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Sample records for sweden united kingdom

  1. Norovirus outbreaks linked to oyster consumption in the United Kingdom, Norway, France, Sweden and Denmark, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrell, T; Dusch, V; Ethelberg, S; Harris, J; Hjertqvist, M; Jourdan-da Silva, N; Koller, A; Lenglet, A; Lisby, M; Vold, L

    2010-03-25

    This paper reports on several simultaneous outbreaks of norovirus infection linked to the consumption of raw oysters. Since January 2010, 334 cases in 65 clusters were reported from five European countries: the United Kingdom, Norway, France, Sweden and Denmark. The article describes the available epidemiological and microbiological evidence of these outbreaks.

  2. The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ostrand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. By the end of 2014, an estimated 7.6 million people were internally displaced and 3.7 million Syrians had fled the country since the conflict began (OCHA 2014; UNHCR 2015a. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict is dire, and it has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries. Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey host massive numbers of Syrian refugees, and Syrians have been seeking protection beyond these countries in increasing numbers since 2011.This paper looks at the burdens and costs of the Syrian refugee crisis and considers how they have, or have not, been shared by the international community at large, and in particular by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also considers to what degree Syrians have been able to find protection in states outside the region. Germany and Sweden, by the end of 2014, had provided protection to the largest number of Syrian refugees outside the region. Although Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States differ in the level of protection provided to Syrians, all four states have increased protection to Syrians via resettlement and asylum (and in the case of the US temporary protected status since 2012. Despite this, the degree of protection provided by the four states is modest in relation to that provided by neighboring countries to Syria, and far more could be done. This paper also argues that the international community as a whole has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the Syrian refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement.The paper puts forward two general recommendations to reduce the strain on neighboring countries: increase the level of burden sharing by the international

  3. United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This summary of the people, geography, history, economy, government, defense and foreign affairs of the United Kingdom includes England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The area contains 56.4 million inhabitants, with a negligible growth rate, one of the most densely populated regions in Europe, especially so in the southeast portion of England. The history of British unification, colonial expansion and industrialization is presented. Currently the British colonies are becoming independent members of the Commonwealth, retaining many British institutions, such as the parliamentary system of government. Slower economic growth recently has prompted privatization of previously nationalized industries by the conservative government in power. Britain's only natural resources are coal and North Sea oil and gas; her economy depends on manufacturing. Britain donates significant funds to developing countries, 70% of that going to Commonwealth nations. Her present military emphasis is on Europe and NATO commitments.

  4. Economic cycle synchronization in the context of financial crisis: empirical evidence of Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the economic cycle synchronization of the euro area outsiders: Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom. The authors discussed openness of the selected economies, their structural similarities and economic cycle synchronization in the years 2000–2011. They applied moving correlation and correlation between the selected countries and the euro area. They found significant synchronization of the economic cycles after the year 2005. Furthermore, economic cycles of the analyzed countries were exceptionally synchronized than the euro area average level.Our contribution is in comparison of the economic cycle synchronization in the selected countries with the euro area average. The authors assume that changes in order provide important information about the synchronization, unbiased by the consequences of the financial crisis in the year 2007.A theoretical background for the final discussions provided new version of the OCA theory focused on the costs associated with the loss of the monetary policy autonomy. The authors concluded that selected countries were not protected against the global macroeconomic shock after the year 2007, although they keep the autonomous monetary policy.

  5. Towards the marketization of early childhood education and care? Recent developments in Sweden and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingela Naumann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Vanlig tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Vanlig tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Extensive public debate is being waged across mature welfare states as to whether social services are best provided by the state or the market. This article examines developments in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC policy in Sweden and the United Kingdom, identifying trends towards marketization and universalization of ECEC that suggest a complex picture of competing policy logics and goals in the restructuring of welfare states. This article first

  6. From Higher Education to Employment. Volume IV: Portugal, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland = De l'enseignement superieur a l'emploi. Volume IV: Portugal, Royaume-Uni, Suede, Suisse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume reports on the flow of graduates from higher education into working life in Portugal, the United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland. Chapters for each nation were contributed by national experts in that field. The first section of the report, on Portugal, contains two papers. The first, written in English, discusses recent changes in the…

  7. Eurosites insights; image, implementation, interpretation and integration of Natura 2000 in European perspective; United Kingdom, Sweden, Spain, France and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neven, M.G.G.; Kistenkas, F.H.; Apeldoorn, van R.C.

    2005-01-01

    This comparative study analyses Natura 2000 nature conservation (EU Birds- and Habitats Directives) alongside the key issues of image, implementation, interpretation and integration. Having quickscanned the EU25, five member states have been selected for further investigation: UK, Sweden, Spain,

  8. Preconception care policy, guidelines, recommendations and services across six European countries: Belgium (Flanders), Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, Jill; Delbaere, Ilse; Ekstrand, Maria; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Larsson, Margareta; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Stern, Jenny; Steegers, Eric; Stephenson, Judith; Tydén, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    Preconception care is important for the screening, prevention and management of risk factors that affect pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to investigate pre-pregnancy care policies, guidelines, recommendations and services in six European countries. In 2013, an electronic search and investigation was undertaken of preconception policy, guidelines, recommendations and services available to healthcare professionals and the general public in six European countries: Belgium (Flanders), Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Findings were compared within five categories: Governmental policy and legislation; Professional bodies and organisations; Healthcare providers; Charitable organisations; Web-based public information and internet sites. All countries had preconception recommendations for women with chronic diseases, such as diabetes and epilepsy. Recommendations for healthy women and men were fragmented and inconsistent. Preconception guidance was often included in antenatal and pregnancy guidelines. Differences between countries were seen with regard to nutritional and lifestyle advice particularly in relation to fish, caffeine and alcohol consumption, and vitamin supplementation. Current guidelines are heterogeneous. Collaborative research across Europe is required in order to develop evidence-based guidelines for preconception health and care. There is a need to establish a clear strategy for promoting advice and guidance within the European childbearing population.

  9. Organizational downsizing and depressive symptoms in the European recession: the experience of workers in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, M Harvey; Andreeva, Elena; Theorell, Töres; Goldberg, Marcel; Westerlund, Hugo; Leineweber, Constanze; Hanson, Linda L Magnusson; Imbernon, Ellen; Bonnaud, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Organizational downsizing has become highly common during the global recession of the late 2000s with severe repercussions on employment. We examine whether the severity of the downsizing process is associated with a greater likelihood of depressive symptoms among displaced workers, internally redeployed workers and lay-off survivors. A cross-sectional survey involving telephone interviews was carried out in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The study analyzes data from 758 workers affected by medium- and large-scale downsizing, using multiple logistic regression. Both unemployment and surviving layoffs were significantly associated with depressive symptoms, as compared to reemployment, but the perceived procedural justice of a socially responsible downsizing process considerably mitigated the odds of symptoms. Perception of high versus low justice was assessed along several downsizing dimensions. In the overall sample, chances to have depressive symptoms were significantly reduced if respondents perceived the process as transparent and understandable, fair and unbiased, well planned and democratic; if they trusted the employer's veracity and agreed with the necessity for downsizing. The burden of symptoms was significantly greater if the process was perceived to be chaotic. We further tested whether perceived justice differently affects the likelihood of depressive symptoms among distinct groups of workers. Findings were that the odds of symptoms largely followed the same patterns of effects across all groups of workers. Redeploying and supporting surplus employees through the career change process-rather than forcing them to become unemployed-makes a substantial difference as to whether they will suffer from depressive symptoms. While depressive symptoms affect both unemployed and survivors, a just and socially responsible downsizing process is important for the emotional health of workers.

  10. Organizational downsizing and depressive symptoms in the European recession: the experience of workers in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Harvey Brenner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organizational downsizing has become highly common during the global recession of the late 2000s with severe repercussions on employment. We examine whether the severity of the downsizing process is associated with a greater likelihood of depressive symptoms among displaced workers, internally redeployed workers and lay-off survivors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey involving telephone interviews was carried out in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The study analyzes data from 758 workers affected by medium- and large-scale downsizing, using multiple logistic regression. MAIN RESULTS: Both unemployment and surviving layoffs were significantly associated with depressive symptoms, as compared to reemployment, but the perceived procedural justice of a socially responsible downsizing process considerably mitigated the odds of symptoms. Perception of high versus low justice was assessed along several downsizing dimensions. In the overall sample, chances to have depressive symptoms were significantly reduced if respondents perceived the process as transparent and understandable, fair and unbiased, well planned and democratic; if they trusted the employer's veracity and agreed with the necessity for downsizing. The burden of symptoms was significantly greater if the process was perceived to be chaotic. We further tested whether perceived justice differently affects the likelihood of depressive symptoms among distinct groups of workers. Findings were that the odds of symptoms largely followed the same patterns of effects across all groups of workers. Redeploying and supporting surplus employees through the career change process-rather than forcing them to become unemployed-makes a substantial difference as to whether they will suffer from depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: While depressive symptoms affect both unemployed and survivors, a just and socially responsible downsizing process is important for the emotional health of

  11. United Kingdom Automobile Insurance Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    The report represents a limited study of the United Kingdom Automobile Insurance Industry: (1) the structure, size, and relationships within the industry; (2) the basis of premium calculation, rate structure, types of policies, and payment of compens...

  12. Trends in poverty risks among people with and without limiting-longstanding illness by employment status in Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom during the current economic recession – a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found higher employment rates and lower risk of relative poverty among people with chronic illness in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. However, Nordic countries have not been immune to the general rise in poverty in many welfare states in recent decades. This study analysed the trends in poverty risks among a particularly vulnerable group in the labour market: people with limiting-longstanding illness (LLSI), examining the experience of those with and without employment, and compared to healthy people in employment in Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Methods Cross-sectional survey data from EU-SILC (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) on people aged 25–64 years in Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom (UK) were analysed between 2005 and 2010. Age-standardised rates of poverty risks (employed people with LLSI had considerably higher prevalence of poverty risk than employed people with or without LLSI. Rates of poverty risk in the UK for non-employed people with LLSI were higher than in Sweden and Denmark. Over time, the rates of poverty risk for Swedish non-employed people with LLSI in 2005 (13.8% CI=9.7-17.8) had almost doubled by 2010 (26.5% CI=19.9-33.1). For both sexes, the inequalities in poverty risks between non-employed people with LLSI and healthy employed people were much higher in the UK than in Sweden and Denmark. Over time, however, the odds of poverty risk among British non-employed men and women with LLSI compared with their healthy employed counterparts declined. The opposite trend was seen for Swedish men: the odds of poverty risk for non-employed men with LLSI compared with healthy employed men increased from OR 2.8 (CIs=1.6-4.7) in 2005 to OR 5.3 (CIs=3.2-8.9) in 2010. Conclusions The increasing poverty risks among the non-employed people with LLSI in Sweden over time are of concern from a health equity perspective. The role of recent Swedish social policy changes

  13. Complaints, Complainants, and Rulings Regarding Drug Promotion in the United Kingdom and Sweden 2004–2012: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Pharmaceutical Industry Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterqvist, Anna V.; Merlo, Juan; Mulinari, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Background In many European countries, medicines promotion is governed by voluntary codes of practice administered by the pharmaceutical industry under its own system of self-regulation. Involvement of industry organizations in policing promotion has been proposed to deter illicit conduct, but few detailed studies on self-regulation have been carried out to date. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for promotion and self-regulation in the UK and Sweden, two countries frequently cited as examples of effective self-regulation. Methods and Findings We performed a qualitative content analysis of documents outlining the constitutions and procedures of these two systems. We also gathered data from self-regulatory bodies on complaints, complainants, and rulings for the period 2004–2012. The qualitative analysis revealed similarities and differences between the countries. For example, self-regulatory bodies in both countries are required to actively monitor promotional items and impose sanctions on violating companies, but the range of sanctions is greater in the UK where companies may, for instance, be audited or publicly reprimanded. In total, Swedish and UK bodies ruled that 536 and 597 cases, respectively, were in breach, equating to an average of more than one case/week for each country. In Sweden, 430 (47%) complaints resulted from active monitoring, compared with only two complaints (0.2%) in the UK. In both countries, a majority of violations concerned misleading promotion. Charges incurred on companies averaged €447,000 and €765,000 per year in Sweden and the UK, respectively, equivalent to about 0.014% and 0.0051% of annual sales revenues, respectively. One hundred cases in the UK (17% of total cases in breach) and 101 (19%) in Sweden were highlighted as particularly serious. A total of 46 companies were ruled in breach of code for a serious offence at least once in the two countries combined (n = 36 in the UK; n = 27 in Sweden); seven

  14. Do 'flexicurity' Policies Work for People With Low Education and Health Problems? A Comparison of Labour Market Policies and Employment Rates in Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Ashley; Nylén, Lotta; Backhans, Mona; Boye, Katarina; Thielen, Karsten; Whitehead, Margaret; Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    People with limiting longstanding illness and low education may experience problems in the labor market. Reduced employment protection that maintains economic security for the individual, known as "flexicurity," has been proposed as a way to increase overall employment. We compared the development of labor market policies and employment rates from 1990 to 2010 in Denmark and the Netherlands (representing flexicurity), the United Kingdom, and Sweden. Employment rates in all countries were much lower in the target group than for other groups over the study period. However, "flexicurity" as practiced in Denmark, far from being a "magic bullet," appeared to fail low-educated people with longstanding illness in particular. The Swedish policy, on the other hand, with higher employment protection and higher economic security, particularly earlier in the study period, led to higher employment rates in this group. Findings also revealed that economic security policies in all countries were eroding and shifting toward individual responsibility. Finally, results showed that active labor market policies need to be subcategorized to better understand which types are best suited for the target group. Increasing employment among the target group could reduce adverse health consequences and contribute to decreasing inequalities in health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Immigration Into the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Nevěděl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is a process which results in an increase or a decrease of population. When analysing the immigration policy of the United Kingdom, it is important to be aware of two key factors which influenced it: the country’s location and its colonial history. As an island, the UK has developed a very strong system of border control while at the same time there is limited control within its borders which can be demonstrated e.g. by the absence of identity cards. The aim of this article is to evaluate immigration into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland based on available statistical data between 2004 and 2012. The data will be also used for a forecast of development of the numbers of immigrants from different countries and for illustrating possible immigration trends in the future. The article will mainly focus on a question whether in the near future the UK will experience an increase or a decrease in immigration or whether the number of immigrants will stay constant. Convergence analysis will be used to evaluate the data for individual administrative regions at the NUTS II level. The article will also detail numbers of immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants and it will answer a question whether there is convergence or divergence in the number of immigrants among different regions.

  16. Dioxin-like activities, halogenated flame retardants, organophosphate esters and chlorinated paraffins in dust from Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, Sweden and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Suzuki, Go; Michinaka, Chieko; Yuan, Bo; Takigami, Hidetaka; de Wit, Cynthia A

    2017-02-01

    The concentrations of organic flame retardants (FRs) and dioxin-like activities in dust collected from five countries were investigated. The correlations between the concentrations of the different groups of FRs and dioxin-like activities were examined. Chlorinated paraffins (CPs, C 9 to C 31 ) were found in the highest concentration (median ∑CP 700 μg/g, range 280-4750 μg/g), followed by organophosphate esters (median ∑ 13 OPEs 56 μg/g, range 21-110 μg/g), halogenated flame retardants (median ∑ 17 HFRs 3.3 μg/g, range 0.87-14 μg/g) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (median ∑ 17 PBDEs 2.8 μg/g, range 0.46-11 μg/g). There were no significant differences in concentrations of the FRs among the countries but differences in PBDE and CP congener profiles were found. BDE209 predominated in dust from Australia, the UK, Sweden and China, ranging from 50 to 70% of total PBDEs. The lowest percentage of BDE209 was found in the dust from Canada, representing only 20% of total PBDEs. For CPs in dust from Sweden, the long-chain CPs (especially C 18 congeners) predominated, while for other countries, medium-chain CPs (especially C 14 congeners) predominated. The dioxin-activities of the dusts ranged from 58 to 590 pg CALUX-TEQ/g, and had a median of 200 pg CALUX-TEQ/g. There were significant positive correlations between concentrations of PBDEs and CPs with dioxin-like activities. The dioxin-like activity may be due to the presence of polychlorinated or polybrominated dioxin/furans (PBDD/DFs) or polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the dust. The PBDD/DFs are known impurities and degradation product of the penta-BDE mixture, and PCNs are known impurities of CPs which exhibit dioxin-like activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brexit and Devolution in the United Kingdom

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    Michael Keating

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Devolution in the United Kingdom is deeply connected to United Kingdom membership of the European Union, which provides an external support system for the internal settlement. Exit from the European Union destabilizes the internal settlement and raises a series of major constitutional issues.

  18. Decommissioning: a United Kingdom perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haworth, A.; Reed, D.L.; Bleeze, A. [Health and Safety Executive, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The paper considers the United Kingdom legislative framework relevant to decommissioning of facilities on nuclear licensed sites. It describes the various legislative bodies involved in regulating this activity and the inspectorate concerned. The licensing regime is described in some detail highlighting the UK arrangements whereby a license is granted for the site upon which nuclear facilities are planned or exist. The license remains in place throughout the life of the plant on the site: from initial planning through to the end of decommissioning. A site (of part of) is not de-licensed until it can be stated that there has ceased to be any danger from ionising radiations from anything on the site (or appropriate part of the site). The final part of the paper considers the changes arising from the commercialization of the nuclear power industry in UK and the restatement of the Nuclear Installation Inspectorate`s policy on decommissioning which has arisen as a result of a review made in response to these changes. (author).

  19. Human Rights in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Information Service, New York, NY. Reference Div.

    This pamphlet uses the Articles of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a framework within which to describe legal safeguards of individual rights in the United Kingdom. Under each article of the Declaration, a historical perspective of the tradition of civil liberties is provided, as are descriptions of recent trends and…

  20. Death Education in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Valerie

    1998-01-01

    Surveys the development of informal death education in the United Kingdom since Gorer's (Geoffrey) 1965 survey of attitudes to death, grief, and mourning. Shows how the media, exhibitions, courses, and reports contribute to the attainment of four goals originally applied in "American Death Education" by Gordon (Audrey) and Klass (Dennis)…

  1. Nursing Delegation in the United Kingdom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patricia Gillen; Sean Graffin

    2010-01-01

    ... expectations, the variety of nursing settings in which delegation occurs, and nursing delegation challenges within the UK. Citation: Gillen, P., Graffin, S. (May 31, 2010) "Nursing Delegation in the United Kingdom" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. 15, No. 2, Manuscript 6. DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Voll5No02Man06 Key words: nursing delegation, barri...

  2. United Kingdom (Wales): Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Marcus; Riley, Neil; Davies, Paul; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Wales is situated to the west of England, with a population of approximately 3 million (5% of the total for the United Kingdom), and a land mass of just over 20 000 km2. For several decades, Wales had a health system largely administered through the United Kingdom Governments Welsh Office, but responsibility for most aspects of health policy was devolved to Wales in a process beginning in 1999. Since then, differences between the policy approach and framework in England and Wales have widened. The internal market introduced in the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) has been abandoned in Wales, and seven local health boards (LHBs; supported by three specialist NHS trusts) now plan and provide all health services for their resident populations. Wales currently has more than 120 hospitals as part of an overall estate valued at 2.3 billion pounds. Total spending on health services increased in the first decade of the 21st century, but Wales now faces a period of financial retrenchment greater than in other parts of the United Kingdom as a result of the Welsh Governments decision not to afford the same degree of protection to health spending as that granted elsewhere. The health system in Wales continues to face some structural weaknesses that have proved resistant to reform for some time. However, there has been substantial improvement in service quality and outcomes since the end of the 1990s, in large part facilitated by substantial real growth in health spending. Life expectancy has continued to increase, but health inequalities have proved stubbornly resistant to improvement. World Health Organization 2012 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  3. Spinal Motocross Injuries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Bhalla, Amit; Ockendon, Matthew; Hay, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Motocross is a form of motorcycle racing held on established off-road circuits and has been a recreational and competitive sport across the world for >100 years. In the United Kingdom alone, motocross has grown into a phenomenally ambitious and popular franchise. There are >200 motocross clubs across the country, permitting >900 events annually. To assess the current trend of spine-related motocross injuries over the past 5 years. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data were prospectively collected over 5 years (August 2010-August 2015) at our regional trauma and spine unit, regardless of whether the rider was performing the sport competitively or recreationally. During the study period, spine-related injuries were identified for 174 patients (age range, 6-75 years) who were directly referred to our department following recreational or competitive motocross, with most injuries being sustained within the early spring and summer months, representing the start of the motocross season. A significant number of injuries were in males (n = 203, 94%), with the majority of injuries occurring within the 21- to 30-year-old age group. A total of 116 (54%) injuries required operative treatment. The most common spinal injury was thoracolumbar burst fracture (n = 95), followed by chance fractures (n = 26). This data series emphasizes the prevalence and devastation of motocross-related spinal injuries in the United Kingdom and may serve in administering sanctions and guidelines to governing bodies of motocross. The spinal injuries that occur during motocross have significant capital connotations for regional spinal centers. The recent surge in motocross popularity is correlated with the number of injuries, which have increased over the past 5 years by almost 500%.

  4. Digital Dissertations in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Matheson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom a user wishing to consult a UK thesis has traditionally had the following choices: the thesis may be consulted in the Library of the Higher Education Institution (HEI to which it was submitted; the thesis may be borrowed from the library of the HEI; a copy of the thesis may be purchased form the library of the HEI; the thesis may be borrowed through inter-library loan; or the thesis may be made available through the British Library’s British Thesis Service, which was set up in 1971. This Service currently holds more than 150,000 UK theses, which are added to at a rate of around 7,000 a year, with the participation of about a hundred Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. With the development of new technology, however, an interest developed in examining the feasibility of making theses available online to users. In the United Kingdom, the University Theses Online Group (UTOG was established as a consequence of a proposal to the Follett Implementation Group on Information Technology in 1994. The University Theses Online Group (UTOG is a working group of UK university librarians: the Group’s aims are to investigate the technical, cultural and administrative issues associated with the storage and delivery of theses in online form. The Group is made up of representatives of the British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC, British Thesis Service, and the university libraries of Cranfield, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, Manchester, Plymouth, Robert Gordon, University College London, Kent, University of London and Warwick.

  5. Industrial maxillofacial injuries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Geoff A; Bullock, M; Edwards, A

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of maxillofacial injuries forms a substantial part of the work in oral and maxillofacial units, but injuries sustained in work-related incidents are uncommon, mainly because of the strict enforcement of Health and Safety policies. We used data from the Health and Safety Executive in the United Kingdom to review the incidence and aetiology of maxillofacial injuries that result from industrial accidents in the UK, and highlight the case of a worker who sustained an isolated fracture of the nasoethmoidal complex when he was trapped in a cheese press. In 2010-2011, roughly 115,379 accidents or incidents at work were reported in the UK, and of the 1623 (1%) that were maxillofacial, 81% occurred in the service sector. The most common mechanism of injury was assault (37%) and the most common injury was contusion (30%). Since the introduction of the Health and Safety Act, work-related accidents in the UK have decreased considerably. However, they will continue to occur because of human error. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. United Kingdom (Northern Ireland): Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ciaran; McGregor, Pat; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The political context within which Northern Irelands integrated health and social care system operates has changed since the establishment of a devolved administration (the Northern Ireland Assembly, set up in 1998 but suspended between 2002 and 2007). A locally elected Health Minister now leads the publicly financed system and has considerable power to set policy and, in principle, to determine the operation of other health and social care bodies. The system underwent major reform following the passing of the Health and Social Care (Reform) Act (Northern Ireland) in 2009. The reform maintained the quasi purchaser provider split already in place but reduced the number and increased the size of many of the bodies involved in purchasing (known locally as commissioning) and delivering services. Government policy has generally placed greater emphasis on consultation and cooperation among health and social care bodies (including the department, commissioners and care providers) than on competition. The small size of the population (1.8 million) and Northern Irelands geographical isolation from the rest of the United Kingdom provide a rationale for eschewing a more competitive model. Without competition, effective control over the system requires information and transparency to ensure provider challenge, and a body outside the system to hold it to account. The restoration of the locally elected Assembly in 2007 has created such a body, but it remains to be seen how effectively it will exercise accountability. World Health Organization 2012 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on health systems and Policies).

  8. International Education in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Hyams-Ssekasi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last 40 years, the number of international students aspiring to obtain a qualification in U.K. universities has been exponentially growing. However, such growth has been contested. What seemed to be a “golden” opportunity for Black-African students to pursue their education in the United Kingdom is met with challenges that impact the whole process of adjustment. This article examines these challenges using a qualitative empirical study of Black-African postgraduate students, carried out in three U.K. universities. The methods utilized were observations, focus groups, one-to-one interviews, and a case study to help identify and analyze the issues. The participants reported significant financial pressures and difficulties in understanding and integrating into the culture of U.K. universities. In some cases, these challenges left the students feeling disillusioned and cynical about the value of an international education. Universities must endeavor to tailor their recruitment, orientation, and support programs to the needs of Black-African international students or face damaging their reputations as world-class education providers.

  9. Low vision services for vision rehabilitation in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Culham, L E; Ryan, B.; Jackson, A.J.; Hill, A R; Jones, B; Miles, C.; Young, J. A.; Bunce, C; Bird, A C

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Little is known about the distribution and methods of delivery of low vision services across the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to determine the type and location of low vision services within the UK.

  10. Severe Streptococcus pyogenes infections, United Kingdom, 2003-2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamagni, Theresa L; Neal, Shona; Keshishian, Catherine; Alhaddad, Neelam; George, Robert; Duckworth, Georgia; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2008-01-01

    As part of a Europe-wide initiative to explore current epidemiologic patterns of severe disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the United Kingdom undertook enhanced population-based surveillance during 2003-2004...

  11. Does Higher Education System of United Kingdom Produce Enough Graduates?

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ashfaque Ahmad; Arain, Amjad Ali

    2012-01-01

    In this discourse the researcher tried to make the readers view the three-dimensional image of the productivity and contribution of higher education of United Kingdom, quantitatively as well as qualitatively, through the prism of comparison with that of USA and France. The researcher presented information regarding population, economic status, graduate enrolment and entrance trend of the higher education students in the United Kingdom. And at the end the researcher gave the data depicting the...

  12. Childbirth experience questionnaire: validating its use in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate F; Wilson, Philippa; Bugg, George J; Dencker, Anna; Thornton, Jim G

    2015-04-07

    The Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) was developed in Sweden in 2010 and validated in 920 primiparous women. It has not been validated in the United Kingdom (UK). Measuring the impact of an intervention on a woman's childbirth experience is arguably as important as measuring its impact on outcomes such as caesarean delivery and perinatal morbidity or mortality and yet surprisingly it is rarely done. The lack of a robust validated tool for evaluating labour experience in the UK is a topical issue in the UK at present. Indeed NICE say 'A standardised method to measure and quantify women's psychological and emotional wellbeing and their birth experiences is urgently required to support any study investigating the effectiveness of interventions, techniques or strategies during birth.' The Childbirth Experience Questionnaire and part of the Care Quality Commission Maternity Survey (2010) was sent to 350 women at one month postnatal. The CEQ was sent again two weeks later. The CEQ was tested for face validity among 25 postnatal mothers. Demographic data and delivery data was used to establish construct validity of the CEQ using the method of known-groups validation. The results of the scored CEQ sent out twice were used to measure test-retest reliability of the CEQ by calculating the quadratic weighted index of agreement between the two scores. Criterion validity was measured by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient for the CEQ and Maternity Survey scores. Face validity of the CEQ in a UK population was demonstrated with all respondents stating it was easy to understand and complete. A statistically significantly higher CEQ score for subgroups of women known to report a better birth outcome demonstrated construct validity of the CEQ. A weighted kappa of 0.68 demonstrated test-retest reliability of the CEQ. A Pearson correlation co-efficient of 0.73 demonstrated a strong correlation between the results of the CEQ and the results of the 'gold standard

  13. Public sector ethics in the United Kingdom: an overview | Ekhator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article starts with a brief and concise definition of public sector ethics. It traces the origin of public sector ethics in the United Kingdom (UK). Also, corruption and unethical conduct amongst others are in focus too. An analysis of the expected ethical standards in the public sector and mechanisms used to maintain such ...

  14. REITs under the new Netherlands-United Kingdom tax treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.

    2011-01-01

    This note addresses the real estate investment trust provisions included in the new Netherlands-United Kingdom tax treaty, which are based on the 2008 Commentary to the OECD Model. The author analyses the new provisions and makes certain suggestions for additional provisions based on the Commentary.

  15. Growth, Pathways and Groundwork: Community Music in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee

    2007-01-01

    This article suggests that community music in the United Kingdom emerged as a sub-strand of the community arts movement during the political and cultural changes of the late 1960s and the early 1970s. Through five themes: musicians in residence, music animateur, music collectives and punk rock, definitions, and training, Part 1 of this article…

  16. Unification of Higher Education in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, John

    1992-01-01

    Trends in higher education in the United Kingdom are analyzed in the context of organizational changes that will abolish the policy distinguishing polytechnic institutions and universities. The article examines historic concerns with the relationship of higher education to needs of the economy, and changes that suggest increased emphasis on…

  17. Assets, Aliens or Asylum Seekers? Immigration and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Helen

    2006-01-01

    British attitudes toward immigrants are complex. The United Kingdom has received regular waves of immigrants, both political and economic asylum seekers and, especially in recent decades, recruited labor from the former nations of the British Empire. Throughout its history, ambivalence among the Britons is seen due to these developments. In this…

  18. Library and Information Science Education in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Jennifer; Brittain, J. Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent developments in library and information science (LIS) in the United Kingdom. Highlights include a historical perspective; restructuring and reorganization; recruitment; modular courses; user needs; the transfer of LIS skills; new areas of LIS curriculum; distance education; and future concerns, including recruitment and links with…

  19. Types of Structural Unemployment in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter E.

    1990-01-01

    Assesses the extent of the following types of structural unemployment in the United Kingdom: technological change, skills mismatch, geographical mismatch, demographic shifts, institutional rigidity, unemployability, and capital restructuring. Concludes that measurement is difficult and the types create segmented labor markets that obstruct the…

  20. The Practice of Guide Dog Mobility in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Howard

    1974-01-01

    The services and concessions available to visually handicapped owners of guide dogs in the United Kingdom are described in relation to veterinary, transportation, commercial, and state sectors; facilities and allowances provided by the Guide Dogs for the Blind Association and financial implications. (Author/MC)

  1. Internationalisation and Religious Inclusion in United Kingdom Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Although not new, the concept of internationalisation, the inclusion of intercultural perspectives and the development of cross-cultural understanding, has gained particular currency and support across the United Kingdom (UK) higher education sector over the last decade. However, within the academic literature, as well as within institutional…

  2. An Update on Asset Management Plans in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mukund

    1999-01-01

    Describes a current project in the United Kingdom designed to improve school buildings. The use of Asset Management Plans (AMPs) in providing the means through which likely future needs are assessed, criteria for prioritization are set, and informed decisions on local spending are made are examined. (GR)

  3. 77 FR 12241 - Smart Grid Trade Mission to the United Kingdom; London, United Kingdom, October 15-17, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... other major European economies in the global digital economy index, the United Kingdom offers world... seventh-largest economy in the world and is a major international trading power. Highly developed... determination to become a low carbon economy should create many opportunities for innovative U.S. companies to...

  4. Operative training in otolaryngology in the United Kingdom: a specialist registrar survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgalas, Christos; Hadjihannas, Edward; Ghufoor, Khalid; Pracy, Paul; Papesch, Michael

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the current status of operative training for otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Web-based questionnaire survey. PARTICIPANTS: All otolaryngology specialist registrars in the United Kingdom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The overall satisfaction with

  5. Exploring support for shale gas extraction in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson-Hudson, Jessica; Knight, Wil; Humphrey, Mathew; O'Hara, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The development of shale gas in the United Kingdom (UK) using hydraulic fracturing, more commonly known as ‘fracking’, remains in its infancy. Yet understanding public attitudes for this fledgling industry is important for future policy considerations, decision-making and for industry stakeholders. This study uses data collected from the University of Nottingham UK nationwide online survey (n=3,823) conducted in September 2014, to consider ten hypothesises about the UK public’s attitudes towa...

  6. Wildfire in the United Kingdom: status and key issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia. McMorrow

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of wildfire risk in the United Kingdom and examines some of the key issues in U.K. wildfire management. Wildfires challenge the resources of U.K. Fire and Rescue Services (FRSs), especially in dry years, yet FRSs are poorly equipped and trained to deal with wildfire. A brief geography of U.K. wildfires is presented using fire statistics...

  7. An Assessment of Fiscal Rules in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kell

    2001-01-01

    The paper assesses the United Kingdom's golden rule and debt rule against "ideal characteristics" of fiscal rules. It concludes that they are clearly defined; transparent in institutional arrangements and measurement; adequate to ensure sustainability; and strike a good balance between flexibility and enforceability. The rules could be strengthened by clarifying the benchmark embodied in the debt rule and the modalities of the "value for money" criterion for investment. Overall, the fiscal fr...

  8. The status of podiatry in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, Phil

    2008-12-01

    This paper reviews the sources of professional status and analyses these in relation to the podiatry profession in the United Kingdom. It is argued that the nature and act of professional practice and the patient/professional relationship are of particular importance in defining the status of the profession. These effects are discussed in relation to podiatry and compared to a high status professional group, that of dentistry. Finally the effects of attempting to change professional status are discussed.

  9. The legal regime of competition in United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Horia MAICAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom has recently introduced a unitary competition regime. Begining with 1979, the United Kingdom was a primary exponent of the neoliberal philosophy, putting in first place market, privatisation, liberalisation and deregulation. For that reason, a competition policy did not exist too much in practice for almost two decades. An important aspect was the influence of European Union competition law. Even in a such situation, the supranational policy could not take the place in of a domestic competition policy. The British Parliament adopted some rules in 1998 in the field of anti-competitive agreements and the control of abuse of dominance and in 2002 in the field of merger control. In March 2012, there were announced the proposals for the reformation the United Kingdom competition law regime. According to the proposals, the functions of the Competition Commission and the competition functions of the Office of Fair Trading (OFT, will be the competences of a new, single competition authority, the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA. The new body will have jurisdiction to analyse merger control reviews and market investigations, and in the same time will act as the main institution enforcing the competition laws.

  10. Does racism affect health? Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Murphy, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Blacks have worse overall health than whites in both the United States and the United Kingdom. However, the relative difference in health between the two groups within each cultural context differs between each context. In this article, we attempt to glean insights into these health disparities. We do so by first examining what is currently known about differences in morbidity and mortality for blacks and whites in the United States and the United Kingdom. We then turn to medical examination data by race and country of birth in an attempt to further untangle the complex interplay of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and racism as determinants of health in the United States and the United Kingdom. We find that (1) longer exposure of blacks to the recipient country is a risk for mortality in the United States but not in the United Kingdom; (2) adjustment for SES matters a good deal for mortality in the United States, but less so in the United Kingdom; (3) morbidity indicators do not paint a clear picture of black disadvantage relative to whites in either context; and (4) were one to consider medical examination data alone, differences between the two groups exist only in the United States. Taken together, we conclude that it is possible that the "less racist" United Kingdom provides a healthier environment for blacks than the United States. However, there remain many mysteries that escape simple explanation. Our findings raise more questions than they answer, and the health risks and health status of blacks in the United States are much more complex than previously thought.

  11. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and its security implications for the United Kingdom and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Sironi, Luke

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United Kingdom has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The United States signed the treaty in September 1996, and currently the decision on whether to ratify it is pending in the Senate. Key differences reside in the political and objective strategic situations of the United States and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom's parliamentary system a single party (or a coalition) makes decisions. The United Stat...

  12. Cultural differences between construction professionals in Denmark and United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, M.R.

    This report presents the results of an investigation into cultural differences between professional members of the construction sector of Denmark and the United Kingdom. In particular it refers to differences between Arkitekter/Architects, Civilingeniører/Civil Engineers and Bygningskonstruktører....../Building Surveyors in relation to the Services Procurement Directive of the European Union. It is recommended that further studies be undertaken in order to develop a cultural profiling model and methods for the building sector to help identify areas of potential conflicts. The report is aimed at construction...

  13. Pharmacogenetic testing in the United Kingdom genetics and immunogenetics laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Jenny; Gambhir, Nikki; Ramsden, Simon C; Poulton, Kay; Newman, William G

    2010-02-01

    For certain drugs, pharmacogenetic tests can reduce adverse drug reactions and improve treatment efficacy. However, the adoption of pharmacogenetics into clinical practice has been relatively slow. One potential barrier is the capacity of laboratories to meet the demands of a clinical pharmacogenetic service. We aimed to establish the range, capacity to deliver, and demand for germline pharmacogenetic testing in the United Kingdom and Ireland, through an e-survey of 34 molecular genetics and 28 histocompatibility and immunogenetics (H&I) laboratories. Thirty-five percent of molecular genetics laboratories and 54% of H&I laboratories responded to the survey. The majority of H&I laboratories (93%) offered pharmacogenetic testing, whereas only one molecular genetics laboratory provided a pharmacogenetic service. HLA-B*5701 was most commonly tested to identify those at risk of abacavir hypersensitivity among patients with HIV. A number of barriers to testing were identified, including lack of clinician knowledge and a lack of scientific evidence. All molecular genetics laboratories believed that national coordination of clinical pharmacogenetic services was required, whereas only 50% of H&I laboratories supported this view. In the United Kingdom, pharmacogenetic testing is currently being predominantly provided through H&I laboratories for a limited number of indications. The number of laboratories offering pharmacogenetic tests is increasing and is likely to continue to increase over the coming years.

  14. Information Literacy in Postsecondary Education in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    This comparison seeks to determine if the three documents addressing information literacy skills and competence developed by professional library associations for postsecondary education in four predominantly English-speaking countries--the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand--have similar or varying conceptions of…

  15. Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    In 1985, Sweden's population stood at 8.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 0.2%. The infant mortality rate was 6.4/1000, and life expectancy was 76 years for men and 82 years for women. The gross domestic product was US$100.2 billion, with a per capita income of $11,989. Of the work force of 4.34 million, 4.9% are in agriculture, 29.8% work in industry, 21.3% are employed in the commerce and finance sector, and 43.9% are engaged in services. Among the social problems Sweden faces are the increasingly large proportion of the population over age 65 years and the challenge of integrating immigrants into social and political life while preserving national languages and customs. Development during the 1970s was less favorable than in most comparable countries; however, industrial recovery during the 1980s has restored the competitiveness of Swedish exports. There is general agreement that investment in new plants and machinery must be increased and wages and consumption must be moderated if Sweden is to expand its industrial sector.

  16. Mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Paul N; Crowe, Francesca L; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Vegetarians and others who do not eat meat have been observed to have lower incidence rates than meat eaters of some chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether this translates into lower mortality. The purpose of this study was to describe mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in a large United Kingdom cohort. The study involved a pooled analysis of data from 2 prospective studies that included 60,310 persons living in the United Kingdom, comprising 18,431 regular meat eaters (who ate meat ≥5 times/wk on average), 13,039 low (less-frequent) meat eaters, 8516 fish eaters (who ate fish but not meat), and 20,324 vegetarians (including 2228 vegans who did not eat any animal foods). Mortality by diet group for each of 18 common causes of death was estimated with the use of Cox proportional hazards models. There were 5294 deaths before age 90 in >1 million y of follow-up. There was no significant difference in overall (all-cause) mortality between the diet groups: HRs in low meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians compared with regular meat eaters were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.00), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.06), and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.10), respectively; P-heterogeneity of risks = 0.082. There were significant differences in risk compared with regular meat eaters for deaths from circulatory disease [higher in fish eaters (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.46)]; malignant cancer [lower in fish eaters (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.97)], including pancreatic cancer [lower in low meat eaters and vegetarians (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86 and HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82, respectively)] and cancers of the lymphatic/hematopoietic tissue [lower in vegetarians (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.79)]; respiratory disease [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.92)]; and all other causes [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99)]. Further adjustment for body mass index left these associations largely unchanged. United Kingdom-based vegetarians and

  17. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  18. Development of the United Kingdom physician associate profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Matthew; Roberts, Karen A

    2017-04-01

    The world of healthcare is changing, and patient needs are changing with it. Traditional doctor-driven models of workforce planning are no longer sustainable in the United Kingdom (UK) healthcare economy, and newer models are needed. In the multiprofessional, multiskilled clinical workforce of the future, the physician associate (PA) has a fundamental role to play as an integrated, frontline, generalist clinician. As of 2016, about 350 PAs were practicing in the UK, with 550 PAs in training and plans to expand rapidly. This report describes the development of the PA profession in the UK from 2002, with projections through 2020, and includes governance, training, and the path to regulation. With rising demands on the healthcare workforce, the PA profession is predicted to positively influence clinical workforce challenges across the UK healthcare economy.

  19. Practice educators in the United Kingdom: A national job description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, John

    2008-11-01

    Much is known about the purpose of practice educators in the United Kingdom, but how their role is implemented is subject to conflicting expectations, partly created by the structure in which they work. Joint appointments between universities and practice are an opportunity for both organisations to collaborate in a partnership to enhance practice learning and fulfill one of the main aims of the practice educator role: to narrow the theory-practice gap. However tensions exist. This paper advocates a national (UK) job description for practice educators to reduce some of the tensions and conflict between the expectations of collaborating partners in practice learning. This would enable practice educators to concentrate on their obligations while employers concentrate on enabling practice educators to fulfill their obligations by upholding their rights to proper preparation, support and career structure.

  20. Energy policies of IEA countries: the United Kingdom 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The United Kingdom is facing a critical moment in its energy policy: North Sea oil and gas production is declining, dependence on imported energy is increasing, while rising energy prices and climate change considerations pose further challenges. The second thematic review of the UK addresses these challenges, focusing on energy investment, energy efficiency, and the return of nuclear power to the political agenda. Almost all coal-fired and nuclear power capacity in the United Kingdom will be retired within the next 15 years. The review encourages the government to maintain its trust in the market mechanism for the delivery of required investment and security of supply. However, it also identifies the need for the government to play a more active role in setting the framework. On the demand side, the IEA considers the government's 'Energy Efficiency Commitment' (EEC) an impressive success. The EEC was introduced in 2002 and is an energy-saving programme under which suppliers must achieve efficiency targets in households. Challenges, such as the requirement that 50 per cent of savings come from low-income households, remain, and the review invites the government to investigate ways in which fuel poverty could be reduced without distorting the EEC. The review also assesses the government's shifting direction on nuclear energy and backs this new path. It argues that the development of a positive investment framework in planning and licensing - without direct intervention in investment decisions favouring nuclear - will allow investors to judge the viability of new plants. 3 apps.

  1. Veterinary pathology in the United Kingdom: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Donald F

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a historical perspective on veterinary anatomic pathology in the United Kingdom from the late nineteenth century to the present. Prior to World War II, the specialty was a rather general one that also included bacteriology and parasitology and was only slightly affected by strong Germanic developments in cell and tissue pathology. The few notable figures of this era include John McFadyean, Sidney Gaiger, and J.R.M Innes. The specialty developed strongly in the second half of the twentieth century, led by a small number of individuals, and was greatly aided by the development of specialist colleges and residency training. Key individuals of this era include W.F. Blakemore, Ernest Cotchin, R.J.M. Franklin, W.F.H. Jarrett, A.R. Jennings, and A.C. Palmer. A remarkable feature of this period has been the increased employment of veterinary pathologists in biomedical industry and in private diagnostic laboratories. While standards of pathology practice have benefited from the college initiatives, there are major financial constraints on the availability of funded training posts in the United Kingdom, and there remain considerable shortages in the supply of pathologists trained to contemporary standards. The acknowledged professional and scientific importance of veterinary pathology needs to be translated into effective financial support for the training that underpins competence in this specialty. Further developments seem likely to be dominated by advances in the technology of tissue handling, applications of molecular biology to pathology, and greater use of telepathology in teaching, in quality assurance, and in continuing professional development.

  2. Karl Marx, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Black Underachievement in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Carol; Wright, Cecile; Mocombe, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    This article synthesizes Marxian conceptions of identity construction within capitalist relations of production with the Wittgensteinian notion of "language games" to offer a more appropriate relational framework within which scholars ought to understand the Black-White academic achievement gap in America, the United Kingdom, and…

  3. What the United Kingdom Can Teach the United States about School Uniforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Angela

    2011-01-01

    School uniforms are commonplace in the United Kingdom and seem to help promote students' respect for the teachers, the school, and themselves. Parents like the uniforms because they see it as a less expensive alternative. Teachers say they appreciate school uniforms because they help students focus on school and not each other's clothes. However,…

  4. Migration from Developing Countries: The Case of South African Teachers to the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, Rian

    2007-01-01

    The United Kingdom (particularly England) is the main developed country that recruits teachers from South Africa. This article provides an overview of teacher migration from South Africa to the United Kingdom over the past decade. The research focuses on the following aspects of migration: the recruitment of South African teachers; motivation for…

  5. Testosterone Lab Testing and Initiation in the United Kingdom and the United States, 2000 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Meier, Christoph R.; Sharpless, Julie L.; Stürmer, Til; Jick, Susan S.; Brookhart, M. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Context: New formulations, increased marketing, and wider recognition of declining testosterone levels in older age may have contributed to wider testosterone testing and supplementation in many countries. Objective: Our objective was to describe testosterone testing and testosterone treatment in men in the United Kingdom and United States. Design: This was a retrospective incident user cohort. Setting: We evaluated commercial and Medicare insurance claims from the United States and general practitioner healthcare records from the United Kingdom for the years 2000 through 2011. Participants: We identified 410 019 US men and 6858 UK men who initiated a testosterone formulation as well as 1 114 329 US men and 66 140 UK men with a new testosterone laboratory measurement. Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures included initiation of any injected testosterone, implanted testosterone pellets, or prescribed transdermal or oral testosterone formulation. Results: Testosterone testing and supplementation have increased pronouncedly in the United States. Increased testing in the United Kingdom has identified more men with low levels, yet US testing has increased among men with normal levels. Men in the United States tend to initiate at normal levels more often than in the United Kingdom, and many men initiate testosterone without recent testing. Gels have become the most common initial treatment in both countries. Conclusions: Testosterone testing and use has increased over the past decade, particularly in the United States, with dramatic shifts from injections to gels. Substantial use is seen in men without recent testing and in US men with normal levels. Given widening use despite safety and efficacy questions, prescribers must consider the medical necessity of testosterone before initiation. PMID:24423353

  6. Market manipulation challenges and responses in the United Kingdom, European Union and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, N.

    2017-01-01

    As a response to the financial crisis the European Union (EU), the United States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) have increasingly focused on the phenomenon of white-collar crime as one of the major causes of the financial crisis. While recent studies have mainly surveyed weak banking regulation, weak credit regulation, inappropriate lending practices and the economic policies of nation states, this paper seeks to investigate the impact of market abuse and insider trading – under...

  7. Net neutrality discourses: comparing advocacy and regulatory arguments in the United States and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Powell; Alissa Cooper

    2011-01-01

    Telecommunications policy issues rarely make news, much less mobilize thousands of people. Yet this has been occurring in the United States around efforts to introduce "Net neutrality" regulation. A similar grassroots mobilization has not developed in the United Kingdom or elsewhere in Europe. We develop a comparative analysis of U.S. and UK Net neutrality debates with an eye toward identifying the arguments for and against regulation, how those arguments differ between the countries, and wha...

  8. United Kingdom and United States Tourism Demand for Malaysia:A Cointegration Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Habibi, Fateh; Abdul Rahim, Khalid; Chin, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Tourism industry has been an important contributor to the Malaysia economy. In this paper we inspect variations in the long run demand for tourism from United Kingdom and United States to Malaysia. The demand for tourism has been explained by macroeconomic variables, including income in origin countries, tourism prices in Malaysia, and travel cost between the two countries. Annual data from 1972 to 2006 are used for the analysis. Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Johansen’s maximum likelihood tests...

  9. Point-of-care testing in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, G M

    2001-05-01

    Point-of-care testing in the United Kingdom is currently at the embryo stage of development, and is approximately 10 years behind the United States in incorporation and application into clinical practice. Safeguards to ensure proper use are not in place within the UK at present, and there is no legal requirement for POCT users to be proficiency tested by an internal or external body before they can routinely use the equipment. Internal quality control and external quality assessment are not statutory requirements within the UK, leading to unease regarding the extent and range of point-of-care tests offered and whether the results are a true biochemical representation of the patient's clinical condition. Cost-benefit analysis is very sparse, but faster turnaround times can only lead to more rapid treatment of the patient, which will lead to fewer clinical complications. This will result in decreased hospital admissions by the emergency department and reduced length of hospital stay in ward-based patients. National Health Service (NHS) accountants will see this, as the way forward, as fewer patients being admitted into hospital and length of stay reduction will result in decreased expenditure by the service provider.

  10. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-01-01

    ...: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data...

  11. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  12. Medical leadership and management in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyratsis, Yiannis; Armit, Kirsten; Zyada, Azra; Lees, Peter

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to outline the historical development of medical leadership in the United Kingdom (UK), present recent advances, and discuss professional development and future prospects. With increasing involvement of medical professionals in top managerial roles in the UK over the last 30 years, leadership development initiatives have been growing steadily and there is increasing recognition of the need for leadership and management skills for doctors. Such skills can help to greatly improve patient care as well as enhance organisational effectiveness and productivity. The central involvement of professional bodies such as the UK Faculty of Medical Leadership and Management, and the establishment of medical fellowship schemes, have provided a solid foundation for a new generation of aspiring medical leaders but there is still a long way to go to achieve a higher degree of professionalism for clinical leadership in the UK. The evidence base is weak such that integrated efforts by clinicians and management academics have much to offer in achieving the vision of socially responsible, clinically relevant and research informed medical leadership training. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  13. Pathology in the medical curriculum in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, William A

    2007-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the medical students of yesteryear undertook a detailed pathology course, often with its own major examinations. This contributed to the increasing overload of factual information that was common in medical curricula. Following General Medical Council reports on medical education, pathology is now more fully integrated into clinical work and into problem-based learning, albeit with greatly reduced contact time with pathologists. Teaching methods have shifted from didactic presentations, such as lectures, to more varied methods, with emphasis on self-access and interactivity. Technological advances have brought well-illustrated textbooks, computer-assisted learning programs, Web resources, and electronic communication. There has been a decline in the role of museum specimens, microscopy, and, partly following a worldwide trend and partly following adverse media publicity, the traditional autopsy. Assessment methods have evolved, with integration of pathology into wider examinations. The greater drive toward increasing funding through the Research Assessment Exercise has had an adverse effect on teaching throughout universities. Despite these setbacks, the importance of pathology as a clinical discipline will ensure its continued role in medical education.

  14. Trends in cultural psychiatry in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2013-01-01

    Cultural psychiatry in the United Kingdom exhibits unique characteristics closely related to its history as a colonial power, its relationship with Commonwealth countries and the changing socio-demographic characteristics of its diverse population throughout the centuries. It is not surprising, therefore, that the emergence of this discipline was centred around issues of race and religion. After a brief historical review of the development of cultural psychiatry and the mention of pioneering intellectual and academic figures, as well as the evolvement of the field in organizations such as the Royal College of Psychiatrists, this chapter examines the need of a critical cultural psychiatry, more than a narrative social science distanced from the realities of clinical practice. In such context, issues such as policies and experience with efforts to delivering race equality, and address inequities in a renewed public health approach seem to confer British cultural psychiatry with a defined socially active role aimed at the pragmatic management, understanding and improvement of diverse and alternative systems of care and care practices. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A thousand years of energy use in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, R.; Pearson, P.J.G. (Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering)

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of energy use and its influences in the United Kingdom over the very long run by combining economic literature and statistical information. The paper argues that the provision of energy services, mainly heat and power, is bound by the tensions between a changing growth rate and structure of economic activity and the constraints of energetic resources. After periods of tension, energy price differentials, as well as the diffusion of technological innovation and the development of new fuels, led to new mixes of energy sources to supply heat and power. This paper identifies three major changes that characterize the history of UK energy use: first, the dramatic increase in per capita energy use; second, the shift in methods of supplying energy services, from biomass sources to fossil fuels, from coal to petroleum to natural gas, and from raw forms to more value-added energy sources; and, third, the replacing of direct methods of generating power, from animate sources, wind and water, by the use of mechanical and electrical methods, which have so far depended mainly on fossil fuels. These changes were instrumental in influencing the relationship between GDP and energy use, and also the levels of environmental pollution.

  16. Productivity Growth and Levels in France, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States in the Twentieth Century.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Cette; Yusuf Kocoglu; Jacques Mairesse

    2010-01-01

    This study compares labor and total factor productivity (TFP) in France, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States in the very long (since 1890) and medium (since 1980) runs. During the past century, the United States has overtaken the United Kingdom and become the leading world economy. During the past 25 years, the four countries have also experienced contrasting advances in productivity, in particular as a result of unequal investment in information and communication technology (ICT)...

  17. The Educational System of the United Kingdom. The Admission and Placement of Students from the United Kingdom and Study Abroad Opportunities. A Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Sylvia K., Ed.; Margolis, Alan, Ed.

    This report, the result of a workshop on admissions, placement and study abroad in United Kingdom higher education, focuses on areas of significant change in the educational system since 1976. A chapter on study abroad provides an overview of educational change in Britain focusing on the issue of assisting United States students who might want or…

  18. Wage Growth and Job Mobility in the United Kingdom and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Dustmann, C.; Pereira, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    Wage Growth and Job Mobility in the United Kingdom and Germany Christian Dustmann and Sonia C. Pereira. Dustmann Using data from the British Household Panel Survey for 1991-99 and the German Socio-Economic Panel for 1984-99, the authors investigate job mobility and estimate the returns to tenure and experience. Job mobility was higher in the United Kingdom than in Germany. Returns to experience also seem to have been substantially higher in the United Kingdom, where the wage gain associated w...

  19. Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoren, M.P.; Demant, Jakob Johan; Shiely, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus, this lit......Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus......, this literature review aims to summarise the current research on alcohol consumption among university students in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom....

  20. Living with polio and postpolio syndrome in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Anita; Giles, Amy; Spiliotopoulou, Georgia; Plastow, Nicola; Wilson, Lesley

    2013-06-01

    The term Postpolio Syndrome (PPS) is used to describe new and late manifestations of poliomyelitis that occur later in life in polio survivors. Polio had been eradicated in the United Kingdom (UK) and most of Europe, although this is not the case in all countries. Research in this area has tended to focus upon the impact of polio and PPS on health status and functional health rather than its overall effect on people's lives. This study's two main aims were to explore the ways in which polio and PPS in the UK has affected the respondents' lives and to ascertain their views about how the quality of life could be improved. The two questions were as follows: (1) How has the health of people with polio and PPS affected their quality of life? (2) What would people with polio and PPS change to improve their quality of life? Deductive content analysis using existing qualitative data from a cross-sectional survey of 336 returned questionnaires from persons with polio and PPS was carried out. The average age of the participants was 54 years. Our research found that polio survivors valued social occupations and participation in family life. Our research has also shown that healthcare professionals still do not understand polio and PPS and this lack of understanding influences their clients' quality of life. Finances and accessibility of environments also influence participation in chosen occupations. Rehabilitation programmes for people with polio and PPS need to be targeted towards maintaining and improving accessible environments and participation in chosen occupations, and healthcare professionals need to ensure that persons with polio and PPS are referred to persons with specific expertise in this area. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Hospital pharmacists' participation in audit in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, S; McKee, M; Barber, N

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate systematically participation in audit of NHS hospital pharmacists in the United Kingdom. DESIGN--Questionnaire census survey. SETTING--All NHS hospital pharmacies in the UK providing clinical pharmacy services. SUBJECTS--462 hospital pharmacies. MAIN MEASURES--Extent and nature of participation in medical, clinical, and pharmacy audits according to hospital management and teaching status, educational level and specialisation of pharmacists, and perceived availability of resources. RESULTS--416 questionnaires were returned (response rate 90%). Pharmacists contributed to medical audit in 50% (204/410) of hospitals, pharmacy audit in 27% (108/404), and clinical audit in only 7% (29/404). Many pharmacies (59% (235/399)) were involved in one or more types of audit but few (4%, (15/399)) in all three. Participation increased in medical and pharmacy audits with trust status (medical audit: 57% (65/115) trust hospital v 47% (132/281) non-trust hospital; pharmacy audit: 34% (39/114) v 24% (65/276)) and teaching status (medical audit: 58% (60/104) teaching hospital v 47% (130/279) non-teaching hospital; pharmacy audit 30% (31/104) v 25% (68/273)) and similarly for highly qualified pharmacists (MPhil or PhD, MSc, diplomas) (medical audit: 54% (163/302) with these qualifications v 38% (39/103) without; pharmacy audit: 32% (95/298) v 13% (13/102)) and specialists pharmacists (medical audit: 61% (112/184) specialist v 41% (90/221) non-specialist; pharmacy audit: 37% (67/182) v 19% (41/218)). Pharmacies contributing to medical audit commonly provided financial information on drug use (86% 169/197). Pharmacy audits often concentrated on audit of clinical pharmacy services. CONCLUSION--Pharmacists are beginning to participate in the critical evaluation of health care, mainly in medical audit. PMID:10132456

  2. The mental health of elite athletes in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foskett, R L; Longstaff, F

    2017-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of signs of anxiety/depression and distress among a sample of elite athletes in the United Kingdom (UK). A secondary aim was to identify the variables associated with signs of anxiety/depression and distress in the same sample. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to a sample of elite athletes in the UK. A total of 143 elite athletes completed an online survey that consisted of demographic questions, the Greenhaus Scale assessing career satisfaction, the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire assessing signs of anxiety/depression and a distress screener based on the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire. 47.8% of the overall sample met the cut-off for signs of anxiety/depression and 26.8% met the cut-off for signs of distress. A significant association was found between gender and signs of distress (x2=8.64, df=1, p=0.003). Career dissatisfaction was a significant independent predictor of signs of anxiety/depression (OR=0.836, p=0.001) and distress (OR=0.849, p=0.003). The percentage of a sample of elite athletes in the UK showing signs of anxiety/depression and distress indicate that further cross-sectional research is required to understand the prevalence of mental health issues in the elite athlete population in the UK. Findings indicate that screening elite athletes for career dissatisfaction may support the early detection of signs of anxiety/depression and/or distress. Emphasis should be placed on understanding and improving the mental health of elite athletes in the UK. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The growth of community education in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keith

    1980-09-01

    There is considerable confusion over the terms `community' and `community education'. This paper explores these concepts, traces the growth of different models of community education in the United Kingdom, and highlights some of the issues, weaknesses and problems arising from its development. Two separate movements, evolutionary and revolutionary, are identified — school-based and community-based respectively — though in recent years the difference in practice has become blurred. Trends discernible in the development of community education include its increasing application to urban and high-density residential areas and the accompanying growth in the size of the institutions — and in the range of facilities offered. There is also the tendency to label a school/college `community' simply because it provides extra facilities although there is no modification of management structures or of the curriculum. Unresolved as yet is the change in the relationship between school and community effected by community education, one element of which is the reaction on pupils and staff of sharing institutional facilities with the community. Additionally, the larger an institution grows and the more complex the administrative structure it requires, so also the more impersonal does it become and the less able to express or create a real sense of community. What is needed if community education is to fulfil its purpose is community participation in management and decision-making — with adequate structures to facilitate this `lay' involvement, community control over part at least of the funds, appropriate training of teachers and community workers for their wider roles, and above all, consideration and articulation of the particular needs of each individual community.

  4. Demographics of cattle movements in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Matthew C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Kingdom (UK government has been recording the births, deaths, and movements of cattle for the last decade. Despite reservations about the accuracy of these data, they represent a large and valuable body of information about the demographics of the UK cattle herd and its contact structure. In this article, a range of demographic data about UK cattle, and particularly their movements, are presented, as well as yearly trends in the patterns of movements. Results A clear seasonal pattern is evident in the number of movements of cattle, as are the reductions in movement volume due to foot and mouth disease outbreaks in 2001 and 2007. The distribution of ages of cattle at their time of death is multimodal, and the impact of the over thirty months rule is marked. Most movements occur between agricultural holdings, markets, and slaughterhouses, and there is a non-random pattern to the types of holdings movements occur between. Most animals move only a short distance and a few times in their life. Most movements between any given pair of holdings only occurred once in the last 10 years, but about a third occurred between 2 and 10 times in that period. There is no clear trend to movement patterns in the UK since 2002. Conclusions Despite a substantial number of regulatory interventions during the last decade, movement patterns show no clear trend since 2002. The observed patterns in the repeatability of movements, the types of holdings involved in movements, the distances and frequencies of cattle movements, and the batch sizes involved give an insight into the structure of the UK cattle industry, and could act as the basis for a predictive model of livestock movements in the UK.

  5. Early Jurassic allotherians from South Wales (United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Clemens

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossils from two fissure fillings in Pant Quarry (designated Pant 4 and Pant 5, South Wales, United Kingdom, probably of Early Jurassic age document a taxonomically diverse vertebrate fauna, the Morganucodon-sphenodont fauna, composed of several kinds of reptiles, non-mammalian synapsids, and mammals. Six isolated molariform teeth from Pant 4 and 5 fissures clearly record the presence of Thomasia (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyidae, a genus previously known only from purported Late Triassic faunas of southwestern England, France, Belgium, Luxemburg, Germany, and Switzerland. Small morphological differences from teeth in the larger English and continental European samples warrant identification of the Welsh material as Thomasia cf. moorei. The highly derived morphology of an isolated molariform tooth from Pant 5 fissure indicates the presence of another, possibly allotherian, taxon. Fossilien aus zwei wahrscheinlich unterjurassischen Spaltenfüllungen (Pant 4 und Pant 5 im Steinbruch Pant in Süd-Wales dokumentieren eine taxonomisch diverse Wirbeltierfauna. Diese Morganucodon-Sphenodontiden-Fauna besteht aus verschiedenen Formen von Reptilien, Synapsiden und Säugetieren. Sechs isolierte molariforme Zähne aus den Spaltenfüllungen Pant 4 und Pant 5 belegen eindeutig das Vorkommen von Thomasia (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyidae, einer bisher nur aus vermutlich obertriassischen Faunen Südwest-Englands, Frankreichs, Belgiens, Luxemburgs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz bekannten Gattung. Geringe morphologische Unterschiede zu dem umfangreicheren Material aus England und Kontinental-Europa sprechen für die Identifikation des neuen Materials als Thomasia cf. moorei. Die stark abgeleitete Morphologie eines isolierten molariformen Zahnes aus der Spalte Pant 5 belegt das Vorkommen eines anderen Taxons, das möglicherweise auch den Allotheria zuzuordnen ist. doi:10.1002/mmng.200600018

  6. Into the Eighties--Trade Union Education in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, John

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews developments and trends in trade union education in the United Kingdom. Priorities for the eighties constituting a major concern for the Trades Union Congress and the Workers' Educational Association are analyzed. (CT)

  7. Psychiatry training in the United Kingdom--part 2: the training process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, N; Kasiakogia, K

    2015-01-01

    In the second part of this diptych, we shall deal with psychiatric training in the United Kingdom in detail, and we will compare it--wherever this is meaningful--with the equivalent system in Greece. As explained in the first part of the paper, due to the recently increased emigration of Greek psychiatrists and psychiatric trainees, and the fact that the United Kingdom is a popular destination, it has become necessary to inform those aspiring to train in the United Kingdom of the system and the circumstances they should expect to encounter. This paper principally describes the structure of the United Kingdom's psychiatric training system, including the different stages trainees progress through and their respective requirements and processes. Specifically, specialty and subspecialty options are described and explained, special paths in training are analysed, and the notions of "special interest day" and the optional "Out of programme experience" schemes are explained. Furthermore, detailed information is offered on the pivotal points of each of the stages of the training process, with special care to explain the important differences and similarities between the systems in Greece and the United Kingdom. Special attention is given to The Royal College of Psychiatrists' Membership Exams (MRCPsych) because they are the only exams towards completing specialisation in Psychiatry in the United Kingdom. Also, the educational culture of progressing according to a set curriculum, of utilising diverse means of professional development, of empowering the trainees' autonomy by allowing initiative-based development and of applying peer supervision as a tool for professional development is stressed. We conclude that psychiatric training in the United Kingdom differs substantially to that of Greece in both structure and process. Τhere are various differences such as pure psychiatric training in the United Kingdom versus neurological and medical modules in Greece, in

  8. Psychiatry training in the United Kingdom--Part 1: a general overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiakogia, K; Christodoulou, N

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been a strong trend of emigration of Greek medical doctors. The reason for this phenomenon is certainly multifactorial, but it has been greatly exacerbated due to the latest financial crisis. The United Kingdom is one of the most popular destinations amongst emigrating Greek psychiatric doctors, as reflected by official data and by the sheer volume of requests for information received by the United Kingdom Division of the Hellenic Psychiatric Association. There are many systemic and practical differences between the Greek and the United Kingdom health systems, which complicate training and further career decisions. These complex differences make it hard for psychiatric doctors to decide which steps to take, and often result in them making the "wrong" decision. These "wrong" decisions are very often the result of poor information or misinformation. For instance many doctors are confused about the equivalence of training and service grades between Greece and the United Kingdom, what a good portfolio means, or the significance of the MRCPsych exam. This information exists, sometimes in comprehensive ways on the internet, but for doctors who are not familiar with the system, finding this information can be a time-consuming and laborious task. Therefore, providing a starting point with realistic and useful information about psychiatric training and generally career progression in the United Kingdom to Greek psychiatric doctors has become very important. The United Kingdom Division of the Hellenic Psychiatric Association has decided to pick up the role of providing exactly that information. The first part of this two-piece paper provides a starting point for Greek doctors considering the move to the United Kingdom for training and/or work in psychiatry. Firstly, it gives a general overview of psychiatric training in the United Kingdom, and explains that the pragmatic equivalence between training stages between Greece and the United Kingdom often

  9. Enabling Housing Cooperatives: policy lessons from Sweden, India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapati, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries. The analysis reveals that housing cooperatives' relationship with the state and the consequent support structures explain the divergent evolution. Although the relationships between cooperatives and the state evolved over time, they can be characterized as embedded autonomy, overembeddedness and disembeddedness in Sweden, India and the United States respectively. Whereas the consequent support structures for housing cooperatives became well developed in Sweden and India, such structures have been weak in the United States. The article highlights the need for embedded autonomy and the need for supportive structures to enable the growth of housing cooperatives.

  10. Psychometric assessment of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit questionnaire in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David A; Ferrando-Vivas, Paloma; Wright, Stephen E; McColl, Elaine; Heyland, Daren K; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2017-04-01

    To establish the psychometric properties of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item (FS-ICU-24) questionnaire in the United Kingdom. The Family-Reported Experiences Evaluation study recruited family members of patients staying at least 24 hours in 20 participating intensive care units. Questionnaires were evaluated for nonresponse, floor/ceiling effects, redundancy, and construct validity. Internal consistency was evaluated with item-to-own scale correlations and Cronbach α. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to explore the underlying structure. Twelve thousand three hundred forty-six family members of 6380 patients were recruited and 7173 (58%) family members of 4615 patients returned a completed questionnaire. One family member per patient was included in the psychometric assessment. Six items had greater than 10% nonresponse; 1 item had a ceiling effect; and 11 items had potential redundancy. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach α, overall .96; satisfaction with care, .94; satisfaction with decision making, .93). The 2-factor solution was not a good fit. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that satisfaction with decision making encompassed 2 constructs-satisfaction with information and satisfaction with the decision-making process. The Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties in the United Kingdom setting. Construct validity could be improved by use of 3 domains and some scope for further improvement was identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A qualitative study of work-life balance amongst specialist orthodontists in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    S J Cunningham; Bateman, L. E.; Collins, J M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors affecting work-life balance amongst male and female orthodontists in the United Kingdom. Design: A qualitative interview-based study with a cross-sectional design. Subjects: Specialist orthodontists working in specialist practice and the hospital service in the United Kingdom were selected by purposive sampling. Methods: In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with eighteen orthodontic specialists. Interview transcripts were analysed using Framework A...

  12. Social representation of hearing aids: cross-cultural study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchaiah V

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vinaya Manchaiah,1 Berth Danermark,2 Vinay,3 Tayebeh Ahmadi,4 David Tomé,5 Rajalakshmi Krishna,6 Per Germundsson7 1Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas, USA; 2Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 3Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 4Department of Audiology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Audiology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal; 6All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, University of Mysore, Mysore, India; 7The Department of Health and Welfare Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden Background: The current study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing aids in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. We also compared these results to explore the cross-cultural differences and similarities among these countries. Methods: The study involved a cross-sectional design, and the data were collected from four different countries using the snowball sampling method. Data were analyzed using a content analysis to identify the most-similar categories of responses reported, a co-occurrences analysis to see which of these categories are reported commonly, and a chi-square analysis to study if there was any association between positive, neutral, and negative connotations among participants in different countries. Results: The current study revealed four different social representations of hearing aids from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom, and also a global index. Conclusion: The study results provide very useful insights into how hearing aids are represented in the society. These findings may have important implications for public education and also for manufacturers from the viewpoint of designing and marketing hearing aids in different countries. Keywords: hearing aids

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus in Cats in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturriza-Gómara, M.; Dove, W.; Sandrasegaram, M.; Nakagomi, T.; Nakagomi, O.; Cunliffe, N.; Radford, A. D.; Morgan, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rotaviruses are leading causes of gastroenteritis in the young of many species. Molecular epidemiological studies in children suggest that interspecies transmission contributes to rotavirus strain diversity in people. However, population-based studies of rotaviruses in animals are few. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors for infection, and genetic diversity of rotavirus A in a cross-sectional survey of cats housed within 25 rescue catteries across the United Kingdom. Morning litter tray fecal samples were collected during the winter and summer in 2012 from all pens containing kittens and a random sample of those housing adult cats. Group A rotavirus RNA was detected by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and positive samples were G and P genotyped using nested VP4 and VP7 PCR assays. A total of 1,727 fecal samples were collected from 1,105 pens. Overall, the prevalence of rotavirus was 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 4.9%). Thirteen out of 25 (52%; 95% CI, 31.3 to 72.2%) centers housed at least one rotavirus-positive cat. The prevalence of rotavirus was associated with season (odds ratio, 14.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 200.4]; P = 0.04) but not age or diarrhea. It was higher during the summer (4.7%; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.3%) than in winter (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.5%). Asymptomatic epidemics of infection were detected in two centers. G genotypes were characterized for 19 (33.3%) of the 57 rotavirus-positive samples and P genotypes for 36 (59.7%). Two rotavirus genotypes were identified, G3P[9] and G6P[9]. This is the first population-based study of rotavirus in cats and the first report of feline G6P[9], which questions the previous belief that G6P[9] in people is of bovine origin. PMID:25411173

  14. Political Science Journals in Comparative Perspective: Evaluating Scholarly Journals in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, James C.; Giles, Micheal W.; Blais, Andre; McLean, Iain

    2009-01-01

    In this article we report the results from a new survey of political scientists regarding their evaluations of journals in the political science discipline. Unlike previous research that has focused on data from the United States, we conducted an Internet survey of political scientists in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. We…

  15. Use of Internet Search Data to Monitor Rotavirus Vaccine Impact in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Minesh P; Lopman, Benjamin A; Tate, Jacqueline E; Harris, John; Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Sanchez-Uribe, Edgar; Richardson, Vesta; Steiner, Claudia A; Parashar, Umesh D

    2017-03-21

    Previous studies have found a strong correlation between internet search and public health surveillance data. Less is known about how search data respond to public health interventions, such as vaccination, and the consistency of responses in different countries. In this study, we aimed to study the correlation between internet searches for "rotavirus" and rotavirus disease activity in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine. We compared time series of internet searches for "rotavirus" from Google Trends with rotavirus laboratory reports from the United States and United Kingdom and with hospitalizations for acute gastroenteritis in the United States and Mexico. Using time and location parameters, Google quantifies an internet query share (IQS) to measure the relative search volume for specific terms. We analyzed the correlation between IQS and laboratory and hospitalization data before and after national vaccine introductions. There was a strong positive correlation between the rotavirus IQS and laboratory reports in the United States (R2 = 0.79) and United Kingdom (R2 = 0.60) and between the rotavirus IQS and acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations in the United States (R2 = 0.87) and Mexico (R2 = 0.69) (P internet search data trends mirrored national rotavirus laboratory trends in the United States and United Kingdom and gastroenteritis-hospitalization data in the United States and Mexico; lower correlations were found after rotavirus vaccine introduction.

  16. Creating an innovative youth mental health service in the United Kingdom: The Norfolk Youth Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jon; Clarke, Tim; Lower, Rebecca; Ugochukwu, Uju; Maxwell, Sarah; Hodgekins, Jo; Wheeler, Karen; Goff, Andy; Mack, Robert; Horne, Rebecca; Fowler, David

    2017-08-04

    Young people attempting to access mental health services in the United Kingdom often find traditional models of care outdated, rigid, inaccessible and unappealing. Policy recommendations, research and service user opinion suggest that reform is needed to reflect the changing needs of young people. There is significant motivation in the United Kingdom to transform mental health services for young people, and this paper aims to describe the rationale, development and implementation of a novel youth mental health service in the United Kingdom, the Norfolk Youth Service. The Norfolk Youth Service model is described as a service model case study. The service rationale, national and local drivers, principles, aims, model, research priorities and future directions are reported. The Norfolk Youth Service is an innovative example of mental health transformation in the United Kingdom, comprising a pragmatic, assertive and "youth-friendly" service for young people aged 14 to 25 that transcends traditional service boundaries. The service was developed in collaboration with young people and partnership agencies and is based on an engaging and inclusive ethos. The service is a social-recovery oriented, evidence-based and aims to satisfy recent policy guidance. The redesign and transformation of youth mental health services in the United Kingdom is long overdue. The Norfolk Youth Service represents an example of reform that aims to meet the developmental and transitional needs of young people at the same time as remaining youth-oriented. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Wind energy in the United Kingdom; L'energie eolienne au Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    After a presentation of the general context (struggle against climate change, actions of the successive British governments, role of wind energy in the British energy strategy), this report proposes an overview of wind energy production in the United Kingdom. It comments the share of wind energy in comparison with other sources. It gives a rather detailed description of the status of the British wind energy industry: production capacity, used technologies, rank of the United Kingdom in the international and European wind energy industry, cost of wind energy production. It describes the means adopted by the United Kingdom to reach its objectives: political incentives (involved actors, main measures, support to research and development), industrial development (actors, offshore development, organisation of a system of rounds for the industrial development). It discusses the different technical, economic and political obstacles faced by this development

  18. Image of the United States as a travel destination: a case study of United Kingdom college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung Hee Park; Pavlina Latkova; Sarah Nicholls

    2007-01-01

    The youth travel market is a major growth segment of international tourism. The purpose of this study was to explore the travel behaviors and perceptions of United Kingdom college students with regards to the United States as a travel destination. Two objectives were formulated, to determine whether image dimensions differed based on (1) travel behavior, and (2) socio-...

  19. Online marketing strategies of plastic surgeons and clinics: a comparative study of the United Kingdom and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassab, Reza; Navsaria, Harshad; Myers, Simon; Frame, James

    2011-07-01

    The cosmetic surgery market is a rapidly growing sector of healthcare, and the use of marketing strategies is now an integral part of any cosmetic surgery practice. In this study, the authors review 50 Web sites from practitioners in London and New York to quantify the utilization of online marketing, comparing results between the United Kingdom and the United States.

  20. Legal Teaching Methods to Diverse Student Cohorts: A Comparison between the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Diane

    2017-01-01

    This article makes a comparison across the unique educational settings of law and business schools in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and New Zealand to highlight differences in teaching methods necessary for culturally and ethnically mixed student cohorts derived from high migration, student mobility, higher education rankings…

  1. Viva Hate? An Ideology Critique of the European Court of Human Rights and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, David Mackendrick

    2017-01-01

    Through an assessment of the recent criticism directed against the Court from the United Kingdom, this thesis sets out the investigate the future of the European Court of Human Rights. By analysing compliance with the Court as a form of ideology—in particular, the definition given by John B Thompson as the “ways in which meaning serves to establish and sustain relations of domination”—it studies the ways this has been challenged by the United Kingdom, and assesses the suitability of the curr...

  2. International migration: demographic and socioeconomic consequences in the United Kingdom and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D A

    1995-01-01

    "This article evaluates the consequences of international migration since World War II, with particular reference to Great Britain. It emphasizes the substantial differences between the origins and responses to immigration in the United Kingdom and that of the rest of Western Europe." It is found that "people of non-European origin from Commonwealth countries have predominated in postwar immigration to the United Kingdom. That migration neutralized the previously dominant pattern of emigration and increased U.K. population by about 3 million people through immigration and higher fertility, with only slight effects upon the age distribution." excerpt

  3. Resuscitation of thermal injuries in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R H J; Akhavani, M A; Jallali, N

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of burns resuscitation practice throughout UK and Ireland. Twenty-six Burns Units were identified via the National Burn Bed Bureau and surveyed via a postal questionnaire. Twenty-three units returned a completed questionnaire, covering all of the units treating children and 17 out of 20 units that treat adults. Nearly all of the Burns Units commence fluid resuscitation at 10% total body surface area of burn in children and 15% total body surface area of burn in adults. The estimated resuscitation volume is calculated using the Parkland or the Muir and Barclay formula in 76% and 11% of units, respectively. The most commonly used resuscitation fluid is Hartmann's solution. No unit uses blood as a first line fluid. Resuscitation is discontinued after 24h in 35% of units and after 36 h in 30% of units. Approximately half of the units do not routinely change the type of intravenous fluid administered after the initial period of resuscitation. This survey illustrates that resuscitation of thermally injured patients in UK and Ireland Burns Units is fairly consistent with a shift towards crystalloid resuscitation.

  4. Public and nonprofit funding for research on mental disorders in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreul, Karine; McDaid, David; Farmer, Carrie M; Prigent, Amélie; Park, A-La; Leboyer, Marion; Kupfer, David J; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2012-07-01

    To document the investments made in research on mental disorders by both government and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An exhaustive survey was conducted of primary sources of public and nonprofit organization funding for mental health research for the year 2007 in France and the United Kingdom and for fiscal year 2007-2008 in the United States, augmented with an examination of relevant Web sites and publications. In France, all universities and research institutions were identified using the Public Finance Act. In the United Kingdom, we scrutinized Web sites and hand searched annual reports and grant lists for the public sector and nonprofit charitable medical research awarding bodies. In the United States, we included the following sources: the National Institutes of Health, other administrative entities within the Department of Health and Human Services (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation and, for nonprofit funding, The Foundation Center. We included research on all mental disorders and substance-related disorders using the same keywords. We excluded research on mental retardation and dementia and on the promotion of mental well-being. We used the same algorithm in each country to obtain data for only mental health funding in situations in which funding had a broader scope. France spent $27.6 million (2%) of its health research budget on mental disorders, the United Kingdom spent $172.6 million (7%), and the United States spent $5.2 billion (16%). Nongovernmental funding ranged from 1% of total funding for mental health research in France and the United States to 14% in the United Kingdom. Funding for research on mental disorders accounts for low proportions of research budgets compared with funding levels for research on other major health problems, whereas

  5. The Caspian energy game: views from the United States and United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, H

    2003-07-01

    The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)

  6. Expensive cancer drugs: a comparison between the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faden, Ruth R; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Appleby, John; Waters, Hugh R; Leider, Jonathon P

    2009-12-01

    This article compares the United Kingdom's and the United States' experiences with expensive cancer drugs to illustrate the challenges posed by new, extremely costly, medical technologies. This article describes British and American coverage, access, and cost-sharing policies with regard to expensive cancer drugs and then compares the costs of eleven such drugs to British patients, American Medicare beneficiaries, and American patients purchasing the drugs in the retail market. Three questions posed by these comparisons are then examined: First, which system is fairer? In which system are cancer patients better off? Assuming that no system can sustainably provide to everyone at least some expensive cancer drugs for some clinical indications, what challenges does each system face in making these difficult determinations? In both the British and American health care systems, not all patients who might benefit from or desire access to expensive cancer drugs have access to them. The popular characterization of the United States, where all cancer drugs are available for all to access as and when needed, and that of the British NHS, where top-down population rationing poses insurmountable obstacles to British patients' access, are far from the reality in both countries. Key elements of the British system are fairer than the American system, and the British system is better structured to deal with difficult decisions about expensive end-of-life cancer drugs. Both systems face common ethical, financial, organizational, and priority-setting challenges in making these decisions.

  7. E. coli O157 outbreaks in the United Kingdom: past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennington TH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hugh Pennington University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom Abstract: This review describes Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks in the United Kingdom, beginning from the first, in the 1980s, to those recorded in 2013. We point out that the United Kingdom differs from other countries, particularly the United States, in that it has had a considerable number of outbreaks associated with butchers, but very few caused by contaminated burgers. Two of the butcher-associated outbreaks (in central Scotland in 1996 and South Wales in 2005 were very large and are considered here in detail; the reviewer conducted detailed investigations into both outbreaks. Also considered is the very large outbreak that occurred in visitors to an open farm in Surrey in 2009. Detailed descriptions of some milk-borne outbreaks and incidents connected with camping and childrens' nurseries have been published, and these are also considered in this review. Large outbreaks in the United Kingdom have sometimes led to policy developments regarding food safety, and these are considered, together with public reactions to them, their health effect, and their value, as examples to follow or eschew in terms of the procedures to be adopted in response to incidents of this kind. Regulatory and legal consequences are also considered. As a wise man said, making predictions is difficult, particularly about the future. This review follows this position but points out that although human infections caused by E. coli O157 are rare in the United Kingdom, their incidence has not changed significantly in the last 17 years. This review points out that although a response to an outbreak is to say "lessons must be learned", this response has been tempered by forgetfulness. Accordingly, this review restricts its recommendations regarding outbreaks to two: the crucial importance of a rapid response and the importance of experience, and even "gut feeling", when an inspector is evaluating the

  8. Use of primary care data for detecting impetigo trends, United kingdom, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Laura J; Petersen, Irene; Rosenthal, Joe; Johnson, Anne M; Freemantle, Nick; Hayward, Andrew C

    2013-10-01

    Using a primary care database, we identified a major increase in impetigo in the United Kingdom during 1995-2010. Despite a doubled rate of primary care consultations, this increase was not identified by routine surveillance. Primary care databases are a valuable and underused source of surveillance data on infectious diseases.

  9. Use of Primary Care Data for Detecting Impetigo Trends, United Kingdom, 1995–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Irene; Rosenthal, Joe; Johnson, Anne M.; Freemantle, Nick; Hayward, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Using a primary care database, we identified a major increase in impetigo in the United Kingdom during 1995–2010. Despite a doubled rate of primary care consultations, this increase was not identified by routine surveillance. Primary care databases are a valuable and underused source of surveillance data on infectious diseases. PMID:24047615

  10. The United Kingdom National Healthy School Standard: A Framework for Strengthening the School Nurse Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklander, Molly K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze the school nursing role within the National Healthy School Standard (NHSS) in the United Kingdom with a view toward clarifying and strengthening the role of school nurses globally. Within the National Healthy School Standard framework, school nurses serve an integral role in linking health and education…

  11. The Gendered Shaping of University Leadership in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…

  12. University Competition, Student Migration and Regional Economic Differentials in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Tony

    1991-01-01

    A model of regional competition among universities in the United Kingdom is proposed, from which a number of indexes of relative competitiveness are derived. The model is applied to data from groups of neighboring universities and then extended to other aspects of higher education and the economy in general. (Author/MSE)

  13. Similar Demands, Different Responses: Teacher Evaluation in the United Kingdom and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Tracey L.; Struthers, Kathryn S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a conceptual framework grounded in globalization and the knowledge economy, this paper addresses teacher evaluation policy reform in the United Kingdom*** and Singapore. Specifically, the authors discuss similar demands faced by both countries: maintaining economic competitiveness in a globalized society, preparing citizens to participate in…

  14. LEGAL STATUS OF ADVISORS IN THE FIELD OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrystyna Kmetyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to research the legal status of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom. In this article an author distinguishes and gives a legal description of the types of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom. The main provisions of the Rules of Conduct for Patent Attorneys, Ttrade Mark Attorneys and Other Regulated Persons (2015 are considered. Methods: to analyse the legal status of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom the method of induction, systematic approach, formal legal methods were used. Results: this research provides an opportunity to broaden the understanding of the institute of advisors in the field of intellectual property right (in particular patent attorneys and trademark attorneys in the UK and thus include this knowledge in domestic research on intellectual property right. Conclusions: the majority of types of advisors in the field of intellectual property right in the United Kingdom (patent attorneys, chartered patent attorneys, European patent attorneys, registered trademark attorneys and trademark attorneys, European trademark attorneys, etc. is well-educated professionals in all areas of intellectual property and are able to advise on a wide range of technical and commercial issues in this field. The obtained results will have a positive impact on the reform of the institute of representatives in the field of intellectual property in Ukraine in order to ensure its effectiveness and relevance to the challenges of the present.

  15. Reassortant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus in Pigs, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Wendy A.; Essen, Steve C.; Strugnell, Benjamin W.; Russell, Christine; Barrass, Laura; Reid, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance for influenza virus in pigs in the United Kingdom during spring 2010 detected a novel reassortant influenza virus. This virus had genes encoding internal proteins from pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes from swine influenza virus (H1N2). Our results demonstrate processes contributing to influenza virus heterogeneity. PMID:21749767

  16. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  17. The Cost-Effectiveness of Supported Employment for Adults with Autism in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom.…

  18. Longer Term Impact of Cigarette Package Warnings in Australia Compared with the United Kingdom and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M.; Thrasher, James F.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK…

  19. The Littoral Pycnogonida of the Swansea Area of the United Kingdom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out at the Mumbles Pier Ares of Swansea in the United Kingdom to determine whether or not oil spills and other human activity in the region affected the distribution of Pycnogonids (Sea spiders) within the area. Results indicate that the oil spills have no effect on the presence or absence of these ...

  20. Comparing Tax Routes to Welfare in Denmark and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Sinfield, Adrian

    Substantial benefits are being routed through the tax system separately and much less publicly than in the welfare state. This study analyses how the tax benefits in Denmark and the United Kingdom are operating, raising questions of equity and privilege, and of cost and value for money. One major...

  1. Changes in surgical training in the United Kingdom and the possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in surgical training in the United Kingdom and the possible consequences for African trainees. J L Craven FRCS. Retired surgeon,. York, UK. Over the past 50 years, Britain has increasingly failed to meet the training needs of Africa's surgeons. It has always been difficult to overcome the bureaucratic hurdles of ...

  2. Interprofessional Anatomy Education in the United Kingdom and Ireland: Perspectives from Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F.; Hall, Samuel; Border, Scott; Adds, Philip J.; Finn, Gabrielle M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of multiprofessional learning in anatomy and its role in medical and healthcare professions. This study utilized two components to investigate anatomy interprofessional education (AIPE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. First, a survey involving qualitative and quantitative components asked Heads of Anatomy to…

  3. Update on European Union and United Kingdom legislation for Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Hunter

    2006-01-01

    Legislative action at both the European Union (E.U.) and United Kingdom (U.K.) national level has been taken in response to outbreaks of Phytophthora ramorum and, more recently, Phytophthora kernoviae. Measures are aimed at identifying and preventing the movement of infected nursery stock and the containment and eradication of...

  4. Evaluation of the european heart failure self-care behaviour scale in a united kingdom population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shuldham, Caroline; Theaker, Chris; Jaarsma, Tiny; Cowie, Martin R.

    2007-01-01

    Title. Evaluation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in a United Kingdom population Aim. This paper is a report of a study to test the internal consistency, reliability and validity of the 12-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in an English-speaking sample in

  5. Patterns of Adaptation of Chinese Postgraduate Students in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuefang; Todman, John

    2009-01-01

    International students coming to the United Kingdom have to adapt to academic cultural differences as well as general cultural differences. Questionnaires were administered to 257 Chinese postgraduate students on anticipated and actually experienced difficulties and on perceived differences between Chinese and U.K. academic cultures before…

  6. Affordable and Sustainable Energy in the Borough of Woking in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, John P.; Curran, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Woking Borough Council in the United Kingdom has long been committed to protecting the environment, a goal explicitly stated as one of the borough's top three priorities. Woking is also known for its pioneering approach in operating an extensive networked electricity and district heating system based on co- and trigeneration, as well as what is…

  7. The Market for U.S. Hardwoods in the United Kingdom: Market Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Importers of hardwood lumber in the United Kingdom were studied to determine the characteristics of the market and U.S. hardwood product preferences. Importers were mostly channel intermediaries that supplied end users and secondary manufacturers. Eighty percent of importers purchased North American lumber and the majority of importers dealt with both temperate and...

  8. A Year in the Life of an Open University Student in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nazira

    1988-01-01

    Describes a Ugandan student's first-year experiences at the Open University in the United Kingdom. Discusses how the University operates; comments on course texts and supplementary materials; and presents a month-by-month breakdown of university and course activities and requirements. (GEA)

  9. "Turning the Tap on and Off": The Recruitment of Overseas Trained Teachers to the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Olwen; Lewis, Sarah; Howson, John

    2007-01-01

    A common strategy employed by wealthy industrial nations for dealing with short-term skill deficits is to recruit internationally; such was the case, around the millennium, when a teacher supply crisis occurred in the United Kingdom (UK). That immediate crisis is now over; yet irrespective of peaks and troughs, international teacher migration is…

  10. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the United Kingdom shows two genetically distinct clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAuliffe, Laura; Kokotovic, Branko; Ayling, Roger D.

    2004-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important veterinary pathogen causing pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in infected cattle. We investigated the genetic diversity of 53 isolates collected in the United Kingdom between 1996 and 2002 with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length...

  11. Clerical and Commercial Sector Qualifications in the United Kingdom, France and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steedman, Hilary

    This study examines qualifications available to initial entrants to tertiary sector/clerical and commercial occupations in three CEDEFOP (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training) member states--the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany. (The goal is to ascertain the feasibility of establishing equivalence of qualifications…

  12. Men and Health Promotion in the United Kingdom: 20 Years Further Forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Steve; Baker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Despite overall improvements in life expectancy, rates of premature male mortality, particularly for men in areas of socioeconomic deprivation, remain an important issue of concern in the United Kingdom. Interventions to engage men and promote their health and wellbeing have developed, albeit sporadically, over recent decades in response to this…

  13. Designing and Constructing an Exemplar Zero Carbon Primary School in the City of Exeter, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchell, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The United Kingdom's (UK) 2008 Budget announced the government's ambition that all new non-domestic buildings should be zero carbon from 2016. In order to take this goal forward, the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) established the Zero Carbon Task Force (ZCTF); its objective was to advise on how England can achieve this…

  14. Economic Objects: How Policy Discourse in the United Kingdom Represents International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant and increasing presence of international students in the United Kingdom, on a national level there has been a lack of formal policy towards international students. Instead, in policy discourse, international students are represented in economic terms to the exclusion of other dimensions of experience and action. This…

  15. 75 FR 2108 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... United Kingdom: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the period May 1, 2008, through April 30, 2009..., 2010. John M. Andersen, Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

  16. Lay Understanding of the Causes of Binge Drinking in the United Kingdom and Australia: A Network Diagram Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, David A.; Ferguson, Eamonn; Lonsdale, Adam; Hagger, Martin S.

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking is associated with deleterious health, social and economic outcomes. This study explored the lay understanding of the causes of binge drinking in members of the general public in the United Kingdom and Australia. Participants in the United Kingdom (N = 133) and Australia (N = 102) completed a network diagram exercise requiring them…

  17. An Elusive Concept: The Changing Definition of Illegal Immigrant in the Practice of Immigration Control in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Kristin; Santamaria, Ulysses

    1984-01-01

    Against a backdrop of administrative rather than criminal justice, examines the changing concepts in United Kingdom immigration practice, where immigration control at the port of entry has extended to internal control within the United Kingdom, the burden of proof of legality of status being increasingly upon the immigrant. (RDN)

  18. Framing the issue of ageing and health care spending in Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmano, Michael K; Allin, Sara

    2014-07-01

    Political debates about the affordability of health care programmes in high-income countries often point to population ageing as a threat to sustainability. Debates in the United States, in particular, highlight concerns about intergenerational equity, whereby spending on older people is perceived as a threat to spending on the young. This paper compares how the problem of health spending is defined in Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States by presenting the results of a content analysis of print media during the period 2005-2010. We found that population ageing was cited as an important source of health care cost increases in all three countries but was cited less frequently in Canadian newspapers than in the UK or US papers. Direct claims about intergenerational equity are infrequent among the articles we coded, but newspaper articles in the United States were more likely than those in Canada and the United Kingdom to claim that of high health care spending on older people takes resources away from younger people. In Canada a much larger percentage of articles in our sample either claimed that high health care spending is crowding out other types of government expenditure. Finally, we found that almost no articles in the United States challenged the view that population ageing causes health care spending, whereas in both Canada and the United Kingdom a small, but steady stream of articles challenged the idea that population ageing is to blame for health care spending increases.

  19. Unconventional monetary policy at the zero nominal bound : a case study of United States, United Kingdom and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hatleskog, Anne; Lappi, Henna

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess unconventional monetary policy at the zero nominal bound: First, we assemble a framework for implementing and evaluating unconventional monetary policy. Second, we use the framework to conduct three detailed case studies on unconventional policy responses in Japan, United States and United Kingdom. Third, we make a cross-country analysis of the development in key macroeconomic variables after the adaption of unconventional monetary policies. We find...

  20. Births and male:female birth ratio in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom after the Windscale fire of October 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The Windscale (UK) fire of 1957 carried radioactive fallout according to the then prevailing wind patterns, in a North-Easterly direction across the Nordic countries, toward Norway. The male:female ratio at birth (M/F) is known to be increased after parental exposure to ionising radiation due to foetal losses that affect female more than male pregnancies. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether the Windscale fire had any effects on M/F and birth rates in the United Kingdom and Scandinavia. Annual live births by gender were obtained from a World Health Organization dataset. The null hypothesis was that there were no significant changes in M/F or in births in temporal association with the 1957 Windscale event in abovementioned countries. There were no significant effects on the UK and most of Scandinavia but there was a significant rise in M/F for Norway and Finland with an aggregate deficit of around 4000 births in each country. A recent study suggests that the plume from the reactor extended further east than previously believed. This study confirms that contamination from the Windscale fire had a negligible impact on the UK (as measured by birth effects) but had a significant impact on births in Norway and Sweden.

  1. Beliefs about hypertension among Nigerian immigrants to the United Kingdom: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlua, James Tosin; Meakin, Richard; Freemantle, Nick

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elicit beliefs about hypertension among Nigerian immigrants in the United Kingdom. The distributions of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases are not shared equally across ethnic and economic groups in the United Kingdom. Its burden is more clustered among minority ethnic populations and migrant groups including black African Nigerian migrants. Similar patterns have been reported across Europe, Australia, Canada, Nordic countries and the United States of America. There are about 300 distinct ethnic groups in Nigeria and reliable information about their beliefs about hypertension is not available. Given that the United Kingdom has a large community of Nigerian immigrants from these different ethno-cultural backgrounds, understanding their unique beliefs about hypertension may help promote appropriate care for this population in the United Kingdom and Nigeria. A single Pentecostal church community in West London. Twenty-seven Nigerian migrant members of the church entered and completed the study. A qualitative interview study was conducted. The interviews were analysed using thematic framework analysis. The outcome measures were emerging themes from the thematic framework analysis. Participants expressed beliefs in four major areas related to hypertension: (1) The Meaning of the term hypertension, (2) Perceptions of causation, (3) Effects of hypertension, and (4) Perceptions of treatment. The study revealed a diversity of beliefs about hypertension which incorporated both orthodox and culturally framed ideas. This study identified important beliefs among Nigerian migrants about hypertension that can contribute to our understanding of the management of hypertension in this group and suggests the need for further research to determine whether these beliefs may be representative of this group.

  2. Beliefs about hypertension among Nigerian immigrants to the United Kingdom: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Tosin Akinlua

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to elicit beliefs about hypertension among Nigerian immigrants in the United Kingdom.The distributions of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases are not shared equally across ethnic and economic groups in the United Kingdom. Its burden is more clustered among minority ethnic populations and migrant groups including black African Nigerian migrants. Similar patterns have been reported across Europe, Australia, Canada, Nordic countries and the United States of America. There are about 300 distinct ethnic groups in Nigeria and reliable information about their beliefs about hypertension is not available. Given that the United Kingdom has a large community of Nigerian immigrants from these different ethno-cultural backgrounds, understanding their unique beliefs about hypertension may help promote appropriate care for this population in the United Kingdom and Nigeria.A single Pentecostal church community in West London.Twenty-seven Nigerian migrant members of the church entered and completed the study.A qualitative interview study was conducted. The interviews were analysed using thematic framework analysis. The outcome measures were emerging themes from the thematic framework analysis.Participants expressed beliefs in four major areas related to hypertension: (1 The Meaning of the term hypertension, (2 Perceptions of causation, (3 Effects of hypertension, and (4 Perceptions of treatment. The study revealed a diversity of beliefs about hypertension which incorporated both orthodox and culturally framed ideas.This study identified important beliefs among Nigerian migrants about hypertension that can contribute to our understanding of the management of hypertension in this group and suggests the need for further research to determine whether these beliefs may be representative of this group.

  3. E. coli O157 outbreaks in the United Kingdom: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Thomas Hugh

    2014-01-01

    This review describes Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks in the United Kingdom, beginning from the first, in the 1980s, to those recorded in 2013. We point out that the United Kingdom differs from other countries, particularly the United States, in that it has had a considerable number of outbreaks associated with butchers, but very few caused by contaminated burgers. Two of the butcher-associated outbreaks (in central Scotland in 1996 and South Wales in 2005) were very large and are considered here in detail; the reviewer conducted detailed investigations into both outbreaks. Also considered is the very large outbreak that occurred in visitors to an open farm in Surrey in 2009. Detailed descriptions of some milk-borne outbreaks and incidents connected with camping and childrens' nurseries have been published, and these are also considered in this review. Large outbreaks in the United Kingdom have sometimes led to policy developments regarding food safety, and these are considered, together with public reactions to them, their health effect, and their value, as examples to follow or eschew in terms of the procedures to be adopted in response to incidents of this kind. Regulatory and legal consequences are also considered. As a wise man said, making predictions is difficult, particularly about the future. This review follows this position but points out that although human infections caused by E. coli O157 are rare in the United Kingdom, their incidence has not changed significantly in the last 17 years. This review points out that although a response to an outbreak is to say "lessons must be learned", this response has been tempered by forgetfulness. Accordingly, this review restricts its recommendations regarding outbreaks to two: the crucial importance of a rapid response and the importance of experience, and even "gut feeling", when an inspector is evaluating the safety of a food business.

  4. Fluid resuscitation protocols for burn patients at intensive care units of the United Kingdom and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Benna, Sammy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the thermal injury fluid resuscitation protocols at intensive care units (ICUs in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Materials and methods: A telephone questionnaire was designed to survey the fluid resuscitation protocols of ICUs at all hospitals with plastic/burn surgery departments in the British Isles in 2010. The feedback from the questionnaire was from the senior nurse in charge of the ICUs. Results: 32/64 (50% of these ICUs had provided care to burns patients. A 100% response from these 32 units was obtained. 71.4% commence fluid resuscitation at 15% total body surface area burn (TBSA, 21.4% at 20% TBSA and 7.1% at 10% TBSA in adults. The estimated resuscitation volume was most often calculated using the Parkland/Modified Parkland formula (87.5% or the Muir and Barclay formula (12.5%. Interestingly, of the ICUs using formulae, two had recently moved from using the Muir and Barclay formula to Parkland formula and one had recently moved from using the Parkland formula to Muir and Barclay formula. Despite this, 37.5% of ICUs using a formula did not rigidly follow it exactly. The most commonly used resuscitation fluid was Ringer’s lactate solution (46.9% and Human Albumin Solution was used in 12.5%. No ICU used red cell concentrate as a first line fluid. 18.8% used a central line. 40.6% ICUs considered changing the IV solution during resuscitation. 78.1% ICUs consider urine output to be the most important factor in modifying resuscitation volumes. 59.4% ICUs calculate a maintenance fluid rate after completion of resuscitation. The endpoint for resuscitation was at 24 h in 46.9% ICUs and at 36 h in 9.4%. 5/32 (16% felt their protocol gave too little and 6/32 (19% felt their protocol gave too much. 59.3% ICUs gave oral/enteral fluids by naso-gastric or naso-jejenal tubes. 21.9% felt that oral/enteral resuscitation worked. Exactly half of the units believed that the formula that they used

  5. The introduction and development of graduate entry programmes in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Rees, John

    2010-03-01

    In the United Kingdom, 4-year graduate-only medical education programmes (Graduate Entry Programme, GEP) started in 2000, and are running in 16 medical schools with over 800 students annually. This study presents the grounds for introduction of the GEP, and explores its benefits in increasing the medical workforce and widening participation in medical education. An increase in medical student numbers was proposed to cope with the pressing shortage of British doctors and the growing demand for doctors, and the GEP was introduced as a flexible and cost-effective way to meet this demand. It has contributed to increasing the diversity of students in medical schools and widening access to students from more varied social and educational backgrounds. In the United Kingdom, the GEP was established as a supplementary means of providing medical education, and it is unlikely to totally replace traditional 5- or 6-year programmes.

  6. What can health care professionals in the United Kingdom learn from Malawi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Ron; Neville, Jemma

    2009-03-27

    Debate on how resource-rich countries and their health care professionals should help the plight of sub-Saharan Africa appears locked in a mind-set dominated by gloomy statistics and one-way monetary aid. Having established a project to link primary care clinics based on two-way sharing of education rather than one-way aid, our United Kingdom colleagues often ask us: "But what can we learn from Malawi?" A recent fact-finding visit to Malawi helped us clarify some aspects of health care that may be of relevance to health care professionals in the developed world, including the United Kingdom. This commentary article is focused on encouraging debate and discussion as to how we might wish to re-think our relationship with colleagues in other health care environments and consider how we can work together on a theme of two-way shared learning rather than one-way aid.

  7. Disposal of radioactive wastes arising in the United Kingdom from the peaceful uses of atomic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P M

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes United Kingdom policy in relation to radioactive waste and summarises the relevant legislation ad methods of control. Data are given on the amounts of radioactivity discharged as waste from establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the nuclear power stations operated by the Electricity Generating Boards and other users of radioactive materials. Studies of the behaviour of radioactivity in the environment are reported with particular reference to food chains and other potential sources of irradiation of the public. The results of environmental monitoring are presented and estimates are made of radiation doses received by individual members of the public and larger population groups as a result of waste disposal. It is concluded that the doses received are all within the appropriate limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and in most cases are trivial.

  8. The impact of human gene patents on genetic testing in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Naomi

    2011-04-01

    This article reports the results of an empirical study examining the impact of human gene patents on the development and delivery of genetic tests in the public sector in the United Kingdom. Semi-structured qualitative interviews. The study found that, despite the potential for gene patents to have significant negative consequences for genetic testing, in fact, human gene patents have little or no impact on practice for those developing genetic tests in the public sector in the United Kingdom. This is not because patents are managed optimally; rather, gene patents are essentially ignored. This article reports the factors that motivate this behavior. At least insofar as there seems to be no apparent problem of lack of patient access, there is no significant public health problem. However, there is divergence between the legal and the practical situation. Complacency about the lack of impact of patents on access to diagnostics is risky, and concerns about patents should be addressed proactively, rather than reactively.

  9. The “Decline and Fall” of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable changes in the epidemiology of human nontyphoidal salmonellosis have occurred in the United Kingdom over the last century. Between 1981 and 1991, the incidence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis in the United Kingdom rose by >170%, driven primarily by an epidemic of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type (PT) 4, which peaked in 1993. Measures introduced to control this epidemic included legislation, food safety advice, and an industry-led vaccination program in broiler-breeder and laying poultry flocks. The incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis has been falling since 1997, and levels of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 have fallen to preepidemic levels and have stayed low. The temporal relationship between vaccination programs and the reduction in human disease is compelling and suggests that these programs have made a major contribution to improving public health. PMID:23166188

  10. The "decline and fall" of nontyphoidal salmonella in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sarah J

    2013-03-01

    Remarkable changes in the epidemiology of human nontyphoidal salmonellosis have occurred in the United Kingdom over the last century. Between 1981 and 1991, the incidence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis in the United Kingdom rose by >170%, driven primarily by an epidemic of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type (PT) 4, which peaked in 1993. Measures introduced to control this epidemic included legislation, food safety advice, and an industry-led vaccination program in broiler-breeder and laying poultry flocks. The incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis has been falling since 1997, and levels of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 have fallen to preepidemic levels and have stayed low. The temporal relationship between vaccination programs and the reduction in human disease is compelling and suggests that these programs have made a major contribution to improving public health.

  11. Experiences of Racial Microaggression Among Migrant Nurses in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emee Vida Estacio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore the experiences of racial microaggression among migrant nurses in the United Kingdom. Eleven migrant nurses kept a reflective diary for 6 weeks to record and reflect on their experiences of living and working in the United Kingdom. The diary entries were then thematically analyzed. The results suggest that migrant nurses experienced racial microaggression from patients and colleagues through racial preferences and bullying. Institutional racism also hindered their opportunities for further training and promotion. As a result, some experienced feelings of anger, frustration, and even paranoia. Despite the negative consequences of racial microaggression on their emotional well-being, incidents were downplayed as trivial because of their vague and subtle nature. To encourage better multicultural interactions in the workplace, supportive organizational infrastructures need to be in place to enhance diversity awareness and to improve mechanisms for reporting and dealing with cases of racial microaggression.

  12. Perceptions and experiences with nursing care: a study of Pakistani (Urdu) communities in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortis, J D

    2000-04-01

    The population of the United Kingdom reflects rich cultural diversity. Hence, nursing must respond to the challenges of meeting the needs of different ethnic groups and fulfilL the requirements of the Code of Professional Conduct. This article presents the findings of a study using grounded theory to explore the lived experience of Pakistani (Urdu-speaking) communities that received nursing care in a hospital setting in the United Kingdom. The study reflects national initiatives toward "consumer led" health care delivery. The findings illustrate a lack of congruence between the group's expectations and their experiences. Nurses were perceived to have a poor understanding of ethnic needs, portraying ethnocentric attitudes and behaviour. The participants attributed the lack of congruence mainly to the presence of racism in British health care systems. The author suggests possible changes at the strategic, managerial, and educational levels of health care delivery.

  13. Experiences of Racial Microaggression Among Migrant Nurses in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacio, Emee Vida; Saidy-Khan, Sirandou

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore the experiences of racial microaggression among migrant nurses in the United Kingdom. Eleven migrant nurses kept a reflective diary for 6 weeks to record and reflect on their experiences of living and working in the United Kingdom. The diary entries were then thematically analyzed. The results suggest that migrant nurses experienced racial microaggression from patients and colleagues through racial preferences and bullying. Institutional racism also hindered their opportunities for further training and promotion. As a result, some experienced feelings of anger, frustration, and even paranoia. Despite the negative consequences of racial microaggression on their emotional well-being, incidents were downplayed as trivial because of their vague and subtle nature. To encourage better multicultural interactions in the workplace, supportive organizational infrastructures need to be in place to enhance diversity awareness and to improve mechanisms for reporting and dealing with cases of racial microaggression.

  14. Psychological type profile of Lead Elders within the Newfrontiers network of churches in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Gubb, Sean; Robbins, Mandy

    2009-01-01

    This study set out to examine the psychological type profile of Lead Elders within the Newfrontiers network of churches in the United Kingdom and to compare this profile with the established profile of clergymen in the Church of England. A sample of 134 Lead Elders completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales. The study shows that Newfrontiers Lead Elders display slight preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, and for thinking over feeling, and a strong p...

  15. The nuclear energy in the United Kingdom; L'energie nucleaire au Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    With challenges like the climatic change, the hydrocarbons prices increase and the energy supply security, the nuclear park is becoming a decisive and an urgent question in the United Kingdom. The author proposes an historical aspect of the nuclear energy in UK, the actors of the today nuclear industry and the technologies used in 2006, the radioactive wastes management, the programs of the future and the british opinion on the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  16. [An advanced nurse practitioner in general medicine in the United Kingdom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, an advanced nurse practitioner can carry out consultations and write prescriptions in the same way as a general practitioner. Jenny Aston, a nurse for more than 30 years, works in a GP surgery in Cambridge. Here, she explains the role of nurses in the organisation of health care in the UK, and talks about her career and her missions as an advanced nurse practitioner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The macroeconomic effects of migration from the new European Union member states to the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Iakova, Dora

    2015-01-01

    The United Kingdom allowed workers from the ten new European Union member countries immediate access to its labor market after the accession in 2004. This paper uses a general equilibrium framework to explore the dynamic adjustment of the UK economy to the postaccession surge in immigration. Simulations show that immigration is likely to have positive effects on economic growth, capital accumulation, consumption, and the public finances.

  18. The relationship between customer satisfaction and brand loyalty in the fast food industry of United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Nasiru Aminu

    2013-01-01

    2013 dissertation for MSc in International Business Management. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. \\ud \\ud This research is focused on identifying the relationship between customer satisfaction and brand loyalty in the fast food industry. The researcher has considered the case study of the United Kingdom fast food industry in order to undertake this research. There are numerous studies which show that increased customer satisfaction results in improv...

  19. A review of climate change and the implementation of marine biodiversity legislation in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, MT; Bayliss-Brown, G; Buckley, P; Cox, M; Dye, SR; Sanderson, WG; Stoker, B; Withers Harvey, N

    2016-01-01

    1. Marine legislation, the key means by which the conservation of marine biodiversity is achieved, has been developing since the 1960s. In recent decades, an increasing focus on ‘holistic’ policy development is evident, compared with earlier ‘piecemeal’ sectoral approaches. Important marine legislative tools being used in the United Kingdom, and internationally, include the designation of marine protected areas and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) with its aim of meeting ‘Good E...

  20. Labor market integration of immigrants in France, Germany and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Pablo F.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study compares labor market integration policies for immigrants in three countries--France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The dependent variable is labor market integration. The independent variables are language acquisition, category of immigrants, levels integration policy and institutional racism. These four factors should indicate levels of labor market integration of immigrants within a state. Also, they all share one...

  1. The working lives of nurse teachers in mainland China and the United Kingdom: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Li; Gu, Shen; Barriball, K Louise; While, Alison E; Chen, Guoliang

    2014-05-01

    Nurse education has undergone considerable changes creating new opportunities and challenges for nurse teachers. Limited comparative research of the working lives of nurse teachers has been reported, thus similarities and differences that may exist are unidentified. This paper reports a study of the working lives of nurse teachers in mainland China and the United Kingdom. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Census sample of nurse teachers working in four nursing schools in mainland China (n=3) and the United Kingdom (n=1). The overall response rate was 56.8% (China=61, 61.0%, UK=60, 53.1%). Completion of questionnaire specifically developed for the study but comprising six validated tools to collecting data on: job satisfaction, sense of coherence, role conflict and role ambiguity, work empowerment and professional identification. Data on self-reported roles and personal details were also collected. Data were collected between September 2008 and January 2009. Both samples were satisfied with their jobs overall but reported low levels of satisfaction with promotion. Chinese nurse teachers working full-time reported the lowest level for sense of coherence and professional identification. Nurse teachers working full-time in the United Kingdom reported the highest role conflict score. Sense of coherence and work empowerment were significantly and positively correlated to job satisfaction. Role conflict and role ambiguity were negatively correlated (but not always significantly) to job satisfaction and its facets. For respondents in mainland China, professional identification was significantly and positively correlated with overall job satisfaction and its facets. Strategies to improve job satisfaction with promotion opportunities for both samples are indicated. Respondents working full-time in both mainland China and the United Kingdom experienced greater challenges at work than their part-time colleagues. © 2013.

  2. National survey to evaluate musuloskeletal health in retired professional ballet dancers in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Toby; de Medici, Akbar; Oduoza, Uche; Hakim, Allan; Paton, Bruce; Retter, Greg; Haddad, Fares; Macgregor, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the musculoskeletal health of retired professional ballet dancers in the United Kingdom (UK). Design: Online national survey Participants: Retired professional ballet dancers living in the UK. Methods: The survey explored: what musculoskeletal injuries or diseases are experienced by retired professional ballet dancers; which anatomical regions were affected by musculoskeletal injuries or diseases in retired professional ballet dancers; whether ballet dancers were forced...

  3. Microevolution during the emergence of a monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium epidemic in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovska, Liljana; Mather, Alison E.; AbuOun, Manal; Branchu, Priscilla; Harris, Simon R.; Connor, Thomas; K. L. Hopkins; Underwood, A.; Lettini, Antonia A.; Page, Andrew; Bagnall, Mary; Wain, John; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Davies, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Microevolution associated with emergence and expansion of new epidemic clones of bacterial pathogens holds the key to epidemiologic success. To determine microevolution associated with monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium during an epidemic, we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing and phylogenomic analysis of isolates from the United Kingdom and Italy during 2005?2012. These isolates formed a single clade distinct from recent monophasic epidemic clones previously described from North Am...

  4. "This Modern Day Slavery": Sex Trafficking and Moral Panic in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyzes the discourse and development of the British anti-sex trafficking movement. Following the European Union's largest expansion in 2004, the United Kingdom experienced a surge in immigration from Eastern Europe, which was greeted by fears about losing British culture, stolen jobs, and rising criminal activity. From this welter of concerns, I argue, the issue of sex trafficking coalesced into a moral panic about the dangers of immigration and the sexual exploitation of w...

  5. Early Uses of Computers in Schools in the United Kingdom: Shaping Factors and Influencing Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Passey, Don

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This chapter describes the early development and introduction of computers into schools in the United Kingdom from the 1970s to the evaluation of their impacts and a shift in the focus of their uses in the 1990s. The chapter explores key factors influencing the direction and deployment of uses of computers in schools. It considers influences of national initiatives and policies, the development of support, support centres and central agencies, the involvement of hardwa...

  6. Transnational Political Practices of Colombians in Spain and the United Kingdom: Politics 'Here' and 'There

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Torres, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Most existing scholarly work available on Colombian migrants' transnational political practices has emphasised the divisions, mistrust and apathy affecting them. However, research conducted by the author among Colombians in the United Kingdom and Spain departs from previous studies by stressing the broad nature of migrants' transnational political participation, which involves engagement in both formal and informal politics, at the individual and collective levels, and in...

  7. The cost-effectiveness of supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. Thus, a decision-analytic economic model was developed, which used outcome data from the only trial that has evaluated supported employment for adults with autism in the United Kingdom. The main analysis considered intervention costs, while cost-savings associated with changes in accommodation status and National Health Service and personal social service resource use were examined in secondary analyses. Two outcome measures were used: the number of weeks in employment and the quality-adjusted life year. Supported employment resulted in better outcomes compared with standard care, at an extra cost of £18 per additional week in employment or £5600 per quality-adjusted life year. In secondary analyses that incorporated potential cost-savings, supported employment dominated standard care (i.e. it produced better outcomes at a lower total cost). The analysis suggests that supported employment schemes for adults with autism in the United Kingdom are cost-effective compared with standard care. Further research needs to confirm these findings. PMID:24126866

  8. 200 years of soil carbon nitrogen and phosphorus change across the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, Ed; Quinton, John; Davies, Jessica; Bell, Vicky; Carnell, Ed; Dragosits, Ulli; Muhammed, Shibu; Naden, Pam; Stuart, Marianne; Tomlinson, Sam; Whitmore, Andy; Wu, Lianhai

    2015-04-01

    Human intervention over the last 200 years has resulted in vast changes to the fluxes of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) entering the United Kingdom's landscape. Industrialisation has resulted in N deposition, agricultural intensification has seen widespread use of N and P fertilizers and societal actions have resulted in extensive land use change. To understand the consequences of these anthropogenic inputs for our soils, freshwaters and ecosystems it is necessary to take an integrated long term large scale approach. Integration across the compartments of the critical zone - from atmosphere, plants to soil and stream - is necessary in order to trace the effects of deposition, fertilization, cultivation and land use change. Coherent integration of C, N and P dynamics is also crucial, as biological processes tightly couple these cycles, so that in unison C N and P control the generation of biomass and consequent production of soil organic matter, having knock on effects for dissolved and particulate fluxes and ecosystem function. The Long-Term Large-Scale (LTLS) project is developing an integrated model that simulates the pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (C, N, and P) between atmospheric, vegetation, soil and aquatic systems for the whole of the United Kingdom for a period spanning from the onset of the industrial revolution up until the present day. In this paper we will present results demonstrating the changes in the soil macronutrient cycles in response to agrarian and social change in the United Kingdom over the last 200 years

  9. Predicted shortage of vascular surgeons in the United Kingdom: A matter for debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkin, D W; Beard, J D; Shearman, C P; Wyatt, M G

    2016-10-01

    Vascular surgery became a new independent surgical specialty in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2013. In this matter for debate we discuss the question, is there a "shortage of vascular surgeons in the United Kingdom?" We used data derived from the "Vascular Surgery United Kingdom Workforce Survey 2014", NHS Employers Electronic Staff Records (ESR), and the National Vascular Registry (NVR) surgeon-level public report to estimate current and predict future workforce requirements. We estimate there are approximately 458 Consultant Vascular Surgeons for the current UK population of 63 million, or 1 per 137,000 population. In several UK Regions there are a large number of relatively small teams (3 or less) of vascular surgeons working in separate NHS Trusts in close geographical proximity. In developed countries, both the number and complexity of vascular surgery procedures (open and endovascular) per capita population is increasing, and concerns have been raised that demand cannot be met without a significant expansion in numbers of vascular surgeons. Additional workforce demand arises from the impact of population growth and changes in surgical work-patterns with respect to gender, working-life-balance and 7-day services. We predict a future shortage of Consultant Vascular Surgeons in the UK and recommend an increase in training numbers and an expansion in the UK Consultant Vascular Surgeon workforce to accommodate population growth, facilitate changes in work-patterns and to create safe sustainable services. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolution and Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in the United Kingdom and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danesh Moradigaravand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that has become a leading causative agent of hospital-based infections over the past few decades. The emergence and global expansion of hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant (MDR clones of K. pneumoniae have been increasingly reported in community-acquired and nosocomial infections. Despite this, the population genomics and epidemiology of MDR K. pneumoniae at the national level are still poorly understood. To obtain insights into these, we analyzed a systematic large-scale collection of invasive MDR K. pneumoniae isolates from hospitals across the United Kingdom and Ireland. Using whole-genome phylogenetic analysis, we placed these in the context of previously sequenced K. pneumoniae populations from geographically diverse countries and identified their virulence and drug resistance determinants. Our results demonstrate that United Kingdom and Ireland MDR isolates are a highly diverse population drawn from across the global phylogenetic tree of K. pneumoniae and represent multiple recent international introductions that are mainly from Europe but in some cases from more distant countries. In addition, we identified novel genetic determinants underlying resistance to beta-lactams, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclines, indicating that both increased virulence and resistance have emerged independently multiple times throughout the population. Our data show that MDR K. pneumoniae isolates in the United Kingdom and Ireland have multiple distinct origins and appear to be part of a globally circulating K. pneumoniae population.

  11. An international perspective: supporting adolescents with speech, language, and communication needs in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Victoria

    2015-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the education system in the United Kingdom, with a particular focus on the secondary school context and supporting older children and young people with speech, language, and communication needs (SLCNs). Despite the pervasive nature of speech, language, and communication difficulties and their long-term impact on academic performance, mental health, and well-being, evidence suggests that there is limited support to older children and young people with SLCNs in the United Kingdom, relative to what is available in the early years. Focus in secondary schools is predominantly on literacy, with little attention to supporting oral language. The article provides a synopsis of the working practices of pediatric speech and language therapists working with adolescents in the United Kingdom and the type and level of speech and language therapy support provided for older children and young people with SLCNs in secondary and further education. Implications for the nature and type of specialist support to adolescents and adults with SLCNs are discussed. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Dental care for aging populations in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, United kingdom, and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Vigild, Merete; Nitschke, Ina

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews access to and financing of dental care for aging populations in selected nations in Europe. Old age per se does not seem to be a major factor in determining the use of dental services. Dentition status, on the other hand, is a major determinant of dental attendance. In additi...

  13. The securitization of sex trafficking: a comparative case study of Sweden and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Stinson, Ainsley Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Sex trafficking is a form of transnational organized crime, which may pose security threats to nation states. This project examines the roles that Sweden and the United States (US) played as global leaders in securitizing sex trafficking. This comparative case study identifies and analyzes both states' securitization processes according to the Copenhagen School's securitization framework. This project argues that both states securitized sex trafficking in the early 1990s through to 2009 in a ...

  14. Demand for Beef from Cattle Administered Growth Hormones or Fed Genetically Modified Corn: A Comparison of Consumers in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson L Lusk; ROOSEN, JUTTA; John A. Fox

    2003-01-01

    We compare consumer valuations of beef ribeye steaks from cattle produced without growth hormones or genetically modified corn in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Results suggest that French consumers place a higher value on beef from cattle that have not been administered added growth hormones than U.S. consumers; however, valuations of non-hormone-treated beef are statistically indistinguishable across Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Results al...

  15. United Kingdom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1980s -threatened a global financial crisis. In chapter 2, Brenner explores the reasons underlying the US's recovery. Given the failure of its early monetarist experiments, the Reagan administra- tion was forced to adopt a distorted form of war Keynsianism, associated with monumental defence spending, and tax cuts for the ...

  16. Policy and legality in the United Kingdom and America (1850-1925): the consolidation of a common discriminatory framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luciana L. Contarino Sparta

    2015-01-01

    The intensification of long distance migration movements during late 19th century gave birth to legislation that restricted entry into the United Kingdom, one of the main immigration- receiving countries...

  17. Cosmetic surgery growth and correlations with financial indices: a comparative study of the United Kingdom and United States from 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassab, Reza; Harris, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been significant fluctuation in the yearly growth rates for cosmetic surgery procedures in both the United States and the United Kingdom. The authors compare cosmetic surgical procedure rates in the United Kingdom and United States with the macroeconomic climate of each region to determine whether there is a direct relationship between cosmetic surgery rates and economic health. The authors analyzed annual cosmetic surgery statistics from the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery for 2002-2011 against economic indices from both regions, including the gross domestic product (GDP), consumer prices indices (CPI), and stock market reports. There was a 285.9% increase in the United Kingdom and a 1.1% increase in the United States in the number of procedures performed between 2002 and 2011. There were significant positive correlations between the number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United Kingdom and both the GDP (r = 0.986, P United States and United Kingdom suggest 2 very different growth patterns in the number of cosmetic surgeries being performed as compared with the economy in each region. Economic indices are accurate indicators of numbers of procedures being performed in the United Kingdom, whereas rates in the United States seem independent of those factors.

  18. Burden of disease and costs of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Alastair

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10 code I60. Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. Results A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS £168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be £23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be £510 million annually. Conclusion The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories.

  19. Nosocomial Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom, 2009–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Enstone, JE; Myles, PR; Openshaw, PJM; Gadd, EM; Lim, WS; Semple, MG; Read, RC; Taylor, BL; McMenamin, J; Armstrong, C.; Bannister, B.; Nicholson, KG; Nguyen-Van-Tam, JS

    2011-01-01

    To determine clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized in the United Kingdom with pandemic (H1N1) 2009, we studied 1,520 patients in 75 National Health Service hospitals. We characterized patients who acquired influenza nosocomially during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak. Of 30 patients, 12 (80%) of 15 adults and 14 (93%) of 15 children had serious underlying illnesses. Only 12 (57%) of 21 patients who received antiviral therapy did so within 48 hours after symptom onset, but 53% ne...

  20. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  1. Internationally recruited nurses from India and the Philippines in the United Kingdom: the decision to emigrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maben Jill

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Kingdom has recruited nurses from countries with a reported surplus in their nursing workforce, such as India and the Philippines. However, little is known about the decision to emigrate made by nurses from these countries. One theory suggests that individuals weigh the benefits and costs of migration: the push and pull factors. This paper challenges the restricted economic focus of this predominant theory and compares the diverse motivations of nurses from different countries as well as those of nurses with previous migratory experience and first-time migrants. Methods This research was undertaken in a National Health Service acute trust in London by means of a qualitative interpretative approach. Data were collected through face-to-face longitudinal and cross-sectional interviews with internationally recruited nurses from India (n = 6 and the Philippines (n = 15; and analysis of their narratives was used to generate data about their expectations and experiences. Data were analysed by means of a framework approach that allowed for intra-case and cross-case analysis. Results From an individual perspective, nurses in this study reported economic reasons as the main trigger for migration in the first instance. Yet this doesn't entirely explain the decision to move from previous migratory destinations (e.g. Saudi Arabia where economic needs are already fulfilled. In these cases migration is influenced by professional and social aspirations that highlight the influence of the cultural environment – specifically some religious and gender-related issues. Family support and support from migratory networks in the country of origin and destination were also important elements conducive to and supportive of migration. Nurses from India report coming to the United Kingdom to stay, while Filipina nurses come as temporary migrants sending remittances to support their families in the Philippines. Conclusion This study shows

  2. Evolution and Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradigaravand, Danesh; Martin, Veronique; Peacock, Sharon J; Parkhill, Julian

    2017-02-21

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that has become a leading causative agent of hospital-based infections over the past few decades. The emergence and global expansion of hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant (MDR) clones of K. pneumoniae have been increasingly reported in community-acquired and nosocomial infections. Despite this, the population genomics and epidemiology of MDR K. pneumoniae at the national level are still poorly understood. To obtain insights into these, we analyzed a systematic large-scale collection of invasive MDR K. pneumoniae isolates from hospitals across the United Kingdom and Ireland. Using whole-genome phylogenetic analysis, we placed these in the context of previously sequenced K. pneumoniae populations from geographically diverse countries and identified their virulence and drug resistance determinants. Our results demonstrate that United Kingdom and Ireland MDR isolates are a highly diverse population drawn from across the global phylogenetic tree of K. pneumoniae and represent multiple recent international introductions that are mainly from Europe but in some cases from more distant countries. In addition, we identified novel genetic determinants underlying resistance to beta-lactams, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclines, indicating that both increased virulence and resistance have emerged independently multiple times throughout the population. Our data show that MDR K. pneumoniae isolates in the United Kingdom and Ireland have multiple distinct origins and appear to be part of a globally circulating K. pneumoniae population.IMPORTANCEKlebsiella pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that has been implicated in infections in healthcare settings over the past few decades. Antimicrobial treatment of K. pneumoniae infections has become increasingly difficult as a consequence of the emergence and spread of strains that are resistant to multiple antimicrobials. To better understand the

  3. Length of migration and eating habits of Portuguese university students living in London, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Sofia; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Caraher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have pointed adverse effects of long term migration on eating habits. Research is needed to understand if this effect occurs also with a short length of migration, as is the case of international students. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of short and long term migration on eating habits of Portuguese university students. Participants were 46 English and 55 Portuguese students from universities in London, United Kingdom. The findings from this study highlight the difficulties that Portuguese students faced in maintaining a traditional Mediterranean diet after moving to a Northern European environment.

  4. A review of ground penetrating radar research and practice in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Antonios; Alani, Amir

    2014-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar has been playing an important role for many years in assisting in the non-destructive evaluation of UK's built environment as well as being employed in more general shallow depth geophysical investigations. Ground penetrating radar, in the United Kingdom, has a long history of original work both in developing original research ideas on fundamental aspects of the technique, both in hardware and in software, and in exploring innovative ideas relating to the practical implementation of ground penetrating radar in a number of interesting projects. For example, the base of one of the biggest organisations that connects ground penetrating radar practitioners is in the United Kingdom. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground penetrating radar research - primarily carried out in UK Universities - and present some key areas and work that is carried out at a practical level - primarily by private enterprises. Although, the main effort is to concentrate on ground penetrating radar applications relating to civil engineering problems other related areas of ground penetrating radar application will also be reviewed. The aim is to create a current picture of ground penetrating radar use with a view to inform and potentially enhance the possibility of new developments and collaborations that could lead to the advancement of ground penetrating radar as a geophysical investigative method. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.

  5. Preferences for menu labelling formats of young adults in Brazil and in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Carvalho de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This pilot study was aimed at exploring preferences of young adults in two different contexts on restaurant menu labelling formats. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 36 participants, two focus groups with 11 participants in Brazil and three focus groups with 25 in the United Kingdom. Themes originating from the content analysis of the transcriptions were organised around four possible menu labelling formats: 1 numerical information on calories; 2 numerical information on calories and nutrients; 3 traffic light system plus Guideline Daily Amounts; 4 food information with ingredients list plus highlighted symbols. Results In both countries, participants preferred the ingredients list plus symbols format, considered more comprehensive and useful to make an informed food choice. Organic food and vegetarian symbols were the ones considered most important to appear on restaurant menu labels with ingredients list. However, most participants in Brazil and in the United Kingdom rejected the information restricted to calories and calories plus nutrients formats, saying that these would not influence their own choices. Conclusion This is the first multicultural qualitative study exploring preferences of people living in different countries with different eating habits, but where menu labelling is voluntary. Results evidenced similarities in participants’ likes and dislikes for menu labelling formats in these two different contexts. Discussions showed participants in both countries prefer qualitative information than numerical information, suggesting that ingredients list and symbols provide information that people want to see on the menu.

  6. Clinical medical sciences for undergraduate dental students in the United Kingdom and Ireland - a curriculum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mighell, A J

    2011-08-01

    The technical aspects of dentistry need to be practised with insight into the spectrum of human diseases and illnesses and how these impact upon individuals and society. Application of this insight is critical to decision-making related to the planning and delivery of safe and appropriate patient-centred healthcare tailored to the needs of the individual. Provision for the necessary training is included in undergraduate programmes, but in the United Kingdom and Ireland there is considerable variation between centres without common outcomes. In 2009 representatives from 17 undergraduate dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland agreed to move towards a common, shared approach to meet their own immediate needs and that might also be of value to others in keeping with the Bologna Process. To provide a clear identity the term \\'Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry\\' was agreed in preference to other names such as \\'Human Disease\\' or \\'Medicine and Surgery\\'. The group was challenged to define consensus outcomes. Contemporary dental education documents informed, but did not drive the process. The consensus curriculum for undergraduate Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry teaching agreed by the participating centres is reported. Many of the issues are generic and it includes elements that are likely to be applicable to others. This document will act as a focus for a more unified approach to the outcomes required by graduates of the participating centres and act as a catalyst for future developments that ultimately aim to enhance the quality of patient care.

  7. The United Kingdom's specialist workforce in paediatric dentistry: current and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M L; Harrhy, L E; Morgan, M Z

    2010-06-01

    To provide information relevant to the current and predicted future profile of the UK's specialist workforce in paediatric dentistry. Postal questionnaire. Two hundred and twenty-one registered dentists whose names appeared on the Specialist List in Paediatric Dentistry and who were identified as resident within the United Kingdom. Questionnaires were returned by 192 specialists, a response rate of 86.9%. This paper is, however, based on data provided by 187 respondents currently practising in the United Kingdom (54 (28.9%) male and 133 (71.1%) female). The majority of respondents were based in England (138) and practised in hospital settings (120). Eighty-two respondents (14 males and 68 females) stated that they were working part-time and 57 (5 males and 52 females) indicated that they had already taken a break at some time during their career. Eighty-four (45.2%) respondents plan to retire during the next ten years. Working patterns associated with a feminised workforce will have a considerable impact on the volume of service that can be provided. Workforce planners must be cognisant of the need to increase the number of specialists in training to take account of service lost through part-time working and career breaks.

  8. Playful Politics: Developing a Framework for Designing Video Games for Political Participation in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew James Reid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Political participation in the United Kingdom among young voters (aged 18-24 has steadily declined over the past two decades. Alongside this decline, video game popularity has meteorically risen among the same demographic, resulting in video games becoming increasingly more integrated within modern society. While these instances are not necessarily related, there is opportunity to explore the use of video games’ popularity to increase political participation.The basis of this research is to investigate video games as a medium for social change, and its application within a political context in order to encourage political participation in the United Kingdom. The research intends to critically analyse existing video game design theories with implications of social impact, such as transformative design, procedural rhetoric, ethical design, persuasive principles and the theory of play.This research has assisted in the development of the Political Design Framework, a design methodology that provides ethical definition and validation for video games that intend to promote political engagement.

  9. Occupational burnout and work engagement: a national survey of dentists in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, D A; Newton, J T; Bower, E J

    2008-10-11

    To determine the levels of burnout and work engagement among dentists in the United Kingdom.Study design Postal survey of 500 dentists selected at random from the General Dental Council register. Respondents completed a questionnaire pack comprising the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), together with questions on demographic characteristics. Approximately 8% of respondents had scores suggestive of burnout on all three scales of the MBI-HSS and a further 18.5% had high scores in two of the domains. Eighty-three percent of respondents had work engagement scores suggestive of moderate or high work engagement. Dentists with postgraduate qualifications and those who work in larger teams had lower burnout scores and more positive work engagement scores. Dentists who spend a greater proportion of their time in NHS practice showed lower work engagement and higher levels of burnout. Burnout affects a small but significant proportion of dental practitioners in the United Kingdom. A larger proportion of practitioners show low work engagement, suggesting a negative attitude to their work. Higher burnout scores and lower work engagement scores were found in dentists without postgraduate qualifications, those in small teams and in those who spend a greater proportion of their time in NHS practice.

  10. A Perspective on Veterinary Forensic Pathology and Medicine in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbery, S G; Cooke, S W; Martineau, H M

    2016-09-01

    Internationally, forensic medicine and pathology are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of work done by veterinary clinicians and veterinary pathologists. In this article, a forensic veterinary clinician, a forensic veterinary pathologist in private practice, and a forensic veterinary pathologist at a veterinary school discuss the interactions among veterinary clinicians, veterinary pathologists, and law enforcement agencies and how future interactions can be improved. The focus is on the United Kingdom, but many of the principles, challenges, and suggestions are applicable to other jurisdictions. Clinicians and pathologists require forensic training to enable them to apply their veterinary knowledge to suspected cases of animal abuse and to subsequently present their findings and conclusions to a court of law in a concise, professional, and unbiased manner, and some opportunities for such advanced training in the United Kingdom are indicated. It is important that forensic veterinary clinicians and pathologists interact in an unbiased and collegial manner to answer the questions posed by courts of law. Opportunities for improved training, communication, and interaction among forensic veterinarians, forensic scientists, and law enforcement are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Detection of Theileria orientalis in mosquito blood meals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Marco, M; Brugman, V A; Hernández-Triana, L M; Thorne, L; Phipps, L P; Nikolova, N I; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2016-10-15

    Theileria spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. In this study, the utility of xenosurveillance of blood-fed specimens of Culiseta annulata for detecting the presence of piroplasms in livestock was investigated. Blood-fed mosquitoes were collected at Elmley National Nature Reserve, Kent, United Kingdom. All specimens were morphologically identified, and DNA barcoding was used to confirm the morphological identification. Both the vertebrate host species and Theileria genome was detected within the bloodmeal by real-time PCR. Sequencing was used to confirm the identity of all amplicons. In total, 105 blood-fed mosquitoes morphologically identified as Cs. annulata were collected. DNA barcoding revealed that 102 specimens were Cs. annulata (99%), while a single specimen was identified as Anopheles messeae. Two specimens could not be identified molecularly due to PCR amplification failure. Blood meal analysis revealed that Cs. annulata fed almost exclusively on cattle at the collection site (n=100). The application of a pan-piroplasm PCR detected 16 positive samples (15.2%) and sequence analysis of the amplicons demonstrated that the piroplasms present in the blood meal belonged to the Theileria orientalis group. This study demonstrates how xenosurveillance can be applied to detecting pathogens in livestock and confirms the presence of Theileria species in livestock from the United Kingdom. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A survey of exercise advice and recommendations in United Kingdom paediatric cardiac clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig A; Gowing, Lucy; Horn, Richard; Stuart, Alan Graham

    2017-07-01

    Physical activity and exercise have important health benefits for children and adolescents with CHD. The objective of this study was to survey the provision of advice and recommendations in United Kingdom paediatric CHD clinics. A three-page questionnaire was sent out to paediatric cardiac consultants in the United Kingdom, paediatric consultants with expertise in cardiology, and nursing staff (Paediatricians with Expertise in Cardiology Special Interest Group), as well as all members of the British Congenital Cardiovascular Association. The aim of this questionnaire was to determine the extent and scope of current information provision and to assess the importance that clinicians place on this advice. There were 68 responses in total, and the data showed that, of these, 24 (36%) clinicians had never provided paediatric CHD patients with written advice about exercise. Only 27 (39%) clinicians provided physical activity advice at every appointment. Lack of time during consultation (n=39, 56.9%), lack of training (n=38, 55.2%), and uncertainty about appropriate recommendations (n=38, 55.2%) were identified as the main factors preventing clinicians from providing patients with advice about physical activity. Although healthcare providers consider physical activity to be very important, the provision of clear, specific advice and recommendations is underutilised; therefore, more education and provision of resources to support the promotion of exercise need to be provided to clinicians and their support teams.

  13. The rise and fall of a regulator: adventure sports in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball-King, Laurence; Watt, John; Ball, David J

    2013-01-01

    Following a tragic accident in 1993 involving the deaths of teenagers while kayaking a new regulatory regime was imposed upon some adventure sports providers in the United Kingdom. In particular, a new regulatory body, the Adventure Activities Licensing Authority (AALA), was established to oversee the sector. Yet in 2010, a government-sponsored review recommended that AALA be abolished and this recommendation has been quickly accepted by government. This article explores the background to these developments through documentation, interviews with those affected by the AALA regime, and court cases. Evidence reported here, perhaps surprising, is that AALA itself is seen in a very positive light by many, even those it regulates. What may have happened is that AALA became caught up in a wider debate about the place and management of risk in life beyond the workplace, which has been simmering in the United Kingdom for a decade or more, and of which it fell foul. It may also be that adventure sports, because they entail voluntary engagement with high consequence hazards, starkly expose serious questions about the application of conventional, factory-originated risk assessment approaches to life in general. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Motivations, outcomes, and characteristics of unspecified (nondirected altruistic) kidney donors in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Hannah; Chilcot, Joseph; Burnapp, Lisa; Gibbs, Paul; Santhouse, Alastair; Norton, Sam; Weinman, John; Mamode, Nizam

    2014-12-15

    Unspecified (nondirected altruistic) kidney donation is becoming increasingly common in the United Kingdom. Questions regarding motivation and characteristics of these donors persist, alongside concerns about regret and long-term psychosocial outcomes. The aims of this study were to compare psychosocial and physical outcomes in unspecified kidney donors (UKDs) versus specified kidney donors (SKDs). We performed a cross-sectional study, in which a detailed assessment of psychosocial outcomes was made using validated questionnaires. Additional questions specific to donation were also asked, including questions regarding motivation, regret, and anonymity. One hundred ninety responses were received from 296 participants studied (110 UKDs [74.3%] vs. 80 SKDs [54.1%], P0.05). Unspecified kidney donors were more engaged in other altruistic behaviours (P<0.001). There was no difference in physical outcomes, although UKDs recovered quicker (P<0.001). Regret was low (3.7% UKDs vs. 7.5% SKDs; P=0.078). This study has demonstrated that UKDs have comparable physical and psychosocial outcomes to SKDs. These favorable outcomes may be, in part, because of the rigorous evaluation process which currently includes a mental health assessment. We conclude that the program can continue to expand safely across the United Kingdom.

  15. The Great Financial Crisis: How Effective is Macroeconomic Policy Response in the United Kingdom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clements Akinsoyinu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Great Financial Crisis has been touted to be the worst crisis since the Great Depression of 1930; its effect has profound ramifications on the global economy. The nature and the severity of the crisis provoked an unprecedented policy response from policy makers at both global and domestic levels. To address the rampaging crisis, the Bank of England implemented a number of conventional and unconventional policy measures to curtail the economic rot and to stimulate economic growth. There is a broad consensus in the empirical literature and other evidence found in this paper that a number of the policies implemented in the United Kingdom played a significant role in re-directing and stimulating the economy. This paper reviews the various policy measures adopted by the Bank of England from the inception of the financial crisis in 2008 and assesses their effectiveness in bringing back the economy from the brink of collapse. Our review shows that quantitative easing (QE policy and the expansionary fiscal policy adopted by the Bank of England were effective policy tools used in stimulating economic growth, stemming the effect and shortening the duration of the crisis in the United Kingdom

  16. Executive impunity and parallel justice? The United Kingdom debate on secret inquests and inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Rebecca Scott

    2012-03-01

    At the beginning of 2008, the United Kingdom Government rolled into the Counter-Terrorism Bill some controversial proposals to reform coronial inquest processes, namely clauses that would provide for "secret inquests". The provisions were heavily criticised both inside and outside Parliament, and took a rocky passage through both the House of Commons and the House of Lords before eventually being abandoned by the government. In 2009 the government again tried to introduce "secret inquests" with the Coroners and Justice Bill, instead ultimately succeeding in establishing what critics have termed a "parallel" system of justice through provisions around "secret inquiries". This move has been seen as subverting the principles of transparency and open justice in the investigation of contentious deaths. This article examines the government's efforts to introduce "secret inquests" and thereafter "secret inquiries" in the context of the United Kingdom's coronial law and purpose, human rights obligations and the ongoing issues around sensitive intelligence, and examines the clash of laws that gave rise to the controversial proposals.

  17. Advertising Representations of Older People in the United Kingdom and Taiwan: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural studies of advertising representations of older people are relatively scarce. This article aims to fill in this gap via a comparison between Taiwan and the United Kingdom, employing a combination of quantitative content analysis and the qualitative grounded theory method. The content-analysis phase reveals underrepresentation of older people in both countries' advertising contexts, as well as representational differences between Taiwan and the United Kingdom in terms of older characters' role salience, the products, physical settings, and social networks they are associated with. The grounded-theory phase yields nine prototypes of older people along with subcategories to conceptualize the qualities of older people as they appear in TV ads in these countries. The findings are discussed in relation to the stereotyping of older people and transformed into hypothetical statements to be modified in future research. In conclusion, the Confucian tradition of filial piety is still found to be important in explaining the observed cross-cultural differences, but the emergence of new norms about aging in Taiwanese advertising also suggests that this tradition may be in decline. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Acquired hemophilia A in the United Kingdom: a 2-year national surveillance study by the United Kingdom Haemophilia Centre Doctors' Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Peter W; Hirsch, Sybil; Baglin, Trevor P; Dolan, Gerard; Hanley, John; Makris, Michael; Keeling, David M; Liesner, Ri; Brown, Simon A; Hay, Charles R M

    2007-03-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a severe bleeding disorder caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Previous reports have focused on referral center patients and it is unclear whether these findings are generally applicable. To improve understanding of the disease, a 2-year observational study was established to identify and characterize the presenting features and outcome of all patients with acquired hemophilia A in the United Kingdom. This allowed a consecutive cohort of patients, unbiased by referral or reporting practice, to be studied. A total of 172 patients with a median age of 78 years were identified, an incidence of 1.48/million/y. The cohort was significantly older than previously reported series, but bleeding manifestations and underlying diseases were similar. Bleeding was the cause of death in 9% of the cohort and remained a risk until the inhibitor had been eradicated. There was no difference in inhibitor eradication or mortality between patients treated with steroids alone and a combination of steroids and cytotoxic agents. Relapse of the inhibitor was observed in 20% of the patients who had attained first complete remission. The data provide the most complete description of acquired hemophilia A available and are applicable to patients presenting to all centers.

  19. Evaluation of the Post Stroke Checklist: a pilot study in the United Kingdom and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Anthony B; Chen, Christopher; Norrving, Bo; Gillard, Patrick; Walker, Marion F; Blackburn, Steven; Holloway, Laura; Brainin, Michael; Philp, Ian

    2014-10-01

    There is currently no standardized process for long-term follow-up care. As a result, management of poststroke care varies greatly, and the needs of stroke survivors are not fully addressed. The Post Stroke Checklist was developed by the Global Stroke Community Advisory Panel as a means of standardizing long-term stroke care. Since its development, the Post Stroke Checklist has gained international recognition from various stroke networks and is endorsed by the World Stroke Organization to support improved stroke survivor follow-up and care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and usefulness of the Post Stroke Checklist in clinical practice and assess its relevance to stroke survivors in pilot studies in the United Kingdom and Singapore. The Post Stroke Checklist was administered to stroke survivors in the United Kingdom (n = 42) and Singapore (n = 100) by clinicians. To assess the feasibility of the Post Stroke Checklist in clinical practice, an independent researcher observed the assessment and made notes relating to the patient-clinician interaction and their interpretations of the Post Stroke Checklist items. Patient and clinician satisfaction with the Post Stroke Checklist was assessed by three questions, responded to on a 0-10 numerical rating scale. Clinicians also completed a Pragmatic Face and Content Validity test to evaluate their overall impressions of the Post Stroke Checklist. In the United Kingdom, a subset of patients (n = 14) took part in a concept elicitation interview prior to being administered the Post Stroke Checklist, followed by a cognitive debriefing interview to assess relevance and comprehension of the Post Stroke Checklist. The Post Stroke Checklist identified frequently reported problems for stroke survivors including cognition (reported by 47·2% of patients), mood (43·7%), and life after stroke (38%). An average of 3·2 problems per patient was identified across both countries (range 0-10). An average of

  20. Female Professors in Sweden and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Anett

    2003-01-01

    The Research Training Network “Women in European Universities” focuses on career opportunities of women in higher education in seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). Within the frame of this network different aspects of career perspectives of women – and also men – are investigated. In a first working step a context analysis was conducted in order to give an understanding of the different systems of higher education, their changes an...

  1. PWR design for low doses in the United Kingdom: The present and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodiates, A.M.; Willcock, A. [PWR Project Group, Knutsford, England (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-01

    The Pressurizer Water Reactor (PWR) design chosen for adoption by Nuclear Electric plc was based on the Westinghouse Standard Nuclear Unit Power Plant System (SNUPPS). This design was developed to meet the United Kingdom (UK) requirements and those improvements are embodied in the Sizewell B plant. Nuclear Electric plc is now looking to the design of the future PWRs to be built in the UK. These PWRs will be based as replicas of the Sizewell B design, but attention will be given to reducing operator doses further. This paper details the approach in operator protection improvements incorporated at Sizewall B, presents the estimated annual collective dose, and identifies the approach being adopted to reduce further operator doses in future plants.

  2. The role of the specialist nurse in paediatric oncology in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Rachel

    2005-08-01

    National guidance in the United Kingdom on the provision of services for children and young people with cancer and their families has consistently emphasised the need for specialist nursing as central to the delivery of safe and effective care. The temptation when examining the role of the specialist nurse is to look at those posts that carry a recognised 'specialist' label. It is equally important, however, to look at the development of nursing practice across the speciality and at how this can be both supported and recognised. Nurses with specialist knowledge, skills and expertise in paediatric oncology are needed in positions where they are able to develop nursing practice, direct service development, lead nursing research, and guide education and training. Effective clinical leadership is essential at the point at which nursing care is delivered whether that is at the hospital bedside, in the clinic and day care unit, or in the family home.

  3. The United Kingdom and the establishment of European Security and Defence Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Nicolae Cucu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available After the Labour Party came to power, Great Britain was actively implied in the negotiations and the decision-making processes that led to the construction of the European security and defence mechanism. The European Union’s new perspective regarding security and defence assumed after 1999 was mostly framed by British leaders who seized the inability of Europe to react during the Kosovo War. Although, at the beginning the United Kingdom reformed its internal mechanisms and assumed complex duties, the creation of European Security and Defence Policy did not abolish the North Atlantic security system, as Germans and French would have wanted. Beyond the United States mistrust, transatlantic cooperation continued, especially because of the UK which sought to strike the right balance between European theatre and the North-Atlantic one.

  4. Notes on critical care-review of seminal management and leadership papers in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Maureen

    2009-06-01

    Review of recent critical care provision reveals substantial changes in clinical unit operating, and policy drivers influencing international critical care delivery. Practitioners who have worked in healthcare environments over this time, will have witnessed substantial shifts in healthcare policy, changes in professional body guidance and greater service evaluation have impacted on critical care management and leadership. This paper offers a personal perspective on seminal management and leadership papers published in the critical care literature over the past decade. Presenting a range of national and international work that utilise diverse approaches, ten key papers are highlighted that have impacted in the United Kingdom setting. Through this, the influence of the modernisation agenda, the increasing significance of outcome studies, and the need for flexible, interdependent practice emerges. A key message to surface from this paper is the need for all in critical care to engage with, and understand the wider implications of management and leadership change for critical care delivery.

  5. Parenteral nutrition in very low birth weight infants in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hopewell, J

    2012-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) plays an important role in providing nutrients for infants unable to tolerate enteral feeds study was to look at PN prescribing in neonatal units in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Ireland, in particular in infants < 1.5 kg. A postal questionnaire was administered to the 235 neonatal units. The response rate was 179 (76%), of which 136 (76%) used PN. The initial amount of protein prescribed was 0.1-2 g\\/kg\\/day in 102 units (91%), >2 g\\/kg\\/day in 4 (4%) and 5 (5%) used no protein. 88 (80%) started lipids with the first PN prescription. Only 5 units (5%) started with >1 g\\/kg\\/day. The maximum dose of lipids and protein both varied from 2 - >4 g\\/kg\\/day. The initial glucose infusion rate was 4-8 mg\\/kg\\/min. Interestingly only 44% of units started PN in the first 24 hours of age. Hence results show great variation in PN prescribing.

  6. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  7. Teaching English as an Additional Language In The Global Classroom: A Transnational Study In The United States and United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail McEachron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global research has shown the persistence of inequality with regard to accessing curriculum with a view to obtaining suitable work and making useful contributions to society. The intersection of race, gender, language and low socio-economic levels creates situations which often marginalize ethnic minorities in school settings (Freire, 1968; Nieto & Turner, 2012. The graduation rates in the United States for Native American, African American and Hispanic students are lower than the graduation rates of Whites and Asian Americans. In addition, Bangladeshis and African Caribbeans currently living in the UK are under-represented in higher education, particularly young men in those communities. The research questions that guide this inquiry are: (1 According to databases, how does the academic performance of language minority groups compare to the academic performance of non-linguistic minority groups at the elementary and secondary levels of education? (2 According to language support teachers and university students, what are the strengths and weaknesses of the instructional practices for language minorities who are learning English in the United Kingdom (UK (Bristol and the United States (US (Henrico? Participants were: five UK teachers, four UK university students, five US teachers, four US university students. Data collection supervised by lead researchers included interviews, focus groups, classroom observation, and performance documents. Data analysis utilized a mixed-methods approach. Overall, linguistic minority groups performed lower than their English proficient peers. Culturally, UK teachers provided a greater emphasis on religious instruction, whereas US teachers addressed patriotic topics more frequently. Teachers in the United States and the United Kingdom were culturally supportive with slight variation in the encouraged use of the students’ heritage languages.

  8. With (Great) Power Comes (Great) Responsibility: A Move Toward Greater Responsibility for States Exercising Power Abroad (Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This case note addresses the recent European Court of Human Rights case Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom. In this case, the Court decided that the act of detaining and interning the applicant in Iraq was attributable to the United Kingdom, and not the United Nations, and that the applicant fell under

  9. Discharge on the day of surgery following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty within the United Kingdom NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, B; Middleton, S; Davis, N; Williams, M; Stocker, M; Hockings, M; Isaac, D L

    2017-06-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been successfully performed in the United States healthcare system on outpatients. Despite differences in healthcare structure and financial environment, we hypothesised that it would be feasible to replicate this success and perform UKA with safe day of surgery discharge within the NHS, in the United Kingdom. This has not been reported in any other United Kingdom centres. We report our experience of implementing a pathway to allow safe day of surgery discharge following UKA. Data were prospectively collected on 72 patients who underwent UKA as a day case between December 2011 and September 2015. A total of 61 patients (85%) were discharged on the same day. The most common reason for failure was logistical; five patients had their operation too late in the day. Three patients failed to mobilise safely, two had inadequate control of pain and one had a leaking wound. The mean length of stay for those who were not discharged on the same day was 1.2 nights (1 to 3). During the same time, 58 patients underwent planned inpatient UKA, as they were deemed inappropriate for discharge on the day of surgery. However, three of these were safely discharged on the same day. Follow-up data, 24 hours post-operatively, were available for 70 patients; 51 (73%) reported no or mild pain, 14 (20%) had moderate pain and five (7%) had severe pain. There were no re-admissions. All patients had a high level of satisfaction. We found that patients can be safely and effectively discharged on the day of surgery after UKA, with high levels of satisfaction. This clearly offers improved management of resources and financial savings to healthcare trusts. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:788-92. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. Patients' expectations and online presence of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Serriah, M; Bharmal, R Valiji; Gallagher, J; Ameerally, P J

    2014-02-01

    In patient-centred medical practice, consideration of the patients' expectations is vital to the planning and delivery of service. Modern medicine must use the continuing advances in information technology to disseminate knowledge and raise awareness among patients and the public. People increasingly use the Internet to search for information on health, and the online presence of an organisation or a profession is known to bring a wide range of benefits. We aimed to find out what patients expect from the website of an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) unit and to assess the online presence of OMFS units in the United Kingdom. Results from 100 self-administered questionnaires showed that there were 18 common domains that patients would like to see on OMFS websites. When ranked according to the number of times they were mentioned, a map of the department was mentioned most and the complaints policy least. Of the 156 OMFS units in the UK, only 51% have websites and of these, 80% are in London. There were none in Wales and Northern Ireland. Only half of the websites contained information that related to patients' expectations. Strategies to improve the content of websites for OMFS units and to improve their online presence are urgently needed. Copyright © 2013 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tracking search engine queries for suicide in the United Kingdom, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, V S; Stuckler, D; McKee, M

    2016-08-01

    First, to determine if a cyclical trend is observed for search activity of suicide and three common suicide risk factors in the United Kingdom: depression, unemployment, and marital strain. Second, to test the validity of suicide search data as a potential marker of suicide risk by evaluating whether web searches for suicide associate with suicide rates among those of different ages and genders in the United Kingdom. Cross-sectional. Search engine data was obtained from Google Trends, a publicly available repository of information of trends and patterns of user searches on Google. The following phrases were entered into Google Trends to analyse relative search volume for suicide, depression, job loss, and divorce, respectively: 'suicide'; 'depression + depressed + hopeless'; 'unemployed + lost job'; 'divorce'. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was employed to test bivariate associations between suicide search activity and official suicide rates from the Office of National Statistics (ONS). Cyclical trends were observed in search activity for suicide and depression-related search activity, with peaks in autumn and winter months, and a trough in summer months. A positive, non-significant association was found between suicide-related search activity and suicide rates in the general working-age population (15-64 years) (ρ = 0.164; P = 0.652). This association is stronger in younger age groups, particularly for those 25-34 years of age (ρ = 0.848; P = 0.002). We give credence to a link between search activity for suicide and suicide rates in the United Kingdom from 2004 to 2013 for high risk sub-populations (i.e. male youth and young professionals). There remains a need for further research on how Google Trends can be used in other areas of disease surveillance and for work to provide greater geographical precision, as well as research on ways of mitigating the risk of internet use leading to suicide ideation in youth. Copyright © 2015 The Royal

  12. Suturing techniques and postoperative management in penetrating keratoplasty in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee RM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Richard MH Lee,1 Fook Chang Lam,1 Tassos Georgiou,1 Bobby Paul,1 Kong Yong Then,1 Ioannis Mavrikakis,1 Venkata S Avadhanam,1 Christopher SC Liu1,21Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton, United Kingdom; 2Tongdean Eye Clinic, Hove, United KingdomAims: To report on the suturing techniques and aspects of postoperative management in penetrating keratoplasty in the United Kingdom.Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to 137 ophthalmic consultants identified from a Royal College of Ophthalmology database as having a special interest in anterior segment surgery. The questionnaire surveyed surgeon preferences for surgical and suturing technique for penetrating keratoplasty surgery, and the postoperative care of corneal grafts.Results: In all, 68% of questionnaires were completed and returned: 73% of respondents used a Flieringa ring or equivalent, 94% routinely used cardinal sutures, with 50.5% removing them at the end of the procedure. The most common suturing technique for routine penetrating keratoplasty was a single continuous suture (35%. In these cases, a 10/0 nylon suture was used by 89%. Sixty-six percent changed their technique in high-risk cases, 52% used a 3-1-1 knot, and 75% made a distinction between a reef and granny knot, with 76% using a reef. Thirty percent buried the knots within the donor material, and 29% within the host tissue. Twenty-five percent had no routine time for graft suture removal, but 41% removed them between 1 and 2 years post-surgery. After suture removal, 98% used steroids and 88% used topical antibiotics. Thirty-four percent stopped topical steroids before suture removal, with 38% stopping topical steroids more than 3 months prior to suture removal.Conclusion: This survey demonstrates that there is considerable variation in suturing techniques and postoperative care for penetrating keratoplasty. These significant variations in practice need to be considered when interpreting outcomes and research.Keywords: corneal graft

  13. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills.

  14. Use of Oral Fluid to Examine the Molecular Epidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus in the United Kingdom and Continental Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Mark; Sengupta, Nitu; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Grillner, Lena; Rousseva, Rossitsa; Hague, Rosie; Lutsar, Irja; Jogi, Piia; Leca, Ana; Grytchol, Ruth; Alain, Sophie; Breuer, Judith

    2013-01-01

    We investigated oral fluid (OF) as an alternative to sampling of rashes for varicella zoster virus (VZV) genotyping and further characterized VZV clade prevalence in the United Kingdom and Europe. VZV was detected in up to 91% of OF specimens. Paired OF and vesicle fluid samples contained identical VZV clades. While clades 1 and 3 were the most prevalent across the United Kingdom and Europe, in Western Europe, clade 5 viruses were circulating. Viruses from the same outbreak belonged to different clades, but no clade was associated with a severe-disease phenotype. OF is suitable and convenient for large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of VZV. PMID:23087434

  15. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) members, United Kingdom, visiting the ATLAS semiconductor tracker (SCT) module tests.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Peter Warry, PPARC Chairman, Victrex Plc, United Kingdom visiting the ATLAS SCT module tests with Dr Joleen Pater, SCT (Manchester). Photo 02: PPARC Council Members, United Kingdom, visiting the ATLAS SCT module tests. L.t to r.: Mrs Judith Scott, Chief Executive, British Computer Society, Prof. George Efstathiou, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Mr Peter Warry, PPARC Chairman, Victrex Plc, Prof. Martin Ward, Director X-Ray Astronomy, of Leicester, Prof. James Stirling, Director, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham and Prof. Brian Foster, University of Bristol.

  16. Public Spending on Health Service and Policy Research in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States: A Modest Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Vidhi; Sullivan, Terrence

    2017-04-10

    Health services and policy research (HSPR) represent a multidisciplinary field which integrates knowledge from health economics, health policy, health technology assessment, epidemiology, political science among other fields, to evaluate decisions in health service delivery. Health service decisions are informed by evidence at the clinical, organizational, and policy level, levels with distinct, managerial drivers. HSPR has an evolving discourse spanning knowledge translation, linkage and exchange between research and decision-maker partners and more recently, implementation science and learning health systems. Local context is important for HSPR and is important in advancing health reform practice. The amounts and configuration of national investment in this field remain important considerations which reflect priority investment areas. The priorities set within this field or research may have greater or lesser effects and promise with respect to modernizing health services in pursuit of better value and better population outcomes. Within Canada an asset map for HSPR was published by the national HSPR research institute. Having estimated publicly-funded research spending in Canada, we sought identify best available comparable estimates from the United States and the United Kingdom. Investments from industry and charitable organizations were not included in these numbers. This commentary explores spending by the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on HSPR as a fraction of total public spending on health and the importance of these respective investments in advancing health service performance. Proposals are offered on the merits of common nomenclature and accounting for areas of investigation in pursuit of some comparable way of assessing priority HSPR investments and suggestions for earmarking such investments to total investment in health services spending. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open

  17. Public Spending on Health Service and Policy Research in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States: A Modest Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhi Thakkar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Health services and policy research (HSPR represent a multidisciplinary field which integrates knowledge from health economics, health policy, health technology assessment, epidemiology, political science among other fields, to evaluate decisions in health service delivery. Health service decisions are informed by evidence at the clinical, organizational, and policy level, levels with distinct, managerial drivers. HSPR has an evolving discourse spanning knowledge translation, linkage and exchange between research and decision-maker partners and more recently, implementation science and learning health systems. Local context is important for HSPR and is important in advancing health reform practice. The amounts and configuration of national investment in this field remain important considerations which reflect priority investment areas. The priorities set within this field or research may have greater or lesser effects and promise with respect to modernizing health services in pursuit of better value and better population outcomes. Within Canada an asset map for HSPR was published by the national HSPR research institute. Having estimated publiclyfunded research spending in Canada, we sought identify best available comparable estimates from the United States and the United Kingdom. Investments from industry and charitable organizations were not included in these numbers. This commentary explores spending by the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on HSPR as a fraction of total public spending on health and the importance of these respective investments in advancing health service performance. Proposals are offered on the merits of common nomenclature and accounting for areas of investigation in pursuit of some comparable way of assessing priority HSPR investments and suggestions for earmarking such investments to total investment in health services spending.

  18. Coal industry - minutes of evidence - Wednesday 18 June 1986. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Minutes of evidence are presented taken before the Energy Committee of the House of Commons on health and safety in the coal industry of the United Kingdom. Two memoranda are included, submitted by the Health and Safety Executive and H.M. Chief Inspector of Mines and Quarries. HSE has a comprehensive plan for a systematic updating of the Mines and Quarries Act 1974 (MQA) and associated safety regulations. The memorandum summarizes the main statutory obligations on the National Coal Board and indicates the changes required by new technology. The second memorandum gives the Industry and the Mines Inspectorate's views on safety of working practices including roof bolting, underground burning and welding, continuous night shift working, high voltage electricity supply to the face, and surface staff level in areas such as medical care. Accident statistics for NCB and private (licensed) mines are given.

  19. The provision of assistive technology products and services for people with dementia in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Grant; Newton, Lisa; Pritchard, Gary; Finch, Tracy; Brittain, Katie; Robinson, Louise

    2016-07-01

    In this review we explore the provision of assistive technology products and services currently available for people with dementia within the United Kingdom. A scoping review of assistive technology products and services currently available highlighted 171 products or product types and 331 services. In addition, we assimilated data on the amount and quality of information provided by assistive technology services alongside assistive technology costs. We identify a range of products available across three areas: assistive technology used 'by', 'with' and 'on' people with dementia. Assistive technology provision is dominated by 'telecare' provided by local authorities, with services being subject to major variations in pricing and information provision; few currently used available resources for assistive technology in dementia. We argue that greater attention should be paid to information provision about assistive technology services across an increasingly mixed economy of dementia care providers, including primary care, local authorities, private companies and local/national assistive technology resources. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS OF ORGANIC CERTIFICATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every product marketed under ’organic’ must comply with a set of UK, European Union and international rules. These rules (also known as standards assure the consumers that they bought original organic products able to be traced back all the way to the farm. Organic standards cover all of the aspects of organic food certification, including production and packaging, animal welfare, wildlife preservation and interdict all useless and dangerous food additives in processing organic foods. The British organic control bodies authorize individual organic operators. These are approved by DEFRA (The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. In order for a producer to have his merchandise marketed as organic, he must be affiliated to one of the control bodies and comply to its standards and requirements. The present article presents the certification control bodies in organic agriculture as well as the steps to be taken in the organic certification process within the United Kingdom.

  1. Knowledge of behavioural management principles amongst specialist paediatric dental practitioners in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, James; Hosey, Marie Therese; Newton, J Tim

    2017-03-01

    Paediatric specialist dental practitioners are often faced with the challenge of disruptive behaviour or refusal to comply with treatment. Behaviour management skills are an essential component of their role. However, little is known of the confidence or competence of practitioners in these approaches. To identify paediatric dentists' knowledge of behavioural management principles as applied to paediatric dentistry. Postal questionnaire survey of all specialists in Paediatric Dentistry on the General Dental Council UK register (n = 234), using the Knowledge of Behavioural Principles as Applied to Children Questionnaire (KBPACQ; O'Dell, 1979) adapted for the dental setting. Information was also gathered on experience in using behavioural management techniques and demographics. Responses were received from 105 practitioners (45%). Participants gave the correct answer, on average, to 38% of the items (range 0 to 75%). Knowledge of behavioural principles amongst paediatric dentists in the United Kingdom is poor, despite their widespread reported use of such techniques.

  2. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this `national` resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. Nosocomial pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enstone, Joanne E; Myles, Puja R; Openshaw, Peter J M; Gadd, Elaine M; Lim, Wei Shen; Semple, Malcolm G; Read, Robert C; Taylor, Bruce L; McMenamin, James; Armstrong, Colin; Bannister, Barbara; Nicholson, Karl G; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2011-04-01

    To determine clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized in the United Kingdom with pandemic (H1N1) 2009, we studied 1,520 patients in 75 National Health Service hospitals. We characterized patients who acquired influenza nosocomially during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak. Of 30 patients, 12 (80%) of 15 adults and 14 (93%) of 15 children had serious underlying illnesses. Only 12 (57%) of 21 patients who received antiviral therapy did so within 48 hours after symptom onset, but 53% needed escalated care or mechanical ventilation; 8 (27%) of 30 died. Despite national guidelines and standardized infection control procedures, nosocomial transmission remains a problem when influenza is prevalent. Health care workers should be routinely offered influenza vaccine, and vaccination should be prioritized for all patients at high risk. Staff should remain alert to the possibility of influenza in patients with complex clinical problems and be ready to institute antiviral therapy while awaiting diagnosis during influenza outbreaks.

  4. Spatial imbalances in the United Kingdom after the Millennium: a focus on the cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Zsibók

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the recovery after the economic crisis, much academic and policy attention was diverted to the role of cities as growth hubs all over Europe and the world. Significant economic disparities are a longstanding problem for the United Kingdom as a whole, which have been growing for decades and are remarkably high among the most developed OECD and EU countries. To investigate recent spatial processes, the methodology of our research relies on comparative spatial data analysis and literature review. Our analyses will cover the issue of a spatially more balanced development based on the “northern powerhouse” initiative which builds upon the collective strength of the cities in the North. Addressing the ‘national’ problem of regional inequalities, spatial rebalancing is assumed to be inevitable, especially in the light of the new economic and regional challenges posed by the Brexit decision.

  5. DEVOLUTION AND INEDEPENDENCE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM: THE CASE OF SCOTLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Guibernau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reflect upon the consequences of the devolutionprocess initiated by the Labour government in 1997. The paper considers thedevelopment of Scottish devolution since its inception up to the present day.In so doing, it establishes a distinction between the so-called unionist viewand the secessionist approach. It offers a detailed study of current plans fora referendum on secession, as planned by the Scottish National Party (SNP,while considering its main objectives and challenges. It also includes a thoroughoverview of the main recommendations of the Calman Commission(2009 set up by the Government of Scotland and the Government of theUnited Kingdom in order to evaluate ten years of devolution. The paperconcludes by offering some final reflections on the consequences of devolutionfor Scottish and British identity alike.

  6. The Potential United Kingdom Energy Gap and Creep Life Prediction Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom faces a looming energy gap with around 20 pct of its generating capacity due for closure in the next 10 to 15 years as a result of plant age and new European legislation on environmental protection and safety at work. A number of solutions exist for this problem including the use of new materials so that new plants can operate at higher temperatures, new technologies related to carbon capture and gasification, development of renewable resources, and less obviously the use of accurate models for predicting creep life. This article reviews, with illustrations, some of the more applicable and successful creep prediction methodologies used by academics and industrialists and highlights how these techniques can help alleviate the looming energy gap. The role that these approaches can play in solving the energy gap is highlighted throughout.

  7. Imported enteric fever: case series from the hospital for tropical diseases, London, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Trupti A; Armstrong, Margaret; Morris-Jones, Stephen D; Wright, Stephen G; Doherty, Tom

    2010-06-01

    Our current knowledge of the clinical characteristics of enteric fever is drawn mainly from population-based studies in disease-endemic countries, and there are limited data published on cases in returning travelers. We report the clinical characteristics of enteric fever in 92 travelers returning to London, United Kingdom. Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi resulted in an almost indistinguishable clinical picture. Rose spots and relative bradycardia were found only in a few patients. A total of 91% of the patients had a normal leukocyte count, which was associated with a markedly increased level of alanine aminotransferase in 82%. A total of 57% of the S. typhi isolates had decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and resistance to nalidixic acid; these isolates were from southern Asia. Thirty percent were multidrug resistant; all were from southern Asia and Nigeria. None of the paratyphoid isolates were multidrug resistant but rates of decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones were higher than in S. typhi (74%).

  8. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip L Manning

    Full Text Available A new record of a sauropodomorph dinosaur is here described from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian Saltwick Formation of Whitby (Yorkshire, UK. A single caudal vertebra represents an early sauropodomorph and signifies the earliest recognised eusauropod dinosaur from the United Kingdom. The absence of pleurocoels and a narrow, dorsoventrally deep, but craniocaudally short centrum, suggests a primitive sauropodomorph. Distinct spinopostzygopophyseal laminae rise from the lateral margins of the postzygapophyses and pass caudally along what remains of the neural spine, a character unique to a subgroup of sauropods that includes Barapasaurus, Omeisaurus and other neosauropods and eusauropods. The lack of phylogenetically robust characters in sauropod caudal vertebrae usually makes it difficult to establish affinities, but the absence of mild procoely excludes this specimen from both Diplodocoidea and Lithostrotia. The vertebra cannot be further distinguished from those of a wide range of basal sauropods, cetiosaurids and basal macronarians. However, this plesiomorphic vertebra still signifies the earliest stratigraphic occurrence for a British sauropod dinosaur.

  9. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Phillip L; Egerton, Victoria M; Romano, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new record of a sauropodomorph dinosaur is here described from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian) Saltwick Formation of Whitby (Yorkshire), UK. A single caudal vertebra represents an early sauropodomorph and signifies the earliest recognised eusauropod dinosaur from the United Kingdom. The absence of pleurocoels and a narrow, dorsoventrally deep, but craniocaudally short centrum, suggests a primitive sauropodomorph. Distinct spinopostzygopophyseal laminae rise from the lateral margins of the postzygapophyses and pass caudally along what remains of the neural spine, a character unique to a subgroup of sauropods that includes Barapasaurus, Omeisaurus and other neosauropods and eusauropods. The lack of phylogenetically robust characters in sauropod caudal vertebrae usually makes it difficult to establish affinities, but the absence of mild procoely excludes this specimen from both Diplodocoidea and Lithostrotia. The vertebra cannot be further distinguished from those of a wide range of basal sauropods, cetiosaurids and basal macronarians. However, this plesiomorphic vertebra still signifies the earliest stratigraphic occurrence for a British sauropod dinosaur.

  10. The Lexis plot for run-off non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Humaida Banu

    2014-06-01

    This study is intended to look at the company's age to be one of the predictor for financially distressed non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom. Financial distress is a condition where a company has difficulty paying off its obligations to its creditors. For this study, Lexis plot is used to identify either younger companies or older companies are in run-off. Run-off is a process where many insurance companies stop underwriting policies long before they reach financial crisis or financial distress. The study utilises financial data of 22 years from year 1985 to year 2006 for 397 companies. From the study, it is identified that younger companies are more in financial distress than older companies.

  11. Microevolution of Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium during Epidemic, United Kingdom, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska, Liljana; Mather, Alison E; AbuOun, Manal; Branchu, Priscilla; Harris, Simon R; Connor, Thomas; Hopkins, K L; Underwood, A; Lettini, Antonia A; Page, Andrew; Bagnall, Mary; Wain, John; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Davies, Robert; Kingsley, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    Microevolution associated with emergence and expansion of new epidemic clones of bacterial pathogens holds the key to epidemiologic success. To determine microevolution associated with monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium during an epidemic, we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing and phylogenomic analysis of isolates from the United Kingdom and Italy during 2005-2012. These isolates formed a single clade distinct from recent monophasic epidemic clones previously described from North America and Spain. The UK monophasic epidemic clones showed a novel genomic island encoding resistance to heavy metals and a composite transposon encoding antimicrobial drug resistance genes not present in other Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, which may have contributed to epidemiologic success. A remarkable amount of genotypic variation accumulated during clonal expansion that occurred during the epidemic, including multiple independent acquisitions of a novel prophage carrying the sopE gene and multiple deletion events affecting the phase II flagellin locus. This high level of microevolution may affect antigenicity, pathogenicity, and transmission.

  12. Microevolution of Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium during Epidemic, United Kingdom, 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovska, Liljana; Mather, Alison E.; AbuOun, Manal; Branchu, Priscilla; Harris, Simon R.; Connor, Thomas; Hopkins, K.L.; Underwood, A.; Lettini, Antonia A.; Page, Andrew; Bagnall, Mary; Wain, John; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon; Davies, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Microevolution associated with emergence and expansion of new epidemic clones of bacterial pathogens holds the key to epidemiologic success. To determine microevolution associated with monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium during an epidemic, we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing and phylogenomic analysis of isolates from the United Kingdom and Italy during 2005–2012. These isolates formed a single clade distinct from recent monophasic epidemic clones previously described from North America and Spain. The UK monophasic epidemic clones showed a novel genomic island encoding resistance to heavy metals and a composite transposon encoding antimicrobial drug resistance genes not present in other Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, which may have contributed to epidemiologic success. A remarkable amount of genotypic variation accumulated during clonal expansion that occurred during the epidemic, including multiple independent acquisitions of a novel prophage carrying the sopE gene and multiple deletion events affecting the phase II flagellin locus. This high level of microevolution may affect antigenicity, pathogenicity, and transmission. PMID:26982594

  13. An economic evaluation of the control of three notifiable fish diseases in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dominic; Fofana, Abdulai

    2007-07-16

    We summarised the challenges faced in an ex ante cost-benefit appraisal of United Kingdom government spending on disease surveillance for three notifiable fish diseases: infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) and infectious haemorrhagic necrosis (IHN). We used a social cost-benefit analysis and adopted a national perspective. We compared costs of current public and private surveillance effort with the benefits stated in terms of the avoided private and social costs of potential disease outbreaks. Spending on ISA and VHS were predicted to be efficient; the benefit-cost ratios were always >or=3.2 for ISA and >or=5.8 for VHS for all nine scenarios examined for each infection. However, the benefit-cost ratio for IHN was predicted never to exceed 1.6, and was <1.0 in five of the nine scenarios-so spending on IHN would be harder to justify.

  14. United Kingdom. The supply of gas storage services; Gran Bretagna: i servizi di stoccaggio del gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alviani, F. [Law and Economics Consulting Group, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    This article investigates BG Storage monopoly position in the supply of gas storage services. The company is currently thought by the regulator to be exploiting its monopoly power to price in discriminatory way. The analysis, however, shows that unsold storage capacity depend on the current over capacity in the United Kingdom gas market, more than on the abuse od market power. [Italian] Questo articolo analizza la posizione di monopolio di BG Storage nell'offerta di servizi di stoccaggio del gas. Dall'analisi emerge che la capacita' di stoccaggio invenduta potrebbe dipendere piu' dalla situazione di sovracapacita' del mercato del gas inglese che dall'abuso di posizione dominante, di cui la compagnia e' accusata.

  15. Stereotactic neurosurgery in the United Kingdom: the hundred years from Horsley to Hariz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Green, Alexander L; Nandi, Dipankar; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2008-09-01

    The history of stereotactic neurosurgery in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is reviewed. Horsley and Clarke's primate stereotaxy at the turn of the 20th century and events surrounding it are described, including Mussen's development of a human version of the apparatus. Stereotactic surgery after the Second World War is reviewed, with an emphasis on the pioneering work of Gillingham, Hitchcock, Knight, and Watkins and the contributions from Bennett, Gleave, Hughes, Johnson, McKissock, McCaul, and Dutton after the influences of Dott, Cairns, and Jefferson. Forster's introduction of gamma knife radiosurgery is summarized, as is the application of computed tomography by Hounsfield and Ambrose. Contemporary contributions to the present day from Bartlett, Richardson, Miles, Thomas, Gill, Aziz, Hariz, and others are summarized. The current status of British stereotactic neurosurgery is discussed.

  16. Failure factors in non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Humaida Banu

    2013-04-01

    Failure in insurance company is a condition of financial distress where a company has difficulty paying off its financial obligations to its creditors. This study continues the research from the study in identifying the determinants for run-off non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom. The analysis continues to identify other variables that could lead companies to financial distress that is macroeconomic factors (GDP rates, inflation rates and interest rates); total companies failed a year before and average size for failed companies'. The result from the analysis indicates that inflation rates, interest rates, total companies failed a year before and average sizes for failed companies are the best predictors. An early detection of failure can prevent companies from bankruptcy and allow management to take action to reduce the failure costs.

  17. Framing ‘fracking’: Exploring public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Phil; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public understanding of science and in which a technical approach to feasibility and safety is deemed as sufficient grounds for good policymaking. Deploying a deliberative focus group methodology with lay publics across different sites in the north of England, we find that these institutional framings are poorly aligned with participants’ responses. We find that unease regularly overflows the focus on safety and feasibility and cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of understanding on the part of participants. We find that scholarship from science and technology studies productively elucidates our participants’ largely sceptical positions, and orientates strategies for responding to them more effectively. PMID:26170264

  18. Framing 'fracking': Exploring public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Phil; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah

    2015-07-13

    The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public understanding of science and in which a technical approach to feasibility and safety is deemed as sufficient grounds for good policymaking. Deploying a deliberative focus group methodology with lay publics across different sites in the north of England, we find that these institutional framings are poorly aligned with participants' responses. We find that unease regularly overflows the focus on safety and feasibility and cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of understanding on the part of participants. We find that scholarship from science and technology studies productively elucidates our participants' largely sceptical positions, and orientates strategies for responding to them more effectively. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Acculturation and contact in Japanese students studying in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Katy; Brown, Rupert

    2005-08-01

    Acculturation theory has been the dominant model that investigators use in examining the effects of transmigration. This theory indicates the problematic effects of intercultural contact in terms of adjustment and stress. One criticism of this theory, however, is its lack of integration with the more generic contact literature. This literature suggests that intergroup contact can have positive effects on intergroup relations. The authors presented a longitudinal study of 35 Japanese nationals living in the United Kingdom over a period of 12 months. The present results suggested that both conventional acculturation variables (e.g., language ability and perceived cultural distance) and intergroup variables (e.g., in-group bias and intergroup anxiety) were associated with acculturative stress and psychosomatic illness over time. Higher intergroup anxiety was associated with increased acculturative stress, whereas higher in-group bias was associated with reduced psychosomatic illness. The present results indicated the possibility that these variables add an important dimension to the acculturation literature.

  20. The status of bedside teaching in the United Kingdom: the student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Jones, Bhavan Prasad Rai Department of Surgery, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK Purpose: Bedside teaching holds a strong tradition as a key-learning platform for clinical examination in the basic medical clerkship. There is a growing body of literature expressing concern for its witnessed decline in medical school curricula. However, the views of students toward this patient-centered cornerstone in surgical education remain under-reported. The purpose of this study was to gain a nationwide perspective on bedside teaching according to medical students in the United Kingdom. Materials and methods: An adapted Delphi method was employed to formulate the question series as part of a multi-step process including a pilot study, which was used to construct this survey. The target population was medical undergraduates in the United Kingdom and participants were recruited via social media. Outcomes assessed included exposure to bedside teaching, perceived benefits of clinical simulation, and junior doctors as clinical teachers. Barriers to clinical examination were also evaluated. Results: Overall, 368 completed surveys were received (completion rate 98.9%. Final year students were significantly more likely to report receiving insufficient bedside teaching (P<0.01. Seventy-eight percent of the study group agreed that clinical simulation is a good learning tool for clinical examination. Seventy percent of students felt junior doctors were as able as senior doctors to teach. Lack of confidence was identified as the commonest barrier to overcome when examining patients and two-thirds of students felt they burdened patients during bedside teaching. Conclusion: This prospective study confirms the exposure deficit, which medical students experience in bedside teaching. The junior doctor represents a dynamic clinical teacher in the face of working time directives. Peer learning is a novel solution to such pressures. Work is needed to re-establish the

  1. The effect of cigarette branding and plain packaging on female youth in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Daniel, Samantha; White, Christine M

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette packaging is the most prominent form of tobacco marketing remaining in countries such as the United Kingdom. The current study examined perceptions of cigarette packaging among female youth and the potential impact of "plain" cigarette packaging regulations. A national sample of 947 16- to 19-year-old female subjects in the United Kingdom completed an online survey. Participants were randomized to view 10 cigarette packs designed according to one of four experimental conditions: fully branded female packs, the same packs without descriptor words, the same packs without brand imagery or descriptors ("plain" packs), and branded non-female brands. Participants rated packs on measures of appeal and health risk, positive smoker image, and completed a behavioral pack selection task. Plain packs were rated as the least appealing and worse tasting compared with all other conditions. Plain packs were also associated with fewer false beliefs about health risks compared with branded packs. Removing brand descriptors from packs significantly reduced measures of appeal and taste, particularly for brands with flavor descriptors, such as cherry and vanilla. Plain packs were significantly less likely to be associated with positive images, such as glamour, sophistication, and slimness. Most importantly, respondents were significantly less likely to accept a pack of cigarettes when offered only plain versus branded packs (p = .026). Marketing in the form of pack branding remains a potent tool for increasing the appeal of tobacco products to young women. The findings provide empirical support for plain cigarette packaging regulations in Australia to be implemented in 2012. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of Accuracy of Identification of Pathogenic Yeasts in Microbiology Laboratories in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Adrien; Palmer, Michael D.; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid, accurate identification of yeast isolates from clinical samples has always been important given their innately variable antifungal susceptibility profiles. Recently, this has become paramount with the proposed introduction of species-specific interpretive breakpoints for MICs obtained in yeast antifungal susceptibility tests (M. A. Pfaller, D. Andes, D. J. Diekema, A. Espinel–Ingroff, D. Sheehan, and CLSI Subcommittee for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing, Drug Resist. Updat. 13:180–195, 2010). Here, we present the results of a 12-month evaluation of the accuracy of identifications that accompany yeast isolates submitted to the Mycology Reference Laboratory (United Kingdom) for either confirmation of identity or susceptibility testing. In total, 1,781 yeast isolates were analyzed, and the robustness of prior identifications obtained in microbiology laboratories throughout the United Kingdom was assessed using a combination of culture on chromogenic agar, morphology on cornmeal agar, and molecular identification by pyrosequencing. Over 40% of isolates (755) were submitted without any suggested identification. Of those isolates with a prior identification, 100 (9.7%) were incorrectly identified. Error rates ranged from 5.2% (for organisms submitted for antifungal susceptibility testing) to 18.2% (for organisms requiring confirmation of identity) and varied in a strictly species-specific manner. At least 50% of identification errors would be likely to affect interpretation of MIC data, with a possible impact on patient management. In addition, 2.3% of submitted cultures were found to contain mixtures of at least two yeast species. The vast majority of mixtures had gone undetected in the referring laboratory and would have impacted the interpretation of antifungal susceptibility profiles and patient management. Some of the more common misidentifications are discussed according to the identification method employed, with suggestions for avoiding such

  3. The status of bedside teaching in the United Kingdom: the student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patrick; Rai, Bhavan Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Bedside teaching holds a strong tradition as a key-learning platform for clinical examination in the basic medical clerkship. There is a growing body of literature expressing concern for its witnessed decline in medical school curricula. However, the views of students toward this patient-centered cornerstone in surgical education remain under-reported. The purpose of this study was to gain a nationwide perspective on bedside teaching according to medical students in the United Kingdom. An adapted Delphi method was employed to formulate the question series as part of a multi-step process including a pilot study, which was used to construct this survey. The target population was medical undergraduates in the United Kingdom and participants were recruited via social media. Outcomes assessed included exposure to bedside teaching, perceived benefits of clinical simulation, and junior doctors as clinical teachers. Barriers to clinical examination were also evaluated. Overall, 368 completed surveys were received (completion rate 98.9%). Final year students were significantly more likely to report receiving insufficient bedside teaching (Pstudents felt junior doctors were as able as senior doctors to teach. Lack of confidence was identified as the commonest barrier to overcome when examining patients and two-thirds of students felt they burdened patients during bedside teaching. This prospective study confirms the exposure deficit, which medical students experience in bedside teaching. The junior doctor represents a dynamic clinical teacher in the face of working time directives. Peer learning is a novel solution to such pressures. Work is needed to re-establish the hospital wards as a supportive environment for student learning.

  4. Epidemiology and outcomes of pregnancy and obstetric complications in trauma in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaloglu, Emir; McDonnell, Declan; Chu, Justin; Lecky, Fiona; Porter, Keith

    2016-01-01

    To understand the epidemiology of pregnancy and obstetric complications encountered in the management of pregnant trauma patients. Retrospective analysis of national trauma registry for recording of pregnancy status or obstetric complication in cases of trauma. Sub-division of patient cohort by severity of trauma and stage of pregnancy. Comparison of data sets between pregnant trauma patients and age-matched non-pregnant female trauma patients to determine patterns of injury and impact upon clinical outcomes. National registry data for the United Kingdom. For the five year period between 2009 and 2014, a total of 15,140 female patients, aged between 15 years old and 50 years old were identified within the trauma registry. A record of pregnancy was identified in 173 patients (1.14%) from within this cohort. Mechanisms of injury within the cohort of pregnant trauma patients saw increased rate of vehicular collision and interpersonal violence, especially penetrating trauma. Higher abbreviated injury scores were recorded for the abdominal region in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant cohort. Maternal mortality rates were seen to be higher, when compared with the non-pregnant trauma patient. Foetal survival rate from this series was 56% following trauma. Foetal death in pregnant trauma patients most frequently occurred in the 2nd trimester. No cases of isolated foetal survival were recorded following maternal trauma. Trauma to pregnant patients is rare in the United Kingdom, encountered in 1% of female trauma patients of child bearing age. Observations in altered mechanisms of injury and clinical outcomes were recorded. This provides useful information regarding the clinical management of pregnant trauma patients and offers potential areas to investigate to optimise their care, as well as to focus injury prevention measures. IV--Case series. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Review of paediatric cardiology services in district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Hannah; Singh, Yogen

    2016-03-01

    Following the Safe and Sustainable review of Paediatric Services in 2012/2013, National Health Service England recommended that local paediatric cardiology services should be provided by specially trained paediatricians with expertise in cardiology in all non-specialist hospitals. To understand the variation in local paediatric cardiology services provided across district general hospitals in the United Kingdom. An internet-based questionnaire was sent out via the Paediatrician with Expertise in Cardiology Special Interest Group and the Neonatologists with Interest in Cardiology and Haemodynamics contact databases and the National Health Service directory. Non-responders were followed-up via telephone. The response rate was 80% (141 of 177 hospitals), and paediatricians with expertise in cardiology were available in 68% of those. Local cardiology clinics led by paediatricians with expertise in cardiology were provided in 96 hospitals (68%), whereas specialist outreach clinics were held in 123 centres (87%). A total of 11 hospitals provided neither specialist outreach clinics nor any local cardiology clinics led by paediatricians with expertise in cardiology. Paediatric echocardiography services were provided in 83% of the hospitals, 12-lead electrocardiogram in 96%, Holter electrocardiogram in 91%, and exercise testing in only 47% of the responding hospitals. Telemedicine facilities were established in only 52% of the centres, where sharing echocardiogram images via picture archiving and communication system was used most commonly. There has been a substantial increase in the availability of paediatricians with expertise in cardiology since 2008. Most of the hospitals are well-supported by specialist cardiology centres via outreach clinics; however, there remains significant variation in the local paediatric cardiology services provided across district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.

  6. Salt reduction in the United Kingdom: a successful experiment in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, F J; Brinsden, H C; MacGregor, G A

    2014-06-01

    The United Kingdom has successfully implemented a salt reduction programme. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of the programme with an aim of providing a step-by-step guide of developing and implementing a national salt reduction strategy, which other countries could follow. The key components include (1) setting up an action group with strong leadership and scientific credibility; (2) determining salt intake by measuring 24-h urinary sodium, identifying the sources of salt by dietary record; (3) setting a target for population salt intake and developing a salt reduction strategy; (4) setting progressively lower salt targets for different categories of food, with a clear time frame for the industry to achieve; (5) working with the industry to reformulate food with less salt; (6) engaging and recruiting of ministerial support and potential threat of regulation by the Department of Health (DH); (7) clear nutritional labelling; (8) consumer awareness campaign; and (9) monitoring progress by (a) frequent surveys and media publicity of salt content in food, including naming and shaming, (b) repeated 24-h urinary sodium at 3-5 year intervals. Since the salt reduction programme started in 2003/2004, significant progress has been made as demonstrated by the reductions in salt content in many processed food and a 15% reduction in 24-h urinary sodium over 7 years (from 9.5 to 8.1 g per day, P<0.05). The UK salt reduction programme reduced the population's salt intake by gradual reformulation on a voluntary basis. Several countries are following the United Kingdom's lead. The challenge now is to engage other countries with appropriate local modifications. A reduction in salt intake worldwide will result in major public health improvements and cost savings.

  7. Survey of glaucoma surgical preferences and post-operative care in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Una, Ignacio; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto; King, Anthony J

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the spectrum of glaucoma surgery and the post-operative follow-up regimes undertaken among glaucoma specialists in the United Kingdom. National survey. Seventy-five glaucoma specialists (consultants and fellows). An eight-question survey was emailed to all glaucoma subspecialists members of the United Kingdom and Eire Glaucoma Society. Surgery undertaken, post-operative management, awareness of intervention tariff and handling of the follow-up burden generated through surgery. Almost all the participants (74/75: 99%) routinely performed trabeculectomy, 54 responders (72%) undertook tube surgery and Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS) was more frequently undertaken (33.0%) than non-penetrating surgery (23%). In general, for patients with advanced glaucoma requiring a low target intraocular pressure (IOP), the most frequent primary intervention was trabeculectomy (99%), followed by tubes (64%). Similarly, in patients with less advanced glaucoma requiring moderate target IOP, participants preferred trabeculectomy (99%), followed by MIGS (60%). By the first 6 months after the procedure, trabeculectomy and Baerveldt tube implant required a larger number of postoperative visits (9 and 7, respectively), than iStent® and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (3 and 5, respectively). The majority of participants were not aware of the costs of their interventions. A wide variety of glaucoma surgery techniques are undertaken. Post-operative follow-up regimes are variable between techniques and for surgeons using the same technique. Trabeculectomy requires more follow-up than any other intervention. For patients requiring low IOP, trabeculectomy is the operation of choice for most surgeons. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  8. Perceptions of team members working in cleft services in the United kingdom: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Julia K; Leary, Sam D; Ness, Andy R; Sandy, Jonathan R; Persson, Martin; Kilpatrick, Nicky; Waylen, Andrea E

    2015-01-01

    Cleft care provision in the United Kingdom has been centralized over the past 15 years to improve outcomes for children born with cleft lip and palate. However, to date, there have been no investigations to examine how well these multidisciplinary teams are performing. In this pilot study, a cross-sectional questionnaire surveyed members of all health care specialties working to provide cleft care in 11 services across the United Kingdom. Team members were asked to complete the Team Work Assessment (TWA) to investigate perceptions of team working in cleft services. The TWA comprises 55 items measuring seven constructs: team foundation, function, performance and skills, team climate and atmosphere, team leadership, and team identity; individual constructs were also aggregated to provide an overall TWA score. Items were measured using five-point Likert-type scales and were converted into percentage agreement for analysis. Responses were received from members of every cleft team. Ninety-nine of 138 cleft team questionnaires (71.7%) were returned and analyzed. The median (interquartile range) percentage of maximum possible score across teams was 75.5% (70.8, 88.2) for the sum of all items. Team performance and team identity were viewed most positively, with 82.0% (75.0, 88.2) and 88.4% (82.2, 91.4), respectively. Team foundation and leadership were viewed least positively with 79.0% (72.6, 84.6) and 76.6% (70.6, 85.4), respectively. Cleft team members perceive that their teams work well, but there are variations in response according to construct.

  9. What has been the United Kingdom's experience with retention of third molars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Tara; Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Pau, Allan; Shepherd, Jonathan; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2012-09-01

    In 2000, the first National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines related to third molar (M3) surgery, a commonly performed operation in the United Kingdom, were published. This followed research publications and professional guidelines in the 1990 s that advised against prophylactic surgery and provided specific therapeutic indications for M3 surgery. The aim of the present report was to summarize the available evidence on the effects of guidelines on M3 surgery within the United Kingdom. Data from primary care dental services and hospital admissions in England and Wales during a 20-year period (Hospital Episode Statistics 1989/1990 to 2009/2010), and from private medical insurance companies were analyzed. The volume and, where possible, the nature of the M3 surgery activity over time were assessed together, as were the collateral effects of the guidelines, including patient age at surgery and the indications for surgery. The volume of M3 removal decreased in all sectors during the 1990 s before the introduction of the NICE guidelines. During the 20-year period, the proportion of impacted M3 surgery decreased from 80% to 50% of admitted hospital cases. Furthermore, an increase occurred in the mean age for surgical admissions from 25.5 to 31.8 years. The change in age correlated with a change in the indications for M3 surgery during that period, with a reduction in "impaction," but an increase in "caries" and "pericoronitis" as etiologic factors, in accordance with the NICE guidelines. The significant decrease in M3 surgery activity occurred before the NICE guidelines. Thus, M3 surgery has been performed at a later age, with indications for surgery increasingly in accordance with the NICE guidelines. The importance of clinical monitoring of the retained M3s is discussed. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evacuation Preparedness in the Event of Fire in Intensive Care Units in Sweden: More is Needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfqvist, Erika; Oskarsson, Åsa; Brändström, Helge; Vuorio, Alpo; Haney, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Hospitals, including intensive care units (ICUs), can be subject to threat from fire and require urgent evacuation. Hypothesis The hypothesis was that the current preparedness for ICU evacuation for fire in the national public hospital system in a wealthy country was very good, using Sweden as model. An already validated questionnaire for this purpose was adapted to national/local circumstances and translated into Swedish. It aimed to elicit information concerning fire response planning, personnel education, training, and exercises. Questionnaire results (yes/no answers) were collected and answers collated to assess grouped responses. Frequencies of responses were determined. While a written hospital plan for fire response and evacuation was noted by all responders, personnel familiarity with the plan was less frequent. Deficiencies were reported concerning all categories: lack of written fire response plan for ICU, lack of personnel education in this, and lack of practical exercises to practice urgent evacuation in the event of fire. These findings were interpreted as an indication of risk for worse consequences for patients in the event of fire and ICU evacuation among the hospitals in the country that was assessed, despite clear regulations and requirements for these. The exact reasons for this lack of compliance with existing laws was not clear, though there are many possible explanations. To remedy this, more attention is needed concerning recognizing risk related to lack of preparedness. Where there exists a goal of high-quality work in the ICU, this should include general leadership and medical staff preparedness in the event of urgent ICU evacuation. Löfqvist E , Oskarsson A , Brändström H , Vuorio A , Haney M . Evacuation preparedness in the event of fire in intensive care units in Sweden: more is needed. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):317-320.

  11. Postindustrial Capitalism and the Problems with Bourdieu's Social and Cultural Capital in Understanding the Black/White Achievement Gap in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    This hermeneutical essay demonstrates why and how Pierre Bourdieu's social reproduction theory is neither an adequate explanation for understanding praxis nor the Black/White academic achievement gap in contemporary postindustrial economies like that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The underlining hypothesis of the work is that the…

  12. Case Studies of Internationalization in Adult and Higher Education: Inside the Processes of Four Universities in the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, Joellen Elizabeth; Durodoye, Beth A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Pate, P. Elizabeth; Nguyen, Shelbee

    2012-01-01

    This report outlines a method for learning about the internationalization processes at institutions of adult and higher education and then provides the analysis of data gathered from the researchers' own institution and from site visits to three additional universities in the United States and the United Kingdom. It was found that campus…

  13. A Cross-National Review of Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lee; Bond, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    The most thoroughly researched topic in relation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) is the evaluation of interventions. Educational psychology in the United Kingdom and Ireland is the most closely allied profession to school psychology in the United States. In considering what is published by and for the profession, it is important to include…

  14. Considerations for the development of shale gas in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Jake; Finkel, Madelon L; Depledge, Michael; Law, Adam; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2015-04-15

    The United States shale gas boom has precipitated global interest in the development of unconventional oil and gas resources. Recently, government ministers in the United Kingdom started granting licenses that will enable companies to begin initial exploration for shale gas. Meanwhile, concern is increasing among the scientific community about the potential impacts of shale gas and other types of unconventional natural gas development (UGD) on human health and the environment. Although significant data gaps remain, there has been a surge in the number of articles appearing in the scientific literature, nearly three-quarters of which has been published since the beginning of 2013. Important lessons can be drawn from the UGD experience in the United States. Here we explore these considerations and argue that shale gas development policies in the UK and elsewhere should be informed by empirical evidence generated on environmental, public health, and social risks. Additionally, policy decisions should take into account the measured effectiveness of harm reduction strategies as opposed to hypothetical scenarios and purported best practices that lack empirical support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Perspective: clinical communication education in the United Kingdom: some fresh insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jo

    2012-08-01

    Clinical communication education is now part of the core curriculum of every medical school in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has emerged over 30 years because of various societal, political, and policy drivers and is supported by an impressive evidence base.For a variety of reasons, however, clinical communication has become separated from other parts of medical education and tends to be positioned in the early years of the curriculum, when students have limited experience of being in the clinical workplace and working with patients. The teachers of clinical communication, whether medical-school-based or clinically based, may not share learning goals for the subject and this may, therefore, provide a disintegrated learning experience for students.Clinical communication teachers need to inject fresh thinking into the teaching and learning of the subject to unite it with clinical practice in the authentic clinical workplace. Engaging with theories of workplace learning, which aim to overcome the theory/practice gap in vocational education, may be the way forward. The author suggests various ways that this might be achieved-for example, by situating clinical communication education throughout the whole undergraduate curriculum, by integrating the topic of clinical communication with other areas of medical education, by developing coteaching and curriculum design partnerships between medical school and clinical workplace, and by developing a greater range of postgraduate education that offers opportunities for professional development in clinical communication for qualified doctors that is complementary with what is taught in undergraduate education.

  16. Review of Research for People with ID and Mental Health Problems: A View from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Colin; Deb, Shoumitro; Chaplin, Eddie; Hardy, Steve; Mukherjee, Rittick

    2013-01-01

    This review of research into mental disorders in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) focuses on research in this field that has originated from the United Kingdom in the last 2 decades. It considers research developments into the epidemiology of mental disorders and problem behaviors, psychopharmacology, psychosocial interventions, and…

  17. Trait Predictors of Aggression and Crash-Related Behaviors Across Drivers from the United Kingdom and the Irish Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Amanda N; Sullman, Mark J M

    2015-09-01

    Aggressive driving is acknowledged as a contributor to motor vehicle crashes. This study explored a theoretical model of aggressive expression and crash-related outcomes using self-report data collected, using an online questionnaire, from drivers in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. The proposed model tested whether the personality traits of boredom proneness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity, coupled with trait driving anger, predicted aggressive driving; and whether aggressive driving predicted crash-related outcomes (loss of concentration and control, near misses, and moving violations). The structural model was confirmed, with aggressive expressions of anger being found to mediate the relationships driving anger and impulsivity had with the crash-related outcomes. Multigroup invariance analysis showed that the model remained invariant across drivers from the United Kingdom and Ireland, suggesting that the contributing factors for aggressive expression and crash involvement are similar across both countries. When self-reported crash-related conditions were compared between drivers in the United Kingdom and Ireland, drivers in the United Kingdom reported more aggressive driving, more minor crashes, more incidents of road rage, and more frequent losses of concentration and vehicle control. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. The Challenges Faced by Eastern European Students within a 16-19 Education Setting in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Shade

    2015-01-01

    To examine the challenges encountered by Eastern European students within a sixth form college in the United Kingdom. This paper aims to consider the difficulties encountered by this particular ethnic group examining the impact the challenges may have on their performance, success and achievement. This paper will also highlight equality and…

  19. Educational inequalities in parental care time: Cross-national evidence from Belgium, Denmark, Spain, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Pablo; Ghysels, Joris

    2017-03-01

    This study uses time-diary data for dual-earner couples from Belgium, Denmark, Spain, and the United Kingdom to analyze educational inequalities in parental care time in different national contexts. For mothers, education is significantly associated with parenting involvement only in Spain and the United Kingdom. In Spain these differences are largely explained by inequalities in mothers' time and monetary resources, but not in the United Kingdom, where less-educated mothers disproportionally work in short part-time jobs. For fathers, education is associated with parenting time in Denmark, and particularly in Spain, while the wife's resources substantially drive these associations. On weekends, the educational gradient in parental care time applies only to Spain and the United Kingdom, two countries with particularly large inequalities in parents' opportunities to engage in parenting. The study shows country variations in educational inequalities in parenting, suggesting that socioeconomic resources, especially from mothers, shape important variations in parenting involvement. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Acquisition and ecological characterization of Lactuca serriola L. germplasm collected in the Czech Republic, , Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebeda, A.; Dolezalova, I.; Kristkova, E.; Dehmer, K.J.; Astley, D.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Treuren, van R.

    2007-01-01

    Expeditions were conducted in the Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom in 2001 (partly 1998) to study Lactuca serriola L. (prickly lettuce, compass plant) geographic distribution, ecology, habitat characteristics and occurrence of diseases and pests on this species. During

  1. Emergent Cultural Change: Unintended Consequences of a Strategic Information Technology Services Implementation in a United Kingdom University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Teresa; Skoumpopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, universities in the United Kingdom have been undergoing a dramatic period of transformation and change which can be attributed to the expansion of the higher education sector, the growth in student numbers and the development of an ideological approach to public service management referred to as "new…

  2. The Implications of the National Minimum Wage for Training Practices and Skill Utilisation in the United Kingdom Hospitality Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…

  3. How Can Social Enterprise Really Tackle Social Exclusion? A Comparative Study of Children's Welfare in the United Kingdom and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    Social enterprise is being increasingly encouraged as a solution to social problems concerning social exclusion, child development and family welfare within both developed and developing countries. This article considers these policy contexts and two case studies of social enterprises that provide children's services in the United Kingdom and…

  4. Video and Data in Geography: An Initial Analysis of the Domesday Project Design in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forer, Pip

    1987-01-01

    Provides initial assessment of the design and significance of the Domesday Project in the United Kingdom. Discusses the system's cost effectiveness and explains how optical disks store and retrieve information. Concludes by considering strengths and weaknesses of the project and implications of using Domesday in New Zealand. (BR)

  5. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    A study analyzed the occupational structure and qualifications associated with the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the United Kingdom. The analysis included nine case studies based on interviews with firms in the chemicals and metals sectors. Information was gathered within an analytical framework that…

  6. Unified English Braille in the United Kingdom: Part 2--Examination by Literary Braille Users, Braille Teachers, and Transcribers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Heather; Home, Sarah; Morley Wilkins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    To inform decision-making around the adoption of the Unified English Braille (UEB) code in the United Kingdom, a suite of research was carried out. This study involved a variety of braille stakeholders--student braille readers (in full time education), adult braille readers, braille teachers, and braille transcribers. Participants were sent…

  7. "Normal" and "Inappropriate" Childhood Sexual Behaviours: Findings from a Delphi Study of Professionals in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosmer, Susanne; Hackett, Simon; Callanan, Margie

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a three-stage Delphi study examining the current level of consensus among 24 professionals in the United Kingdom regarding definitions of and distinctions between normal, inappropriate and sexually abusive behaviours in children under 10 years, as well as factors influencing their views. Although firm conclusions…

  8. The market for U. S. hardwoods in the United Kingdom: market needs and satisfaction with U. S. Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Importers of hardwood lumber in the United Kingdom were studied to determine the product and supplier attributes that most influenced their purchase decisions. Importers of North American hardwoods were least satisfied with Lumber Straightness. Straightness, Absence of Stain and the Absence of Surface Checks were the most important lumber attributes. On Time Shipment...

  9. Epidemiology of fractures in the United Kingdom 1988-2012 : Variation with age, sex, geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtis, Elizabeth M; van der Velde, Robert; Moon, Rebecca J; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Geusens, Piet; de Vries, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303546670; van Staa, Tjeerd P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304827762; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    Rates of fracture worldwide are changing. Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), age, and gender, geographical, ethnic and socioeconomic trends in fracture rates across the United Kingdom were studied over a 24-year period 1988-2012. Previously observed patterns in fracture incidence

  10. Problems in the Construction of Gender and Professional Identities for Women in a United Kingdom Merchant Navy Training School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Caroline; Peart, David; Gleaves, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Merchant Navy has a very poor record on access and training for females in terms of marine careers across all levels. Furthermore, it is a world where equity and equality are often simply overlooked, partly because the difficult and harsh realities of "normal" working conditions effectively marginalise both women and…

  11. Building a genomic framework for prospective MRSA surveillance in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuter, Sandra; Toeroek, M. Estee; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Reynolds, Rosy; Raven, Kathy E.; Blane, Beth; Donker, Tjibbe; Bentley, Stephen D.; Aanensen, David M.; Grundmann, Hajo; Feil, Edward J.; Spratt, Brian G.; Parkhill, Julian; Peacock, Sharon J.

    The correct interpretation of microbial sequencing data applied to surveillance and outbreak investigation depends on accessible genomic databases to provide vital genetic context. Our aim was to construct and describe a United Kingdom MRSA database containing over 1000 methicillin-resistant

  12. The harmonisation of longitudinal data: a case study using data from cohort studies in The Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bath, P.A.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Poppelaars, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the challenges and requirements associated with harmonising data from two independently-conceived datasets from The Netherlands and the United Kingdom: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) and the Nottingham Longitudinal Study of Activity and Ageing

  13. Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Davoren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus, this literature review aims to summarise the current research on alcohol consumption among university students in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. Methods MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and PsychInfo were systematically searched for literature from January 2002 until December 2014. Each database was searched using the following search pillars: alcohol, university student, Ireland or the United Kingdom and prevalence studies. Results Two thousand one hundred twenty eight articles were retrieved from electronic database searching. These were title searched for relevance. 113 full texts were retrieved and assessed for eligibility. Of these, 29 articles were deemed to meet inclusion criteria for the review. Almost two thirds of students reported a hazardous alcohol consumption score on the AUDIT scale. Over 20 % reported alcohol problems over their lifetime using CAGE while over 20 % exceed sensible limits each week. Noteworthy is the narrowing of the gender gap throughout the past decade. Conclusion This is the first review to investigate consumption patterns of university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom. A range of sampling strategies and screening tools are employed in alcohol research which preclude comparability. The current review provides an overview of consumption patterns to guide policy development.

  14. Exploring the Effect of Geographical Proximity and University Quality on University-Industry Collaboration in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke; Salter, Ammon

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the effect of geographical proximity and university quality on university–industry collaboration in the United Kingdom, Regional Studies. This paper concerns the geographical distance between a firm and the universities in its local area. It is argued that firms' decisions to collaborat...

  15. Lifelong Learning Experience and Level of Social Exclusion or Inclusion of Asian Communities Living in Denmark and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Klein, Sonia; Panesar, Jasbir

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects the situation of Asian communities in Denmark and the United Kingdom which is influenced by global trends, the patterns of differing learning they participate in which are influenced by the concept of LifeLong Learning within each country, educational opportunities, socio-ec...

  16. Labor divided : union structure and the development of the postwar welfare state in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijhuis, Dennie

    2009-01-01

    This book compares the process of postwar welfare state development in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom by analyzing the role of the labor union movement in the creation and expansion of social policies. It argues for a fundamental reinterpretation of the role of organized labor in welfare

  17. International Comparison of Five Herbal Medicine Registration Systems to Inform Regulation Development: United Kingdom, Germany, United States of America, United Arab Emirates and Kingdom of Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alostad, Azhar H; Steinke, Douglas T; Schafheutle, Ellen I

    2018-01-01

    Herbal medicine (HM) regulation is less developed than that of allopathic medicines, with some countries lacking specific regulations. For the purpose of informing a registration system for HMs in Kuwait, which does not manufacture but imports all HMs, this study compared the similarities and differences between the current HM registration systems of five countries. The five countries were selected as major source countries of HM in Kuwait (United Kingdom (UK), Germany and United States of America (USA)) or because of geographical proximity or size and approach (United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Kingdom of Bahrain). Documentary analysis of HM classification systems was performed by reviewing the regulatory and law documentation of these countries' drug regulatory authority websites. Data on HM definition, classification and the main requirements for registration were extracted and analysed for similarities and differences. There was diversity in the classification of HMs across all five countries including terms used, definitions, type of law, requirements, restrictions and preparation type. The regulatory authorities of the UK, Germany, UAE  and Kingdom of Bahrain offer simplified registration for HMs, where plausible efficacy as a result of established traditional use is sufficient. In USA, the concept of traditional use does not exist, instead, the product can be categorised as a dietary supplement where no assessment or evaluation is required prior to marketing. Owing to the inconsistencies in how drug regulatory authorities define HMs, it will be important to design a clear definition of what constitutes a HM in Kuwait, which is a country that does not produce and register its own products but assesses products registered elsewhere.

  18. Mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the United Kingdom123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Paul N; Crowe, Francesca L; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vegetarians and others who do not eat meat have been observed to have lower incidence rates than meat eaters of some chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether this translates into lower mortality. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in a large United Kingdom cohort. Design: The study involved a pooled analysis of data from 2 prospective studies that included 60,310 persons living in the United Kingdom, comprising 18,431 regular meat eaters (who ate meat ≥5 times/wk on average), 13,039 low (less-frequent) meat eaters, 8516 fish eaters (who ate fish but not meat), and 20,324 vegetarians (including 2228 vegans who did not eat any animal foods). Mortality by diet group for each of 18 common causes of death was estimated with the use of Cox proportional hazards models. Results: There were 5294 deaths before age 90 in >1 million y of follow-up. There was no significant difference in overall (all-cause) mortality between the diet groups: HRs in low meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians compared with regular meat eaters were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.00), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.06), and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.10), respectively; P-heterogeneity of risks = 0.082. There were significant differences in risk compared with regular meat eaters for deaths from circulatory disease [higher in fish eaters (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.46)]; malignant cancer [lower in fish eaters (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.97)], including pancreatic cancer [lower in low meat eaters and vegetarians (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86 and HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82, respectively)] and cancers of the lymphatic/hematopoietic tissue [lower in vegetarians (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.79)]; respiratory disease [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.92)]; and all other causes [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99)]. Further adjustment for body mass index left these associations largely unchanged

  19. Labour Education in the United States: A Perspective from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisby, Malcolm

    1977-01-01

    A British college teacher describes his 1976 summer study tour to colleges, universities, and labor unions in the United States and the variety of labor education programs that have been developed, in which labor unions have taken a direct interest. (MF)

  20. Developing a trauma care syllabus for intensive care nurses in the United Kingdom: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Dean; Cole, Elaine

    2016-10-01

    Increased rates of mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) following injury have been associated with a lack of trauma specific training. Despite this, training relevant to nurses is limited. Currently, little consideration has been given to understanding the potential training needs of ICU nurses in caring for critically injured patients. The aim of this study was to construct a consensus syllabus of trauma care for registered nurses working in an intensive care setting. A two round modified Delphi was conducted. Twenty-eight intensive care professionals participated in the study in 2014 in the United Kingdom. Data were analysed using content and descriptive statistics. Round-1 generated 343 subjects. Following analysis these were categorised into 75 subjects and returned to the panel for rating. An 82% (23/28) response rate to round-2 identified high consensus (equal to or greater than 80%) in 55 subjects, which reflected the most severely injured patients needs. There is a requirement for specific training to prepare the ICU nurse for caring for the critically injured patient. This survey presents a potential core syllabus in trauma care and should be considered by educators to develop a meaningful programme of trauma education for ICU nurses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. United Kingdom substance misuse treatment workers' attitudes toward 12-step self-help groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ed; Gaston, Romina Lopez; Furlong, Elizabeth; Murali, Vijaya; Copello, Alex

    2005-12-01

    Research has highlighted the benefits of professional substance misuse treatment workers facilitating their clients' involvement in 12-step self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA). This study used a cross-sectional survey design to explore the attitudes of substance misuse treatment staff working in the English West Midlands region toward AA and NA and the 12-step philosophy. A total of 346 treatment workers responded (71%). Fewer than 10% used the 12-step model in their treatment work, and only a third felt that their clients were generally suited to AA or NA. Fewer than half (46%) said that they were likely to recommend that their clients attend a self-help group meeting. Staff with nursing qualifications were more likely to have a positive attitude toward AA/NA than their non-nursing colleagues, and there was a statistically significant association between the level of reported spirituality of the workers and the likelihood of them recommending to clients that they attend AA or NA meetings. These results highlight differences in the role of AA/NA within the substance misuse treatment system in the United Kingdom and that in the United States; possible explanations are discussed.

  2. Psychoactive drug advertising: a comparison of technical information from three countries: Brazil, United States and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Patricia de Carvalho; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes; Carlini, Elisaldo Araujo

    2005-09-01

    Studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s showed that there were country-dependent disparities in the information given for the same drug in medical advertisements. National and international regulations have been published to do away with such disparities and to foster the rational use of drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the information contained in psychoactive drug advertisements published in psychiatric journals in Brazil, the United States and the United Kingdom, before and subsequent to the publication of the United States Export Act, in 1986, the WHO criteria, in 1988, and the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance Agency Resolution no. 102, in 2000. TYPE OF STUDY AND SETTING: Content analysis, at Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (Cebrid). We gathered advertisements from Brazilian, American and British psychiatry periodicals published before and after each ruling. We analyzed a total of twenty-four Brazilian advertisements that were for the same psychoactive drugs as advertised in American and/or British publications from the same period. We observed that Brazilian advertisements omitted information on usage restrictions, such as contraindications, adverse reactions, interactions, warnings and precautions, and that such information was present in American and British advertisements. The data suggest that disparities in the information given for the same drug still persist. The information depends on the country in which each drug is marketed. The legislation is insufficient for eradicating such disparities.

  3. Pregnancy outcomes in women growing up with perinatally acquired HIV in the United Kingdom and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Byrne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the United Kingdom and Ireland more than 40% of individuals living with perinatally acquired HIV are now aged >16. Globally, increasing numbers of women with perinatally acquired HIV are becoming pregnant, but data on fertility and pregnancy outcomes is scarce. We present pregnancy outcome data for this emerging cohort. Methods: Pregnancies in diagnosed HIV-infected women in the United Kingdom and Ireland, and children diagnosed with HIV, are reported to the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood. We analyzed data on pregnancies in women diagnosed aged ≤13 with perinatally acquired HIV, reported by June 2014. Results: A total of 759 females born before 2001, diagnosed with perinatally acquired HIV aged ≤13 years, and in care in the UK and Ireland have been reported. Forty-four of these (6% have had at least one pregnancy reported, with nineteen 2nd and four 3rd/4th pregnancies. Women's year of birth ranged from 1985 to 1996; 60% of women were UK/Irish-born and 39% African-born. Twenty one percent were diagnosed at 500 cells/µL in 36% of first pregnancies, 350–499 in 15% and 1000 in 5%. Forty four percent of live births were delivered by elective caesarean section (CS, 27% by emergency CS, 27% by planned vaginal delivery and with one unplanned vaginal delivery. Of 29 live births with viral load <50, 31% were delivered by elective CS, 17% by emergency CS and 52% by vaginal delivery. Fifteen percent of infants were delivered at 32–36 weeks gestation, and 2% at 30 weeks; 16% weighed 1.5–2.5 kg and 16% weighed <1.5 kg. Among 38 of the 51 infants where infection status is already reported, one is perinatally infected. Conclusions: Currently at least 6% of perinatally infected women in care in the UK and Ireland have experienced one or more pregnancies. Linking paediatric, pregnancy and second generation data will enable further monitoring of pregnancy outcomes in this newly emerging population.

  4. Lumbosacral pain: Delivery of care to patients in the United Kingdom Podchufarova E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Podchufarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain syndromes are one of the most common causes of disability and referral to a medical specialist. Seven million consultations for lumbosacral pain are annually carried out in the United Kingdom.Examination of patients with back pain. Three levels of health care delivered to patients with back pain in the United Kingdom may be arbitrarily identified. Level 1 is outpatient: a general practitioner jointly with a manipulative therapist, a physiotherapist, a rehabilitation specialist, and mid-level health workers render care to patients with insignificant and mild pain syndrome; Level 2 is also outpatient, which involves the participation of a hospital or multidisciplinary team consultant, for example, in a musculoskeletal pain service or a specialized pain center; Level 3 is to deliver care at neurosurgical or orthopedic hospital, by applying invasive interventions. Acute back pain is a benign condition in the vast majority of cases; there is no need for additional instrumental and laboratory studies; but spinal X-ray study, computed tomography (СT scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, general blood and urine tests are required when marked neurological and somatic disorders are present.Management of patients with acute lumbosacral pain is to inform a patient about the benign nature of the disease; to exclude bed rest; to explain the need to maintain normal activity; to train how to correctly lift weights and to maintain normal posture; to refer for manual and exercise therapy in order to return to normal motor activity; to use proven effective medication. In most cases, acute back pain goes away spontaneously for a short period of time; an active treatment approach is considered to be optimal. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and acetaminophen are used for analgesia if required. Patients who show no improvement after 4 weeks of treatment need rescreening for markers of potentially dangerous spinal diseases, as

  5. Genetic polymorphisms that affect selenium status and response to selenium supplementation in United Kingdom pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jinyuan; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher W G; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Rayman, Margaret P

    2016-01-01

    Low selenium status in pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse conditions. In nonpregnant populations, the selenium status or response to supplementation has been associated with polymorphisms in dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH), selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and the glutathione peroxidases [cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and phospholipid glutathione peroxidase (GPx4)]. We hypothesized that, in pregnant women, these candidate polymorphisms would be associated with selenium status in early pregnancy, its longitudinal change, and the interindividual response to selenium supplementation at 60 μg/d. With the use of stored samples and data from the United Kingdom Selenium in Pregnancy Intervention (SPRINT) study in 227 pregnant women, we carried out genetic-association studies, testing for associations between selenium status, its longitudinal change, and response to supplementation and common genetic variation in DMGDH (rs921943), SEPP1 (rs3877899 and rs7579), GPx1 (rs1050450) and GPx4 (rs713041). Selenium status was represented by the concentration of whole-blood selenium at 12 and 35 wk of gestation, the concentration of toenail selenium at 16 wk of gestation, and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) activity at 12 and 35 wk of gestation. Our results showed that DMGDH rs921943 was significantly associated with the whole-blood selenium concentration at 12 wk of gestation (P = 0.032), which explained ≤2.0% of the variance. This association was replicated with the use of toenail selenium (P = 0.043). In unsupplemented women, SEPP1 rs3877899 was significantly associated with the percentage change in whole-blood selenium from 12 to 35 wk of gestation (P = 0.005), which explained 8% of the variance. In supplemented women, SEPP1 rs3877899 was significantly associated with the percentage change in GPx3 activity from 12 to 35 wk of gestation (P = 0.01), which explained 5.3% of the variance. Selenium status was not associated with GPx1, GPx4, or SEPP1

  6. Evolving Distributed Generation Support Mechanisms: Case Studies from United States, Germany, United Kingdom, and Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-14

    This report expands on a previous National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) technical report (Lowder et al. 2015) that focused on the United States' unique approach to distributed generation photovoltaics (DGPV) support policies and business models. While the focus of that report was largely historical (i.e., detailing the policies and market developments that led to the growth of DGPV in the United States), this report looks forward, narrating recent changes to laws and regulations as well as the ongoing dialogues over how to incorporate distributed generation (DG) resources onto the electric grid. This report also broadens the scope of Lowder et al. (2015) to include additional countries and technologies. DGPV and storage are the principal technologies under consideration (owing to market readiness and deployment volumes), but the report also contemplates any generation resource that is (1) on the customer side of the meter, (2) used to, at least partly, offset a host's energy consumption, and/or (3) potentially available to provide grid support (e.g., through peak shaving and load shifting, ancillary services, and other means).

  7. Over 10 million seawater temperature records for the United Kingdom Continental Shelf between 1880 and 2014 from 17 Cefas (United Kingdom government) marine data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David J.; Pinnegar, John K.; Maxwell, David L.; Dye, Stephen R.; Fernand, Liam J.; Flatman, Stephen; Williams, Oliver J.; Rogers, Stuart I.

    2018-01-01

    The datasets described here bring together quality-controlled seawater temperature measurements from over 130 years of departmental government-funded marine science investigations in the UK (United Kingdom). Since before the foundation of a Marine Biological Association fisheries laboratory in 1902 and through subsequent evolutions as the Directorate of Fisheries Research and the current Centre for Environment Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, UK government marine scientists and observers have been collecting seawater temperature data as part of oceanographic, chemical, biological, radiological, and other policy-driven research and observation programmes in UK waters. These datasets start with a few tens of records per year, rise to hundreds from the early 1900s, thousands by 1959, and hundreds of thousands by the 1980s, peaking with > 1 million for some years from 2000 onwards. The data source systems vary from time series at coastal monitoring stations or offshore platforms (buoys), through repeated research cruises or opportunistic sampling from ferry routes, to temperature extracts from CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) profiles, oceanographic, fishery and plankton tows, and data collected from recreational scuba divers or electronic devices attached to marine animals. The datasets described have not been included in previous seawater temperature collation exercises (e.g. International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set, Met Office Hadley Centre sea surface temperature data set, the centennial in situ observation-based estimates of sea surface temperatures), although some summary data reside in the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) archive, the Marine Environment Monitoring and Assessment National (MERMAN) database and the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) data centre. We envisage the data primarily providing a biologically and ecosystem-relevant context for regional assessments of changing hydrological conditions

  8. Welding and lung cancer in Central and Eastern Europe and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Mannetje, Andrea; Brennan, Paul; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Cassidy, Adrian; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-04-01

    Occupation as a welder has been associated with a 25%-40% increase in lung cancer risk. This study aims to elucidate to what extent confounding by smoking and asbestos drives this association and to evaluate the role of welding-related exposures such as chromium. The study included 2,197 male incident lung cancer cases and 2,295 controls from Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2001. Information on risk factors was collected through face-to-face interviews. Experts assessed exposure to 70 agents, and risk estimates were adjusted for smoking and occupational exposures. Occupation as a welder/flame cutter (prevalence controls: 3.7%) was associated with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.86) after adjustment for smoking and occupational exposures including asbestos. An odds ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.38) was found for welding fumes (prevalence controls: 22.8%), increasing to 1.38 for more than 25 exposure years (95% CI: 1.09, 1.75). A duration-response association was also observed for mild steel welding without chromium exposure. In this population, occupational exposure to welding fumes accounted for approximately 4% of lung cancer cases, to which both stainless and mild steel welding contributed equally. Given that welding remains a common task for many workers, exposure to welding fumes represents an important risk factor for lung cancer.

  9. Consumer use of health-related endorsements on food labels in the United Kingdom and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, M; Boaz, A; Higginson, C

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine how consumers use health-related food endorsements on food labels. Three endorsement programs were examined: those of the two major retailers in the United Kingdom, Tesco and Sainsbury's, and the "Pick the Tick" program of the National Heart Foundation of Australia. The main methodology used was protocol analysis. This involves the subject "thinking aloud" while performing a task--in this case, (a) shopping normally and (b) shopping "healthily" for foods on a predetermined list--to generate a protocol. Each subject was also interviewed to investigate reported use of endorsements. Subjects were a quota sample (N = 44) of shoppers representative of the U.K. and Australian populations. Information about the subjects, the protocols, and interview data were analyzed quantitatively; the protocols were also analyzed qualitatively. Sainsbury's and Australian shoppers never used the endorsements when shopping but Tesco shoppers did, albeit rarely. Tesco shoppers used the endorsement in complex ways and not just as a trigger to food selection. They sometimes used the endorsement to reject endorsed foods. Subjects claimed to use the endorsements even though the protocol analysis revealed no actual use. There are features of the Tesco endorsement program that make it more helpful to consumers than the other programs.

  10. Implementing a centralised pharmacovigilance service in a non-commercial setting in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of a pharmacovigilance service compliant with the legal and regulatory responsibilities of clinical trial sponsors presents particular challenges for sponsors in a non-commercial setting. In this paper we examine these challenges in detail. We identify and discuss the key steps in the development of a pharmacovigilance service within a public health service and university setting in the United Kingdom. We describe how we have established a central Pharmacovigilance Office with dedicated staff and resources within our organisation. This office is supported by an electronic pharmacovigilance reporting infrastructure developed to facilitate the receipt and processing of safety information, the onward reporting in compliance with legislation and the provision of sponsor institution oversight of clinical trial participant safety. An education and training programme has also been set up to ensure that all relevant staff in the organisation are fully aware of the pharmacovigilance service and are appropriately trained in its use. We discuss possible alternatives to this approach and why we consider our solution to be the most appropriate to ensure that a non-commercial sponsor organisation and investigators are operating in a fully compliant way. PMID:23758677

  11. Barriers to accessing HIV services for Black African communities in Cambridgeshire, the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangase, Phindile; Egbe, Catherine O

    2015-02-01

    The majority of new HIV diagnoses in the United Kingdom (UK) occur in people with heterosexually acquired HIV infection, the majority of whom are African communities. Current research shows that despite health promotion efforts and advances in therapy these communities are accessing HIV care late. This study therefore explored barriers to equal access to HIV services by African migrants in the UK. Kleinman's (Patients and healers in the context of culture: an exploration of the borderland between anthropology, medicine, and psychiatry, vol 3. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1980) model of health care systems was applied in this research as a theoretical framework and lens through which the reported findings are viewed as it places health within the broader context of culture. In this research a qualitative approach with focus groups was used. A total of thirty participants were recruited from African migrant community organisations in Cambridgeshire in the East of England strategic health authority in order to study the experiences of African migrants when accessing sexual health services. It was found that barriers to equal access to HIV services exist for African communities in Cambridgeshire. These included language barriers and others bordering on the use of traditional medicine by African migrants, understanding of cultural diversity, awareness of how and where to access HIV services, and getting information about HIV. Findings highlighted the importance of taking the sectors of Kleinman's [1] model into consideration when planning HIV services for African communities.

  12. Occupational safety and health in the United kingdom: securing future workplace health and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, John

    2012-01-01

    The industrial revolution that took place in the United Kingdom (UK) between 1760 and 1830 lead to profound social change, with rapid urbanisation associated with squalid living conditions and epidemics of infectious diseases. The next 150 yr or so saw the introduction of many specific acts of health and safety legislation. In 1974 new overarching primary legislation was introduced that would produce a step change in the evolution of health and safety enforcement. In 2004, a new strategy was launched designed to promote a vision embedding health and safety as a cornerstone of a civilised society and to achieve a record of workplace health and safety that leads the world. Good progress in controlling many safety hazards and improving occupational hygiene has been made. There has been a fall in numbers of a wide range of injuries and diseases or illnesses since 2000. The challenge will be to maintain these favourable trends and prepare for new and emerging diseases at a time when resources are diminishing. The importance of occupational health within the UK health and safety strategy has been recognised over the last decade. Occupational health is developing a new paradigm which combines classical health risk management with assessment of workability, rehabilitation back to work and promotion of health and wellbeing. There is an increasing recognition that being in supported employment is good for health and reduces health inequalities.

  13. The prevalence of loneliness among adults: a case study of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Christina R; Yang, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Within contemporary Western (post) modern societies, loneliness is seen as a problem that is particularly associated with old age. Much less attention has been given to examining variations in loneliness across age groups. We examine patterns of loneliness across adults aged 15 years and older in the United Kingdom using data from the European Social Survey. We first consider the prevalence of loneliness among the adult population; then the relationship between loneliness and a range of key risk factors, and finally the relationship with age for each of our risk factors. Loneliness demonstrates a nonlinear U-shaped distribution, with those aged under 25 years and those aged over 65 years demonstrating the highest levels of loneliness. Depression is associated with loneliness for all age groups. Poor physical health is associated with loneliness in young adult and midlife but not later life. For those in mid and later life, the quality of social engagement is protective against loneliness, while for young adults it is the quantity of social engagement. This indicates that different factors may endow vulnerability (or protect) against loneliness at different stages of life and suggests that preventative strategies or interventions that reflect these variations need to be developed.

  14. Mapping Antimicrobial Stewardship in Undergraduate Medical, Dental, Pharmacy, Nursing and Veterinary Education in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Drumright, Lydia N.; Gharbi, Myriam; Farrell, Susan; Holmes, Alison H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK). Participants and Methods Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning. Results 80% (112/140) of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%). ‘Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions’ was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%), followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity’ (73/88, 82.9%) and ‘minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing’ (72/88, 81.8%). The ‘use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment’ was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3%) programmes included all recommended principles. Discussion Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles. PMID:26928009

  15. Support for the Multidimensional Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a Sample of Adolescents in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T; Percy, Andrew; Byrne, Don G

    2016-02-01

    Adolescence is a time of physical, social and emotional development, and this development can be accompanied by feelings of stress. The Adolescent Stress Questionnaire is a 56-item scale measuring stress in 10 domains. Developed in Australia, the scale has been translated, and its reliability and validity have been tested in a number of countries across Europe, where the 10-factor, 56-item version of the scale has received little support. The present study tested the factor structure, construct validity and reliability in a sample (n = 610) of adolescents in the United Kingdom. Support was found for the 10-factor, 56-item version of the scale, and correlations with self-concept measures, sex scores on stress factors and Cronbach's α-values, suggesting that the scale may be a viable assessment tool for adolescent stress. Results for alcohol-specific analyses support the domain-specific nature of the scale. Future work may seek to investigate the stability of age-specific stress domains (e.g. the stress of Emerging Adult Responsibility) in samples that include younger adolescents. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION FROM THE PERSPECTIVES OF INDONESIAN, SUFI AND UNITED KINGDOM MUSLIM ENVIRONMENTALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenge posed by the world’s current environmental crisis has elicited a response from mainstream world religions in the form of efforts to construct an environmental ethics, based on religious and spiritual values. Suggestions for protecting and conserving the environment are a very ancient and fundamental aspect of religious teaching.  The  author will explore the perspectives  of a number of environmental thinkers, including Fachruddin Mangunjaya of Indonesia, Hossein Nasr as a representative of Sufism,  and  Fazlun Khalid of the United Kingdom. The paper draws on structured and unstructured interviews with these thinkers and on exploration of their published works on nature conservation. From these sources the author has realized the urgency for religious communities to engage in sustaining the planet. The author has also identified the means to utilize and empower religious doctrines for environmental conservation. From these three sources we can learn strategies for elaborating productive Islamic values of environmental conservation and promoting a greater need of engagement and collaboration among them in initiating practical conservation projects.

  17. Social media as an instrument for organizing mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Katkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have recently become very popular and turned to be an effective instrument for achieving political goals. However, the social networks’ impact is rather ambivalent: on the one hand, social media form specific political actors and support self-organization and civil movements; on the other hand, social media reinforce destructive and aggressive manifestations with the pronounced criminal purposes, e.g. social media ability to disseminate information among large groups is used to organize mass riots. The article analyzes one of the recent and significant events largely provoked by the social networks - mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011 that were originally a reaction to the murder of M. Diggan by a police officer who tried to arrest him as a suspect in drug trafficking and possession of weapons. The way events developed into mass riots was the result of discussions in social media and use of social networks to coordinate joint actions of mass riots participants. The article provides a detailed description of the events and authorities’ actions to overcome the crisis and prevent such riots in the future, thus making some conclusions about the nature of social media impact on the politics.

  18. The making of the interprofessional arena in the United Kingdom: a social and political history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    This article offers a critical sociological rendering of the making of the interprofessional arena in the United Kingdom. It offers an interpretation of the conditions that led to the formation, expansion and development of the interprofessional arena using a social worlds/arenas lens of secondary data. I propose that the making of the interprofessional arena has been achieved in three historiographical phases. First, the "recognition of the professionalisation conundrum" that led to the intuitive assumption that interprofessional education (IPE) could lead to improved collaboration in practice and improved outcomes. Second, the "legitimisation" of the interprofessional assumption through the development of networks, building consensus, nurturing an evidence base and negotiating with policymakers. Third, "Talking up and acting up" the interprofessional agenda by developing global communities of practice, pandering to a neoliberal agenda, disseminating exemplars of good practice and encouraging practical changes within diverse settings. Articulating these historical "moments" may allow us insights into the conditions that have created the contemporary interprofessional arena and offer us ways of considering how present conditions may re-shape the discourses that constitute the interprofessional arena of the future.

  19. End-of-season influenza vaccine effectiveness in adults and children, United Kingdom, 2016/17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebody, Richard; Warburton, Fiona; Ellis, Joanna; Andrews, Nick; Potts, Alison; Cottrell, Simon; Reynolds, Arlene; Gunson, Rory; Thompson, Catherine; Galiano, Monica; Robertson, Chris; Gallagher, Naomh; Sinnathamby, Mary; Yonova, Ivelina; Correa, Ana; Moore, Catherine; Sartaj, Muhammad; de Lusignan, Simon; McMenamin, Jim; Zambon, Maria

    2017-11-01

    IntroductionThe United Kingdom is in the fourth season of introducing a universal childhood influenza vaccine programme. The 2016/17 season saw early influenza A(H3N2) virus circulation with care home outbreaks and increased excess mortality particularly in those 65 years or older. Virus characterisation data indicated emergence of genetic clusters within the A(H3N2) 3C.2a group which the 2016/17 vaccine strain belonged to. Methods: The test-negative case-control (TNCC) design was used to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory confirmed influenza in primary care. Results: Adjusted end-of-season vaccine effectiveness (aVE) estimates were 39.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 23.1 to 52.8) against all influenza and 40.6% (95% CI: 19.0 to 56.3) in 18-64-year-olds, but no significant aVE in ≥ 65-year-olds. aVE was 65.8% (95% CI: 30.3 to 83.2) for 2-17-year-olds receiving quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine. Discussion: The findings continue to provide support for the ongoing roll-out of the paediatric vaccine programme, with a need for ongoing evaluation. The importance of effective interventions to protect the ≥ 65-year-olds remains.

  20. Breed, age and gender distribution of dogs with chronic hepatitis in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, N.H.; Buxton, R.J.; Vicek, T.J.; Day, M.J.; Bailey, S.M.; Haugland, S.P.; Morrison, L.R.; Else, R.W.; Constantino-Casas, F.; Watson, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Standardised histological criteria are now available for the diagnosis of canine chronic hepatitis (CH). CH is common in dogs, but no studies have reported breed, age and gender distributions in the United Kingdom (UK). The objective of this study was to determine which breeds had an increased risk for developing CH in the UK and to report the age and gender distribution for those breeds. The databases of six veterinary histopathology laboratories were searched for cases with a histological diagnosis of CH according to standardised criteria. The breed, age and gender of dogs was recorded and compared to a control population to calculate the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for developing CH. A total of 551 cases of CH were identified, consisting of 61 breeds. Nineteen breeds were represented by five or more cases. Breeds with an increased risk for developing CH included the American cocker spaniel, Cairn terrier, Dalmatian, Dobermann pinscher, English cocker spaniel, English springer spaniel, Great Dane, Labrador retriever and Samoyed. The median age at diagnosis for all breeds with CH was 8 years (range 7 months to 16 years). Dalmatians, Dobermann pinschers and English springer spaniels with CH were significantly younger than Cairn terriers, English cocker spaniels and Labrador retrievers with CH. Females were over-represented when all cases were examined together. In conclusion, several breeds in the UK have an increased risk of CH, some of which have not been previously reported. PMID:22225827

  1. Prevalence of Mycoplasma agassizii and Chelonian herpesvirus in captive tortoises (Testudo sp.) in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jorge F; Chalker, Victoria J; Erles, Kerstin; Holtby, Sonya; Waters, Michael; McArthur, Stuart

    2004-03-01

    During the months of April to August in 1999 and 2002, oral swabs were collected from 146 tortoises (Testudo sp.) in private collections in the United Kingdom and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Mycoplasma agassizii and Chelonian herpesvirus (ChHV). The presence of M. agassizii was confirmed by restriction digestion of the PCR product. A 307-bp fragment of the ChHV UL5 homologue gene was sequenced and found to show most similarity to equine herpesvirus type 1. A prevalence of 15.8 and 8.2% was found for M. agassizii and ChHV, respectively. Comparison of the carriage of both M. agassizii and ChHV in different species of tortoises correlated the presence of M. agassizii with Testudo horsfieldii and ChHV with Testudo marginata and Testudo graeca iberia. An association of ChHV with stomatitis was also found. Mixed infections with both agents were detected. The findings further demonstrate this pathogen-tortoise association and the cross transmission of these infections if different tortoise species are housed together.

  2. Cucumispora ornata n. sp. (Fungi: Microsporidia) infecting invasive 'demon shrimp' (Dikerogammarus haemobaphes) in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojko, Jamie; Dunn, Alison M; Stebbing, Paul D; Ross, Stuart H; Kerr, Rose C; Stentiford, Grant D

    2015-06-01

    Dikerogammarus haemobaphes, the 'demon shrimp', is an amphipod native to the Ponto-Caspian region. This species invaded the UK in 2012 and has become widely established. Dikerogammarus haemobaphes has the potential to introduce non-native pathogens into the UK, creating a potential threat to native fauna. This study describes a novel species of microsporidian parasite infecting 72.8% of invasive D. haemobaphes located in the River Trent, UK. The microsporidium infection was systemic throughout the host; mainly targeting the sarcolemma of muscle tissues. Electron microscopy revealed this parasite to be diplokaryotic and have 7-9 turns of the polar filament. The microsporidium is placed into the 'Cucumispora' genus based on host histopathology, fine detail parasite ultrastructure, a highly similar life-cycle and SSU rDNA sequence phylogeny. Using this data this novel microsporidian species is named Cucumispora ornata, where 'ornata' refers to the external beading present on the mature spore stage of this organism. Alongside a taxonomic discussion, the presence of a novel Cucumispora sp. in the United Kingdom is discussed and related to the potential control of invasive Dikerogammarus spp. in the UK and the health of native species which may come into contact with this parasite. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Change in risk factors for eating disorder symptomatology in Malay students sojourning in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine change in risk for eating disorders in higher education students sojourning in the United Kingdom (UK), as well as associations between such risk and experiences in the host culture. Participants were 98 female students from Malaysia, who completed a measure of risk factors for eating disorder symptomatology (the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 subscales of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and bulimia symptoms) at two time points: two months prior to beginning their sojourn in the UK (Time 1) and four months after the sojourn began (Time 2). At Time 2, participants also completed measures of sociocultural adjustment, cultural distance between home and host cultures, and perceived discrimination in the host culture. Analyses indicated that, compared to scores at Time 1, participants had significantly higher drive for thinness (d = 0.64), body dissatisfaction (d = 0.54), and bulimia symptoms (d = 0.29) at Time 2. Poorer sociocultural adjustment and greater perceived discrimination significantly predicted greater risk of eating disorders at Time 2. The stress associated with culture change may place sojourning students at risk for disordered eating. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which this risk is related to culture-change specifically, as opposed to a general set of factors associated with transition-related psychopathology more broadly. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:695-700). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. No alternative? The regulation and professionalization of complementary and alternative medicine in the United Kingdom.

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    Clarke, David B; Doel, Marcus A; Segrott, Jeremy

    2004-12-01

    In conjunction with its growing popularity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the United Kingdom has witnessed increasing professionalization, partly prompted by the landmark Parliamentary Inquiry that reported in November 2000. Professionalization has become a significant strategy for practitioner associations and a key focus for the government, media, and patient groups. It is being driven by concern over the interests of patients and consumers, and in relation to the possible integration of certain forms of CAM into publicly funded healthcare. It is, moreover, being reconfigured in explicitly national terms. This paper draws on research into practitioner associations representing nine CAM modalities in the UK-aromatherapy, Chinese herbal medicine, chiropractic, crystal healing, feng shui, 'lay' homeopathy, medical homeopathy, osteopathy, and Radionics-, examining the recent wave of professionalization in relation to Foucault's concern with 'techniques of the self.' It highlights the contrasting experience of an association of Chinese herbalists seeking statutory self-regulation (SSR) and an association of chiropractors that was instrumental in securing SSR for chiropractic.

  5. Application of weight-height relations for assessing adiposity in a United Kingdom offshore workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, I M; Gibson, M G

    1987-01-01

    Weight (W), height (H), and skinfold thicknesses at biceps, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac sites were measured in a United Kingdom offshore workforce. Weight and height were used to calculate W/H relations. The percentage body fat was estimated from skinfold thicknesses and the correlations of adiposity with the various W/H relations were evaluated. The significant increase in percentage body fat (%BF) with increasing age resulted in the development of age group specific regression equations relating %BF to the indices of W/H1.5 and W/H2 (body mass index or Quetelet index). Little difference regarding the qualities of these two indices were detected in terms of poor correlation with height and strong correlation with weight. Thus either may be used with similar levels of confidence. Comparison with other studies, however, would be more easily accomplished if W/H2 were used. In the absence of skinfold thickness measurements the W/H2 could readily be implemented during a routine medical and applied for the estimation of %BF in the offshore population provided that the appropriate regression equation were used and that the limitations of the technique are recognised. Percentage values for W, H, W/H relations, and %BF by age group are provided for comparison with other population studies. PMID:3828245

  6. Qualitative release assessment to estimate the likelihood of henipavirus entering the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Snary

    Full Text Available The genus Henipavirus includes Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV, for which fruit bats (particularly those of the genus Pteropus are considered to be the wildlife reservoir. The recognition of henipaviruses occurring across a wider geographic and host range suggests the possibility of the virus entering the United Kingdom (UK. To estimate the likelihood of henipaviruses entering the UK, a qualitative release assessment was undertaken. To facilitate the release assessment, the world was divided into four zones according to location of outbreaks of henipaviruses, isolation of henipaviruses, proximity to other countries where incidents of henipaviruses have occurred and the distribution of Pteropus spp. fruit bats. From this release assessment, the key findings are that the importation of fruit from Zone 1 and 2 and bat bushmeat from Zone 1 each have a Low annual probability of release of henipaviruses into the UK. Similarly, the importation of bat meat from Zone 2, horses and companion animals from Zone 1 and people travelling from Zone 1 and entering the UK was estimated to pose a Very Low probability of release. The annual probability of release for all other release routes was assessed to be Negligible. It is recommended that the release assessment be periodically re-assessed to reflect changes in knowledge and circumstances over time.

  7. Origins and trends in ethane and propane in the United Kingdom from 1993 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, R. G.; Field, R. A.; Dumitrean, P.; Murrells, T. P.; Telling, S. P.

    2017-05-01

    Continuous, high frequency in situ observations of ethane and propane began in the United Kingdom in 1993 and have continued through to the present day at a range of kerbside, urban background and rural locations. Whilst other monitored C2 - C8 hydrocarbons have shown dramatic declines in concentrations by close to or over an order of magnitude, ethane and propane levels have remained at or close to their 1993 values. Urban ethane sources appear to be dominated by natural gas leakage. Background levels of ethane associated with long range transport are rising. However, natural gas leakage is not the sole source of urban propane. Oil and gas operations lead to elevated propane levels in urban centres when important refinery operations are located nearby. Weekend versus weekday average diurnal curves for ethane and propane at an urban background site in London show the importance of natural gas leakage for both ethane and propane, and road traffic sources for propane. The road traffic source of propane was tentatively identified as arising from petrol-engined motor vehicle refuelling and showed a strong downwards trend at the long-running urban background and rural sites. The natural gas leakage source of ethane and propane in the observations exhibits an upwards trend whereas that in the UK emission inventory trends downwards. Also, inventory emissions for natural gas leakage appeared to be significantly underestimated compared with the observations. In addition, the observed ethane to propane ratio found here for natural gas leakage strongly disagreed with the inventory ratio.

  8. User-generated online health content: a survey of Internet users in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Braden; Ziebland, Sue; Valderas, Jose; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco

    2014-04-30

    The production of health information has begun to shift from commercial organizations to health care users themselves. People increasingly go online to share their own health and illness experiences and to access information others have posted, but this behavior has not been investigated at a population level in the United Kingdom. This study aims to explore access and production of user-generated health content among UK Internet users and to investigate relationships between frequency of use and other variables. We undertook an online survey of 1000 UK Internet users. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were used to interpret the data. Nearly one-quarter of respondents (23.7%, 237/1000) reported accessing and sharing user-generated health content online, whereas more than 20% (22.2%, 222/1000) were unaware that it was possible to do this. Respondents could be divided into 3 groups based on frequency of use: rare users (78.7%, 612/778) who accessed and shared content less than weekly, users (13.9%, 108/778) who did so weekly, and superusers (7.5%, 58/778) who did so on a daily basis. Superusers were more likely to be male (Pshopping (Ponline health content, only a minority of respondents reported doing so frequently. As this type of content proliferates, superusers are likely to shape the health information that others access. Further research should assess the effect of user-generated online content on health outcomes and use of health services by Internet users.

  9. Cancer fear and fatalism among ethnic minority women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinten, Charlotte; Wardle, Jane; Marlow, Laura Av

    2016-03-01

    Cancer fear and fatalism are believed to be higher in ethnic minorities and may contribute to lower engagement with cancer prevention and early detection. We explored the levels of cancer fear and fatalism in six ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and examined the contribution of acculturation and general fatalism. A cross-sectional survey of 720 White British, Caribbean, African, Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi women (120 of each) was conducted. Three items assessed cancer fear and two cancer fatalism. Acculturation was assessed using (self-reported) migration status, ability to speak English, and understanding of health leaflets; general fatalism with a standard measure. Relative to White British women, African and Indian women were more fearful of cancer, Bangladeshi women less fearful, and Pakistani and Caribbean women were similar to White British women. Cancer fatalism was higher in all the ethnic minority groups compared with White British women. Less acculturated women were less likely to worry (ORs 0.21-0.45, all Pfatalism (OR 2.29, Pfatalism are more prevalent among ethnic minority than White British women and even more so in less acculturated ethnic minorities. This may affect their participation in cancer prevention and early detection.

  10. Policy and Practice: Claiming Space for Labour Rights within the United Kingdom Modern Slavery Crusade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Robinson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on advocacy opportunities provided by the anti-trafficking framework in a new political climate. Through the case study of the United Kingdom (UK Modern Slavery Act 2015 deliberations the article explores opportunities to use political interest in human trafficking to advocate labour rights and protections for vulnerable workers. The article explores how, largely cynical, political motivations for the debate on ‘modern slavery’ in the UK, provided an opportunity to reframe the anti-trafficking discourse in this context. Whilst migration control and labour market deregulation are key priorities for the UK government, the Modern Slavery Act process enabled advocates to highlight the impact of such measures on vulnerable, predominantly migrant, workers. It also ultimately served to persuade decision makers to make a connection between widespread labour abuses and severe labour exploitation. Through this case study the article argues for engagement with anti-trafficking frameworks to both highlight and harness the political rhetoric, and maximise the space provided for promoting the rights of vulnerable workers.

  11. Chronic kidney disease management in the United Kingdom: NEOERICA project results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, P E; O'Donoghue, D J; de Lusignan, S; Van Vlymen, J; Klebe, B; Middleton, R; Hague, N; New, J; Farmer, C K T

    2007-07-01

    Early identification of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may allow health-care systems to implement interventions aimed at decreasing disease progression and eventual morbidity and mortality. Primary care in the United Kingdom is computerized suggesting a separate screening program for CKD may not be necessary because identifying data already populates primary care databases. Our study utilized a data set of 163 demographic, laboratory, diagnosis, and prescription variables from 130 226 adults in the regions of Kent, Manchester, and Surrey. The patients were 18 years of age and older in a 5-year study period culminating in November 2003. Estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated from the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation using calibrated creatinine levels. A valid creatinine value was recorded in almost 30% of this cohort. The age-standardized prevalence of stage 3-5 CKD was 10.6% for females and 5.8% for males. In these patients, the odds ratio for hypertension was 2.1, for diabetes 1.33, and for cardiovascular disease 1.69. Only 20% of the diabetic people with stage 3-5 CKD had a blood pressure less than or equal to 130/80 mm Hg. The proportion of patients with anemia significantly rose as renal function declined. We suggest that stage 3-5 CKD is easily detected in existing computerized records. The associated comorbidity and management is readily available enabling intervention and targeting of specialist resources.

  12. Mapping Antimicrobial Stewardship in Undergraduate Medical, Dental, Pharmacy, Nursing and Veterinary Education in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.

  13. Mapping Antimicrobial Stewardship in Undergraduate Medical, Dental, Pharmacy, Nursing and Veterinary Education in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Drumright, Lydia N; Gharbi, Myriam; Farrell, Susan; Holmes, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK). Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning. 80% (112/140) of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%). 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%), followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9%) and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%). The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3%) programmes included all recommended principles. Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.

  14. National survey to evaluate musuloskeletal health in retired professional ballet dancers in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T O; de Medici, A; Oduoza, U; Hakim, A; Paton, B; Retter, G; Haddad, F S; Macgregor, A

    2017-01-01

    To explore the musculoskeletal health of retired professional ballet dancers in the United Kingdom (UK). Online national survey. Retired professional ballet dancers living in the UK. The survey explored: what musculoskeletal injuries or diseases are experienced by retired professional ballet dancers; which anatomical regions were affected by musculoskeletal injuries or diseases in retired professional ballet dancers; whether ballet dancers were forced to retire from professional ballet due to musculoskeletal injuries or disease. Forty-six retired ballet dancers responded. Thirty-six percent (n = 17) of respondents reported retiring from ballet due to musculoskeletal injury. The median age when respondents retired from professional ballet was 29 years. The most common issues that caused people to retire were hip and back pain (25%; n = 9 respectively), followed by hamstring injuries, ankle injuries, cervical spine injuries, and anterior knee pain (13% respectively; n = 5). Ninety-one percent (n = 42) reported experiencing muscle and joint pain post-retirement. Musculoskeletal pain and disease was a problem for respondents in this study. Further investigation is needed to define the problem, so management can be examined. Comparing performance and training regimes to injury rates in professional dancers, and then following these cohorts into retirement, would increase knowledge on this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The development of forensic medicine in the United Kingdom from the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, W

    1992-06-01

    Forensic medicine in the United Kingdom includes both forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine on the living. It began at the end of the 18th century, long after its development in Germany, Italy, France, and other countries in Europe. Initial beginnings were in Scotland, where a program began at the University of Edinburgh with the establishment of a chair in Forensic Medicine by Prof. Andrew Duncan Sr. The development in England began in London's Kings College Medical School with a chair held by Prof. William A. Guy. Later chairs in Forensic Medicine were established in Glasgow, Aberdeen, and in London, where Forensic Medicine was taught at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Guy's Hospital Medical School, London Hospital Medical School, Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, St. Thomas Hospital Medical School, and St. George's Hospital Medical School. In other cities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, departments were founded in Leeds, Manchester, Cardiff, and Belfast. Many textbooks were prepared during this time by professors from these medical schools and by others working in nonacademic areas. The development of coroner activities and those of the police surgeons is also part of the study of forensic medicine.

  16. The incidence of congenital syphilis in the United Kingdom: February 2010 to January 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, I; Tookey, P A; Goh, B T; Lyall, H; Evans, B; Townsend, C L; Fifer, H; Ison, C

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of congenital syphilis in the UK. Prospective study. United Kingdom. Children born between February 2010 and January 2015 with a suspected diagnosis of congenital syphilis were reported through an active surveillance system. Number of congenital syphilis cases and incidence. For all years, reported incidence was below the WHO threshold for elimination (syphilis. Most mothers were white (13/16). Country of birth was recorded for 12 mothers: UK (n = 6), Eastern Europe (n = 3), Middle East (n = 1), and South East Asia (n = 2). The social circumstances of mothers varied and included drug use and sex work. Some experienced difficulty accessing health care. The incidence of congenital syphilis is controlled and monitored by healthcare services and related surveillance systems, and is now below the WHO elimination threshold. However, reducing the public health impact of this preventable disease in the UK is highly dependent on the successful implementation of WHO elimination standards across Europe. Congenital syphilis incidence in the UK is at a very low level and well below the WHO elimination threshold. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Computer Phobia in Higher Education: A Comparative Analysis of United Kingdom and Turkish University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Ursavaş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possession or acquisition of a range of computer skills is an implicit assumption related to many undergraduate study programmes, and use of university computer facilities may impact on overall academic performance and employability beyond graduation. This study therefore tested levels of computer anxiety (CARS and computer thoughts (CTS in Turkish and United Kingdom undergraduates with reference to culture group difference, regularity of use (or home use and use of university computer facilities. A substantial minority of students (32-33% reported computer anxiety in both groups, but more UK (41% than Turkish students (21% were deficient in positive self-concept (CTS. Reference to the subscales in the two measures pinpointed cultural differences disguised at scale level, and gender differences were evident across rather than within culture groups. As expected, positive self-concept was associated with use of computer facilities (r’s = 0 to 0.25, p < .001, and anxiety was associated more weakly with avoidance (r’s = 0 to -0.18, p < .001. Results suggest that computer confidence (implying motivation and engagement should not be assumed to exist in the agenda for wider participation. Also within and between group differences indicate that there is no typical or stereotypical student profile in approach to computer activity

  18. Point prevalence of complex wounds in a defined United Kingdom population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jill; Buckley, Hannah L; Lamb, Karen A; Stubbs, Nikki; Saramago, Pedro; Dumville, Jo C; Cullum, Nicky A

    2014-01-01

    Complex wounds (superficial-, partial-, or full-thickness skin loss wounds healing by secondary intention) are common; however, there is a lack of high-quality, contemporary epidemiological data. This paper presents point prevalence estimates for complex wounds overall as well as for individual types. A multiservice, cross-sectional survey was undertaken across a United Kingdom city (Leeds, population 751,485) during 2 weeks in spring of 2011. The mean age of people with complex wounds was approximately 70 years, standard deviation 19.41. The point prevalence of complex wounds was 1.47 per 1,000 of the population, 95% confidence interval 1.38 to 1.56. While pressure ulcers and leg ulcers were the most frequent, one in five people in the sample population had a less common wound type. Surveys confined to people with specific types of wound would underestimate the overall impact of complex wounds on the population and health care resources. © 2014 The Authors. Wound Repair and Regeneration published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Wound Healing Society.

  19. Antitrypsin Deficiency Assessment and Programme for Treatment (ADAPT): The United Kingdom Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    The study of rare diseases is compromised by its rarity. The establishment of national and international registries can overcome many of the problems and be used for many monogenetic conditions with relatively consistent outcomes and thus lead to a consistency of clinical management by centres of excellence. However, in Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), the outcome is highly variable in terms of the organ(s) most affected and the diversity of disease penetration and progression. This creates the added difficulty of understanding the disease sufficiently to monitor and advise the patients to the standard required and importantly design and deliver clinical trials that address the many facets of the disease. The development of research registries and centres of excellence provides the necessary expertise and data to further the understanding and management of diseases like AATD though with significant cost implications. The ADAPT programme was established in 1996 with extensive core funding to enable patients to be seen from all regions of the United Kingdom as an addition to the National Health Service without appointment time constraints and with the purpose of collecting extensive state of the art demographics. The model has proven to be highly productive providing new insights especially into the lung disease, generating and delivering on clinical trials and importantly establishing active patient groups and participation.

  20. Myxomatosis: population dynamics of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) and ecological effects in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, J R; Trout, R C; Ross, J

    1992-12-01

    In 1953-1955, myxomatosis spread among rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the United Kingdom, causing 99% mortality. Subsequently, there was a gradual increase in rabbit numbers. By 1955, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) had already found attenuated strains of myxoma virus. By 1970, genetic resistance had appeared. In the 1970s, mortality declined to 47-69% with only approximately 25% of rabbits infected, giving a field mortality of 12-19%. However, myxomatosis is persistent, generally showing a major prevalence peak in autumn and often a minor peak in spring. An eight-year MAFF experiment in which prevalence of the disease was artificially reduced indicates that myxomatosis remains a significant factor in population regulation. After rabbit numbers fell in the 1950s, important ecological changes took place: vegetation altered due to reduced grazing pressure, predators were affected by the reduction of a major prey species and these changes also affected many other animals. Currently, rabbit numbers have returned to approximately one-third of pre-myxomatosis levels and this is causing damage to farm and conservation habitats.

  1. Peer-mentoring junior surgical trainees in the United Kingdom: a pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulliamy, Paul; Junaid, Islam

    2013-01-01

    Background Peer-mentoring has attracted substantial interest in various healthcare professions, but has not been formally integrated into postgraduate surgical training. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-mentor scheme among junior surgical trainees in the United Kingdom. Method Trainees entering the first year of core surgical training (CST) in a single postgraduate school of surgery were allocated a mentor in the second year of CST. Allocation was based on location of the initial clinical placement. An anonymised questionnaire regarding the mentorship scheme was sent to all participants in the third month following its introduction. Results 18 trainees participated in the scheme, of whom 12 (67%) responded to the questionnaire. All respondents had made contact with their allocated mentor or mentee, and no trainees had opted out of the scheme. Areas in which the mentees received guidance included examinations (83%), CV development (67%), and workplace-based assessments (67%). All respondents felt that the mentor scheme was a good addition to CST. Suggestions for improvement of the scheme included introduction of structured meetings and greater engagement with allocated mentors. Conclusions A pilot peer-mentoring scheme was well received by junior surgical trainees. Consideration should be given to expansion of this scheme and more rigorous assessment of its value.

  2. Peer-mentoring junior surgical trainees in the United Kingdom: a pilot program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vulliamy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peer-mentoring has attracted substantial interest in various healthcare professions, but has not been formally integrated into postgraduate surgical training. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-mentor scheme among junior surgical trainees in the United Kingdom. Method: Trainees entering the first year of core surgical training (CST in a single postgraduate school of surgery were allocated a mentor in the second year of CST. Allocation was based on location of the initial clinical placement. An anonymised questionnaire regarding the mentorship scheme was sent to all participants in the third month following its introduction. Results: 18 trainees participated in the scheme, of whom 12 (67% responded to the questionnaire. All respondents had made contact with their allocated mentor or mentee, and no trainees had opted out of the scheme. Areas in which the mentees received guidance included examinations (83%, CV development (67%, and workplace-based assessments (67%. All respondents felt that the mentor scheme was a good addition to CST. Suggestions for improvement of the scheme included introduction of structured meetings and greater engagement with allocated mentors. Conclusions: A pilot peer-mentoring scheme was well received by junior surgical trainees. Consideration should be given to expansion of this scheme and more rigorous assessment of its value.

  3. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  4. Obesity and Dental Caries in Young Children in Plymouth, United Kingdom: A Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisi, M; Kay, E; Kaimi, I; Witton, R; Nelder, R; Christophi, C; Lapthorne, D

    2018-01-11

    To examine the spatial clustering of obesity and dental caries in young children in Plymouth, United Kingdom, to evaluate the association between these conditions and deprivation, and explore the impact of neighbourhood-level characteristics on their distribution. Cross-sectional study analysing data from the National Child Measurement Programme (N=2427) and the Local Dental Health Survey (N=1425). The association of deprivation with weight status and caries was determined at individual and area level, using ANOVA and Poisson models. The overall spatial clustering was assessed using a modified version of the Global Moran's I, while clusters were located through Local Indicators of Spatial Association. Spatial autocorrelation was assessed using the variograms of the raw values. Log-linear Poisson models were fitted to assess the significance of neighbourhood characteristics on overweight/obesity and caries distribution. At an individual level, deprivation was not associated with BMI z-scores but was a significant predictor of caries (p⟨0.05). However, at area level, deprivation related to the rates of both conditions. A significant positive autocorrelation was observed across neighbourhoods for caries. The variograms suggested spatial autocorrelations up to 2.5 km and 3 km for overweight/obesity and caries, respectively. Among several neighbourhood characteristics, the proportion of people on benefits was found to be a significant predictor of caries rates. Our results underline the importance of considering geographic location and characteristics of the broader environment when developing strategies to target obesity and caries. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  5. Economic Cost of Campylobacter, Norovirus and Rotavirus Disease in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence C Tam

    Full Text Available To estimate the annual cost to patients, the health service and society of infectious intestinal disease (IID from Campylobacter, norovirus and rotavirus.Secondary data analysis.The United Kingdom population, 2008-9.Cases and frequency of health services usage due to these three pathogens; associated healthcare costs; direct, out-of-pocket expenses; indirect costs to patients and caregivers.The median estimated costs to patients and the health service at 2008-9 prices were: Campylobacter £50 million (95% CI: £33m-£75m, norovirus £81 million (95% CI: £63m-£106m, rotavirus £25m (95% CI: £18m-£35m. The costs per case were approximately £30 for norovirus and rotavirus, and £85 for Campylobacter. This was mostly borne by patients and caregivers through lost income or out-of-pocket expenditure. The cost of Campylobacter-related Guillain-Barré syndrome hospitalisation was £1.26 million (95% CI: £0.4m-£4.2m.Norovirus causes greater economic burden than Campylobacter and rotavirus combined. Efforts to control IID must prioritise norovirus. For Campylobacter, estimated costs should be considered in the context of expenditure to control this pathogen in agriculture, food production and retail. Our estimates, prior to routine rotavirus immunisation in the UK, provide a baseline vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses.

  6. The disclosure of dyslexia in clinical practice: experiences of student nurses in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David K; Turnbull, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Heightened awareness and increasingly sophisticated psychological tests have seen a dramatic rise in the numbers of people diagnosed with dyslexia. Accordingly, there is a reported increase in the numbers of students with dyslexia entering Higher Education (HE) in the United Kingdom (UK) [Singleton, C.H., Chair, 1999. Dyslexia in higher education: policy, provision and practice. Report of the national working party on dyslexia in higher education. University of Hull on behalf of the Higher Education Funding Councils of England and Scotland, Hull], [Higher Education Statistics Agency. HESA. Available from: (accessed 21.12.05)]. Studies researching the effects of dyslexia on the clinical practice of nurses are almost non-existent. This paper reports part of a UK study exploring the clinical experiences of student nurses with dyslexia. In depth interviewing of 18 adult branch student nurses revealed a range of difficulties encountered and a variety of coping mechanisms to manage these. Other than in exceptional circumstances there is no legal requirement to disclose a dyslexia diagnosis. The decision to conceal or disclose their dyslexia was particularly prominent and contentious for these participants. This related to the attitudes of co-workers, concerns for patient safety, expectations of support, confidentiality issues and potential discrimination. Dyslexia continues to attract an unwarranted stigma and can adversely affect the learning experience. The need for disability awareness training in the workplace and improved education/service partnerships to support these students is considered crucial.

  7. Transferring research from a university to the United Kingdom National Health Service: the implications for impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Helen

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this article is to inform readers of the author's reflections on the experience of transferring university-based research into the commercial sector, and of the processes and strategies employed when preparing for impact in so doing. Concepts for the transfer are illustrated by the author's reflection on aspects that arose during the birthing and subsequent start-up of a university spin-off, Pathways2Wellbeing, a form of reflection-on-action. This is the vehicle for the adaption required to transfer research into the delivery of a specialised clinic in the United Kingdom National Health Service for people with medically unexplained, persistent, bodily symptoms such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and chronic pain. It is hoped that the article will provide readers with an insight into how knowledge transfer can take place through engagement with stakeholders to create an exchange of knowledges to result in impact on health service policy for service users, despite the challenges, and the enablers that facilitated this process. The reflections on the process of knowledge transfer and the implications for impact are underpinned by relevant theory.

  8. Sexual reconviction rates in the United Kingdom and actuarial risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Leam A; Browne, Kevin D; Stringer, Ian; Hogue, Todd E

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the risk of further offending behavior by adult sexual perpetrators of children is highly relevant and important to professionals involved in child protection. Recent progress in assessing risk in sexual offenders has established the validity of actuarial measures, although there continues to be some debate about the application of these instruments. This paper summarizes the debate between clinical and actuarial approaches and reviews the "base rate" for United Kingdom sexual offense reconviction. A review of the literature revealed 16 UK sexual reconviction studies, 8 using incarcerated samples (N=5,915) and 8 using non-incarcerated samples (N=1,274). UK estimates of sexual reconviction rates are compared with European and North American studies. The mean sexual reconviction rates for the incarcerated sample at 2 years (6.0%), 4 years (7.8%) and 6 years or more (19.5%) were higher than that of the comparative non-incarcerated sample at 2 years (5.7%), up to 4 years (5.9%), and 6 years or more (15.5%). The overall sexual reconviction rate for both samples combined was 5.8% at 2 years, and 17.5% at 6 years or more. The sexual reconviction rate for incarcerated sexual offenders is higher than that of non-incarcerated sexual offenders. The UK sexual reconviction rates were comparable with European and North American studies.

  9. Pattern of birth in anorexia nervosa. I: Early-onset cases in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Beth; Willoughby, Kate; Waller, Glenn; Serpell, Lucy; Lask, Bryan

    2002-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that adults with anorexia nervosa are more likely to be born in spring and early summer. This study examines whether this pattern of birth is true of early-onset anorexia nervosa, and whether there is a relationship between environmental temperature at assumed time of conception and a later diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. The population were children and adolescents with diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (N = 259) or "other eating disorders" (N = 149). Distribution of births across the year was compared between groups and relative to standard population norms. Temperature at assumed time of conception was taken from meteorological records. There was a significant preponderance of births among those with anorexia nervosa between April and June, compared with the other months of the year and with the "other eating disorders" group. Anorexia nervosa was also associated with higher environmental temperature at assumed time of conception. Among early-onset cases in the United Kingdom, patients with anorexia nervosa are more likely to be born between April and June, and to be conceived during warmer months. A tentative "temperature at conception" hypothesis is advanced to explain these findings and to generate further research.

  10. The S.E.E.C. United Kingdom energy demand forecast (1995-2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, R.; Hawdon, D.; Pearson, P.J.G.; Robinson, C.; Stevens, P. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    It is forecast that all sectors in the United Kingdom will have a growing demand for energy over the period 1995-2000, particularly for electricity and natural gas. Increasingly electricity generation will be from natural gas fired power stations and overall gas use will continue to rise. A continuing rise in consumption of petroleum products, particularly light fuel, is also expected due to growth in the transport sector. Primary coal demand will fall in 1995 and then show modest growth. It is anticipated that nuclear power will shrink slightly. Although renewables continue to grow modestly, no breakthrough is expected. Carbon dioxide emissions are likely to be stabilised at the 1990 level by 2000, but may rise again thereafter. Sulphur dioxide emissions are expected to fall to meet the European agreed target for 1998 but there is less certainty that the more stringent target for 2003 will be met. Achieving the same targets for nitrogen dioxide seems unlikely. The papers presented in support of these conclusions cover: the prospects for oil prices up to the end of 1996; the UK policy environment; energy prices in the UK; energy demand and environmental forecasts. (UK)

  11. What should autism research focus upon? Community views and priorities from the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-10-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom's pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people's day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Genetic Counselling for Psychiatric Disorders: Accounts of Psychiatric Health Professionals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sian; Arribas-Ayllon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Genetic counselling is not routinely offered for psychiatric disorders in the United Kingdom through NHS regional clinical genetics departments. However, recent genomic advances, confirming a genetic contribution to mental illness, are anticipated to increase demand for psychiatric genetic counselling. This is the first study of its kind to employ qualitative methods of research to explore accounts of psychiatric health professionals regarding the prospects for genetic counselling services within clinical psychiatry in the UK. Data were collected from 32 questionnaire participants, and 9 subsequent interviewees. Data analysis revealed that although participants had not encountered patients explicitly demanding psychiatric genetic counselling, psychiatric health professionals believe that such a service would be useful and desirable. Genomic advances may have significant implications for genetic counselling in clinical psychiatry even if these discoveries do not lead to genetic testing. Psychiatric health professionals describe clinical genetics as a skilled profession capable of combining complex risk communication with much needed psychosocial support. However, participants noted barriers to the implementation of psychiatric genetic counselling services including, but not limited to, the complexities of uncertainty in psychiatric diagnoses, patient engagement and ethical concerns regarding limited capacity.

  13. Policy and ideology: the politics of post-reform health policy in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierlbeck, K

    1996-01-01

    While it is commonly accepted that the broader political and economic climate directly influences the nature of any major changes in the provision of health care (witness the 1991 National Health Service reforms in the United Kingdom), there is less consideration of the effect of paradigm changes in health care and health care management themselves on wider political and ideological strategies. This article examines the recent health policy initiatives presented by Britain's Labour Party. The author argues that while the Conservatives' market-oriented reforms reflected the perceived political and economic realities of the 1980s, the rapidly increasing credibility of strategies of prevention within the health care sector (including an emphasis on the social determinants of ill-health, the need to plan a shift from acute to community care, and the desire for greater lay participation in policy-making) allows Labour to highlight the limitations of a strongly market-oriented system in the health care sector more so than in any other policy area.

  14. National funding for mental health research in Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazo, Jean-Baptiste; Gandré, Coralie; Leboyer, Marion; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Belli, Stefano; McDaid, David; Park, A-La; Maliandi, Maria Victoria; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Wykes, Til; van Os, Jim; Haro, Josep Maria; Chevreul, Karine

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Roamer project, we aimed at revealing the share of health research budgets dedicated to mental health, as well as on the amounts allocated to such research for four European countries. Finland, France, Spain and the United Kingdom national public and non-profit funding allocated to mental health research in 2011 were investigated using, when possible, bottom-up approaches. Specifics of the data collection varied from country to country. The total amount of public and private not for profit mental health research funding for Finland, France, Spain and the UK was €10·2, €84·8, €16·8, and €127·6 million, respectively. Charities accounted for a quarter of the funding in the UK and less than six per cent elsewhere. The share of health research dedicated to mental health ranged from 4·0% in the UK to 9·7% in Finland. When compared to the DALY attributable to mental disorders, Spain, France, Finland, and the UK invested respectively €12·5, €31·2, €39·5, and €48·7 per DALY. Among these European countries, there is an important gap between the level of mental health research funding and the economic and epidemiologic burden of mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of cone beam CT in children and young people in three United Kingdom dental hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Rivas, Jose Alejandro; Theodorakou, Chrysoula; Carmichael, Fiona; Murray, Brenda; Payne, Martin; Horner, Keith

    2014-09-01

    There is limited evidence about the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in paediatric dentistry. Appropriate use of CBCT is particularly important because of greater radiation risks in this age group. To survey the use of CBCT in children and young people in three Dental Hospitals in the United Kingdom (UK), with special attention paid to aspects of justification and optimisation. Retrospective analysis of patient records over a 24-month period, looking at CBCT examinations performed on subjects under 18 years of age. Clinical indications, region of interest, scan field of view (FoV), incidental findings and exposure factors used were recorded. There were 294 CBCT examinations performed in this age group, representing 13.7% of all scanned patients. CBCT was used more frequently in the >13 year age group. The most common use was for localisation of unerupted teeth in the anterior maxilla and the detection of root resorption. Optimisation of X-ray exposures did not appear to be consistent. When planning a CBCT service for children and young people, a limited FoV machine would be the appropriate choice for the majority of clinical requirements. It would facilitate clinical evaluation of scans, would limit the number of incidental findings and contribute to optimisation of radiation doses.

  16. Attitudes towards mental health in an urban Pakistani community in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, R; Macaskill, A; Ahmad, I

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Pakistani families living in an urban area of the United Kingdom, towards mental health issues, to identify the emic models used and compare them with the etic model, predominant in Western medicine. This would allow the exploration of some of the inconsistencies in the research literature relating to the incidence of mental illness in this cultural group. The second aim was to explore the needs of this community, particularly women, in relation to mental health services. Due to problems gaining access to females on their own, interviews were held with family groups. Findings suggested that there were differences in the models of mental illness being employed with greater somatisation of symptoms in the Pakistani group and an emphasis on aggressive behaviour as a significant symptom. Treatment expectations also varied with some emphasis on traditional Pakistani treatments such as Faith healers and Hakims as well as General Practitioners and hospital treatments. Language difficulties, religious and cultural practices were also identified as barriers to female treatment in particular. Recommendations were made for improved training for interpreters and more emphasis on cultural factors and emic models of mental illness as part of medical training.

  17. What's 'left' in the 'Garden of Sweden'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gregg M

    2013-01-01

    Liberalization, restructuring, and retrenchment have been underway in Sweden for more than two decades and have rapidly accelerated under the current non-socialist coalition government. It is uncertain how much of the Swedish social policy model is "left" now, in terms of both what remains of it and its political character. A cross-temporal look at developments within Sweden reveals striking and continual rollbacks and marketization since the 1990s. However, this view must be qualified, both because Sweden's undisputed descent is from a comparatively lofty position and because there have been some noteworthy, but often ignored, gains even amidst marked decline over the past few decades. A cross-national examination indicates that, despite rapidly rising rates of income and wealth inequality, Sweden remains an egalitarian leader in several respects. This view must be qualified, too, because, while it continues to routinely out-perform Anglo nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Sweden is less often, and less notably, distinct from several of its continental counterparts in Europe now. Moreover, the foundation of the model, labor strength, has been significantly undermined.

  18. Deliberating the risks of nanotechnologies for energy and health applications in the United States and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara Herr; Bryant, Karl; Rogers-Hayden, Tee

    2009-02-01

    Emerging nanotechnologies pose a new set of challenges for researchers, governments, industries and citizen organizations that aim to develop effective modes of deliberation and risk communication early in the research and development process. These challenges derive from a number of issues including the wide range of materials and devices covered by the term 'nanotechnology', the many different industrial sectors involved, the fact that many areas of nanotechnology are still at a relatively early stage of development, and uncertainty about the environmental, health and safety impacts of nanomaterials. Public surveys have found that people in the United States and Europe currently view the benefits of nanotechnologies as outweighing their risks although, overall, knowledge about nanotechnology remains very low. However, surveys cannot easily uncover the ways that people will interpret and understand the complexities of nanotechnologies (or any other topic about which they know very little) when asked to deliberate about it in more depth, so new approaches to engaging the public are needed. Here, we report the results of the first comparative United States-United Kingdom public engagement experiment. Based upon four concurrent half-day workshops debating energy and health nanotechnologies we find commonalities that were unexpected given the different risk regulatory histories in the two countries. Participants focused on benefits rather than risks and, in general, had a high regard for science and technology. Application context was much more salient than nation as a source of difference, with energy applications viewed in a substantially more positive light than applications in health and human enhancement in both countries. More subtle differences were present in views about the equitable distribution of benefits, corporate and governmental trustworthiness, the risks to realizing benefits, and in consumerist attitudes.

  19. Economic and Sociological Correlates of Suicides: Multilevel Analysis of the Time Series Data in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bruce Qiang; Zhang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    For the effects of social integration on suicides, there have been different and even contradictive conclusions. In this study, the selected economic and social risks of suicide for different age groups and genders in the United Kingdom were identified and the effects were estimated by the multilevel time series analyses. To our knowledge, there exist no previous studies that estimated a dynamic model of suicides on the time series data together with multilevel analysis and autoregressive distributed lags. The investigation indicated that unemployment rate, inflation rate, and divorce rate are all significantly and positively related to the national suicide rates in the United Kingdom from 1981 to 2011. Furthermore, the suicide rates of almost all groups above 40 years are significantly associated with the risk factors of unemployment and inflation rate, in comparison with the younger groups. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Tackling the Use of Supari (Areca Nut) and Smokeless Tobacco Products in the South Asian Community in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chande, Milan; Suba, Krishna

    2016-06-01

    The use of supari (areca nut) and smokeless tobacco products are seen as a major risk factor for oral cancer. There are increasing rates of oral cancer across the United Kingdom, along with the increase of the use of these products. This article examines the uses of such products amongst the South Asian Community and explores sensitive issues associated with the cessation of their use. Evidence-based recommendations are provided on how to provide advice and treatment to patients that regularly use these products. A rethink is also suggested on the policy of taxation of such products. CPD/Clinical Relevance: With the rates of oral cancer increasing across the United Kingdom, it is important for us as dental professionals to tackle the use of areca nut and smokeless tobacco products.

  1. Management of concomitant coronary artery disease in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation: the United Kingdom TAVI Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Thomas M; Ludman, Peter; Banya, Winston; DeBelder, Mark; MacCarthy, Philip M; Davies, Simon W; Di Mario, Carlo; Moat, Neil E

    2015-11-15

    The management and impact of concomitant coronary artery disease in patients referred for TAVI remains contentious. We describe the prevalence, clinical impact and management of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients in the United Kingdom TAVI Registry. All-inclusive study of patients undergoing TAVI in the United Kingdom (excluding Northern Ireland) from January 2007 to December 2011. Coronary artery disease at the time of TAVI was demonstrated on invasive angiography. 2588 consecutive patients were entered in the U.K. TAVI Registry. CAD was reported in 1171 pts with left main stem involvement in 12.4% of this cohort (n=145). Most patients were free of chest pain, but limited by dyspnoea (NYHA Class III & IV 81.9%). Angina was however more prevalent in those patients with CAD (pHeart Team in making decisions on individual patients must not be underestimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Requirement for RRT in Children at Presentation in the United Kingdom: Association with Transplantation and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Rishi; Casula, Anna; Inward, Carol; Roderick, Paul; Sinha, Manish D

    2016-05-06

    We evaluated rates and factors associating with late referral (LR) and describe association of LR with access to renal transplantation and patient survival in children in the United Kingdom. Early requirement of RRT within 90 days of presentation to a pediatric nephrologist was classed as a LR, and those >90 days as an early referral (ER). We included patients who commenced RRT, aged ≥3 months and RRT in RRT in the United Kingdom receive a LR to pediatric renal services, with little change observed over the past two decades. Those with LR are unable to benefit from pre-emptive transplantation and require longer periods of dialysis before transplantation. There is an urgent need to understand causes of avoidable LR and develop strategies to improve kidney awareness more widely among health care professionals looking after children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Modeling Consumers' Adoption Intentions of Remote Mobile Payments in the United Kingdom:Extending UTAUT with Innovativeness, Risk, and Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Emma L.; Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Piercy, Niall C.; Williams, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile payments (MPs) are predicted to be one of the future's most successful mobile services but have achieved limited acceptance in developed countries to date. PCs are still the preferred technology for online shopping in the United Kingdom but the continued growth of mobile commerce (MC) is highly correlated with the success of remote MPs (RMPs). Currently MP research has largely ignored the variations between different MP solutions, and existing MP adoption studies have predominantly uti...

  4. Summary of government sponsored foreign electronics: European union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom, France, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garian, Robert

    1994-10-01

    This report provides basic information and statistical data on foreign electronics research and development sponsored by the governments of the European Union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, France, and Singapore. Industrial R&D funding was found to be highly significant in all of the countries studied. Government and industry typically collaborate closely in the planning of economic strategies for capturing new or larger shares of targeted segments of the electronics market.

  5. Evaluating the Sustainability of a Small-Scale Low-Input Organic Vegetable Supply System in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Kulak, Michal; Smith, Laurence G.

    2014-01-01

    Resource use and environmental impacts of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable supply system in the United Kingdom were assessed by emergy accounting and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The system consisted of a farm with high crop diversity and a related box-scheme distribution system. We...... embedded in an industrial economy, about 90% of resources (seJ) were used for supporting labor and service....

  6. Non-fatal case of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever imported into the United Kingdom (ex Bulgaria), June 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, S; Atkinson, B; Dowall, Sd; Pitman, Jk; Staplehurst, S; Busuttil, J; Simpson, Aj; Aarons, Ej; Petridou, C; Nijjar, M; Glover, S; Brooks, Tj; Hewson, R

    2014-07-31

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was diagnosed in a United Kingdom traveller who returned from Bulgaria in June 2014. The patient developed a moderately severe disease including fever, headaches and petechial rash. CCHF was diagnosed following identification of CCHF virus (CCHFV) RNA in a serum sample taken five days after symptom onset. Sequence analysis of the CCHFV genome showed that the virus clusters within the Europe 1 clade, which includes viruses from eastern Europe.

  7. Work styles, attitudes, and productivity of scientists in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom: A comparison by gender

    OpenAIRE

    Woerdeman, Dara L.; Rodgers, Yana van der Meulen

    2006-01-01

    With scientific research growing increasingly multidisciplinary in nature, team playing and communication skills have become critical in the achievement of scientific breakthroughs. This study adds valuable evidence to the oft-cited 'productivity puzzle' in the sciences by comparing the work styles, attitudes, and productivity of female and male scientists. The application of t-test analysis to data on scientists from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands indicates that women report relative...

  8. United Kingdom Veterinarians’ Perceptions of Clients’ Internet Use and the Perceived Impact on the Client–Vet Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Kogan, Lori R.; James A. Oxley; Peter Hellyer; Regina Schoenfeld-Tacher

    2017-01-01

    The Internet is a commonly used resource for accessing health information. Despite the Internet’s popularity in the human health field, little is known about the Internet’s impact on veterinarians, their clients, and the veterinarian–client relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of veterinarians from the United Kingdom of clients’ use of the Internet and the perceived impact on pet health and the veterinarian–client relationship. A survey was distributed between...

  9. Social Media and Men's Health: A Content Analysis of Twitter Conversations During the 2013 Movember Campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Caroline A; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2017-11-01

    The Movember Foundation raises awareness and funds for men's health issues such as prostate and testicular cancers in conjunction with a moustache contest. The 2013 Movember campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom shared the same goal of creating conversations about men's health that lead to increased awareness and understanding of the health risks men face. Our objective was to explore Twitter conversations to identify whether the 2013 Movember campaigns sparked global conversations about prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and other men's health issues. We conducted a content analysis of 12,666 tweets posted during the 2013 Movember campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom (4,222 tweets from each country) to investigate whether tweets were health-related or non-health-related and to determine what topics dominated conversations. Few tweets ( n = 84, 0.7% of 12,666 tweets) provided content-rich or actionable health information that would lead to awareness and understanding of men's health risks. While moustache growing and grooming was the most popular topic in U.S. tweets, conversations about community engagement were most common in Canadian and U.K. tweets. Significantly more tweets co-opted the Movember campaign to market products or contests in the United States than Canada and the United Kingdom ( p content analysis of Twitter suggest that the 2013 Movember campaigns in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom sparked few conversations about prostate and testicular cancers that could potentially lead to greater awareness and understanding of important men's health issues.

  10. Associations Between Parenting Styles and Perceived Child Effortful Control Within Chinese Families in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, CY; Cheah, CSL; Lamb, Michael Ernest; Zhou, N.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States, and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old (M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54 girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers’ reported authoritarian parenting style. Si...

  11. Risk of cancer from occupational exposure to ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study of workers in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States (INWORKS)

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, David B.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D.; Gillies, Michael; O?Hagan, Jacqueline A; Ghassan B. Hamra; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer? Methods In this cohort study, 308?297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66?...

  12. Industry evolution and cross-sectoral skill transfers: a comparative analysis of the video game industry in Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Hiro Izushi; Yuko Aoyama

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we explore the interrelationship between technological progress and the formation of industry-specific skills by analysing the evolution of the video-game industry in three countries: Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom. We argue that the cross-sectoral transfer of skills occurs differently depending on national contexts, such as the social legitimacy and strength of preexisting industries, the socioeconomic status of entrepreneurs or pioneer firms in an emerging in...

  13. Foreign trade and early industrialisation in the Habsburg Monarchy and the United Kingdom — Two extremes in comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The concept of socio–ecological transitions is used to analyse the quantitative importance of physical imports and exports for the Habsburg Empire and the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th centuries. For the Habsburg Empire, a new dataset of foreign trade and social metabolism is presented. For the United Kingdom, the analysis relies on previously published data. Foreign trade volumes increased in both countries in the long run. Total trade volumes were much higher in the United Kingdom throughout the entire time period, on average by around a factor four. Physical factors explaining the disparities in structure and volume of foreign trade in the two countries are differences in (1) the temporal patterns of the socio-ecological transition and (2) domestic resource endowments. In both countries, energy carrying materials, i.e. fossil fuels and biomass, were the dominant resources in physical foreign trade. The analysis focuses on the physically most important material groups: coal, wood and cereals, and discusses the role of imports and exports in relation to domestic resource provision and environmental pressures. Physical foreign trade increased at a faster pace than domestic resource extraction and consumption. The socio–ecological transition was thus accompanied by rising international integration of resource supply. PMID:21760665

  14. Foreign trade and early industrialisation in the Habsburg Monarchy and the United Kingdom - Two extremes in comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone

    2011-05-15

    The concept of socio-ecological transitions is used to analyse the quantitative importance of physical imports and exports for the Habsburg Empire and the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th centuries. For the Habsburg Empire, a new dataset of foreign trade and social metabolism is presented. For the United Kingdom, the analysis relies on previously published data. Foreign trade volumes increased in both countries in the long run. Total trade volumes were much higher in the United Kingdom throughout the entire time period, on average by around a factor four. Physical factors explaining the disparities in structure and volume of foreign trade in the two countries are differences in (1) the temporal patterns of the socio-ecological transition and (2) domestic resource endowments. In both countries, energy carrying materials, i.e. fossil fuels and biomass, were the dominant resources in physical foreign trade. The analysis focuses on the physically most important material groups: coal, wood and cereals, and discusses the role of imports and exports in relation to domestic resource provision and environmental pressures. Physical foreign trade increased at a faster pace than domestic resource extraction and consumption. The socio-ecological transition was thus accompanied by rising international integration of resource supply.

  15. Two-Year Systematic Study To Assess Norovirus Contamination in Oysters from Commercial Harvesting Areas in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustar, Nicole E.; Powell, Andrew L.; Hartnell, Rachel E.; Lees, David N.

    2012-01-01

    The contamination of bivalve shellfish with norovirus from human fecal sources is recognized as an important human health risk. Standardized quantitative methods for the detection of norovirus in molluscan shellfish are now available, and viral standards are being considered in the European Union and internationally. This 2-year systematic study aimed to investigate the impact of the application of these methods to the monitoring of norovirus contamination in oyster production areas in the United Kingdom. Twenty-four monthly samples of oysters from 39 United Kingdom production areas, chosen to represent a range of potential contamination risk, were tested for norovirus genogroups I and II by using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method. Norovirus was detected in 76.2% (643/844) of samples, with all sites returning at least one positive result. Both prevalences (presence or absence) and norovirus levels varied markedly between sites. However, overall, a marked winter seasonality of contamination by both prevalence and quantity was observed. Correlations were found between norovirus contamination and potential risk indicators, including harvesting area classifications, Escherichia coli scores, and environmental temperatures. A predictive risk score for norovirus contamination was developed by using a combination of these factors. In summary, this study, the largest of its type undertaken to date, provides a systematic analysis of norovirus contamination in commercial oyster production areas in the United Kingdom. The data should assist risk managers to develop control strategies to reduce the risk of human illness resulting from norovirus contamination of bivalve molluscs. PMID:22685151

  16. Two-year systematic study to assess norovirus contamination in oysters from commercial harvesting areas in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, James A; Gustar, Nicole E; Powell, Andrew L; Hartnell, Rachel E; Lees, David N

    2012-08-01

    The contamination of bivalve shellfish with norovirus from human fecal sources is recognized as an important human health risk. Standardized quantitative methods for the detection of norovirus in molluscan shellfish are now available, and viral standards are being considered in the European Union and internationally. This 2-year systematic study aimed to investigate the impact of the application of these methods to the monitoring of norovirus contamination in oyster production areas in the United Kingdom. Twenty-four monthly samples of oysters from 39 United Kingdom production areas, chosen to represent a range of potential contamination risk, were tested for norovirus genogroups I and II by using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method. Norovirus was detected in 76.2% (643/844) of samples, with all sites returning at least one positive result. Both prevalences (presence or absence) and norovirus levels varied markedly between sites. However, overall, a marked winter seasonality of contamination by both prevalence and quantity was observed. Correlations were found between norovirus contamination and potential risk indicators, including harvesting area classifications, Escherichia coli scores, and environmental temperatures. A predictive risk score for norovirus contamination was developed by using a combination of these factors. In summary, this study, the largest of its type undertaken to date, provides a systematic analysis of norovirus contamination in commercial oyster production areas in the United Kingdom. The data should assist risk managers to develop control strategies to reduce the risk of human illness resulting from norovirus contamination of bivalve molluscs.

  17. Implementing medical revalidation in the United Kingdom: Findings about organisational changes and impacts from a survey of Responsible Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Kieran; Boyd, Alan; Bryce, Marie; Luscombe, Kayleigh; Tazzyman, Abigail; Tredinnick-Rowe, John; Archer, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the implementation of medical revalidation in healthcare organisations in the United Kingdom and to examine reported changes and impacts on the quality of care. Design A cross-sectional online survey gathering both quantitative and qualitative data about structures and processes for medical revalidation and wider quality management in the organisations which employ or contract with doctors (termed 'designated bodies') from the senior doctor in each organisation with statutory responsibility for medical revalidation (termed the 'Responsible Officer'). Setting United Kingdom Participants Responsible Officers in designated bodies in the United Kingdom. Five hundred and ninety-five survey invitations were sent and 374 completed surveys were returned (63%). Main outcome measures The role of Responsible Officers, the development of organisational mechanisms for quality assurance or improvement, decision-making on revalidation recommendations, impact of revalidation and mechanisms for quality assurance or improvement on clinical practice and suggested improvements to revalidation arrangements. Results Responsible Officers report that revalidation has had some impacts on the way medical performance is assured and improved, particularly strengthening appraisal and oversight of quality within organisations and having some impact on clinical practice. They suggest changes to make revalidation less 'one size fits all' and more responsive to individual, organisational and professional contexts. Conclusions Revalidation appears primarily to have improved systems for quality improvement and the management of poor performance to date. There is more to be done to ensure it produces wider benefits, particularly in relation to doctors who already perform well.

  18. Assessment of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    Floods are among the most dangerous natural hazards, causing loss of life and significant damage to private and public property. Regional flood-frequency analysis (FFA) methods are essential tools to assess the flood hazard and plan interventions for its mitigation. FFA methods are often based on the well-known index flood method that assumes the invariance of the coefficient of variation of floods with drainage area. This assumption is equivalent to the simple scaling or self-similarity assumption for peak floods, i.e. their spatial structure remains similar in a particular, relatively simple, way to itself over a range of scales. Spatial scaling of floods has been evaluated at national scale for different countries such as Canada, USA, and Australia. According our knowledge. Such a study has not been conducted for the United Kingdom even though the standard FFA method there is based on the index flood assumption. In this work we present an integrated approach to assess of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom using three different methods: product moments (PM), probability weighted moments (PWM), and quantile analysis (QA). We analyse both instantaneous and daily annual observed maximum floods and performed our analysis both across the entire country and in its sub-climatic regions as defined in the Flood Studies Report (NERC, 1975). To evaluate the relationship between the k-th moments or quantiles and the drainage area we used both regression with area alone and multiple regression considering other explanatory variables to account for the geomorphology, amount of rainfall, and soil type of the catchments. The latter multiple regression approach was only recently demonstrated being more robust than the traditional regression with area alone that can lead to biased estimates of scaling exponents and misinterpretation of spatial scaling behaviour. We tested our framework on almost 600 rural catchments in UK considered as entire region and

  19. Differences in pharmacogenomic biomarker information in package inserts from the United States, the United Kingdom and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazawa, R; Ikeda, M

    2013-12-01

    The provision of pharmacogenomic information in drug package inserts (PIs) has become more common in recent years. The content of PIs can be tailored to meet specific requirements of the target populations. Our objective was to identify, assess and report on differences in pharmacogenomic information in PIs from the United States (USA), the United Kingdom (UK) and Japan. Package inserts were obtained from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels on 1 October 2012. Corresponding PIs were obtained concurrently from Japan and the UK. We compared the pharmacogenomic information included, where the information was located, the therapeutic class of the drug, the type and purpose of the biomarker and the initial US approval year. One hundred eighteen PIs were included in the FDA table. Of the 118 PIs, 29 provided information on drug targets, 69 on metabolizing enzymes and 20 on other aspects. Genomic biomarkers were described in 71 PIs from the UK and 44 from Japan. Consistency in labelling across the three jurisdictions was greater in the 'Indications' section of the PIs than that in the 'Precautions' section. There appears to be greater concordance across countries for the biomarker information in the 'Indications' sections (UK 65% and Japan 48% relative to the US information) than that in the 'Precautions' sections (UK 41% and Japan 17%). There are substantial differences in the pharmacogenomic information included in PIs from the USA, the UK and Japan. The differences varied according to the PI sections, and type and purpose of the biomarkers. The differences appeared to vary according to the strength of the evidence supporting use of the biomarkers. Further analyses are necessary to determine the causes of these differences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessing the impact of climate change on disease emergence in freshwater fish in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-López, M; Gale, P; Oidtmann, B C; Peeler, E J

    2010-10-01

    A risk framework has been developed to examine the influence of climate change on disease emergence in the United Kingdom. The fish immune response and the replication of pathogens are often correlated with water temperature, which manifest as temperature ranges for infection and clinical diseases. These data are reviewed for the major endemic and exotic disease threats to freshwater fish. Increasing water temperatures will shift the balance in favour of either the host or pathogen, changing the frequency and distribution of disease. A number of endemic diseases of salmonids (e.g. enteric red mouth, furunculosis, proliferative kidney disease and white spot) will become more prevalent and difficult to control as water temperatures increase. Outbreaks of koi herpesvirus in carp fisheries are likely to occur over a longer period each summer. Climate change also alters the threat level associated with exotic pathogens. The risk of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHSV), infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) declines as infection generally only establishes when water temperatures are less than 14°C for VHSV and IHNV and 17°C for SCVC. The risk of establishment of other exotic pathogens (epizootic haematopoietic necrosis and epizootic ulcerative syndrome) increases. The spread of Lactococcus garvieae northwards in Europe is likely to continue, and thus is more likely to be both introduced and become established. Measures to reduce the threat of exotic pathogens need to be revised to account for the changing exotic diseases threat. Increasing water temperatures and the negative effects of extreme weather events (e.g. storms) are likely to alter the freshwater environment adversely for both wild and farmed salmonid populations, increasing their susceptibility to disease and the likelihood of disease emergence. For wild populations, surveillance and risk mitigation need to be focused on locations where disease emergence

  1. Pre-hospital care after a seizure: Evidence base and United Kingdom management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Andrew; Taylor, Louise; Reuber, Markus; Grünewald, Richard A; Parkinson, Martin; Dickson, Jon M

    2015-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation to pre-hospital emergency services and they generate significant healthcare costs. This article summarises the United Kingdom (UK) Ambulance Service guidelines for the management of seizures and explores the extent to which these guidelines are evidence-based. Summary of the Clinical Practice Guidelines of the UK Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee relating to the management of seizures. Review of the literature relating to pre-hospital management of seizure emergencies. Much standard practice relating to the emergency out of hospital management of patients with seizures is drawn from generic Advanced Life Support (ALS) guidelines although many patients do not need ALS during or after a seizure and the benefit of many ALS interventions in seizure patients remains to be established. The majority of studies identified pertain to medical treatment of status epilepticus. These papers show that benzodiazepines are safe and effective but it is not possible to draw definitive conclusions about the best medication or the optimal route of administration. The evidence base for current pre-hospital guidelines for seizure emergencies is incomplete. A large proportion of patients are transported to hospital after a seizure but many of these may be suitable for home management. However, there is very little research into alternative care pathways or criteria that could be used to help paramedics avoid transport to hospital. More research is needed to improve care for people after a seizure and to improve the cost-effectiveness of the healthcare systems within which they are treated. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiology, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Pathogenicity of Candida africana Isolates from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Adrien; Linton, Chistopher J.; Palmer, Michael D.; Brown, Phillipa; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Candida africana was previously proposed as a new species within the Candida albicans species complex, together with C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, although further phylogenetic analyses better support its status as an unusual variant within C. albicans. Here we show that C. africana can be distinguished from C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by pyrosequencing of a short region of ITS2, and we have evaluated its occurrence in clinical samples by pyrosequencing all presumptive isolates of C. albicans submitted to the Mycology Reference Laboratory over a 9-month period. The C. albicans complex constituted 826/1,839 (44.9%) of yeast isolates received over the study period and included 783 isolates of C. albicans, 28 isolates of C. dubliniensis, and 15 isolates of C. africana. In agreement with previous reports, C. africana was isolated exclusively from genital specimens, in women in the 18-to-35-year age group. Indeed, C. africana constituted 15/251 (6%) of “C. albicans” isolates from female genital specimens during the study period. C. africana isolates were germ tube positive, grew significantly more slowly than C. albicans and C. dubliniensis on conventional mycological media, could be distinguished from the other members of the C. albicans complex by appearance on chromogenic agar, and were incapable of forming chlamydospores. Here we present the detailed evaluation of epidemiological, phenotypic, and clinical features and antifungal susceptibility profiles of United Kingdom isolates of C. africana. Furthermore, we demonstrate that C. africana is significantly less pathogenic than C. albicans and C. dubliniensis in the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model. PMID:23303503

  3. Entrepreneurial nurses and midwives in the United Kingdom: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Vari; Davis, Kathy; Goodman, Claire; Humphrey, Charlotte; Locke, Rachel; Mark, Annabelle; Murray, Susan F; Traynor, Michael

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative literature review to investigate: (a) the extent of entrepreneurial activity by nurses, midwives and health visitors in the United Kingdom and (b) the factors that influenced these activities. Internationally, social and commercial entrepreneurial activity is regarded as important for economic growth and social cohesion. Seventeen bibliographic databases were searched using single and combined search terms: 'entrepreneur$', 'business', 'private practice', 'self-employ$', 'intrapreneur$''social enterprise$''mutuals', 'collectives', 'co-op' and 'social capital' which were related to a second layer of terms 'Nurs$', 'Midwi$', 'Visit$'. 'Entrepreneur$' Private Midwi$, Independent Midwi$, and 'nursing workforce'. In addition, hand searches of non-indexed journals and grey literature searches were completed. The following inclusion criteria were: (a) describing nurses, midwife and/or health visitor entrepreneurship (b) undertaken in the UK, and (c) reported between January 1996 and December 2005. Of 154 items included only three were empirical studies; the remainder were narrative accounts. While quality of these accounts cannot be verified, they provide as complete an account as possible in this under-researched area. The numbers of nurses, midwives and health visitors acting entrepreneurially were very small and mirror international evidence. A categorization of entrepreneurial activity was inductively constructed by employment status and product offered. 'Push' and 'pull' influencing factors varied between types of entrepreneurial activity. Empirical investigation into the extent to which nurses and midwives respond to calls for greater entrepreneurialism should take account of the complex interplay of contextual factors (e.g. healthcare legislation), professional and managerial experience and demographic factors.

  4. Strategies for monitoring outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eThorne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than five in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART exposure and more than 5,000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short and longer-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the flagging of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals including those relating to consent and confidentiality are also discussed.

  5. User Requirements Gathering for 3d Geographic Information in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K.; Ellul, C.

    2017-10-01

    Despite significant developments, 3D technologies are still not fully exploited in practice due to the lack of awareness as well as the lack of understanding of who the users of 3D will be and what the user requirements are. From a National Mapping & Cadastral Agency and data acquisition perspective, each new 3D feature type and element within a feature added (such as doors, windows, chimneys, street lights) requires additional processing and cost to create. There is therefore a need to understand the importance of different 3D features and components for different applications. This will allow the direction of capture effort towards items that will be relevant to a wide range of users, as well as to understand the current status of, and interest in, 3D at a national level. This paper reports the results of an initial requirements gathering exercise for 3D geographic information in the United Kingdom (UK). It describes a user-centred design approach where usability and user needs are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process. Web-based questionnaires and semi-structured face-to-face interviews were used as complementary data collection methods to understand the user needs. The results from this initial study showed that while some applications lead the field with a high adoption of 3D, others are laggards, predominantly from organisational inertia. While individuals may be positive about the use of 3D, many struggle to justify the value and business case for 3D GI. Further work is required to identify the specific geometric and semantic requirements for different applications and to repeat the study with a larger sample.

  6. A benchmark survey of the common plants of South Northumberland and Durham, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Quentin J; Durkin, John Liam; O'Reilly, John; Mclay, Andy; Richards, A John; Angel, Janet; Horsley, Angela; Rogers, Megs; Young, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    It is obvious to anyone studying plants in the landscape that man-made environmental change is having profound effects on the abundance, distribution and composition of plant communities. Nevertheless, quantifying these changes and estimating the impact of the different drivers of change is extremely difficult. Botanical surveying can potentially provide insights to the changes that are occurring and inform decisions related to conservation, agriculture and forestry policy. However, much of botanical surveying is conducted in such a way that it is not comparable between dates and places. Any comparison of historical and modern data has to account for biases in the recording of different taxonomic groups, geographic biases and varying surveying effort in time. In 2010 botanical recorders in the Vice Counties of Durham and South Northumberland in the United Kingdom decided to conduct a four year survey specifically to benchmark the abundance and distribution of common plants in their counties. It is intended that this survey will provide a relatively unbiased assessment with which to compare future and past surveys of the area and a means to study the drivers of biodiversity change in the North-east of England. This survey of Durham and South Northumberland has been designed with two goals, firstly to provide information on common vascular plant species and secondly to provide a dataset that will be versatile with respect to the sorts of questions that can be answered with the data. The survey is primarily an occupancy study of 1km(2) grid squares, however, observers were also asked to provide a relative abundance estimate of the species in each grid square. The collection of relative abundance estimate data was an experiment to assess the repeatablity and useablity of such estimates.

  7. Radiofrequency ablation for early oesophageal squamous neoplasia: Outcomes form United Kingdom registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidry, Rehan J; Butt, Mohammed A; Dunn, Jason; Banks, Matthew; Gupta, Abhinav; Smart, Howard; Bhandari, Pradeep; Smith, Lesley Ann; Willert, Robert; Fullarton, Grant; John, Morris; Di Pietro, Massimo; Penman, Ian; Novelli, Marco; Lovat, Laurence B

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To report outcomes on patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for early oesophageal squamous neoplasia from a National Registry. METHODS: A Prospective cohort study from 8 tertiary referral centres in the United Kingdom. Patients with squamous high grade dysplasia (HGD) and early squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) confined to the mucosa were treated. Visible lesions were removed by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) before RFA. Following initial RFA treatment, patients were followed up 3 monthly. Residual flat dysplasia was treated with RFA until complete reversal dysplasia (CR-D) was achieved or progression to invasive Squamous cell cancer defined as infiltration into the submucosa layer or beyond. The main outcome measures were CR-D at 12 mo from start of treatment, long term durability, progression to cancer and adverse events. RESULTS: Twenty patients with squamous HGD/ESCC completed treatment protocol. Five patients (25%) had EMR before starting RFA treatment. CR-D was 50% at 12 mo with a median of 1 RFA treatment, mean 1.5 (range 1-3). Two further patients achieved CR-D with repeat RFA after this time. Eighty per cent with CR-D remain dysplasia free at latest biopsy, with median follow up 24 mo (IQR 17-54). Six of 20 patients (30%) progressed to invasive cancer at 1 year. Four patients (20%) required endoscopic dilatations for symptomatic structuring after treatment. Two of these patients have required serial dilatations thereafter for symptomatic dysphagia with a median of 4 dilatations per patient. The other 2 patients required only a single dilatation to achieve an adequate symptomatic response. One patient developed cancer during follow up after end of treatment protocol. CONCLUSION: The role of RFA in these patients remains unclear. In our series 50% patients responded at 12 mo. These figures are lower than limited published data. PMID:24106401

  8. The erodibility of upland soils and the design of preafforestation drainage networks in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Paul A.; Glaister, Mark S.; Flintham, Tim P.

    1997-12-01

    Hydraulic thresholds for erosion of fourteen upland mineral and organic soils were determined in a hydraulic flume. These soils are from areas to be afforested in the United Kingdom. Some of the group are erosion resistant but others are susceptible to erosion once denuded of vegetation; for example, by preafforestation ploughing. These threshold data were required to calibrate a hydraulic model for effective design of preafforestation drainage networks on a variety of soils. However, simple field measures of soil properties indicative of erosion potential would be of value to the forestry industry for management purposes. Consequently, hydraulic threshold data were related by linear regression methods to basic soil properties, including organic content, grain size, bulk density, compression strength and penetration resistance.The investigation concluded that four peat soils are not eroded by clear water velocities up to 5·7 m s-1, although a mineral bedload might induce erosion at lesser current speeds. Penetration resistance is a good field indicator of the degree of humification of the peat soils. Although selected physical parameters contribute resistance to water erosion, an increased organic content is pre-eminent in reducing erosion susceptibility in both organic and mineral soils. Although compressive strength was not indicative of soil erodibility, field measurements of penetration resistance on a variety of soils could be related to hydraulic thresholds of erosion; albeit through the construction of discriminant functions interpolated by eye. Consequently, organic content (laboratory) or penetration resistance (field) might form the basis of classifying upland soils in terms of erodibility.Mineral soils differ widely in terms of their erodibility, so that subject to further consideration, the use of ploughing for forestry cultivation might be appropriate in wider circumstances than presently recommended by the Forests and Water Guidelines. Ploughing

  9. Patient and public perspectives of community pharmacies in the United Kingdom: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Ali M K; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Jacobs, Sally

    2017-11-08

    The United Kingdom has been at the forefront of enhancing pharmacist roles and community pharmacy services, particularly over the past decade. However, patient and public awareness of community pharmacy services has been limited. To identify and synthesize the research literature pertaining to patient and public perspectives on: existing community pharmacy services, extended pharmacist roles and strategies to raise awareness of community pharmacy services. Systematic search of 8 electronic databases; hand searching of relevant journals, reference lists and conference proceedings. UK studies investigating patient or public views on community pharmacy services or pharmacist roles from 2005 to 2016. Data were extracted into a grid and subjected to narrative synthesis following thematic analysis. From the 3260 unique papers identified, 30 studies were included. Manual searching identified 4 additional studies. Designs using questionnaires (n = 14, 41%), semi-structured interviews (n = 8, 24%) and focus groups (n = 6, 18%) made up the greatest proportion of studies. Most of the studies (n = 28, 82%) were published from 2010 onwards and covered perceptions of specific community pharmacy services (n = 31). Using a critical appraisal checklist, the overall quality of studies was deemed acceptable. Findings were grouped into 2 main themes "public cognizance" and "attitudes towards services" each with 4 subthemes. Patients and the public appeared to view services as beneficial. Successful integration of extended pharmacy services requires pharmacists' clinical skills to be recognized by patients and physicians. Future research should explore different approaches to increase awareness. © 2017 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The maternity information concerns of Somali women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M M; Bath, P A

    2001-10-01

    The aims of the study were to explore the maternity information concerns of a group of Somali women in a Northern English city and to investigate the relationships of these women with maternity health professionals. The Somali community is one of the most established ethnic minorities in the United Kingdom (UK). The health needs of this group and in particular, the information needs of Somali women with respect to pregnancy, childbirth and post-natal care are poorly understood. To facilitate information provision to birthing mothers and to support maternal decision-making among minority ethnic women, research is required to understand and identify their information needs. A user-centred study utilizing a focus group and semi-structured interviews with English-speaking and non-English speaking Somali women was conducted in a large English city. Discussions were audiotaped, translated, transcribed and then analysed using a variation of the constant comparative Themes and categories were identified across transcripts during data collection and analysis and appropriate quotations are used to illustrate all themes. Major findings that emerged from the analysis related to contact with health professionals, language support and information and satisfaction with health professionals. The findings indicate key maternity information concerns of Somali women with regard to maternity issues and have a number of implications for midwifery and nursing practice. Poor communication between the non-English speaking Somali women and health workers was perceived as an underlying problem in seeking information. Fears about misinterpretation and confidentiality, limit the usefulness of interpreters. The Somali women perceived that they were denied information due to punitive attitudes and prejudiced views among health professionals.

  11. Fertility intentions of HIV-infected women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, Susan; Townsend, Claire L; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2011-09-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), the number of pregnancies in HIV-infected women has increased dramatically over the last decade, but attitudes towards childbearing among infected women have not been previously described. The aim of this survey was to explore fertility intentions among HIV-infected women and to assess the effect of HIV treatment and interventions for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) on these intentions. HIV-infected women, aged between 16 and 49 years, attending one of seven HIV clinics in the UK between July 2003 and January 2004 were asked to complete a questionnaire. Information on demographic factors, HIV test history, pregnancy history and fertility intentions (i.e., desire for children) was collected. Eighty-six per cent of eligible women (450/521) completed the questionnaire. Three quarters of women (336/450) reported that they wanted (more) children. Forty-five per cent (201/450) reported that HIV diagnosis did not affect their fertility intentions, 11% (50/450) that it made them want children sooner, and 10% (44/450) did not know or reported other views. About one third of women (155/450) decided they no longer wanted children after their HIV diagnosis, but 41% of these (59/144) had changed their mind following advances in HIV management and treatment. Factors associated with an increase in fertility intentions after advances in HIV management and treatment were being in a partnership and having fewer than two children. In this survey of HIV-infected women, the majority wanted children and women were more likely to want children after improvements in HIV management and treatment. These findings highlight the need for specialised family planning and reproductive health services targeting this population.

  12. Immune response to flour and dust mites in a United Kingdom bakery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, R D; Gordon, D J; Gordon, S; Crook, B; Nunn, A J; Musk, A W; Venables, K M; Taylor, A J

    1992-01-01

    In a study of 279 United Kingdom bakery workers a high prevalence of immunological response to storage mites was found. To determine whether this was the consequence of exposure to storage mites in bakery work, a population of salt packing workers was examined as a comparison group not at occupational risk of exposure to storage mites. Forty two per cent of both groups were atopic (had a positive skin prick response greater than negative controls to D pteronyssinus, grass pollen, or cat fur by 2 mm or more) and 33% had an immediate skin prick test response to at least one of four storage mites (L destructor, G domesticus, T putrescentiae, A Siro). A higher percentage of the salt packing workers than the bakery workers had a positive radioallergosorbent test (RAST) (greater than or equal to 0.35 PRU) to D pteronyssinus and to the four storage mites. Logistic regression analysis identified atopy as the most significant variable for a positive skin test and RAST response to storage mites in both groups of workers. RAST inhibition was used to analyse extracted area and personal air samples. Analysis of static area samples for aeroallergen showed immunological identity with flour but L destructor was found in only one of seven exposed filters. The concentration of airborne flour was related to exposure rank of perceived dustiness and gravimetric measurement of total dust. Nineteen out of 32 filters from workers in jobs with higher dust exposure (rank >/=6) had a level of > 10 microgram/m(3) flour whereas this concentrations was exceeded in only one of 23 filters from workers in low dust exposure (bakery workers. The development of immunological (and airway) responsiveness to inhaled flour dust is increased in those exposed to higher concentrations of airborne allergen, which appears to be predominantly flour and not storage mites. PMID:1515350

  13. United Kingdom Infrared Telescope's Spectrograph Observations of Human-Made Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckalew, Brent; Abercromby, Kira; Lederer, Susan; Frith, James; Cowardin, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Presented here are the results of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) spectral observations of human-made space objects taken from 2014 to 2015. The data collected using the UIST infrared spectrograph cover the wavelength range 0.7-2.5 micrometers. Overall, data were collected on 18 different orbiting objects at or near the geosynchronous (GEO) regime. Thirteen of the objects are spacecraft, one is a rocket body, and four are cataloged as debris pieces. The remotely collected data are compared to the laboratory-collected reflectance data on typical spacecraft materials; thereby general materials are identified but not specific types. These results highlight the usefulness of observations in the infrared by focusing on features from hydrocarbons and silicon. The spacecraft show distinct features due to the presence of solar panels. Signature variations between rocket bodies, due to the presence of various metals and paints on their surfaces, show a clear distinction from those objects with solar panels, demonstrating that one can distinguish most spacecraft from rocket bodies through infrared spectrum analysis. Finally, the debris pieces tend to show featureless, dark spectra. These results show that the laboratory data in its current state give excellent indications as to the nature of the surface materials on the objects. Further telescopic data collection and model updates to include more materials, noise, surface roughness, and material degradation are necessary to make better assessments of orbital object material types. A comparison conducted between objects observed previously with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) shows similar materials and trends from the two telescopes and from the two distinct data sets. However, based on the current state of the model, infrared spectroscopic data are adequate to classify objects in GEO as spacecraft, rocket bodies, or debris.

  14. The teaching of fixed partial dentures in undergraduate dental schools in Ireland and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C D; Singhrao, H; Addy, L D; Gilmour, A S M

    2010-12-01

    All areas of the practice of dentistry are evolving at a considerable pace. One area in particular which has seen a rapid revolution is the oral rehabilitation of partially dentate adults. The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary teaching of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) in dental schools in Ireland and the United Kingdom. An online questionnaire which sought information in relation to the current teaching of FPDs was developed and distributed to 15 Irish and UK dental schools with undergraduate teaching programmes in Spring 2009. Responses were received from 12 schools (response rate=80%). All schools offer teaching programmes in relation to FPDs. The number of hours devoted to pre-clinical/phantom head teaching of FPDs ranged from 3 to 42h (mean: 16h). The staff/student ratio for pre-clinical teaching courses in FPDs ranged from 1:6 to 1:18 (mode: 1:12). Cantilever resin-retained FPDs were the most popular type of FPD provided clinically (average=0·83 per school; range=1-2). Five schools (42%) report that they have requirements (e.g. targets, quotas, competencies) which students must complete prior to graduation in relation to FPDs. Fixed partial dentures form an important part of the undergraduate teaching programme in UK and Irish dental schools. While this teaching is subjected to contemporary pressures such as lack of curriculum time and a lack of available clinical facilities and teachers, there is evidence that teaching programmes in this area are evolving and are sensitive to current clinical practice trends and evidence-based practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. United Kingdom national paediatric bilateral project: Results of professional rating scales and parent questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullington, H E; Bele, D; Brinton, J C; Cooper, S; Daft, M; Harding, J; Hatton, N; Humphries, J; Lutman, M E; Maddocks, J; Maggs, J; Millward, K; O'Donoghue, G; Patel, S; Rajput, K; Salmon, V; Sear, T; Speers, A; Wheeler, A; Wilson, K

    2017-01-01

    This fourteen-centre project used professional rating scales and parent questionnaires to assess longitudinal outcomes in a large non-selected population of children receiving simultaneous and sequential bilateral cochlear implants. This was an observational non-randomized service evaluation. Data were collected at four time points: before bilateral cochlear implants or before the sequential implant, one year, two years, and three years after. The measures reported are Categories of Auditory Performance II (CAPII), Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR), Bilateral Listening Skills Profile (BLSP) and Parent Outcome Profile (POP). Thousand and one children aged from 8 months to almost 18 years were involved, although there were many missing data. In children receiving simultaneous implants after one, two, and three years respectively, median CAP scores were 4, 5, and 6; median SIR were 1, 2, and 3. Three years after receiving simultaneous bilateral cochlear implants, 61% of children were reported to understand conversation without lip-reading and 66% had intelligible speech if the listener concentrated hard. Auditory performance and speech intelligibility were significantly better in female children than males. Parents of children using sequential implants were generally positive about their child's well-being and behaviour since receiving the second device; those who were less positive about well-being changes also generally reported their children less willing to wear the second device. Data from 78% of paediatric cochlear implant centres in the United Kingdom provide a real-world picture of outcomes of children with bilateral implants in the UK. This large reference data set can be used to identify children in the lower quartile for targeted intervention.

  16. Creating a climate that catalyses healthcare innovation in the United Kingdom - learning lessons from international innovators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-01-25

    The United Kingdom (UK) lags behind other high-income countries in relation to technological innovation in healthcare. In order to inform UK strategy on how to catalyse innovation, we sought to understand what national strategies can help to promote a climate for innovation in healthcare settings by extracting lessons for the UK from international innovators. We undertook a series of qualitative semi-structured interviews with senior international innovators from a range of health related policy, care/service delivery, commercial and academic backgrounds. Thematic analysis helped to explore how different stakeholder groups could facilitate/inhibit innovation at individual, organisational, and wider societal levels. We conducted 14 interviews and found that a conducive climate for healthcare innovation comprised of national/regional strategies stimulating commercial competition, promoting public/private relationships, and providing central direction (e.g. incentives for adoption and regulation through standards) without being restrictive. Organisational attitudes with a willingness to experiment and to take risks were also seen as important, but a bottom-up approach to innovation, based on the identification of clinical need, was seen as a crucial first step to construct relevant national policies.  There is now a need to create mechanisms through which frontline National Health Service staff in relation can raise ideas/concerns and suggest opportunities for improvement, and then build national innovation environments that seek to address these needs. This should be accompanied by creating competitive health technology markets to stimulate a commercial environment that attracts high-quality health information technology experts and innovators working in partnership with staff and patients.

  17. Molecular phylodynamics of the heterosexual HIV epidemic in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Hughes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterosexual risk group has become the largest HIV infected group in the United Kingdom during the last 10 years, but little is known of the network structure and dynamics of viral transmission in this group. The overwhelming majority of UK heterosexual infections are of non-B HIV subtypes, indicating viruses originating among immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. The high rate of HIV evolution, combined with the availability of a very high density sample of viral sequences from routine clinical care has allowed the phylodynamics of the epidemic to be investigated for the first time. Sequences of the viral protease and partial reverse transcriptase coding regions from 11,071 patients infected with HIV of non-B subtypes were studied. Of these, 2774 were closely linked to at least one other sequence by nucleotide distance. Including the closest sequences from the global HIV database identified 296 individuals that were in UK-based groups of 3 or more individuals. There were a total of 8 UK-based clusters of 10 or more, comprising 143/2774 (5% individuals, much lower than the figure of 25% obtained earlier for men who have sex with men (MSM. Sample dates were incorporated into relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses to estimate the dates of internal nodes. From the resulting time-resolved phylogenies, the internode lengths, used as estimates of maximum transmission intervals, had a median of 27 months overall, over twice as long as obtained for MSM (14 months, with only 2% of transmissions occurring in the first 6 months after infection. This phylodynamic analysis of non-B subtype HIV sequences representing over 40% of the estimated UK HIV-infected heterosexual population has revealed heterosexual HIV transmission in the UK is clustered, but on average in smaller groups and is transmitted with slower dynamics than among MSM. More effective intervention to restrict the epidemic may therefore be feasible, given effective diagnosis programmes.

  18. Use of articulators in the United Kingdom by consultant orthodontists in planning orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, A M; Milosevic, A

    1999-01-01

    This questionnaire survey aimed to investigate articulator use in orthognathic surgical planning by consultant specialists in the United Kingdom (UK). A total of 205 questionnaires was sent to all consultant orthodontists in the UK. One hundred thirty questionnaires were completed, representing a 63.4% response rate. Consultants had been in their post for a median of 10.5 years (range 0 to 30 years) with a mean of 11.3 (SD 8.4) surgical cases per year. When asked which cases had been planned on a semiadjustable articulator, two thirds of consultants (67.7%) planned maxillary single-jaw procedures, 45.4% planned mandibular single-jaw procedures, and 77.7% planned bimaxillary procedures. While 98.5% of consultants reported access to at least one type of articulator, 14.6% of maxillary single-jaw and 5.4% of bimaxillary surgery was not planned on any articulator. Twice as many consultants who had been in their post fewer than 11 years had been trained on a semiadjustable articulator, compared to those who had more than 11 years of experience. Semiadjustable articulators were the most popular for planning orthognathic surgery. Consultants with less than 11 years of experience completed more surgical cases each year and were more likely to have been trained on a semiadjustable articulator than consultants with more than 11 years of experience. However, no link exists between the age of the consultant and the type of articulator selected for planning; this suggests that more mature consultants have received further training on contemporary articulator systems since receiving their accreditation.

  19. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Melanie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  20. 27 October 2014 - H.E. Mr Ney Samol Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Cambodia to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Ney Samol Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Cambodia to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva signing the Guest Book with Deputy Head of International Relations E. Tsesmelis

  1. His Excellency Mr Yusuf Abdulkarim Bucheeri Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2018-01-01

    Visit of His Excellency Mr Yusuf Abdulkarim Bucheeri Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  2. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: A Tertiary United Kingdom Children’s Hospital Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Nasher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the aetiology, presentation and management of these patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB at a tertiary children’s unit in the United Kingdom. This was a retrospective single-institution study on children (<16 years who presented with acute UGIB over a period of 5 years using known International Classification of Diseases (ICD codes. A total of 32 children (17 males, 15 females were identified with a total median age at presentation of 5.5 years. The majority (24/32 of patients presented as an emergency. A total of 19/32 presented with isolated haematemesis, 8/32 with isolated melaena and 5/32 with a combination of melaena and haematemesis. On admission, the mean haemoglobin of patients who presented with isolated haematemesis was 11 g/dL, those with isolated melaena 9.3 g/dL and those with a combination 7.8 g/dL. Blood transfusion was required in 3/19 with haematemesis and 3/5 with haematemesis and melaena. A total of 19/32 underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were oesophageal varices (5/19 of which 4 required banding; bleeding gastric ulcer (1/19 requiring clips, haemospray and adrenaline; gastric vascular malformation (1/19 treated with Argon plasma coagulation therapy; duodenal ulcer (3/19 which required surgery in two cases; oesophagitis (5/19; and gastritis +/− duodenitis (3/19. A total of 13/32 patients did not undergo endoscopy and the presumed aetiology was a Mallory–Weiss tear (4/13; ingestion of foreign body (2/13; gastritis (3/13; viral illness (1/13; unknown (2/13. While UGIB is uncommon in children, the morbidity associated with it is very significant. Melaena, dropping haemoglobin, and requirement for a blood transfusion appear to be significant markers of an underlying cause of UGIB that requires therapeutic intervention. A multi-disciplinary team comprising gastroenterologists and surgeons is essential.

  3. Web-Based STAR E-Learning Course Increases Empathy and Understanding in Dementia Caregivers: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattink, Bart; Meiland, Franka; van der Roest, Henriëtte; Kevern, Peter; Abiuso, Francesca; Bengtsson, Johan; Giuliano, Angele; Duca, Annalise; Sanders, Jennifer; Basnett, Fern; Nugent, Chris; Kingston, Paul; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    2015-10-30

    The doubling of the number of people with dementia in the coming decades coupled with the rapid decline in the working population in our graying society is expected to result in a large decrease in the number of professionals available to provide care to people with dementia. As a result, care will be supplied increasingly by untrained informal caregivers and volunteers. To promote effective care and avoid overburdening of untrained and trained caregivers, they must become properly skilled. To this end, the European Skills Training and Reskilling (STAR) project, which comprised experts from the domains of education, technology, and dementia care from 6 countries (the Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, Malta, Romania, and the United Kingdom), worked together to create and evaluate a multilingual e-learning tool. The STAR training portal provides dementia care training both for informal and formal caregivers. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the user friendliness, usefulness, and impact of STAR with informal caregivers, volunteers, and professional caregivers. For 2 to 4 months, the experimental group had access to the STAR training portal, a Web-based portal consisting of 8 modules, 2 of which had a basic level and 6 additional modules at intermediate and advanced levels. The experimental group also had access to online peer and expert communities for support and information exchange. The control group received free access to STAR after the research had ended. The STAR training portal was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial among informal caregivers and volunteers in addition to professional caregivers (N=142) in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Assessments were performed with self-assessed, online, standardized questionnaires at baseline and after 2 to 4 months. Primary outcome measures were user friendliness, usefulness, and impact of STAR on knowledge, attitudes, and approaches of caregivers regarding dementia. Secondary outcome measures

  4. Mapping Investments and Published Outputs in Norovirus Research: A Systematic Analysis of Research Funded in the United States and United Kingdom During 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Lichtman, Amos B; Soyode, Damilola T; Harris, Jennifer N; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    Norovirus accounts for a considerable portion of the global disease burden. Mapping national or international investments relating to norovirus research is limited. We analyzed the focus and type of norovirus research funding awarded to institutions in the United States and United Kingdom during 1997-2013. Data were obtained from key public and philanthropic funders across both countries, and norovirus-related research was identified from study titles and abstracts. Included studies were further categorized by the type of scientific investigation, and awards related to vaccine, diagnostic, and therapeutic research were identified. Norovirus publication trends are also described using data from Scopus. In total, US and United Kingdom funding investment for norovirus research was £97.6 million across 349 awards; 326 awards (amount, £84.9 million) were received by US institutions, and 23 awards (£12.6 million) were received by United Kingdom institutions. Combined, £81.2 million of the funding (83.2%) was for preclinical research, and £16.4 million (16.8%) was for translational science. Investments increased from £1.7 million in 1997 to £11.8 million in 2013. Publication trends showed a consistent temporal increase from 48 in 1997 to 182 in 2013. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. South Asian and Middle Eastern patients' perspectives on medicine-related problems in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhomoud, Faten; Dhillon, Soraya; Aslanpour, Zoe; Smith, Felicity

    2015-08-01

    There has been little research which specifically examines medicine use among South Asian (SA) and Middle Eastern (ME) groups, although evidence suggests that medicine-related needs may be poorly met for these groups. To describe medicine-related problems (MRPs) experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identify possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. The data were collected in seven pharmacies in London, United Kingdom (UK). The study was a qualitative study. Patients were from SA and ME origins, aged over 18 and prescribed three or more regular medicines. Patients were identified when presenting with a prescription. The data were collected in 80 face-to-face semi-structured interviews using Gordon's MRPs tool. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using Gordon's coding frame and Nvivo 10 software. Describing MRPs experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identifying possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. Results Eighty participants (61 % male) had mean (SD) age 58 (13.4) years and a mean (SD) of 8 (4) medicines. Interviews revealed that several factors contributed to the development of MRPs; some appeared to be specific to SA and ME cultures and others were similar to the general population. The factors that were reported to be specific to SA and ME groups comprised religious practices and beliefs, use of non-prescription medicines, extent of family support, and travelling abroad--to patient's homeland or to take religious journeys. Illiteracy, language and communication barriers, lack of translated resources, perceptions of healthcare providers, and difficulty consulting a doctor of the same gender may also contribute to the problems. Many of these factors could be expected to influence patient's safety, adherence, and informed decision-making. This study demonstrated that SA and ME patients have their own problems and needs

  6. National survey on management of weight reduction in PCOS women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aarti; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Atiomo, William

    2010-10-01

    To identify the most commonly used methods for weight reduction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) utilized by obstetricians and gynaecologists in the United Kingdom (UK). Permission was sought from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) to conduct an electronic survey of all consultants practising in the UK. The questionnaire was anonymous and an electronic link was sent via email to the 1140 consultants whose details were provided by the RCOG. A 27-item questionnaire was developed. The variables evaluated were first-line methods of weight reduction used, proportion of women with PCOS seen that were obese, whether the patients had tried other weight reduction methods before seeking help, the optimal dietary advice and optimal composition, the optimal duration and frequency of exercise suggested, BMI used for suggesting weight loss, percentage of women in whom weight loss worked, length of time allowed prior to suggesting another method, methods considered most effective by patients, use of metformin for weight loss, criteria used for prescribing metformin, first-line anti-obesity drugs preferred if any, second- and third-line methods used, referral to other specialists and criteria for referral for bariatric surgery. Responses were categorical and are reported as proportions. One hundred and seven (9.4%) consultants responded to the questionnaire. One hundred and four (97%) provided advice on diet and 101 (94%) advice on exercise as their first-line strategy for weight management. Fifty-one (47.7%) stated that they provided specific information on an optimal dietary intake, 53 (49.9%) on the optimal dietary composition and 61 (57%) on the optimal duration and frequency of exercise per week. The commonest second-line methods used were anti-obesity drugs and metformin and the most popular third-line management options were anti-obesity drugs and bariatric surgery. The results suggest that the information provided to women with

  7. The Evolution of Public Health Education and Training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Cole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom has a long and evolving history of public health education. From the initiation of formal standardised training for Medical Officers for Health in the early 1900s, to the current national public health training programme, public health education has adapted to the changing contexts of public health practice. Whilst the profession was originally only a medical specialty, subsequent re­­cognition of the skills and contribution of the wider public health workforce has led to changes in professional specialist training for public health, which is now open to non-medical applicants. This well-established professional training scheme allows the formal accreditation of competence in a broad range of public health skills. The academic component of public health training is provided by a rapidly growing number of postgraduate courses. Once confined to the UK’s first school of public health, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and a handful of British Universities, the current 60 or so courses across the country are found in diverse university settings. Quality and standards in higher education are monitored by the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education but there are no other professional accreditation schemes for postgraduate courses in public health nationally. Public health education and training continues to face challenges in the UK, notably the current government plans for major restructuring of the National Health Service (NHS which threatens the loss of traditional NHS training placements and has created uncertainty around how professional training might be structured in the future. Whilst the long established tradition of public health education and more recent adoption of competency-based approaches to training gives some flexibility to meet these challenges, insight and innovative responses are required to ensure that public health education and training are not destabilised by these challenges

  8. Epidemiology, severity, and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the United Kingdom by GOLD 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raluy-Callado, Mireia; Lambrelli, Dimitra; MacLachlan, Sharon; Khalid, Javaria Mona

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) updated the management strategy on COPD based on severity using a combined assessment of symptoms, degree of airflow limitation, and number of exacerbations. This study quantified prevalence and incidence of COPD in the United Kingdom and estimated disease severity by GOLD 2013 categories A/B (low risk) and C/D (high risk). The Clinical Practice Research Datalink was used to identify COPD patients ≥40 years. Patient characteristics were described, and prevalence was calculated on December 31, 2013. Five-year incidence (2009-2013) was estimated, with rates standardized using 2011 UK population age and sex. To classify patients by GOLD categories, spirometry results, the modified British Medical Research Council grade, and history of exacerbations were used. The prevalent cohort comprised 49,286 patients with COPD with mean age 70 years; 51.0% were male. Overall prevalence was 33.3 per 1,000 persons (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.1-33.6); 66.4% were classified as GOLD A/B and 33.6% as C/D. The standardized prevalence of GOLD A/B was 21.9 per 1,000 persons (95% CI: 21.7-22.1) and of C/D was 11.1 (95% CI: 10.9-11.2). A total of 27,224 newly diagnosed COPD patients were identified with mean age 67 years at diagnosis; 53.0% were male. Incidence was 2.2 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI: 2.2-2.3); 68.7% were classified in categories A/B and 31.3% in C/D, of which 17.2% did not receive COPD maintenance medication. A third of COPD patients in the UK are considered high risk (GOLD 2013 categories C/D), and a third of patients are diagnosed for the first time at these severe stages. Given the progressive nature of the disease, results suggest that closer attention to respiratory symptoms for early detection, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment of COPD in the UK is warranted.

  9. Current Status of the United Kingdom Programme for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C. H.; Hooper, A. J.; Mathieson, J.

    2002-02-27

    In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations

  10. Tinnitus services in the United Kingdom: a survey of patient experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Don; Hoare, Derek J; Carr, Simon; Ray, Jaydip; Stockdale, David

    2018-02-13

    Tinnitus service provision in the United Kingdom has been investigated from the healthcare provider's perspective demonstrating considerable regional variation particularly regarding availability of psychological treatments. An audiological-based tinnitus service, however, was reportedly available for all tinnitus patients in the UK. The aim of the current study was to define and evaluate nationwide tinnitus healthcare services from the patients' viewpoint. Secondary analyses were performed on data from a 33-item questionnaire provided by the British Tinnitus Association. The questionnaire had been distributed via email and social media. Responses from 937 participants who had or had previously experienced tinnitus were analysed. All but one person had at some time consulted their GP. About one in five received medication in primary care. The majority were referred to secondary care, generally an ENT surgeon or audiovestibular physician; some were referred directly to audiological services. In secondary care the majority underwent audiometric testing and over half underwent MRI scanning. Drugs were prescribed less frequently in secondary care. About one third of patients were referred onwards from diagnostic services in secondary care to receive therapeutic interventions for tinnitus. Therapy was generally delivered by an audiologist or hearing therapist. Just under two fifths of people discharged from secondary care returned to their GP, with most returning within one year. Over a third of this group were re-referred to secondary care. Few patients saw a psychologist (2.6%) though some psychological treatments were delivered by appropriately trained audiologists. Negative counselling from healthcare professionals in both primary and secondary care settings was reported. Although the UK has developed a national service for patients with tinnitus many people find it difficult to access, being blocked at the primary care level or after secondary care diagnostic

  11. Determining the optimal model for role-substitution in NHS dental services in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Paul; Birch, Stephen; McDonald, Ruth; Tickle, Martin

    2013-09-24

    Role-substitution describes a model of dental care where Dental Care Professionals (DCPs) provide some of the clinical activity previously undertaken by General Dental Practitioners. This has the potential to increase technical efficiency, the capacity to care and reduce costs. Technical efficiency is defined as the production of the maximum amount of output from a given amount of input so that the service operates at the production frontier i.e. optimal level of productivity. Academic research into technical efficiency is becoming increasingly utilised in health care, although no studies have investigated the efficiency of NHS dentistry or role-substitution in high-street dental practices. The aim of this study is to examine the barriers and enablers that exist for role-substitution in general dental practices in the NHS and to determine the most technically efficient model for role-substitution. A screening questionnaire will be sent to DCPs to determine the type and location of role-substitutive models employed in NHS dental practices in the United Kingdom (UK). Semi-structured interviews will then be conducted with practice owners, DCPs and patients at selected sites identified by the questionnaire. Detail will be recorded about the organisational structure of the dental team, the number of NHS hours worked and the clinical activity undertaken. The interviews will continue until saturation and will record the views and attitudes of the members of the dental team. Final numbers of interviews will be determined by saturation.The second work-stream will examine the technical efficiency of the selected practices using Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Modeling. The former is a non-parametric technique and is considered to be a highly flexible approach for applied health applications. The latter is parametric and is based on frontier regression models that estimate a conventional cost function. Maximising health for a given level and mix of resources

  12. An evaluation of completeness of tuberculosis notification in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Aileen

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a resurgence of tuberculosis worldwide, mainly in developing countries but also affecting the United Kingdom (UK, and other Western countries. The control of tuberculosis is dependent on early identification of cases and timely notification to public health departments to ensure appropriate treatment of cases and screening of contacts. Tuberculosis is compulsorily notifiable in the UK, and the doctor making or suspecting the diagnosis is legally responsible for notification. There is evidence of under-reporting of tuberculosis. This has implications for the control of tuberculosis as a disproportionate number of people who become infected are the most vulnerable in society, and are less likely to be identified and notified to the public health system. These include the poor, the homeless, refugees and ethnic minorities. Method This study was a critical literature review on completeness of tuberculosis notification within the UK National Health Service (NHS context. The review also identified data sources associated with reporting completeness and assessed whether studies corrected for undercount using capture-recapture (CR methodology. Studies were included if they assessed completeness of tuberculosis notification quantitatively. The outcome measure used was notification completeness expressed between 0% and 100% of a defined denominator, or in numbers not notified where the denominator was unknown. Results Seven studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified through electronic and manual search of published and unpublished literature. One study used CR methodology. Analysis of the seven studies showed that undernotification varied from 7% to 27% in studies that had a denominator; and 38%–49% extra cases were identified in studies which examined specific data sources like pathology reports or prescriptions for anti-tuberculosis drugs. Cases notified were more likely to have positive

  13. United Kingdom windspeed: Measurement, climatology, predictability and link to tropical Atlantic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven Edward

    Windspeed impacts the business performance of many industries yet has received relatively little attention compared with other meteorological fields. The present study addresses this inconsistency. A UK seasonal windspeed climatology is de veloped using a new dataset of United Kingdom hourly windspeed measurements comprising 30 years of observations from 52 geographically dispersed sites. The data are shown to contain significant errors associated with non-ideal measurement conditions. A correction algorithm is described and on application the adjusted site-records exhibit improved homogeneity. Seasonal climatological windspeed char acteristics are modelled using the Weibull distribution: results indicate that central southern England can expect 1-6 near-gale events each winter, compared with 22-27 near-gale events in southwest England. Rare (strong) event return periods are modelled using Gumbell extreme-value theory. Seasonal predictability of winter storminess is investigated using an index defined by the 95th percentile of winter daily maximum windspeed (SI). The interannual variability of SI over Europe is dominated by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, 34% Percentage Variance Ex plained (PVE)). Conversely, a secondary SI mode of variability (SI2, 19% PVE) is seen to have a significant impact over the UK. Multi-field correlation analysis is employed to assess potential SI2 predictability, with statistical forecast models built from the results: the models show mixed skill performance. Tropical North Atlantic (TNA) windspeed is shown to co-vary with winter NAO: surface tradewinds for Dec- Jan-Feb are 19% higher in strong-NAO composite years compared to weak-NAO composite years. In turn this impacts the subsequent distribution of Caribbean rainfall: wet-season precipitation is significantly reduced following a strong winter NAO. It is hypothesised that changes in the TNA trade winds create long lasting SST anomalies, which in turn feedback onto wet season

  14. Functional and Mental Health Status of United Kingdom Military Amputees Postrehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladlow, Peter; Phillip, Rhodri; Etherington, John; Coppack, Russell; Bilzon, James; McGuigan, M Polly; Bennett, Alexander N

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the functional and mental health status of severely injured traumatic amputees from the United Kingdom military at the completion of their rehabilitation pathway and to compare these data with the published normative data. Retrospective independent group comparison of descriptive rehabilitation data recorded postrehabilitation. A military complex trauma rehabilitation center. Amputees (N=65; mean age, 29±6 y) were evaluated at the completion of their rehabilitation pathway; of these, 54 were operationally (combat) injured (23 unilateral, 23 bilateral, 8 triple) and 11 nonoperationally injured (all unilateral). Continuous ∼4-week inpatient, physician-led, interdisciplinary rehabilitation followed by ∼4-weeks of patient-led, home-based rehabilitation. The New Injury Severity Score at the point of injury was used as the baseline reference. The 6-minute walk test, Amputee Mobility Predictor with Prosthesis, Special Interest Group in Amputee Medicine, Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre mobility and activity of daily living scores as well as depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale-7), mental health support, and pain scores were recorded at discharge and compared with the published normative data. The mean New Injury Severity Score was 40±15. After 34±14 months of rehabilitation, amputees achieved a mean 6-minute walk distance of 489±117 m compared with age-matched normative distances of 459 to 738 m. The 2 unilateral groups walked (544 m) significantly further (P>.05) than did the bilateral amputee (445±104 m) and triple amputee (387±99 m) groups. All groups demonstrated mean functional mobility scores consistent with scores of either active adults or community ambulators with limb loss. In total, 85% could walk/run independently and 95% could walk and perform activities of daily living independently with an aid/adaptation. No significant difference in mental health outcome was reported between the

  15. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfs, Paul G P

    2014-10-14

    In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In 2005, of all the doctors practising in the UK, 31% were educated outside the country. In most EEA-countries, health care is not dependent on the influx of IMGs.The aim of this study is to present data relating to the changes in IMG migration in the UK since the extension of the European Union in May 2004. In addition, data are presented on IMG migration in the Netherlands. These migration flows show that migration patterns differ strongly within these two EU-countries. This study makes use of registration data on migrating doctors from the General Medical Council (GMC) in the UK and from the Dutch Department of Health. Moreover, data on the ratio of medical doctors in relation to a country's population were extracted from the World Health Organization (WHO). The influx of IMGs in the UK has changed in recent years due to the extension of the European Union in 2004, the expansion of UK medical schools and changes in the policy towards non-EEA doctors.The influx of IMGs in the Netherlands is described in detail. In the Netherlands, many IMGs come from Afghanistan, Iraq and Surinam. There are clear differences between IMG immigration in the UK and in the Netherlands. In the UK, the National Health Service continues to be very reliant on immigration to fill shortage posts, whereas the number of immigrant doctors working in the Netherlands is much smaller. Both the UK and the Netherlands' regulatory bodies have shared great concerns about the linguistic and communication skills of both EEA and non-EEA doctors seeking to work in these countries. IMG migration is a global and intricate problem. The source countries, not only those where English is the first or second language, experience

  16. Understanding flood risk sensitivity and uncertainty in a subcatchment of the Thames River (United Kingdom)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofanidi, Sofia; Cloke, Hannah Louise; Clark, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    of the flood events will follow, using simple hydrological boundary conditions. The sensitivity testing of the model, will permit to assess which parameters have the potential to alter significantly the peak discharge during the flood, flood water levels and flood inundation extent. Assessing the model's sensitivity and uncertainty, contributes to the improvement of the flood risk knowledge. The area of study is a subcatchment of the River Thames in the southern part of the United Kingdom. The Thames with its tributaries, support a wide range of social, economic and recreational activities. In addition, the historical and environmental importance of the Thames valley highlights the need for a sustainable flood mitigation planning which includes the better understanding of the flood mechanisms and flood risks.

  17. Postgraduate education in dental implantology in the United Kingdom: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Yeoun; Stagnell, Sami

    2018-01-29

    The qualified dentists in the United Kingdom (UK) are not expected to be competent in practising implant dentistry without further training in the subject and there is now greater emphasis on postgraduate training in Dental Implantology. There are three main education pathways at present, yet their training standards vary significantly. This study aims to identify UK postgraduate academic qualifications and continuing professional development (CPD) courses available in the field of Dental Implantology and evaluates the current standard of the postgraduate training programmes against the Training Standards in Implant Dentistry (TSID) guidelines from Faculty of General Dental Practice (FGDP (UK)). There were eight master level courses with varying types of qualification and study mode. The mean duration and tuition fee of the courses were 2.50 years and £23,635.50 per course, respectively. There were eight postgraduate diploma part-time courses with the mean duration of 2.00 years, and the mean tuition fee of £20,177.08 per course. The mean duration for two postgraduate certificate part-time courses was 1.00 year with the mean tuition fee of £9441.50. However, there were no full-time study options for these courses. All courses identified stated their compliance with TSID guidelines. The mean duration for 13 CPD courses identified was 0.94 years and all courses were delivered in a part-time mode. Eleven of these courses were verifiable CPD courses, and two courses were providing certificates only. Not all courses were fully compliant with TSID guidelines. Ten courses clearly stated that they provide mentoring for implant placements, and the number of supervised cases varied considerably between 1 and 50. Development of FGDP (UK) TSID guidelines has led to a significant improvement in the quality of postgraduate education in Dental Implantology in the UK. However, not all courses are fully compliant with these guidelines and the provision of mentoring for

  18. Use of Silk Road, the online drug marketplace, in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Winstock, Adam R

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of awareness of the online illicit drug marketplace Silk Road (SR), consumption of drugs purchased from SR and reasons for use and non-use of SR. Global Drug Survey: purposive sample collected in late 2012. The base sample (n = 9470) reported recent drug purchase and resided in the United Kingdom (n = 4315, median age 24, 76% male), Australia (n = 2761, median age 32, 76% male) or the United States (n = 2394, median age 21, 80% male). Online questionnaire. A total of 65% of US, 53% of Australian and 40% of UK respondents had heard of SR; 18% of US, 10% of UK and 7% of Australian respondents had consumed drugs purchased through SR. Across the three countries, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) was the most commonly purchased drug (53-60%), followed by cannabis (34-51%), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (29-45%) and the 2C family (16%-27%). The most common reasons for purchasing from SR were wider range (75-89%), better quality (72-77%), greater convenience (67-69%) and the use of vendor rating systems (60-65%). The most common reasons for avoiding SR purchase were adequate drug access (63-68%) and fear of being caught (41-53%). Logistic regressions found that, compared with people from the UK, Australians [odds ratio (OR) = 3.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.29, 4.97) and Americans (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.94) were more likely to use SR due to lower prices; and to avoid SR purchase due to fear of being caught (Australia: OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.39, 1.96; USA: OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.37, 1.92). While reasons for Silk Road use accord with broader online commerce trends (range, quality, convenience, ratings), its appeal to drug purchasers is moderated by country-specific deterrents and market characteristics. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Assessment of the Microbiological Safety of Precut Fruit from Retail and Catering Premises in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Caroline; McLauchlin, Jim; Amar, Corinne; Sadler-Reeves, Lorraine; Elviss, Nicola; Aird, Heather; Fox, Andrew; Kaye, Moira

    2016-04-01

    Fresh fruit has been associated with a number of foodborne outbreaks in recent years. In particular, a large outbreak of listeriosis in the United States in 2011 was associated with consumption of cantaloupe melon, and an outbreak of Salmonella Newport in the United Kingdom and Europe (also in 2011) was linked to watermelon consumption. A study of precut fruit products from catering and retail premises in the United Kingdom was, therefore, carried out to assess their microbiological safety. Between January and March 2012, samples (1,188) of ready-to-eat precut fruit were collected from retail and catering premises in the United Kingdom, and 99% were of satisfactory microbiological quality. However, four samples (0.3%) were of an unsatisfactory quality (one with 800 CFU/g Listeria monocytogenes and three with >100 CFU/g Escherichia coli), and five samples (0.4%) were of a borderline quality owing to the presence of E. coli (two samples with a level of 20 CFU/g), Staphylococcus aureus (two samples with levels of >50 CFU/g), or L. monocytogenes (one sample with a level of 80 CFU/g). L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species were detected in a further 54 samples (4.5%) at levels below the threshold considered to be borderline or unsatisfactory. A significantly larger proportion of samples from one national supermarket chain was contaminated with L. monocytogenes than other supermarkets, and two types were, in this study, unique to this supermarket. This study shows that overall, the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat precut fruit was good. However, the presence of Listeria species in 5% of samples highlights the need for good hygiene during preparation and satisfactory temperature and time control during storage of these food products.

  20. Joseph S. Weiner and the foundation of post-WW II human biology in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Michael A; Collins, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Both the United States and the United Kingdom experienced a transformation in the science of physical anthropology from the period before World War II until the post-war period. In the United States, Sherwood L. Washburn is credited with being a leading figure in this transformation. In the United Kingdom, two individuals were instrumental in bringing about a similar change in the profession. These were Joseph S. Weiner at the University of Oxford and Nigel Barnicot at the University of London, with Weiner playing the principal role as leader in what Washburn called the "New Physical Anthropology," that is, the application of evolutionary theory, the de-emphasis on race classification, and the application of the scientific method and experimental approaches to problem solving. Weiner's contributions to physical anthropology were broad-based--climatic and work physiology, paleoanthropology, and human variation--in what became known as human biology in the U.K. and human adaptability internationally. This biographical essay provides evidence for the significant influence of J.S. Weiner on the post-war development of human biology (biological or physical anthropology) inthe U.K. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Environmental assessment: Transfer of normal and low-enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Under the auspices of an agreement between the U.S. and the United Kingdom, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an opportunity to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium (LEU) to the United Kingdom; thus, reducing long-term surveillance and maintenance burdens at the Hanford Site. The material, in the form of billets, is controlled by DOE`s Defense Programs, and is presently stored as surplus material in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The United Kingdom has expressed a need for the billets. The surplus uranium billets are currently stored in wooden shipping containers in secured facilities in the 300 Area at the Hanford Site (the 303-B and 303-G storage facilities). There are 482 billets at an enrichment level (based on uranium-235 content) of 0.71 weight-percent. This enrichment level is normal uranium; that is, uranium having 0.711 as the percentage by weight of uranium-235 as occurring in nature. There are 3,242 billets at an enrichment level of 0.95 weight-percent (i.e., low-enriched uranium). This inventory represents a total of approximately 532 curies. The facilities are routinely monitored. The dose rate on contact of a uranium billet is approximately 8 millirem per hour. The dose rate on contact of a wooden shipping container containing 4 billets is approximately 4 millirem per hour. The dose rate at the exterior of the storage facilities is indistinguishable from background levels.

  2. Caprine prion gene polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldmann Wilfred

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9% in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection.

  3. Configurations of Multiple Disparities in Reading Performance: Longitudinal Observations across France, Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkeit, Jenny; Schwippert, Knut; Knigge, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Research provides evidence that gender, immigrant background and socio-economic characteristics present multiple disadvantaging characteristics that change their relative importance and configurations over time. When evaluating inequalities researchers tend to focus on one particular aspect and often use composite measures when evaluating…

  4. Decabromodiphenylether and hexabromocyclododecane in wild birds from the United Kingdom, Sweden and The Netherlands: Screening and time trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leslie, H.A.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Shore, J.F.; Walker, L.A.; Bersuder, P.R.C.; Morris, S.; Allchin, C.R.; de Boer, J.

    2011-01-01

    The brominated flame retardant decabromodiphenylether (DBDE) was analysed in wild birds to identify the most suitable species for monitoring time trends in DBDE contamination. This information was later used for the design of a 10-year trend study on DBDE in the European Union. DBDE was measured in

  5. The micro-generation installations in the United Kingdom; Les installations de microgeneration au Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierry, X

    2007-02-15

    In the framework of the greenhouse effect gases emission fight, the United Kingdom decided to favor the development of the renewable energies and the energy efficiency. As the buildings represents 50% of the energy consumption, it was fundamental to implement programs aiming the energy control in buildings. In the possible solutions the use of microsystems of energy production is poorly represented. So the government is developing measures and research programs to promote an efficient use of the micro-generation. The document presents this program. (A.L.B.)

  6. THE FIRST WORLD WAR AS DEPICTED IN HISTORY TEXTBOOKS (ARGENTINA, BRAZIL, CHILE, MEXICO, AND THE UNITED KINGDOM)

    OpenAIRE

    Justino, Rogério; Gatti Júnior, Décio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper communicates the results of research in the area of the History of School Subjects, the object of which is the way the theme of the First World War has been depicted in textbooks used in Brazil and abroad. A premise of this study is that textbooks are important tools in school life, contributing to the vision students have of the world. As such, five different textbooks used in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and the United Kingdom were analyzed. It was observed that the...

  7. Severe Depression with Cotard's Phenomenon: Treatment of a Capacitated Patient Within the United Kingdom's Mental Health Act 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Faraz; Menezes, Simon B

    2013-02-11

    Treatment of Cotard's syndrome with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been seen to be an effective treatment option when pharmacological options are not successful. Recent changes in the Mental Health Act 2007 used within the United Kingdom has resulted in clinicians unable to prescribe treatment for patients who have capacity but are not providing consent for treatment. We report a case of a patient in the UK with Cotard's phenomenon and severe depression, where the only effective treatment of ECT was restricted due to changes in mental health law. The role of maintenance ECT as well as the ethical dilemma faced is discussed.

  8. Consumer access to clozapine in Australia: how does this compare to New Zealand and the United Kingdom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles SA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication used in treatment resistant schizophrenia. However, clozapine is associated with a significant adverse effect profile and extensive monitoring is required to optimise consumer safety. Traditionally, clozapine can only be prescribed by a psychiatrist and dispensed at a hospital or hospital affiliated pharmacy in Australia. These restrictions could result in significant treatment burden for consumers taking clozapine. Objective: To identify (1 the different models of supply that exist for people living in the community taking clozapine in Australia and compare to those in New Zealand and the United Kingdom, and (2 explore how these supply models may impact on consumer burden from the perspective of professionals involved in the supply of clozapine. Method: Key informants were interviewed (n=8 from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom regarding how consumers, who lived in the community, accessed clozapine. Data were analysed and led to the development of four clozapine supply models. These four models were further validated by an online survey of a wider sample (n=30. Data were analysed thematically and via simple descriptive statistics. Results: Clozapine supply varied depending on location. A secondary care model was utilised in the United Kingdom compared to a community based (primary care model in New Zealand; Australia utilised a mixture of both secondary and primary care. A key theme from all study participants was that community pharmacy should be utilised to dispense clozapine to consumers living in the community, provided adequate training and safeguards are in place. It was noted that the utilisation of community pharmacies could improve access and flexibility, thereby reducing treatment burden for these consumers. Conclusion: There are predominately two models for supply of clozapine to consumers living in the community in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. One

  9. Oral history in the United Kingdom (4) : Centre for the Study of the Production of the Built Environment

    OpenAIRE

    梅崎, 修

    2016-01-01

    This report introduces an oral history archive in the United Kingdom (UK), a countrythat is advanced in the study of oral historyand in related research. I visited the Centrefor the Study of the Production of the BuiltEnvironment in the UK that had oral historyrecords pertaining to building workersʼ stories (Constructing post-war Britain: 1950-70).The staffs had knowledge on how to manage and exhibit oral documents. I interviewed a staff member of these archives and attended some exhibitions ...

  10. Dietary sources of sodium in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, women and men aged 40 to 59 years: the INTERMAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl A M; Appel, Lawrence J; Okuda, Nagako; Brown, Ian J; Chan, Queenie; Zhao, Liancheng; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Kesteloot, Hugo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Curb, J David; Yoshita, Katsushi; Elliott, Paul; Yamamoto, Monica E; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2010-05-01

    Public health campaigns in several countries encourage population-wide reduced sodium (salt) intake, but excessive intake remains a major problem. Excessive sodium intake is independently related to adverse blood pressure and is a key factor in the epidemic of prehypertension/hypertension. Identification of food sources of sodium in modern diets is critical to effective reduction of sodium intake worldwide. We used data from the INTERMAP Study to define major food sources of sodium in diverse East Asian and Western population samples. INTERMAP is an international, cross-sectional, epidemiologic study of 4, 680 individuals ages 40 to 59 years from Japan (four samples), People's Republic of China (three rural samples), the United Kingdom (two samples), and the United States (eight samples); four in-depth, multipass 24-hour dietary recalls/person were used to identify foods accounting for most dietary sodium intake. In the People's Republic of China sample, most (76%) dietary sodium was from salt added in home cooking, about 50% less in southern than northern samples. In Japan, most (63%) dietary sodium came from soy sauce (20%), commercially processed fish/seafood (15%), salted soups (15%), and preserved vegetables (13%). Processed foods, including breads/cereals/grains, contributed heavily to sodium intake in the United Kingdom (95%) and the United States (for methodological reasons, underestimated at 71%). To prevent and control prehypertension/hypertension and improve health, efforts to remove excess sodium from diets in rural China should focus on reducing salt in home cooking. To avoid excess sodium intake in Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, salt must be reduced in commercially processed foods. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Development Strategies for the Management Models of the Electronic Documents and Records in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Yen Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The trend toward electronic government has espoused a large quantity of electronic records, which challenge the existing records management models in the modern countries. This paper describes and compares the development and transition toward electronic records management in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia to show how the three advanced countries evolved the government records management practices. The analysis emphasized on the holistic policy initiative perspective and compared the directives and regulations, research and development programs and plans, the emerging structures of governance, staffing and professional training, and risk management provisions. The comparison may shed lights on the government electronic management in the other countries. [Article content in Chinese

  12. Modeling the Health Effects of Expanding e-Cigarette Sales in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoran, Sara; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Population health effects will depend on cigarette smoking behaviors, levels of dual use with conventional cigarettes, and e-cigarette toxicity. OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential health effects of various scenarios of increasing promotion and use of e-cigarettes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A base case model was developed using data on actual cigarette and e-cigarette use patterns that quantifies transitions from an initial state of no cigarette or e-cigarette use to 1 of 5 final states: never use of cigarettes or e-cigarettes, cigarette use, e-cigarette use, dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, or quit. Seven scenarios were created that cover a range of use patterns, depending on how the e-cigarette market might develop, as well as a range of possible long-term health effects of e-cigarette use. Scenarios for changes from the base case were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. Separate sets of base case model parameters were evaluated for the US and UK populations. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assigned unitless health “costs” for each final state on a scale of 0 to 100. Population health “costs” were compared with the base case (status quo) assuming e-cigarette use health “costs” from 1% to 50% as dangerous as conventional cigarette use health costs. RESULTS Compared with the base case, a harm reduction scenario in which e-cigarette use increases only among smokers who are interested in quitting with more quit attempts and no increased initiation of e-cigarette use among nonsmokers, and another scenario in which e-cigarettes are taken up only by youth who would have smoked conventional cigarettes, had population-level health benefits regardless of e-cigarette health costs in both the United States and United Kingdom. Conversely, scenarios in which e-cigarette promotion leads to renormalization of cigarette smoking or e-cigarettes are used primarily by youth

  13. National profile of foot orthotic provision in the United Kingdom, part 1: practitioners and scope of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, C J; Graham, A; Martinez-Santos, A; Williams, A E; McAdam, J; Newton, V

    2017-01-01

    Foot orthoses have been advocated in the management of a wide range of clinical foot and lower limb problems and are within the scope of podiatry, orthotic and physiotherapy practice. Previous reports into the provision of orthoses have consistently identified significant issues with services and devices, but data were never specific to foot orthoses. The aim of this first of a series of papers was to report the first ever national multi professional profile of foot orthosis provision in the United Kingdom. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from podiatrists, orthotists and physiotherapists via an online questionnaire. The topics, questions and answers were developed through a series of pilot phases. The professions were targeted through electronic and printed materials. Data were captured over a 10 month period in 2016. A total of 499 responses were included in analysis, including 357 podiatrists, 93 orthotists and 49 physiotherapists. The results reveal wide ranging practices across podiatrists, orthotists and physiotherapists, provision of orthoses through different health care departments (uni and multidisciplinary), for different health conditions (acute and chronic), and involving different types of orthoses (prefabricated and customised). Foot orthoses in the United Kingdom are provided in areas of well recognised health and rehabilitation priorities. A wide range of orthotic devices and practices are employed and different professions provide foot orthoses in different ways.

  14. Social Cultural Influences on Breast Cancer Views and Breast Health Practices Among Chinese Women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chenyu; Beaver, Kinta; Campbell, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer have increased significantly among Chinese women, accompanied by low utilization of breast screening and delay in symptom presentation. The aims of this study were to explore (1) views on breast cancer and breast health among Chinese women in the United Kingdom and (2) the potential influence of social and cultural context on views and screening behavior. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 22 Chinese women. Pertinent aspects of Grounded Theory methods, including simultaneous data collection and analysis, constant comparison, and memo writing, were used. Four themes emerged: cultural views on breast cancer, information sources and knowledge, breast screening practice, and views on healthcare services. The theme views on breast cancer had 3 subthemes: a fearful disease, taboo, and fatalism. Aspects of traditional Chinese culture had important influences on Chinese women's views on breast cancer. Self-care formed the most significant strategy to promote health and prevent illness. Although the study found high utilization of breast screening when offered, only 6 women reported breast awareness practices. This study found that traditional beliefs were not the sole determinant of breast health behavior. The way in which breast screening services are offered in the United Kingdom may reduce the significance of cultural views and shape individuals' health behavior. Findings indicate that information on breast awareness should be delivered to this group of women in Chinese by health professionals through Chinese mass media.

  15. Opportunities and Challenges in Establishing a Cohort Study: An Example From Cleft Lip/Palate Research in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Humphries, Kerry; Pourcain, Beate St; Bailey, Maggie; Persson, Martin; Ho, Karen M; Ring, Susan; Marsh, Cathy; Albery, Liz; Rumsey, Nichola; Sandy, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is one of the most common birth conditions in the world, but little is known about its causes. Professional opinion remains divided as to which treatments may be the most beneficial for patients with CL/P, and the factors that contribute to psychological adjustment are poorly understood. The use of different methodological approaches and tools plays a key role in hampering efforts to address discrepancies within the evidence base. A new UK-wide program of research, The Cleft Collective, was established to combat many of these methodological challenges and to address some of the key research questions important to all CL/P stakeholders. To describe the establishment of CL/P cohort studies in the United Kingdom and to consider the many opportunities this resource will generate. To date, protocols have been developed and implemented within most UK cleft teams. Biological samples, environmental information, and data pertaining to parental psychological well-being and child development are being collected successfully. Recruitment is currently on track to meet the ambitious target of approximately 9800 individuals from just more than 3000 families. The Cleft Collective cohort studies represent a significant step forward for research in the field of CL/P. The data collected will form a comprehensive resource of information about individuals with CL/P and their families. This resource will provide the basis for many future projects and collaborations, both in the United Kingdom and around the world.

  16. Utilization of Standard and Target-Specific Oral Anticoagulants Among Adults in the United Kingdom With Incident Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Todd A; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Viera, Anthony J; Fine, Jason P; Mukherjee, Jayanti; Weinberger, Morris; Dusetzina, Stacie B

    2017-11-15

    New oral anticoagulants (OACs) and updated risk stratification have the potential to improve the quality of care for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). To describe the time from AF diagnosis to the initiation of an OAC, characteristics associated with treatment, and the incidence of switching OACs, we conducted this retrospective cohort study of 23,018 adults with incident AF receiving care between 2010 and 2014 in 647 primary care practices participating in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. In patients with moderate to high stroke risk (CHA2DS2-VASc ≥ 2), the median time from diagnosis to OAC initiation decreased from 10 to 2 months. Among 980 at very low stroke risk (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0), 29% received OAC prescriptions after 90 days. Being prescribed an OAC was associated with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (relative risk 1.3); severe dementia or psychosis was most associated with not being prescribed an OAC (relative risk 0.3). After 1 year, the risk of OAC switching was higher for patients initiating dabigatran (19%) than warfarin (6%), rivaroxaban (8%), or apixaban (9%). The prescribing of OACs in moderate-to-high-risk patients in the United Kingdom increased annually; 1/3 of very low-risk patients were prescribed OACs contrary to guidance. In conclusion, future research should refine decision-making tools to minimize the unwanted effects of underutilization and overutilization of OACs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality of the antibiotics--amoxicillin and co-trimoxazole from Ghana, Nigeria, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyi, Ifeyinwa; Lalani, Mirza; Mailk, Naiela; Van Wyk, Albert; Kaur, Harparkash

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the quality of antibiotics despite being in high demand globally. Thirty five samples (27 brands) of the antibiotics amoxicillin (N = 20; 16 brands) and co-trimoxazole (N = 15; 11 brands), manufactured in six countries (China, Ghana, India, Ireland, Nigeria, and United Kingdom), were purchased in Ghana, Nigeria, and the United Kingdom. Their quality was assessed using German Pharma Health Fund (GPHF) MiniLab® as the screening tool-two capsules of amoxicillin (10%) and two tablets of co-trimoxazole (20%) failed the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) test. Definitive drug quality was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) for content of the stated active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and bioavailability was determined with in vitro dissolution testing. All the samples of amoxicillin complied with U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) tolerance limits, but 60% tablets of co-trimoxazole (purchased in Ghana and Nigeria) did not. There was disparity in the results obtained for co-trimoxazole and amoxicillin samples using the MiniLab® TLC tests. This highlights the need to invest in techniques such as HPLC-PDA and dissolution testing alongside the screening tests for assessing drug quality. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Does subclinical atherosclerosis burden identify the increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality among United Kingdom Indian Asians? A population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Navtej S; Lim, Tiong K; Jain, Piyush; Chambers, John C; Kooner, Jaspal S; Senior, Roxy

    2011-09-01

    Indian Asians living in the United Kingdom have a >50% higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) death compared with native European whites. The mechanisms underlying their excess mortality are not clear, and there are no validated tools capable of identifying this increased risk. The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis detected in the carotid arteries is an established prognosticator for major CVD events. We hypothesized that the increased prevalence of CVD among Indian Asians would be reflected by their having a greater burden of subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis compared with European whites. We studied 2,288 healthy subjects and 148 patients with known CVD from the London Life Sciences Prospective Population study who underwent carotid ultrasonography for assessment of intima-media thickness (IMT), plaque prevalence, and plaque echogenicity. The prevalence of CVD was significantly higher among Indian Asians compared with European whites (odds ratio 1.72, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). Intima-media thickness was slightly higher in European whites compared with that of Indian Asians (0.66 vs 0.65 mm, P = .06), reflecting their higher Framingham Risk Score. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, there were no significant differences in IMT, plaque prevalence, or plaque echogenicity between the 2 ethnic groups regardless of CVD status. The burden of carotid atherosclerosis does not identify the markedly increased risk of CVD among United Kingdom Indian Asians. Other markers and mechanisms of disease require investigation in this high-risk group. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mental Health Curricula at Schools of Pharmacy in the United Kingdom and Recent Graduates’ Readiness to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Denise; Branford, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess mental health education in the undergraduate pharmacy curricula in the United Kingdom and gauge how well prepared graduates are to manage mental health patients. Method. The authors conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with pharmacy educators and administered an electronic self-administered survey instrument to pharmacy graduates. Results. The mental health conditions of depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Parkinson disease were taught, in detail, by all schools, but more specialized areas of mental health (eg, personality disorder, autism) were generally not taught. Just 5 of 19 schools attempted to teach the broader social aspects of mental health. A third of the schools provided experiential learning opportunities. Graduates and recently registered pharmacists stated that undergraduate education had prepared them adequately with regard to knowledge on conditions and treatment options, but that they were not as well prepared to talk with mental health patients and deal with practical drug management-related issues. Conclusion. The mental health portion of the undergraduate pharmacy curricula in colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom is largely theoretical, and pharmacy students have little exposure to mental health patients. Graduates identified an inability to effectively communicate with these patients and manage common drug management-related issues. PMID:24052650

  20. Mental health curricula at schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom and recent graduates' readiness to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Paul; Taylor, Denise; Branford, Dave

    2013-09-12

    To assess mental health education in the undergraduate pharmacy curricula in the United Kingdom and gauge how well prepared graduates are to manage mental health patients. The authors conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with pharmacy educators and administered an electronic self-administered survey instrument to pharmacy graduates. The mental health conditions of depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Parkinson disease were taught, in detail, by all schools, but more specialized areas of mental health (eg, personality disorder, autism) were generally not taught. Just 5 of 19 schools attempted to teach the broader social aspects of mental health. A third of the schools provided experiential learning opportunities. Graduates and recently registered pharmacists stated that undergraduate education had prepared them adequately with regard to knowledge on conditions and treatment options, but that they were not as well prepared to talk with mental health patients and deal with practical drug management-related issues. The mental health portion of the undergraduate pharmacy curricula in colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom is largely theoretical, and pharmacy students have little exposure to mental health patients. Graduates identified an inability to effectively communicate with these patients and manage common drug management-related issues.

  1. Turning health research into health promotion: a study of causality and 'critical insights' in a United Kingdom health campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe

    2012-10-01

    This article examines how important decisions about health can alter between public health policy formulation and eventual marketing implementation. Specifically, the article traces the development and production of a major United Kingdom social marketing campaign named Change4Life, and examines how ideas about the causes of and solutions to the obesity epidemic are produced in differing ways throughout the health promotion process. This study examines a variety of United Kingdom health research, policy, marketing strategy and marketing messages between 2008 and 2011. This research demonstrates that claims about causality oscillate and alter throughout the research, policy and Change4Life marketing process. These oscillations are problematic, since the Department of Health described the original consumer research as 'critical'. Given both the importance of the health issues being addressed and the amount of funding dedicated to Change4Life, that 'critical' research was directly contradicted in the campaign requires urgent review. To conclude, the article discusses the utility of social marketing when considering causal claims in health promotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social representation of hearing aids: cross-cultural study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Danermark, Berth; Vinay; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Tomé, David; Krishna, Rajalakshmi; Germundsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    The current study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing aids in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. We also compared these results to explore the cross-cultural differences and similarities among these countries. The study involved a cross-sectional design, and the data were collected from four different countries using the snowball sampling method. Data were analyzed using a content analysis to identify the most-similar categories of responses reported, a co-occurrences analysis to see which of these categories are reported commonly, and a chi-square analysis to study if there was any association between positive, neutral, and negative connotations among participants in different countries. The current study revealed four different social representations of hearing aids from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom, and also a global index. The study results provide very useful insights into how hearing aids are represented in the society. These findings may have important implications for public education and also for manufacturers from the viewpoint of designing and marketing hearing aids in different countries.

  3. Comparing net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange at adjacent commercial bioenergy and conventional cropping systems in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ross; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Rylett, Daniel; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to bioenergy plantations represents one option in the national and global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst meeting future energy demand. Despite an increase in the area of (e.g. perennial) bioenergy crops in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the biophysical and biogeochemical impacts of large scale conversion of arable and other land cover types to bioenergy cropping systems remain poorly characterised and uncertain. Here, the results of four years of eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) obtained at a commercial farm in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom (UK) are reported. CO2 flux measurements are presented and compared for arable crops (winter wheat, oilseed rape, spring barely) and plantations of the perennial biofuel crops Miscanthus x. giganteus (C4) and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix sp.,C3). Ecosystem light and temperature response functions were used to analyse and compare temporal trends and spatial variations in NEE across the three land covers. All three crops were net in situ sinks for atmospheric CO2 but were characterised by large temporal and between site variability in NEE. Environmental and biological controls driving the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 exchange processes, as well as the influences of land management, will be analysed and discussed.

  4. Breast cancer in ethnic minority groups in developed nations: Case studies of the United Kingdom and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Meagan

    2017-05-01

    Recent research from the United Kingdom (UK) has highlighted some of the differences in breast cancer presentations between women of different ethnic groups. Analysis of a large database showed that Black women of African or Caribbean heritage living in England and Wales are more likely to present with stage 3 or 4 cancer than White British women and less likely to have their cancer detected through screening. In many countries around the world, migrant and cultural minority groups experience social and economic disadvantage and this is reflected in their health outcomes. With world migration at record levels, it is timely to reflect on ethnic disparities and to consider how developed nations can care for their minority groups, which are increasing in number and diversity. These issues and challenges are discussed, using the UK's migrant population and Australia's Indigenous and migrant populations as case studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differences in self-reported quality of care for knee osteoarthritis across Denmark, Norway, Portugal and United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osteras, N.; Jordan, K.; Clausen, B.

    2015-01-01

    applied the same set of QI items across four European countries. Objectives: To assess and compare patient perceived quality of OA management in primary health care in Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. Methods: Participants consulting general practitioners with clinical signs and symptoms......Background: Adherence to recommendations for osteoarthritis (OA) care can be measured using quality indicators (QI). In previous research differences related to the study design or the QI items make it challenging to directly compare the results. This EULAR funded study is the first that has...... of eligible QIs achieved by country was determined and compared using negative binomial regression analyses. Achievement of individual QIs by country was determined and compared using logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 354 participants self-reported QI achievement. For the total sample...

  6. The Mature Imagination and Consumption Strategies: Age & Generation in the Development of a United Kingdom Baby Boomer Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers have been credited with an essentially ‘youthful’ approach to themselves, to consumption and to life-style. As they enter midlife and older age they are also faced with the challenges of a mature identity. This paper critically examines the strategies that baby boomers in the United Kingdom use to manage identity as they grow older. Specifically, questions concerning attitudes to cohort labels, personal ageing and other generations are compared to the consumption choices that are made in areas considered to be key to an ageing identity, including: appearance, clothing and bodily maintenance. Boomers identify with succeeding rather than preceding generations. While they claim not to be concerned with bodily ageing as such, their strategies are aimed at maintaining a balance between youthful and mature identities. Priority was given to blurring the boundaries between themselves and younger adult generations. The implications for the relationship between adult ageing and patterns of consumption are explored.

  7. Digital Citizen Participation within Schools in the United Kingdom and Indonesia: An Actor–Network Theory (ANT Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Citizen engagement and participation are a key focus for government and government agencies, and with the advent of Internet technologies questions arise about the role and impact of technology on citizen participation. This paper aims to explore the role of technology in citizen participation within schools. This research used in-depth comparative case studies using examples from two different schools and school systems, one in the United Kingdom and one in Indonesia. The wider school systems are complex and dynamic environments with multiple stakeholders, media, and supporting systems, and the schools operate under geopolitical and social influences. This paper provides a framework, based on Actor-Network Theory (ANT, for capturing e-participation in schools, particularly identifying the influence of technology as a conduit for enabling, engaging, and empowering stakeholders.

  8. The experiences and coping strategies of United Kingdom-based African women following an HIV diagnosis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treisman, Karen; Jones, Fergal W; Shaw, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative investigation was conducted to explore the experience of African women living in the United Kingdom after being diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy. Participants (N = 12) completed a demographic questionnaire and participated in one-to-one semi-structured interviews. The interview addressed multiple personal, interpersonal, and systemic issues related to HIV, as well as HIV in the context of motherhood. Data were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Themes that emerged included: (a) HIV being part of one's wider tapestry, (b) community and systemic influences and responses to HIV, (c) experiencing a different story of HIV, and (d) the mother-child relationship. Strikingly, the aspect of HIV these women reported finding most distressing was their inability to breastfeed, which seemed central to their cultural identity as mothers. Clinical recommendations and implications are made. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional composition of commonly consumed composite dishes for Afro-Caribbeans (mainly Jamaicans) in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangita; Yacavone, Mihoko M; Cao, Xia; Samuda, Pauline M; Cade, Janet; Cruickshank, Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    To provide the calculated nutritional composition of 18 commonly consumed composite dishes among Afro-Caribbeans residing in the United Kingdom. Weighed recipes were collected in Afro-Caribbean households (mainly Jamaicans) in Manchester, UK. A total of 30 weighed recipes were collected for a variety of 18 Afro-Caribbean composite dishes. Among them, fried dumpling, Ackee and saltfish, fried chicken and rice and peas were high in energy, providing 201-356 kcal/100 g. Fried fish, Ackee and saltfish, stewed fish, and fried chicken had a high fat content (between 11.5% and 25.9%). We have provided for the first time some data on the energy, macronutrient and micronutrient content per 100 g for 18 Afro-Caribbean foods. These recipe data provide essential information for accurately assessing dietary intake and for determining associations between diet and chronic diseases among this population.

  10. Investigating some of the factors that influence "consumer" choice when adopting a shelter dog in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siettou, Christina; Fraser, Iain M; Fraser, Rob W

    2014-01-01

    This study examined which characteristics of dogs available at a large rehoming organization in the United Kingdom influenced prospective adopters' choices. The revealed preference data used to model "consumer" choice were from the Dogs Trust rehoming web pages. The analysis of the probability of adoption involved a logistic regression model with multiple imputation. The factors that had a significant impact on the adopters' choices were age, size, pedigree status, coat length, behavior (e.g., fearfulness, adjustment issues), friendliness (toward children, dogs, and other pets), and training. This study offers a quantitative analysis of adopters' preferences that could prove to be useful for shelter personnel and researchers interested in the analysis of companion animal markets.

  11. Opening up animal research and science–society relations? A thematic analysis of transparency discourses in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Hobson-West, Pru

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in scientific research represents an interesting case to consider in the context of the contemporary preoccupation with transparency and openness in science and governance. In the United Kingdom, organisations critical of animal research have long called for more openness. More recently, organisations involved in animal research also seem to be embracing transparency discourses. This article provides a detailed analysis of publically available documents from animal protection groups, the animal research community and government/research funders. Our aim is to explore the similarities and differences in the way transparency is constructed and to identify what more openness is expected to achieve. In contrast to the existing literature, we conclude that the slipperiness of transparency discourses may ultimately have transformative implications for the relationship between science and society and that contemporary openness initiatives might be sowing the seeds for change to the status quo. PMID:26009149

  12. Opening up animal research and science-society relations? A thematic analysis of transparency discourses in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Hobson-West, Pru

    2016-10-01

    The use of animals in scientific research represents an interesting case to consider in the context of the contemporary preoccupation with transparency and openness in science and governance. In the United Kingdom, organisations critical of animal research have long called for more openness. More recently, organisations involved in animal research also seem to be embracing transparency discourses. This article provides a detailed analysis of publically available documents from animal protection groups, the animal research community and government/research funders. Our aim is to explore the similarities and differences in the way transparency is constructed and to identify what more openness is expected to achieve. In contrast to the existing literature, we conclude that the slipperiness of transparency discourses may ultimately have transformative implications for the relationship between science and society and that contemporary openness initiatives might be sowing the seeds for change to the status quo. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The legal landscape for advanced therapies: material and institutional implementation of European Union rules in France and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalatchimy, Aurélie; Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Tournay, Virginie; Faulkner, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the European Union adopted a lex specialis, Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 on advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), a new legal category of medical product in regenerative medicine. The regulation applies to ATMPs prepared industrially or manufactured by a method involving an industrial process. It also provides a hospital exemption, which means that medicinal products not regulated by EU law do not benefit from a harmonized regime across the European Union but have to respect national laws. This article describes the recent EU laws, and contrasts two national regimes, asking how France and the United Kingdom regulate ATMPs which do and do not fall under the scope of Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007. What are the different legal categories and their enforceable regimes, and how does the evolution of these highly complex regimes interact with the material world of regenerative medicine and the regulatory bodies and socioeconomic actors participating in it?

  14. Policy and legality in the United Kingdom and America (1850-1925: the consolidation of a common discriminatory framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Contarino Sparta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of long distance migration movements during late 19th century gave birth to legislation that restricted entry into the United Kingdom, one of the main immigration- receiving countries. Nevertheless, underpopulated American states eager for immigrants also developed restrictive legal regulations. Although the acceptance or rejection of immigrants has been related to fluctuating labour demand, it is also true that they became desirable or undesirable according to cultural and national stereotypes. This position implied looking with disdain at the contributions from people who did not belong to Western civilization. In fact, racialized archetypes were constructed in order to invisibilise those sectors of the population, which began to be considered “minorities”.

  15. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  16. Regulations, policies and practices concerning work stress prevention and improving well-being at work in Sweden, Great-Britain, Germany, France and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gier, E. de; Kompier, M.; Draaisma, D.; Smulders, P.

    1994-01-01

    At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, the TNO Institute of Preventive Health Care (NIPG) carried out a comparative survey of regulations, policies and practices in the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Germany and France with regard to the prevention of work

  17. Associations Between Parenting Styles and Perceived Child Effortful Control Within Chinese Families in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Lamb, Michael E.; Zhou, Nan

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States, and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old (M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54 girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers’ reported authoritarian parenting style. Significant associations also emerged between mothers’ reports of their children’s EC and some parenting dimensions, although there were no cultural group differences in perceived child EC. Different patterns of associations between perceived child EC and parenting styles in these three groups also demonstrated heterogeneity within the Chinese population, and highlighted the need to consider differences between original and receiving societies when seeking to understand parenting and child development in different immigrant groups.

  18. The data submitted by the United Kingdom to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation for the 1977 report to the General Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, F E; Webb, G A M

    1976-01-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was established by the General Assembly in 1955 to report on the exposure of man to ionising radiation. In the subsequent twenty years the Committee has covered most aspects of the subject with repeated reviews of the levels of exposure from fallout due to weapons testing. The Committee is currently preparing a further report on doses from all sources and an evaluation of their biological effects. This is expected to be published in 1977. To aid it in compiling this report the Committee requested Member States of the UN to submit national data on a wide range of sources of exposure. The Board was asked by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to collate the information requested from the United Kingdom. Data were available in the scientific literature on some topics, such as medical irradiation and environmental radioactivity. On some other topics, particularly occupational exposure, data have been collected but seldom publishe...

  19. Biomedical Ph.D. students enrolled in two elite universities in the United kingdom and the United States report adopting multiple learning relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Kemp

    Full Text Available The ability to form multiple learning relationships is a key element of the doctoral learning environment in the biomedical sciences. Of these relationships, that between student and supervisor has long been viewed as key. There are, however, limited data to describe the student perspective on what makes this relationship valuable. In the present study, we discuss the findings of semi-structured interviews with biomedical Ph.D. students from the United Kingdom and the United States to: i determine if the learning relationships identified in an Australian biomedical Ph.D. cohort are also important in a larger international student cohort; and ii improve our understanding of student perceptions of value in their supervisory relationships.32 students from two research intensive universities, one in the United Kingdom (n = 17, and one in the United States (n = 15 were recruited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcripts were transcribed, validated and analysed using a Miles and Huberman method for thematic analysis.Students reported that relationships with other Ph.D. students, post-doctoral scientists and supervisors were all essential to their learning. Effective supervisory relationships were perceived as the primary source of high-level project guidance, intellectual support and confidence. Relationships with fellow students were viewed as essential for the provision of empathetic emotional support. Technical learning was facilitated, almost exclusively, by relationships with postdoctoral staff.These data make two important contributions to the scholarship of doctoral education in the biomedical sciences. Firstly, they provide further evidence for the importance of multiple learning relationships in the biomedical doctorate. Secondly, they clarify the form of a 'valued' supervisory relationship from a student perspective. We conclude that biomedical doctoral programs should be designed to contain a minimum level

  20. Biomedical Ph.D. students enrolled in two elite universities in the United kingdom and the United States report adopting multiple learning relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Matthew W; Lazarus, Benjamin M; Perron, Gabriel G; Hanage, William P; Chapman, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    The ability to form multiple learning relationships is a key element of the doctoral learning environment in the biomedical sciences. Of these relationships, that between student and supervisor has long been viewed as key. There are, however, limited data to describe the student perspective on what makes this relationship valuable. In the present study, we discuss the findings of semi-structured interviews with biomedical Ph.D. students from the United Kingdom and the United States to: i) determine if the learning relationships identified in an Australian biomedical Ph.D. cohort are also important in a larger international student cohort; and ii) improve our understanding of student perceptions of value in their supervisory relationships. 32 students from two research intensive universities, one in the United Kingdom (n = 17), and one in the United States (n = 15) were recruited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcripts were transcribed, validated and analysed using a Miles and Huberman method for thematic analysis. Students reported that relationships with other Ph.D. students, post-doctoral scientists and supervisors were all essential to their learning. Effective supervisory relationships were perceived as the primary source of high-level project guidance, intellectual support and confidence. Relationships with fellow students were viewed as essential for the provision of empathetic emotional support. Technical learning was facilitated, almost exclusively, by relationships with postdoctoral staff. These data make two important contributions to the scholarship of doctoral education in the biomedical sciences. Firstly, they provide further evidence for the importance of multiple learning relationships in the biomedical doctorate. Secondly, they clarify the form of a 'valued' supervisory relationship from a student perspective. We conclude that biomedical doctoral programs should be designed to contain a minimum level of formalised

  1. Biomedical Ph.D. Students Enrolled in Two Elite Universities in the United Kingdom and the United States Report Adopting Multiple Learning Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Matthew W.; Lazarus, Benjamin M.; Perron, Gabriel G.; Hanage, William P.; Chapman, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Objective The ability to form multiple learning relationships is a key element of the doctoral learning environment in the biomedical sciences. Of these relationships, that between student and supervisor has long been viewed as key. There are, however, limited data to describe the student perspective on what makes this relationship valuable. In the present study, we discuss the findings of semi-structured interviews with biomedical Ph.D. students from the United Kingdom and the United States to: i) determine if the learning relationships identified in an Australian biomedical Ph.D. cohort are also important in a larger international student cohort; and ii) improve our understanding of student perceptions of value in their supervisory relationships. Study Design 32 students from two research intensive universities, one in the United Kingdom (n = 17), and one in the United States (n = 15) were recruited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcripts were transcribed, validated and analysed using a Miles and Huberman method for thematic analysis. Results Students reported that relationships with other Ph.D. students, post-doctoral scientists and supervisors were all essential to their learning. Effective supervisory relationships were perceived as the primary source of high-level project guidance, intellectual support and confidence. Relationships with fellow students were viewed as essential for the provision of empathetic emotional support. Technical learning was facilitated, almost exclusively, by relationships with postdoctoral staff. Conclusions These data make two important contributions to the scholarship of doctoral education in the biomedical sciences. Firstly, they provide further evidence for the importance of multiple learning relationships in the biomedical doctorate. Secondly, they clarify the form of a ‘valued’ supervisory relationship from a student perspective. We conclude that biomedical doctoral programs should be

  2. Making Social Work Count: A Curriculum Innovation to Teach Quantitative Research Methods and Statistical Analysis to Undergraduate Social Work Students in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teater, Barbra; Roy, Jessica; Carpenter, John; Forrester, Donald; Devaney, John; Scourfield, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Students in the United Kingdom (UK) are found to lack knowledge and skills in quantitative research methods. To address this gap, a quantitative research method and statistical analysis curriculum comprising 10 individual lessons was developed, piloted, and evaluated at two universities The evaluation found that BSW students' (N = 81)…

  3. Equality of Opportunity and Vocational Training. Creation and Management of Enterprises by Women. The Situation in the United Kingdom. Rapport National Royaume-Uni. Synthesis Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Annie

    This document contains three reports: (1) a report on women entrepreneurs in the United Kingdom (UK) in English; (2) the same report in French; and (3) a synthesis report of 12 national reports and 4 related reports. The report on women entrepreneurs in the UK includes an introduction, a description of the methodology, five sections of findings,…

  4. Making Higher Education Work: A Comparison of Discourses in the United Kingdom's Conservative and Labour Parties' General Election Manifestos between 1979 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This article elaborates a model of social democratic and conservative discourses in relation to access, financing, management, and results of higher education. The model is contrasted with the position of the Conservative Party and the Labour Party in the United Kingdom from the late 1970s to 2010 as expressed in their electoral manifestos. The…

  5. An Examination of the Development of the Concept of Gifted Education in the United Kingdom: An Analysis of the Current Position with Suggestions for a Positive Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Belle; Adams, Harvey B.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the educational development in the United Kingdom in the 20th century cites the growing concern for students with exceptional needs despite reluctance to use the term gifted. Government publications and their implications for gifted education are reviewed and proposals for the future are offered. (CL)

  6. Getting Skills Right: Good Practice in Adapting to Changing Skill Needs. A Perspective on France, Italy, Spain, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances, based on five country-specific policy notes for France, Italy, Spain, South Africa and the United Kingdom. It provides a comparative assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment…

  7. A Historical Overview of Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing Education in the United Kingdom: Going around in Circles or on the Straight and Narrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, John

    2003-01-01

    Addresses historical issues in psychiatric/mental health nursing in the United Kingdom including attempts to integrate it with general nursing, the balance of theory/research and practice, and tensions over the recent shift to university-level nurse preparation. Discusses needs for the future. (Contains 42 references and commentary by Sheri…

  8. Franchising Education: Challenges and Opportunities for Coping with the Economic Recession and the Provision of Higher Education in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul; Shotte, Gertrude

    2010-01-01

    When the global economic recession hit the world some 18 months ago, very few could predict the impact this would have on government spending on higher education. Higher education institutions in the United Kingdom face spending cuts. Notwithstanding, they are expected to deliver quality education with fewer resources. This article discusses…

  9. Genome Sequence of Ex-Afghanistan Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus SCT Strain, from an Imported United Kingdom Case in October 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, John; Atkinson, Barry; Logue, Christopher H.; Latham, Jennie; Newman, Edmund N. C.; Hewson, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a serious human pathogen causing severe hemorrhagic disease with a fatality rate of up to approximately 30%. We have determined the viral genomic sequence from an isolate that caused a fatal case of imported CCHF in the United Kingdom in October 2012.

  10. Genome Sequence of Ex-Afghanistan Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus SCT Strain, from an Imported United Kingdom Case in October 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John; Atkinson, Barry; Logue, Christopher H; Latham, Jennie; Newman, Edmund N C; Hewson, Roger

    2013-05-16

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a serious human pathogen causing severe hemorrhagic disease with a fatality rate of up to approximately 30%. We have determined the viral genomic sequence from an isolate that caused a fatal case of imported CCHF in the United Kingdom in October 2012.

  11. Developing an Inclusive Learning Environment for Students with Visual Impairment in Higher Education: Progressive Mutual Accommodation and Learner Experiences in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Rachel; Douglas, Graeme; McLinden, Michael; Keil, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of a unique longitudinal qualitative study, this article investigates the experiences of 32 young people with visual impairment (VI) in higher education (HE) in the United Kingdom (UK) to explore how well they were able to participate on their courses. We propose and apply a Bioecological Model of Inclusive HE to interpret…

  12. Report on the individual review of the annual submission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland submitted in 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Paciornik, Newton; Romano, Daniela

    The report covers the review of the 2016 annual submission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland organized by the UNFCCC secretariat, in accordance with the “Guidelines for review under Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol” (decision 22/CMP.1, as revised by decision 4/CMP.11...

  13. "Education Makes You Have More Say in the Way Your Life Goes": Indian Women and Arranged Marriages in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores Indian women's views on arranged marriages in the United Kingdom. It is based on research carried out with 32 Indian women studying at a university in the South East of England, UK. The article draws on Wenger's social theory of learning to explore how Indian women's participation in communities of practice in higher education…

  14. Salmonella and raw shell eggs: results of a cross-sectional study of contamination rates and egg safety practices in the United Kingdom catering sector in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, R; Little, C L; Mitchell, R T

    2005-02-01

    This study was prompted by epidemiological investigations of the unusual number of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks associated with the use of eggs in catering premises in England and Wales during 2002. The aims of the study, performed between April and May 2003, were to establish the rate of Salmonella contamination in raw shell eggs from catering premises, investigate any correlation between the origin and type of eggs and the presence of particular serotypes or phage types (PTs) of Salmonella, and examine the use of raw shell eggs in catering premises in the United Kingdom. A total of 34,116 eggs (5,686 pooled samples of six eggs) were collected from 2,104 catering premises, most of which were eggs produced in the United Kingdom (88%). Salmonella was isolated from 17 pools (0.3%) of eggs. Of these, 15 were Salmonella Enteritidis, which were further characterized to PTs as follows: PT6 (0.1%), PT4 (0.07%), PT12 (0.04%), PT1 (0.04%), and PT14b (0.02%). Salmonella Livingstone and Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 7 resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline were also isolated. The Salmonella contamination rate of eggs produced in the United Kingdom appears to have decreased significantly since 1995 and 1996. This trend is reflected in the decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis and, in particular, Salmonella Enteritidis PT4. The impact of the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency's advice on the use of eggs, issued in January 2003, is discussed.

  15. Understanding the Experiences and Needs of South Asian Families Caring for a Child with Learning Disabilities in the United Kingdom: An Experiential-Contextual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Kuljit; Rose, John; Larkin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of learning disabilities amongst South Asian communities in the United Kingdom is thought to be almost three times higher than in any other community. Despite this, service utilisation amongst this group remains low and working cross-culturally can pose unique challenges for service providers. The experiences of South Asian families…

  16. A Tale from Three Countries: The Classroom Management Practices of Pre-Service Teachers from Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Stuart; Reupert, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to (i) identify Australian, Canadian and United Kingdom (UK) pre-service teachers' use, confidence and success of various classroom management strategies and (ii) to ascertain any significant differences between the three cohorts. Significant differences were found amongst the cohort with the UK pre-service…

  17. British discretion in Dutch planning: establishing a comparative perspective for regional planning and local development in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen-Jansen, L.B.; Woltjer, J.

    2010-01-01

    Regional planning and development is continuing to take an important role in planning agendas throughout Europe. In the United Kingdom (UK), the planning system has been reformed during the last decades, marking a noticeable shift from a development-led towards a more plan-led system. In the

  18. British discretion in Dutch planning : Establishing a comparative perspective for regional planning and local development in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen-Jansen, Leonie B.; Woltjer, Johan

    Regional planning and development is continuing to take an important role in planning agendas throughout Europe. In the United Kingdom (UK), the planning system has been reformed during the last decades, marking a noticeable shift from a development-led towards a more plan-led system. In the

  19. Exploring Strategies of Assessment and Results in the Spanish Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia and the United Kingdom Open University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur

    The strategies of student evaluation and the patterns of results are compared for The Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of The United Kingdom. Both universities operate a system of undergraduate subject credits leading to a degree, but the length of the courses of the two systems differ. UNED…

  20. Comparisons in the Organisation, Methods, and Results of the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spain) and The Open University of The United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur

    The organization, methods, and outcomes of the distance education systems at the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of the United Kingdom are compared. The following topics are covered: higher education in Spain, UNED's ideology, student characteristics in both universities, organization,…

  1. Appraising fertilisers: origins of current regulations and standards for contaminants in fertilisers : background of quality standards in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom and Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Posthuma, L.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Wintersen, A.M.; Wijnen, van H.; Dijk, van T.A.; Schöll, van L.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    The standards for contaminants in fertilisers in Denmark, Germany, Flanders, the Netherlands and United Kingdom, are given in the context of the proposals for new European fertiliser legislation. This EU legislation might result in generic limit values for contaminants and input lists of materials,

  2. Rewriting the history: a new future for the nuclear energy in United Kingdom?; Reescribiendo la historia: un nuevo futuro para la energia nuclear en Reino Unido?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodman, B. [University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 8UW (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    From ends of the ninety, the new nuclear energy has been rejected three times like an option of viable energy generation for United Kingdom: once during the privatization of the electric supply industry and twice during the subsequent revisions to the energy politicians carried out in 2003. Nevertheless, three years more late, a new debate around the energy politics gave an unusual turning in the industry destination, characterized by the firm consideration in the political calendar about the new reactors development, as well as of governmental politicians guided to impel it. This recent interest arises of restlessness regarding the future security of the supply and to the necessity of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions of United Kingdom. With the purpose of obtaining the sufficient support of civil politicians and investors for the new construction project, the industry will have to devise convincing arguments to prove that it has already solved those problems that it suffered in the past and, also that deserves to receive a special treatment in the liberated market of the electricity. This document synthesizes the structure of the nuclear industry in United Kingdom, some recent historical data and the reasons for those that the new nuclear reactors were not very received in the past. It also indicates the measures that have taken in recent times to modify that perspective. Finally, it analyzes the possible future of the nuclear energy at long term in United Kingdom. (Author)

  3. Glykemische regulatie en behandeling van hypertensie essentieel bij personen met diabetes mellitus type 2; de 'United Kingdom prospective diabetes study' naar diabetische complicaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolffenbuttel, B H; Heine, R J

    1999-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus often develop micro- and macrovascular complications. In 25% of them, complications are already present at the time of diagnosis. The principal objective of the United Kingdom prospective diabetes study was to determine if good blood glucose control and

  4. BOOK REVIEW - The Experience of Face Veil Wearers in Europe and the Law (Cambridge University Press United Kingdom 2014). ISBN 978-1-107-05830-9.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques L Matthee

    2017-01-01

    This contribution published by Cambridge University Press provides a short overview of the book by Eva Brems "The Experience of Face Veil Wearers in Europe and the Law" published by Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, in 2014. See ISBN 978-1-107-05830-9.

  5. Immigrant and Native-Born Adolescents' Civic Knowledge and Attitudes in Sweden and the United States: Emergent Citizenship within Developmental Niches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Carolyn; Torney-Purta, Judith; Wilkenfeld, Britt; Ross, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Using the Developmental Niche for Emergent Participatory Citizenship (Torney-Purta and Amadeo, 2011) as a framework, we examined differences between immigrant and native-born youth's civic knowledge and support for women's rights in Sweden and the United States, and explored whether experiences with peers and parents, and in formal and informal…

  6. Investigation and management of gastro-oesophageal reflux in United Kingdom neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossor, Thomas; Andradi, Gwendolyn; Bhat, Ravindra; Greenough, Anne

    2018-01-01

    In 2004, wide variation in the investigation and management of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) of infants on UK major neonatal units was demonstrated. Our aim was to resurvey neonatal practitioners to determine current practice and whether it was now evidence based. A questionnaire was sent to all 207 UK neonatal units. Responses were obtained from 84% of units. The most frequent 'investigation' was a trial of therapy (83% of units); pH studies were used in 38%, upper GI contrast studies in 19% and multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII)/pH studies in 5%. Only six units suggested a threshold for an abnormal pH study and two units for an abnormal MII study. Infants were commenced on antireflux medication without investigation always in 32% of units, often in 29%, occasionally in 19% and only never in 1%. Gaviscon was used as first line treatment in 60% of units, and other medications included ranitidine in 53%, thickening agents in 27%, proton pump inhibitors in 23%, domperidone in 22% and erythromycin in 6%. There remains a wide variation in diagnostic and treatment strategies for infants with suspected GOR on neonatal intensive care units, emphasising the need for randomised trials to determine appropriate GOR management. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Atrial fibrillation in patients admitted to coronary care units in western Sweden - focus on obesity and lipotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizurarson, Sigfus; Ståhlman, Marcus; Jeppsson, Anders; Shao, Yangzhen; Redfors, Björn; Bergfeldt, Lennart; Borén, Jan; Omerovic, Elmir

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of arrhythmia in humans and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Obesity and diabetes have been linked to myocardial lipotoxicity - a condition where the heart accumulates and produces toxic lipid species. We hypothesized that obesity and diabetes were involved in the pathophysiology of AF by means of promoting a lipotoxic phenotype in atrial muscle, and that AF predicts mortality in cardiac care patients. Our study consists of two parts. The first part is a registry study based on prospective data obtained through the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA) from hospitals in western Sweden. All consecutive patients between 2006 and 2011 admitted to coronary care unit (CCU) with sinus rhythm (SR) or AF were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional-hazards regression were used to test whether diabetes and obesity were independent predictors of AF at admission to CCU and whether AF was associated with increased one-year mortality. In the second part we obtained atrial biopsies from 54 patients undergoing cardiac surgery and performed lipidomic analysis for a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipid species including triglycerides (TAG), ceramides (CER), phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphyngomyelins (SM), free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol esters (CEs) and diacylglycerols (DAGs). Between 2006 and 2011, 35232 patients were admitted to CCUs in western Sweden, mostly due to ischemic heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, syncope and chest pain. The mean age was 66years and 58.7% were male. There was a high prevalence of obesity (20.3%) and diabetes (16.8%). Obesity (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.17-1.56, Plipotoxicity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Regulatory responses to over-the-counter codeine analgesic misuse in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Claire L; Dobbin, Malcolm; McAvoy, Brian

    2013-10-01

    Analysis of the policy response by Australia's National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee (NDPSC) and comparison with recommendations by expert advisory committees in New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Analysis of public policy documents of relevant regulatory authorities was conducted. Data were extracted regarding changes to over-the-counter (OTC) codeine analgesic scheduling, indications, maximum unit dose, maximum daily dose, maximum pack size, warning labels, consumer medicine information and advertising. Where available, public submissions and other issues considered by the committees and rationale for their recommendations were recorded and thematically analysed. Expert advisory committees in Australia, NZ and the UK defined the policy problem of OTC codeine misuse and harm as small relative to total use and responded by restricting availability. Pharmacist supervision was required at the point-of-sale and pack sizes were reduced to short-term use. Comparison with recommendations by expert advisory committees in NZ and the UK suggests the NDPSC's actions in response to OTC codeine misuse were appropriate given the available evidence of misuse and harm, but highlights opportunities to utilise additional regulatory levers. Framing policy problems as matters of public health in the context of limited evidence may support decision makers to implement cautionary incremental policy change. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. A selected review and personal experience with robotic prostatectomy: implications for adoption of this new technology in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstraw, M A; Patil, K; Anderson, C; Dasgupta, P; Kirby, R S

    2007-01-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is a rapidly evolving technique for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. However, cynics point to the increasing role of market forces in the robotic revolution. As yet, Europe has not taken up RALP in large numbers and this may in part relate to the high level of expertise in laparoscopy previously gained. Furthermore, setting up a robotic programme is a major undertaking for many surgical units. This review discusses some of the challenges in the development of a robotic service drawn from personal experience within the United Kingdom. Furthermore, available data on RALP versus open and laparoscopic approaches are reviewed for surgical and cancer-related outcomes. Preliminary data appear to show an advantage over open prostatectomy with reduced blood loss, decreased pain and early mobilisation and shorter hospital stay. Most intra-institutional studies demonstrate better postoperative continence and potency with RALP; however, this needs to be viewed in the context of a paucity of randomized data available in the literature. There is no definitive data to show an advantage over standard laparoscopic surgery, but the fact that this technique has reached parity with laparoscopy within 5 years is encouraging: with continued experience, the hope is that results will continue to improve.

  10. The Birmingham Burn Centre archive: A photographic history of post-war burn care in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Kohlhardt, Angus; Moiemen, Naiem

    2015-06-01

    The Medical Research Council Burns and Industrial Injuries Unit at the Birmingham Accident Hospital pioneered civilian burn care and research in the United Kingdom during the post-war years. A photographic archive has been discovered that documents this period from 1945 to 1975. The aim of this project was to sort, digitize and archive the images in a secure format for future reference. The photographs detail the management of burns patients, from injury causation and surgical intervention, to nursing care, rehabilitation and long-term follow-up. A total of 2650 images files were collected from over 600 patients. Many novel surgical, nursing, dressing and rehabilitation strategies are documented and discussed. We have chosen to report part of the archive under the sections of (1) aseptic and antimicrobial burn care; (2) burn excision and wound closure; (3) rehabilitation, reconstruction and long-term outcomes; (4) accident prevention; and (5) response to a major burns incident. The Birmingham collection gives us a valuable insight into the approach to civilian burn care in the post-war years, and we present a case from the archive to the modern day, the longest clinical photographic follow-up to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. 76 FR 798 - Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... accessing its Internet server ( http://www.usitc.gov ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background.--On December... 4-6. The Court also affirmed the Commission's negative determination with respect to the United... would likely have significant volume and price effects. Id. at 7. Nevertheless, with respect to the...

  12. EDEX Educational Expansion and Labour Market: A Comparative Study of Five European Countries--France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom with Special Reference to the United States. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beduwe, Catherine; Planas, Jordi

    The long-term economic and social impacts of the rise in levels of education on mechanisms of access to employment and on human resources management were examined in a comparative study of educational expansion and the labor markets of France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom, with special reference to the United States. Five teams of…

  13. Correlation of Michigan neuropathy screening instrument, United Kingdom screening test and electrodiagnosis for early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateh, Hamid R; Madani, Seyed Pezhman; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher

    2015-01-01

    Almost half of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathies (DPNs) are symptom-free. Methods including questionnaires and electrodiagnosis (EDx) can be fruitful for easy reach to early diagnosis, correct treatments of diabetic neuropathy, and so decline of complications for instance diabetic foot ulcer and prevention of high costs. The goal of our study was to compare effectiveness of the Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST) and electrophysiological evaluation in confirming diabetic peripheral neuropathy. One hundred twenty five known diabetes mellitus male and female subjects older than 18 with or without symptoms of neuropathy comprised in this research. All of them were interviewed in terms of demographic data, lipid profile, HbA1C, duration of disease, and history of retinopathy, so examined by Michigan neuropathy screening instrument (MNSI), United Kingdom screening test (UKST), and nerve conduction studies (NCS). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software 18. One hundred twenty five diabetic patients (70 female, 55 male) were recruited in this study with a mean age of 58.7 ± 10.2, and mean duration of diabetes was 10.17 ± 6.9 years. The mean neuropathy score of MNSI and UKST were 2.3 (1.7) and 4.16 (2.9), respectively. Each instrument detected the peripheral neuropathy in 78 (69 %) and 91 (73 %) of patients, respectively. There was a significant relationship between number of neuropathies and mean of diabetes duration and development of retinopathy in both questionnaire evaluations and NCS. By nerve conduction study, neuropathy was detected in 121 (97 %) diabetic patients were reported in order 15 (12 %) mononeuropathy (as 33 % sensory and 67 % motor neuropathy) and 106 (85 %) polyneuropathy (as 31 % motor and 69 % sensorimotor neuropathy). As regards NCS is an objective, simple, and non-invasive tool and also can determine level of damage and regeneration in peripheral nerves, this study

  14. Exploring the spatio-temporal relationship between two key aeroallergens and meteorological variables in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwarahm, Nabaz; Dash, Jadunandan; Atkinson, Peter M; Newnham, R M; Skjøth, C A; Adams-Groom, B; Caulton, Eric; Head, K

    2014-05-01

    Constructing accurate predictive models for grass and birch pollen in the air, the two most important aeroallergens, for areas with variable climate conditions such as the United Kingdom, require better understanding of the relationships between pollen count in the air and meteorological variables. Variations in daily birch and grass pollen counts and their relationship with daily meteorological variables were investigated for nine pollen monitoring sites for the period 2000-2010 in the United Kingdom. An active pollen count sampling method was employed at each of the monitoring stations to sample pollen from the atmosphere. The mechanism of this method is based on the volumetric spore traps of Hirst design (Hirst in Ann Appl Biol 39(2):257-265, 1952). The pollen season (start date, finish date) for grass and birch were determined using a first derivative method. Meteorological variables such as daily rainfall; maximum, minimum and average temperatures; cumulative sum of Sunshine duration; wind speed; and relative humidity were related to the grass and birch pollen counts for the pre-peak, post peak and the entire pollen season. The meteorological variables were correlated with the pollen count data for the following temporal supports: same-day, 1-day prior, 1-day mean prior, 3-day mean prior, 7-day mean prior. The direction of influence (positive/negative) of meteorological variables on pollen count varied for birch and grass, and also varied when the pollen season was treated as a whole season, or was segmented into the pre-peak and post-peak seasons. Maximum temperature, sunshine duration and rainfall were the most important variables influencing the count of grass pollen in the atmosphere. Both maximum temperature (pre-peak) and sunshine produced a strong positive correlation, and rain produced a strong negative correlation with grass pollen count in the air. Similarly, average temperature, wind speed and rainfall were the most important variables influencing

  15. Genetic polymorphisms that affect selenium status and response to selenium supplementation in United Kingdom pregnant women1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jinyuan; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V; Redman, Christopher WG; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Rayman, Margaret P

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low selenium status in pregnancy has been associated with a number of adverse conditions. In nonpregnant populations, the selenium status or response to supplementation has been associated with polymorphisms in dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH), selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and the glutathione peroxidases [cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) and phospholipid glutathione peroxidase (GPx4)]. Objective: We hypothesized that, in pregnant women, these candidate polymorphisms would be associated with selenium status in early pregnancy, its longitudinal change, and the interindividual response to selenium supplementation at 60 μg/d. Design: With the use of stored samples and data from the United Kingdom Selenium in Pregnancy Intervention (SPRINT) study in 227 pregnant women, we carried out genetic-association studies, testing for associations between selenium status, its longitudinal change, and response to supplementation and common genetic variation in DMGDH (rs921943), SEPP1 (rs3877899 and rs7579), GPx1 (rs1050450) and GPx4 (rs713041). Selenium status was represented by the concentration of whole-blood selenium at 12 and 35 wk of gestation, the concentration of toenail selenium at 16 wk of gestation, and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) activity at 12 and 35 wk of gestation. Results: Our results showed that DMGDH rs921943 was significantly associated with the whole-blood selenium concentration at 12 wk of gestation (P = 0.032), which explained ≤2.0% of the variance. This association was replicated with the use of toenail selenium (P = 0.043). In unsupplemented women, SEPP1 rs3877899 was significantly associated with the percentage change in whole-blood selenium from 12 to 35 wk of gestation (P = 0.005), which explained 8% of the variance. In supplemented women, SEPP1 rs3877899 was significantly associated with the percentage change in GPx3 activity from 12 to 35 wk of gestation (P = 0.01), which explained 5.3% of the variance. Selenium status was

  16. Improving the prevention of money laundering in the United Kingdom - a situational crime prevention approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmour, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research study was to build upon the continuing interest around the applicability of situational crime prevention to tackle many forms of crime, including organised crimes. Using money laundering as the specific crime type, this study focused on two specific methods, namely cash intensive businesses and the purchasing of high value portable commodities to determine whether situational crime prevention could improve or enhance current preventative measures within the United Kin...

  17. Views of Medical Physics in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-19

    Clifton, a very senior and highly respected scientist in the medical physics community. He is also the honorary editor of Physics in Medicine and...scanners, gamma cameras, ultrasound scanners). The unit works with and carries out some research efforts with the Departments of Surgery , Medicine...in Yorkshire, and the use of Monte Carlo computer programs to calculate organ and tissue U dose from any external radiation field. The radiation

  18. The United Kingdom and the negotiation of the 1969 New York Convention on Special Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Young, John W

    2014-01-01

    During 1968-69, members of the United Nations, meeting in the Legal Committee of the General Assembly, negotiated a Convention on Special Missions, sometimes known as the New York Convention, setting out the privileges and immunities of ad hoc embassies between states. The negotiation was part of a process through which the UN sought to clarify the status and rights of official representatives, so that diplomacy could function with security and certainty. This article looks at the role of one...

  19. Likelihood of Treatment in a Coronary Care Unit for a First-Time Myocardial Infarction in Relation to Sex, Country of Birth and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; James, Stefan; de Faire, Ulf; Alfredsson, Lars; Jernberg, Tomas; Moradi, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between sex, country of birth, level of education as an indicator of socioeconomic position, and the likelihood of treatment in a coronary care unit (CCU) for a first-time myocardial infarction. Design Nationwide register based study. Setting Sweden. Patients 199 906 patients (114 387 men and 85,519 women) of all ages who were admitted to hospital for first-time myocardial infarction between 2001 and 2009. Main outcome measures Admission to a coronary care unit due to myocardial infarction. Results Despite the observed increasing access to coronary care units over time, the proportion of women treated in a coronary care unit was 13% less than for men. As compared with men, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio among women was 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.82). This lower proportion of women treated in a CCU varied by age and year of diagnosis and country of birth. Overall, there was no evidence of a difference in likelihood of treatment in a coronary care unit between Sweden-born and foreign-born patients. As compared with patients with high education, the adjusted odds ratio among patients with a low level of education was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.96). Conclusions Foreign-born and Sweden-born first-time myocardial infarction patients had equal opportunity of being treated in a coronary care unit in Sweden; this is in contrast to the situation in many other countries with large immigrant populations. However, the apparent lower rate of coronary care unit admission after first-time myocardial infarction among women and patients with low socioeconomic position warrants further investigation. PMID:23638036

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis Strains Show Specific Clustering for Men Who Have Sex with Men Compared to Heterosexual Populations in Sweden, the Netherlands, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christerson, Linus; Bom, Reinier J. M.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Yass, Resha; Hardick, Justin; Bratt, Göran; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Morré, Servaas A.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis improves the characterization of strains infecting different patient groups and sexual networks. In this study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ompA sequence determination were used for an analysis of C. trachomatis strains from 203 men who have sex with men (MSM) from Sweden, the Netherlands, and the United States. The results obtained were compared with data from 153 heterosexual women from Sweden and the Netherlands. The overlap in MLST/ompA profiles between MSM from Sweden and the Netherlands was 68%, while the overlap between heterosexual populations from these countries was only 18%. The distribution of genotypes in MSM from the United States was less similar to that in MSM from the European countries, with 45% and 46% overlaps for MSM in Sweden and the Netherlands, respectively. Minimum-spanning-tree analysis of MLST/ompA sequence types identified two large clusters that contained almost exclusively samples from MSM and comprised 74% of all MSM samples. Three other clusters were predominated by samples from women but also contained MSM specimens. Of 19 detected variants of the MLST target CT144, three variants were highly associated with MSM. Our study supports the hypotheses of both tissue tropism as well as epidemiological network structures as explanations for the linkage between specific genetic variants and sexual orientation. PMID:22915612

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of the Belief That Electronic Cigarettes are a Lot Less Harmful Than Conventional Cigarettes Under the Different Regulatory Environments of Australia and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Balmford, James; Hitchman, Sara C; Cummings, K Michael; Driezen, Pete; Thompson, Mary E

    2017-02-01

    The rapid rise in electronic cigarettes (ECs) globally has stimulated much debate about the relative risk and public health impact of this new emerging product category as compared to conventional cigarettes. The sale and marketing of ECs containing nicotine are banned in many countries (eg, Australia) but are allowed in others (eg, United Kingdom). This study examined prevalence and correlates of the belief that ECs are a lot less harmful than conventional cigarettes under the different regulatory environments in Australia (ie, more restrictive) and the United Kingdom (ie, less restrictive). Australian and UK data from the 2013 survey of the International Tobacco Control Four-Country project were analyzed. More UK than Australian respondents (58.5% vs. 35.2%) believed that ECs are a lot less harmful than conventional cigarettes but more respondents in Australia than in the United Kingdom selected "Don't Know" (36.5% vs. 17.1%). The proportion that responded "A little less, equally or more harmful" did not differ between countries. Correlates of the belief that ECs are "A lot less harmful" differed between countries, while correlates of "Don't Know" response did not differ. Consistent with the less restrictive regulatory environment affecting the sale and marketing of ECs, smokers and recent ex-smokers in the United Kingdom were more likely to believe ECs were less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes compared to those in Australia. What this study adds: Among smokers and ex-smokers, this study found that the belief that ECs are (a lot) less harmful than conventional cigarettes was considerably higher in the United Kingdom than in Australia in 2013. The finding is consistent with the less restrictive regulatory environment for ECs in the United Kingdom, suggesting that the regulatory framework for ECs adopted by a country can affect smokers' perceptions about the relative harmfulness of ECs, the group that stands to gain the most from having an accurate

  2. The macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza: estimates from models of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh-Brown, Marcus Richard; Smith, Richard D; Edmunds, John W; Beutels, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) showed that infectious disease outbreaks can have notable macroeconomic impacts. The current H1N1 and potential H5N1 flu pandemics could have a much greater impact. Using a multi-sector single country computable general equilibrium model of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands, together with disease scenarios of varying severity, we examine the potential economic cost of a modern pandemic. Policies of school closure, vaccination and antivirals, together with prophylactic absence from work are evaluated and their cost impacts are estimated. Results suggest GDP losses from the disease of approximately 0.5-2% but school closure and prophylactic absenteeism more than triples these effects. Increasing school closures from 4 weeks at the peak to entire pandemic closure almost doubles the economic cost, but antivirals and vaccinations seem worthwhile. Careful planning is therefore important to ensure expensive policies to mitigate the pandemic are effective in minimising illness and deaths.

  3. Devising a Composite Index to Analyze and Model Loneliness and Related Health Risks in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Lucy MSc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research presents a framework through which a spatial composite index is devised to determine areas of potential loneliness and associated health risks. The research is evidenced on the London borough of Southwark in the United Kingdom but is designed such that it could be applied more widely. Method: The work adopts a quantitative approach through the combination of census and accessibility variables at a small area level. The output is a scoring system whereby each area is assigned a value indicating the likely presence of loneliness and potentially corresponding health risks. Results: Findings imply that loneliness is quantifiable and that this correlates with socioeconomic and accessibility measures. A strong clustering is evident in Southwark. Discussion: This research builds on previous attempts to locate and quantify loneliness with favorable results. The outcome provides a replicable solution to assist the public service with the targeting of areas deemed most at risk from loneliness and resultant mental and physical health conditions at a time when such issues are high on the political agenda.

  4. The management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in the United Kingdom and Vietnam: a multi-centre evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy E Thwaites

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a common and serious infection worldwide and although treatment guidelines exist, there is little consensus on optimal management. In this study we assessed the variation in management and adherence to treatment guidelines of S. aureus bacteremia.We prospectively recorded baseline clinical characteristics, management, and in-hospital outcome of all adults with S. aureus bacteremia treated consecutively over one year in eight centres in the United Kingdom, three in Vietnam and one in Nepal. 630 adults were treated for S. aureus bacteremia: 549 in the UK (21% methicillin-resistant, 80 in Vietnam (19% methicillin-resistant and 1 in Nepal. In the UK, 41% had a removable infection focus (50% intravenous catheter-related, compared to 12% in Vietnam. Significantly (p50% of treatment with oral antibiotics alone (25% versus 4%. UK centres varied significantly (p50% of treatment (range 12-40%, in those treated for longer than 28 days (range 13-54%, and in those given combination therapy (range 14-94%. 24% died during admission: older age, time in hospital before bacteremia, and an unidentified infection focus were independent predictors of in-hospital death (p<0.001.The management of S. aureus bacteremia varies widely between the UK and Vietnam and between centres in the UK with little adherence to published guidelines. Controlled trials defining optimal therapy are urgently required.

  5. Multiple sclerosis, tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1 infection in Afro-Caribbean patients in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, P; Ali, A; Cruickshank, J K

    1991-08-01

    Forty four consecutive patients of Afro-Caribbean origin resident in the United Kingdom (UK) were studied, based on a provisional diagnosis of myelopathy of unknown cause, tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) or multiple sclerosis (MS). Of 30 patients with progressive paraparesis 27 had serum antibodies to HTLV-1 and were classified as having TSP. Fourteen patients fulfilled the criteria for MS and none of 12 tested had HTLV-1 antibodies. All the TSP patients and nine of those with MS were born in the West Indies. Five of the West Indianborn MS patients had migrated to the UK after adolescence but the duration of residence in the UK before symptoms of MS developed was similar to those born in the UK (average 18 years). The features that differentiated MS from TSP patients, apart from HTLV-1 status, included clinical evidence of cranial nerve involvement, more extensive abnormalities on the brain and cervical cord MRI and asymmetry of the VEP latency increase, all of which were more frequent in the MS group. Of the three patients without a diagnosis one, born in the UK, had marked abnormalities on MRI of the brain indistinguishable from those seen in MS.

  6. Newly Qualified Teachers’ Needs of Support for Professional Competences in Four European Countries: Finland, the United Kingdom, Portugal, and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilhelmiina Harju

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first few years in the teaching profession are usually demanding. Although initial teacher education forms an essential foundation for teachers’ work, it cannot fully prepare new teachers for the complexities of working life. This study focuses on investigating the need for professional development support among newly qualified teachers to determine what their professional learning needs are and how these needs differ among teachers from four different countries: Finland, the United Kingdom (England, Portugal and Belgium (Flanders. The research data was collected via a questionnaire from 314 teachers, each with less than five years of teaching experience, and both closed and open-ended questions were included. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis to identify the latent variables associated with their needs. Answers to the open-ended questions were used to gain deeper insight into the newly qualified teachers’ situation. The results indicate that new teachers need support, especially regarding conflict situations and in differentiating their teaching. In addition, when analysing the profiles of eight support-need latent variables, all of the teachers in the different countries viewed supporting students’ holistic development as the most important area. Although the results of this study cannot be generalised, they provide an important overview of new teachers’ learning needs that should be taken into account when planning and organising support for them.

  7. Vancomycin resistant enterococci in urine cultures: Antibiotic susceptibility trends over a decade at a tertiary hospital in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Toner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Enterococci are a common cause of urinary tract infection and vancomycin-resistant strains are more difficult to treat. The purpose of this surveillance program was to assess the prevalence of and determine the risk factors for vancomycin resistance in adults among urinary isolates of Enterococcus sp. and to detail the antibiotic susceptibility profile, which can be used to guide empirical treatment. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014 we retrospectively reviewed 5,528 positive Enterococcus sp. urine cultures recorded in a computerized laboratory results database at a tertiary teaching hospital in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Results: Of these cultures, 542 (9.8% were vancomycin resistant. No longitudinal trend was observed in the proportion of vancomycin- resistant strains over the course of the study. We observed emerging resistance to nitrofurantoin with rates climbing from near zero to 40%. Ampicillin resistance fluctuated between 50% and 90%. Low resistance was observed for linezolid and quinupristin/ dalfopristin. Female sex and inpatient status were identified as risk factors for vancomycin resistance. Conclusions: The incidence of vancomycin resistance among urinary isolates was stable over the last decade. Although resistance to nitrofurantoin has increased, it still serves as an appropriate first choice in uncomplicated urinary tract infection caused by vancomycin- resistant Enterococcus sp.

  8. Pedigree analysis and epidemiological features of idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus in the United Kingdom: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardy, A H; Barker, S; Chesney, D; Sharp, L; Maffulli, N; Miedzybrodzka, Z

    2007-07-05

    Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) is a common developmental disorder of the foot, affecting between 1 and 4.5 per 1000 live births. The aetiology is not well elucidated. While both genetic and environmental factors are implicated, no specific genes have been identified and little is known about environmental risk factors. We conducted a case-control study of idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (ICTEV) in the United Kingdom. 194 cases and 60 controls were recruited. Pedigrees were obtained for 167 cases. The rank of the index pregnancy, maternal education and caesarean delivery were significantly associated with ICTEV risk in a multivariate model. There were suggestions that maternal use of folic acid supplements in the three months before the pregnancy decreased ICTEV risk, and that parental smoking during the pregnancy increased risk, although the associations were not statistically significant. One quarter of pedigrees showed a family history of CTEV, and autosomal dominant inheritance was suggested in some of these. Uterine restriction did not appear to have a strong influence on ICTEV development in our study. Large population-based studies are needed to clarify the aetiology of this common developmental disorder.

  9. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance activity in the United Kingdom: a survey on behalf of the british society of cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dargie Henry J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The indications, complexity and capabilities of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR have rapidly expanded. Whether actual service provision and training have developed in parallel is unknown. Methods We undertook a systematic telephone and postal survey of all public hospitals on behalf of the British Society of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance to identify all CMR providers within the United Kingdom. Results Of the 60 CMR centres identified, 88% responded to a detailed questionnaire. Services are led by cardiologists and radiologists in equal proportion, though the majority of current trainees are cardiologists. The mean number of CMR scans performed annually per centre increased by 44% over two years. This trend was consistent across centres of different scanning volumes. The commonest indication for CMR was assessment of heart failure and cardiomyopathy (39%, followed by coronary artery disease and congenital heart disease. There was striking geographical variation in CMR availability, numbers of scans performed, and distribution of trainees. Centres without on site scanning capability refer very few patients for CMR. Just over half of centres had a formal training programme, and few performed regular audit. Conclusion The number of CMR scans performed in the UK has increased dramatically in just two years. Trainees are mainly located in large volume centres and enrolled in cardiology as opposed to radiology training programmes.

  10. Chlorhexidine allergy in four specialist allergy centres in the United Kingdom, 2009-13: clinical features and diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, W; Helbert, M; Sargur, R; Swallow, K; Harper, N; Garcez, T; Savic, S; Savic, L; Eren, E

    2017-06-01

    We describe an observational survey of diagnostic pathways in 104 patients attending four specialist allergy clinics in the United Kingdom following perioperative hypersensitivity reactions to chlorhexidine reactions. The majority were life-threatening. Men undergoing urological or cardiothoracic surgery predominated. Skin prick testing and specific immunoglobulin (sIg)E testing were the most common tests used for diagnosis. Fifty-three per cent of diagnoses were made on the basis of a single positive test. Where multiple tests were performed the sensitivity of intradermal, basophil activation and skin prick testing was 68% (50-86%), 50% (10-90%) and 35% (17-55%), respectively. Seven per cent were negative on screening tests initially, and 12 cases were only positive for a single test despite multiple testing. Intradermal tests appeared most sensitive in this context. Additional sensitization to other substances used perioperatively, particularly neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA), was found in 28 patients, emphasizing the need to test for possible allergy to all drugs to which the patient was exposed even where chlorhexidine is positive. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  11. Owners and Veterinary Surgeons in the United Kingdom Disagree about What Should Happen during a Small Animal Vaccination Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshaw, Zoe; Robinson, Natalie J; Dean, Rachel S; Brennan, Marnie L

    2018-01-18

    Dog and cat vaccination consultations are a common part of small animal practice in the United Kingdom. Few data are available describing what happens during those consultations or what participants think about their content. The aim of this novel study was to investigate the attitudes of dog and cat owners and veterinary surgeons towards the content of small animal vaccination consultations. Telephone interviews with veterinary surgeons and pet owners captured rich qualitative data. Thematic analysis was performed to identify key themes. This study reports the theme describing attitudes towards the content of the consultation. Diverse preferences exist for what should be prioritised during vaccination consultations, and mismatched expectations may lead to negative experiences. Vaccination consultations for puppies and kittens were described to have a relatively standardised structure with an educational and preventative healthcare focus. In contrast, adult pet vaccination consultations were described to focus on current physical health problems with only limited discussion of preventative healthcare topics. This first qualitative exploration of UK vaccination consultation expectations suggests that the content and consistency of adult pet vaccination consultations may not meet the needs or expectations of all participants. Redefining preventative healthcare to include all preventable conditions may benefit owners, pets and veterinary surgeons, and may help to provide a clearer structure for adult pet vaccination consultations. This study represents a significant advance our understanding of this consultation type.

  12. Pedigree analysis and epidemiological features of idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus in the United Kingdom: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maffulli N

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV is a common developmental disorder of the foot, affecting between 1 and 4.5 per 1000 live births. The aetiology is not well elucidated. While both genetic and environmental factors are implicated, no specific genes have been identified and little is known about environmental risk factors. Methods We conducted a case-control study of idiopathic congenital talipes equinovarus (ICTEV in the United Kingdom. 194 cases and 60 controls were recruited. Pedigrees were obtained for 167 cases. Results The rank of the index pregnancy, maternal education and caesarean delivery were significantly associated with ICTEV risk in a multivariate model. There were suggestions that maternal use of folic acid supplements in the three months before the pregnancy decreased ICTEV risk, and that parental smoking during the pregnancy increased risk, although the associations were not statistically significant. One quarter of pedigrees showed a family history of CTEV, and autosomal dominant inheritance was suggested in some of these. Conclusion Uterine restriction did not appear to have a strong influence on ICTEV development in our study. Large population-based studies are needed to clarify the aetiology of this common developmental disorder.

  13. Review of infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom for potential releases of radioactivity into the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, I.; Voigt, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Lochard, J.; Croueail, P. [Centre d' Etudes sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, Paris (France); Nisbet, A.; Mercer, J.; Green, N.; Wilkins, B. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    For the European SAGE-Project a review of the existing infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom concerning radiation protection with regard to a long term contamination after a nuclear accident was made. This review clearly shows that the infrastructure in all three countries regulates the situation during and shortly after a nuclear incident but not in case that a radioactive contamination will last for long time. For that situation it is necessary to install local information centres in the affected area with sufficient trained staff. To improve the confidence of the population in possible measures implemented by the authorities a copious and understandable information and education must be provided. Especially doctors, teachers, kindergarten teachers and mothers have to get the possibility to be educated in a reasonable way how to deal with a short, middle and long term contamination. The concerned population must be able to control the own radiological situation by measuring their environment and their food and by reducing food contamination by appropriate reasonable measures. (orig.)

  14. Plant viruses and viroids in the United Kingdom: An analysis of first detections and novel discoveries from 1980 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, A; Mumford, R A

    2017-09-15

    This review covers 35 years (1980-2014) representing a period of changing land use and agricultural practices in the United Kingdom (UK), which have also witnessed a marked change in the availability and application of new diagnostic technologies. During this period there have been 53 first records of viruses and viroids, of which 36 were first UK findings and a further 17 previously undescribed viruses. Given the challenges in detection and diagnosis of plant viruses, the field of plant virology has been an early adopter of new diagnostic technologies and these data highlight the transition from a reliance on biological, morphological, and serological based identification to the increased application of nucleic acid based detection methods and latterly the emergence of Next-Generation Sequencing. This review presents a comprehensive record of these findings and an analysis of how the potential drivers of change such as commodity based research, trade, as well as the application of diagnostic technology, could have influenced the frequency and type of findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Religion in Organ Donation-Development of the United Kingdom Faith and Organ Donation Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, G; Neuberger, J

    2016-04-01

    At a national policy level, the United Kingdom is at the forefront of recognizing the role of faith and its impact on organ donation. This is demonstrated by the recommendations of the Organ Donation Taskforce, National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines on organ donation, All-Party Parliamentary Kidney Group, and National Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Taskforce Alliance. Evidence to date shows that further thought is required to ensure the active engagement of faith communities with organ donation in the UK. The "Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020" strategy was launched in July 2013 by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) in collaboration with the Department of Health and Welsh, Scottish, and Northern Irish governments and seeks to increase the number of people, from all sections of the UK's multiethnic and multifaith population, who consent to and authorize organ donation in their life. NHSBT seeks to work in partnership with faith leaders and this culminated in a Faith and Organ Donation Summit. Faith leaders highlight that there is a need for engagement at both national and local levels concerning organ donation as well as diagnosis and definition of death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of GMC performance assessments in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort analysis by country of medical qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, L; Potts, H W W; Sturrock, A; Dacre, J

    2017-04-04

    The demographics of doctors working in the UK are changing. The United Kingdom (UK) has voted to leave the European Union (EU) and there is heightened political discourse around the world about the impact of migration on healthcare services. Previous work suggests that foreign trained doctors perform worse than UK graduates in postgraduate medical examinations. We analysed the prevalence by country of primary medical qualification of doctors who were required to take an assessment by the General Medical Council (GMC) because of performance concerns. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of data routinely collected by the GMC. We compared doctors who had a GMC performance assessment between 1996 and 2013 with the medical register in the same period. The outcome measures were numbers experiencing performance assessments by country or region of medical qualification. The rate of performance assessment varied significantly by place of medical qualification and by year; χ 2(17) = 188, p environment the UK should adopt once it leaves the EU. Patients should be reassured that the vast majority of all doctors working in the UK are competent.

  17. United Kingdom Veterinarians' Perceptions of Clients' Internet Use and the Perceived Impact on the Client-Vet Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; Oxley, James A; Hellyer, Peter; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2017-01-01

    The Internet is a commonly used resource for accessing health information. Despite the Internet's popularity in the human health field, little is known about the Internet's impact on veterinarians, their clients, and the veterinarian-client relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of veterinarians from the United Kingdom of clients' use of the Internet and the perceived impact on pet health and the veterinarian-client relationship. A survey was distributed between January 4 and March 3, 2017, via an online link. In total, 100 veterinarians completed the survey. This study found that most UK veterinarians feel their clients access the Internet to find pet health information, yet often do not understand what they read online. Importantly, 40% of veterinarians stated that the Internet has a negative impact on companion animal health. This small-scale study found mixed opinions regarding veterinarians' perceptions of their clients' use of the Internet and the potential impact it has on the client-veterinarian relationship. Research on clients' actual use of the Internet and their associated perceptions is a next logical step.

  18. Follow up after Primary Treatment of Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Survey of Current Practice in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Gerrand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the clinical and financial implications, there is little evidence about how patients who have been treated for soft tissue sarcoma should be followed up. The purpose of this study was to determine current practice in the United Kingdom. 192 clinicians treating patients with soft tissue sarcoma were surveyed with a postal questionnaire enquiring about frequency and method of follow up and how patients would be followed up in each of 3 clinical scenarios: a patient with a trunk or extremity tumour at low risk of relapse; a patient with a trunk or extremity tumour at high risk of relapse; and a patient with a retroperitoneal or abdominal tumour. 155 (81% clinicians responded. Clinic visits and X-rays were the most frequently used methods of follow up. Chest CT scans, local site imaging, and blood tests were used infrequently. The intensity and methods of follow up varied with each of the clinical scenarios. There was a seven-to-twenty fold variation in cost between the least and the most expensive regimes. Respondents were generally supportive of the development of the clinical trial in this area.

  19. The psychosocial work environment and mental health of teachers: a comparative study between the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jessica Janice; Leka, Stavroula; MacLennan, Sara

    2013-08-01

    There is limited research on teachers' psychosocial work environment and mental health, and most has been conducted in predominantly Western countries that share a number of important common characteristics that distinguish them from countries in many other regions of the world. Within the framework of the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) theoretical model, the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and mental health of teachers in the United Kingdom (UK) and Hong Kong (HK) was investigated. Full-time qualified teachers from both the UK and HK (N = 259) participated in the research. They were asked to fill in a set of questionnaires that measured their perceived stress, mental health, psychosocial work environment and demographic information. Perceived stress was found to predict teachers' mental health. Overcommitment, the intrinsic component of the ERI model, predicted mental health among HK teachers. There were significant differences in the psychosocial variables between UK and HK teachers. The results showed support for the ERI model and in particular for the relationship between stress and mental health and demonstrated the role of overcommitment in the teaching profession. Some implications are discussed for combating cultural differences in managing the psychosocial work environment of teachers.

  20. The background to the proposition that plankton be used as food in the United Kingdom during the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P G

    2011-01-01

    Food shortages, particularly of proteins, in Britain during the Second World War led to the suggestion re-surfacing that marine plankton might be harvested on an industrial scale first as human food, then turning to its potential use as a supplement to stock and poultry feed. The notion emanated in the United Kingdom from Sir John Graham Kerr, at Glasgow University. He encouraged Alister Hardy, at Hull, to develop the idea and the natural testing ground was the Clyde Sea Area (given the extensive history of plankton research at Millport). Unpublished documents from the archives of the Scottish Association for Marine Science shed new light on the interactions behind the scenes of this project between Kerr, Hardy and the Millport Marine Station's then director, Richard Elmhirst. Elmhirst, who was sceptical about the feasibility of the plan from the outset, went along with it; not least as a way of attracting welcome research funding during lean times but also, doubtless, regarding it as his patriotic duty in case the proposal proved worthwhile.