sector are agriculture itself, but also all actors using fossil fuels: primarily the transport sector and the energy sector. In addition, consumers are important since they can influence the composition of agricultural production. The analysis shows the importance of including upstream and downstream effects when analysing the environmental impacts from a sector. (author)

  10. The assessment of water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes above arable crops - a comparison of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaaf, S.; Daemmgen, U.; Burkart, S. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Inst. of Agroecology, Braunschweig (Germany); Gruenhage, L. [Justus-Liebig-Univ., Inst. for Plant Ecology, Giessen (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Vertical fluxes of water vapour and carbon dioxide obtained from gradient, eddy covariance (closed and open path systems) and chamber measurements above arable crops were compared with the directly measured energy balance and the harvested net biomass carbon. The gradient and chamber measurements were in the correct order of magnitude, whereas the closed path eddy covariance system showed unacceptably small fluxes. Correction methods based on power spectra analysis yielded increased fluxes. However, the energy balance could not be closed satisfactorily. The application of the open path system proved to be successful. The SVAT model PLATIN which had been adapted to various arable crops was able to depict the components of the energy balance adequately. Net carbon fluxes determined with the corrected closed path data sets, chamber, and SVAT model equal those of the harvested carbon. (orig.)

  11. Soil processes as a guiding principle in precision agriculture : a case study for Dutch arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alphen, van J.

    2002-01-01

    The fact that conventional agricultural practices have many detrimental effects is widely acknowledged (Rabbinge, 1997). To mitigate these effects, Dutch policy makers have implemented environmental laws that are essentially based on characteristic indicators for groundwater quality. This

  12. The arable farmer as the assessor of within-field soil variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijting, S.; Bruin, de S.; Bregt, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Feasible, fast and reliable methods of mapping within-field variation are required for precision agriculture. Within precision agriculture research much emphasis has been put on technology, whereas the knowledge that farmers have and ways to explore it have received little attention. This research

  13. Earthworm assemblages in an ecotone between forest and arable field and their relations with soil properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeithaml, J.; Pižl, Václav; Sklenička, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 8 (2009), s. 922-927 ISSN 0100-204X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : edge effect * landscape mosaic * Lumbricidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2009

  14. Possible changes to arable crop yields by 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, Keith W; Qi, Aiming; Ober, Eric S

    2010-09-27

    By 2050, the world population is likely to be 9.1 billion, the CO(2) concentration 550 ppm, the ozone concentration 60 ppb and the climate warmer by ca 2 degrees C. In these conditions, what contribution can increased crop yield make to feeding the world? CO(2) enrichment is likely to increase yields of most crops by approximately 13 per cent but leave yields of C4 crops unchanged. It will tend to reduce water consumption by all crops, but this effect will be approximately cancelled out by the effect of the increased temperature on evaporation rates. In many places increased temperature will provide opportunities to manipulate agronomy to improve crop performance. Ozone concentration increases will decrease yields by 5 per cent or more. Plant breeders will probably be able to increase yields considerably in the CO(2)-enriched environment of the future, and most weeds and airborne pests and diseases should remain controllable, so long as policy changes do not remove too many types of crop-protection chemicals. However, soil-borne pathogens are likely to be an increasing problem when warmer weather will increase their multiplication rates; control is likely to need a transgenic approach to breeding for resistance. There is a large gap between achievable yields and those delivered by farmers, even in the most efficient agricultural systems. A gap is inevitable, but there are large differences between farmers, even between those who have used the same resources. If this gap is closed and accompanied by improvements in potential yields then there is a good prospect that crop production will increase by approximately 50 per cent or more by 2050 without extra land. However, the demands for land to produce bio-energy have not been factored into these calculations.

  15. [Characteristics of nutrient loss by runoff in sloping arable land of yellow-brown under different rainfall intensities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Liu, De-Fu; Song, Lin-Xu; Cui, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Gei

    2013-06-01

    In order to investigate the loss characteristics of N and P through surface flow and interflow under different rainfall intensities, a field experiment was conducted on the sloping arable land covered by typical yellow-brown soils inXiangxi River watershed by artificial rainfall. The results showed that the discharge of surface flow, total runoff and sediment increased with the increase of rain intensity, while the interflow was negatively correlated with rain intensity under the same total rainfall. TN, DN and DP were all flushed at the very beginning in surface flow underdifferent rainfall intensities; TP fluctuated and kept consistent in surface flow without obvious downtrend. While TN, DN and DP in interflow kept relatively stable in the whole runoff process, TP was high at the early stage, then rapidly decreased with time and kept steady finally. P was directly influenced by rainfall intensity, its concentration in the runoff increased with the increase of the rainfall intensity, the average concentration of N and P both exceeded the threshold of eutrophication of freshwater. The higher the amount of P loss was, the higher the rain intensity. The change of N loss was the opposite. The contribution rate of TN loss carried by surface flow increased from 36.5% to 57.6% with the increase of rainfall intensity, but surface flow was the primary form of P loss which contributed above 90.0%. Thus, it is crucial to control interflow in order to reduce N loss. In addition, measures should be taken to effectively manage soil erosion to mitigate P loss. The proportion of dissolved nitrogen in surface flow elevated with the decrease of rainfall intensity, but in interflow, dissolved form was predominant. P was exported mainly in the form of particulate under different rainfall intensities and runoff conditions.

  16. Variability in the Water Footprint of Arable Crop Production across European Regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gobin, A.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Eitzinger, Josef; Trnka, Miroslav; Hlavinka, Petr; Takáč, J.; Kroes, J.; Ventrella, D.; Dalla Marta, A.; Deelstra, J.; Lalic, B.; Nejedlík, P.; Orlandini, S.; Peltonen-Sainio, P.; Rajala, A.; Saue, T.; Saylan, L.; Stricevic, R.; Vucetic, V.; Zoumides, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 93. ISSN 2073-4441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13030 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : simulate yield response * climate - change * virtual water * impact * green * model * blue * agriculture * irrigation * reduction * water footprint * arable crops * cereals * Europe * crop water use * yield Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Water resources Impact factor: 1.832, year: 2016

  17. Changes in the Bacterial Community Structure of Remediated Anthracene-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Bello-López, Juan M.; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Rodríguez-Valentín, Analine; Luna-Guido, Marco L.; Dendooven, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Mixing soil or adding earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826)) accelerated the removal of anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, from a pasture and an arable soil, while a non-ionic surfactant (Surfynol® 485) inhibited the removal of the contaminant compared to the untreated soil. It was unclear if the treatments affected the soil bacterial community and consequently the removal of anthracene. Therefore, the bacterial community structure was monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the pasture and arable soil mixed weekly, amended with Surfynol® 485, E. fetida or organic material that served as food for the earthworms for 56 days. In both soils, the removal of anthracene was in the order: mixing soil weekly (100%) > earthworms applied (92%) > organic material applied (77%) > untreated soil (57%) > surfactant applied (34%) after 56 days. There was no clear link between removal of anthracene from soil and changes in the bacterial community structure. On the one hand, application of earthworms removed most of the contaminant from the arable soil and had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes, and an increase in that of the Proteobacteria compared to the unamended soil. Mixing the soil weekly removed all anthracene from the arable soil, but had little or no effect on the bacterial community structure. On the other hand, application of the surfactant inhibited the removal of anthracene from the arable soil compared to the untreated soil, but had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of Cytophagia (Bacteroidetes), Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes and an increase in that of the Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes) and Proteobacteria. Additionally, the removal of anthracene was similar in the different treatments of both the arable and pasture soil, but the

  18. Changes in the Bacterial Community Structure of Remediated Anthracene-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Delgado-Balbuena

    Full Text Available Mixing soil or adding earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 accelerated the removal of anthracene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, from a pasture and an arable soil, while a non-ionic surfactant (Surfynol® 485 inhibited the removal of the contaminant compared to the untreated soil. It was unclear if the treatments affected the soil bacterial community and consequently the removal of anthracene. Therefore, the bacterial community structure was monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in the pasture and arable soil mixed weekly, amended with Surfynol® 485, E. fetida or organic material that served as food for the earthworms for 56 days. In both soils, the removal of anthracene was in the order: mixing soil weekly (100% > earthworms applied (92% > organic material applied (77% > untreated soil (57% > surfactant applied (34% after 56 days. There was no clear link between removal of anthracene from soil and changes in the bacterial community structure. On the one hand, application of earthworms removed most of the contaminant from the arable soil and had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of the Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Gemmatimonadetes, and an increase in that of the Proteobacteria compared to the unamended soil. Mixing the soil weekly removed all anthracene from the arable soil, but had little or no effect on the bacterial community structure. On the other hand, application of the surfactant inhibited the removal of anthracene from the arable soil compared to the untreated soil, but had a strong effect on the bacterial community structure, i.e. a decrease in the relative abundance of Cytophagia (Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes and an increase in that of the Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Additionally, the removal of anthracene was similar in the different treatments of both the arable and pasture soil

  19. Soil structural quality assessment for soil protection regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Boivin, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality assessment is rapidly developing worldwide, though mostly focused on the monitoring of arable land and soil fertility. Soil protection regulations assess soil quality differently, focusing on priority pollutants and threshold values. The soil physical properties are weakly considered, due to lack of consensus and experimental difficulties faced with characterization. Non-disputable, easy to perform and inexpensive methods should be available for environmental regulation to be applied, which is unfortunately not the case. As a consequence, quantitative soil physical protection regulation is not applied, and inexpensive soil physical quality indicators for arable soil management are not available. Overcoming these limitations was the objective of a research project funded by the Swiss federal office for environment (FOEN). The main results and the perspectives of application are given in this presentation. A first step of the research was to characterize soils in a good structural state (reference soils) under different land use. The structural quality was assessed with field expertise and Visual Evaluation of the Soil Structure (VESS), and the physical properties were assessed with Shrinkage analysis. The relationships between the physical properties and the soil constituents were linear and highly determined. They represent the reference properties of the corresponding soils. In a second step, the properties of physically degraded soils were analysed and compared to the reference properties. This allowed defining the most discriminant parameters departing the different structure qualities and their threshold limits. Equivalent properties corresponding to these parameters but inexpensive and easy to determine were defined and tested. More than 90% of the samples were correctly classed with this method, which meets, therefore, the requirements for practical application in regulation. Moreover, result-oriented agri-environmental schemes for soil quality

  20. Swedish mines. Underground exploitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1960-01-01

    Between 1949 and 1957, 10 engineers of the Mining research and exploitation department of the CEA visited 17 Swedish mines during 5 field trips. This paper presents a compilation of the information gathered during these field trips concerning the different underground mining techniques used in Swedish iron mines: mining with backfilling (Central Sweden and Boliden mines); mining without backfilling (mines of the polar circle area). The following techniques are described successively: pillar drawing and backfilled slices (Ammeberg, Falun, Garpenberg, Boliden group), sub-level pillar drawing (Grangesberg, Bloettberget, Haeksberg), empty room and sub-level pillar drawing (Bodas, Haksberg, Stripa, Bastkarn), storage chamber pillar drawing (Bodas, Haeksberg, Bastkarn), and pillar drawing by block caving (ldkerberget). Reprint of a paper published in Revue de l'Industrie Minerale, vol. 41, no. 12, 1959 [fr

  1. The sustainable arable land use pattern under the tradeoff of agricultural production, economic development, and ecological protection-an analysis of Dongting Lake basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guanyi; Liu, Liming; Jiang, Xilong

    2017-11-01

    To find a solution regarding sustainable arable land use pattern in the important grain-producing area during the rapid urbanization process, this study combined agricultural production, locational condition, and ecological protection to determine optimal arable land use. Dongting Lake basin, one of the major grain producing areas in China, was chosen as the study area. The analysis of land use transition, the calculation of arable land barycenter, the landscape indices of arable land patches, and the comprehensive evaluation of arable land quality(productivity, economic location, and ecological condition) were adopted in this study. The results showed that (1) in 1990-2000, the arable land increased by 11.77%, and the transformation between arable land and other land use types actively occurred; in 2000-2010, the arable land decreased by 0.71%, and more ecological area (forestland, grassland, and water area) were disturbed and transferred into arable land; (2) urban expansion of the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan city cluster (the major economy center of this area) induced the northward movement of the arable land barycenter; (3) the landscape fragmentation and decentralization degree of arable land patches increased during 1990-2010; (4) potential high-quality arable land is located in the zonal area around Dongting Lake, which contains the Li County, Linli County, Jinshi County, Taoyuan County, Taojiang County, Ningxiang County, Xiangxiang County, Shaoshan County, Miluo County, and Zhuzhou County. The inferior low-quality arable land is located in the northwestern Wuling mountainous area, the southeastern hilly area, and the densely populated big cities and their surrounding area. In the optimized arable land use pattern, the high-quality land should be intensively used, and the low-quality arable land should be reduced used or prohibitively used. What is more, it is necessary to quit the arable land away from the surrounding area of cities appropriately, in order to

  2. Present-Day Influence of English on Swedish as Found in Swedish Job Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ben E.

    1990-01-01

    A brief analysis of job advertisements in Swedish newspapers notes the increasing trend toward the use of English rather than Swedish words for certain terms, attributing such use to the wish to show an international labor perspective. (five references) (CB)

  3. The Swedish satellite project Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1990-01-01

    The Swedish satellite project Viking is described and related to earlier missions. Some new operational characteristics are discussed, including the real-time data analysis campaigns that were an important part of the project. Some areas of important scientific impact of the project are also described. Viking was specially designed and equipped for investigation of plasma physical acceleration and other processes in the transition region between hot and cold plasma on auroral latitude magnetic field lines

  4. Swedish minister rebuilds scientists' trust

    CERN Multimedia

    Sylwan, P

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Ostros, Sweden's new science minister is aiming to improve links with the science community, severely strained during the tenure of Carl Tham. Significantly, he confirmed that he will not be making any further changes to the managment of the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. He also announced a 5 per cent increase in government funding for science which will be used to strengthen basic research and education (1 page).

  5. Innovation Management in Swedish Municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Wihlman, Thomas; Hoppe, Magnus; Wihlman, Ulla; Sandmark, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Research on public sector innovation is still limited, and increased knowledge of innovation processes is needed. This article is a based on a study of the implementation of innovation policies in Swedish municipalities, and gives a first-hand, empirical view of some of the complexities of innovation in the public sector. The study took place in four municipalities in central Sweden. The municipalities varied in size and organisational forms. Interviews and policy documents were used for data...

  6. Swedish earthquakes and acceleration probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, R.

    1979-03-01

    A method to assign probabilities to ground accelerations for Swedish sites is described. As hardly any nearfield instrumental data is available we are left with the problem of interpreting macroseismic data in terms of acceleration. By theoretical wave propagation computations the relation between seismic strength of the earthquake, focal depth, distance and ground accelerations are calculated. We found that most Swedish earthquake of the area, the 1904 earthquake 100 km south of Oslo, is an exception and probably had a focal depth exceeding 25 km. For the nuclear power plant sites an annual probability of 10 -5 has been proposed as interesting. This probability gives ground accelerations in the range 5-20 % for the sites. This acceleration is for a free bedrock site. For consistency all acceleration results in this study are given for bedrock sites. When applicating our model to the 1904 earthquake and assuming the focal zone to be in the lower crust we get the epicentral acceleration of this earthquake to be 5-15 % g. The results above are based on an analyses of macrosismic data as relevant instrumental data is lacking. However, the macroseismic acceleration model deduced in this study gives epicentral ground acceleration of small Swedish earthquakes in agreement with existent distant instrumental data. (author)

  7. Energy efficiency in Swedish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Lundgren, Tommy; Zhou, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO_2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO_2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We use DEA to estimate firm-level energy efficiency in Swedish industry. • We examine impacts of climate and energy policies on energy efficiency. • The analyzed policies are Swedish carbon and energy taxes and the EU ETS. • Carbon tax and EU ETS did not have significant influences on energy efficiency. • The energy tax had a positive relation with energy efficiency.

  8. New Swedish environmental and sustainable education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Öhman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Education & Democracy presents examples froma new generation of Swedish research on environmental and sustainability education and thereby complement the picture of the current Swedish environmental and sustainability education research outlined in the recent Danish-Swedish special issue of Environmental EducationResearch (Vol 16, No 1 and the anthology Democracy and Values inEducation for Sustainable Development – Contributions from Swedish Research (Öhman 2008. All the contributors to this issue are associatedwith the Graduate School in Education and Sustainable Development (GRESD, either as PhD students or as supervisors.

  9. Assessment of Relationships between Earthworms and Soil Abiotic and Biotic Factors as a Tool in Sustainable Agricultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Kanianska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are a major component of soil fauna communities. They influence soil chemical, biological, and physical processes and vice versa, their abundance and diversity are influenced by natural characteristics or land management practices. There is need to establish their characteristics and relations. In this study earthworm density (ED, body biomass (EB, and diversity in relation to land use (arable land—AL, permanent grasslands—PG, management, and selected abiotic (soil chemical, physical, climate related and biotic (arthropod density and biomass, ground beetle density, carabid density indicators were analysed at seven different study sites in Slovakia. On average, the density of earthworms was nearly twice as high in PG compared to AL. Among five soil types used as arable land, Fluvisols created the most suitable conditions for earthworm abundance and biomass. We recorded a significant correlation between ED, EB and soil moisture in arable land. In permanent grasslands, the main climate related factor was soil temperature. Relationships between earthworms and some chemical properties (pH, available nutrients were observed only in arable land. Our findings indicate trophic interaction between earthworms and carabids in organically managed arable land. Comprehensive assessment of observed relationships can help in earthworm management to achieve sustainable agricultural systems.

  10. Density fractions of soil macroorganic matter and microbial biomass as predictors of C and N mineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, J.

    1995-01-01

    Macroorganic matter of arable soils which had received different inputs of organic residues for 25 y and grassland soils that had been under grass for at least 8 y was fractionated into light, intermediate and heavy fractions using a stable silica suspension as heavy liquid. For all residue

  11. Earthworms, soil-aggregates and organic matter decomposition in agro-ecosystems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The relationships between earthworm populations, soil aggregate stability and soil organic matter dynamics were studied at an experimental farm in The Netherlands.

    Arable land in general is not favourable for earthworm growth. In the Lovinkhoeve fields under conventional management

  12. Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water Conservation in Konso, Wolaita and Wello, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshah, T.

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is an old problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mountainous and undulating landscapes, coupled with the expansion of arable farming on steep areas due to population pressure have aggravated the soil erosion problem in the country. Prompted by one of the great famines in the

  13. Changes in the Structure of a Nigerian Soil under Different Land Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Olalekan Ogunwole

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of soil physical quality (SPQ and pore size distribution (PSD can assist understanding of how changes in land management practices influence dynamics of soil structure, and this understanding could greatly improve the predictability of soil physical behavior and crop yield. The objectives of this study were to measure the SPQ index under two different land management practices (the continuous arable cropping system and natural bush fallow system, and contrast the effects of these practices on the structure of PSD using soil water retention data. Soil water retention curves obtained from a pressure chamber were fitted to van Genuchten’s equation, setting m (= 1-1/n. Although values for soil bulk density were high, soils under the continuous arable cropping system had good SPQ, and maintained the capacity to support root development. However, soils under the natural bush fallow system had a worse structure than the continuous arable system, with restrictions in available water capacity. These two management systems had different PSDs. Results showed the inferiority of the natural bush fallow system with no traffic restriction (which is the common practice in relation to the continuous arable cropping system in regard to physical quality and structure.

  14. Earthworms (Aporrectodea spp.; Lumbricidae) cause soil structure problems in young Dutch polders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Rozen, van K.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of earthworms in relation to clay soil structure problems in arable fields in the Flevopolders (the Netherlands) was studied. Recently, farmers in this area have had difficulty in harvesting potatoes in predominantly wet years. After a dry period, soil particles in the top layer of the

  15. Relative abundance and activity of melanized hyphae in different soil ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, A.; Bloem, J.; Mulder, C.H.; De Boer, W.

    2009-01-01

    Here we report on the frequency of melanized fungal hyphae in 323 soils, covering different land use types. The proportion of total hyphae that was melanized averaged 61%. Arable fields with loamy sand, heathlands and city parks on sandy soils had the highest percentage of melanized hyphae. In

  16. Prospects for arable farm uptake of Short Rotation Coppice willow and miscanthus in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glithero, Neryssa J; Wilson, Paul; Ramsden, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    Biomass will play a role in the UK meeting EU targets on renewable energy use. Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and miscanthus are potential biomass feedstocks; however, supply will rely on farmer willingness to grow these crops. Despite attractive crop establishment grants for dedicated energy crops (DECs) in the UK, uptake remains low. Drawing on results from an on-farm survey with 244 English arable farmers, 81.6% (87.7%) of farmers would not consider growing miscanthus (SRC), while respectively, 17.2% (11.9%) would consider growing and 1.2% (0.4%) were currently growing these crops. Farmer age, location, land ownership, farm type, farm size and farmer education level were not significant factors in determining acceptance of DECs. The main reasons cited for not growing DECs were impacts on land quality, lack of appropriate machinery, commitment of land for a long period of time, time to financial return and profitability. Reasons cited for willingness to grow DECs included land quality, ease of crop management, commitment of land for a long period of time, and profitability. Farmers cited a range of 'moral' (e.g. should not be using land for energy crops when there is a shortage of food), land quality, knowledge, profit and current farming practice comments as reasons for not growing DECs, while those willing to grow DECs cited interest in renewable energy, willingness to consider new crops, and low labour needs as rationale for their interest. Farm business objectives indicated that maximising profit and quality of life were most frequently cited as very important objectives. Previous research in the UK indicates that farmers in arable areas are unlikely to convert large areas of land to DECs, even where these farmers have an interest and willingness to grow them. Assuming that those farmers interested in growing DECs converted 9.29% (average percentage of arable land set-aside between 1996 and 2005) of their utilised agricultural area to these crops, 50,700

  17. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...... N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing...

  18. Assessing biodiversity in arable farmland by means of indicators: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockstaller Christian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining biodiversity is one of the key issues of sustainable agriculture. It is now stated that innovation to enhance biodiversity in arable land requires operational assessment tools like indicators. The goal of the article is to provide an overview of available indicators. Besides measured indicators and simple indicators based on management data, we focus on predictive indicators derived from operational models and adapted to ex ante assessment in innovative cropping design. The possibility of use for each indicator type is discussed.

  19. To be or not to be - common and endangered arable weed species in the face of Global Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rühl, Anna Theresa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arable weeds are one of the most endangered species groups in Europe. Modern agriculture and intensive land use management with the application of herbicides and fertilisers, enhanced seed cleaning, simplified crop rotations and abandonment of marginal arable sites are the main causes for the continuous decline of arable weeds. However, besides these changes in land use also global climate change may challenge the adaptability of arable weeds. Most scientists agree that the frequency of extreme meteorological conditions will increase in the future. As a consequence, plants of Central Europe will be subject to higher temperatures and reduced water supply due to longer intervals without precipitation during the growing season. We exposed seeds of five common and five endangered arable weed species to different temperatures and water potentials to study i how this plant group responds to higher temperatures and lower moisture during germination in general and ii whether there is a significant difference between common and endangered species in this respect.

  20. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  1. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  2. Stocks of organic carbon in Estonian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõlli, Raimo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon (SOC stocks (Mg ha–1 ofautomorphic mineral (9 soil groups, hydromorphic mineral (7, and lowland organic soils (4 are given for the soil cover or solum layer as a whole and also for its epipedon (topsoil layer. The SOC stocks for forest, arable lands, and grasslands and for the entire Estonian soil cover were calculated on the basis of the mean SOC stock and distribution area of the respective soil type. In the Estonian soil cover (42 400 km2, a total of 593.8 ± 36.9 Tg of SOC is retained, with 64.9% (385.3 ± 27.5 Tg in the epipedon layer (O, H, and A horizons and 35.1% in the subsoil (B and E horizons. The pedo-ecological regularities of SOC retention in soils are analysed against the background of the Estonian soil ordination net.

  3. The Swedish sounding rocket programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, R.

    1980-01-01

    Within the Swedish Sounding Rocket Program the scientific groups perform experimental studies of magnetospheric and ionospheric physics, upper atmosphere physics, astrophysics, and material sciences in zero g. New projects are planned for studies of auroral electrodynamics using high altitude rockets, investigations of noctilucent clouds, and active release experiments. These will require increased technical capabilities with respect to payload design, rocket performance and ground support as compared with the current program. Coordination with EISCAT and the planned Viking satellite is essential for the future projects. (Auth.)

  4. Endoparasites in some Swedish Amphibians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of the endoparasites in specimens of Rana arvalis and R. temporaria collected on two occasions from a locality of southern Sweden. Some frogs were investigated directly after capture while other frogs were kept hibernating and the composition of the parasites as well...... as the behaviour of the parasites were studied after the termination of hibernation. Twelve species of parasites were found. Six of them, Polystoma integerrimum, Pleurogenes claviger (Trematoda), Rhabdias bufonis, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Cosmocerca ornata and Oxysomatium brevicauda- tum (Nematoda), have...... not previously been reported from Sweden. The late Prof. O. Nybelin's unpublished records of parasites found in Swedish amphibians are also given....

  5. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  6. Is spoken Danish less intelligible than Swedish?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent J.; van Bezooijen, Renee; Pacilly, Jos J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The most straightforward way to explain why Danes understand spoken Swedish relatively better than Swedes understand spoken Danish would be that spoken Danish is intrinsically a more difficult language to understand than spoken Swedish. We discuss circumstantial evidence suggesting that Danish is

  7. Soil, crop and emission responses to seasonal-controlled traffic in organic vegetable farming on loam soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera Losada, J.

    2009-01-01

    Some organic arable and vegetable farms in the Netherlands use cm-precise guidance of machinery to restrict wheel traffic to fixed traffic lanes and to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimized soil structure in between the lanes. Contrary to controlled traffic farming (CTF) the traffic

  8. Growth rate of Heterobasidion annosum in Picea abies established on forest land and arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz-Hellgren, M.; Johansson, Martin; Swedjemark, G.; Stenlid, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Brandtberg, P.O. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1999-07-01

    The growth rates of Heterobasidion annosum in Norway spruce were investigated in southern Sweden. In one study, stump and tree roots in stands established on previous forest or arable land were inoculated with H. annosum-infested sawdust. After 1-3 yrs, the linear extent of colonization by the fungus was measured, based on detection of its conidiophores on incubated samples. The average growth rate was 25 cm yr{sup -1} in stump roots and 9 cm yr{sup -1} in tree roots, neither of which differed significantly between forest and arable land. The feeling of a decayed tree could enhance the spread of H. annosum within root systems. In the second study, the height of discoloration and extent of colonization by H. annosum, measured as above, were assessed in naturally infected trees. On average, discoloration moved through the roots and stem at a rate of 36 cm yr{sup -1}. Heterobasidion annosum was found 60 cm in advance of the discoloration, corresponding to a growth rate of 52 cm yr{sup -1}.

  9. Soil friability - Concept, Assessment and Effects of Soil Properties and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    Soil friability is a key soil physical property yielding valuable information on the ease of productin a favorable seed- and root beds during tillage operations. Therefore, soil friability is acrucial soil property in relation to the ability of soil to support plant growth and to minimzethe energy...... required for tillage. The topic has interested farmers and soil scientiest for centuries, but is was the paper by Utomo and Dexter (1981) that significantly put the topic on the soil science agenda. The awareness of soil friability is growing, both in practiceand in soil science. This must be viewed...... in the light of the present renewed focus on global food security together with a focus on fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in crop production. Certainly, the demand for well-functioning, arable soils is rising to meet the global challenges....

  10. Mechanisms of adaptation of small grains to soil acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đalović Ivica G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid soils limit crop production on 30-40% of the world's arable land and up to 70% of the world's potentially arable land. Over 60% of the total arable lands in Serbia are acid soils. Soil acidity is determined by hydrogen (H+ in soil solution and it is influenced by edaphic, climatic, and biological factors. Major constraints for plant growth on acid mineral soils are toxic concentrations of mineral elements like Al of H+ and/or low mineral nutrient availability due to low solubility (e.g. P and Mo or low reserves and impaired uptake (e.g. Mg2+ at high H+ concentrations. Aluminum (Al toxicity is primary factor limiting crop production on acid soils. This review examines our current understanding of mechanisms of Al-toxicity, as well as the physiological and genetic basis for Al-toxicity and tolerance. Inhibition of root growth by Al leads to more shallow root systems, which may affect the capacity for mineral nutrient acquisition and increase the risk of drought stress. Of the two principal strategies (tolerance and avoidance of plants for adaptation to adverse soil conditions, the strategy of avoidance is more common for adaptation to acid mineral soils. At the same, the short view of the most important genetics tolerance mechanisms, developed and determined in some small grains genotypes, is showed as well.

  11. Soil organic phosphorus in soils under different land use systems in northeast Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slazak, Anna; Freese, Dirk; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorus (P) is commonly known as a major plant nutrient, which can act as a limiting factor for plant growth in many ecosystems, including different land use systems. Organic P (Po), transformations in soil are important in determining the overall biological availability of P and additionally Po depletion is caused by land cultivation. It is expected that changes of land use modifies the distribution of soil P among the various P-pools (Ptotal, Plabile, Po), where the Plabile forms are considered to be readily available to plants and Po plays an important role with P nutrition supply for plants. The aim of the study was to measure the different soil P pools under different land use systems. The study was carried out in northeast of Brandenburg in Germany. Different land use systems were studied: i) different in age pine-oak mixed forest stands, ii) silvopastoral land, iii) arable lands. Samples were taken from two mineral soil layers: 0-10 and 10-20 cm. Recently, a variety of analytical methods are available to determine specific Po compounds in soils. The different P forms in the soil were obtained by a sequential P fractionation by using acid and alkaline extractants, which mean that single samples were subjected to increasingly stronger extractants, consequently separating the soil P into fractions based on P solubility. The soil Ptotal for the forest stands ranged from 100 to 183 mg kg -1 whereas Po from 77 to 148 mg kg -1. The Po and Plabile in both soil layers increased significantly with increase of age-old oak trees. The most available-P fraction was Plabile predominate in the oldest pine-oak forest stand, accounting for 29% of soil Ptotal. For the silvopasture and arable study sites the Ptotal content was comparable. However, the highest value of Ptotal was measured in the 30 years old silvopastoral system with 685 mg kg-1 and 728 mg kg-1 at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively than in arable lands. The results have shown that the 30 years old

  12. Investigation of the dynamics of ephemeral gully erosion on arable land of the forest-steppe and steppe zone of the East of the Russian Plain from remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platoncheva, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    Spatio-temporal estimation of the erosion of arable soils is still an urgent task, in spite of the numerous methods of such assessments. Development of information technologies, the emergence of high and ultra-high resolution images allows reliable identification of linear forms of erosion to determine its dynamics on arable land. The study drew attention to the dynamics of the most active erosion unit - an ephemeral gully. The estimation of the dynamics was carried out on the basis of different space images for the maximum possible period (from 1986 to 2016). The cartographic method was used as the main research method. Identification of a belt of ephemeral gully erosion based on materials of multi-zone space surveys and GIS-technology of their processing was carried out. In the course of work with satellite imagery and subsequent verification of the received data on the ground, the main signs of deciphering the ephemeral gully network were determined. A methodology for geoinformation mapping of the dynamics of ephemeral gully erosion belt was developed and a system of indicators quantitatively characterizing its development on arable slopes was proposed. The evaluation of the current ephemeral gully network based on the interpretation of space images includes the definition of such indicators of ephemeral gully erosion as the density of the ephemeral gully net, the density of the ephemeral gullies, the area and linear dynamics of the ephemeral gully network. Preliminary results of the assessment of the dynamics of the belt erosion showed an increase in all quantitative indicators of ephemeral gully erosion for the observed period.

  13. Reintroduction of rare arable plants by seed transfer. What are the optimal sowing rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Marion; Prestele, Julia; Fischer, Christina; Kollmann, Johannes; Albrecht, Harald

    2016-08-01

    During the past decades, agro-biodiversity has markedly declined and some species are close to extinction in large parts of Europe. Reintroduction of rare arable plant species in suitable habitats could counteract this negative trend. The study investigates optimal sowing rates of three endangered species (Legousia speculum-veneris (L.) Chaix, Consolida regalis Gray, and Lithospermum arvense L.), in terms of establishment success, seed production, and crop yield losses.A field experiment with partial additive design was performed in an organically managed winter rye stand with study species added in ten sowing rates of 5-10,000 seeds m(-2). They were sown as a single species or as a three-species mixture (pure vs. mixed sowing) and with vs. without removal of spontaneous weeds. Winter rye was sown at a fixed rate of 350 grains m(-2). Performance of the study species was assessed as plant establishment and seed production. Crop response was determined as grain yield.Plant numbers and seed production were significantly affected by the sowing rate, but not by sowing type (pure vs. mixed sowing of the three study species), and weed removal. All rare arable plant species established and reproduced at sowing rates >25 seeds m(-2), with best performance of L. speculum-veneris. Negative density effects occurred to some extent for plant establishment and more markedly for seed production.The impact of the three study species on crop yield followed sigmoidal functions. Depending on the species, a yield loss of 10% occurred at >100 seeds m(-2). Synthesis and applications: The study shows that reintroduction of rare arable plants by seed transfer is a suitable method to establish them on extensively managed fields, for example, in organic farms with low nutrient level and without mechanical weed control. Sowing rates of 100 seeds m(-2) for C. regalis and L. arvense, and 50 seeds m(-2) for L. speculum-veneris are recommended, to achieve successful establishment

  14. Possibilities for modelling the effect of compression on mechanical and physical properties of various Dutch soil types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdok, U.D.; Kroesbergen, B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    The state of compactness of the arable soil layer changes during the growing season as a result of tillage and traction. The aim of this study was to assess and predict some soil mechanical and physical properties governing machine performance and crop response. The following mechanical properties

  15. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within...... the organisation to reinforce the notion of women as inferior and subordinate to men, whereby the external hegemony is believed to be restored. Likewise, male Swedish peacekeepers’ demand for prostitution during international peacekeeping missions is explained in terms of a need to confirm manhood and as homo...

  16. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)

  17. Calling computers names in Swedish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    I very much enjoyed reading Jim Fleming’s article on Carl-Gustaf Rossby and the seminal contributions Rossby made to meteorology. Furthermore, the otherwise excellent article has two errors. Something must have gotten lost in translation to cause Fleming to claim that “Rossby pursued numerical weather prediction in Sweden in an era in which there was no Swedish word for digital computer.” With applied mathematician Germund Dahlquist, Rossby developed a weather model for the Binär Elektronisk Sekvens Kalkylator (BESK; Binary Electronic Sequence Calculator). Designed and built in Sweden, BESK was the world’s fastest computer when it became operational in 1953. From September 1954, BESK weather simulations enabled routine 24-hour national forecasts.

  18. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    the 1970s, energy production was politicized big time in the industrialized world. The birth of the environmental movement, the oil crises in 1973 - 74 and the beginning conflict surrounding civilian nuclear power, put energy issues center stage on the political agenda. Energy policies - especially related to the development of nuclear power - came to dominate election campaigns, like in Sweden in 1976 or be the subject of referendums, like in Austria in 1978 or in Sweden in 1980. Critical voices toward the peaceful use of nuclear power - having started in America before being exported to Europe - gained real strength and public support all over the Western world by the nuclear accident at the Three Mile Island plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in 1979. The energy genie was out of the bottle and out to stay. Fueled by the nuclear meltdowns in Chernobyl in 1986 and in Fukushima in 2011 and supplemented by conflicts over how to reduce the use of oil and coal, how to sensibly exploit the waste gas reserves, and how to develop renewable energy sources based on sun, wind and waves – have made all kinds of energy issues the focal point of political contentions ever since the early 1970s. In Sweden, as in many other countries, energy policies - often with nuclear power in the center - have been one of the most fought-over policy areas during the last thirty-forty years. And the contentious character of energy policies is not limited to the elite level of politics - to politicians, to media pundits or to lobbyists. It is also manifest among ordinary citizens. Energy issues - nuclear power and wind power in particular - are highly polarizing among voters as well. Given this historic background, starting in the 1970s, it was rather natural that energy questions - featuring most prominently questions related to nuclear power - would be important parts of the voter surveys performed by the Swedish National Elections Studies (SNES) at the Univ. of Gothenburg. The first book

  19. Manual for prototyping integrated and ecological arable farming systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.

    1999-01-01

    A manual for prototyping Integrated and Ecological Arable Farming Systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms is presented. It concerns a comprehensive and consistent approach of 5 steps. Step 1 is establishing a hierarchy of objectives considering the shortcomings of current farming systems in

  20. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced-Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolain, N.M.; Charles, R.; Wirth, J.; Schwarz, J.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Bonin, L.; Jensen, P.K.; Kudsk, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of

  1. The Use of Organic vs. Chemical Fertilizer with a Mineral Losses Tax: The Case of Dutch Arable Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feinerman, E.; Komen, M.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on farm-level nitrogen fertilization strategies of Dutch arable farmers for analyzing the substitution of organic fertilizers (manure) with chemical fertilizers. The model developed investigates the impact of the major parameters affecting the inferiority of manure compared with

  2. Integrated crop protection and environment exposure to pesticides: methods to reduce use and impact of pesticides in arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    Prototypes of Integrated Farming Systems for arable farming are being developed in the Netherlands based on a coherent methodology elaborated in an European Union concerted action. The role of crop protection in Integrated systems is, additional to all other methods, to efficiently control the

  3. Biomass and Swedish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    The use of biomass in Sweden has increased by 44% between 1990 and 1999. In 1999 it was 85 TWh, equivalent to 14% of the total Swedish energy supply. The existence of large forest industry and district heating systems has been an essential condition for this expansion. The tax reform in 1991 seems, however, to have been the most important factor responsible for the rapid bioenergy expansion. Through this reform, the taxation of fossil fuels in district heating systems increased by approximately 30-160%, depending on fuel, whereas bioenergy remained untaxed. Industry is exempted from the energy tax and pays reduced carbon tax. No tax is levied on fossil fuels used for electricity production. Investment grants have existed for biomass-based electricity production but these grants have not been large enough to make biomass-based electricity production economically competitive in a period of falling electricity prices. Despite this, the biomass-based electricity production has increased slightly between 1990 and 1999. A new taxation system aiming at a removal of the tax difference between the industry, district heating and electricity sectors has recently been analysed by the Swedish government. One risk with such a system is that it reduces the competitiveness for biomass in district heating systems as it seems unlikely that the taxes on fossil fuels in the industry and electricity sectors will increase to a level much higher than in other countries. A new system, based on green certificates, for supporting electricity from renewable energy sources has also been proposed by the government.

  4. A site-specific slurry application technique on grassland and on arable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellberg, Jürgen; Lock, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that unequal slurry application on agricultural land contributes to N losses to the environment. Heterogeneity within fields demands adequate response by means of variable rate application. A technique is presented which allows site-specific application of slurry on grassland and arable land based on pre-defined application maps. The system contains a valve controlling flow rate by an on-board PC. During operation, flow rate is measured and scaled against set point values given in the application map together with the geographic position of the site. The systems worked sufficiently precise at a flow rate between 0 and 25 l s(-1) and an offset of actual slurry flow from set point values between 0.33 and 0.67 l s(-1). Long-term experimentation is required to test if site-specific application de facto reduces N surplus within fields and so significantly contributes to the unloading of N in agricultural areas.

  5. Reducing pesticide use while preserving crop productivity and profitability on arable farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechenet, Martin; Dessaint, Fabrice; Py, Guillaume; Makowski, David; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    Achieving sustainable crop production while feeding an increasing world population is one of the most ambitious challenges of this century 1 . Meeting this challenge will necessarily imply a drastic reduction of adverse environmental effects arising from agricultural activities 2 . The reduction of pesticide use is one of the critical drivers to preserve the environment and human health. Pesticide use could be reduced through the adoption of new production strategies 3-5 ; however, whether substantial reductions of pesticide use are possible without impacting crop productivity and profitability is debatable 6-17 . Here, we demonstrated that low pesticide use rarely decreases productivity and profitability in arable farms. We analysed the potential conflicts between pesticide use and productivity or profitability with data from 946 non-organic arable commercial farms showing contrasting levels of pesticide use and covering a wide range of production situations in France. We failed to detect any conflict between low pesticide use and both high productivity and high profitability in 77% of the farms. We estimated that total pesticide use could be reduced by 42% without any negative effects on both productivity and profitability in 59% of farms from our national network. This corresponded to an average reduction of 37, 47 and 60% of herbicide, fungicide and insecticide use, respectively. The potential for reducing pesticide use appeared higher in farms with currently high pesticide use than in farms with low pesticide use. Our results demonstrate that pesticide reduction is already accessible to farmers in most production situations. This would imply profound changes in market organization and trade balance.

  6. Weed Biomass and Weed Species Diversity of Juvenile Citrus Trees Intercrop with some Arable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Mojibade OLORUNMAIYE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was carried out to evaluate the performances of eight crops in the intercrop of citrus with arable crops at the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT Ibadan, Nigeria. Eight arable crops: maize, cucumber, sweet potato, Corchorus olitorius, large green, grain amaranth, Mucuna pruriens var. utilis, and groundnut were intercropped with young citrus trees in the early planting season of 2010 with sole citrus as control. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Data were collected on weed flora, weed density and weed dry weight. Results showed that the relative frequencies of weeds in all the plots were less than 4% at both 6 and 9WAP. Gomphrena celosoides, Oldenlandia corymbosa and Tridax procumbens were most preponderant in appearing in all the plots. Tridax procumbens had a consistent relative frequency (2.34% in all the plots except in citrus/maize plot (0.78% at 9 WAP. Significantly lower broadleaf weed densities were obtained in citrus/sweet potato, citrus/large green, control plot and citrus/cucumber (28.67, 45.00, 50.00 and 76.33 m-2 respectively than in citrus/groundnut plot (143.00 m-2. Similarly, significantly lower grass weed densities were produced in citrus/Mucuna and citrus/sweet potato (0.33 m-2 each plots than the control plot (11.33 m-2. Whereas citrus/corchorus plot produced significantly lower broadleaf weed dry weight (37.59 g m-2 than citrus/Mucuna plot (126.47 g m-2 at 3WAP, citrus/large green plot (16.15 g m-2 and citrus/groundnut plot (123.25 g m-2 followed the same trend at 6 WAP. Sedges dry weights were less than 7 g m-2 in all the plots compared with control plot.

  7. Nitrous oxide and nitrate concentration in under-drainage from arable fields subject to diffuse pollution mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama-Aziz, Zanist; Hiscock, Kevin; Adams, Christopher; Reid, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentrations are increasing by 0.3% annually and a major source of this greenhouse gas is agriculture. Indirect emissions of nitrous oxide (e.g. from groundwater and surface water) account for about quarter of total nitrous oxide emissions. However, these indirect emissions are subject to uncertainty, mainly due to the range in reported emission factors. It's hypothesised in this study that cover cropping and implementing reduced (direct drill) cultivation in intensive arable systems will reduce dissolved nitrate concentration and subsequently indirect nitrous oxide emissions. To test the hypothesis, seven fields with a total area of 102 ha in the Wensum catchment in eastern England have been chosen for experimentation together with two fields (41 ha) under conventional cultivation (deep inversion ploughing) for comparison. Water samples from field under-drainage have been collected for nitrate and nitrous oxide measurement on a weekly basis from April 2013 for two years from both cultivation areas. A purge and trap preparation line connected to a Shimadzu GC-8A gas chromatograph fitted with an electron capture detector was used for dissolved nitrous oxide analysis. Results revealed that with an oilseed radish cover crop present, the mean concentration of nitrate, which is the predominant form of N, was significantly depleted from 13.9 mg N L-1 to 2.5 mg N L-1. However, slightly higher mean nitrous oxide concentrations under the cover crop of 2.61 μg N L-1 compared to bare fields of 2.23 μg N L-1 were observed. Different inversion intensity of soil tended to have no effect on nitrous oxide and nitrate concentrations. The predominant production mechanism for nitrous oxide was nitrification process and the significant reduction of nitrate was due to plant uptake rather than denitrification. It is concluded that although cover cropping might cause a slight increase of indirect nitrous oxide emission, it can be a highly effective

  8. Outline of Swedish activities on LWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grounes, M [Studsvik Nuclear, Nykoeping (Sweden); Roennberg, G [OKG AB (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The presentation outlines the Swedish activities on LWR fuel and considers the following issues: electricity production; performance of operating nuclear power plants; nuclear fuel cycle and waste management; research and development in nuclear field. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  9. Big problems for Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Anton; Runesson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A report of the problems for Swedish nuclear industry the summer of 2006. A detailed description of the 25th of July incident at Forsmark 1 is provided. The incident was classified as level two on the INIS scale. The other Swedish nuclear plants were subject to security evaluations in the aftermath, and at Forsmark 2 similar weaknesses were found in the security system (ml)

  10. Swedish High-End Apparel Online

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Christoffer; Grabe, Thomas; Thomander, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to through a qualitative case study describe how six Swedish high-end apparel companies attributed as part of “the Swedish fashion wonder” with online distribution have been affected by six chosen factors. The six factors presented are extracted from previous studies and consist of customer relationships, intermediary relationships, pricing, costs and revenue, competitors and impact on the brand. The results show that customer relationships is an important factor that most comp...

  11. Factors for successful improvement of Swedish healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish OCM, developed by an Integrative Group Process, was found to be a valid model able to distinguish successful from unsuccessful organizations in terms of improvement. A majority of healthcare organizations applied the Internal Collaborative strategy which lacks the patient centered task alignment characterizing those organizations predicted to be successful by their relatively superior Swedish OCM score. Managers tend to overestimate the prospects of organizationa...

  12. Methane uptake by a selection of soils in Ghana with different land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priemé, Anders; Christensen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    , the methane oxidation rates in the tropical forest and savanna soils were low (range from 9 to 26 µg CH4 m-2 h-1) compared to, for example temperate forest soils. In the savanna soil, annual fire had decreased soil methane oxidation rates to 5 µg CH4 m-2 h-1 compared to 9 µg CH4 m-2 h-1 at a site...... not subjected to fire for 6 years. In paired sites of moist forest and arable soils, methane oxidation rates were lower by >60% in the arable soils. Methane oxidation rates in three arable soils in the savanna zone soils ranged from 7 to 11 µg CH4 m-2 h-1 before the first rain but increased to 23-28 µg CH4 m-2......We measured the oxidation of atmospheric methane in tropical soils in Ghana covering a moisture gradient from the moist forest zone to the savanna zone at the onset of the rainy season. Land use at the sites covered undisturbed (forest and savanna) and cultivated soil, including burning. Generally...

  13. Pre-study Tierp. Soils, rocks and deformation zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.; Johansson, Rune; Linden, A.H.; Rudmark, L.; Stephens, M.; Isaksson, Hans; Lindroos, H.

    1999-12-01

    Soil and geology of the Tierp area is described, as well as the Baltic area Loevstabukten. It is found that several areas might be of interest for further investigations as potential sites for a Swedish repository for spent fuels

  14. Climate Strategic Soil Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The complex and strong link between soil degradation, climate change and food insecurity is a global challenge. Sustainable agricultural systems must be integral to any agenda to address climate change and variability, improve renewable fresh water supply and quality, restore degraded soils and ecosystems and advance food security. These challenges are being exacerbated by increasing population and decreasing per capita arable land area and renewable fresh water supply, the increasing frequency of extreme events, the decreasing resilience of agroecosystems, an increasing income and affluent lifestyle with growing preference towards meat-based diet and a decreasing soil quality and use efficiency of inputs. Reversing these downward spirals implies the implementation of proven technologies, such as conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, precision agriculture, agroforestry systems, etc. Restoration of degraded soil and desertified ecosystems and the creation of positive soil and ecosystem C budgets are important. Urban agriculture and green roofs can reduce the energy footprint of production chains for urban and non-urban areas and enhance the recycling of by-products. Researchable priorities include sustainable land use and soil/water management options, judicious soil governance and modus operandi towards payments to land managers for the provisioning of ecosystem services.

  15. Dynamics of Soil Bacterial Communities in Response to Repeated Application of Manure Containing Sulfadiazine

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Radl, Viviane; Schloter-Hai, Brigitte; Jechalke, Sven; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) which were applied ...

  16. Sustainable Soil Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Evgrafova, Alevtina; Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren

    management strategies, which consider the site- and field-specific parameters and agricultural machinery’s improvements, it is possible to maximize production and income, while reducing negative environmental impacts and human health issues induced by agricultural activities as well as improving food......Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This report provides an overview on new technologies for integrate sustainable and resilient management practices in arable ecosystems for advanced farmers, consultants, NGOs and policy makers. By following sustainable soil...... and soil quality in short- and long-terms. This report also illustrates the importance to combine a system approach for plant production by assessing field readiness, managing in-field traffic management, implementing the sitespecific controlled as well as sensor-controlled seedbed preparation, seeding...

  17. Analysis of Multi-Scale Changes in Arable Land and Scale Effects of the Driving Factors in the Loess Areas in Northern Shaanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, statistical data on the national economic and social development, including the year-end actual area of arable land, the crop yield per unit area and 10 factors, were obtained for the period between 1980 and 2010 and used to analyze the factors driving changes in the arable land of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi, China. The following areas of arable land, which represent different spatial scales, were investigated: the Baota District, the city of Yan’an, and the Northern Shaanxi region. The scale effects of the factors driving the changes to the arable land were analyzed using a canonical correlation analysis and a principal component analysis. Because it was difficult to quantify the impact of the national government policies on the arable land changes, the contributions of the national government policies to the changes in arable land were analyzed qualitatively. The primary conclusions of the study were as follows: between 1980 and 2010, the arable land area decreased. The trends of the year-end actual arable land proportion of the total area in the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City were broadly consistent, whereas the proportion in the Baota District had no obvious similarity with the northern Shaanxi region and Yan’an City. Remarkably different factors were shown to influence the changes in the arable land at different scales. Environmental factors exerted a greater effect for smaller scale arable land areas (the Baota District. The effect of socio-economic development was a major driving factor for the changes in the arable land area at the city and regional scales. At smaller scales, population change, urbanization and socio-economic development affected the crop yield per unit area either directly or indirectly. Socio-economic development and the modernization of agricultural technology had a greater effect on the crop yield per unit area at the large-scales. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis

  18. A specialist-generalist classification of the arable flora and its response to changes in agricultural practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Theory in ecology points out the potential link between the degree of specialisation of organisms and their responses to disturbances and suggests that this could be a key element for understanding the assembly of communities. We evaluated this question for the arable weed flora as this group has scarcely been the focus of ecological studies so far and because weeds are restricted to habitats characterised by very high degrees of disturbance. As such, weeds offer a case study to ask how specialization relates to abundance and distribution of species in relation to the varying disturbance regimes occurring in arable crops. Results We used data derived from an extensive national monitoring network of approximately 700 arable fields scattered across France to quantify the degree of specialisation of 152 weed species using six different ecological methods. We then explored the impact of the level of disturbance occurring in arable fields by comparing the degree of specialisation of weed communities in contrasting field situations. The classification of species as specialist or generalist was consistent between different ecological indices. When applied on a large-scale data set across France, this classification highlighted that monoculture harbour significantly more specialists than crop rotations, suggesting that crop rotation increases abundance of generalist species rather than sets of species that are each specialised to the individual crop types grown in the rotation. Applied to a diachronic dataset, the classification also shows that the proportion of specialist weed species has significantly decreased in cultivated fields over the last 30 years which suggests a biotic homogenization of agricultural landscapes. Conclusions This study shows that the concept of generalist/specialist species is particularly relevant to understand the effect of anthropogenic disturbances on the evolution of plant community composition and that ecological theories

  19. PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND SOLUBILITY OF HEAVY METALS IN URBAN AND SUBURBAN SOILS OF RAVENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gatti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Three location types with of different environmental impacts were considered in the district of Ravenna, a city park, a suburban pinewood and arable fields. In this paper we report the preliminary results about the relationship between land use and soil management with chemical fractionation of heavy metals. The distribution and solubility of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb was determined by water and LMWOAs extraction procedures in horizons A1 and A2 of 13 soils. In general the maximum potentially toxic element concentrations were associated with soil collected from the pinewood, and they tended to decrease with depth. The upper layer enrichment of the pinewood soils clearly revealed an anthropogenic origin of pollution. Under the pinewood, the extraction power by the single extraction procedures showed a pattern quite similar in terms of ranking of metals extracted, except that Zn and Ni were more dissolved than Cu by the use of LMWOAs. Under the pinewood, the metal levels presented a rather similar distribution pattern in terms of ranking of extractive power by the single extraction procedures, with Zn and Ni being more dissolved than Cu by the use of LMWOAs extractant. However, both readily available pools were demonstrated to be more enriched in Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb compared those of city park and arable soils. City park and arable soils had high contents of  Cu. The highest concentrations were particularly shown by the arable soil under orchard, due to frequent fungicide applications. Single extractions were compared to metals dissoved in aqua regia by bivariate correlations. By comparison, pinewood soils showed higher positive relationships between pseudo-total contents determined by aqua regia and metal concentrations from single extraction procedures than city park and arable soils. The highest correlation coefficients were found for Zn and Cd by water extraction, and for Cu and Pb by LMWOAs extraction. Both water and LMWOAs pools exhibited

  20. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper and boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D

    1966-06-04

    Spectrochemical analyses of garden soils sampled in the Edinburgh and Dundee areas indicate that there is substantial contamination of urban soils with copper and boron. These soils were analyzed spectrochemically with respect to total copper and water-extractable boron content with the view of comparing the levels obtained in urban areas with levels in arable soils in rural areas. The results indicate that urban garden soils contain about four times as much copper and two to three times as much water-soluble boron as rural arable soils. The existence of such a marked disparity between the levels of two potentially toxic elements in urban and rural areas is evidence of slow poisoning of the soil environment in built-up areas and is cause for concern. While the major source of contamination of soils with copper and boron is still a matter for speculation, it is probable that the addition of soot to garden soils and the fall-out of sooty material in built-up areas where atmospheric pollution is a problem make a substantial contribution to the water-extractable boron content of urban soils. Three samples of soot from domestic chimneys, obtained from independent sources, were found on analysis to contain 640, 650 and 555 p.p.m. water-extractable boron, and it is evident that the addition to soil of even small amounts of soot with a boron content of this order would have a marked effect on its water-extractable boron content.

  1. Comparative investigations of cesium and potassium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, G.; Leising, C.; Krestel, R.; Wirth, E.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was the reliable estimation of the Cs-137 root uptake by agricultural crops using the ''observed ratio model'' (OR model) for the determination of transfer factors: Cs (plant)/K (plant)=OR x Cs (soil)/K (soil). For model validation representative soil (arable land, grass land, organic substrates from forest and peat) and plant samples from Bavaria were taken These 4 parameters varied within a sufficiently wide range. In addition some samples from forest sites were taken. Soil and plant samples were taken at the same locations within 1 m2. (orig.) [de

  2. Cesium and potassium uptake by plants from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, G.; Leising, C.; Krestel, R.; Wirth, E.

    1990-11-01

    The aim of the investigation was the reliable estimation of the Cs-137 root uptake by agricultural crops using the 'observed ratio model' (OR model) for the determination of transfer factors: Cs (plant)/K (plant) = OR x Cs (soil)/K (soil). For model validation representative soil (arable land, grass land, organic substrates from forests and peat) and plant samples from Bavaria were taken. These 4 parameters varied within a sufficiently wide range. In addition some samples from forest sites were taken. Soil and plant samples were taken at the same locations within 1 m 2 . (orig./HP) [de

  3. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  4. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  5. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    be differences in recruitment. The present study addresses post-dispersal seed predation, mainly of woody plants, as the factor limiting the recolonization of young oak plantations in southern Sweden. Our objectives were to investigate differences in dispersal and post-dispersal seed predation between first......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...... plantations on ex-arable land. There was a high seed predation of Crataegus monogyna, Sorbus aucuparia and Viburnum opulus on ex-arable land, while that of Frangula alnus and Sambucus racemosa was not associated with site placement and land-use history. Seed predation is probably a more important factor...

  6. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  7. An interdisciplinary approach towards improved understanding of soil deformation during compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, T.; Lamandé, Mathieu; Peth, S.

    2013-01-01

    and validation of new soil compaction models. The integration of concepts underlying dynamic processes that modify soil pore spaces and bulk properties will improve the understanding of how soil management affect vital soil mechanical, hydraulic and ecological functions supporting plant growth.......Soil compaction not only reduces available pore volume in which fluids are stored, but it alters the arrangement of soil constituents and pore geometry, thereby adversely impacting fluid transport and a range of soil ecological functions. Quantitative understanding of stress transmission...... and deformation processes in arable soils remains limited. Yet such knowledge is essential for better predictions of effects of soil management practices such as agricultural field traffic on soil functioning. Concepts and theory used in agricultural soil mechanics (soil compaction and soil tillage) are often...

  8. The influence of soil properties and nutrients on conifer forest growth in Sweden, and the first steps in developing a nutrient availability metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sundert, Kevin; Horemans, Joanna A.; Stendahl, Johan; Vicca, Sara

    2018-06-01

    The availability of nutrients is one of the factors that regulate terrestrial carbon cycling and modify ecosystem responses to environmental changes. Nonetheless, nutrient availability is often overlooked in climate-carbon cycle studies because it depends on the interplay of various soil factors that would ideally be comprised into metrics applicable at large spatial scales. Such metrics do not currently exist. Here, we use a Swedish forest inventory database that contains soil data and tree growth data for > 2500 forests across Sweden to (i) test which combination of soil factors best explains variation in tree growth, (ii) evaluate an existing metric of constraints on nutrient availability, and (iii) adjust this metric for boreal forest data. With (iii), we thus aimed to provide an adjustable nutrient metric, applicable for Sweden and with potential for elaboration to other regions. While taking into account confounding factors such as climate, N deposition, and soil oxygen availability, our analyses revealed that the soil organic carbon concentration (SOC) and the ratio of soil carbon to nitrogen (C : N) were the most important factors explaining variation in normalized (climate-independent) productivity (mean annual volume increment - m3 ha-1 yr-1) across Sweden. Normalized forest productivity was significantly negatively related to the soil C : N ratio (R2 = 0.02-0.13), while SOC exhibited an empirical optimum (R2 = 0.05-0.15). For the metric, we started from a (yet unvalidated) metric for constraints on nutrient availability that was previously developed by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA - Laxenburg, Austria) for evaluating potential productivity of arable land. This IIASA metric requires information on soil properties that are indicative of nutrient availability (SOC, soil texture, total exchangeable bases - TEB, and pH) and is based on theoretical considerations that are also generally valid for nonagricultural ecosystems

  9. Effects of afforestation on soil structure formation in two climatic regions of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Podrazsky; O. Holubik; J. Vopravil; T. Khel; W. K. Moser; H. Prknova

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of agricultural land afforestation on soil characteristics. Two sites in two regions of the Czech Republic were evaluated, at lower as well as higher submountain elevations: in the regions of the Orlicke hory Mts. and Kostelec nad Cernymi lesy, afforested, arable and pasture lands were compared for basic chemical and...

  10. Spatial distribution of arable and abandoned land across former Soviet Union countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiv, Myroslava; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Moltchanova, Elena; Bun, Rostyslav; Dürauer, Martina; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo; Kussul, Natalia; Shchepashchenko, Maria; Kutovaya, Olga; Martynenko, Olga; Karminov, Viktor; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Havlik, Petr; Kraxner, Florian; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of agricultural abandonment following the collapse of the Soviet Union is highly uncertain. To help improve this situation, we have developed a new map of arable and abandoned land for 2010 at a 10 arc-second resolution. We have fused together existing land cover and land use maps at different temporal and spatial scales for the former Soviet Union (fSU) using a training data set collected from visual interpretation of very high resolution (VHR) imagery. We have also collected an independent validation data set to assess the map accuracy. The overall accuracies of the map by region and country, i.e. Caucasus, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine, are 90±2%, 84±2%, 92±1%, 78±3%, 95±1%, 83±2%, respectively. This new product can be used for numerous applications including the modelling of biogeochemical cycles, land-use modelling, the assessment of trade-offs between ecosystem services and land-use potentials (e.g., agricultural production), among others.

  11. Spatiotemporal Pattern and Driving Forces of Arable Land-Use Intensity in China: Toward Sustainable Land Management Using Emergy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The level of arable land-use intensity has important impacts on food security and rural sustainable development. Using the emergy method, we investigate the spatial disparities and driving forces of arable land-use intensity in China from 1999 to 2008 at the national, regional and provincial levels. The empirical results show that chemical fertilizer was the largest component of agricultural inputs and that agricultural diesel oil recorded the highest growth rate. The degree of heterogeneities in arable land-use intensity in China showed a decreasing trend, which resulted mainly from the differences among the eastern, northeastern, central and western regions. The regional disparities in labor, pesticides and plastic sheeting decreased from 1999 to 2008. The per capita annual net incomes of household operations and the agricultural policies had a significant positive correlation with total inputs, fertilizer inputs, pesticide inputs and agricultural plastic sheeting. In addition, the nonagricultural population had a greater impact on agricultural plastic sheeting. Finally, we suggest that there is an urgent need to focus on the effects of chemical fertilizer and pesticide inputs on the ecological environment. Agricultural support policies should be introduced for the poor agricultural production provinces.

  12. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  13. Hydrochemistry of rivers in an acid sulphate soil hotspot area in western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ROOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During heavy rains and snow melting, acid sulphate (AS soils on the coastal plains of Finland are flushed resulting in discharge of acidic and metal-rich waters that strongly affect small streams. In this study, the impact of AS soils occurrence and hydrological changes on water quality were determined for 21 rivers (catchment sizes between 96–4122 km2 running through an AS soil hotspot area in western central Finland. Water samples, collected at the outlet, during eight selected events, were analysed for pH, dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity (EC and 32 chemical elements. Based on the correlation with percentage arable land in the catchments (a rough estimate of AS soil occurrences, as up to 50% of the arable land is underlain with these soils, it was possible to categorize variables into those that are enriched in runoff from such land, depleted in runoff from such land (only one element, and not affected by land-use type in the catchments. Of the variables enriched in runoff from arable land, some were leached from AS soils during high-water flows, in particular (aluminium, boron, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, nickel, sulphur, silicon, thorium, thallium, uranium, and zinc and others occurred in highest concentrations during lower flows (calcium, EC, potassium, magnesium, sodium, rubidium and strontium. Molybdenum and phosphorus were not leached from AS soils in larger amounts than from other soils and thus related to other factors connected to the arable land. Based on the concentrations of potentially toxic metals derived from AS soils, the 21 rivers were ranked from the least (Lestijoki River, Lapväärtinjoki River and Perhonjoki River to the most (Sulvanjoki River, Vöyrinjoki River and Maalahdenjoki River heavily AS soil impacted. It has been decided that Vöyrinjoki is to be dredged along a ca. 20 km distance. This is quite alarming considering the high metal concentrations in the river.;

  14. Tensions in Stakeholder Relations for a Swedish Football Club

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Swedish football is an industry not yet being as commercial as the big leagues and is regulated in terms of ownership of clubs. This implies a need for management of stakeholder relations for a Swedish football club. This paper identifies important stakeholders in Swedish football and discusses...

  15. Soil sampling strategies: Evaluation of different approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia

    2008-01-01

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2σ, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies

  16. Soil sampling strategies: Evaluation of different approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e Protezione dell' Ambiente del Veneto, ARPA Veneto, U.O. Centro Qualita Dati, Via Spalato, 14-36045 Vicenza (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2{sigma}, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies.

  17. Soil sampling strategies: evaluation of different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia

    2008-11-01

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2sigma, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies.

  18. Risk management in Swedish hedge funds

    OpenAIRE

    Fri, Samuel; Nilsson, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Risk management has always been a complex topic, especially when it comes to hedge funds. Since hedge funds are able to utilize many kinds of financial instruments it is difficult to find a risk management strategy that goes well with them. Not much research regarding the Swedish hedge fund industry and its risk management has been done; hence we find it an interesting topic to focus this thesis on. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to increase the knowledge of how Swedish he...

  19. Patient exposures in Swedish diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.; Blomgren, P.-G.; Bergman, K.; Aaberg, L.

    1977-05-01

    Doses to about 1000 Swedish patients in 13 hospitals and several photofluorographic and dental installations were measured. The measurements comprised radiation quality, exposure-area product and doses to a few parts of the body where dosimeters could be placed. Calculations yielded energy imparted as well as doses to the thyroid, mammae, lungs, bone marrow, ovaries and testes. The possibility of reducing patientdoses is discussed. The radiation risk to the Swedish population isestimated,based on mean annual collective dose per individual for different body organs.(K.K.)

  20. The potential of Swedish furniture companies in Vietnam : How Vietnamese consumers perceive the product values of Swedish furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Thi Phuong Lan; Karlsson, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Swedish furniture companies have been quite successful in many parts of the world recently, with IKEA being a famous example of that. Meanwhile, Vietnam has one of the fastest-growing economies in South East Asia. However, there has not been any Swedish furniture company established on the Vietnamese market so far. Therefore, it would be useful to see if the Vietnamese furniture consumers would appreciate Swedish furniture, in order to analyze whether Swedish furniture companies...

  1. The Swedish Blood Pass project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, B; Ekblom, B; Ekblom, E; Berglund, L; Kallner, A; Reinebo, P; Lindeberg, S

    2007-06-01

    Manipulation of the blood's oxygen carrying capacity (CaO(2)) through reinfusion of red blood cells, injections of recombinant erythropoietin or by other means results in an increased maximal oxygen uptake and concomitantly enhanced endurance performance. Therefore, there is a need to establish a system--"A Blood Pass"--through which such illegal and unethical methods can be detected. Venous blood samples were taken under standardized conditions from 47 male and female Swedish national and international elite endurance athletes four times during the athletic year of the individual sport (beginning and end of the preparation period and at the beginning and during peak performance in the competition period). In these samples, different hematological values were determined. ON(hes) and OFF(hre) values were calculated according to the formula of Gore et al. A questionnaire regarding training at altitude, alcohol use and other important factors for hematological status was answered by the athletes. There were some individual variations comparing hematological values obtained at different times of the athletic year or at the same time in the athletic year but in different years. However, the median values of all individual hematological, ON(hes) and OFF(hre), values taken at the beginning and the end of the preparation or at the beginning and the end of the competition period, respectively, as well as median values for the preparation and competition periods in the respective sport, were all within the 95% confidence limit (CI) of each comparison. It must be mentioned that there was no gender difference in this respect. This study shows that even if there are some individual variations in different hematological values between different sampling times in the athletic year, median values of important hematological factors are stable over time. It must be emphasized that for each blood sample, the 95% CI in each athlete will be increasingly narrower. The conclusion is that

  2. Radiotracers in Swedish Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, I.; Erwall, L. G. [Isotope Techniques Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyquist, O. [Surahammars Bruks AB, Surahammar (Sweden)

    1967-06-15

    Recent tracer investigations in Swedish steel plants have mainly dealt with problems concerning uon-metallic inclusions, slag weight determination and - labelling of special steel qualities for identification. Suspected inclusion sources, such as furnace slag, ladle-bottom mortar and some brick materials as stopper, nozzle.and channel bricks have been labelled radioactively in different ways. The labelling technique has been studied for the different systems and a new method was developed for brick materials. This includes vacuum impregnation with an aqueous solution of the inactive tracer, reheating to 1300 Degree-Sign C and neutron-irradiation in a reactor. A sufficiently homogeneous labelling of the material was obtained in this way. The tracer used was terbium, which was added as the nitrate and then decomposed to oxide during the heating process. The oxide is strongly bound to the ceramic material. The number of radioactive inclusions was determined by.autoradiography, and related to the total number pf inclusions, obtained by visual slag-counting, to give the percentage of inclusions originating from the labelled object. Some investigations have been made using simultaneous labelling of two or more sources. It seems to be difficult, however, to measure separately more than two tracers: one short-lived (e.g. 140La) and one long-lived (e.g. {sup 160}Tb). The slag weight determinations were made using the isotope dilution technique with {sup 131}Ba and {sup 140}La as tracers. A difference in slag weight is sometimes obtained. An attempt is made to explain these deviations. The material transport through a blast furnace has been followed by using a piece of graphite, labelled with {sup 140}La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and measuring the radiation intensity outside the furnace walls and in the tuyere. Studies have been made to determine suitable radiotracers for labelling of steel for subsequent identification. Up to three different isotopes can be used simultaneously

  3. Impacts of the Conversion of Forest to Arable Land and Long Term Agriculture Practices on the Water Pathways in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinet, J.; Minella, J. P. G.; Schlesner, A.; Lücke, A.; Ameijeiras-Marino, Y.; Opfergelt, S.; Vanderborght, J.; Gerard, G.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in runoff pathways affect many environmental processes. Land use change (LUC), and more specifically forest conversion to arable land, is one of the controls of water fluxes at the hillslope or catchment scale. Still, the long term effects of forest conversion and agricultural activities in (sub-) tropical environments have been relatively understudied. Our objective was therefore to study the impact of deforestation and land degradation through agriculture on runoff pathways. We selected two small catchments with contrasting land use (agriculture vs. natural forest) in a subtropical region in the south of Brazil. Stream-, pore-, subsurface- and rainwater were monitored, sampled and analyzed for Dissolve Silicon concentration (DSi) and δ18O isotopic signature. Both forested and agricultural catchments were highly responsive to rainfall event and only 2 runoff components contributed to the stream discharge were identified: baseflow and peak flow components. The δ18O peak flow signal in the agricultural catchment was closely related to the δ18O rainfall signal. In the forested catchment, the δ18O peak flow signal was similar to a seasonally averaged signal. This suggested that most peak flow was derived from current rainfall events in the agricultural catchment, while being derived from a mixed reservoir in the forested one. The DSi of the peak flow was low in both catchments. Hence, the mixing in the forested catchment cannot have taken place in the soil matrix as the soil pore water contained high DSi concentrations. Instead, the mixing must have taken place in a reservoir with a relatively short residence time and isolated, to some extent, from the soil matrix. The dense channel network left by decayed roots in the forest soil above a clay-rich water-impeding B horizon is the most likely candidate and this was confirmed by visual observations. Contributions of other, deeper reservoirs are unlikely given the quick response time of the catchment

  4. Biodegradability of pharmaceutical compounds in agricultural soils irrigated with treated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossberger, Amnon; Hadar, Yitzhak; Borch, Thomas; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) are introduced into agricultural soils via irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW). Our data show that carbamazepine, lamotrigine, caffeine, metoprolol, sulfamethoxazole and sildenafil are persistent in soils when introduced via TWW. However, other PCs, namely diclofenac, ibuprofen, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and naproxen were not detected in soils when introduced via TWW. This is likely due to rapid degradation as confirmed in our microcosm studies where they exhibited half-lives (t 1/2 ) between 0.2–9.5 days when soils were spiked at 50 ng/g soil and between 3 and 68 days when soils were spiked at 5000 ng/g soil. The degradation rate and extent of PCs observed in microcosm studies were similar in soils that had been previously irrigated with TWW or fresh water. This suggests that pre-exposure of the soils to PCs via irrigation with TWW does not enhance their biodegradation. This suggests that PCs are probably degraded in soils via co-metabolism. Highlights: • Some pharmaceuticals are highly persistent in arable soils. • Weak acid pharmaceuticals are readily degradable in agricultural soils. • Irrigation with treated wastewater does not enhance degradation of pharmaceuticals. • Degradation of pharmaceuticals in soil is probably occurred via co-metabolism. -- Some pharmaceutical compounds are persistent in arable soils when introduced via irrigation with treated wastewater

  5. Nitrogen removal in shallow groundwater below three arable land systems in a high nitrogen loading region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Zhou, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Taihu Lake region (TLR) is one of the most intensive agricultural regions with high nitrogen (N) loading in eastern China. Large inputs of synthetic N fertilizer have led to a series of environmental problems including eutrophication of surface waters, nitrate (NO3-) pollution of groundwater. To fully evaluate the risk of NO3- on groundwater environments, it is necessary to know the natural NO3- removal ability. In this study, denitrification capacity was assessed for two years through measuring the concentration of different N species (NO3-, NH4+, TN, excess N2 and dissolved N2O) in groundwater below three typical agricultural land-use types in the TLR. The results suggested that the conversion of paddy field (PF) to vineyard (VY) and vegetable (VF) significantly increased the groundwater NO3-N concentration, but denitrification consumed 76%, 83% and 65% of the groundwater NO3-N in VY, VF and PF, respectively. Because of the low O2 and high DOC concentrations in groundwater, denitrification activity was high in the study sites, resulting in high excess N2 accumulation in groundwater, and the concentration even exceeded the total active N in the deep layer. The large amounts of excess N2 observed in the VY and VF over all the sample times indicated that considerable N was stored as gaseous N2 in groundwater and should not be ignored in balancing N budgets in aquifers where denitrification is high. Our results also demonstrated that the indirect N2O emission factor (EF5-g) in VY (0.0052)and VF (0.0057)was significantly higher than PF (0.0011)as well as higher than the IPCC default values (0.0025. In view of the increasing trend of paddy fields being converted to uplands combined with the low GWT in the TLR, we thus concluded that the risk of NO3- contamination in groundwater and indirect N2O emission will intensify below arable land.

  6. Ecological Intensification Through Pesticide Reduction: Weed Control, Weed Biodiversity and Sustainability in Arable Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Sandrine; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Bockstaller, Christian; Gaba, Sabrina; Cordeau, Stéphane; Lechenet, Martin; Mézière, Delphine; Colbach, Nathalie

    2015-11-01

    Amongst the biodiversity components of agriculture, weeds are an interesting model for exploring management options relying on the principle of ecological intensification in arable farming. Weeds can cause severe crop yield losses, contribute to farmland functional biodiversity and are strongly associated with the generic issue of pesticide use. In this paper, we address the impacts of herbicide reduction following a causal framework starting with herbicide reduction and triggering changes in (i) the management options required to control weeds, (ii) the weed communities and functions they provide and (iii) the overall performance and sustainability of the implemented land management options. The three components of this framework were analysed in a multidisciplinary project that was conducted on 55 experimental and farmer's fields that included conventional, integrated and organic cropping systems. Our results indicate that the reduction of herbicide use is not antagonistic with crop production, provided that alternative practices are put into place. Herbicide reduction and associated land management modified the composition of in-field weed communities and thus the functions of weeds related to biodiversity and production. Through a long-term simulation of weed communities based on alternative (?) cropping systems, some specific management pathways were identified that delivered high biodiversity gains and limited the negative impacts of weeds on crop production. Finally, the multi-criteria assessment of the environmental, economic and societal sustainability of the 55 systems suggests that integrated weed management systems fared better than their conventional and organic counterparts. These outcomes suggest that sustainable management could possibly be achieved through changes in weed management, along a pathway starting with herbicide reduction.

  7. A simple approach to estimate soil organic carbon and soil co/sub 2/ emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, F.

    2013-01-01

    SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) and soil CO/sub 2/ (Carbon Dioxide) emission are among the indicator of carbon sequestration and hence global climate change. Researchers in developed countries benefit from advance technologies to estimate C (Carbon) sequestration. However, access to the latest technologies has always been challenging in developing countries to conduct such estimates. This paper presents a simple and comprehensive approach for estimating SOC and soil CO/sub 2/ emission from arable- and forest soils. The approach includes various protocols that can be followed in laboratories of the research organizations or academic institutions equipped with basic research instruments and technology. The protocols involve soil sampling, sample analysis for selected properties, and the use of a worldwide tested Rothamsted carbon turnover model. With this approach, it is possible to quantify SOC and soil CO/sub 2/ emission over short- and long-term basis for global climate change assessment studies. (author)

  8. Bioavailability of radiocaesium in soil: parameterization using soil characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syssoeva, A.A.; Konopleva, I.V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    It has been shown that radiocaesium availability to plants strongly influenced by soil properties. For the best evaluation of TFs it necessary to use mechanistic models that predict radionuclide uptake by plants based on consideration of sorption-desorption and fixation-remobilization of the radionuclide in the soil as well as root uptake processes controlled by the plant. The aim of the research was to characterise typical Russian soils on the basis of the radiocaesium availability. The parameter of the radiocaesium availability in soils (A) has been developed which consist on radiocaesium exchangeability; CF -concentration factor which is the ratio of the radiocaesium in plant to that in soil solution; K{sub Dex} - exchangeable solid-liquid distribution coefficient of radiocaesium. The approach was tested for a wide range of Russian soils using radiocaesium uptake data from a barley pot trial and parameters of the radiocaesium bioavailability. Soils were collected from the arable horizons in different soil climatic zones of Russia and artificially contaminated by {sup 137}Cs. The classification of soils in terms of the radiocaesium availability corresponds quite well to observed linear relationship between {sup 137}Cs TF for barley and A. K{sub Dex} is related to the soil radiocaesium interception potential (RIP), which was found to be positively and strongly related to clay and physical clay (<0,01 mm) content. The {sup 137}Cs exchangeability were found to be in close relation to the soil vermiculite content, which was estimated by the method of Cs{sup +} fixation. It's shown radiocaesium availability to plants in soils under study can be parameterized through mineralogical soil characteristics: % clay and the soil vermiculite content. (author)

  9. Training Entrepreneurship at Universities: A Swedish Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klofsten, Magnus

    2000-01-01

    The Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Program trains Swedish individuals in the startup of technology- or knowledge-based enterprises. Built on the characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior, the program features a holistic outlook, a network of established entrepreneurs, mentoring, a mix of theory and practice, and focus on the…

  10. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  11. Market reforms in Swedish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the main characteristics of reforms in the Swedish health services, as exemplified by the "Stockholm Model" introduced in 1992 in Stockholm county. The author discusses the motives behind these reforms, the already-evident increases in costs that are occurring, and the effect...

  12. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  13. Measuring Syntactic Complexity in Spontaneous Spoken Swedish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Frid, Johan; Horne, Merle

    2007-01-01

    Hesitation disfluencies after phonetically prominent stranded function words are thought to reflect the cognitive coding of complex structures. Speech fragments following the Swedish function word "att" "that" were analyzed syntactically, and divided into two groups: one with "att" in disfluent contexts, and the other with "att" in fluent…

  14. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  15. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  16. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  17. Radon chamber for soil gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.

    1987-01-01

    Swedish Geological Co (SGAB) has designed and constructed a chamber for the calibration of detectors and instruments intended for the measurement of radon-222 in soil gas. In the chamber radon detectors may be exposed in a model environment which simulates ground conditions with respect to radon concentration, temperature and humidity. Also included in the research project is the development of methods for calibration procedures, together with test measurements. In general, these measurements indicate that the radon detectors tested are sufficiently accurate and reliable for radon measurements in Swedish soils if they are calibrated in an environment which simulates ground conditions. (orig./HP)

  18. Survival and transport of faecal bacteria in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina Bundgaard

    Today, there is yearly applied 34 million tonnes of animal waste to arable land in Denmark. This waste may contain pathogenic zoonotic bacteria and/or antibiotic resistant bacteria, and when applied to arable land there is a risk of contaminating groundwater, surface water, feeding animals or fresh...... produce. Prediction of faecal bacterial survival and transport in the soil environment will help minimize the risk of contamination, as best management practices can be adapted to this knowledge. The aim of this Ph.D. is to study factors influencing faecal bacteria survival and transport in soil...... – it is based on both field scale and lab scale experiments. The influence of application method and slurry properties has been tested on both survival and transport....

  19. Processing Relative Clause Extractions in Swedish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Tutunjian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Relative clauses are considered strong islands for extraction across languages. Swedish comprises a well-known exception, allegedly allowing extraction from relative clauses (RCE, raising the possibility that island constraints may be subject to “deep variation” between languages. One alternative is that such exceptions are only illusory and represent “surface variation” attributable to independently motivated syntactic properties. Yet, to date, no surface account has proven tenable for Swedish RCEs. The present study uses eyetracking while reading to test whether the apparent acceptability of Swedish RCEs has any processing correlates at the point of filler integration compared to uncontroversial strong island violations. Experiment 1 tests RCE against licit that-clause extraction (TCE, illicit extraction from a non-restrictive relative clause (NRCE, and an intransitive control. For this, RCE was found to pattern similarly to TCE at the point of integration in early measures, but between TCE and NRCE in total durations. Experiment 2 uses RCE and extraction from a subject NP island (SRCE to test the hypothesis that only non-islands will show effects of implausible filler-verb dependencies. RCE showed sensitivity to the plausibility manipulation across measures at the first potential point of filler integration, whereas such effects were limited to late measures for SRCE. In addition, structural facilitation was seen across measures for RCE relative to SRCE. We propose that our results are compatible with RCEs being licit weak island extractions in Swedish, and that the overall picture speaks in favor of a surface rather than a deep variation approach to the lack of island effects in Swedish RCEs.

  20. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously.

  1. Radio biogeochemical assessment of the soil near the Issyk-Kul region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldybaev, B.; Djenbaev, B.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : Soil is one of the main natural resources, providing for the sustainable development of the country. For environmentally well founded and balanced use and protection of land resources it is necessary to create the optimal structure of arable farming, minimizing negative impacts on the land of diverse of agricultural activities. Determination of chemical elements in the soil was conducted by the methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis and radionuclide by the methods of instrumental gamma spectrometry

  2. Statistical test for tolerability of effects of an antifungal biocontrol strain on fungal communities in three arable soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antweiler, K.; Schreiter, S.; Keilwagen, J.; Baldrian, Petr; Kropf, S.; Smalla, K.; Grosch, R. (ed.); Heuer, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 434-449 ISSN 1751-7907 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : QUANTUM SEMICONDUCTOR CRYSTALLITES * CANDIDA-ALBICANS BIOFILMS * LIESEGANG RING FORMATION Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.513, year: 2016

  3. Earthworm-induced N2O emissions in a sandy soil with surface-applied crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannopoulos, G.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research with endogeic and epigeic earthworm species in loamy arable soil has shown that both earthworm groups can increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, provided that crop residue placement matches the feeding strategy of the earthworm ecological group(s). However, it is not yet clear

  4. Intrinsic and induced isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Brian J.; Papanikolaou, Niki D.; Wilcox, Ronah K.

    2005-01-01

    The catabolic activity with respect to the systemic herbicide isoproturon was determined in soil samples by 14 C-radiorespirometry. The first experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples that represented three dissimilar soil series under arable cultivation. Results showed average extents of isoproturon mineralisation (after 240 h assay time) in the three soil series to be low. A second experiment assessed the impact of addition of isoproturon (0.05 μg kg -1 ) into these soils on the levels of catabolic activity following 28 days of incubation. Increased catabolic activity was observed in all three soils. A third experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples representing a single soil series managed under either conventional agricultural practice (including the use of isoproturon) or organic farming practice (with no use of isoproturon). Results showed higher (and more consistent) levels of isoproturon mineralisation in the soil samples collected from conventional land use. The final experiment assessed the impact of isoproturon addition on the levels of inducible catabolic activity in these soils. The results showed no significant difference in the case of the conventional farm soil samples while the induction of catabolic activity in the organic farm soil samples was significant. - Dissimilar levels of isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use influence inferred risk

  5. Intrinsic and induced isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk; Papanikolaou, Niki D. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Wilcox, Ronah K. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    The catabolic activity with respect to the systemic herbicide isoproturon was determined in soil samples by {sup 14}C-radiorespirometry. The first experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples that represented three dissimilar soil series under arable cultivation. Results showed average extents of isoproturon mineralisation (after 240 h assay time) in the three soil series to be low. A second experiment assessed the impact of addition of isoproturon (0.05 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) into these soils on the levels of catabolic activity following 28 days of incubation. Increased catabolic activity was observed in all three soils. A third experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples representing a single soil series managed under either conventional agricultural practice (including the use of isoproturon) or organic farming practice (with no use of isoproturon). Results showed higher (and more consistent) levels of isoproturon mineralisation in the soil samples collected from conventional land use. The final experiment assessed the impact of isoproturon addition on the levels of inducible catabolic activity in these soils. The results showed no significant difference in the case of the conventional farm soil samples while the induction of catabolic activity in the organic farm soil samples was significant. - Dissimilar levels of isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use influence inferred risk.

  6. Two bee-pollinated plant species show higher seed production when grown in gardens compared to arable farmland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cussans

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect pollinator abundance, in particular that of bees, has been shown to be high where there is a super-abundance of floral resources; for example in association with mass-flowering crops and also in gardens where flowering plants are often densely planted. Since land management affects pollinator numbers, it is also likely to affect the resultant pollination of plants growing in these habitats. We hypothesised that the seed or fruit set of two plant species, typically pollinated by bumblebees and/or honeybees might respond in one of two ways: 1 pollination success could be reduced when growing in a floriferous environment, via competition for pollinators, or 2 pollination success could be enhanced because of increased pollinator abundance in the vicinity.We compared the pollination success of experimental plants of Glechoma hederacea L. and Lotus corniculatus L. growing in gardens and arable farmland. On the farms, the plants were placed either next to a mass-flowering crop (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. or field beans, Vicia faba L. or next to a cereal crop (wheat, Triticum spp.. Seed set of G. hederacea and fruit set of L. corniculatus were significantly higher in gardens compared to arable farmland. There was no significant difference in pollination success of G. hederacea when grown next to different crops, but for L. corniculatus, fruit set was higher in the plants growing next to oilseed rape when the crop was in flower.The results show that pollination services can limit fruit set of wild plants in arable farmland, but there is some evidence that the presence of a flowering crop can facilitate their pollination (depending on species and season. We have also demonstrated that gardens are not only beneficial to pollinators, but also to the process of pollination.

  7. The dynamics of cultivation and floods in arable lands of Central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Viglizzo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Although floods in watersheds have been associated with land-use change since ancient times, the dynamics of flooding is still incompletely understood. In this paper we explored the relations between rainfall, groundwater level, and cultivation to explain the dynamics of floods in the extremely flat and valuable arable lands of the Quinto river watershed, in central Argentina. The analysis involved an area of 12.4 million hectare during a 26-year period (1978–2003, which comprised two extensive flooding episodes in 1983–1988 and 1996–2003. Supported by information from surveys as well as field and remote sensing measurements, we explored the correlation among precipitation, groundwater levels, flooded area and land use. Flood extension was associated to the dynamics of groundwater level. While no correlation with rainfall was recorded in lowlands, a significant correlation (P<0.01 between groundwater and rainfall in highlands was found when estimations comprise a time lag of one year. Correlations between groundwater level and flood extension were positive in all cases, but while highly significant relations (P<0.01 were found in highlands, non significant relations (P>0.05 predominate in lowlands. Our analysis supports the existence of a cyclic mechanism driven by the reciprocal influence between cultivation and groundwater in highlands. This cycle would involve the following stages: (a cultivation boosts the elevation of groundwater levels through decreased evapotranspiration; (b as groundwater level rises, floods spread causing a decline of land cultivation; (c flooding propitiates higher evapotranspiration favouring its own retraction; (d cultivation expands again following the retreat of floods. Thus, cultivation would trigger a destabilizing feedback self affecting future cultivation in the highlands. It is unlikely that such sequence can work in lowlands. The results suggest that rather than responding directly

  8. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. Soil-to-plant halogens transfer studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashparov, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Str.7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Colle, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN/DEI/SECRE), Cadarache bat 159, BP 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)]. E-mail: claude.colle@irsn.fr; Zvarich, S. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Str.7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Yoschenko, V. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Str.7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Levchuk, S. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Str.7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Lundin, S. [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Str.7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine)

    2005-07-01

    Long-term controlled experiments under natural conditions in the field have been carried out in the Chernobyl Exclusion zone in order to determine the parameters governing radioiodine transfer to plants from four types of soils (podzoluvisol, greyzem and typical and meadow chernozem) homogeneously contaminated in the 20-cm upper layer with an addition of {sup 125}I. An absence of {sup 125}I depletion in arable soil layers due to volatilization was noted up to one year after contamination. During one year, depletion due to the vertical migration of radioiodine from the arable layer of each of the soils did not exceed 4% of the total {sup 125}I content. Radioiodine concentration ratios (CR) were obtained in radish roots, lettuce leaves, bean pods, and wheat grain and straw. The highest CR values were observed in podzoluvisol: 0.01-0.03 for radish roots and lettuce leaves, 0.003-0.004 for bean pods and 0.001 for wheat grains. In the other three soils, these values were one order of magnitude lower. The parameters relating to changes in radioiodine bioavailability were determined, based on the contamination dynamics of plants in field conditions.

  10. Swedish nuclear dilemma: Energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    One of the things that makes life both very frustrating and also very interesting is that accomplishing one objective frequently means backpedaling on another. Since economics is the study of tradeoffs, this means that there is generally plenty for economists to do. William Nordhaus is one of the best economists anywhere, and he has written a wonderful book about the tradeoffs faced by one country--Sweden--if and as it acts on a decision its citizens made in 1980 to phase out the use of nuclear power there. The author adds that this decision has been reaffirmed by the Swedish Parliament on several occasions since the 1980 referendum, though with some elusive qualifications. What will be both the environmental and also the economic implications of a Swedish phaseout of the use of nuclear power to generate electricity there. These are the two issues Nordhaus addresses in this book

  11. Environmental monitoring around the Swedish Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondesson, A.; Luening, M.; Wallberg, L.; Wijk, H.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental monitoring programme for the nuclear facilities has shown that the radioactive discharges increase the concentrations of some radionuclides in the local marine environment around the Swedish nuclear facilities. Samples from the terrestrial environment rarely show increased radionuclide concentrations. From a radiological point of view the most important nuclide in the environmental samples usually is CS-137. However, the largest part of the present concentrations of Cs-137 in the Swedish environment originate from the Chernobyl accident. The concentrations of radionuclides that can be found in biota around the nuclear facilities are much lower than the concentration levels that are known to give acute damage to organisms. The total radiation doses from the discharges of radionuclides are small. (au)

  12. Pesticide leaching from two Swedish topsoils of contrasting texture amended with biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsbo, Mats; Löfstrand, Elisabeth; de Veer, David van Alphen; Ulén, Barbro

    2013-04-01

    The use of biochar as a soil amendment has recently increased because of its potential for long-term soil carbon sequestration and its potential for improving soil fertility. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of biochar soil incorporation on pesticide adsorption and leaching for two Swedish topsoils, one clay soil and one loam soil. We used the non-reactive tracer bromide and the pesticides sulfosulfuron, isoproturon, imidacloprid, propyzamid and pyraclostrobin, substances with different mobility in soil. Adsorption was studied in batch experiments and leaching was studied in experiments using soil columns (20 cm high, 20 cm diameter) where 0.01 kg kg- 1 dw biochar powder originating from wheat residues had been mixed into the top 10 cm. After solute application the columns were exposed to simulated rain three times with a weekly interval and concentrations were measured in the effluent water. The biochar treatment resulted in significantly larger adsorption distribution coefficients (Kd) for the moderately mobile pesticides isoproturon and imidacloprid for the clay soil and for imidacloprid only for the loam soil. Relative leaching of the pesticides ranged from 0.0035% of the applied mass for pyraclostrobin (average Kd = 360 cm3 g- 1) to 5.9% for sulfosulfuron (average Kd = 5.6 cm3 g- 1). There were no significant effects of the biochar amendment on pesticide concentrations in column effluents for the loam soil. For the clay soil concentrations were significantly reduced for isoproturon, imidacloprid and propyzamid while they were significantly increased for the non-mobile fungicide pyraclostrobin suggesting that the transport was facilitated by material originating from the biochar amendment.

  13. Carbon sequestration in soil by in situ catalyzed photo-oxidative polymerization of soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Alessandro; Spaccini, Riccardo; Nebbioso, Antonio; Mazzei, Pierluigi

    2011-08-01

    Here we describe an innovative mechanism for carbon sequestration in soil by in situ photopolymerization of soil organic matter under biomimetic catalysis. Three different Mediterranean soils were added with a synthetic water-soluble iron-porphyrin, irradiated by solar light, and subjected first to 5 days incubation and, then, 15, and 30 wetting and drying (w/d) cycles. The in situ catalyst-assisted photopolymerization of soil organic carbon (SOC) increased water stability of soil aggregates both after 5 days incubation and 15 w/d cycles, but not after 30 w/d cycles. Particle-size distribution of all treated soils confirmed the induced soil physical improvement, by showing a concomitant lower yield of the clay-sized fraction and larger yields of either coarse sand- or fine sand-size fractions, depending on soil texture, though only after 5 days incubation. The gain in soil physical quality was reflected by the shift of OC content from small to large soil aggregates, thereby suggesting that photopolymerization stabilized OC by both chemical and physical processes. A further evidence of the carbon sequestration capacity of the photocatalytic treatment was provided by the significant reduction of CO(2) respired by all soils after both incubation and w/d cycles. Our findings suggest that "green" catalytic technologies may potentially be the bases for future practices to increase soil carbon stabilization and mitigate CO(2) emissions from arable soils.

  14. Using synthetic polymers to reduce soil erosion after forest fires in Mediterranean soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Marcos; Ben-Hur, Meni; Inbar, Assaf

    2010-05-01

    Forest fires are a major environmental problem in the Mediterranean region because they result in a loss of vegetation cover, changes in biodiversity, increases in greenhouse gasses emission and a potential increase of runoff and soil erosion. The large increases in runoff and sediment yields after high severity fires have been attributed to several factors, among them: increase in soil water repellency; soil sealing by detached particles and by ash particles, and the loss of a surface cover. The presence of a surface cover increases infiltration, and decreases runoff and erosion by several mechanisms which include: rainfall interception, plant evapotranspiration, preservation of soil structure by increasing soil organic matter, and increasing surface roughness. The loss of vegetation cover as a result of fire leaves the surface of the soil exposed to the direct impact of the raindrops, and therefore the sensitivity of the soil to runoff generation and soil loss increases. In this work, we propose a new method to protect soils against post-fire erosion based on the application of synthetic polymers to the soil. Laboratory rainfall simulations and field runoff plots were used to analyze the suitability of the application of synthetic polymers to reduce soil erosion and stabilize soil structure in Mediterranean soils. The combination of these two processes will potentially favor a faster recovery of the vegetation structure. This method has been successfully applied in arable land, however it has not been tested in burnt forests. The outcome of this study may provide important managerial tools for forest management following fires.

  15. Swedish Taxation Since 1862: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Stenkula, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2013. The examination covers six key aspects of the Swedish tax system: the taxation of labor income, capital income, consumption, inheritance and gift, wealth and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes) and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security...

  16. Processing Relative Clause Extractions in Swedish

    OpenAIRE

    Tutunjian, Damon; Heinat, Fredrik; Klingvall, Eva; Wiklund, Anna-Lena

    2017-01-01

    Relative clauses are considered strong islands for extraction across languages. Swedish comprises a well-known exception, allegedly allowing extraction from relative clauses (RCE), raising the possibility that island constraints may be subject to “deep variation” between languages. One alternative is that such exceptions are only illusory and represent “surface variation” attributable to independently motivated syntactic properties. Yet, to date, no surface account has proven tenable for Swed...

  17. The swedish challenge; Le pari Suedois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tregouet, R

    2006-07-01

    Sweden decided to be the first country without petroleum for 2020. The author presents the major energy policy axis implemented by the swedish government to delete the part of the produced energy by the petroleum: development of the renewable energies, research programs of the transportation sector concerning the alternative fuels for the motors, energy efficiency and development of the biomass to replace the nuclear energy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Swedish subseabed store - phase 1 nears completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, James

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the storage of radioactive waste in the subseabed in Sweden. The wastes are low- and intermediate-level reactor wastes arising from the Swedish nuclear power programme. The repository is a cavern which has been excavated under the seabed in the Baltic Sea, about a kilometre out from shore. The specifications of the repository are given, along with the volume of the radioactive wastes to be stored in it. (UK)

  19. Swedish Listed Family Firms and Entrepreneurial Spirit

    OpenAIRE

    Bjuggren, Per-Olof; Palmberg, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the entrepreneurial spirit in Swedish listed family firms. We associate family firms with entrepreneurship in the sense that there is an identifiable person that takes the uninsurable risk in the sense of Knight. This paper analysis two questions: Do entrepreneurial family firms have a higher rate of growth and do they invest in a more profit maximizing fashion than other listed firms? The analysis shows that entrepreneurial family firms in general are smaller in terms...

  20. Predictors of smoking among Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Joffer, Junia; Burell, Gunilla; Bergström, Erik; Stenlund, Hans; Sjörs, Linda; Jerdén, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking most often starts in adolescence, implying that understanding of predicting factors for smoking initiation during this time period is essential for successful smoking prevention. The aim of this study was to examine predicting factors in early adolescence for smoking in late adolescence. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study, involving 649 Swedish adolescents from lower secondary school (12-13 years old) to upper secondary school (17-18 years old). Tobacco habits, behavioural...

  1. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sivertsson, Olof; Tell, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach...

  3. The Transformation of Swedish Shipping, 1970-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Hans; Taro Lennerfors, Thomas; Taudal Poulsen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, as shipping has undergone a period of structural change, Swedish shipping has rapidly declined from a position of global importance. The Swedish-controlled fleet has dwindled, and the structure of the industry itself has changed. This article explores the influence of shipping markets, shipping regulations, company strategies, maritime know-how, and financial resources on the development of Swedish shipping from 1970 to 2010. A comparison is made between, on the one han...

  4. Spatial Heterogeneity of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Its Temporal Course on Arable Land: Combining Field Measurements, Remote Sensing and Simulation in a Comprehensive Data Analysis Approach (CDAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korres, Wolfgang; Montzka, Carsten; Fiener, Peter; Wilken, Florian; Stadler, Anja; Waldhoff, Guido; Schneider, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of leaf area to ground area (leaf area index, LAI) is an important state variable in ecosystem studies since it influences fluxes of matter and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. As a basis for generating temporally continuous and spatially distributed datasets of LAI, the current study contributes an analysis of its spatial variability and spatial structure. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere fluxes of water, carbon and energy are nonlinearly related to LAI. Therefore, its spatial heterogeneity, i.e., the combination of spatial variability and structure, has an effect on simulations of these fluxes. To assess LAI spatial heterogeneity, we apply a Comprehensive Data Analysis Approach that combines data from remote sensing (5 m resolution) and simulation (150 m resolution) with field measurements and a detailed land use map. Test area is the arable land in the fertile loess plain of the Rur catchment on the Germany-Belgium-Netherlands border. LAI from remote sensing and simulation compares well with field measurements. Based on the simulation results, we describe characteristic crop-specific temporal patterns of LAI spatial variability. By means of these patterns, we explain the complex multimodal frequency distributions of LAI in the remote sensing data. In the test area, variability between agricultural fields is higher than within fields. Therefore, spatial resolutions less than the 5 m of the remote sensing scenes are sufficient to infer LAI spatial variability. Frequency distributions from the simulation agree better with the multimodal distributions from remote sensing than normal distributions do. The spatial structure of LAI in the test area is dominated by a short distance referring to field sizes. Longer distances that refer to soil and weather can only be derived from remote sensing data. Therefore, simulations alone are not sufficient to characterize LAI spatial structure. It can be concluded that a comprehensive picture of LAI spatial

  5. Education for the nuclear power industry: Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Swedish nuclear power industry staff, very few newly employed have a deep education in reactor technology. To remedy this, a joint education company, Nuclear Training and Safety Center (KSU), has been formed. To ensure that nuclear competence will be available also in a long-term perspective, the Swedish nuclear power industry and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) have formed a joint center for support of universities, the Swedish Nuclear Technology Center (SKC). The activities of these organisations, their links to universities, and their impact on the competence development for the nuclear power industry will be outlined. (author)

  6. Intrinsic and induced isoproturon catabolic activity in dissimilar soils and soils under dissimilar land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Brian J; Papanikolaou, Niki D; Wilcox, Ronah K

    2005-02-01

    The catabolic activity with respect to the systemic herbicide isoproturon was determined in soil samples by (14)C-radiorespirometry. The first experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples that represented three dissimilar soil series under arable cultivation. Results showed average extents of isoproturon mineralisation (after 240 h assay time) in the three soil series to be low. A second experiment assessed the impact of addition of isoproturon (0.05 microg kg(-1)) into these soils on the levels of catabolic activity following 28 days of incubation. Increased catabolic activity was observed in all three soils. A third experiment assessed levels of intrinsic catabolic activity in soil samples representing a single soil series managed under either conventional agricultural practice (including the use of isoproturon) or organic farming practice (with no use of isoproturon). Results showed higher (and more consistent) levels of isoproturon mineralisation in the soil samples collected from conventional land use. The final experiment assessed the impact of isoproturon addition on the levels of inducible catabolic activity in these soils. The results showed no significant difference in the case of the conventional farm soil samples while the induction of catabolic activity in the organic farm soil samples was significant.

  7. Migration of radionuclides in the soil-crop-food product system and assessment of agricultural countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Ageyets, V.

    1996-01-01

    Studies on dynamics of redistribution of radionuclides through of profile of the different soils on uncultivated agricultural lands of Belarus during the 1986-1995 period show that vertical migration occurs with low rate. In arable soils the radionuclides are distributed in comparatively uniform way through the whole depth of the 25-30 cm cultivated layer. Investigations on migration of radionuclides with wind erosion on the drained series of wet sandy and peat soils and water erosion on sloping lands show that one should take into consideration the secondary contamination of soils while forecasting a possible accumulation of radionuclides in farm products

  8. Towards an agronomic assessment of N2O emissions: a case study for arable crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van J.W.; Velthof, G.L.; Oenema, O.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Kessel, van C.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural soils are the main anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O), largely because of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use. Commonly, N2O emissions are expressed as a function of N application rate. This suggests that smaller fertilizer applications always lead to smaller N2O emissions. Here we

  9. RESOURCES AND STRUCTURE OF USE THE EARTH’S SURFACE AND SOILS IN THE PODKARPACKIE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Kaniuczak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Use the resources and structure of the soil has been studied in Podkarpackie province in the years 1946-2005, divided into three periods of time due to administrative changes in the country and the region (I: 1946-1970, II: 1975-1995, III: 2000-2005. The three time periods studied decreased share of agricultural land and arable land in the general area of the province. In the years 2000-2005 has increased significantly the share of forests and other lands, at the expense of the exclusion of the arable lands and grasslands in agricultural production, which turned into fallow and uncultivated land. The farms 32.7% of arable lands was excluded from the cultivation and has evolved into a fallow and uncultivated land. The holdings of the public sector, this situation was even more unfavorable as it was, and took 86.1% of arable lands for fallow and outfield. During the study period, the structure of individual crops sown undergone substantial changes in the direction of simplification cereal monoculture. The soils of Podkarpackie province are acidic and urgently require liming treatment. Unfavorably was presented a richness soils of available forms macronutrients (P and K in Podkarpackie province, especially in available phosphorus, which was the result of limitations of organic fertilization and low consumption of mineral fertilizers. Over 90% of agricultural soils of Podkarpackie province exhibits natural content of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The aim of the study was to analyze the structure of the Earth's land use and soils, taking into account the structure of crops and some elements of soil fertility and degradation in the context of a slowdown adverse changes.

  10. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Emnova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.

  11. [The concentration and distribution of 137Cs in soils of forest and agricultural ecosystems of Tula Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, D N; Shcheglov, A I; Tsvetnova, O B

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with a comparative study of 137Cs contamination in forest, old arable and cultivated soils of Tula Region. Initial interception of Chernobyl derived 137Cs is higher in forest ecosystems: oak-forest > birch-forest > pine-forest > agricultural ecosystems. Vertical migration of 137Cs in deeper layers of soils was intensive in agricultural ecosystems: cultivated soils > old arable soils > birch-forest soils > oak-forest soils > pine-forest soils. In study have been evaluated spatial variability of 137Cs in soil and asymmetrical distribution, that is a skew to the right. Spatial heterogeneity of 137Cs in agricultural soils is much lower than in forest soils. For cultivated soil are determined the rate of resuspension, which equal to 6.1 x 10(-4) day(-1). For forest soils are described the 137Cs concentration in litter of different ecosystems. The role of main accumulation and barrier of 137Cs retain higher layers of soils (horizon A1(A1E) in forest, horizon Ap in agricultural ecosystems) in long-term forecast after Chernobyl accident.

  12. Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban Soils I Zinc Accumulation Phenomenon in Urban Environments as Clues of Study

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAI, Yutaka

    1981-01-01

    As an introduction of the continuing study on the heavy metal contamination in urban soils, zinc accumulation phenomenon observed in urban areas in south Osaka was reported. The survey of zinc concentration in soybean leaves taken in urban and suburban arable lands indicated its accumulation in a wide area. And a correlation between easy soluble zinc level in soils and leaf zinc content were shown. Zinc concentrations in suspended particles in air, falling dust and some water samples were che...

  13. [The Swedish ambulance services 1935-1936 of Gunnar Agge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Pär; Nilsson, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    The fact that Sweden has been spared from war on its soil for almost 200 years, has not stopped Swedish citizens from participating in conflicts worldwide during this period. This has been described, especially from the soldiers perspective. The contribution of Swedish physicians has not been written about to the same extent. When Mussolini's Italy in October 1935 invaded the poor and underdeveloped country of Ethiopia (former Abyssinia) an ambulance was immediately organized by the Swedish Red Cross. To lead such an expedition, a great knowledge of Ethiopian culture och maybe most importantly, of the weather and geographical conditions, was undoubtedly demanded. Therefore, the Swedish Red Cross turned to two Ethiopian veterans. Doctor Fride Hylander, a missionary-son who had been working on a hospital project in the Ethiopian province of Harrar and his friend since school years, doctor Gunnar Agge, were assigned the leadership of the ambulance. Dr Agge had also participated in improving the Ethiopian health care both in Harrar and later as civilian and military doctor in the province of Ogaden, where he was medically responsible for the more than 9 000 men strong army that the Ethiopian emperor had stationed there after Italian provocations. Most of the other members of the ambulance were handpicked by these two leaders and many of them had, just like themselves, a stong religious belief. A money-raise was immediately initiated and in less than six weeks 700 000 Swedish crowns had been collected, more then twice the sum the ambulance was calculated to cost. In early november 1935 the ambulance was clear to go. Their primary objective was to travel through British Somaliland and establish a field-hospital in the province of Harrar. However, the Ethiopian emperor had other things in mind. He wanted to reorganize the ambulance and divide it in two and place it closer to the front line. The ambulance decided to go along with his wish. Both groups started eventually

  14. Modelling the radioecological transfer of radiocaesium to three Swedish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeaef, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    UNSCEAR has presented a terrestrial transfer model for predicting the annual average concentrations of radionuclides in important diet components and in humans based on the annual ground deposition from atmospheric fallout. The model is composed of three components, the principal component representing the direct contamination of fodder and crops, and the two remaining ones reflecting delayed transfer from previous fallout accumulated in soils. The model is intended to be used for protracted deposition of radionuclides and has been applied to observed time-patterns of 137 Cs body burdens in three different Swedish populations subjected to transfer from continuous nuclear weapons fallout during the 1960s and 1970s. The results show that the best agreement with observed body burden data is obtained by applying an effective ecological half-time, T eco,eff , for nuclear weapons fallout 137 Cs of 0.8 years for urban individuals in the South of Sweden, 2 years for urbans living in the Stockholm area and 4 years for reindeer herders in the middle of Sweden. When compared with the ecological half-times observed in the urban population after the Chernobyl fallout these values appear to be shorter

  15. Assessing soil carbon lability by near infrared spectroscopy and NaOCL oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quantifying labile organic matter (OM) in arable soils and for predicting soil refractory OM fractions was tested on 37 soils varying in texture and soil carbon (C) content. Three sets of arable soils (0-20 cm depth) were sampled from 1) long......-term field experiments with different OM inputs, 2) individual sites with inherent with-in field gradients in soil texture and/or C content, and 3) from a range of different sites covering variations in management and geological origin. The labile OM fraction was defined by the CO2 evolved from the soils...... incubated for 34 weeks while refractory OM was obtained by NaOCl oxidation. The labile fraction of the soil C accounted for 2-12% of the total soil C content. No systematic relationship between labile C content and total soil C or clay was found, but NIR spectra could be correlated well with the labile C...

  16. Insurance cost of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellstrand, Aasa.

    1992-01-01

    What happens if a reactor accident occurs? Can victims of a nuclear accident be compensated for losses? The rights of a victim of a nuclear accident to be compensated for losses are governed by international conventions. These conventions make the licensee of a nuclear plant strictly liable. However, the maximum amount of compensation is limited. In Sweden the total liability of the plant-owner is maximized to 1.2 million Swedish Crowns, that is 0.02 oere/kWh. After the accidents of Harrisburg (1979) and Chernobyl (1986), it has become clear that the amounts of the various conventions are not at all sufficient to cover the damages caused by such an accident. In spite of these facts, there are a large number of reliable sources, who think that the insurance costs are negligible in the cost of production. A cost-benefit analysis based on a study performed by Ottinger et al. in 'Environmental costs of electricity' is therefore adopted to derive the costs of the external effects of nuclear plant operation and from releases to the environment during operation. The environmental externality costs of Swedish nuclear power plant operations are in this report estimated to 18.3 oere/kWh. This figure can be compared to the insurance cost, which for the present is 0.02 oere/kWh. The 'real' insurance cost including the external effects is calculated to approximately 1.12 billion Swedish Crowns] That is 900 times larger than the insurance premium, which the licensee of a nuclear plant faces] (au)

  17. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.5 TWh during 1998, which is the second highest yearly production ever. Production losses due to low demand totaled 5.1 TWh combined for all twelve units and production losses due to coastdown operation totaled an additional 0.5 TWh. The reason for this low power demand was a very good supply of water to the hydropower system. Hydroelectric power production was 73.6 TWh, an increase by roughly 5 TWh since 1997. Hence, the hydroelectric power production substantially exceeded the 64 TWh expected during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Remaining production sources, mainly fossil fuel electricity production combined with district heating, contributed with 10 TWh. The total electricity production was 154.2 TWh, the highest yearly production ever. The total electricity consumption including transmission losses was 143.5 TWh. This is also the highest consumption ever and an increase by one percent compared to 1997. The preliminary net result of the electric power trade shows a net export by 10.7 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production results. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is given in the 1998 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. Besides Oskarshamn 1, all plants have periodically been operated in load-following mode, mostly because of the abundant supply of hydropower. The energy availability for the three boiling water reactors at Forsmark averaged 93.3 % and for the three pressure water reactors at Ringhals 91.0 %, both figures are the highest ever noted. In the section `Special Reports` three events of importance to safety that occurred during 1998 are reported. The events were all rated as level 1 according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) Figs, tabs.; Also available in Swedish

  18. Movements and instability in the Swedish bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerner, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives a geological evaluation of the Swedish bedrock and its movements during the last 20,000 years, which may serve as a base for further evaluations of the possibilities of storing nuclear waste in the bedrock. The Swedish bedrock is by no means stable. Like all other bedrocks it is unstable. The Swedish bedrock has an old and rich tectono-geodynamic inheritance. Irregularities in the uplift in the form of shoreline bends and isobase irregularities have been established with ancient shorelines and geodetic data. They are in general all related to major faultlines and bedrock seams. Bouldery end moraines and bouldery ground in general register paleopseismic activity -(these areas must hence be excluded as alternatives for storage of nuclear waste in the bedrock). The next ice age, is either on its way or it will, under the most favorable circumstances, have begun 20,000years from now (AP). At the next ice age, all the seismic and neotectonic effects from the deglaciation period will be repeated. During an ice age. Nuclear waste cannot bestored in the bedrock. If one succed in finding a Precambrain bedrock unit within an area of smooth uplift, absence of recent earthquakes, the bedrock surface of which shows few fractures and no faultlines, and where the surroundings exhibit normal moraine features and normal till composition, this area must still be evaluated with respect to that which will happen and may happen in connection with the next ice age and in connection with the cyclic gravitational changes in the present linear uplift. (author)

  19. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P drains and surface waters, pathways being associated primarily with unevenly distributed SEMP producing strong smoke plumes.

  20. GENIUS & the Swedish Fast Reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, Janne

    2012-01-01

    Concluding remarks: Sweden’s growing fast reactor programme focuses on LFR technology, but we also participate in ASTRID. • An innovative facility for UN fabrication, an LBE thermal hydraulics loop and a lead corrosion facility are operational. • A plutonium fuel fabrication lab is is under installation (this week!) • The government is assessing the construction of ELECTRA-FCC, a centre for Gen IV-system R&D, at a tentative cost of ~ 140±20 M€. • Location: Oskarshamn (adjacent to intermediate repository) • Date of criticality: 2023 (best case) • Swedish participation in IAEA TWG-FR should intensify

  1. Alpine ski sport injuries in Swedish Lapland

    OpenAIRE

    Made, Curt

    2009-01-01

    Downhill skiing is associated with recreation, youth, speed, aerials and crowded courses which carry increased risk of injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate downhill sport injuries in a Swedish ski resort. Material and methodsIn a case-control study ongoing 1989/90–2006/07, 3,696 injured skiers were registered. After informed consent the injured were assessed by a physician and asked to answer a questionnaire concerning skier, skiing and injury. ResultsAfter three years 481 injured ...

  2. Teachers' Pedagogical Mathematical Awareness in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Camilla; Barendregt, Wolmet

    2016-01-01

    Revised guidelines for Swedish early childhood education that emphasize mathematics content and competencies in more detail than before raise the question of the status of pedagogical mathematical awareness among Swedish early childhood teachers. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of teachers' current pedagogical mathematical…

  3. Irradiated fuel storage and transport: A Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the views of the author and may not correspond to the views of the Swedish industry or the licensing authority. The views are based on experience from consultation to the Swedish licensing authority and from participation in international cooperation, in particular in the OECD/NEA NSC Working Group on Burnup Credit. (author)

  4. Imperatives for "Right" Educational Choices in Swedish Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puaca, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The present article is based on a critical semiotic investigation of the Swedish Long-Term Survey on economic development. It aims to examine how recent Swedish policy trends bring specific economic, political and social processes together to form a system of meaning for both motivation and regulation over individuals' educational choices. What is…

  5. The nuclear waste issue in Swedish mass media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, P.

    1991-04-01

    This is an investigation of the representation given in the Swedish mass media of questions concerning the nuclear waste. The investigation covers the period from 1979 to 1989 of 8 newspapers of different political colours and the Swedish radio and television. (KAE)

  6. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  7. Empirical model for mineralisation of manure nitrogen in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schröder, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    A simple empirical model was developed for estimation of net mineralisation of pig and cattle slurry nitrogen (N) in arable soils under cool and moist climate conditions during the initial 5 years after spring application. The model is based on a Danish 3-year field experiment with measurements...... of N uptake in spring barley and ryegrass catch crops, supplemented with data from the literature on the temporal release of organic residues in soil. The model estimates a faster mineralisation rate for organic N in pig slurry compared with cattle slurry, and the description includes an initial N...

  8. The role of production risks in the conversion to more sustainable arable farming = [De rol van productierisico's in de omschakeling naar een meer duurzame akkerbouw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buck, de A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this thesis was to determine the role of production risks in the conversion to more sustainable production systems of arable farming in The Netherlands. More specifically, the research goals were: (1) to specify the typical production risks that prevent

  9. Climate change adaptation in arable land use, and impact on nitrogen load at catchment scale in northern agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Rankinen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Prolongation of the growing season due to a warming climate could represent new opportunities for northern agriculture. Climatic and biotic constraints may challenge future crop production. The objective of this study was to speculate how a range of arable land use patterns, resulting from various policy driven choices, could be introduced into a farming system, and how they would affect the risks associated with nutrient leaching. We found that while adaptation to climate change must include consideration of crop choices, there are conflicts associated with allocations and rotations for various market and policy situations. The expected increase in nutrient loading in the simulations caused by climate change was moderate. The increase can partly be compensated for by changes in farmland use, more in the shorter term than in the longer term to mid-century. In the future, adaptation at cropping system level is potentially an efficient way to manage nutrient load risks.

  10. Effects of heavy metals on soil microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dian

    2018-02-01

    Soil is one of the most important environmental natural resources for human beings living, which is of great significance to the quality of ecological environment and human health. The study of the function of arable soil microbes exposed to heavy metal pollution for a long time has a very important significance for the usage of farmland soil. In this paper, the effects of heavy metals on soil microbial community were reviewed. The main contents were as follows: the effects of soil microbes on soil ecosystems; the effects of heavy metals on soil microbial activity, soil enzyme activities and the composition of soil microbial community. In addition, a brief description of main methods of heavy metal detection for soil pollution is given, and the means of researching soil microbial community composition are introduced as well. Finally, it is concluded that the study of soil microbial community can well reflect the degree of soil heavy metal pollution and the impact of heavy metal pollution on soil ecology.

  11. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land: Does the regional and local climate respond? Germany as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, Merja H.; Gutjahr, Oliver; Busch, Gerald; Thiele, Jan C.

    2014-03-01

    The extent and magnitude of land cover change effect on local and regional future climate during the vegetation period due to different forms of bioenergy plants are quantified for extreme temperatures and energy fluxes. Furthermore, we vary the spatial extent of plant allocation on arable land and simulate alternative availability of transpiration water to mimic both rainfed agriculture and irrigation. We perform climate simulations down to 1 km scale for 1970-1975 C20 and 2070-2075 A1B over Germany with Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling in Climate Mode. Here an impact analysis indicates a strong local influence due to land cover changes. The regional effect is decreased by two thirds of the magnitude of the local-scale impact. The changes are largest locally for irrigated poplar with decreasing maximum temperatures by 1°C in summer months and increasing specific humidity by 0.15 g kg-1. The increased evapotranspiration may result in more precipitation. The increase of surface radiative fluxes Rnet due to changes in latent and sensible heat is estimated by 5 W m-2locally. Moreover, increases in the surface latent heat flux cause strong local evaporative cooling in the summer months, whereas the associated regional cooling effect is pronounced by increases in cloud cover. The changes on a regional scale are marginal and not significant. Increasing bioenergy production on arable land may result in local temperature changes but not in substantial regional climate change in Germany. We show the effect of agricultural practices during climate transitions in spring and fall.

  12. The Swedish programme for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurstroem, S.; Forsstroem, H.

    1986-10-01

    The following systems and facilities are currently in operation and under implementation: a sea transportation system for all kinds of nuclear waste, a central facility for interim storage of spent fuel (CLAB) and a central underground repository for final disposal of low and medium level reactor waste (SFR). For the remaining steps - final disposal of highly active and longlived radioactive residues - a concept, based on encapsulation of the fuel elements in copper canisters and final storage of the canisters in a repository situated 500 m down in crystalline rock (KBS-3), has been developed and approved by the government in accordance with the Swedish nuclear legislation. Although a feasible method for final disposal of the highly active residues has been shown, the Swedish legislation requires that research be carried out to reach the best possible base for the final decision around the year 2000. In parallel with this a geological investigation programme is carried out to find a suitable site for a final repository. The final site selection is foreseen at the end of the 1990's. All costs for the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants are carried by a fee determined annually. The fee is 0.019 SEK/kWh for 1986

  13. A Swedish perspective on research ethics review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius, M.D., G.P., Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I have participated in writing ethical approval applications for research projects in Sweden a dozen times. I am also since some years a member of the local ethics advisory board in a mostly rural area serving 180.000 people. From that position I advise on what types of local project applications will have to be sent further to the regional ethics committee, REPN in Sweden. With that background I will try to give a brief Swedish perspective on research ethics reviews in general and regarding CGT (classic grounded theory studies using qualitative data in particular.The most famous Swedish example of unethical research is the 1947-1951 Vipeholm sugar trial (Krasse, 2001. Several hundred intellectually and mentally challenged persons at the Vipeholm institution were for years given an excess amount of sugar, mostly in the shape of candy. This resulted in caries that totally ruined the teeth of 50 persons. Of course participants did not give informed consent. Yet, at the time the research was not considered unethical. At least there was no debate about it.

  14. Recent Swedish experiences in 222Rn control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Maekitalo, A.

    1990-01-01

    Swedish local authorities are responsible for decreasing 222 Rn progeny concentrations in homes in their municipalities. To obtain an overall view of their experiences, concerned national authorities sent a questionnaire in 1986 to local authorities. The results were intended to form one basis for decisions by the government regarding revised statements on financial contributions, limits, etc. The results were also intended to be of use to national authorities in determining limits and recommendations and to local authorities in their field work. One result of the survey was an enhanced interest in the Rn problem among Swedish politicians and the mass media. This increased attention resulted in new plans for continued work to decrease Rn levels indoors during 1987-1989, on both a national and a local level. The experiences of the local authorities show that Rn progeny concentrations decreased to below the design level in 95% of newly built houses investigated. It was also found that Rn progeny concentrations were below the limit for reconstruction in 53% of existing homes that previously had levels exceeding the limit

  15. Women's existential experiences within Swedish abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Maria L; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja

    2011-03-01

    To explore Swedish women's experiences of clinical abortion care in relation to their need for existential support. Individual in-depth interviews with 24 women with previous experience of unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Participants were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Interviews were analysed by latent content analysis. Although the women had similar experiences of the abortion care offered, the needs they expressed differed. Swedish abortion care was described as rational and neutral, with physical issues dominating over existential ones. For some women, the medical procedures triggered existential experiences of life, meaning, and morality. While some women abstained from any form of existential support, others expressed a need to reflect upon the existential aspects and/or to reconcile their decision emotionally. As women's needs for existential support in relation to abortion vary, women can be disappointed with the personnel's ability to respond to their thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. To ensure abortion care personnel meet the physical, psychological and existential needs of each patient, better resources and new lines of education are needed to ensure abortion personnel are equipped to deal with the existential aspects of abortion care.

  16. Dynamics of plant nutrient uptake as affected by biopore-associated root growth in arable subsoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Eusun; Kautz, Timo; Huang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    %) precrops, respectively. On average root diameter and root dry mass of following crops were greater by 11 and 15 % after chicory than tall fescue. At anthesis chicory-barley treatment accumulated 10 % more K in comparison to tall fescue-barley treatment. P uptake of canola was greater (7 %) after tall...... fescue compared with chicory at the stage of fruit development. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the subsoil heterogenization by altered soil biopores hold relevance for plant root growth and overall crop performance. However, the effects depended on biopore size classes, root characteristics...

  17. Mapping vegetation patterns in arable land using the models STICS and DAISY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Antje; Casper, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Several statistical methods exist to detect spatial and / or temporal variability with regard to ecological data-analysis: Semivariance-analysis, Trend surface analysis, Kriging, Voronoi polygons, Moran's I and Mantel-test, to mention just some of them. In this contribution, we concentrate on spatial vegetation patterns within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere (SVAT) system. Using variography, spatial analysis with a geographic information system and self-organizing maps, spatial patterns of yield have been isolated in an agro-ecosystem (see poster contribution EGU 2009, EGU2009-8948). Data were derived from two agricultural plots, each about 5 hectare, in the area of Newel, located in Western Palatinate, Germany. The plots have been conventionally cultivated with a crop rotation of winter rape, winter wheat and spring barley. The aim of the present study is to find out if the existing natural spatial patterns can be mapped by means of SVAT models. If so, the discretization of a landscape according to its spatial patterns could be the basis for parameterization of SVAT models in order to model soil-vegetation-atmosphere interaction over a large area, that is for up-scaling. For this purpose the SVAT models STICS (developed by INRA, France) and DAISY (developed at Tåstrup University, Denmark) are applied. After a wide sensitivity analysis both models are parameterized with field data according to the given situation of each of the detected spatial patterns. The results of the simulation per representative location of a pattern are validated first with field data concerning yield, soil water content and soil nitrogen; besides, above ground dry matter, root depth and specific stress indices are used for validation. The conclusions that can be made with regard to up-scaling are discussed in detail. In a second step the results of the STICS model are compared with those of the DAISY model to analyse the models' behaviour, to get further knowledge about the inner structure

  18. Physical and water properties of selected Polish heavy soils of various origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarek Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of selected physical, chemical, and water properties of four mineral arable soils characterized with heavy and very heavy texture. Soil samples from genetic horizons of black earths from areas near Kętrzyn, Gniew and Kujawy, and alluvial soils from Żuławy were used. The following properties were determined in the samples of undisturbed and disturbed structure: texture, particle density, bulk density, porosity, natural and hygroscopic moistures, maximal hygroscopic capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, potential of water bonding in soil, total and readily available water, total retention in the horizon of 0–50 cm, drainage porosity, content of organic carbon and total nitrogen Parent rocks of these soils were clays, silts and loams of various origin. High content of clay fraction strongly influenced the values of all the analyzed properties. All the examined soils had high content of organic carbon and total nitrogen and reaction close to neutral or alkaline. High content of mineral and organic colloids and, what follows, beneficial state of top horizons’ structure, determined – apart from heavy texture – low soil bulk density and high porosity. The investigated soils were characterized by high field water capacity and wide scopes of total and readily available water. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was low and characteristic to heavy mineral arable soils. The parameter which influenced the variability of analyzed parameters most was texture.

  19. Solubility and Potential Mobility of Heavy Metals in Two Contaminated Urban Soils from Stockholm, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oborn, Ingrid; Linde, Mats

    2001-01-01

    The solubility and potential mobility of heavy metals (Cd, Cu,Hg, Pb and Zn) in two urban soils were studied by sequential and leaching extractions (rainwater). Compared to rural (arable) soils on similar parent material, the urban soils were highly contaminated with Hg and Pb and to a lesser extent also with Cd,Cu and Zn. Metal concentrations in rainwater leachates were related to sequential extractions and metal levels reported from Stockholm groundwater. Cadmium and Zn in the soils were mainly recovered in easily extractable fractions, whereas Cu and Pb were complex bound. Concentrations of Pb in the residual fraction were between two- and eightfold those in arable soils, indicating that the sequential extraction scheme did not reflect the solid phases affected by anthropogenic inputs. Cadmium and Zn conc. in the rainwater leachates were within the range detected in Stockholm groundwater, while Cu and Pb conc. were higher, which suggests that Cu and Pb released from the surface soil were immobilised in deeper soil layers. In a soil highly contaminated with Hg, the Hg conc. in the leachate was above the median concentration, but still 50 times lower than the max concentration found in groundwater, indicating the possibility of other sources. In conclusion, it proved difficult to quantitatively predict the mobility of metals in soils by sequential extractions

  20. The Swedish nuclear industry way to approach higher demands on characterisation prior to clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Hellsten, Erik; Berglund, Malin; Larsson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) has introduced new regulations for clearance SSMFS 2011:2 'Regulations concerning clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil from activities with ionizing radiation'. The new regulations came into force January 1, 2012. Compared to the previous regulations these new regulations have a broader scope and have introduced new conditions such as nuclide specific clearance levels. Clearance is practiced to reduce the amount of radioactive waste generated. Cleared material can be reused, recycled or if these two possibilities are not available, disposed of as conventional waste. To be able to meet the requirements for clearance the Swedish nuclear industry has jointly developed guidance for clearance in the form of a handbook and a training course covering the competence requirements in the new regulations. The handbook was developed by a team of representatives from the Swedish nuclear license holders managed by Studsvik on behalf of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The training program was developed in co-operation between Nuclear Safety and training Company (KSU) and Studsvik on behalf of the Swedish nuclear license holders. A major challenge in the adoption to the new regulations is how to provide robust yet cost effective characterisation data. This is especially difficult for mobile materials and equipment which cannot be fully tracked but also for other materials and areas where the nuclide fingerprint has varied over the years. To be able to deal with these issues a lot of attention has to be paid to the historical inventory records and traceability in the clearance process. Materials, rooms and buildings have been divided in four categories with different requirements on frequency and requirements of measurements. The categories are named 'extremely small risk', 'small risk', 'risk' and 'known contamination above clearance levels'. The two day training course is dived into seven parts

  1. Migration of radionuclides in sub-surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachhuber, H.; Bunzl, K.; Dietl, F.; Kretner, R.; Schimmack, W.; Schultz, W.

    1981-08-01

    The object of the investigations was to draw the most realistic conclusions about the spreading rate of the radionuclides Sr, I, Cs and Ce in a model accident contaminating the earth surface for various subsurface soils taken from the environment of the Gorleben salt done. The retardation factors were hence determined for these radionuclides in columntests in undisturbed soil samples and the distribution coefficients determined in disturbed soil samples by shaking tests (batch method). The following mobility series can be given very globally for the examined soil profiles where especially columnar-results had been used: Ranker (Trebel) J > Sr > Ce > Cs, Podsol (Gorleben) J > Cs > Sr > Ce, Braunerde (Bruenkendorf) J approx. >= Sr > Ce approx. >= Cs. Arable Soils: Podsol (Gorleben) J > Sr > Cs > Ce, Parabraunerde (Eschweiler) J > Sr > Ce approx. >= Cs. (orig./HP) [de

  2. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, Thomas

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue. During this period

  3. TOTAL AND HOT-WATER EXTRACTABLE CARBON RELATIONSHIP IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT CROPPING SYSTEMS AND LAND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Šeremešić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the hot water extractable organic carbon (HWOC in 9 arable and 3 non arable soil samples on Haplic Chernozem. The hot water extractable carbon represents assimilative component of the total organic matter (OM that could contain readily available nutrients for plant growth. The obtained fraction of organic carbon (C makes up only a small percentage of the soil OM and directly reflects the changes in the rhizosphere. This labile fraction of the organic matter was separated by hot water extraction at 80°C. In our study the HWOC content in different samples ranged from 125 mg g-1 to 226 mg g-1. On the plots that are under native vegetation, higher values were determined (316 mg g-1 to 388 mg g-1. Whereas samples from arable soils were lower in HWOC. It was found that this extraction method can be successfully used to explain the dynamics of the soil OM. Soil samples with lower content of the total OM had lower HWOC content, indicating that the preservation of the OM depends on the renewal of its labile fractions.

  4. Influence of physical and chemical properties of different soil types on optimal soil moisture for tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zebec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil plasticity is the area of soil consistency, i.e. it represents a change in soil condition due to different soil moisture influenced by external forces activity. Consistency determines soil resistance in tillage, therefore, the aim of the research was to determine the optimum soil moisture condition for tillage and the influence of the chemical and physical properties of the arable land horizons on the soil plasticity on three different types of soil (fluvisol, luvisol and humic glaysol. Statistically significant differences were found between all examined soil types, such as the content of clay particles, the density of packaging and the actual and substitution acidity, the cation exchange capacity and the content of calcium. There were also statistically significant differences between the examined types of soil for the plasticity limit, liquid limit and the plasticity index. The average established value of plasticity limit as an important element for determining the optimal moment of soil tillage was 18.9% mass on fluvisol, 24.0% mass on luvisol and 28.6% mass on humic glaysol. Very significant positive direction correlation with plasticity limits was shown by organic matter, clay, fine silt, magnesium, sodium and calcium, while very significant negative direction correlation was shown by hydrolytic acidity, coarse sand, fine sand and coarse silt. Created regression models can estimate the optimal soil moisture condition for soil cultivation based on the basic soil properties. The model precision is significantly increased by introducing a greater number of agrochemical and agrophysical soil properties, and the additional precision of the model can be increased by soil type data.

  5. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-09-01

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions have been

  6. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  7. Enhanced Yields in Organic Arable Crop Production by Eco-Functional Intensification using Intercropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Bedoussac, Laurent; Carlsson, Georg

    2015-01-01

    for enhancing yields in OA. EFI involves activating more knowledge and intensifying the beneficial effects of ecosystem functions, including agrobiodiversity (planned and associated) and soil fertility, and refocusing the importance of ecosystems services in agriculture. Organic farmers manage agrobiodiversity...... in space by intercropping, fitted into the organic crop rotation, has a strong potential to increase yield and hereby reduce the global environmental effects performance such as GHG per kg organic grain. Finally, we discuss likely barriers for increased use of intercropping in organic farming and suggest...... by planned crop diversification in time (crop rotation). However, cultivating genetically identical plants in OA sole crops (SC), limits resource use efficiency and yield per unit area. Intercropping (IC) of annual species or cultivars, perennial polycultures of forage or grain crops and agroforestry...

  8. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.; Van Hees, M.

    2005-01-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 and to fibres 1.0 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 . Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12 300 kBq m -2 ). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination -2 ). Use of stems as biofuel is restricted to areas with contamination levels of -2 for flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3 x 10 -3 m 2 kg -1 ) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care

  9. The influence of reduced tillage on water regime and nutrient leaching in a loamy soil

    OpenAIRE

    Baigys, Giedrius; Gaigalis, Kazimieras; Kutra, Ginutis

    2006-01-01

    The effect of tillage technologies and terms on soil moisture regime and nitrate leaching was studied in field trials carried out on 0.76-1.36-ha fields. The study site was arranged in Pikeliai village (Kėdainiai district). The soil prevailing in the study site is Endocalcari - Endohypogleic Cambisol, sandy light loam and sandy loam on deeper layers of sandy loam and sandy light loam. The arable horizon contains sandy light loam, which is characteristic of the soils prevailing in the Middle L...

  10. Effects of band-steaming on microbial activity and abundance in organic farming soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Jørgensen, Martin Heide; Elmholt, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Band-steaming of arable soil at 80-90 ◦C kill off weed seeds prior to crop establishment which allows an extensive intra-row weed control. Here we evaluated the side-effects of in situ band-steaming on soil respiration, enzyme activities, and numbers of culturable bacteria and fungi in an organic...... insignificant or slightly stimulatory (P recovery during 90 days after band-steaming. Bacterial colony-forming units increased after soil steaming...... whereas the number of fungal propagules was reduced by 50% (P recovery potential...

  11. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    Survey 2003. Work demands, decision authority, support and conflicts at work were measured in 2003. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 2006 by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: After adjusting......PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...... authority, support and conflicts at work are predictive of depressive symptoms in the general Swedish working population....

  12. Persistent Soil Seed Banks for Natural Rehabilitation of Dry Tropical Forests in Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebrehiwot, K.; Heyn, M.; Reubens, B.; Hermy, M.; Muys, B.

    2007-01-01

    Dry tropical forests are threatened world-wide by conversion to grazing land, secondary forest, savannah or arable land. In Ethiopia, natural dry forest cover has been decreasing at an alarming rate over the last decennia and has reached a critical level. Efforts like the rehabilitation of dry forests to curb this ecological degradation, need a stronger scientific basis than currently available. The aim of the present research was to test the hypothesis whether soil seed banks can contribute ...

  13. Bioremediation of organophosphates by fungi and bacteria in agricultural soils. A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gina María Hernández-Ruiz; Natalia Andrea Álvarez-Orozco; Leonardo Alberto Ríos-Osorio

    2017-01-01

    Organophosphates are a type of pesticides widely used in agriculture for pest control. Since these are highly toxic compounds, their excessive use has caused great deterioration of arable soils, as well as serious damage to ecosystems and human health. Bioremediation is used as an alternative way to transform pesticides into simple, less polluting compounds, using the metabolic potential of microorganisms. Therefore, the objective of t...

  14. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  15. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Salomé, Jenny; Boonstra, Philip S; Karimi, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have......-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2...... families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families) comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM) we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age...

  16. Wood flow problems in the Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this paper we give an overview of the wood-flow in Sweden including a description of organization and planning. Based on that, we will describe a number of applications or problem areas in the wood-flow chain that are currently considered by the Swedish forest companies to be important and potential in order to improve overall operations. We have focused on applications which are short term planning or operative planning. We do not give any final results as much of the development is currently ongoing or is still in a planning phase. Instead we describe what kind of models and decision support systems that could be applied in order to improve co-operation within and integration of the wood-flow chain 13 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  17. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....

  18. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  19. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES)

  20. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  1. Decommissioning planning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Gunnar; Bergh, Niklas [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The technologies required for the decommissioning work are for the most part readily proven. Taken into account that there will be many more years before the studied reactor units will undergo decommissioning, the techniques could even be called conventional at that time. This will help bring the decommissioning projects to a successful closure. A national waste fund is already established in Sweden to finance amongst others all dismantling and decommissioning work. This will assure that funding for the decommissioning projects is at hand when needed. All necessary plant data are readily available and this will, combined with a reliable management system, expedite the decommissioning projects considerably. Final repositories for both long- and short-lived LILW respectively is planned and will be constructed and dimensioned to receive the decommissioning waste from the Swedish NPP:s. Since the strategy is set and well thought-through, this will help facilitate a smooth disposal of the radioactive decommissioning waste. (orig.)

  2. Fostering Perspectives on Swedish and Indian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harveen Kaur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection of cultural differences recorded by the author during her research visit to Sweden in the year 2017 (February-March month. The objectives of the research visit included understanding official dialects of both countries, existing education system and work environments, variant food habits, family structure and associations, available transport systems, sustainable living options and cultural exchange within India and Sweden. The information was first collected through existing literature and was supported by information collected through observation method, informal discussions and interactions with the Swedish people. It can be concluded that both countries are culturally very different and different parts of each country further exhibit alteration in cultural practices, languages and food preferences. Some variations are also due to population size in both countries. For instance, transportation is very well developed in developed countries due to the availability of advanced technology and less population.

  3. Offshoring practices of Danish and Swedish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Johansen, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) configure their operations on the global scale and how this affects their home bases in terms of operations requirements and priorities. In order to relate SMEs’ offshoring initiatives with their operations configuration attributes, we...... draw on the operations networks literature and survey responses from 675 Danish and 410 Swedish companies. On the basis of the survey results, we find that although the SMEs are less experienced and less advanced in their offshoring ventures than large companies, they are building dispersed operations...... networks. Although still in their infancy, these networks are, as expected, creating new demands for their home bases in terms of demands for formalisation of work processes, systems development and managerial capability related to orchestrating operations across national borders, but more fundamentally...

  4. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, S.

    2001-01-01

    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  5. Digital Components in Swedish NPP Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mattias; Eriksson, Tage

    2015-01-01

    Swedish nuclear power plants have over the last 20 years of operation modernised or exchanged several systems and components of the electrical power system. Within these works, new components based on digital technology have been employed in order to realize functionality that was previously achieved by using electro-mechanical or analogue technology. Components and systems such as relay protection, rectifiers, inverters, variable speed drives and diesel-generator sets are today equipped with digital components. Several of the systems and components fulfil functions with a safety-role in the NPP. Recently, however, a number of incidents have occurred which highlight deficiencies in the design or HMI of the equipment, which warrants questions whether there are generic problems with some applications of digital components that needs to be addressed. The use of digital components has presented cost effective solutions, or even the only available solution on the market enabling a modernisation. The vast majority of systems using digital components have been operating without problems and often contribute to improved safety but the challenge of non-detectable, or non-identifiable, failure modes remain. In this paper, the extent to which digital components are used in Swedish NPP power systems will be presented including a description of typical applications. Based on data from maintenance records and fault reports, as well as interviews with designers and maintenance personnel, the main areas where problems have been encountered and where possible risks have been identified will be described. The paper intends to investigate any 'tell-tales' that could give signals of unwanted behaviour. Furthermore, particular benefits experienced by using digital components will be highlighted. The paper will also discuss the safety relevance of these findings and suggest measures to improve safety in the application of digital components in power systems. (authors)

  6. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 70.5 TWh during 1998, which is the second highest yearly production ever. Production losses due to low demand totaled 5.1 TWh combined for all twelve units and production losses due to coastdown operation totaled an additional 0.5 TWh. The reason for this low power demand was a very good supply of water to the hydropower system. Hydroelectric power production was 73.6 TWh, an increase by roughly 5 TWh since 1997. Hence, the hydroelectric power production substantially exceeded the 64 TWh expected during a normal year, i.e. a year with average rainfall. Remaining production sources, mainly fossil fuel electricity production combined with district heating, contributed with 10 TWh. The total electricity production was 154.2 TWh, the highest yearly production ever. The total electricity consumption including transmission losses was 143.5 TWh. This is also the highest consumption ever and an increase by one percent compared to 1997. The preliminary net result of the electric power trade shows a net export by 10.7 TWh. The figures above are calculated from the preliminary production results. A comprehensive report on electric power supply and consumption in Sweden is given in the 1998 Annual Report from the Swedish Power Association. Besides Oskarshamn 1, all plants have periodically been operated in load-following mode, mostly because of the abundant supply of hydropower. The energy availability for the three boiling water reactors at Forsmark averaged 93.3 % and for the three pressure water reactors at Ringhals 91.0 %, both figures are the highest ever noted. In the section 'Special Reports' three events of importance to safety that occurred during 1998 are reported. The events were all rated as level 1 according to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

  7. 137Cs concentration distribution in among feeds and various soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csupka, S.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of 137 Cs in four types of arable land and soil with grass cover (chernozem, serozem, gely soddy soil and meadow calcareous soil) is different. In arable land the penetration of 137 Cs into greater depths is higher than under the grasscover, where the main proportion of 137 Cs is retained by the upper layers in the depth of 0 to 5 cm. The only exception is gley soddy soil, where the upper layers allow the passage of radionuclides into greater depths. In the soil horizon to a depth of 50 cm out or the total content of 137 Cs from 16 to 47% is bound in exchangeable form and from 53 to 84% in a form available to plants according to the soil type. The relationship between exchangeable 137 Cs and that available to plants in soils is given by the coefficient of desorption and the relation between the 137 Cs content in the plant and in the soil is given by the coefficient of concentration. Their value varies within the range of 0.1 to 2.6. (author)

  8. Soil Degradation, Land Scarcity and Food Security: Reviewing a Complex Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil health, along with water supply, is the most valuable resource for humans, as human life depends on the soil’s generosity. Soil degradation, therefore, poses a threat to food security, as it reduces yield, forces farmers to use more inputs, and may eventually lead to soil abandonment. Unfortunately, the importance of preserving soil health appears to be overlooked by policy makers. In this paper, I first briefly introduce the present situation concerning agricultural production, natural resources, soil degradation, land use and the challenge ahead, to show how these issues are strictly interwoven. Then, I define soil degradation and present a review of its typologies and estimates at a global level. I discuss the importance of preserving soil capital, and its relationship to human civilization and food security. Trends concerning the availability of arable agricultural land, different scenarios, and their limitations, are analyzed and discussed. The possible relation between an increase in a country’s GNP, population and future availability of arable land is also analyzed, using the World Bank’s database. I argue that because of the many sources of uncertainty in the data, and the high risks at stake, a precautionary approach should be adopted when drawing scenarios. The paper ends with a discussion on the key role of preserving soil organic matter, and the need to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. I also argue that both our relation with nature and natural resources and our lifestyle need to be reconsidered.

  9. Impact of Atmospheric Long Range Transport of Lead, Mercury and Cadmium on the Swedish Forest Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, K.; Bergbaeck, B.; Tyler, G.

    2001-01-01

    Emissions of Hg, Pb, and Cd to air are transported over wide areas in Europe and deposited far away from their sources. About 80% of the atmospheric deposition of these metals in south Sweden originate from emissions in other countries. As a result of the increased anthropogenic deposition the concentrations of Hg, Pb, and Cd in the morlayer of forest soils have increased considerably, mainly during the 20th century. Although the atmospheric deposition of these elements has declined during the most recent decades, the reduction of the input of Hg and Pb is not sufficient to prevent a further accumulation. The concentrations of Hg and Pb are still increasing by ca. 0.5and ca. 0.2% annually in the surface layer of forest soils.In contrast, the Cd concentration is currently decreasing in a large part of Sweden as a result of both deposition decreases and enhanced leaching induced by soil acidification. The accumulation factors of Hg and Pb, especially in the forest topsoils of south Sweden, are already above those at which adverse effects on soil biological processes and organisms have been demonstrated in studies of gradients from local emission sources and laboratory assessment. There are also indications of such effects at the current regional concentrations of Hg and Pbin mor layers from south Sweden, judging from observations in field and laboratory studies. There is an apparent risk of Pb induced reduction in microbial activity over parts of south Sweden. This might cause increased accumulation of organic matter and a reduced availability of soil nutrients. At current concentrations of Hg in Swedish forest soils,effects similar to those of Pb are likely. Increased concentrations of these elements in organs of mammals and birds have also been measured, though decreases have been demonstrated in recent years, related to changes in atmospheric deposition rates. As a result of current and past deposition in south Sweden, concentrations of Hg in fish have increased

  10. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research, Radioecology Section, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Van Hees, M [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN, Department of Radiation Protection Research, Radioecology Section, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} and to fibres 1.0 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}. Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12 300 kBq m{sup -2}). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination <740 kBq m{sup -2}). Use of stems as biofuel is restricted to areas with contamination levels of <250 and 1050 kBq m{sup -2} for flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care.

  11. Assessing the environmental performance of English arable and livestock holdings using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, D B; Park, J R; Mauchline, A L; Crane, R T; Mortimer, S R

    2011-03-01

    Agri-environment schemes (AESs) have been implemented across EU member states in an attempt to reconcile agricultural production methods with protection of the environment and maintenance of the countryside. To determine the extent to which such policy objectives are being fulfilled, participating countries are obliged to monitor and evaluate the environmental, agricultural and socio-economic impacts of their AESs. However, few evaluations measure precise environmental outcomes and critically, there are no agreed methodologies to evaluate the benefits of particular agri-environmental measures, or to track the environmental consequences of changing agricultural practices. In response to these issues, the Agri-Environmental Footprint project developed a common methodology for assessing the environmental impact of European AES. The Agri-Environmental Footprint Index (AFI) is a farm-level, adaptable methodology that aggregates measurements of agri-environmental indicators based on Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) techniques. The method was developed specifically to allow assessment of differences in the environmental performance of farms according to participation in agri-environment schemes. The AFI methodology is constructed so that high values represent good environmental performance. This paper explores the use of the AFI methodology in combination with Farm Business Survey data collected in England for the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN), to test whether its use could be extended for the routine surveillance of environmental performance of farming systems using established data sources. Overall, the aim was to measure the environmental impact of three different types of agriculture (arable, lowland livestock and upland livestock) in England and to identify differences in AFI due to participation in agri-environment schemes. However, because farm size, farmer age, level of education and region are also likely to influence the environmental performance of a

  12. Pollution of intensively managed greenhouse soils by nutrients and heavy metals in the Yellow River Irrigation Region, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaole; Cao, Jing; Tang, Rangyun; Zhang, Shengqiang; Dong, Fang

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and nutrient accumulation in polytunnel greenhouse soils in the Yellow River irrigation region (YRIR), Northwest China, and to identify the potential sources of these heavy metals using principal component analysis. Contents of available nitrogen (AN), phosphorus (AP), and potassium (AK) in the surface polytunnel greenhouse soils (0-20 cm) varied from 13.42 to 486.78, from 39.10 to 566.97, and from 21.64 to 1,156.40 mg kg(-1), respectively, as well as AP, soil organic matter (SOM) and AK contents tended to increase significantly at the 0-20- and 20-40-cm soil layers. Heavy metal accumulations occurred in the polytunnel greenhouse soils as compared to arable soils, especially at a depth of 20 cm where Cd, Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher than arable soil. Cd and As were found to be the two main polluting elements in the greenhouse soils because their contents exceeded the thresholds established for greenhouse vegetable production HJ333-2006 in China and the background of Gansu province. It has been shown that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at the 0-20-cm soil layer were derived mainly from agricultural production activities, whereas contents of Cr and Ni at the same soil layer were determined by 'natural' factors and As originated from natural sources, deposition and irrigation water.

  13. A Preliminary Study on Termite Mound Soil as Agricultural Soil for Crop Production in South West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Omofunmi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a popular belief of the people in the Southern region of Nigeria that a land infested with termite usually brings prosperity to the land owner regardless of the type of its usage. Therefore, the present study assessed termite mounds soil properties which are important to crop production. Two soil samples were collected and their physical and chemical properties determined in accordance with American Public Health Association (APHA, 2005. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The textural classes showed that the termite mound soil was sand clay loam while the surrounding soil was clay loam. This results revealed that: Termites’ activity induced significant chemical changes in the soil possible due to the materials used in building their nests. There was increase the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, Potassium, calcium and magnesium higher in the termite’s mounds, while the micro-nutrients (zinc, iron and copper except sulphur and manganese lower in the soil infested by termites. There were significant differences (p ≥ 0.05 between termite mound soil and surrounding soil. It showed highly positive correlation between termite mound and surrounding soil (r= 0.92. The concentration of the soil properties around the termite mound are within the range of soil nutrients suitable for arable crop production. Termite mound soil is recommended to be used as an alternative to local farmers who cannot afford to buy expensive inorganic fertilizers.

  14. Transport of veterinary antibiotics in overland flow following the application of slurry to arable land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Paul; Blackwell, Paul A; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2005-05-01

    The environment may be exposed to veterinary medicines administered to livestock due to the application of organic fertilisers to land. Slurry is often spread on to fields following the harvest of the previous crop. Despite recommendations to do so, the slurry may not be ploughed into the soil for some time. If precipitation occurs before incorporation then it is likely that the slurry and any antibiotic residues in the slurry will be transported towards surface waters in overland flow. This phenomenon has been investigated in a plot study and transport via 'tramlines' has been compared to that through crop stubble. Three veterinary antibiotics, from the tetracycline, sulphonamide and macrolide groups, were applied to the plots in pig slurry. Twenty four hours after the application the plots were irrigated. Following this the plots received natural rainfall. Sulphachloropyridazine was detected in runoff from the tramline plot at a peak concentration of 703.2 microgl(-1) and oxytetracycline at 71.7 microgl(-1). Peak concentrations from the plot that did not contain a tramline were lower at 415.5 and 32 microgl(-1), respectively. In contrast, tylosin was not detected at all. Mass losses of the compounds were also greater from the tramline plot due to greater runoff generation. These did not exceed 0.42% for sulphachloropyridazine and 0.07% for oxytetracycline however.

  15. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental....... Adjusting for these model-estimated side-effects resulted in wheat grain yields gains from manure application of 0.7-1.1 Mg DM ha-1. The apparent recovery efficiency of N in grains (N use efficiency, NUE) from NH4-N in applied manure varied from 23% to 44%. The NUE in the winter cereals of N accumulated......-estimated benefit of increasing N input in grass-clover from 100 to 500 kg N ha-1 varied from 0.8 to 2.0 Mg DM ha-1 between locations. This is a considerably smaller yield increase than obtained for manure application, and it suggests that the productivity in this system may be improved by removing the cuttings...

  16. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-)cult...

  17. Work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstrup, Christina

    2008-01-01

    During the last decades, Swedish livestock farming has undergone considerable structural changes and technical development, which have influenced the work environment and health of the workers in several ways. The general aim of the studies was to investigate the work environment and health among Swedish livestock workers on large modern dairy and pig farms. The studies were mainly based on questionnaires. The results showed that the livestock workers reported high frequencies of musculoskele...

  18. Doing gender (in) equality in Swedish family farming

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Elias

    2014-01-01

    Economic and social conditions on Swedish farms have altered in recent decades, restructuring the sector, but the family farm is still the primary production unit. Sweden is often described as a role model in gender equality, but a gender-unequal situation in farming has been identified, posing a political challenge. This thesis critically assessed how gender inequalities are reproduced within Swedish family farming by analysing how the 'doing' of family farming, in terms of labour and ma...

  19. Analysis of Swedish consumers’ attitude to Chinese food

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out what’s attitude Swedish consumers have to Chinese food. The questionnaires based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) are handed out to 100 Swedish respondents in order to investigate their motivation on Chinese food choice. 78 questionnaires which were filled completely were selected for this study. Eleven factors involved in the questionnaire are labeled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, ...

  20. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research

  1. External review and validation of the Swedish national inpatient register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jeong-Lim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR, also called the Hospital Discharge Register, is a principal source of data for numerous research projects. The IPR is part of the National Patient Register. The Swedish IPR was launched in 1964 (psychiatric diagnoses from 1973 but complete coverage did not begin until 1987. Currently, more than 99% of all somatic (including surgery and psychiatric hospital discharges are registered in the IPR. A previous validation of the IPR by the National Board of Health and Welfare showed that 85-95% of all diagnoses in the IPR are valid. The current paper describes the history, structure, coverage and quality of the Swedish IPR. Methods and results In January 2010, we searched the medical databases, Medline and HighWire, using the search algorithm "validat* (inpatient or hospital discharge Sweden". We also contacted 218 members of the Swedish Society of Epidemiology and an additional 201 medical researchers to identify papers that had validated the IPR. In total, 132 papers were reviewed. The positive predictive value (PPV was found to differ between diagnoses in the IPR, but is generally 85-95%. Conclusions In conclusion, the validity of the Swedish IPR is high for many but not all diagnoses. The long follow-up makes the register particularly suitable for large-scale population-based research, but for certain research areas the use of other health registers, such as the Swedish Cancer Register, may be more suitable.

  2. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  3. Agricultural management impact on physical and chemical functions of European peat soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piayda, Arndt; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Dettmann, Ullrich; Bechtold, Michel; Buschmann, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Peat soils offer numerous functions from the global to the local scale: they constitute the biggest terrestrial carbon storage on the globe, form important nutrient filters for catchments and provide hydrological buffer capacities for local ecosystems. Peat soils represent a large share of soils suitable for agriculture in temperate and boreal Europe, pressurized by increasing demands for production. Cultivated peat soils, however, show extreme mineralization rates of the organic substance and turn into hotspots for green house gas emissions, are highly vulnerable to land surface subsidence, soil and water quality deterioration and thus crop failure. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of past agricultural management on soil physical and chemical functions of peat soils in six European countries. We conducted standardized soil mapping, soil physical/chemical analysis, ground water table monitoring and farm business surveys across 7 to 10 sites in Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark, Estonia, Finland and Sweden. The results show a strong impact of past agricultural management on peat soil functions across Europe. Peat soil under intensive arable land use consistently offer lowest bearing capacities in the upper 10 cm compared to extensive and intensive grassland use, which is a major limiting factor for successful agricultural practice on peat soils. The difference can be explained by root mat stabilization solely, since soil compaction in the upper 25cm is highest under arable land use. A strong decrease of available water capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity is consequently observed under arable land use, further intensifying hydrological problems like ponding, drought stress and reductions of hydrological buffer capacities frequently present on cultivated peat soils. Soil carbon stocks clearly decrease with increasing land use intensity, showing highest carbon stocks on extensive grassland. This is supported by the degree of decomposition, which

  4. Modeling of the cesium 137 air transfer taking account of dust-making distinction on arable and long-fallow lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.P.; Zhmura, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical model for air transfer of cesium 137 out from the contaminated regions which takes into account of dust-making distinction on arable and long-fallow lands is suggested. The calculation results of near-ground concentrations of cesium 137 for several towns of Belarus are presented. The sources of the contamination of the atmosphere in each calculated point have been analysed

  5. Changes in methane oxidation activity and methanotrophic community composition in saline alkaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Silva, Nancy; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J

    2014-05-01

    The soil of the former Lake Texcoco is a saline alkaline environment where anthropogenic drainage in some areas has reduced salt content and pH. Potential methane (CH4) consumption rates were measured in three soils of the former Lake Texcoco with different electrolytic conductivity (EC) and pH, i.e. Tex-S1 a >18 years drained soil (EC 0.7 dS m(-1), pH 8.5), Tex-S2 drained for ~10 years (EC 9.0 dS m(-1), pH 10.3) and the undrained Tex-S3 (EC 84.8 dS m(-1), pH 10.3). An arable soil from Alcholoya (EC 0.7 dS m(-1), pH 6.7), located nearby Lake Texcoco was used as control. Methane oxidation in the soil Tex-S1 (lowest EC and pH) was similar to that in the arable soil from Alcholoya (32.5 and 34.7 mg CH4 kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), respectively). Meanwhile, in soils Tex-S2 and Tex-S3, the potential CH4 oxidation rates were only 15.0 and 12.8 mg CH4 kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), respectively. Differences in CH4 oxidation were also related to changes in the methane-oxidizing communities in these soils. Sequence analysis of pmoA gene showed that soils differed in the identity and number of methanotrophic phylotypes. The Alcholoya soil and Tex-S1 contained phylotypes grouped within the upland soil cluster gamma and the Jasper Ridge, California JR-2 clade. In soil Tex-S3, a phylotype related to Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum was detected.

  6. Antibiotic resistance of microorganisms in agricultural soils in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, N. V.; Galitskaya, P. Yu; Selivanovskaya, S. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotics are medicines that are widely used in livestock production not only for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, but also for accelerating the growth of animals. The application of manure for fertilizing agricultural soils leads to the entry into the soil ecosystem not only of the antibiotics themselves, but also the resistance genes to them. In this study, 30 samples of arable soils were tested for the presence of the tet(X) gene, which encodes bacterial resistance to antibiotics of the tetracycline group. Using real-time PCR, it was found that 27 out of 30 soil samples contained tet(X). 52% of these samples were heavily contaminated, 34% had a medium level of contamination and 14% were slightly contaminated by the resistance gene tet(X).

  7. Effect of soil warming and rainfall patterns on soil N cycling in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Raveendra Hanumantagoud; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2010-01-01

    . These changes may affect soil moisture regimes, soil water drainage, soil nitrogen (N) availability and N leaching to aquatic environment and N2O emissions to atmosphere. Thus it is important to study the effects of increased soil temperature and varying rainfall patterns on soil N cycling in arable land from...... temperate climates, which is a major source of N pollution. An open-field lysimeter study was carried out during 2008-2009 in Denmark on loamy sand soil (Typic Hapludult) with three factors: number of rainy days, rainfall amount and soil warming. Number of rainy days included the mean monthly rainy days...... by 5 °C at 0.1 m depth as ‘heated' and non-heated as ‘control' treatments. Automated mobile rain-out shelter and irrigation system, and insulated buried heating cables were used to impose the treatments. Soil warming, compared with unheated control, advanced winter wheat crop development, and increased...

  8. Balance and forms of zinc in soil and its uptake by plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Poláková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, zinc flows in arable soils of the Czech Republic and zinc fractions in arable soils are studied. Furthermore, a zinc uptake by agricultural plants is focused. Based on a database of the programme The basal soil monitoring system (BSMS a static zinc balance for arable soils on the national level was assessed. This programme is carried out by The Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (CISTA in Brno. As a representative for the zinc balance calculation, 121 monitoring plots were chosen. The Czech Republic net zinc fluxes ranged from –1250 g.ha– 1.y– 1 to +5595 g.ha– 1.y– 1, median +453 g.ha– 1.y– 1. The maximum zinc fluxes are typical of plots with manure applications. An atmospheric deposition is the most important input of zinc into arable soils. It makes 96,6% of the whole inputs. Leaching and run-off are neglected in this zinc balance by reason of missing credible data. The project Examination of zinc availability in dependence on its form in soil was established to provide more information about behavior of zinc in soil. The first step was starting a greenhouse pot experiment, which was focused on comparison of several extraction agents (AR, 2M HNO3, 0.43M HNO3, Mehlich III, DTPA, CAT, 1M NH4NO3, 0.01M CaCl2. Four soils with increasing zinc content were picked out for this experiment (Domanínek, Chrlice, Kutná Hora, Hlízov. Total zinc contents in these selected soils ranged from 156.8 to 583.7 ppm in dry matter (Aqua regia extraction. Contents in plants were in wide range from 20.7 to 273 ppm in dry matter according to the plant variety and used soil. Strong correlations between 0.43M HNO3, Mehlich III, DTPA and CAT were proved. Using of weaker extraction agents enabled to distinguish geogenic and anthropogenic origin of the contamination.

  9. Field Scale Studies on the Spatial Variability of Soil Quality Indicators in Washington State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arable lands are needed for sustainable agricultural systems to support an ever-growing human population. Soil quality needs to be defined to assure that new land brought into crop production is sustainable. To evaluate soil quality, a number of soil attributes will need to be measured, evaluated, and integrated into a soil-quality index using the multivariable indicator kriging (MVIK procedure. This study was conducted to determine the spatial variability and correlation of indicator parameters on a field scale with respect to soil quality and suitability for use with MVIK. The variability of the biological parameters decreased in the order of respiration > enzyme assays and qCO2 > microbial biomass C. The distribution frequency of all parameters except respiration were normal although the spatial distribution across the landscape was highly variable. The biological parameters showed little correlation with each other when all data points were considered; however, when grouped in smaller sections, the correlations were more consistent with observed patterns across the field. To accurately assess soil quality, and arable land use, consideration of spatial and temporal variability, soil conditions, and other controlling factors must be taken into account.

  10. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny von Salomé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171, or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86. The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1

  11. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Salomé, Jenny; Boonstra, Philip S; Karimi, Masoud; Silander, Gustav; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Gebre-Medhin, Samuel; Aravidis, Christos; Nilbert, Mef; Lindblom, Annika; Lagerstedt-Robinson, Kristina

    2017-10-01

    Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families) comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM) we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R) estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171), or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R) and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86). The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1 and MSH6 are

  12. Soil seed-bank composition reveals the land-use history of calcareous grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlík, Petr; Poschlod, Peter

    2014-07-01

    We compared soil seed banks and vegetation of recent (established on abandoned arable fields) and ancient (continuously managed as pastures at least since 1830) calcareous grasslands if there is any impact of former arable field use. The study was carried out in two regions of Southern Germany with well-preserved dry grassland vegetation: the western Jurassic mountains (Kaltes Feld) and the climatically drier eastern part of Southern Germany (Kallmünz). Total number of species in the seed bank was similar in both regions, but species composition partly differed, reflecting phytogeographical differences between the regions. The total number of emerged seedlings showed a large disparity (5457 compared to 2523 seedlings/m2 in Kaltes Feld and Kallmünz, respectively). Though there were differences in seed bank composition and size, we found a uniform pattern of plant traits (affiliation to phytosociological groups, Raunkiaer plant life-forms and seed longevity), which depended on the age of the grassland. The main conclusion is that seed banks in contemporary calcareous grasslands still reflect the history of former land use - in this case arable cultivation, even though it occurred a long time ago (up to 150 years). Indicators of former arable fields are germinable seeds of weeds which have persisted in the soil to the present. By contrast, weedy species are completely absent from the seed banks of ancient grasslands. Soil seed banks of recent grasslands may be of substantial conservation importance because they may store seeds of rare and endangered weed species such as Kickxia spuria, Silene noctiflora and Stachys annua, the majority of which have already gone extinct from the current vegetation of the study sites.

  13. Reduction of Cs-137 levels in plants and fungi after potassium fertilization in a Swedish forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, I.

    1998-01-01

    The uptake of 137 Cs in plants in forest ecosystems are much higher than in agricultural ecosystems. One reason could be that the concentrations of mineral nutrients usually are at much lower levels in forest soils compared to soil from arable land. On the other hand there are often rather weak correlation between the concentrations of exchangeable potassium in forest soils and the levels of 137 Cs in, e. g., dwarf-shrubs. The variations of the potassium levels are rather small in forest soils. This deficit can be offset by fertilization with potassium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of potassium fertilization on the uptake of 137 Cs in a rather nutrient poor forest ecosystem - a rocky area with a rather shallow soil layer with high organic content. The potassium was spread in May 1992 by using normal agricultural equipment in efforts to get to 200 kg of potassium chloride per hectare. Three plots about 200 m 2 each were selected on the fertilized area and used for sampling of blueberry, lingonberry and heather. One sampling was performed before the spreading and then at least once a year up to 1997. During the mushroom season, the fruit bodies of the commonest species of fungi were collected within the 3 plots. A closely located rocky area was selected as the control area. The 137 Cs levels in blueberry and lingonberry only showed a minor decrease during the 1992 vegetation period. In contrast, heather showed a marked decrease of about 50 % already the first year. In mushrooms (Lactarius rufus and Rozites caperatus) the decrease was even more pronounced. In 1997, 5 vegetation periods after the fertilization, the Cs-137 levels in blueberry, lingonberry and heather were 633, 926 and 3,22 Bq/kg, respectively, amounting to 23%, 53%, and 24% of the control levels (2767, 1741 and 13,2 Bq/kg, respectively). Even fruit bodies of the fungi showed 137 Cs levels around 30 to 50 % of that in the control area. Thus, potassium fertilization appears

  14. Swedish Radiation Protection Institute: information activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of SSI's Information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfill other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Stralskyddsnytt and SSI News. Stralskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,000 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,800. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSI also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information on radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialized research library. (author)

  15. Swedish radiation protection institute. Information activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of SSI's information and PR Service is to broaden public awareness of radiation and radiation risks as well as to fulfil other performance goals. SSI achieves this through its advisory, educational and informative activities. SSI publishes two external magazines, Straalskyddsnytt and SSI News. Straalskyddsnytt - which is available in Swedish only - has a circulation of 2,400 and is published four times a year. SSI News - which is in English - is published twice a year and has a circulation of about 1,500. Another important channel of communication is the web site (www.ssi.se). Taking advantage of PUSH technology, SSi also distributes, by e-mail, press releases and other important information of radiation to radiation protection professionals in Sweden. SSI continuously monitors news by subscribing to a press clipping service. SSI Training is a commercial unit within the Information and PR Service. A policy for mass media contacts exists as well as a policy for internal communication. SSI has a graphic profile. SSI has a specialised research library. (au)

  16. Choice and privatisation in Swedish primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders

    2011-10-01

    In 2007, a new wave of local reforms involving choice for the population and privatisation of providers was initiated in Swedish primary care. Important objectives behind reforms were to strengthen the role of primary care and to improve performance in terms of access and responsiveness. The purpose of this article was to compare the characteristics of the new models and to discuss changes in financial incentives for providers and challenges regarding governance from the part of county councils. A majority of the models being introduced across the 21 county councils can best be described as innovative combinations between a comprehensive responsibility for providers and significant degrees of freedom regarding choice for the population. Key financial characteristics of fixed payment and comprehensive financial responsibility for providers may create financial incentives to under-provide care. Informed choices by the population, in combination with reasonably low barriers for providers to enter the primary care market, should theoretically counterbalance such incentives. To facilitate such competition is indeed a challenge, not only because of difficulties in implementing informed choices but also because the new models favour large and/or horizontally integrated providers. To prevent monopolistic behaviour, county councils may have to accept more competition as well as more governance over clinical practice than initially intended.

  17. Workplace Incivility in a Swedish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Torkelson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated workplace incivility in a Swedish context. The first aim was to assess how common the phenomenon is and the second was to study which groups (gender, age, ethnicity, and power position are most targeted by workplace incivility and are more prone to act in an uncivil way. Additionally, the relationships between experienced and witnessed incivility and wellbeing as well as instigated incivility were investigated. An online survey was administered by SIFO (the national public opinion poll agency. The collected data consist of a stratified sample whose composition is identical to the working population in Sweden (N = 3001. The results show that almost three quarters of the respondents had been the target of coworker incivility and 52% of supervisor incivility at least one to two times in the past year. Of the respondents, 75% had witnessed coworkers and 58% witnessed a supervisor treating others in an uncivil way. Furthermore, 66% had instigated uncivil acts toward others. The results also show that female and younger employees are slightly more targeted by incivility from coworkers and younger employees and supervisors are slightly more prone to instigate incivility. Moreover, it was found that that experienced incivility was the strongest predictor of low well-being and that witnessed incivility was the strongest predictor of instigated incivility.

  18. Price formation on the Swedish woodfuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Swedish woodfuel market has grown rapidly in the past ten years. Government policy has strongly supported this development and environmental taxes on fossil fuels have been introduced. This has favoured untaxed biofuels, i.e. woodfuels, in the district heating sector where the market has grown very rapidly. This study on price formation is based on the earlier knowledge of the market and shows that the woodfuel market has seen a dramatic increase combined with falling prices. Unrefined wood fuels demonstrate an annual volume increase of 13% while real prices have fallen at an annual rate of 5% during the first half of the 1990s. Total taxes paid by the district heating sector have increased during the period studied and of which taxes for fossil fuels have increased dramatically during the past ten years. However, tax as a share of the total fuelmix supplying the district heating sector has been stabilised over time. The primary reason for this development is the replacement of the highly taxed fossil fuels in the supplied fuels with untaxed biofuels. Companies have reacted very quickly and rationally from an economic point of view to the rising costs of fossil fuels, substituting an increasing share with biofuels. For the future, many utilities have the capacity to adapt to new changes in costs resulting from either changes in fuel prices, changes in fuel taxes or changes in prices on heating or electricity markets. (author)

  19. Uranium production from low grade Swedish shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, O.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the present nuclear programmes a steep increase in uranium demand is foreseen which will pose serious problems for the uranium industry. The annual additions to uranium ore reserves must almost triple within the next 15 years in order to support the required production rates. Although there are good prospects for the discovery of further conventional deposits of uranium there is a growing interest in low grade uranium deposits. Large quantities of uranium exist in black shales, phosphates, granites, sea water and other unconventional sources. There are however factors which limit the utilization of these low grade materials. These factors include the extraction costs, the environmental constrains on mining and milling of huge amounts of ore, the development of technologies for the beneficiation of uranium and, in the case of very low grade materials, the energy balance. The availability of by-product uranium is limited by the production rate of the main product. The limitations differ very much according to types of ores, mining and milling methods and the surroundings. As an illustration a description is given of the Swedish Ranstad uranium shale project, its potential, constraints and technical solutions

  20. Phasing out nuclear power, the swedish experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Y.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the chronological steps in the phasing-out of nuclear energy in Sweden. In 1980 a consultative referendum was held and it was decided that: i) no further expansion of nuclear capacity beyond the 12 reactors in operation or already under construction, ii) all nuclear power plants should be decommissioned by the year 2010. In 1988, as a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the Swedish parliament decided that one reactor should be closed down in 1995 and a second in 1996. In 1991 the parliament proposed a new energy program for a 5 year period. The main measure was a huge financial support for increasing energy efficiency and for developing environmental sound technologies. At the same time the parliament repealed the 1991 decision of closing 1 reactor in 1995 and made the phase-out process dependent on the results of the new energy policy. In 1994 a parliamentary Commission was appointed to estimate the results of 1991 energy policy. The results were meager and disappointing so the Commission considered that a number of objectives (the climate issue, employment, welfare and competitiveness) remained unresolved if all nuclear power generation should be phased out by 2010. However, the Commission also considered it important to start the phasing-out process at an early stage and stated that one reactor could be closed down without noticeably affecting the power balance. The Barsebaeck reactor is to be closed before the end of november 1999. (A.C.)

  1. The in vitro toxicology of Swedish snus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Christopher R. E.; Ballantyne, Mark; Curvall, Margareta; Rutqvist, Lars-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Three commercial brands of Swedish snus (SWS), an experimental SWS, and the 2S3 reference moist snuff were each tested in four in vitro toxicology assays. These assays were: Salmonella reverse mutation, mouse lymphoma, in vitro micronucleus, and cytotoxicity. Water extractions of each of the 5 products were tested using several different concentrations; the experimental SWS was also extracted using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Extraction procedures were verified by nicotine determinations. Results for SWS in the mutagenicity assays were broadly negative: there were occasional positive responses, but these were effectively at the highest concentration only (concentrations well above those suggested by regulatory guidelines), and were often associated with cytotoxicity. The 2S3 reference was unequivocally positive in one of the three conditions of the micronucleus assay (MNA), at the highest concentration only. Positive controls produced the expected responses in each assay. The SWS data are contrasted with data reported for combusted tobacco in the form of cigarettes, where strongly positive responses have been routinely reported for mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. These negative findings in a laboratory setting concur with the large amount of epidemiological data from Sweden, data showing that SWS are associated with considerably lower carcinogenic potential when compared with cigarettes. PMID:22400986

  2. Lyssavirus-reactive antibodies in Swedish bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Hammarin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the presence of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV infections in bat reservoirs in Sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013. Material and methods: Bat specimens were collected at >20 bat colonies in the central, southeastern, and southern parts of Sweden. In total, blood and saliva of 452 bats were examined by a virus neutralization test and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs. Results and discussion: EBLV neutralizing antibodies were detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii, all trapped in Skåne or Småland (south and southeast of Sweden. The result was not unexpected since EBLV has been shown to be present in many neighboring countries, for example, Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Norway. However, Sweden has been regarded free of rabies in terrestrial mammals since 1896. Although very rare, spillover of EBLV into other animals and humans have occurred, and the risk of EBLV infection to other species including humans should not be ignored. This is the first report of lyssavirus infection in Swedish bats.

  3. The use of plutonium in Swedish reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, H.

    1982-09-01

    The report deals with the utilization of plutonium in Swedish nuclear power plants. The plutonium content of the mixed oxide fuel will normally be 3-7 per cent. The processing of spent nuclear fuel will produce about 6 ton plutonium. The use of mixed oxide fuel in Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3 is discussed. The fuel cycle will start with the manufacturing of the fuel elements abroad and proceeds with transport and utilization, storing of spent fuel about 40 years in Sweden followed by direct disposal. The manufacture and use of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is based on well-known techniques. Approximately 20 000 MOX fuel rods have been irradiated and the fuel is essentially equivalent to uranium oxide fuel. 30-50 per cent of the core may be composed of MOX-fuel without any effect on the operation and safety of the reactor which has been originally designed for uranium fuel. The evaluation of international fuel cycle (INFCE) states that the proliferation risks are very small. The recycling of plutonium will reduce demand for enriched uranium and the calculations show that 6.3 ton plutonium will replace the enrichment of 600 ton natural uranium. (G.B.)

  4. Prestudy Oesthammar. Soils, rocks and deformation zones. Supplementary work 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, S.; Bergman, T.; Johansson, Rune; Stephens, M.; Isaksson, Hans

    1998-12-01

    Soil and geology of the Forsmark and Hargshamn areas are described, as well the Baltic area outside Forsmark. It is found that some parts, especially at Hargshamn, might be of interest for further investigations as potential sites for a Swedish repository for spent fuels

  5. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Degradation of 14C-ETU in a soil profile investigated by means of incubation in two different incubation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, A.; Johannesen, H.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the mechanism of biodegradation of ethylenethiourea (ETU) in arable soils, both on the surface and in the deeper layers. The effect of incubation system upon the ETU biodegradation was studied by incubation of undisturbed and mixed soil cores in tubes or flasks respectively. The total mineralization of ETU to CO2 in the ploughed layer and in the deeper layers is investigated by means of biodegradation tests with 14 C-ETU in soil samples collected from 15, 60 and 100 cm depth. ETU microbial biodegradation was studied in a series of tests covering conversion and isolation of ETU degrading microorganisms. (EG) 86 refs

  7. Management strategies to utilize salt affected soils. Isotopic and conventional research methods. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes the results of a co-ordinated research programme on ``The Use of Nuclear Techniques for Improvement of Crop Production in Salt-affected Soils``. It aims at providing scientists experimental evidence of demonstrating technical feasibility of biological amelioration of salt affected soils as an alternative option of using expensive chemical amendments in soil reclamation complementing engineering structures of farm drainage systems or option of leaving the saline areas as barren lands in spite of the fact that arable agricultural lands have exhausted. 68 refs, 26 figs, 32 tabs.

  8. Management strategies to utilize salt affected soils. Isotopic and conventional research methods. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes the results of a co-ordinated research programme on ''The Use of Nuclear Techniques for Improvement of Crop Production in Salt-affected Soils''. It aims at providing scientists experimental evidence of demonstrating technical feasibility of biological amelioration of salt affected soils as an alternative option of using expensive chemical amendments in soil reclamation complementing engineering structures of farm drainage systems or option of leaving the saline areas as barren lands in spite of the fact that arable agricultural lands have exhausted. 68 refs, 26 figs, 32 tabs

  9. International bioenergymarkets - the effects of biofuelpolicies on agriculture and arable area; Kansainvaelinen bioenergiakauppa. Biopolttoainetavoitteiden vaikutukset maatalouteen ja viljelyalan kaeyttoeoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintamaeki, H.; Aro-Heinilae, E.

    2012-11-01

    is based on corn and the oil seed affects the prices of foods and weakens access of especially the world's poorest to the food market. Biofuels production has increased so direct as indirect changes into the use of the land. Direct changes refer to the introduction of the new land to the biofuels production. The indirect changes in the use of the land can be the result from biofuels production displacing services or commodities (food, feed, fiber products) on land currently in production. It is supposed the growth of the arable land in the different biofuel scenarios being 1-4 per cent at a global level compared with a situation without the production of biofuels. Growth pressure of arable land remain moderate, however effects to food prices with firs generation biofuels are high, which dilutes food security. This comes crucial when taken into account pressure that comes from population growth, as well as the fact that effects allocates the most towards the most poor which use prominent share of their income for staple foodstuff purchase. Development of second generation biofuels, which production is based on byproduct and wastes or biomass that is cultivated in marginal lands, is essential to meet political biofuel targets in sustainable manner. (orig.)

  10. Deregulation and internationalisation - impact on the Swedish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haukeland, Sverre R.

    2010-01-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 was well known in advance, and the nuclear power plants in Sweden, as well as their main suppliers, made early preparations for a this new situation. In a study - performed by the author at Malardalen University in Sweden - it is concluded that the electricity industry, including the nuclear power plants, was fundamentally transformed in conjunction with market liberalisation. Two large foreign companies, E-on and Fortum, entered the Swedish market and became part-owners of the nuclear plants. After deregulation, the electricity market in Sweden is dominated by these two companies and the large national company Vattenfall. Similarly, Vattenfall has recently grown into an international energy company, acquiring generation capacity in Northern Europe outside of Sweden, including nuclear power plants in Germany. Restructuring of the nuclear industry on the supplier side started in the 1980's, when the Swedish company ASEA and BBC of Switzerland merged to become ABB. Several years later the Swedish nuclear plant supplier ABB-Atom became part of Westinghouse Electric Company, today owned by Toshiba. The Swedish experience thus confirms an international trend of mergers and consolidation in the nuclear industry. (authors)

  11. Demonstration and Dialogue: Mediation in Swedish Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Lidberg, Maria; Soneryd, Linda; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2009-01-01

    This report analyses mediation and mediators in Swedish nuclear waste management. Mediation is about establishing agreement and building common knowledge. It is argued that demonstrations and dialogue are the two prominent approaches to mediation in Swedish nuclear waste management. Mediation through demonstration is about showing, displaying, and pointing out a path to safe disposal for inspection. It implies a strict division between demonstrator and audience. Mediation through dialogue on the other hand, is about collective acknowledgements of uncertainty and suspensions of judgement creating room for broader discussion. In Sweden, it is the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) that is tasked with finding a method and a site for the final disposal of the nation's nuclear waste. Two different legislative frameworks cover this process. In accordance with the Act on Nuclear Activities, SKB is required to demonstrate the safety of its planned nuclear waste management system to the government, while in respect of the Swedish Environmental Code, they are obliged to organize consultations with the public. How SKB combines these requirements is the main question under investigation in this report in relation to materials deriving from three empirical settings: 1) SKB's safety analyses, 2) SKB's public consultation activities and 3) the 'dialogue projects', initiated by other actors than SKB broadening the public arena for discussion. In conclusion, an attempt is made to characterise the long- term interplay of demonstration and dialogue in Swedish nuclear waste management

  12. Underestimation of boreal soil carbon stocks by mathematical soil carbon models linked to soil nutrient status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ťupek, Boris; Ortiz, Carina A.; Hashimoto, Shoji; Stendahl, Johan; Dahlgren, Jonas; Karltun, Erik; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-08-01

    Inaccurate estimate of the largest terrestrial carbon pool, soil organic carbon (SOC) stock, is the major source of uncertainty in simulating feedback of climate warming on ecosystem-atmosphere carbon dioxide exchange by process-based ecosystem and soil carbon models. Although the models need to simplify complex environmental processes of soil carbon sequestration, in a large mosaic of environments a missing key driver could lead to a modeling bias in predictions of SOC stock change.We aimed to evaluate SOC stock estimates of process-based models (Yasso07, Q, and CENTURY soil sub-model v4) against a massive Swedish forest soil inventory data set (3230 samples) organized by a recursive partitioning method into distinct soil groups with underlying SOC stock development linked to physicochemical conditions.For two-thirds of measurements all models predicted accurate SOC stock levels regardless of the detail of input data, e.g., whether they ignored or included soil properties. However, in fertile sites with high N deposition, high cation exchange capacity, or moderately increased soil water content, Yasso07 and Q models underestimated SOC stocks. In comparison to Yasso07 and Q, accounting for the site-specific soil characteristics (e. g. clay content and topsoil mineral N) by CENTURY improved SOC stock estimates for sites with high clay content, but not for sites with high N deposition.Our analysis suggested that the soils with poorly predicted SOC stocks, as characterized by the high nutrient status and well-sorted parent material, indeed have had other predominant drivers of SOC stabilization lacking in the models, presumably the mycorrhizal organic uptake and organo-mineral stabilization processes. Our results imply that the role of soil nutrient status as regulator of organic matter mineralization has to be re-evaluated, since correct SOC stocks are decisive for predicting future SOC change and soil CO2 efflux.

  13. The Effect of Land Use Change on Transformation of Relief and Modification of Soils in Undulating Loess Area of East Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Rejman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of primary forest areas into arable land involves the transformation of relief and modification of soils. In this study, we hypothesized that relatively flat loess area was largely transformed after the change of land use due to erosion. The modifications in soil pedons and distribution of soil properties were studied after 185 years of arable land use. Structure of pedons and solum depth were measured in 128 and soil texture and soil organic carbon in 39 points. Results showed that soils of noneroded and eroded profiles occupied 14 and 50%, respectively, and depositional soils 36% of the area. As a consequence, the clay, silt, and SOC concentration varied greatly in the plowed layer and subsoil. The reconstructed profiles of eroded soils and depositional soils without the accumulation were used to develop the map of past relief. The average inclination of slopes decreased from 4.3 to 2.2°, and slopes >5° vanished in the present topography. Total erosion was 23.8 Mg ha−1 year−1. From that amount, 88% was deposited within the study area, and 12% was removed outside. The study confirmed the hypothesis of the significant effect of the land use change on relief and soils in loess areas.

  14. Soil physical land degradation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    According to the European Soil Framework Directive (2006) soil compaction is besides water and wind erosion one of the main physical reasons and threats of soil degradation. It is estimated, that 32% of the subsoils in Europe are highly degraded and 18% moderately vulnerable to compaction. The problem is not limited to crop land or forest areas (especially because of non-site adjusted harvesting machines) but is also prevalent in rangelands and grassland, and even in so called natural non-disturbed systems. The main reasons for an intense increase in compacted agricultural or forested regions are the still increasing masses of the machines as well the increased frequency of wheeling under non favorable site conditions. Shear and vibration induced soil deformation enhances the deterioration of soil properties especially if the soil water content is very high and the internal soil strength very low. The same is true for animal trampling in combination with overgrazing of moist to wet pastures which subsequently causes a denser (i.e. reduced proportion of coarse pores with smaller continuity) but still structured soil horizons and will finally end in a compacted platy structure. In combination with high water content and shearing due to trampling therefore results in a complete muddy homogeneous soil with no structure at all. (Krümmelbein et al. 2013) Site managements of arable, forestry or horticulture soils requires a sufficiently rigid pore system which guarantees water, gas and heat exchange, nutrient transport and adsorption as well as an optimal rootability in order to avoid subsoil compaction. Such pore system also guarantees a sufficient microbial activity and composition in order to also decompose the plant etc. debris. It is therefore essential that well structured horizons dominate in soils with at best subangular blocky structure or in the top A- horizons a crumbly structure due to biological activity. In contrast defines the formation of a platy

  15. Application of a radon model to explain indoor radon levels in a Swedish house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, LL.; Baixeras, C.; Joensson, G.; Enge, W.; Ghose, R.

    1999-01-01

    Radon entry from soil into indoor air and its accumulation indoors depends on several parameters, the values of which normally depend on the specific characteristics of the site. The effect of a specific parameter is often difficult to explain from the result of indoor radon measurements only. The adaptation of the RAGENA (RAdon Generation, ENtry and Accumulation indoors) model to a Swedish house to characterise indoor radon levels and the relative importance of the different radon sources and entry mechanisms is presented. The building is a single-zone house with a naturally-ventilated crawl space in one part and a concrete floor in another part, leading to different radon levels in the two parts of the building. The soil under the house is moraine, which is relatively permeable to radon gas. The house is naturally-ventilated. The mean indoor radon concentration values measured with nuclear track detectors in the crawl-space and concrete parts of the house are respectively 75±30 and 200±80 Bq m -3 . Results of the model adaptation to the house indicate that soil constitutes the most relevant radon source in both parts of the house. The radon concentration values predicted by the model indoors fall into the same range as the experimental results

  16. Analysis of surface soil moisture patterns in agricultural landscapes using Empirical Orthogonal Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Korres

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is one of the fundamental variables in hydrology, meteorology and agriculture. Nevertheless, its spatio-temporal patterns in agriculturally used landscapes that are affected by multiple natural (rainfall, soil, topography etc. and agronomic (fertilisation, soil management etc. factors are often not well known. The aim of this study is to determine the dominant factors governing the spatio-temporal patterns of surface soil moisture in a grassland and an arable test site that are located within the Rur catchment in Western Germany. Surface soil moisture (0–6 cm was measured in an approx. 50×50 m grid during 14 and 17 measurement campaigns (May 2007 to November 2008 in both test sites. To analyse the spatio-temporal patterns of surface soil moisture, an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis was applied and the results were correlated with parameters derived from topography, soil, vegetation and land management to link the patterns to related factors and processes. For the grassland test site, the analysis resulted in one significant spatial structure (first EOF, which explained 57.5% of the spatial variability connected to soil properties and topography. The statistical weight of the first spatial EOF is stronger on wet days. The highest temporal variability can be found in locations with a high percentage of soil organic carbon (SOC. For the arable test site, the analysis resulted in two significant spatial structures, the first EOF, which explained 38.4% of the spatial variability, and showed a highly significant correlation to soil properties, namely soil texture and soil stone content. The second EOF, which explained 28.3% of the spatial variability, is linked to differences in land management. The soil moisture in the arable test site varied more strongly during dry and wet periods at locations with low porosity. The method applied is capable of identifying the dominant parameters controlling spatio-temporal patterns of

  17. High-resolution inventory of NO emissions from agricultural soils over the Ile-de-France region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, M.-N. [INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Grignon (France); Gabrielle, B., E-mail: Benoit.Gabrielle@agroparistech.f [INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Grignon (France); Laville, P.; Cellier, P. [INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Grignon (France); Beekmann, M. [Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques - CNRS, Universites Paris-Est and Paris 7, F-94 010 Creteil (France); Gilliot, J.-M.; Michelin, J.; Hadjar, D. [INRA, AgroParisTech, UMR 1091 Environnement et Grandes Cultures, F-78850 Grignon (France); Curci, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica - CETEMPS, Universita' degli Studi dell' Aquila, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Arable soils are a significant source of nitric oxide (NO), a precursor of tropospheric ozone, and thereby contribute to ozone pollution. However, their actual impact on ozone formation is strongly related to their spatial and temporal emission patterns, which warrant high-resolution estimates. Here, we combined an agro-ecosystem model and geo-referenced databases to map these sources over the 12 000 km{sup 2} administrative region surrounding Paris, France, with a kilometric level resolution. The six most frequent arable crop species were simulated, with emission rates ranging from 1.4 kg N-NO ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} to 11.1 kg N-NO ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The overall emission factor for fertilizer-derived NO emissions was 1.7%, while background emissions contributed half of the total NO efflux. Emissions were strongly seasonal, being highest in spring due to fertilizer inputs. They were mostly sensitive to soil type, crops' growing season and fertilizer N rates. - The use of an agro-ecosystem model at regional scale makes it possible to map the emissions of nitric oxide from arable soils at a resolution compatible with tropospheric ozone models.

  18. Comparison of U.S. and Swedish calculation economic transition points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.S.; Parker, M.B.; Omberg, R.P.

    1979-03-01

    This paper was prepared in response to the view of the Swedish delegation that the U.S. calculation of the economic transitions was in error. The report analyzed the principle differences between the U.S. approach and Swedish approach and concluded that the Swedish results can be reproduced using the U.S. method and Swedish data. Conversely, the U.S. results should be reproducible by Sweden

  19. A Dip into the World of Particles for Swedish Teachers

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    For three full days, forty-one Swedish secondary school physics teachers were introduced to the rudiments of the particle physics. This series of courses is celebrating its tenth anniversary. The Swedish teachers followed lectures, visited CERN experiments... ... and analysed the latest DELPHI data. 'I am sure that, as in previous years, many of these teachers will return to CERN with their students. It is an excellent way of encouraging young people to orient themselves towards physics.' Staffan Hörnberg, Vice President of the International Centre for Education and Development, is enthusiastic about the repercussions of the teaching programme for Swedish teachers that he organises with CERN physicist, Richard Jacobsson. For the tenth consecutive year, this series of introductory courses to particle physics was a success. Forty-one teachers came from schools all over Sweden to take part in lectures and visits on the theme of particle physics, its methods of investigation, and its applications. San...

  20. Comparing Danish and Swedish versions of PISA scientific literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serder, Malmø University, Margareta; Sørensen, Helene

    This paper presents a comparison between the Swedish, Danish, English, and French versions of three scientific literacy test-units from the released PISA items 2006. More specifically it compares how different words and concepts have been translated in the Swedish and Danish tests, compared...... to the English and French original versions. Differences that occur as a result of the translation process concerning words’ meaning are demonstrated. The possible consequences of such differences are exemplified by an excerpt from a situation in which Swedish 15-year-old students collaboratively worked...... with these three PISA units. In the paper we claim that in spite of detailed and strongly controlled methods for achieving translations of high standard used by the PISA, important and perhaps even decisive, differences between the four versions exist....