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Sample records for sweden switzerland turkey

  1. SWEDEN AND TURKEY: TWO MODELS OF WELFARE STATE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea - Emanuela Dragoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes two models of economic development: Sweden and Turkey. The main objective of this analysis is to highlight in which way two countries with different development strategies, economic geography, mentality and culture have managed to maintain growth before and during the global economic crisis, becoming gradually genuine models of welfare state. The analysis undertaken in this paper is, consequently, divided into two parts. The first shows the Swedish model of welfare state, that was an inspirational one in the ’70 and ’80, and its specific strengths and vulnerabilities. The second part summarizes Turkey's economic development over the past decade,emphasizing comparative advantages that have made it the 16th largest economy of the world and its strategy in terms of managing the international economic crisis. The final part of our comparative approach aims to respond to the following question: may those two economic models be considered proper economic lessons for the other states that are confronted with economic vulnerabilities?

  2. Business Students' Perception of Sales Careers: Differences between Students in Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Fahri; Quigley, Charles; Bingham, Frank; Hari, Juerg; Nasir, Aslihan

    2014-01-01

    This research measures perceptual differences between sales and sales careers among business students studying in the United States, Switzerland, and Turkey. Earlier studies indicate that selling and a sales career are not viewed favorably by students in the United States and several other countries. This study expands on prior studies by…

  3. His Excellency Mr Ali Naci Koru Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of Turkey to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organisations in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Ali Naci Koru Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of Turkey to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organisations in Switzerland

  4. Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri Jørgensen, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The book answers ten delay-related questions when the FIDIC Red Book (internationally recognized standard construction contract) is subjected to the law of twelve different countries. Sylvie Cavaleri wrote the chapter concerning Switzerland.......The book answers ten delay-related questions when the FIDIC Red Book (internationally recognized standard construction contract) is subjected to the law of twelve different countries. Sylvie Cavaleri wrote the chapter concerning Switzerland....

  5. English Teacher Training Programs in Denmark, Sweden and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2016-01-01

    Teachers play one of the most important roles in reaching learning objectives. The qualifications of teachers in an education system reflect the potential of that system and directly influence the learners' achievement. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare Danish and Swedish English teacher training programs with that of Turkey and…

  6. Teaching Traditions in Physical Education in France, Switzerland and Sweden: A Special Focus on Official Curricula for Gymnastics and Fitness Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Emmanuelle; Lenzen, Benoît; Öhman, Marie

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss similarities and differences between the curricula for physical education (PE) in secondary schools in Sweden, France and the canton of Geneva (Switzerland) in the light of PE teaching traditions (PETTs). Teaching traditions concern ideas about the goals of school disciplines and therefore about the…

  7. Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    In 1985, Sweden's population stood at 8.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 0.2%. The infant mortality rate was 6.4/1000, and life expectancy was 76 years for men and 82 years for women. The gross domestic product was US$100.2 billion, with a per capita income of $11,989. Of the work force of 4.34 million, 4.9% are in agriculture, 29.8% work in industry, 21.3% are employed in the commerce and finance sector, and 43.9% are engaged in services. Among the social problems Sweden faces are the increasingly large proportion of the population over age 65 years and the challenge of integrating immigrants into social and political life while preserving national languages and customs. Development during the 1970s was less favorable than in most comparable countries; however, industrial recovery during the 1980s has restored the competitiveness of Swedish exports. There is general agreement that investment in new plants and machinery must be increased and wages and consumption must be moderated if Sweden is to expand its industrial sector.

  8. A comparative population-based study of prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva, Switzerland from 1973 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cynthia; Naidoo, Nasheen; Yang, Qian; Hartman, Mikael; Verkooijen, Helena M; Loy, En Yun; Bouchardy, Christine; Chia, Kee Seng; Chia, Sin Eng

    2012-06-06

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in Sweden and Geneva, and the third most common in men in Singapore. This population-based study describes trends in the incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva (Switzerland) from 1973 to 2006 and explores possible explanations for these different trends. Data from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were extracted from national cancer registries in Singapore (n = 5,172), Sweden (n = 188,783) and Geneva (n = 5,755) from 1973 to 2006. Trends of incidence and mortality were reported using the Poisson and negative binomial regression models. The age, period and birth-cohort were tested as predictors of incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer. Incidence rates of prostate cancer increased over all time periods for all three populations. Based on the age-period-cohort analysis, older age and later period of diagnosis were associated with a higher incidence of prostate cancer, whereas older age and earlier period were associated with higher mortality rates for prostate cancer in all three countries. This study demonstrated an overall increase in incidence rates and decrease in mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva. Both incidence and mortality rates were much lower in Singapore. The period effect is a stronger predictor of incidence and mortality of prostate cancer than the birth-cohort effect.

  9. The Nationalised and Gendered Citizen in a Global World--Examples from Textbooks, Policy and Steering Documents in Turkey and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Marie; Kanci, Tuba

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the construction of the gendered and nationalised citizen in education in Turkey and Sweden. We draw on a narrative approach identifying narratives linked to educational discourses. Our empirical data consist of textbooks (in the later years of mandatory schooling), steering documents and interviews. In both our cases, we…

  10. From Higher Education to Employment. Volume IV: Portugal, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland = De l'enseignement superieur a l'emploi. Volume IV: Portugal, Royaume-Uni, Suede, Suisse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume reports on the flow of graduates from higher education into working life in Portugal, the United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland. Chapters for each nation were contributed by national experts in that field. The first section of the report, on Portugal, contains two papers. The first, written in English, discusses recent changes in the…

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of dronedarone versus other anti-arrhythmic drugs for the treatment of atrial fibrillation--results for Canada, Italy, Sweden and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jonas; Åkerborg, Örjan; Bégo-Le Bagousse, Gaëlle; Rosenquist, Mårten; Lindgren, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The ATHENA clinical trial enrolled 4,628 patients in 37 countries and evaluated the efficacy of dronedarone 400 mg twice daily versus placebo for the prevention of cardiovascular hospitalisation or death from any cause in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. The trial showed a statistically significant 24% reduction in the primary endpoint cardiovascular hospitalisations or all-cause death. In the current paper, parameters that drive the cost-effectiveness of dronedarone on top of standard therapy versus likely comparators, i.e. amiodarone, sotalol and flecainide, were investigated by means of a health economic model based on the ATHENA clinical trial. Dronedarone is cost-effective, and ICERs are low versus amiodarone with €5,340; €4,620; €3,850 and €5,630 per QALY gained for Canada, Italy, Sweden and Switzerland, respectively. The most significant driving factor for the cost-effectiveness of dronedarone is the increased survival rate for patients on dronedarone.

  12. Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  13. Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.M.; Kurzweil, M.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the evolution of Turkey¿s agricultural policies in recent decades, examines the extent to which these policies may have distorted incentives, and attempts an explanation of the underlying forces that have driven the process and conditioned the results. The review

  14. Immigrant patients' experiences and reflections pertaining to the consultation: a study on patients from Chile, Iran and Turkey in primary health care in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiking, Eivor; Saleh-Stattin, Nuha; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Our knowledge of the immigrant patient's experiences and reflections regarding consultations in primary health care where interpreters are used is limited. Thus, the primary aim was to explore these experiences and reflections. The second aim was to study whether demographic and migration-related factors are associated with the patient's satisfaction with the consultation and feeling of consolation given by the general practitioner (GP). The third aim was to analyse whether these feelings are related to the time from the booking to the consultation, to self-reported health, symptoms and the patient's experiences. A questionnaire was distributed to 78 consecutive immigrant patients from Chile, Iran and Turkey at 12 primary healthcare centres around Stockholm. The respondents were asked about their background and health status, while open-ended questions focused on their experiences and comments regarding the consultation and cross-cultural communication in general. Ethical approval was obtained. The respondents consisted of 52 patients, 16 from Chile, nine from Iran and 27 from Turkey. Most of the answers concerned communication problems because of language and cultural differences between the GP and the patient and the GP's ability to listen. Therefore, the importance of having a competent interpreter for a satisfactory consultation was stressed. Many of the respondents also felt that the GP's ability to listen to them and understand them is crucial in the consultation. Background facts, including demographic and migration-related factors, health status and factors related to the consultation, did not seem to be associated with the patient's satisfaction and the feeling of consolation. One limitation is that the sample is small and not equally distributed. The use of authorized interpreters during the consultation is essential. The consultation must be based on a patient-centred strategy and adjusted to the patient's educational level. Cultural competence is needed

  15. Cybersecurity in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Gives the reader a detailed account of how cyber-security in Switzerland has evolved over the years, using official documents and a considerable amount of inside knowledge. It focuses on key ideas, institutional arrangements, on the publication of strategy papers, and importantly, on processes leading up to these strategy documents. The peculiarities of the Swiss political system, which influence the way cyber-security can be designed and practiced in Switzerland are considered, as well as the bigger, global influences and driving factors that shaped the Swiss approach to cyber-security. It

  16. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  17. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  18. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  19. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  20. Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Denmark and Sweden have some of the largest public sectors in Europe. They are also characterized by predominantly voluntaristic labor market models where collective bargaining and employee involvement play a relatively strong role in public sector employment relations (ER). In this chapter, we...... more profound in Sweden than in Denmark, but they took place before the 2008 crisis. In Sweden, an economic crisis in the 1990s was a much more important driver than the post- 2008 crisis. The 1990s crisis contributed to an earlier implementation of NPM and to a higher degree of decentralization...

  1. Jungfrau and Interlaken, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Bernese Alps form the centerpiece of this late summer view of Switzerland; Jungfrau (J - 4158 m), Moench (M - 4089 m), and Eiger (E - 3970 m) are among the higher peaks of the Central Alps. North of the range is the city of Interlaken, flanked by the Thune See and Brienzer See (lakes); the long, straight-segmented valley of the Rhone lies to the south. On the southern flank of the Jungfrau massif is the Aletsch glacier, meltwaters of which feed the upper Rhone; another source is the Rhone glacier at the eastern end of the valley. One estimate holds that roughly half the ice in glaciers of the European Alps has melted since 1850 (http://www.geographical.co.uk/geographical/features/feb_2001_climate.html). U-shaped valleys carved by glaciers are clearly visible; some, such as that of the Rhone, have been modified by through-flowing rivers. The Swiss Alps are elements of a great mountain system that was constructed as Africa and Eurasia collided, starting more than 90 million years ago. Ancient basement rocks (>325 million years old) of the Bernese Alps were uplifted, folded, and forced northward between 29 and 10 million years ago. Reference: Trumpy, R., 1997, Alpine orogeny, in Moores, E. M. and Fairbridge, R. W., editors, Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology: London, Chapman and Hall, pages 16-26. STS106-718-09 was taken in September, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 106 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  2. Kabbalah in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karlsson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history of Kabbalah in Sweden. The reader is presented with an overall view to Kabbalah in Sweden: first, the Johannes Bureus and the Nordic Kabbalah, Kabbalah after Bureus, Kabbalistic literature, and last, Kabbalah in Sweden today. When the Kabbalah reached Sweden it was mainly the non-Jewish Kabbalah that gained influence, even if its Jewish roots were acknowledged. Johannes Bureus unites, in a similar fashion as do the Christian Kabbalists in continental Europe, Christian motifs with the symbolic world of the Kabbalah. Bureus, however, adds runes, ancient Norse gods and Gothic ideas in his own unique manner. The Kabbalah invites speculation and the search for correspondences which has caused the Kabbalah in Sweden to be united with a number of other traditions. Bureus combined the Kabbalah with runes and Gothicism; in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries we can find the Kabbalah in Freemasonry and Esoteric societies, while the Kabbalah in the twentieth century and onwards has been associated with New Age, Parapsychology and Indian Mysticism. Apart from Bureus, most Kabbalists in Sweden have followed the trends that flourished in the rest of the world. Bureus was the first to create a specifically Swedish interpretation of the Kabbalah.

  3. 75 FR 32640 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Finland- Public Interest Exception to the Buy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... France Greece Israel Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. (b) Individual acquisitions of qualifying country end...

  4. 48 CFR 225.872-1 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Greece Israel Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. (b) Individual acquisitions of qualifying country end products...

  5. 48 CFR 225.003 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Israel Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. (11) Qualifying country component and qualifying country end product...

  6. Switzerland: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pietro, Carlo; Camenzind, Paul; Sturny, Isabelle; Crivelli, Luca; Edwards-Garavoglia, Suzanne; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Quentin, Wilm

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the Swiss health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Swiss health system is highly complex, combining aspects of managed competition and corporatism (the integration of interest groups in the policy process) in a decentralized regulatory framework shaped by the influences of direct democracy. The health system performs very well with regard to a broad range of indicators. Life expectancy in Switzerland (82.8 years) is the highest in Europe after Iceland, and healthy life expectancy is several years above the European Union (EU) average. Coverage is ensured through mandatory health insurance (MHI), with subsidies for people on low incomes. The system offers a high degree of choice and direct access to all levels of care with virtually no waiting times, though managed care type insurance plans that include gatekeeping restrictions are becoming increasingly important. Public satisfaction with the system is high and quality is generally viewed to be good or very good. Reforms since the year 2000 have improved the MHI system, changed the financing of hospitals, strengthened regulations in the area of pharmaceuticals and the control of epidemics, and harmonized regulation of human resources across the country. In addition, there has been a slow (and not always linear) process towards more centralization of national health policy-making. Nevertheless, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health care system are well above the EU average, in particular in absolute terms but also as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) (11.5%). MHI premiums have increased more quickly than incomes since 2003. By European standards, the share of out-of-pocket payments is exceptionally high at 26% of total health expenditure (compared to the EU average of 16%). Low and middle-income households contribute a greater share of their income to

  7. First report of spinose ear tick, Otobius megnini (Acari, Argasidae), in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Anders; Lindström, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    A dog that had travelled to Sweden was inspected by a veterinarian. In one ear canal a tick was found. It was later identified as a spinose ear tick, Otobius megnini. In this case report we also review the previously known reports of O. megnini in Europe and the recent introduction and spread in Turkey.

  8. Energy in Sweden 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Swedish Energy Agency's main duty is to assist the evolution of Sweden's energy system into a reliable, ecologically and economically sustainable system. The Agency is also responsible for the collection, processing and publication of official statistics in the energy field. The annual Energy in Sweden report, and its sister publication, Energy in Sweden - Facts and Figures (download able from the Agency's web site), are intended to provide decision makers, journalists, businesses, teachers and the public with co herent and easily accessible information on developments in the energy sector. The report also provides an overview of Sweden's current energy and climate policy, policy measures, the use and supply of energy, energy prices and energy markets, together with information on the effects of the energy system on the environment. Starting with Energy in Sweden 2012, the structure and layout of the report has been revised, to produce a shorter report than in previous years. It is the intention that this shorter format should be published in alternate years, alternating with a longer version. The new structure means that the division into chapters has been changed. The presentation of energy use is now divided up into chapters in the respective sections for the three sectors of residential and services, industry and transport. The presentation of energy supply is divided into two chapters: Primary Energy Carriers and Secondary Energy Carriers. The statistics which provide the foundation for the publication are based mainly on official statistics up to and including 2010, complemented where possible by input reflecting current events and decisions up to the summer of 2011. The Agency's annual publication, Energy Indicators, complements this Energy in Sweden report with details of a number of indicators for monitoring the progress towards energy policy objects.

  9. Intolerance toward immigrants in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance...

  10. Switzerland: the pragmatics of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    Switzerland has a population of seven million and approximately 600 medical technology companies are located there. This equates to one company per 12 thousand people and arguably the highest density in the world. The factors that make the country a successful place to do business are outlined in this interview with Professor Bestetti, Head of the CTI Medtech initiative.

  11. Turkey`s energy insecurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunali, O.

    1995-07-01

    The economic boom underway throughout much of the developing world today is spurring a surge in energy markets the likes of which have not been seen since the 1960s. The International Energy Agency projects that developing countries` energy use will nearly double by 2010, and that their share of the world total will grow from the current 27 percent to 40 percent. While such figures can be seen as signs of progress, they bear seeds of danger as well. If the new demand is met mainly by fossil fuels, rising oil prices and spreading environmental damage could undermine the economic development that extended energy use is intended to trigger. Turkey is a country that epitomizes the dilemma. A cultural bridge between East and West, and a geographic one between oil producers and consumers, Turkey lies at the crossroads of the industrial and developing worlds. Occupying a territory more than twice the size of Germany or Japan, it has a population of 60 million - projected to reach 80 million by 2010 - and a rapidly industrializing economy. Yet, in its per capita income and energy use, it is closer to Brazil or Thailand than to its industrialized fellow members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This article looks both at the present energy supplies and needs of Turkey and its future energy supplies in terms of alternative energy resources such as sunlight and wind and increasing natural gas imports. Emphasis on the less expensive and technology intense energy would decrease the need to plan for the huge burdens of nuclear energy.

  12. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. (see the official news about the new "Carte de légitimation P") If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible...

  13. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  14. International Conference (4th) on Nanostructured Materials Held in Stockholm, Sweden on 14-19 June 1998. Special Volume - Part B. Volume 12, Numbers 5-8, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-19

    Sweden Carl Tryggers Stiftelse, Sweden Elsevier Science Inc., Switzerland Finnair, Finland The Office of Naval Research ONR, USA European...Fecht, H.J. and Klose, S., Materials Science Forum, 1996, 225-227, 65. 3. Wanderka, N., Wei, Q., Doole, R., Jenkins, M., Friedrich , S., Macht, M...correction function (Aa = ± 0.0001 run). Mean crystallite size D and average microstrains <e2>1/2 were quantified by the Cauchy- Gauss method using

  15. Energy in Sweden 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  16. Energy in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  17. Sweden's largest Facebook study

    OpenAIRE

    Denti, Leif; Barbopoulus, Isak; Nilsson, Ida; Holmberg, Linda; Thulin, Magdalena; Wendeblad, Malin; Andén, Lisa; Davidsson, Emelie

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet has made it easier for people to socially interact than ever before. Today, the most popular channel is Facebook with over 845 million users world wide. In Sweden, the number of users amount to approximately half of the population. We had two aims with this study. First, we investigate which areas of Facebook usage that Swedish Facebook users consider more important vis-a-vis less important. We were also interested in how users convey their persona through t... m...

  18. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  19. Counseling in Switzerland: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roslyn; Henning, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    The authors review counseling in Switzerland and compare it with counseling in the United States. They evaluate the role of professional associations and programs and argue that the evolution of counseling is situated within the history and economic, social, and political systems of Switzerland. Findings suggest that Swiss counselors are ready to…

  20. Switzerland and the Holocaust: Teaching Contested History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schar, Bernhard C.; Sperisen, Vera

    2010-01-01

    This study is about a history textbook which introduces the new transnational master-narrative of Holocaust memory into the classrooms of the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The script of the book entails a replacement of the formerly dominant view of Switzerland as a neutral nation resisting evil in favour of an image that aligns Switzerland…

  1. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina; Azavedo, Edward; Baarslag, Henk J; Balleyguier, Corinne; Baltzer, Pascal A; Beslagic, Vanesa; Bick, Ulrich; Bogdanovic-Stojanovic, Dragana; Briediene, Ruta; Brkljacic, Boris; Camps Herrero, Julia; Colin, Catherine; Cornford, Eleanor; Danes, Jan; de Geer, Gérard; Esen, Gul; Evans, Andrew; Fuchsjaeger, Michael H; Gilbert, Fiona J; Graf, Oswald; Hargaden, Gormlaith; Helbich, Thomas H; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Ivanov, Valentin; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Kuhl, Christiane K; Lisencu, Eugenia C; Luczynska, Elzbieta; Mann, Ritse M; Marques, Jose C; Martincich, Laura; Mortier, Margarete; Müller-Schimpfle, Markus; Ormandi, Katalin; Panizza, Pietro; Pediconi, Federica; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Pinker, Katja; Rissanen, Tarja; Rotaru, Natalia; Saguatti, Gianni; Sella, Tamar; Slobodníková, Jana; Talk, Maret; Taourel, Patrice; Trimboli, Rubina M; Vejborg, Ilse; Vourtsis, Athina; Forrai, Gabor

    2017-07-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years taking up the invitation while the probability of false-positive needle biopsy is <1 % per round and overdiagnosis is only 1-10 % for a 20-year screening. Mortality reduction was also observed for the age groups 40-49 years and 70-74 years, although with "limited evidence". Thus, we firstly recommend biennial screening mammography for average-risk women aged 50-69 years; extension up to 73 or 75 years, biennially, is a second priority, from 40-45 to 49 years, annually, a third priority. Screening with thermography or other optical tools as alternatives to mammography is discouraged. Preference should be given to population screening programmes on a territorial basis, with double reading. Adoption of digital mammography (not film-screen or phosphor-plate computer radiography) is a priority, which also improves sensitivity in dense breasts. Radiologists qualified as screening readers should be involved in programmes. Digital breast tomosynthesis is also set to become "routine mammography" in the screening setting in the next future. Dedicated pathways for high-risk women offering breast MRI according to national or international guidelines and recommendations are encouraged. • EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support screening mammography. • A first priority is double-reading biennial mammography for women aged 50-69 years. • Extension to 73-75 and from 40-45 to 49 years is also encouraged. • Digital mammography (not film-screen or computer radiography) should be used. • DBT is set to become "routine mammography" in the screening setting in the next future.

  2. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardanelli, F.; Aase, H.S.; Alvarez, M.; Azavedo, E.; Baarslag, H.J.; Balleyguier, C.; Baltzer, P.A.; Beslagic, V.; Bick, U.; Bogdanovic-Stojanovic, D.; Briediene, R.; Brkljacic, B.; Herrero, J.; Colin, C.; Cornford, E.; Danes, J.; Geer, G. de; Esen, G.; Evans, A.; Fuchsjaeger, M.H.; Gilbert, F.J.; Graf, O.; Hargaden, G.; Helbich, T.H.; Heywang-Kobrunner, S.H.; Ivanov, V.; Jonsson, A.; Kuhl, C.K.; Lisencu, E.C.; Luczynska, E.; Mann, R.M.; Marques, J.C.; Martincich, L.; Mortier, M.; Muller-Schimpfle, M.; Ormandi, K.; Panizza, P.; Pediconi, F.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Pinker, K.; Rissanen, T.; Rotaru, N.; Saguatti, G.; Sella, T.; Slobodnikova, J.; Talk, M.; Taourel, P.; Trimboli, R.M.; Vejborg, I.; Vourtsis, A.; Forrai, G.

    2017-01-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years

  3. Porphyria in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunell, S; Floderus, Y; Henrichson, A; Harper, P

    2006-01-01

    In a brief survey the work of Swedish porphyrinologists through time is presented, from the organic chemist Jakob Berzelius 1840 to the molecular biologists of today. The building up in Stockholm of a Swedish national competence centre for porphyria is touched upon and the emergence of a computerized national register on the porphyria gene carriers in the country described. Figures for the prevalences of the seven different forms of porphyria diagnosed in Sweden are given. The geographical distribution of gene mutation spectra is shown for the most frequent form, acute intermittent porphyria. The organisation at Porphyria Centre Sweden of its diagnostic and consultative services is described, as is the decentralized model for porphyria care applied in the form of a clinical network covering the long and sparsely populated country. The ideas and activities of the Swedish Porphyria Patients' Association are presented. Its focus on protection-by-information of the porphyria gene carrier against maltreatment in health service contacts, and against other exposures to environmental threats to his or her health, is discussed. The combined efforts of the national porphyria centre and the patients' association have resulted in early and accurate diagnosis of most of the porphyria gene carriers in the country. The information to the carriers and to the health service regarding the mechanisms of the diseases and the importance of avoiding exposure to disease triggering environmental factors have greatly reduced porphyric morbidity. In the case of the acute porphyrias, by this programme and after the introduction of heme arginate in the therapy, mortality in the acute phase has become extremely rare in Sweden. In contrast, probably due to greater awareness of the high risk for liver cancer in acute porphyrias the number of hepatoma cases diagnosed has increased. The current research activities at the Porphyria Centre which aim at finding ways to substitute the mutated gene in

  4. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  5. Sweden health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders; Glenngård, Anna H; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Life expectancy in Sweden is high and the country performs well in comparisons related to disease-oriented indicators of health service outcomes and quality of care. The Swedish health system is committed to ensuring the health of all citizens and abides by the principles of human dignity, need and solidarity, and cost-effectiveness. The state is responsible for overall health policy, while the funding and provision of services lies largely with the county councils and regions. The municipalities are responsible for the care of older and disabled people. The majority of primary care centres and almost all hospitals are owned by the county councils. Health care expenditure is mainly tax funded (80%) and is equivalent to 9.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) (2009). Only about 4% of the population has voluntary health insurance (VHI). User charges fund about 17% of health expenditure and are levied on visits to professionals, hospitalization and medicines. The number of acute care hospital beds is below the European Union (EU) average and Sweden allocates more human resources to the health sector than most OECD countries. In the past, the Achilles heel of Swedish health care included long waiting times for diagnosis and treatment and, more recently, divergence in quality of care between regions and socioeconomic groups. Addressing long waiting times remains a key policy objective along with improving access to providers. Recent principal health reforms over the past decade relate to: concentrating hospital services; regionalizing health care services, including mergers; improving coordinated care; increasing choice, competition and privatization in primary care; privatization and competition in the pharmacy sector; changing co-payments; and increasing attention to public comparison of quality and efficiency indicators, the value of investments in health care and responsiveness to patients needs. Reforms are often introduced on the local level, thus the pattern of

  6. Adult Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  7. Mentoring in general surgery in Switzerland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reto M Kaderli; Jennifer M Klasen; Adrian P Businger

    2015-01-01

    .... The present study was conducted to describe the current situation of mentoring in the surgical community in Switzerland and to evaluate sex differences regarding the impact of mentoring on career...

  8. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  9. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    Henceforth only the undermentioned persons shall be authorized by the Advisor for Relations with the Member States and the Advisor for Relations with the non-Member States to sign official letters of invitation and other related documents : James V. ALLABY Lyndon EVANS Cecilia JARLSKOG Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Karl-Heinz SCHINDL. As a precautionary measure, all persons coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed. Any further information required may be obtained from the Swiss and French consulates. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/e...

  10. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  11. The ‘Indianisation of Switzerland'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    This paper demonstrates how Indian popular cultural expressions (Bollywood films) are transforming sociospatial textures in central Switzerland. Empirical illustrations are derived from various data sources from an ongoing fieldwork conducted in multiple Swiss locations (Interlaken, Luzern...... as promotional material (printed and online). Following a short historical account of Bollywood tourism in Switzerland, an analysis of the recent place promotion and branding campaigns is presented, revealing the interplay between established and emerging (Occidental) imageries of the Alps. Second, Bollywood...

  12. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  13. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  14. Event studies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulkem Basdas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to review the event studies conducted for Turkey to in order to identify the common components in their designs. This paper contributes to the existing literature by reviewing all event studies for Turkey for the first time, but more importantly; this review leads to the upcoming event studies on Turkey by highlighting main components of a proper design. Based on the review of 75 studies, it is observed that event studies generally choose BIST-100 (formerly, ISE-100 market index and market adjusted returns with the parametric tests. In general, the studies prefer to rely on one type of model to calculate abnormal returns without discussing the selection of the underlying model. Especially for the event studies focusing on the impact of political events or macroeconomic announcements in Turkey, there is a risk of clustering due to the application of same event date for all observations.

  15. Teaching Traditions in Science Education in Switzerland, Sweden and France: A Comparative Analysis of Three Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Laurence; Venturini, Patrice; Almqvist, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Classroom actions rely, among other things, on teaching habits and traditions. Previous research has clarified three different teaching traditions in science education: the academic tradition builds on the idea that simply the products and methods of science are worth teaching; the applied tradition focuses on students' ability to use scientific…

  16. PEP725: real time monitoring of phenological events in Austria, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungersboeck, Markus; Bolmgren, Kjell; Huebner, Thomas; Kaspar, Frank; Langvall, Ola; Paul, Anita; Pietragalla, Barbara; Scheifinger, Helfried; Koch, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of PEP725 (Pan European Phenological database; http://www.pep725.eu/) is to promote and facilitate phenological research by delivering a pan European phenological database with an open, unrestricted data access for science, research and education. The first datasets in PEP725 date back to 1868; however, there are only a few observations available until 1950. From 1951 onwards, the phenological networks all over Europe developed rapidly. So far more than 11 923 489 of observations of 121 different plants are now available in the PEP725 database. Approximately 40 % of all data are flowering records, 10 % are fruit ripeness observations and also 10 % are leaf unfolding observations. The PEP725 database is updated annually. But since recently Deutscher Wetterdienst and MeteoSwiss offer their observers to upload their observations via web in real time mode, ZAMG introduced this web-based feature already in 2007 (phenowatch.at) and the observers of SWE-NPN (the Swedish National Phenology Network) can submit their observations through the web application naturenskalender.se since the start in 2008. Since spring 2016 one you can find a real time animated monitoring tool showing how the "green wave" in spring is moving from 46° northern latitude up to the Arctic Circle and the "brown wave" in autumn in the opposite direction. In 2015 the "green wave" speeds up from app. 4.4 days/degree latitude for hazel flowering to 2.9 days/ degree latitude for willow flowering and 2.25 days/degree latitude for birch leaf unfolding. There are other European countries as for instance Italy, The Netherlands, UK that have been doing visualizations of ground phenology in real time for some years, but these efforts always end at the national borders. PEP725 is funded by ZAMG, the Austrian ministry of science, research and economy and EUMETNET, the network of European meteorological services. So far 21 European meteorological services and 7 partners from different phenological network operators have joined PEP725.

  17. Turkey: A Strategic Ally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-16

    in education. This will con- tinue to enhance Turkey’s modernization efforts. It is estimated that over 55 percent of the people can read and write .10... writing a new constitution which is expected to strengthen the presi- dency and make provisions for a strong two party political system which...Turkey guards the European land aproach of the eastern Mediterranean and presents a formidable obstacle in the path of any Soviet expansion designs

  18. Energy Security and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    92 Mustafa Kemal Ataturk , 1923. 93 “Turkish-U.S. Political Relations,” Republic of Turkey Ministry of...gas and oil on the world market, without any interruption or mandate by established producers. Guided by the enduring legacy of Mustafa Kemal ...enduring legacy of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Turkey has been pursuing a policy of “Peace at Home and Peace Abroad” since the very establishment of the

  19. Energy Diplomacy of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Ozdemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with current issues of energy diplomacy of Turkey. The authors describe the main positive and negative results of Turkey's foreign energy policy in terms of the implementation of major energy projects. Geopolitical processes in the world, the conflict of interests of various countries in the political arena are important factors that affect the crude oil and natural gas pipeline projects. Particular attention is paid to the problems and prospects of cooperation between the Turkish Republic and the Russian Federation in the fuel and energy complex. The authors describe the interaction betweeen Russia and Turkey in the energy sector, including geo-economic interests of the countries in the Russian-Turkish gas dialogue. Turkey made efforts to position as an alternative gas supply route, taking advantage of concern about increasing Europe's dependence on Russian exports. Last years Turkey has set itself the important task - to turn from transit country into a regional gas hub. Ukrainian crisis increased the geostrategic importance of the Black Sea region to Russia, as well as strengthened the ambition of the Turkish side. The authors also highlight the prospects of the natural gas pipeline project from Russia via the Black Sea to Turkey and to the Turkish-Greek border, which named "Turkish stream". This project was frozen in terms of military and political processes at the end of 2015 in Syria.

  20. Pediatric oncology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebudi, Rejin

    2012-03-01

    The survival of children with cancer has increased dramatically in the last decades, as a result of advances in diagnosis, treatment and supportive care. Each year in Turkey, 2500-3000 new childhood cancer cases are expected. According to the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group and Turkish Pediatric Hematology Societies Registry, about 2000 new pediatric cancer cases are reported each year. The population in Turkey is relatively young. One fourth of the population is younger than 15 years of age. According to childhood mortality, cancer is the fourth cause of death (7.2%) after infections, cardiac deaths and accidents. The major cancers in children in Turkey are leukemia (31%), lymphoma (19%), central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms (13%), neuroblastomas (7%), bone tumors (6.1%), soft tissue sarcomas (6%), followed by renal tumors, germ cell tumors, retinoblastoma, carcinomas-epithelial neoplasms, hepatic tumors and others. Lymphomas rank second in frequency as in many developing countries in contrast to West Europe or USA, where CNS neoplasms rank second in frequency. The seven-year survival rate in children with malignancies in Turkey is 65.8%. The history of modern Pediatric Oncology in Turkey dates back to the 1970's. Pediatric Oncology has been accepted as a subspecialty in Turkey since 1983. Pediatric Oncologists are all well trained and dedicated. All costs for the diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer is covered by the government. Education and infrastructure for palliative care needs improvement.

  1. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  2. Social media and journalism study 2013 - Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Pole, K.; Gulyás, A

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of the wider 2013 social journalism study and reports specifically on Sweden. It suggests that journalists in Sweden are a moderately high user of social media, using it regularly for their work particularly for sourcing stories. Using cluster analysis the largest group is the Architects suggesting that journalism in Sweden is dominated by active social media users.

  3. The fate of turkey #88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Todd Mills

    1993-01-01

    On January 9, 1990, 32 turkeys were captured in the Black Hills of South Dakota using the drug alpha-chloralose. One of these turkeys had a unique tag attached to it's wing that indicated it had been trapped previously Let's look back in time and see what made the events in the life of this turkey deviate slightly from "The Events in the Turkey Year...

  4. Health care technology in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, E.; Banta, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    Health care in Sweden is a public sector responsibility and equity in access to care is quite important. The Swedish system is organized into several levels, with the Federation of County Councils at the top, and with regional, county, and local levels. In theory, the four hospital tiers developed

  5. Cutting and Preserving Whole Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Brennand, Charlotte P.

    1995-01-01

    There are more uses for a turkey than roasting it whole for holiday occasions. The least expensive way to have turkey pieces, especially if the turkey is purchased on sale, is to cut it up yourself. The following is to serve as a butchering and processing guide.

  6. Dental tourism from Switzerland to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Raluca; Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    In recent years the topic of dental tourism has increasingly come into focus of dentists and patients. In the present study an attempt was made to find out, why patients from a restricted region travel to Germany for dental care. In five German dental clinics located in the border area between Switzerland and Germany, 272 women and 236 men ranging in age from 5 to 94 years, who had undergone at least one dental treatment in Germany, were questioned concerning the reasons for their visits. The interviews took place within a period of 6 months and relied on a questionnaire to collect data regarding sociodemographic features and patient behavior. In comparison to residents of Germany, patients residing in Switzerland took on considerably longer travel distances for the dental visit, in some cases more than 50km (9.7%). For patients residing in Switzerland the technical equipment of the practice was more important (pSwitzerland (95.6%) confirmed that dental treatments in Germany were cheaper and that additional family members also came to Germany for dental care (65.0%).

  7. Turkey`s Harmless Tango Between East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Mujanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey got actively involved in world politics and international relations after AKP came to power in early 2000s. Turkey`s foreign policy since AKP came to power, has the theoretical basis in Davutoglu`s Strategic Depth. New doctrines rely on historical right inherited from the Ottoman Empire, which contributed towards Turkish pro-active and multi-dimensional foreign policy. Without forgetting traditional Western allies, Turkey has established itself as a regional power in the Balkans, Middle East and Central Asia with significant success. This paper attempts to analyze how Turkey has been playing a harmless tango between its traditional allies in the West and regions in the near abroad which had made Turkey a global player in the international relations. Then, it is important to analyze Turkey's transformation and its approved role by the Western powers as a strong Islamic country with secular governance in the Middle East and Central Asia.

  8. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    The world’s most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsi...

  9. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  10. 1975 Lice, Turkey Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  11. Terrorism in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Arnold, Jeffrey; Ersoy, Gurkan

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, terrorism has exacted an enormous toll on the Republic of Turkey, a secular democracy with a 99.8% Muslim population. From 1984 to 2000, an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Turkish citizens were killed by a nearly continuous stream of terrorism-related events. During this period, the Partiya Karekerren Kurdistan (PKK), a Kurdish separatist group (re-named KADEK in 2002), was responsible for the vast majority of terrorism-related events (and casualties), which disproportionately affected the eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, in which the PKK has focused its activities. Most terrorist attacks over the past two decades have been bombings or shootings that produced or = 30 casualties (eight shootings, five bombings, and two arsons). The maximum number of casualties produced by any of these events was 93 in the Hotel Madimak arson attack by the Turkish Islamic Movement in 1993. This pattern suggests that terrorist attacks in Turkey rarely required more than local systems of emergency medical response, except in rural areas where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are routinely provided by regional military resources. The last decade has seen the development of several key systems of local emergency response in Turkey, including the establishment of the medical specialty of Emergency Medicine, the establishment of training programs for EMS providers, the spread of a generic, Turkish hospital emergency plan based on the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System, and the spread of advanced training in trauma care modeled after Advanced Trauma Life Support.

  12. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  13. Insects for turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van T.G.C.M.; Veldkamp, T.

    2017-01-01

    In a trial with 14 pens with in each 20 turkey pullets (males, not treated) research has been conducted to the effect of feeding 12% insect larvae (Black Soldier Fly) on technical results and behaviour. The birds were kept until 5 weeks of age. The larvae fed groups ate less, had a higher growth

  14. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  15. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  16. Country Profiles, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lewis S.

    A profile of Turkey is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  17. Federal census of the population in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

    A federal census of the 2010 population has been underway since January 2011. The objective is to provide important insights into the composition of the resident population, households and families in Switzerland and identify trends. The census methods have been modernised so that it covers only information that is not already contained in Federal, Cantonal and municipal registries of persons; the information will be gathered via questionnaires issued to approximately 3% of the population residing in Switzerland. In order to obtain representative information about the local population, the Canton of Geneva has requested that questionnaires be issued to international civil servants and members of their families aged 15 and over who live in the Canton. They will be invited to respond to the questionnaire on a strictly voluntary basis. If they choose not to respond to the questionnaire, they will not be contacted again. The Permanent Swiss Mission to the International Organizations in Geneva wishes in advance t...

  18. Biomedical informatics in Switzerland: need for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, Christian; Blaser, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical informatics (BMI) is an umbrella scientific field that covers many domains, as defined several years ago by the International Medical Informatics Association and the American Medical Informatics Association, two leading players in the field. For example, one of the domains of BMI is clinical informatics, which has been formally recognised as a medical subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialty since 2011. Most OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries offer very strong curricula in the field of BMI, strong research and development funding with clear tracks and, for most of them, inclusion of BMI in the curricula of health professionals, but BMI remains only marginally recognised in Switzerland. Recent major changes, however, such as the future federal law on electronic patient records, the personalised health initiative or the growing empowerment of citizens towards their health data, are adding much weight to the need for BMI capacity-building in Switzerland.

  19. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  20. [Clinical autopsies in Switzerland : A status report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, A-K; Bode, P; Cathomas, G; Moch, H

    2017-07-27

    The number of autopsies has been steadily declining worldwide over the past decades. The reasons for this are diverse. Legislation regarding opposition and consent rules does not appear to have had a significant impact on the autopsy rates. Above all, structural causes and the attitude of the medical profession are the reasons for this decline. The main argument for a high autopsy rate is the identification of diagnostic errors; however, diagnostic discrepancies are relatively independent of the rate of autopsies performed. At the University Hospital (UniversitätsSpital) Zurich it could be shown in a study that from 1972-2002 the frequency of relevant diagnostic discrepancies (classes I and II) decreased from 30% to 7%. The aim of this article is to present the necessity of a stable autopsy rate and to examine the situation of the autopsy in Switzerland. For this purpose, the importance of autopsies in the fields of quality assurance of medical diagnostics, cancer statistics, medical research as well as further education of doctors in Switzerland is shown. Efforts are being made by the pathologists to counteract the declining autopsy rates. Declining autopsy numbers have a significant influence on cancer statistics. The rate of newly discovered tumors in autopsies in Switzerland decreased from 42% in 1980 to 17% in 2010. Pediatric autopsies are an important tool for quality assurance of medical diagnostics in neonatology and pediatrics in Switzerland, but the rate of autopsies carried out is also declining. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations (virtopsy) could increase the acceptance of the parents for an autopsy in the future. Autopsies make an important contribution in research and in documentation of therapy-associated side effects and they are an important component of further education of the upcoming medical generations.

  1. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different

  2. Ten years of integrated care in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Berchtold

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Switzerland, a growing part of primary care is provided by networks of physicians and health maintenance organizations (HMOs acting on the principles of gatekeeping. To date, an average of one out of eight insured person in Switzerland, and one out of three in the regions in north-eastern Switzerland, opted for the provision of care by general practitioners in one of the 86 physician networks or HMOs. About 50% of all general practitioners and more than 400 other specialists have joined a physician networks. Seventy-three of the 86 networks (84% have contracts with the healthcare insurance companies in which they agree to assume budgetary co-responsibility, i.e. to adhere to set cost targets for particular groups of patients. Within and outside the physician networks, at regional and/or cantonal levels, several initiatives targeting chronic diseases have been developed, such as clinical pathways for heart failure and breast cancer patients or chronic disease management programs for patients with diabetes. The relevance of these developments towards more integration of healthcare as well as their implications for the future are discussed.

  3. Does the Breast Cancer Age at Diagnosis Differ by Ethnicity? A Study on Immigrants to Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Jan; Brandt, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background. Age-specific incidence rates for breast cancer in low-risk and high-risk ethnic populations differ by age at which the incidence maximum is reached: around 50 years in low-risk populations and over 60 years in high-risk populations. The interpretation of these differences remains unsettled, one line primarily referring to biological differences, the second one to cohort effects of rapidly increasing rates in young populations, and the third one to incomplete registration of cancer in the elderly. Methods. The nationwide Family-Cancer Database was used to analyze standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and age at diagnosis of breast cancer in female immigrants to Sweden by their region of origin compared with women native to Sweden matched on birth year and other relevant factors. Results. We showed first that the SIRs for breast cancer were lower in many immigrant groups compared with natives of Sweden; women from Turkey had the lowest SIR of 0.45, followed by those from Chile (0.54) and Southeast Asia (0.57). Women from nine regions showed an earlier mean age at diagnosis than their matched Swedish controls, the largest differences being 5.5 years for women from Turkey, 5.1 years for those from Asian Arab and “Other African” countries, 4.3 years for those from Iran, and 4.0 years for those from Iraq. Conclusions. The results show that in many immigrant groups, the diagnostic age is earlier (Sweden (>50 years), suggesting that true biological factors underlie the differences. These factors may explain much of the international variation in breast cancer incidence. Identifying these factors should advance understanding of breast cancer etiology and prevention. PMID:21266400

  4. Turkey-EU Migration: The Road Ahead

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip Martin

    2012-01-01

    .... Turkey is a net immigration country, and net migration between Turkey and Germany has been negative in recent years, meaning that more German residents move to Turkey than Turkish residents to Germany...

  5. Primary care in Switzerland gains strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Sima; Meier, Tatjana; Hasler, Susann; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Although there is widespread agreement on health- and cost-related benefits of strong primary care in health systems, little is known about the development of the primary care status over time in specific countries, especially in countries with a traditionally weak primary care sector such as Switzerland. The aim of our study was to assess the current strength of primary care in the Swiss health care system and to compare it with published results of earlier primary care assessments in Switzerland and other countries. A survey of experts and stakeholders with insights into the Swiss health care system was carried out between February and March 2014. The study was designed as mixed-modes survey with a self-administered questionnaire based on a set of 15 indicators for the assessment of primary care strength. Forty representatives of Swiss primary and secondary care, patient associations, funders, health care authority, policy makers and experts in health services research were addressed. Concordance between the indicators of a strong primary care system and the real situation in Swiss primary care was rated with 0-2 points (low-high concordance). A response rate of 62.5% was achieved. Participants rated concordance with five indicators as 0 (low), with seven indicators as 1 (medium) and with three indicators as 2 (high). In sum, Switzerland achieved 13 of 30 possible points. Low scores were assigned because of the following characteristics of Swiss primary care: inequitable local distribution of medical resources, relatively low earnings of primary care practitioners compared to specialists, low priority of primary care in medical education and training, lack of formal guidelines for information transfer between primary care practitioners and specialists and disregard of clinical routine data in the context of medical service planning. Compared to results of an earlier assessment in Switzerland, an improvement of seven indicators could be stated since 1995. As a

  6. 10 CFR 110.30 - Members of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....30 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND... Italy Japan Latvia Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Republic of Korea Romania Russia Slovak Republic Slovenia South Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom ...

  7. The History of Tuberculosis Management in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Wallstedt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB.

  8. The history of tuberculosis management in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstedt, Helen; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Child Health Systems in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Björn; Blennow, Margareta; Hjern, Anders; Söder, Olle; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2016-10-01

    On a national level, several factors are responsible for Sweden's leading position in achieving the excellent health of children because Sweden has experienced a long history of peace and success in establishing a parliamentary democracy throughout the 20th century. Among the different sectors of society, Sweden has been able to focus on prevention and health promotion. The Swedish health care system is publicly financed based on local taxation. Pediatricians working in secondary and tertiary care are employed by the public sector, whereas family physicians are employed by both the private and public sectors. The pediatric departments at county and university levels provide a high quality of inpatient care for neonates and children. The county hospital pediatric departments typically include one neonatal ward and one ward for older children. Subspecialization exists even at the county level, and there is close cooperation between the county level and subspecialist units at the university level. Within the primary care sector, most children receive care from family physicians. The majority of family physicians have completed 3 months of pediatrics in their basic training program. In the more densely populated areas there are also pediatric ambulatory care centers working mostly with referrals from the family physicians. Preventive care is carried out at midwife-led maternity health centers, nurse-led Child Health Centers, and nurse-led school health care settings and reach almost everyone (99%). All health care for children and adolescents is free of charge up to 18 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  11. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  12. Nursing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  13. Pododermatitis in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven; Hansen, Greg; McLean, Peter; Bond, Paul; Wakeman, Wendy; Meadows, Roger; Buda, Silke

    2002-01-01

    Severe pododermatitis is a common lesion in turkeys, unlike in broiler chickens. Both dietary factors (soybean meal, biotin, methionine) and poor litter conditions (wet litter) are documented etiologies of footpad lesions. In the United States and United Kingdom both farm managers and processors monitor lesions. The United Kingdom reports an average footpad relative score higher than that of the United States. In both countries, incidence in toms is higher than in hens. There is no significant difference by country. Data support no consistent association with other lesions (i.e., breast blisters or condemnations), breed, or performance parameters (i.e., weight gain or age). The litter type used in the United Kingdom is either straw or wood shavings, whereas in the United States producers predominantly use wood shavings. In the United Kingdom, diets are formulated with a higher protein, which affects the excreta and subsequent litter conditions. British United Turkey is the predominate breed in the United Kingdom. In the United States, three breeds, British United Turkey of America, hybrid, and Nicholas, are common. Recent research has demonstrated the association between biotin levels and pododermatitis. Factors associated with pododermatitis (such as production systems, wet litter, and stocking density) are discussed. There are some indications that increased stocking density is associated with pododermatitis lesions. Further research is needed to identify what management factors are associated with pododermatitis.

  14. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States... on carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden. SUMMARY: The Commission... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  15. Immunoprotectivity of attenuated turkey poxvirus in turkey poults and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, fowl pox vaccine is used in all categories of poultry. However there has been reports of outbreak of turkey pox virus in poults previously vaccinated with fowl pox vaccine. Pox Lesion from poults was excised for isolation of virus and viral propagation in chorioallantoid membrane. Turkey pox virus were isolated ...

  16. Gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billieux, Joël; Achab, Sophia; Savary, Jean-Félix; Simon, Olivier; Richter, Frédéric; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2016-09-01

    To provide an overview of gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland, including historical aspects, past and current legislation and policies, treatment options and the research base. A literature search was conducted on two databases (PubMed and PsycINFO), and official government and statistical reports selected from the official websites of four sources (Federal Office of Justice; Federal Gambling Board; Federal Office of Statistics; Swiss Lottery and Betting Board). After a history of banning or partial banning, Swiss gambling became regulated at the beginning of the 20th century through successive laws. The current system is characterized by important differences in the law and policies for casinos and lotteries, and contradictions in the regulation of these two areas are still under debate in order to develop new legislation. Gambling is widespread in Switzerland, and the prevalence of problem gambling in this country was comparable to that in other European countries in 2014. Most gambling treatment facilities are integrated into mental health treatment services that have out-patient programmes, and treatment for problem gambling is covered by a universal compulsory Swiss health insurance system. The availability of public funding for gambling research is still limited. Switzerland needs to develop a more coherent regulatory and prevention policy approach to gambling, overcoming conflicts in the current dual system of federal and cantonal regulation. Recent efforts to enhance funding for gambling research are promising, and could lead to a more systematic analysis of the efficacy of prevention and treatment programmes. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  18. Switzerland and its Past: An Uncomfortable Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    de Weck, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This lecture was originally delivered at the University of California, Berkeley, on November 10, 2008. It addresses Switzerland’s asylum policies during the Second World War, as well as its relations with Apartheid South Africa in the 1970s and 1980s. The author argues that Switzerland must accept responsibility for its past faults in order to grow into the humanitarian nation that it professes to be. Roger de Weck was born in Fribourg in 1953. He is currently chairman of the Board o...

  19. Switzerland's Financial Infrastructure: Today and Tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    Gisiger, Martin; Weber, Werner

    2005-01-01

    This paper delves into the question of the driving forces behind financial infrastructure developments, both in Switzerland and globally. Firstly, the case of the "Swiss value chain", its home market and its pan-European reach, will be presented. As the case of virt-x or Eurex demonstrates, the domicile of trading platforms at the case of, is no longer bound to a traditional home market. We then proceed to a broad discussion of the economic factors that shape the European landscape. Liquidity...

  20. INOPS Survey data report for Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Severin, Majbritt Christine

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Sweden. The statistics rely on data collected in the period from May 2015 to June 2015 through an online survey...... send to managers in all 290 municipalities in Sweden....

  1. Preservice Teachers' Intercultural Competence: A Comparative Study of Teachers in Switzerland and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Soner; Ogay Barka, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Every society consists of individuals different in terms of physical, psychological, and sociocultural characteristics. Differentiation in today's societies has increased due to globalization, intensified immigration, advancements in communication technologies, and the recent increase in value of subcultures within the dominant…

  2. Energy use in Sweden: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Johnson, F.; Howarth, R.; Price, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Andersson, B.; Andersson, B.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Handelshoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-01

    This report analyzes the evolution of energy use in Sweden since the early 1970s. The purpose of the study, which is sponsored by NUTEK, Department of Energy Efficiency, the Swedish Agency for Technical and Industrial Development, is to shed light on the future path of energy use in Sweden by quantifying and understanding changes in past energy use. Energy efficiency has been identified by Swedish authorities in countless official studies as a key element in Sweden`s efforts to restrain oil imports, reduce reliance on nuclear power, reduce environmental impacts of energy use, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. To understand the role or performance of energy efficiency in the 1970s and 1980s in Sweden, and what this performance means about the future, the authors seek answers to three broad questions: (1) How has the structure and efficiency of energy use in Sweden evolved since the early 1970s, and where data permit, since even earlier? What caused these changes? (2) How does the structure of energy use in Sweden differ from that of other countries, and how has the evolution of energy use in Sweden differed from developments in other countries? (3) How much energy has Sweden saved, and why? Are these savings permanent? To what extent were they offset by changes in the structure of energy use? And to what extent is the magnitude of these savings dependent upon the way we measure energy use? The report reviews the long-term evolution of Swedish energy use, focusing on developments in five sectors of the economy: residential, service, industrial (manufacturing and {open_quotes}other industry{close_quotes} defined as mining, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and construction), travel, and freight. The authors then examine Swedish energy use in a broader perspective, drawing detailed comparisons to other nations. Finally, they discuss a series of issues that hover over the future of energy demand in Sweden.

  3. [Demographic characteristics of dog population in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horisberger, U; Stärk, K D; Rüfenacht, J; Pillonel, C; Steiger, A

    2004-05-01

    Dog Registration data from three Cantons, patient data of 13 veterinary practices and registrations in the Swiss Dog Pedigree Book were collected, analysed and compared to results of a commercial household survey, to assess demographic characteristics of dog population in Switzerland. The proportion of "pure-bred" dogs was different depending on how the term was used, varying from 24% regarding registrations in the Swiss Dog Pedigree Book, to 75% regarding dogs with only one breed recorded in Veterinarian's patient-history-management systems. Most popular breeds were dogs called "German Shepherd/Shepherd", followed by the Labrador and Golden Retriever. Comparison of different data sources suggested regional differences in popularity of breeds. The average life expectancy was estimated on 10.5 and 11 years. Sex distribution was equal. One third of all male dogs and half of the female dogs were neutered. Regardless sex, neutering was more common in cross-bred dogs than in "pure-bred" dogs (OR = 1.9). Some bias in all sources had to be considered and there was a major concern regarding definition of breeds. However, the study was able to add different parameters out of different sources to a homogenous picture of demographic data of dog population in Switzerland.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgässner, C; Schmitt, S; Borgström, A; Wittenbrink, M M

    2016-06-01

    Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. So far, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of B. hyodysenteriae in Switzerland have not been investigated. Therefore, a panel of 30 porcine B. hyodysenteriae isolates were tested against 6 antimicrobial agents by using the VetMIC Brachy panel, a broth microdilution test. Tiamulin and valnemulin showed high antimicrobial activity inhibiting all isolates at low concentrations. The susceptibility testing of doxycycline revealed values from ≤0.25 μg/ ml (47%) to 2 μg/ml (10%). The MIC values of lincomycin ranged between ≤0.5 μg/ml (30%) and 32 μg/ml (43%). For tylosin, 57% of the isolates could not be inhibited at the highest concentration of ≥128 μg/ml. The MIC values for tylvalosin were between ≤0.25 μg/ml (10%) and 8 μg/ml (20%). These findings reveal Switzerland's favourable situation compared to other European countries. Above all, tiamulin and valnemulin are still effective antimicrobial agents and can be further used for the treatment of SD.

  5. Spatial patterns of frequent floods in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Klaus; Rössler, Ole; Weingartner, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Information about the spatial characteristics of high and extreme streamflow is often needed for an accurate analysis of flood risk and effective co-ordination of flood related activities, such as flood defence planning. In this study we analyse the spatial dependence of frequent floods in Switzerland across different scales. Firstly, we determine the average length of high and extreme flow events for 56 runoff time series of Swiss rivers. Secondly, a dependence measure expressing the probability that streamflow peaks are as high as peaks at a conditional site is used to describe and map the spatial extend of joint occurrence of frequent floods across Switzerland. Thirdly, we apply a cluster analysis to identify groups of sites that are likely to react similarly in terms of joint occurrence of high flow events. The results indicate that a time interval with a length of 3 days seems to be most appropriate to characterise the average length of high streamflow events across spatial scales. In the main Swiss basins, high and extreme streamflows were found to be asymptotically independent. In contrast, at the meso-scale distinct flood regions, which react similarly in terms of occurrence of frequent flood, were found. The knowledge about these regions can help to optimise flood defence planning or to estimate regional flood risk properly.

  6. Pernicious anemia in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, R; Paydas, S

    1992-04-01

    Pernicious anemia patients who were diagnosed during a 5-year period in Cukurova University Hospital, Adana, Turkey were reviewed. Of approximately 200 new patients per year accepted by the Hematology Unit 44 were diagnosed as having pernicious anemia. There were 30 males and 14 females. The mean age for men was 49.14 +/- 18.11 and that for women was 40.00 +/- 14.05. Both values and the mean age overall were lower than the reported mean age for Whites, Blacks and Latin Americans living in the United States.

  7. Recent changes in distribution of dragonflies in Switzerland (Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonseth, Y.; Monnerat, C.

    2003-01-01

    Recent changes in distribution of dragonflies in Switzerland (Odonata) In 1998 the Swiss Centre for the Cartography of Fauna (CSCF) initiated ‘Odonata 2000’. This project aimed at testing a method for periodical reassessment of Red Lists in Switzerland. The study was carried out on Odonata and

  8. Internet censorship in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akgül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey passed an internet censorship law in 2007 with the declared objective of protecting families and minors (Akdeniz, 2010. It established a unit within the regulator BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority responsible for imposing bans and blocks on websites based on nine catalogue crimes defined by other national laws (Akgül 2008, 2009a, 2009b. As of May 2015, 80,000 websites were banned based on civil code related complaints and intellectual property rights violations, reports the independent website Engelliweb. Blocking decisions rendered by penal courts are enforced even when they are based on grounds other that the nine catalogue crimes - such as terrorism, organised crime and crime against the state. Passed in parliament while ignoring the pleas of NGOs and of the internet sector, the Internet Law No. 5651 has since been used to temporarily ban popular platforms such as Blogger, Last.fm, Vimeo, Wordpress and YouTube. At the same time, some blocking decisions by the courts (e.g., Google and Facebook were not enforced by the authorities. Since its introduction, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Law No. 5651 (Council of Europe, 2011 is against the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, 2013. This article provides an overview of internet censorship and its social background in Turkey.

  9. JOB CENTRE FOR DOMESTIC STAFF IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; http://www.cern.ch/relations/

    2001-01-01

    The Permanent mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that the Geneva Welcome Centre has set up an employment registration desk for the domestic staff of international civil servants. The aim of this pilot project is, on the one hand, to help international civil servants find domestic staff and, on the other hand, to help domestic staff holding an 'F'-type carte de légitimation find employment within 30 days after the expiry of a contract. For more information, please contact the Geneva Welcome Centre, La Pastorale, 106, route de Ferney, Case postale 103, 1211 Genève 20, tel. (+41.22) 918 02 70, fax (+41.22) 918 02 79), http://geneva-international.org/Welcome.E.html.

  10. PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES IN SWITZERLAND - PRACTICAL GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has just published a practical guide to the implementation of the system of privileges and immunities and other facilities on its Web site. The guide is currently available in French only but an English translation is in preparation. Comprising around ten chapters, each dealing with a different subject (insurance, real estate, customs, etc.), the guide is not exhaustive but will be regularly supplemented, expanded and updated. The Mission specifies that the information contained in the document is given only as guide and that it implies no legal commitment on the part of the Host State. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  11. PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES IN SWITZERLAND: PRACTICAL GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that the "Practical Manual of the regime of privileges and immunities and other facilities" is available on its Web site: - in English (http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/e/home/guide.html); - in French (http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/f/home/guide.html). Comprising around ten chapters, each dealing with a different subject (insurance, real estate, customs, etc.), the guide is not exhaustive but will be regularly supplemented, expanded and updated. The Mission specifies that the information contained in the document is given only as guide and that it implies no legal commitment on the part of the Host State. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  12. Climate Change Toolkit-Case study: Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf Vaghefi, Saeid

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a Climate Change Toolkit (CCT) to rapidly perform tasks needed in a climate change study. CCT consists of five modules: data extraction, global climate data management, bias correction, spatial interpolation, and critical consecutive day analyzer to calculate extreme events. CCT is linked to an archive of big dataset consisting of daily global historic (CRU, 1970-2005), and global GCM data (1960-2099) from 5 models and 4 carbon scenarios. Application of CCT in Switzerland using ensemble results of scenario RCP8.5 showed an increase in Max temperature, and a wide change in precipitation. Frequency of dry periods will likely increase. The frequency of wet periods suggests higher risk of flooding in the country.

  13. Information Centre Radioactivity Switzerland; Beratungsstelle Radioaktivitaet Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosimann, N.; Balsiger, B.; Burger, M. [Bundesamt fuer Bevoelkerungsschutz (Switzerland). LABOR SPIEZ

    2016-07-01

    The Information Centre Radioactivity Switzerland is meant to assess the radiological condition and serves for psychological-medical care of affected members of the Swiss public following an event of increased radioactivity in the environment. The Centre is structured in a modular way consisting of the following modules: ''Entry Measurement'': The visitors are registered and measured for contamination, ''Decontamination'': Contaminated visitors are decontaminated, ''Additional Measurements'': If required, thyroid and whole body measurements are performed, ''Information'': The visitors are informed about radioactivity, radiation protection, the current situation and their individual next steps, ''Exit'': Administrative release from the Information Centre.

  14. Spatially explicit methane inventory for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rebecca; Bretscher, Daniel; DelSontro, Tonya; Eugster, Werner; Henne, Stephan; Henneberger, Ruth; Künzle, Thomas; Merbold, Lutz; Neininger, Bruno; Schellenberger, Andreas; Schroth, Martin; Buchmann, Nina; Brunner1, Dominik

    2013-04-01

    Spatially explicit greenhouse gas inventories are gaining in importance as a tool for policy makers to plan and control mitigation measures, and are a required input for atmospheric models used to relate atmospheric concentration measurements with upstream sources. In order to represent the high spatial heterogeneity in Switzerland, we compiled the national methane inventory into a 500 m x 500 m cadaster. In addition to the anthropogenic emissions reported to the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), we also included natural and semi-natural methane fluxes, i.e., emissions from lakes and reservoirs, wetlands, wild animals as well as forest uptake. Methane emissions were disaggregated according to geostatistical information about source location and extent. In Switzerland, highest methane emissions originate from the agricultural sector (152 Gg CH4 yr-1), followed by emissions from waste management (16 Gg CH4 yr-1) with highest contributions from landfills, and the energy sector (13 Gg CH4 yr-1) with highest contributions from the distribution of natural gas. Natural and semi-natural emissions only add a small amount (inventory was evaluated against methane concentrations measured from a small research aircraft (METAIR-DIMO) above the Swiss Plateau on 18 different days from May 2009 to August 2010 over. Source sensitivities of the air measured were determined by backward runs of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART-COSMO. Source sensitivities were multiplied with the methane inventory to derive simulated methane concentration time series. While the pattern of the variations can be reproduced well for some flight days (correlation coefficient up to 0.75), the amplitude of the variations for the simulated time series is underestimated by at least 20% suggesting an underestimation of CH4 emissions by the inventory, which is also concluded from inverse estimation using a Bayesian approach.

  15. Public Procurement of Innovation in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Ågren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sweden is often thought of as a country with a strong tradition for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Early on, Sweden recognized and developed procedures for using public procurement as a technologydevelopment tool. After a period where emphasis was put on this aspect...... of public procurement Sweden dropped many policy initiatives within this field. This was in part due to neo-liberal movements during the 1980s which in interaction with a distributed institutional setup led to the removal of incentives for a procuring authority to engage in public procurement of innovation....... Another contributing cause was poor policy guidance from the academia upon Sweden’s accession into the EU, which spread apprehension among procuring authorities. It is not until the last few years that Sweden has started to reengage in public procurement for innovation policy, by using predominantly...

  16. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Bernhardt; Livia Sz. Oláh

    2008-01-01

    Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been e...

  18. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Frances Goldscheider; Eva Bernhardt; Maria Brandén

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in th...

  19. Yoshio Nakajima. A Japanese Artist from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden.......Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden....

  20. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Canatan

    2011-01-01

    ...), Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies...

  1. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  2. FINANCIAL CRISES AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERT URAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last three decades, in developed and developing counties the liberalization and openness efforts have been witnessed. However, financial liberalization attempts (both internal and external without having macroeconomic stability lead to financial crises in many developing countries. Macroeconomic instabilities create fragile financial markets paving the way for future economic crises. The Turkish Economy, completed the liberalization process with foreign trade liberalization in 1980 and by removing controls on capital accounts in 1989. However, since 1990’s economy got into ‘growth-instability-crisis’ vicious circle, because of the fluctuations in the financial structure. By employing a factor analysis (principal components analysis, this work, aims to obtain the factors that effect crises in Turkey.

  3. Turkey and European Security Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    relationships between Turkey, the United States, the Kurds, and Europe. As a source often critical of Turkey and the United States ( Noam Chomsky ...2008, http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/080220Altheaupdate10. pdf . 129 Ibid. 130 Ibid. 131 Ibid. 132 The Council of the European Union...Factsheet, “EU Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (EUPM),” March 2006, http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/Factsheet_060312. pdf . 48

  4. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Mehmet Salih; Yeşilova, Yavuz; Olgen, M Kirami; Ozbel, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania protozoon parasites is a disease which is characterized by long-term nodulo-ulcerative lesions healing spontaneously with scarring. The disease has been well-known in Anatolia for centuries and has different names such as; Urfa boil, Antep boil, year boil, Halep boil, oriental sore and beauty scar. The causative agents are Leishmania tropica and Leishmania tropica/Leishmania infantum in Southeastern Anatolia and East Mediterranean, respectively. CL is a notifiable disease in Turkey and, according to the Ministry of Health official records, 46.003 new cases were reported between 1990 and 2010. Among those cases, 96% of them were reported from the Şanlıurfa, Adana, Osmaniye, Hatay, Diyarbakır, İçel and Kahramanmaraş provinces. Although 45% of cases were notified from Şanlıurfa in the past 20 years, its ratio is currently decreasing while other regions' ratios have been showing an increasing trend. Easier transportation between cities, increased travel migration of the population from rural areas to the peripheral suburbs with inadequate infrastructure and unhealthy housing are thought to be the main factors for spreading the disease from Southeastern Anatolia to other regions of Turkey. Lack of treatment of patients as reservoir hosts because of different reasons and ineffective and inadequate use of insecticides against vector sand flies have also played an important role in spreading the disease. Neglect of this disease by patients and health institutions can also be considered as other factors for the spreading. We believe that, after the strategic plan for leishmaniasis prepared by the Turkish Ministry of Health with the contribution of scientists in 2011 is put into practice, the control of the disease will be more effective.

  5. Assessing river health in Europe and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Marianne; Chèvre, Nathalie; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    River conditions and welfare of aquatic ecosystems are threatened by anthropogenic and climatic changes. The release of personal-care products, pharmaceuticals and crop protection products is increasing and climate change is likely to cause significant changes in hydrological regimes affecting water resources' capacity to dissolve pollutants. Assessing river health, i.e. the ability of a river to support and maintain a balanced ecosystem close to the natural habitat, is thus of major concern to ensure the development of ecosystems and to provide enough clean useable water to users. Such studies involve physical, chemical and biological processes and characteristics. In Europe and Switzerland, standardized procedures have been developed to assess the hydromorphological, ecological and toxicological status of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive sets ecological requirements and chemical guidelines while the Swiss Modular Stepwise Procedure suggests methods to apprehend ecological deficits and promote water management plans. In this study, both procedures were applied and compared in order (i) to address their capacity to follow-up the spatial and temporal variability of the river's water quality and (ii) to identify challenges that still need to be addressed to assess river's health. Applied on the Boiron River (canton of Vaud, Switzerland) for a 11-year period (2005-2015), both frameworks highlight that no section of the river currently meets a good environmental state. This river flows through a diversified agricultural area causing a progressive deterioration of its chemical and biological quality. The two methods also identify two periods of time with significant changes of the river's water quality. The 2009-2011 period is characterized by a significant deterioration of the river's ecological and toxicological state due to severe low flows and an increased use of pesticides. However, since 2013, an improvement in water quality is identified in

  6. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers). The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)), which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local historical

  7. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wetter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers. The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE, the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP, and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss, which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local

  8. Rock glacier inventory, Hautes Alpes Calcaires, Switzerland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hautes Alpes Calcaires is a limestone range in the northern part of the Rhone Valley (Switzerland). It is characterized by a transitional climate between the wet...

  9. Current management of acute bronchiolitis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barben, J; Hammer, J

    2003-01-11

    Acute bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory tract infection in the first year of life. Current expert opinion and scientific data suggest that pharmaceutical agents have little impact on the natural course of the disease. Postal questionnaires were sent to all Swiss paediatricians to assess their current practice for treating acute bronchiolitis in children. Of a total of 937 questionnaires, 541 (58%) were returned. Of the respondents, 422 (78%) treat children with acute bronchiolitis. Up to 99% of paediatricians used bronchodilators in the outpatient and inpatient management, either routinely (up to 62%) or occasionally (37%). Steroids were used by 41% of the respondents in outpatient management and by 57% in inpatient management. The paediatric respiratory physicians tended to use bronchodilators and corticosteroids less frequently than the general paediatricians. A wide variation in the treatment of bronchiolitis was noted. Despite lack of evidence of benefit most Swiss paediatricians use pharmaceutical agents in the management of acute bronchiolitis. In particular, bronchodilators and corticosteroids were used in inpatient management in Switzerland much more frequently than recently reported for Australian paediatricians. National guidelines could be helpful in reducing the variations in the management of acute bronchiolitis in our country.

  10. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  11. Oscillations in atmospheric water above Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocke, Klemens; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Moreira, Lorena; Bernet, Leonie; Mätzler, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Cloud fraction (CF), integrated liquid water (ILW) and integrated water vapour (IWV) were continuously measured from 2004 to 2016 by the TROpospheric WAter RAdiometer (TROWARA) in Bern, Switzerland. There are indications for interannual variations of CF and ILW. A spectral analysis shows that IWV is dominated by an annual oscillation, leading to an IWV maximum of 24 kg m-2 in July to August and a minimum of 8 kg m-2 in February. The seasonal behaviour of CF and ILW is composed by both the annual and the semiannual oscillation. However, the annual oscillation of CF has a maximum in December while the annual oscillation of ILW has a maximum in July. The semiannual oscillations of CF and ILW are strong from 2010 to 2014. The normalized power spectra of ILW and CF show statistically significant spectral components with periods of 76, 85, 97 and 150 days. We find a similarity between the power spectra of ILW and CF with those of zonal wind at 830 hPa (1.5 km) above Bern. Particularly, the occurrence of higher harmonics in the CF and ILW spectra is possibly forced by the behaviour of the lower-tropospheric wind. The mean amplitude spectra of CF, ILW and IWV show increased short-term variability on timescales less than 40 days from spring to fall. We find a weekly cycle of CF and ILW from June to September with increased values on Saturday, Sunday and Monday.

  12. Is Switzerland Suitable for the Invasion of Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020–2049 and 2045–2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020–2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045–2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Conclusions/Significance Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European

  13. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European countries suggest that the tiger mosquito will colonize new areas in Switzerland

  14. Switzerland and efforts to combat the financing of terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    de Watteville, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Combating international terrorism has long been one of Switzerland's main concerns. Furthermore Switzerland has worked closely with other nations in combating terrorism and will continue to do so in future, both in the context of international treaties and on the basis of the law on mutual assistance in criminal matters. International co-operation to combat the financing of terrorism is taking place at several levels. The instruments for combating money laundering are also important for comba...

  15. Health care for older persons in Switzerland: a country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Andreas W; Stuck, Andreas E

    2006-06-01

    Switzerland has the second-most-expensive healthcare system worldwide, with 11.5% of gross domestic product spent on health care in 2003. Switzerland has a healthcare system with universal insurance coverage and a social insurance system, ensuring an adequate financial situation for 96% of the 1.1 million older inhabitants. Key concerns related to the care of older persons are topics such as increasing healthcare costs, growing public awareness of patient autonomy, and challenges related to assisted suicide. In 2004, the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences issued guidelines for the care of disabled older persons. Since 2000, geriatrics has been a board-certified discipline with a 3-year training program in addition to 5 years of training in internal or family medicine. There are approximately 125 certified geriatricians in Switzerland, working primarily in geriatric centers in urban areas. Switzerland has an excellent research environment, ranking second of all countries worldwide in life sciences research-but only 13th in aging research. This is in part due to a lack of specific training programs promoting research on aging and inadequate funding. In addition, there is a shortage of academic geriatricians in Switzerland, in part due to the fact that two of five Swiss universities had no academic geriatric departments in 2005. With more-adequate financial resources for academic geriatrics, Switzerland would have the opportunity to contribute more to aging research internationally and to improved care for older patients.

  16. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Epidemiology of lysosomal storage diseases in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Malin; Darin, Niklas; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Månsson, Jan-Eric

    2014-12-01

    There are more than 50 inherited lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), and this study examined the incidence of clinically diagnosed LSDs in Sweden. The number of patients diagnosed during 1980-2009 was compiled from the registries of the two Swedish diagnostic laboratories that cover the whole country. We identified 433 patients during the 30-year period, with a total incidence of one in every 6100 births and identified fairly constant annual diagnoses during the last 20 years. Krabbe disease was the most common (one in 39 000) followed by Gaucher disease (one in 47 000), metachromatic leukodystrophy and Salla disease. Gaucher disease was more frequent in Sweden than other European countries, due to a founder effect of the mutation (p.L444P) in northern Sweden. Metachromatic leukodystrophy was one of the most common LSDs, in common with other countries. Salla disease, which is very rare elsewhere, was the fourth most common, stemming from a founder mutation in the Salla region of northern Finland brought to Sweden by immigration. The collective incidence of LSDs in Sweden was essentially equal to other European countries, but with a somewhat different disease pattern. Our findings have implications for diagnostic algorithms and treatment strategies. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. What's 'left' in the 'Garden of Sweden'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gregg M

    2013-01-01

    Liberalization, restructuring, and retrenchment have been underway in Sweden for more than two decades and have rapidly accelerated under the current non-socialist coalition government. It is uncertain how much of the Swedish social policy model is "left" now, in terms of both what remains of it and its political character. A cross-temporal look at developments within Sweden reveals striking and continual rollbacks and marketization since the 1990s. However, this view must be qualified, both because Sweden's undisputed descent is from a comparatively lofty position and because there have been some noteworthy, but often ignored, gains even amidst marked decline over the past few decades. A cross-national examination indicates that, despite rapidly rising rates of income and wealth inequality, Sweden remains an egalitarian leader in several respects. This view must be qualified, too, because, while it continues to routinely out-perform Anglo nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Sweden is less often, and less notably, distinct from several of its continental counterparts in Europe now. Moreover, the foundation of the model, labor strength, has been significantly undermined.

  19. Turkey. Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Mehtap; Mollahaliloğlu, Salih; Sahin, Bayram; Aydin, Sabahattin; Maresso, Anna; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has accomplished remarkable improvements in terms of health status in the last three decades, particularly after the implementation of the Health Transformation Program (HTP (Saglikta Donus, um Programi)). Average life expectancy reached 71.8 for men and 76.8 for women in 2010. The infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased to 10.1 per 1000 live births in 2010, down from 117.5 in 1980. Despite these achievements, there are still discrepancies in terms of infant mortality between rural and urban areas and different parts of the country, although these have been diminishing over the years. The higher infant mortality rates in rural areas can be attributed to low socioeconomic conditions, low female education levels and the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main causes of death are diseases of the circulatory system followed by malignant neoplasms. Turkeys health care system has been undergoing a far-reaching reform process (HTP) since 2003 and radical changes have occurred both in the provision and the financing of health care services. Health services are now financed through a social security scheme covering the majority of the population, the General Health Insurance Scheme (GHIS (Genel Saglik Sigortasi)), and services are provided both by public and private sector facilities. The Social Security Institution (SSI (Sosyal Guvenlik Kurumu)), financed through payments by employers and employees and government contributions in cases of budget deficit, has become a monopsonic (single buyer) power on the purchasing side of health care services. On the provision side, the Ministry of Health (Saglik Bakenligi) is the main actor and provides primary, secondary and tertiary care through its facilities across the country. Universities are also major providers of tertiary care. The private sector has increased its range over recent years, particularly after arrangements paved the way for private sector provision of services to the SSI. The most important reforms since

  20. Crop drying programme in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oztekin, S.; Bascetincelik, A.; Soysal, Y. [Cukurova Univ., Agricultural Machinery Dept., Adana (Turkey)

    1999-01-01

    The present status of agricultural crop drying practices in Turkey is investigated in this study. The emphasis of drying on market value, annual production and export values of some commercially important crops is given in a broad perspective. In the recent years, developing international market conditions in Europe, Middles East, and Central Asia has been encouraging to Turkey`s fresh and dry agricultural crop export due to the rapidly increasing internal and external market demands. Grapes, apricots, black tea, figs, red pepper, and medicinal and aromatic plants are the major exported agricultural crops, contributing annually 35 to 40 millions of USD$ to Turkey`s economics. From the view point of dried crop quality, drying of special crops are still an important topic for the agricultural sector. Traditionally used drying methods have many drawbacks. High air temperatures and relative humidity during the drying season promote the inset and mold development in harvested crops. Furthermore, the intensive solar radiation causes several quality reductions like vitamin losses of color changes in dried crops. Thus, the conventional drying methods do not meet the particular requirements of the related standards. To overcome these problems, producers should be made aware of the fact that the high quality of dried products can be sold to three of four fold prices and directed to the dryer investments. Moreover, the introduction of low cost and locally manufactured dryer offers a promising alternative to reduce the excessive postharvest losses and also improve the economical situation of the farmers. (Author)

  1. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

  3. Mentoring in general surgery in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto M. Kaderli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mentorship has been found as a key factor for a successful and satisfying career in academic medicine and surgery. The present study was conducted to describe the current situation of mentoring in the surgical community in Switzerland and to evaluate sex differences regarding the impact of mentoring on career success and professional satisfaction. Methods: The study was designed as an anonymous national survey to all members of the Swiss Surgical Society in 2011 (820 ordinary and 49 junior members. It was a 25-item questionnaire addressing mentor–mentee relationships and their impact on the professional front. Results: Of the 869 mailed surveys, 512 responses were received (response rate: 58.9%. Mentor–mentee relationships were reported by 344 respondents (68.1% and structured mentoring programs were noted in 23 respondents (6.7%. Compared to individuals without mentors, male mentees exhibited significantly higher subjective career advancement (5.4±1.2 vs. 5.0±1.3; p=0.03 and career development (3.3±1.9 vs. 2.5±1.7; p<0.01 scores, but the differences for female mentees were not statistically significant (4.7±1.1 vs. 4.3±1.2, p=0.16; 2.5±1.6 vs. 1.9±1.4, p=0.26; respectively. The pursuit of an academic career was not influenced by the presence of a mentor–mentee relationship for female (p=0.14 or male participants (p=0.22. Conclusions: Mentor–mentee relationships are important for the career advancement of male surgeons. The reason for the lack of an impact on the careers of female surgeons is difficult to ascertain. However, mentoring also provides lifelong learning and personal development. Thus, specific attention should be paid to the development of more structured mentoring programs for both sexes.

  4. Porphyria in Switzerland, 15 years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Yin, Xiaoye; Harms, Juergen; Minder, Elisabeth I

    2009-04-04

    The porphyrias, a group of seven metabolic disorders in the haem biosynthesis, can be classified into acute and non-acute porphyrias. A common symptom of acute porphyrias is severe acute abdominal pain, whereas cutaneous photosensitivity can occur in both acute and non-acute porphyrias. All porphyrias, except for sporadic porphyria cutanea tarda (sPCT), are hereditary disorders caused by mutations in the respective genes. We present porphyria cases documented in our porphyria centre during the past 15 years. Diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and biochemical analyses. Mutation analysis was performed in patients/families with a confirmed hereditary porphyria. As the porphyria specialist centre of Switzerland, we perform the specialized analyses required for the diagnosis of all types of porphyrias, and give advice to patients, physicians and other laboratories. We therefore estimated that our data cover 80-90% of all diagnosed Swiss cases. A total of 217 patients from 170 families were diagnosed including, 111 acute intermittent porphyria, 45 erythropoietic protoporphyria, 30 variegate porphyria, 21 sPCT, five congenital erythropoietic porphyria, four hereditary coproporphyria and one hepatoerythropoietic porphyria patient. Systematic monitoring of the patients would allow early detection of the potential life-threatening complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and renal insufficiency in acute porphyrias, and liver failure in EPP. Seventy-five percent of all families underwent genetic testing. Identification of pre-symptomatic mutation carriers so that these individuals and their physicians can be consulted with safety on drug use and other preventive measures, is important in managing acute porphyrias. The unique phenomenon of founder mutations in the Swiss population is also discussed.

  5. Oscillations in atmospheric water above Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud fraction (CF, integrated liquid water (ILW and integrated water vapour (IWV were continuously measured from 2004 to 2016 by the TROpospheric WAter RAdiometer (TROWARA in Bern, Switzerland. There are indications for interannual variations of CF and ILW. A spectral analysis shows that IWV is dominated by an annual oscillation, leading to an IWV maximum of 24 kg m−2 in July to August and a minimum of 8 kg m−2 in February. The seasonal behaviour of CF and ILW is composed by both the annual and the semiannual oscillation. However, the annual oscillation of CF has a maximum in December while the annual oscillation of ILW has a maximum in July. The semiannual oscillations of CF and ILW are strong from 2010 to 2014. The normalized power spectra of ILW and CF show statistically significant spectral components with periods of 76, 85, 97 and 150 days. We find a similarity between the power spectra of ILW and CF with those of zonal wind at 830 hPa (1.5 km above Bern. Particularly, the occurrence of higher harmonics in the CF and ILW spectra is possibly forced by the behaviour of the lower-tropospheric wind. The mean amplitude spectra of CF, ILW and IWV show increased short-term variability on timescales less than 40 days from spring to fall. We find a weekly cycle of CF and ILW from June to September with increased values on Saturday, Sunday and Monday.

  6. Switzerland's videotex computer sex education programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, M A

    1991-05-01

    Switzerland's videotex computer sex education program in French is a telematic service set up in youth centers, schools and post offices, or for a monthly home rental charge of 9 swiss francs. German and Italian versions will be available by the end of 1991. CIAO receives 100 calls a month, or 20,000 screen page consultations. Anonymity is assured for caller and specialist through identification by pseudonym. This article discusses the experience of 2 trained specialists, a social worker and a sex education teacher, who answer questions. 70% of callers are boys, perhaps due to greater familiarity with computers, and to public location and freer attitude talking about sex in a group. Girls may use family planning centers for their questions. The typical boys 13-15 years questions concern anatomy and the size of the penis, breast stimulation, masturbation. Guilt and fear of consequences are communicated. Adolescents tend to focus on relationships, with shyness a typical pattern. There is expressed concern for whether it's OK to sexually explore certain sex zones, and what tells me she's happy. Communication between partners about sex is the difficulty and specialists emphasize asking the girl herself how she feels. With increasing age, the focus is very specific; i.e., premature ejaculation, STD's, homosexuality, but also with concern for knowledge about normal love-making and worry about not wanting it enough. In general, questions tend to be bound by traditional roles and questions on contraception are rare. Condom questions are usually related to AIDs. Questions express self-doubt and honesty, which sometimes focuses on the tragedy of sexual abuse, rape, AIDS, and suicide. Specialists find the work rewarding and helpful in sex education discussions in the classroom; great respect for young people is generated.

  7. Introducing Micro-finance in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    The case describes the first year of efforts to introduce microfinance as a tool to work with vulnerable groups in Sweden, more particularly ex-convicts, former drug-addicts and longterm unemployed women of immigrant background. The teaching objective is to discuss whether micro-finance can be seen...... as a tool to catalyze social change in developed welfare states such as Sweden, or if it rather reinforces the very power structures it aims to subvert. The author uses the case to analyse the efforts to introduce a new concept to wellestablished economic and social actors, as well as to understand...

  8. Health and social inequities in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1990-01-01

    Sweden is one of Europe's most egalitarian countries. The social inequities in living conditions have been gradually reduced to a level that is more equal than in most countries in Europe. Even if general health development has been positive during recent years, data reviewed here indicate...... that there may be adverse effects for some groups which may increase inequities. This article presents results on inequities in health from the Public Health Report of Sweden 1987 and discusses causal mechanisms and implications for health policy....

  9. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch-Infanger, Constantine; Bättig, Veronika; Kremo, Jürg; Widmer, Andreas F; Egli, Adrian; Bingisser, Roland; Battegay, Manuel; Erb, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland. At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations. Hundred ninety five of 2'544 and 516 of 6'243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey) and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea), respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years). Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (pmigration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges.

  10. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in White Turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan ATASEVER

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, forming of experimental toxoplasmosis in white turkeys; clinical, pathological and serological determination of tissue lesions, aimed to compare them and determine pathogenesis. For these purposes, a total of 120 two months old white turkeys were divided into groups as oral and parenteral infections and also their controls. The oral group was infected with 0.5 mL of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain inoculum suspension contains 106 tachyzoites while its control group was given 0.5 mL of saline. The parenteral group were divided into four groups as intraperitoneal (IP, intramuscular (IM, intravenous (IV and cloacal (C. Each parenteral route was divided into two groups and one control group for inoculums given 105 and 104 tachyzoites in 0.5 mL. These two control groups were also given 0.5 mL saline as indicated above. Due to acute toxoplasmosis, death occurred in three white turkeys given tachyzoites IP 105 showed neurological clinical symptoms as torticollis, ataxia, and tremor. In the histopahologic examination of these three turkeys, T. gondii tissue cysts were detected in the brain. Also, one of given 105 tachyzoites IP group in the brain and one given 104 tachyzoites IV group in the liver were observed tissue cysts associated with toxoplasmosis. The turkeys in all infection groups were found seropositive in both Sabin-Feldman Dye Test (SFDT and Indirect Hemagglutination Test (IHA. The statistical difference between SFDT and IHA was insignificantly for the both parenteral infection groups (P>0.05 while the difference was found significantly for the orally infected group (P<0.05. In conclusion in the present study, the tissue cysts of T. gondii were microscopically seen in brain and liver of the experimental infected white turkeys.

  11. Teachers' Views on Values Education: A Qualitative Study in Sweden and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Og uz, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine Swedish and Turkish teachers' perspectives on values education. Qualitative interviews with 52 teachers were conducted and analyzed. Values education was mostly about compliance with societal values and norms. The learning goals or values in values education were mainly on how to treat others and on…

  12. Mobility of Knowledge as a Recognition Challenge: Experiences from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the tensions between mobility, knowledge and recognition, and what the impact of migration could be on lifelong education and society. This is discussed with the case of Sweden as the starting point. The main issue in Sweden concerning migration is the admission of refugees. Sweden has had a relatively open policy…

  13. Bioindication in Urban Soils in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amossé, J.; Le Bayon, C.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Gobat, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Urban development leads to profound changes in ecosystem structure (e.g. biodiversity) and functioning (e.g. ecosystem services). While above-ground diversity is reasonably well studied much less is known about soil diversity, soil processes and more generally soil health in urban settings. Soil invertebrates are key actors of soil processes at different spatial and temporal scales and provide essential ecosystem services. These functions may be even more vital in stressed environments such as urban ecosystems. Despite the general recognition of the importance of soil organisms in ecosystems, soil trophic food webs are still poorly known and this is especially the case in urban settings. As urban soils are characterised by high fragmentation and stress (e.g. drought, pollution) the structure and functioning of soil communities is likely to be markedly different from that of natural soils. It is for example unclear if earthworms, whose roles in organic matter transformation and soil structuration is well documented in natural and semi-natural soils, are also widespread and active in urban soils. Bioindication is a powerful tool to assess the quality of the environment. It is complementary to classical physicochemical soil analysis or can be used as sole diagnostic tool in cases where these analyses cannot be performed. However little is known about the potential use of bioindicators in urban settings and especially it is unclear if methods developped in agriculture can be applied to urban soils. The development of reliable methods for assessing the quality of urban soils has been identified as a priority for policy making and urban management in Switzerland, a high-urbanized country. We therefore initiated a research project (Bioindication in Urban Soil - BUS). The project is organised around four parts: (i) typology of urban soils in a study Region (Neuchâtel), (ii) sampling of soil fauna and analysis of soil physicochemical properties, (iii) comparison of the

  14. Stroke in young adults in northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Bo Traberg

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. To study different aspects of cerebral venous and arterial occlusive disease including cerebrospinalfluid hydrodynamics, epidemiology, aetiology, genetics, metabolic and haemostatic disorders, andcognitive function in young adults in Northern Sweden. Methods. Cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics were investigated with a constant pressure infusion methodin patients with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Ten patients were studied with serial examinations, upto 15 years after the onse...

  15. Aeolian dunes of south-central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardson, Martin; Alexanderson, Helena

    2017-04-01

    South-central Sweden is home to a number of small, inactive inland dune fields formed on former glaciofluvial deltas. A characteristic of these dune fields is the generally transverse shape of the dunes, in stark contrast to the rest of Sweden where parabolic dunes are the most common type. One of these dune fields is Bonäsheden in the county of Dalarna. It is the largest continuous dune field in Sweden and covers an area of approximately 15.5 km2. The dune field has the last few years been the target of thorough investigations utilising LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) based remote sensing, ground-penetrating radar, luminescence dating and sedimentological field investigations. The results show that the dunes of Bonäsheden and the adjacent dune field of Skattungheden formed mainly by north-westerly winds shortly after the deglaciation of this part of Sweden (10.5 ka), and subsequent events of dune formation were uncommon. Some later episodes of sand drift did occur, but only as minor coversand deposition. The dune field has had a more complex formation than previously thought; a shift in the wind pattern around 10 ka seems to have caused subsequent dunes to have formed by more westerly winds. The reason for this is still not determined, but the increased distance to the Scandinavian Ice Sheet would lessen the capacity of katabatic winds to influence the dune field.

  16. Toy Libraries in Sweden in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marianne; And Others

    Public and private organizations have developed toy libraries in Sweden for children with disabilities and children in need of special support for their development. Toy libraries have become places where parents can acquire advice with regard to play, meet a pedagogue with experience with children with handicaps, and meet other parents with the…

  17. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  18. Reconsidering School Politics: Educational Controversies in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredholm, Axel

    2017-01-01

    School politics in Sweden has recently moved in a conservative direction, emphasising the importance of conventional school subjects, stronger teacher authority and more discipline in the classroom. At the same time, consensus on the utility of such measures is lacking in the school debate. The conservative approach is often criticised as…

  19. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  20. Educational Careers for Gifted Students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    1998-01-01

    A study of the 10% most able students in Sweden (n=744) found entrance into higher education was influenced by the choice of program in upper secondary school, the marks received, the students' attitudes to school, and satisfaction with their performance. Parental and teacher support had an influence on males. (CR)

  1. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  3. DISSEMINATED CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN TURKEY: CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-10-10

    Oct 10, 2003 ... DISSEMINATED CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS IN TURKEY: CASE REPORT. D. DIRIM, H. DAGCI and N. TURGAY. SUMMARY. Cryptosporidium sp is a protozoan that displays an intracellular settlement primarily in the intestinal systems of humans and can result in diarrhoea. Undernourished children.

  4. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  5. Foraging sites of Turkey Vultures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turkey Vultures Cathartes aura are probably the most abundant avian scavengers in semi- arid shrublands and woodlands in central. Mexico, about two times more frequently seen than the next most common scavenger,. Common Raven Corvus corax. The questions arise of what sustains this large number of scavenging ...

  6. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  7. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  8. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim that mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (1) permissive gun laws, (2) widespread gun ownership, (3) encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters, and cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal 14 times annually. ICVS analysis finds that the US has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40% after the Israeli armys 2006 reforms. Compared with the US, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership. PMID:22089893

  9. [5 years ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support) courses in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharplatz, D; Sutter, P M

    2003-01-01

    Five years ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support) in Switzerland are analysed, the problems are discussed and the changes during this period are demonstrated. ATLS Switzerland is a part of the Swiss surgical Society, introduced by the ATLS International Faculty in 1998. Switzerland with 4 official languages needs a special structure. For this reason a decentralisation of the courses was necessary with the need of five regional universities where ATLS courses are offered. Statistics of the rising amount of courses demonstrate the enormous rush for ATLS courses in our country. Three courses in 1998 where followed by six courses in 1999, up to 18 courses in 2002. 2001 was the first year with ATLS in the Swiss Army. Since 1.1.2003 Paul Martin Sutter, Biel ist the new National Director, successor of Domenic Scharplatz, Thusis.

  10. Venture Capital Investment in the Life Sciences in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosang, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Innovation is one of the main driving factors for continuous and healthy economic growth and welfare. Switzerland as a resource-poor country is particularly dependent on innovation, and the life sciences, which comprise biotechnologies, (bio)pharmaceuticals, medical technologies and diagnostics, are one of the key areas of innovative strength of Switzerland. Venture capital financing and venture capitalists (frequently called 'VCs') and investors in public equities have played and still play a pivotal role in financing the Swiss biotechnology industry. In the following some general features of venture capital investment in life sciences as well as some opportunities and challenges which venture capital investors in Switzerland are facing are highlighted. In addition certain means to counteract these challenges including the 'Zukunftsfonds Schweiz' are discussed.

  11. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  12. Environmental legislation and the regulation of waste management in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This study examines the regulatory aspects of waste management in Sweden, with a particular emphasis on regulating organic compounds produced by waste-to-energy facilities. Since the early 1960s, waste-to-energy has played a significant role in managing waste in Sweden. In 1993, more than 50% of the municipal solid waste available for treatment or disposal following source separation efforts was processed in one of the 21 waste-to-energy facilities operating in Sweden. This report examines Sweden`s regulatory environment, its history of setting emission limits on waste management facilities, and the current status of regulations.

  13. CENSUS OF THE POPULATION, BUILDINGS AND HOUSING IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relation with the Host States Service; Tel. 72848

    2000-01-01

    A census of the population, buildings and housing is to be conducted on the whole territory of the Swiss Confederation on 5 December 2000. For this purpose, those residing in Switzerland will receive a personal questionnaire at their place of residence plus a questionnaire on buildings and housing if they own real estate in Switzerland. The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organizations in Geneva has requested CERN to invite members of its personnel to complete these questionnaires and either to hand them to the census agents when they call at their places of residence on 5 December 2000 or to post them to the address indicated on the questionnaire.

  14. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.

    2015-12-01

    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c836-rapport.pdf Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  15. Economic burden associated with chronic constipation in Sweden: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Wirta S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sara Bruce Wirta,1 Paul Hodgkins,2 Alain Joseph3 1IMS Health, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 3Shire, Eysins, Switzerland Background: Chronic constipation is a common condition, but few studies have assessed its cost and impact on resource use. The purpose of this cohort study was to assess the health care utilization and costs of chronic constipation in a Swedish population using health care claims data. Methods: Data were compiled on health care costs, drug costs, and mortality for Västra Götaland, Sweden (2005–2009. These data were used to identify patients aged 18 years or older with chronic constipation, defined as: at least two health care contacts with a primary diagnosis of constipation within 12 months or at least one care contact with a primary diagnosis of constipation and two dispatches of laxatives 6 months before and 12 months after the index date. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome or taking opioids, both of which can cause constipation, were excluded. Costs, resource use, comorbidities, and laxative use were assessed during a 12-month follow-up period. Results: In total, 4,043 patients with chronic constipation were identified. They had a mean (SD age of 67±18 years. Mortality was 7% during the 12-month follow-up period and the most common comorbidity was hypertension (22%. In the 12-month follow-up period, patients with chronic constipation had a mean (SD of 2.3±7.5 constipation-related health care contacts and a mean (SD of 15.2±19.5 other health care contacts. Annual costs, adjusted for sex, age group, mortality, and comorbidities, were €5,388, of which €951 were for constipation-related care. Conclusion: Patients with chronic constipation constituted an elderly population with a high disease burden in Sweden between 2005 and 2009. Mean annual constipation-related health care costs, adjusted for potentially confounding factors, were €951 per patient. Keywords: cohort study, chronic constipation

  16. [Serious silicosis still exits in Sweden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, Bengt; Svartengren, Magnus

    2015-12-01

    Many measures have been taken in Sweden to eliminate the occurrence of serious silicosis. However, between 1997 and 2013 there were 111 deaths with silicosis as underlying cause, 110 men and 1 woman. In most cases the deceased was rather old; only fourteen persons were below 74 years of age. We have studied the exposure between 2007 and 2012 in the 71 persons who died of silicosis as underlying or contributing cause through medical records. We could find information regarding 48 of them. Ten persons worked in mines, 10 in stone industry, 14 with crushing or blasting of rock, 4 in foundries, 3 were concrete workers and 7 suffered exposure in other industries.  The study shows that the measures taken in Sweden have not been sufficient to totally eliminate serious silicosis.

  17. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  18. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenström, Jonas; Lindberg, Peter; Helander, Björn; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Herrmann, Björn; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  19. Post-deportation risks under the EU-Turkey statement: what happens after readmission to Turkey?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpes, M.J.; Tunaboylu, Sevda; Ulusoy, Orcun; Hassan, Saima

    2017-01-01

    This policy brief examines whether asylum seekers readmitted from Greece to Turkey after the EU-Turkey Statement as of April 2016 were able to access effective protection in Turkey thereafter (see graph, return trend, p. 2). The EU has long collaborated with countries of origin and transit in the

  20. Healthcare quality management in Switzerland--a survey among providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderli, Reto; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Businger, Adrian P

    2012-04-27

    In the last decade assessing the quality of healthcare has become increasingly important across the world. Switzerland lacks a detailed overview of how quality management is implemented and of its effects on medical procedures and patients' concerns. This study aimed to examine the systematics of quality management in Switzerland by assessing the providers and collected parameters of current quality initiatives. In summer 2011 we contacted all of the medical societies in Switzerland, the Federal Office of Public Health, the Swiss Medical Association (FMH) and the head of Swiss medical insurance providers, to obtain detailed information on current quality initiatives. All quality initiatives featuring standardised parameter assessment were included. Of the current 45 initiatives, 19 were powered by medical societies, five by hospitals, 11 by non-medical societies, two by the government, two by insurance companies or related institutions and six by unspecified institutions. In all, 24 medical registers, five seals of quality, five circles of quality, two self-assessment tools, seven superior entities, one checklist and one combined project existed. The cost of treatment was evaluated by four initiatives. A data report was released by 24 quality initiatives. The wide variety and the large number of 45 recorded quality initiatives provides a promising basis for effective healthcare quality management in Switzerland. However, an independent national supervisory authority should be appointed to provide an effective review of all quality initiatives and their transparency and coordination.

  1. Sociodemographic and Behavioural Determinants of a Healthy Diet in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Guessous, Idris

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of a healthy diet have not been studied in Switzerland. This study aimed at assessing the individual and behavioural factors associated with a healthy diet in a Swiss city. Cross-sectional, population-based study conducted between 2009 and 2013 (n = 4,439, 2,383 women, mean age 57.5 ± 10.3 years) in Lausanne. Food consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Two Mediterranean diet scores (classic score and specific for Switzerland) and the Harvard School of Public Health alternate healthy eating index were computed. For all three dietary scores considered, living in couple or having a high education were associated with a healthier diet. An unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, sedentary behaviour) or a high body mass index were associated with an unhealthier diet. Participants born in Italy, Portugal and Spain had healthier diets than participants born in France or Switzerland. Women and elderly participants had healthier diets than men and young participants according to 2 scores, while no differences were found for the Swiss-specific Mediterranean score. In Switzerland, healthy eating is associated with high education, a healthy lifestyle, marital status and country of origin. The associations with gender and age depend on the dietary score considered. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Comparative Studies of Spinal Celes in Switzerland, Jamaica, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Methods and Materials: From 1975 to 2008,17 spinal celes (including 2 meningoceles) were routinely repaired in Imo and Ebonyi States of Nigeria, and 5 in Jamaica,the West Indies; none in Basel, Switzerland. All 20 meningomyeloceles were incontinent of urine and faeces, had severe paraparesis to paraplegia, ...

  3. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbarth, Stephan; Huyghe, Antoine; Renzi, Gesuele; Bento, Manuela; Gervaix, Alain; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains different from those of an endemic healthcare-associated clone was conducted over 13 years in Geneva, Switzerland. We demonstrated strain diversity, including clones rarely found in Europe. Local epidemiology of community-associated MRSA is diverse and is evolving by importation and transmission of new strains. PMID:18258126

  4. A financing system for battery recycling in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordi, H. [BESO, ATAG Ernst and Young, Berne (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    The household battery recycling procedures presently in progress in Switzerland are illustrated. Particular attention is devoted to the description of the country`s organizations for providing an efficient battery disposal plan. The financial aspects of this plan are also outlined. (orig.)

  5. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch-Infanger, Constantine; Bättig, Veronika; Kremo, Jürg; Widmer, Andreas F.; Egli, Adrian; Bingisser, Roland; Battegay, Manuel; Erb, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland. Methods At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations. Results Hundred ninety five of 2’544 and 516 of 6’243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey) and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea), respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years). Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (p<0.001) and were the main reasons for hospitalizations (33.3% of 45 and 55.6% of 81 hospitalized patients, p = 0.017) in 2004/05 compared to 2014/15. The leading infectious diseases in hospitalized patients were tuberculosis (n = 4) and bacterial skin infections (n = 2) in 2004/05; Malaria (n = 9), pneumonia (n = 6), Chickenpox (n = 5), other viral infections (n = 5) and bacterial skin infections (n = 5) in 2014/15. Infectious diseases like malaria, cutaneous diphtheria, louseborne-relapsing fever or scabies were only found in the second study period. Almost one third of the admitted asylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6–9.5 days in both study periods. Conclusions The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges. PMID:28617860

  6. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Bloch-Infanger

    Full Text Available The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland.At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations.Hundred ninety five of 2'544 and 516 of 6'243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea, respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years. Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (p<0.001 and were the main reasons for hospitalizations (33.3% of 45 and 55.6% of 81 hospitalized patients, p = 0.017 in 2004/05 compared to 2014/15. The leading infectious diseases in hospitalized patients were tuberculosis (n = 4 and bacterial skin infections (n = 2 in 2004/05; Malaria (n = 9, pneumonia (n = 6, Chickenpox (n = 5, other viral infections (n = 5 and bacterial skin infections (n = 5 in 2014/15. Infectious diseases like malaria, cutaneous diphtheria, louseborne-relapsing fever or scabies were only found in the second study period. Almost one third of the admitted asylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6-9.5 days in both study periods.The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges.

  7. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Hård af Segerstad, Carl; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Ingemar Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway a...

  8. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Kerry A. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, J. Steve [Savannah River National Laboratory; Chandler, Greg T. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Iyer, Natraj C. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Hackney, B. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Leduc, Dan R. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  9. Female Professors in Sweden and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Anett

    2003-01-01

    The Research Training Network “Women in European Universities” focuses on career opportunities of women in higher education in seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). Within the frame of this network different aspects of career perspectives of women – and also men – are investigated. In a first working step a context analysis was conducted in order to give an understanding of the different systems of higher education, their changes an...

  10. Travel Behaviour of Online Shoppers in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hiselius Lena Winslott; Rosqvist Lena Smidfelt; Adell Emeli

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping opportunities are transforming travel behaviour for shopping and could potentially reduce the overall travel demand. Despite numerous studies on online shopping, only a few have taken an approach that includes trips for all travel purposes. Based on a web–survey, this paper provides results on travel behaviour for physical shopping for frequent, regular, and infrequent online shoppers in Sweden. The results indicate that frequent online shoppers make as many car trips (for bot...

  11. Sweden picks site for waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear power-plant operators in Sweden have selected a site where they can permanently store the country's spent nuclear fuel. The repository would be located 500 m below ground at Forsmark, roughly 200km north of Stockholm, which is already home to a nuclear power plant. The decision was taken after two decades of study by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), which is owned by the country's nuclear firms.

  12. "Ich kam unter die Schweizer": Teaching Switzerland as a Multi-Ethnic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Karin

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a five-week module on "Switzerland as a multi-ethnic society" intended to counteract the popular image of Switzerland as a homogenous country concerned mostly with tourism, chocolate, and watches. Instead, the module treats Switzerland through topics such as the definition of identity in a multi-ethnic society, the…

  13. Excess mortality during the warm summer of 2015 in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Ragettli, Martina S; Schindler, Christian; Röösli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland, summer 2015 was the second warmest summer for 150 years (after summer 2003). For summer 2003, a 6.9% excess mortality was estimated for Switzerland, which corresponded to 975 extra deaths. The impact of the heat in summer 2015 in Switzerland has not so far been evaluated. Daily age group-, gender- and region-specific all-cause excess mortality during summer (June-August) 2015 was estimated, based on predictions derived from quasi-Poisson regression models fitted to the daily mortality data for the 10 previous years. Estimates of excess mortality were derived for 1 June to 31 August, at national and regional level, as well as by month and for specific heat episodes identified in summer 2015 by use of seven different definitions. 804 excess deaths (5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0‒7.9%) were estimated for summer 2015 compared with previous summers, with the highest percentage obtained for July (11.6%, 95% CI 3.7‒19.4%). Seventy-seven percent of deaths occurred in people aged 75 years and older. Ticino (10.3%, 95% CI -1.8‒22.4%), Northwestern Switzerland (9.5%, 95% CI 2.7‒16.3%) and Espace Mittelland (8.9%, 95% CI 3.7‒14.1%) showed highest excess mortality during this three-month period, whereas fewer deaths than expected (-3.3%, 95% CI -9.2‒2.6%) were observed in Eastern Switzerland, the coldest region. The largest excess estimate of 23.7% was obtained during days when both maximum apparent and minimum night-time temperature reached extreme values (+32 and +20 °C, respectively), with 31.0% extra deaths for periods of three days or more. Heat during summer 2015 was associated with an increase in mortality in the warmer regions of Switzerland and it mainly affected older people. Estimates for 2015 were only a little lower compared to those of summer 2003, indicating that mitigation measures to prevent heat-related mortality in Switzerland have not become noticeably effective in the last 10 years.

  14. Susceptibility of convalescent turkeys to pulmonary aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, R A; Sacco, R E

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary lesions resulting from Aspergillus fumigatus inoculation were assessed in convalescent turkeys and compared with those in previously noninoculated (control) turkeys. In addition, lesions observed in small Beltsville white (SBW) turkeys were compared with those in broad-breasted white (BBW) turkeys challenged with the same inoculum. Turkeys were challenged by unilateral posterior thoracic air sac (PTAS) inoculation, rechallenged via the contralateral air sac after 5 wk, and then necropsied 1 wk later. Pulmonary lesions induced by the initial challenge had resolved in 6 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW turkeys. However, convalescence did not protect against pulmonary aspergillosis subsequent to rechallenge; 10 of 10 SBW and 9 of 10 BBW developed granulomatous pulmonary lesions on the side of reexposure. A greater proportion of control SBW turkeys developed pneumonia and airsacculitis following challenge as compared with the BBW breed. Lesions were limited to the lower respiratory tract in all turkeys and were confined to the ipsilateral lung and PTAS in the singly inoculated control turkeys. This study demonstrates that convalescence from pulmonary aspergillosis does not confer protection against rechallenge but may, instead, decrease resistance to subsequent infection.

  15. Parasitic zoonotic diseases in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Altintas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses and zoonotic diseases are becoming more common and they are now receiving increased attention across the world. Zoonotic parasites are found in a wide variety of protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes and arthropods worldwide and many zoonotic parasites have assumed an important role. The importance of some parasitic zoonoses has increased in recent years due to the fact that they can be agents of opportunistic infections. Although a number of zoonotic parasites are often found and do cause serious illnesses in Turkey, some are more common and these diseases are more important as they cause serious public health problems, such as leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis and toxocariasis. Information on these zoonotic diseases is provided here as these are the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases in Turkey.

  16. Energy policies of IEA countries - Switzerland. 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-26

    Switzerland is entering decisive times in its energy policy. In 2008, the country should see remarkable advance in electricity market reform. Support for renewable electricity is set to increase massively. Decisions on post-Kyoto targets are getting closer, and a CO{sub 2} tax will be introduced for heating and process fuels. Plus, new measures to increase energy efficiency and the broader use of renewable energy are high on the political agenda. Since the last in-depth review in 2003, Switzerland has made progress in most areas of energy policy. Still, more work remains to be done. Maintaining sufficient electricity capacity implies even stronger policies to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. At the same time, the country will also need to decide which sources to use for large-scale power supply. High dependency on oil can become a burden in a post-Kyoto world. In particular, Switzerland's climate policy should focus more on reducing emissions from private car use, the largest and fastest-growing emitter. Current measures have not proven effective, and the costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions are being distorted across sectors. Switzerland's world-class energy R and D is expected to more than halve energy needs per capita by the second half of this century. This ambitious goal needs to be supported by consistent policies on energy efficiency and climate change. This book takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Switzerland and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future.

  17. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Ekengren, Fredrik; Zagal Mach Wolfe, Ulla Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River....... Although in many ways unsuccessful and short-lived (the colony collapsed in 1656), New Sweden became a home for generations of colonists. This chapter focuses on the different aspects of their daily life: their longing and desperation, practices of homemaking and domesticating the landscape...

  18. NATO or Neutrality : Decisions by Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Kevin A. Chaney September 2017 Thesis Advisor: David S. Yost Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO OR NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN 5. FUNDING...Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Although Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are ethnically and

  19. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Dietary supplementation of mannanoligosaccharides to turkey hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research focused on the effect of a prebiotic additive, mannanoligosaccharides (Bio-Mos), in the diet of turkey hens on their growth performance and measurements of pro-oxidation and antioxidation systems in their blood. The investigation was performed on 240 six-week-old turkey hens of the heavy Big-6 breed, ...

  1. Higher Education Policies and Overeducation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Nader

    2017-01-01

    In the past two decades Turkey has experienced a rapid increase in higher education student enrollment. This sharp increase in access to higher education has satisfied a strong social demand for university education but it has led to a growing surplus of university graduates who cannot find adequate jobs. As a result Turkey has entered an…

  2. Omgevingsverrijking voor vleeskalkoenen = Environmental enrichment for turkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.

    2012-01-01

    A desk study has been conducted to study the possible environmental enrichments in order to reduce injurious pecking behaviour in intact turkeys. Free hanging materials are attractive to turkeys and are technically and economically feasible. Perches and elevated platforms are less feasible.

  3. New Records of Aphid Fauna in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kaygin, Azize Toper; Gorur, Gazi; Cota, Figen

    2010-01-01

    Three aphid species were identified as new records for Turkey aphid fauna from Bartin province. These species are Ceruraphis viburnicola (Gillette) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Dysaphis apiifolia (Theobald) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Macrosiphum mordvilkoi Miyazaki (Hemiptera: Aphididae). These records increase the recorded aphid-fauna of Turkey to 433 species.

  4. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  5. Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia Policy: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А V Suleimanov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey and Iran Transcaucasia modern foreign policy is analyzed. As is known, Turkey and Iran historically were the competing parties for spheres of influence in Transcaucasia, as well as Russia, the USA and the Great Britain. Regional relations between Azerbaijan, Armenia and Georgia are discussed in context of Nagorno-Karabakh and Georgia-South Ossetia conflicts and Caspian problem.

  6. EFL Policy of Turkey: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The language policy of Turkey regarding the evaluation phase of English language education issue was investigated following the comments on the issue from a diverse point of view. Nowadays, Turkey's language policy seems to have been much more improved since the education reform in 1997 bringing a rise in the curriculum development, course book…

  7. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  8. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  9. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health.

  10. Lead poisoning in woodpeckers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörner, T; Petersson, L

    1999-10-01

    Lead poisoning was demonstrated in two gray-headed woodpeckers (Picus canus) and one white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopus leucotos) in Sweden; they had liver lead levels between 9.4 and 26.2 mg(-1) wet weight. At necropsy one gray-headed woodpecker showed signs of emaciation and the other one had severe traumatic injuries, caused by a cat. The white-backed woodpecker died in the transportation box during a translocation program. The source of the lead could not be determined, but it was suspected that it may have originated from lead pellets shot into trees and picked out by the woodpeckers during food search.

  11. Green light for nonstop fermentation. [Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-19

    It is reported that Alfa-Laval (Tumba) is to build a $10 million demonstration plant at Skaraborg, Sweden that will produce ethanol from grain in a continuous fermentation process. The facility, funded by the Swedish government will be able to make 20,000 L/d of 99.5% ethanol, plus 30.5 metric tons/d of cattle fodder from the liftover sludge, using the so-called Biostil technique. A similar unit has been run in Sarenia, Queensland using molasses as a feedstock. The facility has been highly successful since its startup in April and has had no downtime.

  12. PRE-HOSPITAL EMERGENCY CARE IN SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf BJÖRNSTIG

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden (9 million inhabitants, a sparsely populated country with sometimes long transportation distances to the nearest trauma hospital, 800 ambulances, 7 ambulance helicopters and 3–5 fixed wing ambulance aircraft are the available transport resources. In case of a mass casualty or disaster situation, inside or outside the country, a governmental project (Swedish National Medevac aims to convert a passenger aircraft from Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS to a qualified medical resource for long distance transport, with capacity to nurse six intensive care patients and an additional 6–20 lieing or seated patients during transport.

  13. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Department of Management, Technology and Economics, Centre for Energy Policy and Economics; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland). Istituto di microeconomia e economia Pubblica; Hunt, L.C. [University of Surrey (United Kingdom). Department of Economics, Surrey Energy Economics Centre

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO{sub 2}-tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  14. Dissecting the compression of mortality in Switzerland, 1876-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Lan Karen Cheung

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine changes in common longevity and variability of the adult life span, and attempts to answer whether or not the compression of mortality continues in Switzerland in the years 1876-2005. The results show that the negative relationships between the large increase in the adult modal age at death, observed at least from the 1920s, and the decrease in the standard deviation of the ages at deaths occurring above it, illustrate a significant compression of adult mortality. Typical adult longevity increased by about 10Š during the last fifty years in Switzerland, and adult heterogeneity in the age at death decreased in the same proportion. This analysis has not found any evidence suggesting that we are approaching longevity limits in term of modal or even maximum life spans. It ascertains a slowdown in the reduction of adult heterogeneity in longevity, already observed in Japan and other low mortality countries.

  15. Time-series analysis of Campylobacter incidence in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Schüpbach, G; Held, L

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacteriosis has been the most common food-associated notifiable infectious disease in Switzerland since 1995. Contact with and ingestion of raw or undercooked broilers are considered the dominant risk factors for infection. In this study, we investigated the temporal relationship between the disease incidence in humans and the prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers in Switzerland from 2008 to 2012. We use a time-series approach to describe the pattern of the disease by incorporating seasonal effects and autocorrelation. The analysis shows that prevalence of Campylobacter in broilers, with a 2-week lag, has a significant impact on disease incidence in humans. Therefore Campylobacter cases in humans can be partly explained by contagion through broiler meat. We also found a strong autoregressive effect in human illness, and a significant increase of illness during Christmas and New Year's holidays. In a final analysis, we corrected for the sampling error of prevalence in broilers and the results gave similar conclusions.

  16. Out of home care in France and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gabriel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the structural similarities and dissimilarities that exist between child protection systems in France and Switzerland, as exemplified by the evolutions of the last decade. The absence of anintegrated holistic system and the great diversity of practices between territories in both countries creates a reality that is a challenge for research and practitioners alike. Furthermore, legislation in France andSwitzerland is quite similar in that there is no single defined support or welfare body of legislation for children and youth. In both countries, the need for a better understanding of this reality drives the development of better data collection processes and of new in-depth research on these issues.

  17. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.

  18. Glaciological conditions in northern Switzerland during recent Ice Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Haeberli, W

    2010-01-01

    Based primarily on reconstructions and various model calculations, quantitative estimates are compiled concerning ice conditions in northern Switzerland during the past Ice Age. The penetration of winter sea ice to low latitudes and the corresponding closure of the Atlantic Ocean as a humidity source caused extremely cold/dry conditions in central Europe during the time period of maximum cold and most extended area of surface ice. At this stage, the large lobes of the piedmont glaciers spread...

  19. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim that mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (1) permissive gun laws, (2) widespread gun ownership, (3) encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters, and cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source m...

  20. Nursing in Switzerland: struggling to maintain quality and ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Teodora; Baumann, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    After an edited transcript of an interview with a nurse leader, Teodora Duarte, RN; MA, on nursing in Switzerland, the author further discusses the challenges and opportunities facing nursing in that country from a global perspective. Also discussed are some of the advantages and problems of international nursing, in particular nurses who migrate to work in other countries or commute across national borders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchgässner, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic spirochaete Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. Currently, no data for antimicrobial susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae from Switzerland are available and though antimicrobial treatment is the main therapy, no standardised methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing are established. Therefore, a broth microdilution test was performed for 30 Swiss porcine field isolate...

  2. Flood damage claims reveal insights about surface runoff in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, D. B.; Prasuhn, V.; Weingartner, R.

    2015-12-01

    A few case studies in Switzerland exemplify that not only overtopping water bodies frequently cause damages to buildings. Reportedly, a large share of the total loss due to flooding in Switzerland goes back to surface runoff that is formed and is propagating outside of regular watercourses. Nevertheless, little is known about when, where and why such surface runoff occurs. The described process encompasses surface runoff formation, followed by unchannelised overland flow until a water body is reached. It is understood as a type of flash flood, has short response times and occurs diffusely in the landscape. Thus, the process is difficult to observe and study directly. A promising source indicating surface runoff indirectly are houseowners' damage claims recorded by Swiss Public Insurance Companies for Buildings (PICB). In most of Switzerland, PICB hold a monopoly position and insure (almost) every building. Consequently, PICB generally register all damages to buildings caused by an insured natural hazard (including surface runoff) within the respective zones. We have gathered gapless flood related claim records of most of all Swiss PICB covering more than the last two decades on average. Based on a subset, we have developed a methodology to differentiate claims related to surface runoff from other causes. This allows us to assess the number of claims as well as total loss related to surface runoff and compare these to the numbers of overtopping watercourses. Furthermore, with the good data coverage, we are able to analyze surface runoff related claims in space and time, from which we can infer spatial and temporal characteristics of surface runoff. Although the delivered data of PICB are heterogeneous and, consequently, time-consuming to harmonize, our first results show that exploiting these damage claim records is feasible and worthwhile to learn more about surface runoff in Switzerland.

  3. Intercultural Education in Spain and Switzerland: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Ferrer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural education during the last two decades in Spain and Switzerland can be understood as balancing acts because policymakers in both countries saw their school systems enrolling a growing number of immigrant and minority students. While solutions were formulated and adopted in response to each country's unique problems and political tradition, they were also driven by forces that fostered a restrictive immigration policy toward immigrants from third world countries. This article examines the emergence of intercultural education and compares diverse practices linked to this process. Some similarities were found in both socio-cultural contexts. The use of compensatory education with culturally diverse children contributes to school segregation. Although cultural and linguistic diversity is a structural and historical component of Spanish and Swiss identities, there is a clear separation between "internal" and "external" diversity in educational policy. It is interesting, for instance, to observe that the concept used in addressing regional identities in Spain and Switzerland is "bilingual education" while the theme used for immigrants is "intercultural education". We also identified some important differences between the two contexts. The number of immigrant youth is much more important in Switzerland. On the other hand, the presence of Gypsy students is a central issue of cultural diversity in Spain. The paper also reports on the general lack of teacher education departments to prepare their pre-service students for diverse schools. Most teacher education programs acknowledge in principle the importance of pluralistic preparation of teachers. In practice, however, most teacher education programs actually represent a monocultural approach. Continuing education in the field of intercultural education is linked to individual initiatives rather than to an institutional awareness of the importance of cross-cultural training. In order to

  4. The Megalithic civilisation in Switzerland, its society and its monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Pauline; Berti, Jérôme

    2011-06-01

    The Swiss megaliths, just like the English sites, hold an obvious interest for archaeology and astronomy. Within the sites located in Switzerland, the megaliths of Corcelles-Concise have some particular characteristics which are, in our opinion, relevant to point out. Indeed, using recent astronomical software, we have been able to attribute to this site a probable astronomical function. This lead us to wonder about the general use of this kind of location, with some insights on a cultual plan.

  5. Dr. David Syz, State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Dr. David Syz, State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Switzerland is seen here (seventh from right) visiting the assembly hall for the ATLAS experiment during his recent visit to CERN. To his right is Dr. Peter Jenni (blue shirt), spokesperson for the ATLAS Collaboration. The horizontal metal cylinder behind the group is one of the eight vacuum vessels for the superconducting coils of the ATLAS barrel toroid magnet system.

  6. Quality assurance of medical education: a case study from Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Heusser, Rolf; Schirlo, Christian

    2010-01-01

    [english] In the light of ongoing changes and challenges in the European health systems which also have significant implications for undergraduate medical education, the present paper describes the accreditation of medical education programmes in Switzerland focussing on undergraduate medical education. A summary of the methodology used is provided and first experiences as well as future perspectives are discussed in the light of the aim to achieve continuous quality assurance and improvement...

  7. Quality assurance of medical education: a case study from Switzerland [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusser, Rolf

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] In the light of ongoing changes and challenges in the European health systems which also have significant implications for undergraduate medical education, the present paper describes the accreditation of medical education programmes in Switzerland focussing on undergraduate medical education. A summary of the methodology used is provided and first experiences as well as future perspectives are discussed in the light of the aim to achieve continuous quality assurance and improvement in medical education.

  8. Multimedia and children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  9. Cost of low back pain in Switzerland in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Simon; Horisberger, Bruno; Schmidhauser, Sara; Eisenring, Claudia; Brügger, Urs; Ruckstuhl, Andreas; Dietrich, Jürg; Mannion, Anne F; Elfering, Achim; Tamcan, Ozgür; Müller, Urs

    2011-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is the most prevalent health problem in Switzerland and a leading cause of reduced work performance and disability. This study estimated the total cost of LBP in Switzerland in 2005 from a societal perspective using a bottom-up prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach. The study considers more cost categories than are typically investigated and includes the costs associated with a multitude of LBP sufferers who are not under medical care. The findings are based on a questionnaire completed by a sample of 2,507 German-speaking respondents, of whom 1,253 suffered from LBP in the last 4 weeks; 346 of them were receiving medical treatment for their LBP. Direct costs of LBP were estimated at 2.6 billion and direct medical costs at 6.1% of the total healthcare expenditure in Switzerland. Productivity losses were estimated at 4.1 billion with the human capital approach and 2.2 billion with the friction cost approach. Presenteeism was the single most prominent cost category. The total economic burden of LBP to Swiss society was between 1.6 and 2.3% of GDP.

  10. A national survey on radon remediation in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazza, Fabio Daniel; Murith, Christophe; Palacios, Martha; Gfeller, Walther; Christen, Emanuel

    2017-11-02

    We present and discuss the results of a national survey on radon remediation. The main purpose of the survey was the evaluation of the rate of radon remediation in Switzerland and to identify the main reasons for not taking action in cases of high radon levels. Switzerland is strongly affected by the radon problem and extensive efforts have been made to map the radon potential and to investigate the most effective methods to reduce radon levels in different buildings. However, since the radon remediation of buildings has been given over to experts in the private sector and since there is no obligation to report a finished remediation to the authorities, it is difficult for the Federal Office for Public Health (FOPH) to track the activities in this field. In order to improve this situation, the FOPH has launched a survey. We find a rate of radon remediation of 46%. The most often applied method is the aeration of the cellar and the improvement of the tightness of the floor slab. The respondents indicate that the most important reason for not taking action is the concern about the financial and/or invasive magnitude of the work. We discuss the different outcomes of the survey in the three linguistic regions in Switzerland and identify aspects of our communication with the public, which should be improved in view of our findings. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Epidemiological study of pestiviruses in South American camelids in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, M; Meylan, M; Regula, G; Steiner, A; Zanoni, R; Zanolari, P

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing eradication campaign for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle in Switzerland, the role of South American camelids (SAC) as a possible virus reservoir needed to be evaluated. To assess and characterize the prevalence of pestivirus infections in SAC in Switzerland. Serum samples collected from 348 animals (40 herds) in 2008 and from 248 animals (39 herds) in 2000 were examined for antibodies against pestiviruses and for the presence of BVDV viral RNA. Cross-sectional study using stratified, representative herd sampling. An indirect BVDV-ELISA was used to analyze serum samples for pestivirus antibodies, and positive samples underwent a serum neutralization test (SNT). Real-time RT-PCR to detect pestiviral RNA was carried out in all animals from herds with at least 1 seropositive animal. In 2008, the overall prevalence of animals positive for antibodies (ELISA) and pestiviral RNA or was 5.75 and 0%, respectively. In 2000, the corresponding prevalences were 3.63 and 0%, respectively. The seroprevalences (SNT) for BVDV, border disease virus or undetermined pestiviruses were estimated to be 0, 1.73, and 4.02% in 2008, and 0.40, 1.21, and 2.02% in 2000, respectively. At the present time, SAC appear to represent a negligible risk of re-infection for the BVDV eradication program in cattle in Switzerland. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. National Report Switzerland: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Activities and Related Research in Switzerland 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    During the period from 2013 to 2015, many Swiss researchers conducted studies on research platforms such as balloons or sounding rockets, or at the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat. Researchers ‘ increased interest in sounding rockets during the two-year period is especially noteworthy. The use of the high altitude research stations, in contrast, has a long tradition in Switzerland and is, thus, frequently occupied by scientists. An advantage of these stations is the ideal set-up for researchers interested in the long-term measurement of the upper atmosphere, for example. Therefore, numcrous experiments in this particular research field were conducted and published in scientific journals. After a pause, several Swiss scientists became engaged in sounding rocket experiments. RUAG Space in Nyon, for instance, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and University of Freiburg, is focusing on the effect of gravity on plant roots. In order to investigate a gravity-dependent influence, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings are being planned for execution during the upcoming MASTER 1 3 campaign. A team of students from HES-SO Geneva were chosen to participate in the REXUS program with their experiment called CAESAR. A new concept of a propellant management device for space vehicles was introduced and tested on the REXUS 14 rocket by the team from Geneva in the spring of 20 1 3 . Last year, another student team, now from the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, was selected to fly their experiment on another REXUS rocket. Their proposed biological study is called CEMIOS and pertains to biochemical properties of the cell membrane. Once more the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat welcomed many national—as well as international—scientists in the past two years. The hours that the researchers spent in either station reached a record high despite the poor weather conditions

  13. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would...

  14. 75 FR 61700 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden... purified carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from, inter alia, Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden, pursuant to... (120-day) sunset reviews of the Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden antidumping duty orders pursuant...

  15. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  16. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  17. Sweden to host a new neutron source

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The first European neutron source, currently under development, should commence operations by the end of this decade. Its aim: to produce beams of neutrons that can penetrate into the heart of matter without damaging it and reveal its secrets.   An artist's impression of what the ESS should look like in 2019. At the southern end of Sweden, a town called Lund is preparing for the arrival of the world's most powerful neutron source: the European Spallation Source (ESS). Construction is scheduled to start at the beginning of next year, and the facility is expected to become operational by 2019, when it will produce its first neutron beams. “The ESS is the result of an idea that began 20 years ago!” underlines Mats Lindroos, in charge of the ESS Accelerator Division. “Today, 17 European countries support the project, including Sweden, Denmark and Norway, who together account for 50% of the construction funding.” The ESS, whose design is al...

  18. Space education in Kiruna, Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sandahl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The town of Kiruna in the north of Sweden has a concentration of space activities and space research with, for example, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Esrange, the ESA Salmijärvi satellite station, and EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Radar Scientific Association. The Department of Space Science is a joint department between the two most northern universities in Sweden, Luleå University of Technology and Umeå University in collaboration with the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. It offers a range of education programmes in the space field. There are bachelor and master programmes in space engineering, and a bridging programme for students without a science background from secondary school. The Department also contributes to courses for teachers, Ph.D. courses and secondary school level courses. One master´s program and a three week summer course are given entirely in English and welcome international students. Thanks to good cooperation with Esrange students can build and fly experiments on high altitude balloons and sounding rockets and also take a large responsibility for the management of the projects. Close interaction with research and industry is an important part of the education.

  19. Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvemark, A S

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden. Neo-Malthusianism arrived in Sweden at the beginning of the 1880s when Knut Wicksell gave a public lecture at a youth meeting of a temperance society in Uppsala. The lecture resulted in public scandal and made neo-Malthusian ideas known overnight in Sweden. Wicksell maintained that poverty was the primary cause of most evils in society, and it was caused by the pressure from population increase on the means of subsistence. In his lecture he referred to Malthus explicitly and gave a summary of the Malthusian principle of population on which he based his reasoning. At the time he only knew of Malthus' ideas indirectly by reading George Drysdale's book, "The Elements of Social Science." The questions that arise are whether Malthus' ideas were only indirectly studied and whether neo-Malthusiansim was just seen as an equivalent of birth control and contraceptives, the very means of preventive checks for population growth that Malthus condemned for moral reasons. Wicksell focused on the causes and consequences of emigration in a lecture in 1881. He again saw rapid population growth as the cause of poverty, which in turn caused emigration. The rapid rise in Swedish emigration in the 1880s created considerable interest. Generally, the common view at the time was that Sweden suffered from a certain population pressure and corresponding underemployment. Johan Leffler, a young economist, had a different opinion. He saw the problem in an outspoken Malthusian way, suggesting that under the prevailing overpopulation in Sweden emigration could not be harmful. At the turn of the centruy Gustav Sundbarg was among those describing emigration as a deadly threat to Swedish society. Sundbarg not only turned against Malthus, but he also condemned neo-Malthusianism for moral reasons. Sundbarg maintained that demographic and economic development over the 19th century did not verify Malthus' assumption that population

  20. Tinnitus functional index: validation of the German version for Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Nicole; Kleinjung, Tobias; Jeker, Raphael; Meyer, Martin; Klaghofer, Richard; Weidt, Steffi

    2017-05-05

    Different standardized questionnaires are used to assess tinnitus severity, making comparisons across studies difficult. These questionnaires are also used to measure treatment-related changes in tinnitus although they were not designed for this purpose. To solve these problems, a new questionnaire - the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) - has been established. The TFI is highly responsive to treatment-related change and promises to be the new gold standard in tinnitus evaluation. The aim of the current study was to validate a German version of the TFI for a German-speaking population in Switzerland. At the ENT department of the University Hospital Zurich, 264 subjects completed an online survey including the German version for Switzerland of TFI, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and sociodemographic variables. Internal consistency of the TFI was calculated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Pearson correlation coefficients were used for the test-retest reliability of the TFI and to investigate convergent and discriminant validity between the THI and the BDI and BAI, respectively. Factor analysis was assessed using a principal component analysis with oblique rotation. The different factors extracted were then compared with the original questionnaire. The German version of the TFI for Switzerland showed an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.97) and an excellent test-retest reliability of 0.91. The convergent validity with THI was high (r = 0.86). The discriminant validity with BAI and BDI showed moderate results (BAI: r = 0.60 and BDI: r = 0.65). In the factor analysis only five factors with one main factor could be extracted instead of eight factors as described in the original version. Nevertheless, relations to the original eight subscales could be demonstrated. The German version of the TFI for Switzerland is a suitable instrument for measuring the impact of tinnitus

  1. Occupational doses and ALARA - recent developments in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godas, T.; Viktorsson, C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Sweden has traditionally experienced very slow doses to workers in the nuclear industry. However, this trend has since last year been broken mainly due to significant maintenance and repair work. This paper will describe occupational dose trends in Sweden and discuss actions that are being implemented to control this new situation.

  2. New Investment Models for Broadband in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse whether the developmental policy model applied for fibre roll-out in Sweden can be used as inspiration for the Danish telecom policy. This is done through a comparison of the two very different policy approaches applied in Denmark and Sweden. A case study...

  3. Home-School Collaboration in Sweden and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersson, Margaretha; Gu, Limin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a working paper presenting a network building cooperative project between Umea University in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. The project focuses on parents' involvement and home-school collaboration in Sweden and China and has an ambition to entail a set of empirical objectives: (1) to map and compare the systems,…

  4. A Macroanatomic Study on Larynx Cranialis of Turkeys in Thrace Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan GUNDEMİR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the differences and similarities between larynx cranialis of turkey and other species of poultry. For this purpose, 8 female and 8 male adult turkeys were used for the anatomical measurements. Furthermore, histological examinations were performed on larynx cranialis of 2 turkeys. Cartilago thyroidea and epiglottis were not observed in the larynx cranialis, in our study. Besides, larynx cranialis were found to constitute from paired cartilago arytneoidea and unpaired cartilago cricoidea and cartilago procricoidea. Crista ventralis was detected on larynx cranialis of turkeys. According to our results, it has been determined that in turkey; the width of glottis in female turkeys were larger than males. Cartilago procricoidea were observed bigger than cartilago arytenoidea and crista ventralis were found to be more prominent than in other birds.

  5. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  6. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  7. New table grapes in turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atak A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Table grape consumption is increasing day by day all around the world. New varieties are derived from breeding programs in different countries around the world. Breeding programs in particular are shaped in accordance with the demands of consumers. Especially in recent years, the demands increased for cultivars of table grapes with large berry and maturation at different times, in Turkey as well as in the world market. Also, new cultivars which are tolerant to fungal diseases, late-season and can be stored for a long time had much demand in recent years. For this purpose, new table grapes with these characteristics have been developed by Yalova Atatürk from Central Horticultural Research Institute. Especially in the last few years, the numbers of new cultivars of a total of 12 varieties have been registered. Atak 77, Pembe 77, İsmetbey, Arifbey, Samancı çekirdeksizi, and Yalova Beyazıtable grapes cultivars have been registered in the last few years among the new cultivars. Each one of them is different from the standard cultivars and has been registered with superior properties. Most of these cultivars need less pesticide application in high humidity areas and can be grown successfully. These new cultivars were tested in different ecology and determined suitable regions. These new table grape varieties started to be grown in different part of Turkey nowadays.

  8. Globalization, English Language Teaching & Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Zülküf ALTAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization as a concept has been used both positively and negatively by many different people and in many different situations. Depending on the point of view, all definitions on globalization state that it has the power of creating a world without boundaries where people communicate, share, and do business with the help of information, communication and transportation technologies. And the medium of all these activities is English language. Therefore, English language curriculum and teachers should be able to help learners to function as successful members in globalized digital-age World. Technological advancements open new areas to use English language as the main medium for communication both for personal and advanced academic needs and these new uses create new challenges for English language teachers to introduce, use, analyze and teach these areas to EFL (English as a Foreign Language students. Where does Turkey stand as a country in this picture? This paper focuses on the effect of globalization on ELT, 21st century skills and English language and current practice of ELT along with the recent curriculum revision of EFL in Turkey.

  9. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... infants (0.00195 and 0.00145) and intrapartum deaths of non-malformed infants (0.00042 and 0.00019) was significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. CONCLUSION: Application of the Nordic-Baltic Perinatal Death Classification on perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden in 1991 raises the questions...... as to why the rate of perinatal death of malformed infants is higher in Denmark than in Sweden and whether intrapartum care in Denmark could be improved....

  10. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G.W. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs.

  11. Delayed HIV diagnosis common in Sweden, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widgren, Katarina; Skar, Helena; Berglund, Torsten; Kling, Anna-Maria; Tegnell, Anders; Albert, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Early diagnosis of HIV is important for the prognosis of individual patients, because antiretroviral treatment can be started at the appropriate time, and for public health, because transmission can be prevented. Data were collected from 767 HIV patients who were diagnosed in Sweden during 2003-2010 and were infected in Sweden or born in Sweden and infected abroad. A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) was applied to BED-EIA test results (OD-n Sweden or abroad). Early diagnosis was observed in 271 patients (35%). There was no statistically significant time trend in the yearly percentage of patients with early diagnosis in the entire study group (p = 0.836) or in subgroups. Early diagnosis was significantly more common in men who have sex men (MSM) (45%) than in heterosexuals (21%) and injecting drug users (27%) (p Sweden, which does not appear to diminish.

  12. PESTICIDE RISKS OF SEAFOOD IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, Şafak; Özden, Özkan

    2014-01-01

    Turkey is a rich country in terms of seasand inland wa­ter sources. The aquatic ecosystems in Turkey are threatened bythe agricultural activities and pesticide contamination.  In parallel to the world, the use of pes­ticidesbegan in the 1940s in Turkey. In the beginning of 1970’s some pesticides haveprohibited by reason of their accumulation to environment and food chains,toxic effects on non-target organisms. Pesticides can easily be included to thefood chain in the aquatic envi­ronment whic...

  13. Tree-oriented silviculture for growing valuable broadleaved tree species in Turkey oak coppices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Giuliarelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Valuable broadleaved tree species can play an important role in mixed-forest management; in these forests, silviculture may play an important role in getting high value timber. This paper illustrates a tree-oriented silviculture approach with an application in a Turkey oak coppice stand in Central Italy. This silvicultural approach has been developed in the last decades in France, Germany, Switzerland. The rationale behind the tree-oriented approach is to select a number of target sporadic tree species with valuable timber and to support their growth through repeated thinning from above. We tested the effectiveness of this silviculture approach as an alternative to customary coppice management in Italy, which is traditionally focused on the dominant tree species and does not consider valuable broadleaved tree species. The two silviculture approaches (tree-oriented and customary coppicing were compared through a financial evaluation of the economic convenience of the two alternatives in a Turkey oak coppice stand in Central Italy

  14. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  15. Media use in distance education in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman F. Davies

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of distance language teaching which developed rapidly in Sweden after the Second World War. It argues that so far little use has been made of technical aids and that the computer as such is still a stranger both to the language teacher and the student. The writer concludes that perhaps the time has come for a technical revolution amongst Arts students. Met hierdie artikel word 'n oorsig gegee oor afstandsonderrig-spesifiek wat tale betref-soos dit in Swede ontwikkel het na die Tweede Wereldoorlog. Daar word op gewys dat tot dusver min gebruik gemaak is van tegniese hulpmiddels en dat vera! die rekenaar onderbenut is. Die skrywer sluit met die gedagte dat die tyd moontlik ryp is vir 'n tegnologiese rewolusie"in die geledere van die Lettere en Wysbegeerte.

  16. Time trends in human fecundability in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H; Rylander, Lars; Carstensen, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    increased with age, except that for women in their late 1930s, an apparent decrease was observed, particularly among the early cohorts. CONCLUSION: We found decreasing subfertility over time. We speculate that these patterns might be related to a Sweden-specific decrease over time in sexually transmitted...... diseases, to changes in sexual behavior induced by socioeconomic conditions, or to broader biologic or educational trends.......,000 primiparous women 20 years of age and older in the nationwide Swedish Medical Birth Registry from 1983 through 2002. This age restriction led to an exclusion of 10% of primiparous pregnancies. Subfertility (TTP > or =1 year) was analyzed as a function of maternal age, calendar time at initiation of attempt...

  17. Travel Behaviour of Online Shoppers in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiselius Lena Winslott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping opportunities are transforming travel behaviour for shopping and could potentially reduce the overall travel demand. Despite numerous studies on online shopping, only a few have taken an approach that includes trips for all travel purposes. Based on a web–survey, this paper provides results on travel behaviour for physical shopping for frequent, regular, and infrequent online shoppers in Sweden. The results indicate that frequent online shoppers make as many car trips (for both shopping and other errands as others. Also, frequent online shoppers in total make as many trips to a physical store as infrequent online shoppers – although by more sustainable modes of transport – and that the time saved from online shopping is spent on both additional shopping trips and trips for other errands. The conclusion is that online shopping might facilitate changing travel behaviour but does not in itself represent a good stand–alone measure for reducing vehicle mileage.

  18. Control of Salmonella enteritidis in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierup, M; Engström, B; Engvall, A; Wahlström, H

    1995-05-01

    The Swedish control of Salmonella, with special reference to Salmonella enteritidis, in poultry is described. The control is directed at all serotypes of Salmonella and imported grandparent chickens are controlled, which is considered to be the main reason why Sweden so far is not found to be involved in the worldwide spread of different phagetypes of S. enteritidis. However, this spread has initiated a more stringent control of Salmonella in layers as earlier existed in broilers. Since 1990, 90% of the layer flocks are voluntarily tested for Salmonella before slaughter by bacteriological examination of pooled faecal samples. If S. enteritidis is isolated the flock is destroyed. This test, and in addition two similar tests during the production are mandatory as of January 1st, 1994. The voluntary Salmonella control programme has also been extended to all of the layer parents and hatcheries since 1991. Only heat-treated feed is given to all layer chickens during the rearing period and its use is becoming gradually more common also during the production period. Since 1987, four layer flocks have been found to be infected by S. enteritidis phagetype 4 and one flock with phagetype 6. During 1970-1984, 90% of all flocks of broilers were voluntarily tested bacteriologically for Salmonella before slaughter, and since 1984 such a control is mandatory to all flocks. As a result of this and other controls, S. enteritidis has not been isolated from broilers since 1972. Based on a governmental regulation from 1961, introduced as a result of a large Salmonella epidemic in 1953, Sweden runs an active, official control of Salmonella (Wierup et al., 1992).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The burden of chickenpox disease in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Widgren

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickenpox vaccine is not included in the routine childhood vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to estimate the baseline of national chickenpox disease burden, as comprehensive studies, required for an assessment regarding vaccine introduction, are lacking. Methods We used available health care registers and databases; the death register, hospitalisations register, communicable disease notifications database, Stockholm County registers on consultations in specialist and primary care, temporary parental benefit to care for a sick child, and searches on the health care system’s website. From each data source, records regarding chickenpox were identified and extracted, either using relevant diagnosis codes (ICD-10 or key words. A descriptive analysis with regards to number of cases and incidence, severity, and seasonality, was carried out covering the time period 2007 to 2013. Results There were on average 333 patients hospitalised annually due to chickenpox, yielding a hospitalisation rate of 3.56/100,000 person-years. We found a slight male predominance in hospitalised cases. The highest hospitalisation rate was seen in 1 year-olds, whereas the peak in primary care consultations was in 2 year-olds. Nearly a quarter of children had parents who reported absence from work to care for them when sick with chickenpox. The average yearly death rate from chickenpox was 0.034/100,000 person-years. The duration of hospital stay increased with age. The seasonality in number of searches on the health care website corresponded well with hospitalisations and primary care consultations with peaks in spring. Conclusions This study shows chickenpox death and hospitalisation rates in range with other European countries without routine vaccination. Swedish children fall ill with chickenpox at a very young age. The study provides essential input for future discussions on the introduction of routine chickenpox

  20. Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodushkin, Ilia [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: ilia.rodushkin@alsglobal.com; Engstroem, Emma [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Soerlin, Dieke; Ponter, Christer; Baxter, Douglas C. [ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Lulea, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic {sup 187}Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) {<=} spruce needles {<=} mushrooms {<=} tree leaves {<=} pine needles < mosses << lichens. The concentrations found in three different species of plant were used to provide the first estimates of gaseous osmium tetroxide (OsO{sub 4}) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO{sub 4} concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only

  1. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  2. Sparse district-heating in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Stefan Forsaeus [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Building Technology and Mechanics, P.O. Box 24036, SE-400 22 Goeteborg (Sweden); Reidhav, Charlotte [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Lygnerud, Kristina [Goeteborg University, School of Business, Economics and Law, Department of Business Administration, P.O. Box 610, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-07-15

    This paper presents a review of the sparse district-heating research programme undertaken in Sweden between 2002 and 2006. The goal of the programme was to increase the future competitiveness for district heat in low heat density areas, e.g., suburban single-family houses and small villages. Such areas are unfavourable, since revenues from heat sold are low compared with the investment cost for the local distribution network. In Sweden, district heat has a dominant position in the heat market for residential and service-sector buildings. In order for the business to grow, it is necessary to increase the rate of expansion in the detached-house segment. This is why the programme was initiated. The extent of the programme was set at EUR 3.6 million with equal financing from the Swedish District-Heating Association and the Swedish Energy-Agency. The research was carried out in three phases: a state of the art survey; a development phase focused on productivity gains where new research on both technology and customer interaction was performed; and finally a demonstration phase where new methods were tested in full-scale field operation. The programme has shown that the Swedish district-heating industry needs to adjust in order to reach a higher profitability for sparse district-heating investments. Tradition from large-scale high-density district heating is hard to scale to fit sparse district-heating systems. For example, the construction becomes very labour intensive and the industry is weak when it comes to market-oriented business logic, sales and private customer interaction. Innovation seems to be a way forward and active management of innovations is a way to create increased value of the investments. Other keys to improving the profitability of sparse district-heating investments are more efficient working routines (resulting in higher productivity) and revised ways of customer communications. These seem more important than increasing efficiency in district

  3. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  4. Femicide in Turkey between 2000 and 2010

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadik Toprak; Gokhan Ersoy

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of femicide cases in Turkey and to describe the socio-demographic, clinical, forensic, and criminological characteristics of femicide...

  5. Turkey and Israel Back Together Again

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonathan Gorvett

    2016-01-01

      SOME SIX YEARS after Israeli commandos stormed aboard the Turkish vessel Mavi Marmara, shooting dead nine of its peace-activist crew and sending already frayed relations between Turkey and Israel...

  6. COAL CONSUMPTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this paper is to use asymmetric causality tests to examine the coal consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP relationship in Turkey based on data from 1980 to 2006. To investigate this relationship, a multivariate system is employed by including fixed capital formation and labor force variables into the model. The empirical results obtained from asymmetric causality tests show no causality for coal consumption and GDP relationship in Turkey. The results indicate that coal consumption does not affect growth; hence, energy conservation policies may be pursued without adversely affecting growth in Turkey. Thus, neutrality hypothesis is confirmed for Turkey. This means that a decrease in coal consumption does not affect economic growth and vice versa. In this case, policymakers should explore the feasibility of either decreasing the coal consumption or increasing the efficiency of coal consumption.

  7. Thermal-Electricity Power Plants in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mustafa Balat; Havva Balat; Neslihan Acici

    2004-01-01

    .... In 2003, its share is about 74.78% (104,898 GWh/year) of total production (140,283 GWh) of the country. Turkey is mainly focused on increased natural gas use for Thermal Electric Power Plant production...

  8. Towards the new CH2018 climate scenarios for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Schär, Christoph; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Knutti, Reto; Liniger, Mark; Strassmann, Kuno

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing demand for regional assessments of future climate change and its impacts on society and ecosystems to inform and facilitate appropriate adaptation strategies. The basis for such assessments are consistent and up-to-date climate change scenarios on the local to regional scale. In Switzerland, an important step has been accomplished by the release of the climate scenarios in 2011 ("CH2011"). Since then, new climate model simulations have become available and the scientific understanding has improved. It is hence desirable to update these national scenarios. The new CH2018 scenarios are developed in the framework of the recently founded National Center for Climate Services (NCCS), a network consisting of several federal offices and academic partners. The CH2018 scenarios will build primarily upon the latest Euro-CORDEX regional climate model simulations assuming different pathways of future greenhouse gas concentrations. Compared to CH2011, more emphasis will be put on changes in extremes and in putting the projected changes in the context of observed variability. Results of a recently conducted survey on end-user needs in Switzerland will guide the development process toward the CH2018 scenarios. It ensures that the scenarios are presented and communicated in a user-oriented format and find a wide applicability across different sectors in Switzerland. In the presentation we will show the full methodological setup to generate the CH2018 scenarios and how consistency across the methods and products is maximized. First results on mean changes and selected indices will be presented. In terms of dissemination, the results of the user survey show the necessity to address all different user types of climate scenarios, especially the non-experts. Compared to CH2011, this implies a stronger focus on consulting, condensing complex information and providing tutorials. In the presentation, we will outline our plans on dissemination in order to adequately

  9. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  10. Interest in a national research network in surgery in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businger, Adrian; Kaderli, Reto; Sommer, Christoph; Furrer, Markus; Villiger, Peter

    2011-11-08

    Networks are known to improve performance and create synergies. A research network can provide a significant advantage for all parties involved in research in surgery by systematically tracking the outcome of a huge number of patients over a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to investigate the experiences of surgeons with respect to research activities, to evaluate the opinions of surgeons with regard to the development of a national network for research in the field of surgery in Switzerland and to obtain data on how such a network should be designed. An anonymous postal survey of board-certified surgeons practising in Switzerland was conducted during summer 2007. The questionnaire included questions related to research activities, the desire to develop a national research network and the design and potential advantages of such a network. Qualitative analyses were performed using Mayring's content analysis. A total of 337 out of 749 (45%) questionnaires were returned. In all, 156/337 (46.3%) surgeons were engaged in research activities. During the past five years, 212/337 (62.9%) of the participants had participated at least in one multi-centre study. Out of 337, 88 (26.1%) surgeons were members of an established research association in Switzerland. Interest in a national surgical research network was reported by 266 (78.9%) participants. The reported advantages were "power" (53.1%), "teamwork effects" (23.7%), "efficiency" (12.2%) and "quality aspects" (8.0%). The most frequently named design proposal was based on a clinic for coordinating research, while the younger participants also suggested a web-based platform. Due to the significant interest of participants, the establishment of a national research network should be considered. An established clinic for coordinating research alongside an additional web-based platform to target young surgeons could function as an umbrella organisation.

  11. Congenital syphilis in Switzerland: gone, forgotten, on the return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Sauteur, Patrick M; Trück, Johannes; Bosshard, Philipp P; Tomaske, Maren; Morán Cadenas, Francisca; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Goetschel, Philippe

    2012-01-11

    Acquired syphilis has re-emerged in many Western European countries. In contrast to international guidelines, screening for syphilis in pregnancy is not generally recommended in Switzerland. There has been an increase in the incidence of laboratory syphilis notifications in recent years, regardless of gender and age. We conducted a retrospective study, evaluating the total numbers of pregnant women with positive syphilis serology (Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination assay, TPPA) from 2000 to 2009, and evaluated the clinical management and outcome of their offspring. In addition, we sought to determine cases of infectious syphilis (primary, secondary, and early latent syphilis) reported to the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health in women of childbearing age, which has previously been shown to precede changes in the incidence of congenital syphilis within a population. Out of 13,833 women who gave birth at our institution, positive syphilis serology was found in 9 pregnant women during the 10 years studied. A total of 6 pregnant women were diagnosed having syphilis infection during pregnancy. Regarding their offspring, 8 of the 9 newborns were tested serologically. One neonate experienced congenital syphilis because the adequately treated mother developed re-infection after treatment. Within the Swiss population, infectious syphilis cases in women of childbearing age increased substantially from 2006 to 2009. The epidemiologic data suggest that congenital syphilis could become a medical problem in Switzerland due to the rise of infectious syphilis cases in women of childbearing age that have been shown to be followed by changes in the congenital syphilis incidence. The persistence of congenital syphilis in Switzerland along with this rise of infectious syphilis in women of childbearing age suggests a potential for improvement of prenatal care and syphilis control programmes.

  12. Natural hazard fatalities in Switzerland from 1946 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Norina; Badoux, Alexandre; Techel, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland, located in the middle of the Alps, is prone to several different natural hazards which regularly cause fatalities. To explore temporal trends as well as demographic and spatial patterns in the number of natural hazard fatalities, a database comprising all natural hazard events causing fatalities was compiled for the years 1946 until 2015. The new database includes avalanche, flood, lightning, windstorm, landslide, debris flow, rockfall, earthquake and ice avalanche processes. Two existing databases were incorporated and the resulting dataset extended by a comprehensive newspaper search. In total the database contains 635 natural hazard events causing 1023 fatalities. The database does not include victims which exposed themselves to an important danger on purpose (e.g. high risk sports). The most common causes of death were snow avalanches (37 %), followed by lightning (16 %), floods (12 %), windstorms (10 %), rockfall (8 %), landslides (7 %) and other processes (9 %). Around 14.6 fatalities occurred on average each year. A distinct decrease of natural hazard fatalities could be shown over the last 70 years, which was mostly due to the decline in the number of avalanche and lightning fatalities. Thus, nearly three times as many people were killed by natural hazard processes from 1946 to 1980 than from 1981 to 2015. Normalisation of fatality data by population resulted in a clearly declining annual crude mortality rate: 3.9 deaths per million persons for the first 35 years and 1.1 deaths per million persons for the second 35 years of the study period. The average age of the victims was approximately 36 years and about 75% were males. Most people were killed in summer (JJA, 42%) and winter (DJF, 32 %). Furthermore, almost two-thirds of the fatalities took place in the afternoon and evening. The spatial distribution of the natural hazard fatalities over Switzerland was quite homogeneous. However, mountainous parts of the country (Prealps, Alps) were

  13. Interdisciplinary consensus on management of premenstrual disorders in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Petra; Bodmer, Christine; Ehlert, Ulrike; Eltbogen, Roger; Ging, Ankica; Streuli, Isabelle; von Wolff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Premenstrual disorders (PMD) can affect women throughout their entire reproductive years. In 2016, an interdisciplinary expert meeting of general gynecologists, gynecological endocrinologists, psychiatrists and psychologists from Switzerland was held to provide an interdisciplinary algorithm on PMD management taking reproductive stages into account. The Swiss PMD algorithm differentiates between primary and secondary PMD care providers incorporating different levels of diagnostic and treatment. Treatment options include cognitive behavioral therapy, alternative therapy, antidepressants, ovulation suppression and diuretics. Treatment choice depends on prevalent PMD symptoms, (reproductive) age, family planning, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities, comedication and the woman's preference. Regular follow-ups are mandatory.

  14. Bovine besnoitiosis in Switzerland: imported cases and local transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Walter; Lesser, Maren; Grimm, Felix; Hilbe, Monika; Sydler, Titus; Trösch, Luzia; Ochs, Hansueli; Braun, Ueli; Deplazes, Peter

    2013-12-06

    Bovine besnoitiosis is an economically important disease of cattle, caused by Besnoitia besnoiti (Protozoa, Apicomplexa). A considerable spreading of this parasitic infection has been observed in Europe in the last ten years, mainly related to animal trade. In order to investigate the possibility of B. besnoiti being unnoticed introduced and getting established in Switzerland through the import of breeding cattle from France, a total of 767 animals (650 cattle imported from France and 117 cattle that had contact with B. besnoiti positive cattle in Swiss farms) were screened for antibodies against B. besnoiti by both a commercial ELISA and by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 101 (13.17%) samples showed a positive reaction in ELISA (cut-off: percent of positivity [PP] ≥ 15) and 16 (2.09%) samples had IFAT titers ≥ 1:100. Eight of those samples reacted positive in Western blot (WB), corresponding to five imported Limousin cattle (two cows and one bull from France and two cows from Germany) and to three cattle born in Switzerland (one Limousin heifer born from one of the positive German cows, and two adult Braunvieh cows, that had been in contact with one of the French cows at a Swiss farm). Seven of those animals were subclinically infected and one animal showed only very mild signs. They were subsequently slaughtered, and the serological diagnosis could be confirmed by real-time PCR and/or histopathology in seven animals. The most frequent parasite localizations were the tendons and surrounding connective tissue of the distal limbs and the skin of the head region. Furthermore, B. besnoiti could be successfully isolated in vitro from one French, one German and one Swiss cattle (isolates Bb-IPZ-1-CH, Bb-IPZ-2-CH and Bb-IPZ-3-CH). In the current situation in Switzerland, prophylactic and control measures should include a serological examination of cattle to be imported from endemic areas and the culling of all confirmed positive animals from

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall erosivity factor for Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meusburger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity, considering rainfall amount and intensity, is an important parameter for soil erosion risk assessment under future land use and climate change. Despite its importance, rainfall erosivity is usually implemented in models with a low spatial and temporal resolution. The purpose of this study is to assess the temporal- and spatial distribution of rainfall erosivity in form of the (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation R-factor for Switzerland. Time series of 22 yr for rainfall (10 min resolution and temperature (1 h resolution data were analysed for 71 automatic gauging stations distributed throughout Switzerland. Regression-kriging was used to interpolate the rainfall erosivity values of single stations and to generate a map for Switzerland. Latitude, longitude, average annual precipitation, biogeographic units (Jura, Midland, etc., aspect and elevation were used as covariates, of which average annual precipitation, elevation and the biographic unit (Western Central Alps were significant (p<0.01 predictors. The mean value of long-term rainfall erosivity is 1330 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 with a range of lowest values of 124 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 at an elevated station in Grisons to highest values of 5611 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 in Ticino. All stations have highest erosivity values from July to August and lowest values in the winter months. Swiss-wide the month May to October show significantly increasing trends of rainfall erosivity for the observed period (p<0.005. Only in February a significantly decreasing trend of rainfall erosivity is found (p<0.01. The increasing trends of rainfall erosivity in May, September and October when vegetation cover is scarce are likely to enhance soil erosion risk for certain agricultural crops and alpine grasslands in Switzerland.

  16. Oesophageal cancer in France and Switzerland: recent time trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyns, A J

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports the incidence of oesophageal carcinoma in five cancer registries from France and in a further two from the francophone regions of Switzerland. The cancers are segregated into the two main histological types (squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma). In Belgium the proportion of adenocarcinomas is much higher than in any of the French registries. A study of time trends shows no clear trend in overall incidence of oesophageal cancer. There is a trend towards an increasing proportion of adenocarcinomas with time, that is most apparent in Doubs, Dijon and Vaud registries.

  17. Tax Morale: A Survey with a Special Focus on Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Benno Torgler; Schaltegger, Christoph A.

    2006-01-01

    Tax morale has received a growing attention in academics as well as in public life. The relevance of tax morale for fiscal policy cannot be neglected as tax morale can help to explain the level of tax compliance or tax evasion. This paper gives an overview of tax morale with a special focus on Switzerland. We highlight the magnitude and the de-terminants of tax morale that have been isolated so far and discuss directions for future research in this area. In particular, we concentrate on fisca...

  18. Regionalization of monthly rainfall erosivity patterns in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schmidt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One major controlling factor of water erosion is rainfall erosivity, which is quantified as the product of total storm energy and a maximum 30 min intensity (I30. Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE and its revised version (RUSLE. As rainfall erosivity is closely correlated with rainfall amount and intensity, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland can be expected to have a regional characteristic and seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This intra-annual variability was mapped by a monthly modeling approach to assess simultaneously spatial and monthly patterns of rainfall erosivity. So far only national seasonal means and regional annual means exist for Switzerland. We used a network of 87 precipitation gauging stations with a 10 min temporal resolution to calculate long-term monthly mean R-factors. Stepwise generalized linear regression (GLM and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV were used to select spatial covariates which explain the spatial and temporal patterns of the R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The monthly R-factor is mapped by summarizing the predicted R-factor of the regression equation and the corresponding residues of the regression, which are interpolated by ordinary kriging (regression–kriging. As spatial covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included such as snow depths, a combination product of hourly precipitation measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip, daily Alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD, and monthly precipitation sums (RhiresM. Topographic parameters (elevation, slope were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of the 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed a distinct seasonality with the highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August influenced by intense rainfall events. Winter months have the lowest rainfall erosivity. A

  19. Summer North Atlantic Oscillation and flood variability in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Juan Carlos; Schulte, Lothar; Badoux, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    The study analyses the possible links between flood frequency in Switzerland and the North Atlantic dynamics over the last two centuries. Given the intricate topography of Switzerland, it will generate a territorial division to retain main physiographic and environmental dissimilarities between different regions. The flood variability in Switzerland over the period 1800-2010 has been determined from a flood damage index for July and August months. The index considers very severe and catastrophic floods from existing flood inventories, summarizing both the severity of these events, their spatial extent and the regional differences. Special attention will be focused on the disparities between flood dynamics at northern and southern slopes of the Alps. The analysis of the possible links between floods and North Atlantic dynamics is focused on the low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Summer climate in the North Atlantic-European sector shows a principal pattern of year-to-year variability, although this pattern is weaker than the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in winter and is confined to northern latitudes. By analogy the climatology community refers to this pattern as the Summer North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO), which is defined as the main empirical orthogonal function of the standardized anomalies of the European mean sea level pressure during July and August. The flood damage index provides evidences of floods clusters in: 1830-1851, 1881-1927, 1977-1990 and 2005 to present. These clusters coincide with those reported from Switzerland and from some areas of the European continent such as the Czech Republic, Italy and the eastern half of the Iberian Peninsula. This link is not so close when compared with the flood occurrences in Germany. The analysis of the principal mode of low-frequency atmospheric variability shows that the Swiss river catchments situated on the center and southern flank of the Alps are affected by atmospherically unstable areas

  20. Dr. David Syz, State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Dr. David Syz, State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Switzerland, toured the assembly hall of the ATLAS experiment on a recent visit to CERN.Photos 01, 02: Dr. Peter Jenni, spokesperson for the ATLAS experiment (second from left), explains to Dr. David Syz (fourth from left) and accompanying visitors the process of integration of a 26-metre-long coil of the barrel toroid magnet system into its coil casing.Photo 03: Dr. Peter Jenni (extreme right) with Dr. David Syz (front row, fourth from right) behind a stack of 26-metre-long 'racetrack' coils awaiting integration into their coil casings.

  1. Impacts of the May 2015 bad weather in Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Strong precipitations occurred on Western Switzerland in the beginning of May 2015, especially on May 1st. Over 100 mm of rain fell in about 24 hours in some places in Western Switzerland, with a maximum of 130 mm at La Dôle, Canton of Vaud. Those heavy rains caused different damages as debris flow, floods and landslides. Several roads and railway have been closed, preventively or due to tracks obstructions in the Alps, the Jura mountains and in the Swiss Plateau. Two landslides have disrupted two main railway tracks, causing high traffic disturbances due to deviations and affecting the railway traffic during more than one week. In the village of St-Gingolph in the Canton of Valais, the Morge river overflowed two restaurants with debris flows. Their ground floor levels have been totally destroyed. In the town of Monthey, Canton of Valais, about 300 residents along the Viège river have been evacuated during the night because of the high risk of floods. The Arve river -which flows through the Chamonix Valley in the French Alps- has reached a flow rate record with 903 m3/s compared to its standard flow of 77 m3/s at its mouth into the Rhône river in Geneva on 2nd May. Several bridges in the town had to be closed, affecting the urban traffic of the second biggest town of Switzerland. North-east of the Western Switzerland, the lakes of Neuchâtel (Canton of Neuchâtel), Biel (Canton of Bern) and Morat (Canton of Fribourg), overflowed because of the high flow rate of the Aare river. The maximum height of water level has been reached about 8 days after the first heavy rain with a water level increase of 1 meter. A lot of wood has been carried by the rivers to the shores of the lakes. The damages are only material, no injuries were identified. Financial and temporal damages consequences are high for the two destroyed restaurants. The return to normality for river flows and water levels of the lakes took several weeks. The aim of this study is to document the natural

  2. GERMANY & TURKEY – A PARTNERSHIP PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shortly deals with economic and commercial relations between Turkey, that keeps close regulary economic, political and cultural relationship and Germany, which is one of six founding fathers of the European Union. The subject of article has been searched within the following framework: Measurement of commercial relations between export and import between, investment relations between Germany and Turkey, mutual distribution sector.

  3. Bacterial and Viral Fish Diseases in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Rafet Çagrı; Altınok, İlhan

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the state of knowledge about the major bacterial and viral pathogens of fish found in Turkey. It also considers diseases prevention and treatment. In this study, peer reviewed scientific articles, theses and dissertations, symposium proceedings, government records as well as recent books, which published between 1976 and 2013 were used as a source to compile dispersed literature. Bacterial and viral disease problems were investigated during this period in Turkey. Total ...

  4. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnaz, A., E-mail: asliy@ktu.edu.t [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kucukomeroglu, B. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Damla, N. [Batman University, Department of Physics, 72060 Batman (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and {sup 137}Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h{sup -1} and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}. In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: {yields} {yields}The study highlights activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in soil. {yields} The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. {yields} The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. {yields} Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. {yields} The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  5. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  6. Metal working fluid exposure and diseases in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michael F; Pletscher, Claudia; Scholz, Stefan M; Schneuwly, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to metal working fluids (MWF) is common in machining processes worldwide and may lead to diseases of the skin and the respiratory tract. The aim of the study was to investigate exposure and diseases due to MWF in Switzerland between 2004 and 2013. We performed descriptive statistics including determination of median and 90th percentile values of MWF concentrations listed in a database of Suva. Moreover, we clustered MWF-induced occupational diseases listed in a database from the Swiss Central Office for Statistics in Accident Insurance, and performed linear regression over time to investigate temporal course of the illnesses. The 90th percentile for MWF air concentration was 8.1 mg (aerosol + vapor)/m3 and 0.9 mg aerosol/m3 (inhalable fraction). One thousand two hundred and eighty skin diseases and 96 respiratory diseases were observed. This is the first investigation describing exposure to and diseases due to MWF in Switzerland over a timeframe of 10 years. In general, working conditions in the companies of this investigation were acceptable. Most measured MWF concentrations were below both the Swiss and most international occupational exposure limits of 2014. The percentage of workers declared unfit for work was 17% compared to the average of other occupational diseases (12%).

  7. Selling Dreams: An Overview of Slimming Products' Advertisements in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Droz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this work was to assess weight loss claims of slimming products available in Switzerland. Method: Between May 2008 and February 2013, 31 advertisements for 13 slimming products were analyzed. Results: Total daily weight loss claims ranged between 300 g and 1 kg. 84% of the advertisements included the photograph of a woman, 61% showed a picture of a person before and after using the product, and 51% claimed that the product had improved marital relationships. The terms ‘natural', ‘miracle/extraordinary' and ‘scientific' were present in 92%, 77% and 31% of the advertisements, respectively. Cost for one package of the product ranged between CHF 49.00 and 59.00 (USD 52.00 and 63.00, and no correlation was found between cost and weight loss claims. No differences were found for weight loss claims according to presence or absence of a picture or of the terms ‘natural', ‘miracle/extraordinary', and ‘scientific'. Assuming that 5.3% of readers bought the product, yearly revenues would range between CHF 12.5 and 33.8 million (USD 13.4 and 36.2 million. Conclusions: In Switzerland, advertisements for slimming products use positive and reassuring terms to attract consumers, which are lured by unreachable, false promises of rapid and easy weight loss.

  8. Selling dreams: an overview of slimming products' advertisements in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droz, Nadège; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess weight loss claims of slimming products available in Switzerland. Between May 2008 and February 2013, 31 advertisements for 13 slimming products were analyzed. Total daily weight loss claims ranged between 300 g and 1 kg. 84% of the advertisements included the photograph of a woman, 61% showed a picture of a person before and after using the product, and 51% claimed that the product had improved marital relationships. The terms 'natural', 'miracle/extraordinary' and 'scientific' were present in 92%, 77% and 31% of the advertisements, respectively. Cost for one package of the product ranged between CHF 49.00 and 59.00 (USD 52.00 and 63.00), and no correlation was found between cost and weight loss claims. No differences were found for weight loss claims according to presence or absence of a picture or of the terms 'natural', 'miracle/extraordinary', and 'scientific'. Assuming that 5.3% of readers bought the product, yearly revenues would range between CHF 12.5 and 33.8 million (USD 13.4 and 36.2 million). In Switzerland, advertisements for slimming products use positive and reassuring terms to attract consumers, which are lured by unreachable, false promises of rapid and easy weight loss. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Revised regulation on the Hiring of Domestic Staff in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN of the publication of the official translation of the 'Directive on the hiring of private servants by staff members of diplomatic missions, permanent missions, consular posts and international organisations in Switzerland', which came into effect on 1st May 2006. The members of the personnel concerned are reminded that they must comply with the provisions of the revised Directive, which replaces that of 1st May 1998, and present a copy to their domestic staff. The full text of the revised Directive is available on the Swiss Mission's website: http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/f/home/guide/dir.html (original French version); http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/e/home/guide/dir.html (English translation). This notification cancels the information published in document CERN/DSU-DO/RH/9304 on 19 October 1999. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  10. Dose calibrators quality controls in Switzerland: six years of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochud, F.; Spring, Ph.; Baechler, S. [Institut Universitaire de Radiophysique Appliquee, Lausanne (Switzerland); Twerenbold, D. [METAS, Lindenweg 50, Bern-Wabern (Switzerland); Linder, R. [Bundesamt fur Gesundheit, Abteilung Strahlenschutz, Bern (Switzerland); Leibundgut, F. [Raditec radiation and technology, Schoftland (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    In Switzerland, the legal use of open radioactive sources in nuclear medicine and the general requirements for quality controls are defined in a federal ordinance. The metrological traceability is guaranteed through a directive of the Swiss metrological office (M.E.T.A.S.) that requires each instrument to be monitored at least once a year through either a verification or an intercomparison. The verification is performed onsite by an accredited laboratory with a set of three gamma sources (Co-57, Cs-137 and Co-60) and - if applicable - a beta source (Sr-90/Y- 90). The intercomparison is made through conventional mail. A source of I-131 or Tc- 99 m is measured both in the nuclear medicine department and in an accredited laboratory. The maximum tolerated error is 10% for gamma sources and 20% for beta sources. This methodology guarantees that the instruments have a correct response for most of the energy range used in practice. Not all nuclides are systematically probed and manufacturers are ultimately responsible for the calibration factors. The precision of the measurements performed in Switzerland is satisfactory with only about 6% of the measurements out of the tolerances. This monitoring also allowed us to improve the skills of the personnel and update the park of instruments by getting rid of dose calibrators displaying old units. (authors)

  11. In-situ tracer tests and models developed to understand flow paths in a shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechschmidt, I.; Martin, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    how the results have been used to test and modify the hydraulic and conceptual models. *CFM partners are: BMWi / FZK-INE, Germany; JAEA, Japan; SKB / KTH, Sweden; KAERI, Korea; POSIVA, Finland; CRIEPI, Japan; NAGRA, Switzerland

  12. The mysterious case of the vanishing permafrost - Gruben Rock Glacier, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, B.

    2011-12-01

    As glaciers are losing ice volume in the Alps, as elsewhere, so is mountain permafrost. This has been recognised by increased rockfall activity from steep mountain faces. The presence of ice-rich permafrost and reduction of volume is more difficult to detect where the slope angle is lower than that of free rock faces. The lagged response makes it difficult to detect melting and any consequent surface lowering. Rock glaciers have been viewed as indicative of the result of flow of ice-rich permafrost and thus indicators of mat of permafrost' model has been contested, the alternative, 'glacier core' model does not deny that permafrost conditions can exist for some rock glaciers exhibiting ice cores and thus differentiation is difficult just by viewing or imaging the surface topographic feature. The rock glacier at Grubengletscher (Wallis, Switzerland) has been studied since the 1970s and has been used as an exemplar of rock glaciers that indicate mountain permafrost. The site has been examined over several years because of potential water flooding (jokulhlaups) affecting a village in the valley. Published mapping of the feature shows the portion mapped as 'rock glacier' (= permafrost) has been increasingly reduced over the last 20 years. The upstream area has been indicated to be glacier ice-cored as small thermokarst lakes have formed. Field examination of the whole feature shows that small glacier ice exposures exist even in the 'rock glacier'. This view of 'hidden glacier ice' is confirmed by examining topographic maps from about 1850 CE where the whole of the basin is shown as being glacier covered. The debris covering and protecting the glacier-derived ice must date from after this (Late Little Ice Age) period. Other recent examples of exposed glacier ice below debris can also be seen at mountain locations as diverse as Turkey and Alaska as well as from the length of the Rockies. The conclusion is that care must be taken in using rock glaciers anywhere as

  13. The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons From Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Sweden faced a banking and exchange rate crisis that led it to rescue banks that had experienced large losses on their balance sheets and that threatened a collapse of the banking system...

  14. Majority versus Minority: 'Governmentality' and Muslims in Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anne Sofie Roald

    2013-01-01

      This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority-minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim...

  15. Decrease in the prevalence of paediatric adiposity in Switzerland from 2002 to 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aeberli, I.; Ammann, R.S.; Knabenhans, M.; Molinari, L.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective A national study in Switzerland in 2002 suggested nearly one in five schoolchildren was overweight. Since then, many programmes have been introduced in an attempt to control the problem. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of childhood overweight in Switzerland

  16. Quince Market in the World and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Sıtkı Şirikçi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the quince market was examined in the world and Turkey. The primary data in the study were obtained by questionnaire method with 28 middleman in different marketing levels in Sakarya, Antalya, Bursa, Bilecik and Denizli where quince production is concentrated. Secondary data were obtained from the FAO and TURKSTAT. The world quince production, which is 324465 tons compared to 1981-1985 which is the beginning of the period, increased by 94.3% to 630325 tons in 2013. Major countries in world quince production are Turkey, China, Uzbekistan, Morocco and Iran. Quince production in Turkey increased by 1.60 times compared to the average of 1981-1985. In this increase in the quince production in Turkey, the increase in the per-tree yield has been considerably effective (an increase of 40%. 5.3% of quince fruit produced in the world is exported. World quince exports amount increased 8.32 times and the value increased 38.42 times. The highest share in quince export values is in the Netherlands (33.6%. The Netherlands is followed by Turkey, Austria and Iran respectively. The share of Turkey in the world export value is 31.1%. Russia ranks first in the world quince import with 23.3% share. Austria and Germany are followed by Russia.9.4% of the quince production in Turkey is exported. The major quince producers are Sakarya, Bursa, Antalya, Bilecik and Denizli. The 15 of the interviewed intermediaries, reported that the most important problem that there is no quince at the desired time, quantity, quality and price (54.

  17. Privatizing education: free school policy in Sweden and England

    OpenAIRE

    Wiborg, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden has bypassed England by far in outsourcing schools to private providers. The comparative argument promulgated in this article is that the combination ...

  18. Energy policies of IEA countries: Sweden - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    Sweden is one of the leading IEA countries in the use of renewable energy and has a long tradition of ambitious and successful policies to improve energy efficiency. Compared to the other IEA countries, Sweden's CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP are low, partly owing to efficient and low-carbon space heating, and virtually carbon-free electricity generation. The country also remains a forerunner in electricity market liberalisation. Still, even if Sweden has continued to make progress in most areas of its energy policy since the IEA last conducted an in-depth review in 2004, there is room for improvement. As Sweden plans to further increase the use of renewable energy, it is crucial that these supplies are produced and used in the most sustainable manner for the environment and the economy as a whole. With regard to CO2 emissions, more can be done in all sectors, but as transport is the largest polluter and its emissions are increasing, it is the logical focus for Sweden's efforts to reduce emissions further. This is a significant challenge. Nuclear provides almost half of the electricity in Sweden, at a low cost and without CO2 emissions. But the future of nuclear power in the national power mix is still uncertain. To provide clear guidance to the electricity sector, Sweden will need to resolve the ambiguity about the future of nuclear power in the country. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Sweden and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to provide input to Swedish energy policy makers to help them identify a path towards a more sustainable energy future.

  19. Setting the Holocene clock using varved lake sediments in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Zillén, Lovisa

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study annually laminated (varved) Holocene lake sediment in Sweden, their formation and their potential as chronological and palaeoecological archives. Five lakes with continuous Holocene varved lake sediment sequences in northern (Västerbotten) and west central Sweden (Värmland) were investigated. Three of these sequences were discovered during this study, which identified the climatic and environmental prerequisites for the formation of varves and, therefore, p...

  20. Assessment of irrigation schemes in Turkey based on management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of irrigation schemes in Turkey based on management types. ... The assessment used the International Water Management Institute (IWMI)'s six performance indicators for the year 2001. ... Key Words: Comparative indicators, irrigation project, management types, irrigation management, performance, Turkey.

  1. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors differ between rural and urban Sweden: the 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, Martin; Lundqvist, Robert; Lilja, Mikael; Eliasson, Mats

    2014-08-09

    Rural communities have a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors than urban communities. In Sweden, socioeconomic transition and urbanization have led to decreased populations in rural areas and changing characteristics of the remaining inhabitants. We investigated the risk factors in urban and rural populations in Northern Sweden. The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA Study invited a random sample of 2,500 people, 25 to 74 years and 69.2% participated. Community size was classified as rural = 15,000. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender and education. The rural population was older and the proportion of men was higher than in the urban areas. Having only primary education was more common in rural areas than in urban areas (26.2% vs. 12.3%). Waist and hip circumference, body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol levels were higher in rural areas than in urban areas, even after adjusting for differences in age and gender. The largest differences between rural and urban dwellers were seen in waist circumference of women (4.8 cm), BMI of women (1.8 units) and cholesterol of men (0.37 mmol/l). Blood pressure was higher in rural areas, but not after adjusting for age and gender.Participants in rural areas were more often treated for hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, hospitalized for myocardial infarction and diagnosed with diabetes. However, after adjusting for age and gender, there were no differences. The odds ratio for being physically active comparing rural areas to urban areas was 0.73 (95% CI 0.53; 1.01). Smoking, snuff use and the prevalence of pathological glucose tolerance did not differ between community sizes. Middle-sized communities often had values in between those found in rural and urban communities, but overall they were more similar to the rural population. Further adjustment for education did not change the results for any variable. In 2009 the rural population in northern Sweden was older, with less education, higher BMI, more sedentary

  3. Tardigrades of Sweden; an updated check-list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2015-07-07

    Tardigrades occur worldwide and in a variety of ecosystems and habitats representing an important component of the micrometazoan biodiversity. Several studies documenting the occurrence of tardigrades in Sweden have been published since the first reports in early 1900, but no comprehensive summary of these studies have been published. We compiled the available information on recorded tardigrades from Sweden, using material from published studies and museum and university collections. In total, our review document 101 species of tardigrades that have been recorded from Sweden (an updated checklist of tardigrades from Sweden will be available online), of which 14 species are new records for the country. The highest number of species was recorded in the northernmost province of Lappland and the more southern provinces of Uppland and Skåne, while much lower species numbers are reported from the middle part of Sweden. This pattern probably represents biased sampling activities of biologists rather than real differences in biodiversity of tardigrades. In view of the few studies that have been made on tardigrade biodiversity in Sweden, the relatively high number of tardigrade species recorded, representing almost a tenth of the species recorded worldwide, indicates that many more species remain to be found. In this respect, more studies of the marine ecosystems along the Swedish west coast and the long Baltic Sea coastline would be of particular interest.

  4. Policymaking through healthcare registries in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örnerheim, Mattias

    2016-09-04

    Healthcare registries, otherwise known in Sweden as national quality registries (NQRs), have progressed from being a patient-focused system supporting medical results to become the basis of a health policy steering instrument called regional comparisons (RCs). This article seeks to explain RCs as an unintended consequence of the NQR development, by utilizing the concepts of policy entrepreneurs and streams of impact: the problem stream (problem perceived), the policy stream (what is valid), and the political stream (governmental objectives). The empirical contribution lies in insights on how the RCs have developed as an unintended consequence of entrepreneurial deliberate action in the process of creating NQRs. These findings are based on documents, interviews, and previous research in the social sciences. The article also argues for a critical understanding of public knowledge management (PKM) related to experiences in the development of NQRs regarding how to use knowledge in healthcare government. This article highlights how knowledge generated in quality systems based on registries could imply a stronger role for authorities in exerting control over the medical profession. It also discusses the potential use of research evidence on NQRs as a base for more efficient policymaking. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Couple childbearing plans and births in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E; Hoem, J M

    1998-08-01

    We use data from a nationally representative sample of Swedish couples to estimate effects of partners' childbearing plans on the rate of subsequent childbearing. Only 11% of the couples in this sample expressed plans in opposite directions (plan to have a child versus not to have a child), but 24% had differing levels of certainty about their plans. Of the couples in which both partners said they definitely planned to have another child, 44% had a child within two years. If neither partner planned to have another child, less than 2% of couples had a birth. The figure was 6% if the partners had opposing childbearing plans. Thus, both men and women exerted veto power over further childbearing. Disagreements were equally likely to be resolved in favor of the woman as of the man, and effects of partners' plans on the birth hazard did not depend on the couple's gender arrangements, family ideologies, or marital status. We discuss these results in the context of Sweden's public support for gender equality and for childrearing, its pervasive contraceptive regime, and its high rates of cohabitation. We also argue for the collection of data from partners in future family and fertility surveys.

  6. Reindeer pastoralism in Sweden 1550-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Lundmark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 16th century we get the first opportunity to a more detailed knowledge of reindeerpastoralism in Sweden. At that time the Sami lived in a hunter-gatherer economy. A family had in average about 10-20 domesticated reindeer, mainly used for transport. They could also be milked and used as decoys when hunting wild reindeer. During late 16th century the Swedish state and merchants bought large amounts of fur from the Sami. The common payment was butter and flour. This created a new prosperity, which lead to a considerable increase in population in Swedish Lapland. The population became too large for a hunter-gatherer economy. A crisis in early 17th century was the starting point for the transition to a large-scale nomadic reindeer pastoralism. Up to the middle of the 18th century intensive reindeer pastoralism was successful. But the pastoralism became gradually too intensive and diseases started to spread when the herds were kept too densely crowded for milking in summertime. During the first decades of the 19th century reindeer pastoralism in Sweden went through a major crisis. The number of reindeer herding mountain-Sami decreased considerably, mainly because they went to live permanently along the Norwegian coastline. Intensive reindeer pastoralism started to give way for extensive herding towards the end of the 19th century. In the north of Sweden influences from the Kautokeino Sami were an important factor, in the south extensive reindeer herding started to expand when the market for meat came closer to the Sami. During the 1920s the milking of reindeer ceased in Sweden, except in a few families. At that time Sami families from the north had been removed southwards. They further demonstrated the superiority of extensive herding to the Sami in mid- and southern Lapland. Reindeer pastoralism is basically a system of interaction between man and animal, but it has been heavily influenced by market forces and state intervention

  7. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-15

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  8. Convention on nuclear safety. Questions posted to Switzerland in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) on 31 October 1995. It ratified the Convention on 12 September 1996, which came into force on 11 December 1996. In accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, Switzerland has prepared and submitted 4 country reports for Review Meetings of Contracting Parties organised in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2006. These meetings at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna were attended by a Swiss delegation. Most of the requirements of the articles of the Convention were already standard practice in Switzerland. In the last years, all Swiss nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) built up documented quality management systems. The independence of HSK from licensing authorities is fulfilled on a technical level. In 2005, a new Nuclear Energy Act came into force requiring formal independence of the supervisory authorities from the licensing authorities. A separate act to legally settle the Inspectorate's fully independent status was adopted by Parliament. HSK participates in international co-operation and is represented in numerous nuclear safety working groups in order to ensure the exchange of scientific, technical and regulatory know-how. The regulatory processes applied to the licensing and safety surveillance of nuclear installations and their operation are up to date with the current state of science and technology. Deterministic and probabilistic safety evaluations guide and prioritise inspections and provide the basis for a graded approach to safety review and assessment. The surveillance of the NPPs' operating, control and safety systems, their component performance and integrity, their organisational and human aspects as well as the management, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste are permanent features of the supervisory authority's activities. Within the frame of a new integrated oversight process there is an annual systematic assessment of

  9. User needs for climate change scenarios in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Liniger, Mark; Flückiger Knutti, Jacqueline

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the recently founded National Center for Climate Services (NCCS) new climate change scenarios for Switzerland are currently under development that will be released in 2018 ("CH2018 scenarios"). An important component herein is the consideration of user needs in order to ensure that the new scenarios are user tailored and hence find a wide applicability in different sectors in Switzerland. A comprehensive market research was conducted to get a better overview of who the users of climate scenarios are and what they need. The survey targeted the most climate relevant sectors, and involved representatives from administration, research and private companies across Switzerland. The survey comprised several qualitative group interviews with key stakeholders, a written questionaire, answered by more than one hundred users and two specific workshops gathering the needs in dissemination. Additionally, the survey results were consolidated at a national symposium with around 150 participants from research, administration and practice. The results of the survey show the necessity to classify the users of climate scenarios according to their level of usage and according to the different sectors. It turns out that the less intensive the usage of the climate scenarios is, the more important becomes the need of comprehensibility, clarity and support when disseminating new climate scenarios. According to the survey it is especially the non-experts that should be better addressed in the new cycle of national climate scenarios. In terms of content, the survey reveals strongest needs for quantitative information on changes in extremes, an aspect that was handled in a qualitative way only in the predecessor climate scenario suite CH2011. Another cross-sectoral need are physically consistent data in time, space and between several variables. For instance, in agriculture the combination of heat and dryness is an important aspect, while the same is true in the energy

  10. Coxiella burnetii Infections in Small Ruminants and Humans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magouras, I; Hunninghaus, J; Scherrer, S; Wittenbrink, M M; Hamburger, A; Stärk, K D C; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2017-02-01

    The recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands raised concerns about the potential risk of outbreaks in other European countries. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Q fever in animals and humans has not been studied in recent years. In this study, we describe the current situation with respect to Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in small ruminants and humans in Switzerland, as a basis for future epidemiological investigations and public health risk assessments. Specific objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (i) estimate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in sheep and goats, (ii) quantify the amount of bacteria shed during abortion and (iii) analyse temporal trends in human C. burnetii infections. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii in small ruminants was determined by commercial ELISA from a representative sample of 100 sheep flocks and 72 goat herds. Herd-level seroprevalence was 5.0% (95% CI: 1.6-11.3) for sheep and 11.1% (95% CI: 4.9-20.7) for goats. Animal-level seroprevalence was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.8-3.4) for sheep and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-6) for goats. The quantification of C. burnetii in 97 ovine and caprine abortion samples by real-time PCR indicated shedding of >104 bacteria/g in 13.4% of all samples tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii quantities in a large number of small ruminant abortion samples. Annual human Q fever serology data were provided by five major Swiss laboratories. Overall, seroprevalence in humans ranged between 1.7% and 3.5% from 2007 to 2011, and no temporal trends were observed. Interestingly, the two laboratories with significantly higher seroprevalences are located in the regions with the largest goat populations as well as, for one laboratory, with the highest livestock density in Switzerland. However, a direct link between animal and human infection data could not be established in this study. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... respect to imports of certain pasta from Turkey. Background The Commission instituted these reviews on...

  12. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations In Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    78 See, e.g., Nick Danforth, “Forget Sykes - Picot . It’s the Treaty of Sèvres That Explains the Modern...seeker will be sent back to Turkey under the EU-Turkey agreement if, in their individual case, Turkey cannot be considered a safe third country or safe first country of asylum.” Ibid.

  13. Turkey - Improving Conditions for SME Growth Finance and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating the growth of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is central to creating jobs for an underutilized and growing labor force in Turkey as SMEs account for 79 percent of jobs in Turkey. Creating jobs for Turkey's unemployed and for the rapidly growing labor force, though partly a social challenge, is an important economic opportunity. Turkish SME growth performance and pro...

  14. Analyses of Small-Scale Turkey Production in Owerri Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to analyse small scale turkey production in Imo State of Nigeria. Owerri agricultural zone of Imo State harbours most of the urban cities with large population thus providing greatest market for turkey in the area. Fifty farmers in turkey production constituted sample size for this study. The data ...

  15. Supplementary heat requirements when brooding tom turkey poults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EXPER

    naturally ventilated house with a capacity of 6500 tom turkey poults. In the calculation of heat and humidity balance, temperature values, sensible heat and moisture production of tom turkey poults were taken from the. American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) standards for corresponding turkey poult weights, and.

  16. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  17. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Engin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind international standards. This study explores two research questions. First, what is the Turkish government’s outlook for the LGBT community? Secondly, what kind of problems and challenges do trans-individuals experience in Turkey? This study first introduces a macro-level analysis of the politics of gender identity in Turkey by analyzing the debates of four deputies in the Turkish Parliament, each representing their parties’ disparate viewpoints. Secondly, a micro-level analysis of previously collected interviews with twenty-five trans-individuals are also examined that shed light on the difficulties of being a trans-individual in Turkey. The content analysis shows that trans-individuals experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence, in addition to experiencing discrimination in employment, housing, and healthcare. The findings of this micro-level analysis elucidate the continuous discrimination, inequality, and violence that these individuals experience, while the macro-level analysis portrays the state’s discriminatory policies toward LGBT individuals in Turkey.

  18. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Migration Crisis and New Opportunities for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Miheev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some aspects of the relationship of the European Union and Turkey. Against the backdrop of the immigration crisis, that has gripped almost all countries in Europe, the EU states were forced to appeal to the Turkish Government for assistance. Europe requested to withhold part of the f refugees on the territory of Turkey. The EU promised financial support. The Government of RecepTayyip Erdogan linked problems with the issue of refugees entering the country in the EU. The author analyzes the possibility of positive promotion of the negotiation process on Turkey's EU membership. Focuses on the settlement of the Cyprus problem, as one of the three major political obstacles to Turkey in Europe. We are seeing a situation in which EU political circles are willing to exert pressure on the Cyprus conflict and to push for the signing of a formal treaty on the settlement of problem. Some progress in the negotiation process between the communities of Cyprus EU starts to participate in the negotiations on Cyprus, together with the United Nations. Creates good conditions for the settlement of the conflict. Such a way of resolving the long-standing territorial-community conflict creates much more new problems on the island. Obstacles to the integration of Turkey into the EU will become even more.

  20. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  1. Altered Biomechanical Properties of Gastrocnemius Tendons of Turkeys Infected with Turkey Arthritis Reovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A. Sharafeldin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV causes lameness and tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys and is often associated with gastrocnemius tendon rupture by the marketing age. This study was undertaken to characterize the biomechanical properties of tendons from reovirus-infected turkeys. One-week-old turkey poults were orally inoculated with O’Neil strain of TARV and observed for up to 16 weeks of age. Lameness was first observed at 8 weeks of age, which continued at 12 and 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, samples were collected from legs. Left intertarsal joint with adjacent gastrocnemius tendon was collected and processed for histological examination. The right gastrocnemius tendon’s tensile strength and elasticity modulus were analyzed by stressing each tendon to the point of rupture. At 16 weeks of age, gastrocnemius tendons of TARV-infected turkeys showed significantly reduced (P<0.05 tensile strength and modulus of elasticity as compared to those of noninfected control turkeys. Gastrocnemius tendons revealed lymphocytic tendinitis/tenosynovitis beginning at 4 weeks of age, continuing through 8 and 12 weeks, and progressing to fibrosis from 12 to 16 weeks of age. We propose that tendon fibrosis is one of the key features contributing to reduction in tensile strength and elasticity of gastrocnemius tendons in TARV-infected turkeys.

  2. [An imported dengue Fever case in Turkey and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Yavuz; Aktaş, Eray; Yağcı Çağlayık, Dilek; Ergönül, Onder; Yüce, Ayşe

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is an acute viral disease that can affect all age groups in tropical and subtropical countries. The predominant vectors are the mosquitoes namely Aedes aegypti and A.albopictus. Although there have been no case reports in Turkey due to DF, there is seroepidemiological evidence indicating the presence of Dengue virus (DENV) in Turkey. In this case report we presented an imported dengue fever case. The patient was 40 years old, previously healthy male, Switzerland citizen. He had immigrated from Dubai to India two weeks ago and after one week from immigration he attended to a hospital in India because of high fever. The NS1 antigen test (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA) was found positive and the patient was followed-up with diagnosis of dengue fever in India. During his visit to Turkey, he attended to the hospital for a routine control and his analysis revealed thrombocytopenia (PLT: 48.000/µl), leukopenia (white blood cell: 2800/µL) and elevated liver enzymes (AST: 76 U/L, ALT: 83 U/L). Fever was not detected in follow-up. The patient had petechial rash on his lower extremities. white blood cell and PLT count increased to 4100/µl and 93.000/µl, respectively. Liver function tests revealed a decrease in AST (63 U/L) and ALT (78 U/L) on the third day. The PLT count increased to 150.000/ml. Since the patient had no fever and had normal physical and laboratory findings, he was discharged from the hospital. For the confirmation of dengue fever diagnosis the serum sample was sent to National Public Health Center, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory where IgM and IgG antibodies against DENV types 1-4 were investigated by indirect immunofluorescence method (Euroimmun, Germany). The serum sample yielded positive result at the dilutions of 1/1000 for IgM and 1/10.000 for IgG. The last dilution of type 3 DENV IgM and IgG were determined high density of fluorescein, thus the serotype was identified as "DENV type 3". Travel-related diseases become important

  3. Experimentally induced lameness in turkeys inoculated with a newly emergent turkey reovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Mor, Sunil K; Bekele, Aschalew Z; Verma, Harsha; Noll, Sally L; Goyal, Sagar M; Porter, Robert E

    2015-02-24

    Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARVs) have been isolated from cases of lameness in male turkeys over 10 weeks of age. In a previous study, experimental inoculation of TARV in one-week-old turkey poults produced lymphocytic tenosynovitis at four weeks post inoculation but without causing clinical lameness. This study was undertaken to determine if TARV infection at an early age can lead to clinical lameness in birds as they age. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with a TARV (strain TARV-O'Neil) and monitored for the development of gait defects until 16 weeks of age. At 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, a subset of birds was euthanized followed by the collection of gastrocnemius tendon, digital flexor tendon, and intestines for virus detection by rRT-PCR and for histologic inflammation scoring. Clinical lameness was first displayed in TARV-infected turkeys at 8 weeks of age and ruptured gastrocnemius tendons with progressive lameness were also seen at 12-16 weeks of age. The virus was detected in gastrocnemius tendon of 4- 8- and 12-week-old turkeys but not in 16-week-old turkeys. Histologic inflammation scores of tendons at each of the four time points were significantly higher in the virus-inoculated group than in the control group (p < 0.01). Lesions began as lymphocytic tenosynovitis with mild synoviocyte hyperplasia at four weeks of age and progressed to fibrosis as the birds aged. These results demonstrate the potential of TARV to infect young turkeys and to produce subclinical tenosynovitis that becomes clinically demonstrable as the turkeys age.

  4. Insurance coverage of pediatric burns: Switzerland versus USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deghayli, Lina; Moufarrij, Sara; Norberg, Michael; Sheridan, Robert; Raffoul, Wassim; de Buys Roessingh, Anthony; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2014-08-01

    Burn care and research have significantly improved over the past years. However, insurance coverage of such treatments does not reflect the improvements in this multi-disciplinary field. Government insurance policies in first world countries renown for burn care treatment, such as Switzerland and the United States, have not adapted to the complexity and longitudinal nature of burn care. Using case studies from both countries, we have analyzed both the institutional and policy approach to pediatric burn treatment coverage. Subsequently, by presenting the Shriners burn care model, we offer a policy recommendation to both the Swiss and the American governments to better their present legislation and infrastructure on pediatric burn coverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Erratic boulders in Switzerland, a geological and cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Erratic boulders are stones transported over quite long distances by glaciers and that differ from the type of rock upon which they rely. They range from the size of pebbles to large boulders weighing several thousand tons. Erratic boulders are significant geosites (Reynard, 2004) for several reasons. (1) First, they are indicators of former glacier extensions by marking glaciers' path, size and volume. In Switzerland, they allowed mapping the extension of large Alpine glaciers (the Rhine and Rhone glaciers, in particular) and their retreat stages (e.g. the Monthey erratic boulders that mark an important lateglacial stage of the Rhone glacier). Crystalline erratic boulders along the Jura range (limestone mountains) were used to map the altitude reached by the Rhone glacier during the two last glaciations. Precise mapping of crystalline and limestone boulders distribution also enabled mapping local Jura glaciers' recurrences after the Rhone glacier retreat. (2) During the last decades, several erratic boulders were used for cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating, which allowed impressive advances in palaeoclimatic research. (3) Erratic blocks have also an ecological interest by the fact that they "have transported" specific habitats in areas far away from their origin (e.g. acid crystalline rocks and soils in limestone areas such as in the Jura). For all these reasons, several erratic boulders were classified in the inventory of Swiss geosites. Erratic boulders also have a significant cultural value (Lugon et al., 2006). (1) The Glacier Garden in Lucerne was discovered in 1872. It comprises various surfaces of "roches moutonnées", potholes and large erratic blocks that document the presence of the Reuss glacier. Considered as a natural monument it is now one of the most famous touristic attraction of Lucerne and Central Switzerland. (2) The Pierre Bergère stone, situated in Salvan (Mont-Blanc massif, South-western Switzerland), is the place where future Nobel Prize

  6. CAS course on Power Converters in Baden, Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) recently organised a specialised course on Power Converters, which was held at the Hotel du Parc in Baden, Switzerland from 7 to 14 May 2014.   Photo courtesy of Markus Fischer, Paul Scherrer Institut. Following some recapitulation lectures on accelerators and the requirements on power converters, the course covered a wide range of topics related to the different types of power converters needed for particle accelerators. Topical seminars completed the programme. The course was very successful, attended by 84 students representing 21 nationalities, mostly from European countries but also from America, Brazil, Canada, China, Iran, Jordan and Thailand. Feedback from the participants was very positive, reflecting the high standard of the lectures and teaching. In addition to the academic programme, the participants also had an opportunity to take part in a full-day site visit to ABB and PSI and an excursion to the Rhine Fall...

  7. Investor acceptance of wind energy in Switzerland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerer, M. J.

    2009-10-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the views of 17 developers and investors in Switzerland which were collected during two sets of interviews - one in autumn 2008 with 13 developers and investors and one in the first half of 2009 with 15 developers and investors. According to the authors, this report does not present the opinion of specialists, but is rather a compilation and synthesis of the remarks made by several industry practitioners who were interviewed. The authors state that this report covers opinions, not facts. The effects of the financial crisis on wind energy are commented on and strategies that can increase the potential for success are reviewed. Basic recommendations concerning wind energy are made for Swiss policy makers.

  8. A study of fairness judgments in China, Switzerland and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gao

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compares judgments of the fairness of economic actions among survey populations in Switzerland, and both student and non-student groups in the People's Republic of China, with the earlier Kahneman, Knetsch and Thaler (1986a surveys of Canadians. The findings suggest that fairness concerns matter among all of these groups, and the general patterns of what was and was not considered to be fair were similar. However, there were also some significant differences with the influence of fairness being weaker in the two Chinese samples than in the groups from the Western countries, with the influence being weakest in the Chinese student population for the wage related topics. On the whole, almost no significant gender differences were found in any of the new surveys.

  9. Causes of mortality in reintroduced Eurasian lynx in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Posthaus, Horst; Bacciarini, Luca; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2002-01-01

    Seventy-two lynx, found dead in the Swiss Alps and the Jura Mountains (Switzerland) from 1987-99, were evaluated to determine the cause of death. Seventy-two per cent (52/72) of all animals died because of noninfectious diseases or causes such as vehicular collision and poaching. Eighteen percent (13/72) died from infectious diseases, including some which could have been transferred to the lynx from domestic animals or other wild animals such as panleukopenia and sarcoptic mange. If only radio-tagged animals (included in a monitoring program) were taken into consideration, the percentage of mortality caused by infectious diseases rose to 40%, indicating that infections might be underestimated in randomly found mortality events. We hypothesize that even a few cases of infections in a small population like the lynx, which are additionally threatened by noninfectious causes, may threaten the long term survival of the population.

  10. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2011-01-01

    SIGNATURE RIGHTS - In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil.  Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (PH-ADO) David FOSTER (IT – DI) Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) Tjitske KEHRER (DG-DI) Tadeusz KURTYKA (DG – PRJ) Cécile NOELS (DG – PRJ) Maria QUINTAS (HR – SPS) Kate RICHARDSON (PH-AGS) Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) José SALICIO-DIEZ (PH – AGS) Ulla TIHINEN (PH – A...

  11. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. 1.     Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) 2.     Catherine BRANDT (DG – IR) 3.     Oliver BRÜNING (BE – HDO) 4.     Michelle CONNOR (PH – DI) 5.     Gaëlle DUPERRIER (PH – DI) 6.     Patrick FASSNACHT (PH – ADO) 7.     Fernando FERN...

  12. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. 1. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) 2. Catherine BRANDT (DG – IR) 3. Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) 4. Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) 5. Patrick FASSNACHT (PH – ADO) 6. Fernando FERNANDEZ SAVORGNANO (HR – TA) 7. David FOSTER (IT – DI) 8. Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) 9. Cécile NOELS (DG – DI) 10. Maria QUINTAS (HR – TA) 11. Kate RICHARDSON (PH –  AGS) 12. Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) 13. José SALICIO-DIEZ (...

  13. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (PH-ADO) David FOSTER (IT – DI) Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) Tadeusz KURTYKA (DG – PRJ) Markus NORDBERG (PH – ADO) Cécile NOELS (DG – PRJ) Maria QUINTAS (HR – SPS) Kate RICHARDSON (PH-AGS) Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) José SALICIO-DIEZ (PH – AGS) Ulla TIHINEN (PH – AGS) Emmanuel...

  14. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) Sylvie DETHURENS FAVEZ (HR – SPS) David FOSTER (IT – DI) Nathalie GRUB (PH – AGS) Tadeusz KURTYKA (DG – PRJ) Jean-Pol MATHEYS (BE – ASR) Cécile NOELS (DG – PRJ) Connie POTTER (PH – AGS) Maria QUINTAS (HR – SPS) Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) José SALICIO-DIEZ (PH – AGS) Ulla...

  15. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (PH-ADO) David FOSTER (IT – DI) Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) Tjitske KEHRER (DG-DI) Tadeusz KURTYKA (DG – PRJ) Markus NORDBERG (PH – ADO) Cécile NOELS (DG – PRJ) Maria QUINTAS (HR – SPS) Kate RICHARDSON (PH-AGS) Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) José SALICIO-DIEZ (PH – AGS) Ulla TIHINEN (PH – AG...

  16. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (EP – CMO) Maite BARROSO LOPEZ (IT – DI) Catherine BRANDT (DG – DI) Michelle CONNOR (TH – GS) Gaëlle DUPERRIER (EP – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (EP – ADO) Fernando FERNANDEZ SAVORGNANO (HR – TA) Nathalie GRÜB (EP – AGS) Laurie HEMERY (BE – ASR) Cécile NOELS (ATS – DO) Tania PARDO (EP – AGS) Maria QUINTAS (HR – TA) Kate RICHARDSON (EP –  AGS) Jeanne ROSTANT (TH – GS)...

  17. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (EP – CMO) Maria BARROSO LOPEZ (IT – DI) Catherine BRANDT (DG – DI) Michelle CONNOR (TH – GS) Gaëlle DUPERRIER (EP – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (EP – ADO) Fernando FERNANDEZ SAVORGNANO (HR – TA) Nathalie GOURIOU (EP – AGS) Nathalie GRÜB (EP – AGS) Laurie HEMERY (BE – ASR) Cécile NOELS (ATS – DO) Tania PARDO (EP – AGS) Maria QUINTAS (HR – TA) Kate RICHARDSON (EP –  A...

  18. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - signature rights

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA Oliver BRÜNING Inger CARRIERO Michelle CONNOR Lyndon EVANS Nathalie GRUB David JACOBS Tadeusz KURTYKA Jean-Pol MATHEYS Catherine NEDERMAN Chris ONIONS Connie POTTER Jeanne ROSTANT Ulla TIHINEN Emmanuel TSESMELIS Rüdiger VOSS The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisat...

  19. Self-perceived health space and geographic areas in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengen, Charis; Blasius, Jörg; Kistemann, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    Self-perceived health is an important characteristic for the investigation of public health questions. Based on health characteristics from the 1997 Swiss Health Survey, the relationship between health perception and geographic areas in Switzerland was analysed. Using an explorative data analysis, categorical principal component analysis, a two-dimensional 'health space' was created, using 16 items of self-reported health. The first dimension of this health space represents 'general health', the second dimension contrasts 'mental and physical symptoms'. Into this health space, five different Swiss area typologies were projected. The area types showed distinct 'localities' within the health space, which vary with regard to the magnitude of age and gender differentiation. This type of visualising or 'mapping' of area types within health space has not previously been conducted.

  20. Icing-up map of Switzerland; Vereisungskarte der Schweiz - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierer, S.; Cattin, R. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland); Steiner, Ph. [Bundesamt fuer Meteorologie und Klimatologie MeteoSchweiz, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gruenewald, T.; Steinkogler, W.; Lehning, M. [WSL-Institut fuer Schnee- und Lawinenforschung SLF, Davos Dorf (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the preparation of a map of Switzerland which shows the incidence of icing-up on structures. Nationwide information on water vapour in clouds, temperatures and wind data derived from 'MeteoSchweiz''s COSMO-2 operational weather forecasting system were used as input data for an icing-up algorithm which calculated ice-loading on a cylindrical, freely-rotating structure. Icing-up incidence thus calculated was verified using existing measured data for locations in the Swiss Alps and the Jura mountains. Advice is given on the interpretation of the map's data, which is also available on the Internet. Examples of ice formation are presented including hoar frost, clear ice and wet snow. The development of the map is looked at in detail and its evaluation is discussed.

  1. Implementation of a mandatory donor RHD screening in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crottet, Sofia Lejon; Henny, Christine; Meyer, Stefan; Still, Franziska; Stolz, Martin; Gottschalk, Jochen; Neuenschwander, Kathrin; Taleghani, Behrouz Mansouri; Gowland, Peter; Frey, Beat M; Fontana, Stefano; Hustinx, Hein; Niederhauser, Christoph; Gassner, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Starting in 2013, blood donors must be tested at least using: (1) one monoclonal anti-D and one anti-CDE (alternatively full RhCcEe phenotyping), and (2) all RhD negative donors must be tested for RHD exons 5 and 10 plus one further exonic, or intronic RHD specificity, according to the guidelines of the Blood Transfusion Service of the Swiss Red Cross (BTS SRC). In 2012 an adequate stock of RHD screened donors was built. Of all 25,370 RhD negative Swiss donors tested in 2012, 20,015 tested at BTS Berne and 5355 at BTS Zürich, showed 120 (0.47%) RHD positivity. Thirty-seven (0.15%) had to be redefined as RhD positive. Routine molecular RHD screening is reliable, rapid and cost-effective and provides safer RBC units in Switzerland. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Multidisciplinary consultation "Suffering at work": an experience in western Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Christine; Berset, Denise Grolimund; Studer, Regina; Quarroz, Stéphane; Praz-Christinaz, Sophie-Maria; Rivier, Gaétan; Barlet-Ghaleb, Catherine; Danuser, Brigitta; Bonsack, Charles

    2016-02-03

    Mental health problems at work constitute a challenge in the clinical feld, as well in the professional, the economic and the public health perspective. The total costs they generate in Switzerland are equivalent to 3.2% of the Swiss gross domestic product and they very often lead to dismissal. The vast majority of people are treated by their primary care physician. The Institute for Work and Health features a specialized consultation on the topic of suffering at work, offering the primary care physicians a pluridisciplinary advice or support, in a collaborative care prospect. Its action, adapted to each situation's needs, goes from an advice to a referral to specialists that can strengthen the network on a long-term basis (mental health follow-up, supported employment program, legal or social advice).

  3. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  4. Serratospiculosis in Captive Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Inês B; Schediwy, Marion; Hentrich, Brigitte; Frey, Caroline F; Marreros, Nelson; Stokar-Regenscheit, Nadine

    2017-09-01

    Infection with Serratospiculum species was identified in a captive peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland. Pathologic and parasitologic examination results revealed generalized severe granulomatous airsacculitis, with intralesional adults, larvae, and eggs of Serratospiculum species. Subsequently, an individual coprological analysis of the remaining 15 falcons (peregrine falcons and gyrfalcons [Falco rusticolus]) from the same owner was performed. Eggs of Serratospiculum species (4 birds) and Capillaria species (11 birds), and oocysts of Caryospora species (1 bird) were detected. Treatment with ivermection (2 mg/kg SC) was effective, as none of the falcons excreted Serratospiculum species eggs 10 days after one dose. To our knowledge, this is the first report of infection with Serratospiculum species in captive falcons in Europe.

  5. Physiotherapy Research Priorities in Switzerland: Views of the Various Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nast, Irina; Tal, Amir; Schmid, Stefan; Schoeb, Veronika; Rau, Barbara; Barbero, Marco; Kool, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Research priorities, defined by multiple stakeholders, can proximally facilitate the coordination of research projects and national and international cooperation and distally further improve the quality of physiotherapy practice. The aim of this study was therefore to establish physiotherapy research priorities in Switzerland considering multiple stakeholders' opinions. A mixed methods design was chosen. For a qualitative identification of physiotherapy research topics, 18 focus group discussions and 23 semi-structured interviews/written commentaries were conducted. For the quantitative analysis, 420 participants prioritized research topics using a two-round Delphi questionnaire survey. The following stakeholder groups were surveyed in the German-speaking, French-speaking and Italian-speaking regions of Switzerland: physiotherapy researchers, practitioners and educators, representatives of patient organizations, public health organizations, health insurers, physicians, nurses, occupational therapists and other health professionals, as well as physical educators. The top five overall physiotherapy research priorities identified were as follows: physiotherapy treatment, physiotherapy assessment and diagnosis, prevention, physiotherapist-patient interaction and physiotherapy professional education at the bachelor level. With regard to diagnostic groups, the highest priorities were placed on musculoskeletal disorders, neurology, orthopaedics, geriatrics and ergonomics/occupational health. Consensus was moderate to high, and only few differences between stakeholder groups were revealed. Research directly related to physiotherapy treatment is of highest priority. It should focus on diagnostic groups related to chronicity in anticipation of demographic changes. Multidisciplinary networks for research and practice, alongside sound coordination of research projects, should increase the impact of physiotherapy research. An accurate dissemination of research priorities

  6. Optimizing Site Selection in Urban Areas in Northern Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenkers, K.; Kraft, T.; Bethmann, F.; Husen, S.; Schnellmann, M.

    2012-04-01

    There is a need to observe weak seismic events (MNetwork in northern Switzerland by additional 20 stations. The new network that will be in operation by the end of 2012, aims at observing seismicity in northern Switzerland with a completeness of M_c=1.0 and a location error network-design and a thoughtful choice for station-sites is, therefore, mandatory. To help with decision making we developed a step-wise approach to find the optimum network configuration. Our approach is based on standard network optimization techniques regarding the localization error. As a new feature, our approach uses an ambient noise model to compute expected signal-to-noise ratios for a given site. The ambient noise model uses information on land use and major infrastructures such as highways and train lines. We ran a series of network optimizations with increasing number of stations until the requirements regarding localization error and magnitude of completeness are reached. The resulting network geometry serves as input for the site selection. Site selection is done by using a newly developed multi-step assessment-scheme that takes into account local noise level, geology, infrastructure, and costs necessary to realize the station. The assessment scheme is weighting the different parameters and the most promising sites are identified. In a first step, all potential sites are classified based on information from topographic maps and site inspection. In a second step, local noise conditions are measured at selected sites. We analyze the test measurement with respect to noise amplitude in different frequency bands, transient noise events and earthquake first arrivals. Finally, the most promising sites are classified taking into account results from the test measurements and updated information on local geology, availability of electricity and data transmission, and installation costs.

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors attributable to obesity and overweight in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, C; Vollenweider, P; Waeber, G; Paccaud, F; Marques-Vidal, P

    2012-11-01

    Obesity increases the risk for cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), including hypertension, dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we assessed the burden of overweight and obesity on CVRFs in Switzerland, using Swiss-specific population attributable fractions (PAFs). The number of cases of CVRFs that could have been prevented if the increase in overweight and obesity in Switzerland had been contained was estimated using gender-specific, age- and smoking-adjusted PAFs for overweight and obesity. PAFs were estimated from the Swiss Health Survey 2007 (self-reported) and the CoLaus study (measured) data. PAFs from self-reported were lower than from measured data. Using measured data, overweight and obesity contributed to 38% of hypertension cases in men (32% in women). In men, overweight had a larger impact than obesity (22.2% and 15.6%, respectively), while the opposite was observed for women (13.6% and 18.1%, respectively). In men, 37% of dyslipidaemia (30% in women) could be attributed to overweight and obesity; overweight had a higher contribution than obesity in both sexes. In men, 57% of type 2 diabetes (62% in women) was attributable to overweight and obesity; obesity had a larger impact than overweight in both sexes. Overall, approximately 27,000 cases of type 2 diabetes, 63,000 cases of high blood pressure and 37,000 cases of dyslipidaemia could have been avoided if overweight and obesity levels were maintained at 1992 levels. A large proportion of CVRFs is attributable to overweight and/or obesity and could have been prevented by containing the overweight/obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dental fear and satisfaction with dental services in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Enkling, Norbert; Wolf, Christian A; Ramseier, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Dental satisfaction is associated with continuity of dental care, compliance with dentist advice, and positive health outcomes. It is expected that people with higher dental fear might have less dental satisfaction because of more negative dental experiences. The objective of this study was to examine satisfaction and reasons for satisfaction with dental practitioners in Switzerland and variations by dental fear. A national sample of 1,129 Swiss residents aged 15-74 (mean = 43.2 years) completed a personal interview at their home with questions assessing dental fear, dental service use, general satisfaction with their dentist, and reasons for satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Overall, 47.9 percent of participants responded that they were satisfied with their dentist and 47.6 percent that they were very satisfied. Satisfaction differed significantly by gender, language spoken, region of residence, and educational attainment. Greater dental fear was significantly associated with greater dissatisfaction with the dentist. The percentage of people who were very satisfied with the dentist ranged from 56.0 percent among people with no fear to 30.5 percent for participants with "quite a lot" of fear but was higher (44.4 percent) for people who stated that they were "very much" afraid of the dentist. The most common reasons attributed for satisfaction with dentists were interpersonal characteristics of the dentist and staff. People with "quite a lot" of fear were found to endorse these sentiments least. Although higher dental fear was associated with more dissatisfaction with the dentist, the level of satisfaction among fearful individuals in Switzerland is still high. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Confidence in Alternative Dispute Resolution: Experience from Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schwenkel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative Dispute Resolution plays a crucial role in the justice system of Switzerland. With the unified Swiss Code of Civil Procedure, it is required that each litigation session shall be preceded by an attempt at conciliation before a conciliation authority. However, there has been little research on conciliation authorities and the public's perception of the authorities. This paper looks at public confidence in conciliation authorities and provides results of a survey conducted with more than 3,400 participants. This study found that public confidence in Swiss conciliation authorities is generally high, exceeds the ratings for confidence in cantonal governments and parliaments, but is lower than confidence in courts.Since the institutional models of the conciliation authorities (meaning the organization of the authorities and the selection of the conciliators differ widely between the 26 Swiss cantons, the influence of the institutional models on public confidence is analyzed. Contrary to assumptions based on New Institutional-ism approaches, this study reports that the institutional models do not impact public confidence. Also, the relationship between a participation in an election of justices of the peace or conciliators and public confidence in these authorities is found to be at most very limited (and negative. Similar to common findings on courts, the results show that general contacts with conciliation authorities decrease public confidence in these institutions whereas a positive experience with a conciliation authority leads to more confidence.The Study was completed as part of the research project 'Basic Research into Court Management in Switzerland', supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF. Christof Schwenkel is a PhD student at the University of Lucerne and a research associate and project manager at Interface Policy Studies. A first version of this article was presented at the 2013 European Group for Public

  10. Institutional Services for Dementia Care in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The total older population is growing due to the increase in expected average life expectancy at birth all over the world. The risk factors for dementia reported by the studies in Turkey include low level of education, older age, being female, living in a rural area, having a physical disorder, multiple drug use, accompaniment of another chronic disease (especially diabetes, and having a history of smoking and alcohol use. Seeking care from a healthcare institution because of dementia symptoms is usually delayed in Turkey. In this review, information on the status of dementia in Turkey, services provided for the illness and nursing care will be provided. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(4.000: 464-473

  11. Income distribution and mortality in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lindholm

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The hypothesis that a high income inequality on a societal level is associated with poor health outcomes has been both rejected and accepted in empirical studies. Whether the influence of economic circumstances on health operates at the individual level or societal level has important implications on policy and intervention alternatives. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between income inequality and mortality in Swedish municipalities and if the relationship varies depending on the mean income or on the time-lag between income inequality and mortality.

    Methods: The study was based on register data on mean income and income inequality (Gini coefficients from Statistics Sweden 1982 and 1998, aggregated on the municipality level. Data on age-standardised death rates per 100,000 persons were obtained for 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2002. The analysis on 1998 was a test of the robustness of the results.

    Results: The relationship between high income inequality in 1982 and mortality in 1983 was negative with a similar relationship in 1998. Using latency periods, the results show a decreasing trend of mortality in relation to higher Gini coefficients. A positive relationship between Gini and mean income implies that municipalities with larger income distribution also had a higher mean income and vice versa.

    Conclusions: High income inequality does not have a negative effect on mortality in Swedish municipalities. The municipalities with high income inequality have also high mean income as opposed to many other countries. The income level seems to be more substantial for mortality than the income inequality.

  12. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  13. Caecal coccidiosis in commercial male turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sironi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of coccidiosis with high mortality is reported in 30-day-old commercial turkeys. Grossly, a severe typhlitis with a large fibrino-necrotic core was present. Large numbers of oocysts were observed in caecal smears. The location and the severity of the lesions and the oocyst morphology were strongly suggestive of Eimeria adenoeides infection. This species has already been reported in turkey flocks in Italy, but it is rarely responsible for clinical coccidiosis and severe lesions with high mortality. Other caecal parasitic infections are considered in differential diagnosis.

  14. THE END OF IMF - TURKEY RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUNGUN DENIZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: IMF has been created to make international cooperation on financial matters stronger and for solving the problems of balance of payment. However, the IMF formed policies in order to solve problems of balance of payment till the 1980s, expanded its effectiveness much more by controlling the structural adjustment programs after the 1980s, and undertook the role as an international lender of last resort on crises caused by globalization trends. In developing nations, foreign and domestic deficit occurred due to infrastructural causes that have created economic instabilities portrayed through inflation and unemployment. Especially foreign debt problems sourced by the foreign trade deficit transformed into an economic crisis for these countries. Many countries affected by such economic crisis applied to IMF and its Stabilization Program with the aim of providing economic stability in the hopes of recovering. The important thing here to point out is that the economic programs used by countries during their economic crisis are supported by the IMF in reality. In this situation Mexico and Argentina can be given as a good example. IMF has undertaken the same mission in Turkey with seven stabilization programs put in practice and nineteen Stand-By Arrangements between them. But IMF has failed many times in Turkey just like in many developing countries. This is because IMF did not take into consideration economic and social structure of countries in stabilization programs put in practice. Today, Turkey has reached to an important point from the way of its relationship with IMF; more clearly, Turkey is determined to achieve its future without IMF. Turkey-IMF relationship in the framework of stand-by agreements in the past half century of our economic and political history has come to an ending point. After a period of 51 years of intense relations, Turkey decided to determine its calculations of credit limit by the way of advantages and

  15. Caecal coccidiosis in commercial male turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Rampin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of coccidiosis with high mortality is reported in 30-day-old commercial turkeys. Grossly, a severe typhlitis with a large fibrino-necrotic core was present. Large numbers of oocysts were observed in caecal smears. The location and the severity of the lesions and the oocyst morphology were strongly suggestive of Eimeria adenoeides infection. This species has already been reported in turkey flocks in Italy, but it is rarely responsible for clinical coccidiosis and severe lesions with high mortality. Other caecal parasitic infections are considered in differential diagnosis.

  16. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Reoccurrence of histomonosis in turkey breeder farm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka, Johannes; Hauck, Rüdiger; Blankenstein, Petra; Balczulat, Stefanie; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Histomonosis is a severe disease caused by the protozoan parasite Histomonas (H.) meleagridis, which can lead to high losses in turkeys. The present report describes the reoccurrence of histomonosis in a turkey breeder farm. The first outbreak occurred in 2005 in 17 weeks old hens, the second in 2009 in 8 weeks old hens. The disease remained restricted in one house and one compartment, respectively. Mortality rose to 26 and 65% respectively within few days in spite of therapy with various compounds. Both flocks had to be euthanized. In both cases H. meleagridis belonging to genotype A was detected. The source of infection remained unclear in both cases.

  18. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  19. Elective Tracheotomy Practices in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucyetmez, Bulent; Atalan, Hakan Korkut; Cakar, Nahit

    2016-01-01

    Elective tracheotomy (ET) procedures in intensive care units (ICU) might be different in accordance with countries and ICUs' features. The aim of the present study was to search the epidemiology of ET procedures in Turkey. A questionnaire which consists of 43 questions was sent by e-mail to 238 ICUs which were officially recognized by The Turkish Ministry of Health. All answers were obtained between August 1, 2015 and August 31, 2015. Two hundred and three ICUs (85.3%) participated in this study. 177 (87.2%) and 169 (83.4%) of ICU's were level III and mixed ICUs respectively. Anesthesiologists were the director of 189 (93.0%) ICUs. Estimated total count of admitted, mechanically ventilated and tracheotomized patients in 2014 were 126282, 80569 (63.8%) and 8989 (7.1%) respectively. Most common indication for ET was prolonged mechanical ventilation (76.9%). The first choice for ET procedure was percutaneous in 162 (79.8%) ICUs. Griggs guide wire dilatational forceps (GWDF) technique was used as the first choice for elective percutaneous tracheotomy (EPT) by 143 (70.4%) ICUs. Most common early EPT complication was bleeding (68.0%) and late EPT complication was stenosis (35.0%). While facilitation of weaning was most important advantage (26.1%), bleeding and tracheal complications were most important disadvantages for EPT (29.1%). Most common indications for ET are prolonged MV and coma in Turkish ICUs. EPT is the preferred procedure for ET and GWDF is the most common technique. Bronchoscopy and USG are rarely used as a guide.

  20. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy turkeys and from turkeys with necrotic enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Kallio, H.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important bacterial pathogen, especially in poultry, where it can lead to both subclinical and clinical disease. The aim of this study was to present data on pathological findings at outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) in turkey production in Finland during the period...... from 1998 to 2012. Furthermore, C. perfringens isolates from healthy and diseased turkeys were characterized and their genetic diversity was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates (n = 212) from birds with necrotic gut lesions and from healthy flocks of 30 commercial...... turkey farms were characterized for the presence of cpa, cpb, iA, etx, cpb2, and cpe and netB genes. A total of 93 C. perfringens isolates, including 55 from birds with necrotic gut lesions and 38 from healthy birds from 13 different farms, were analyzed with PFGE. All contract turkey farmers (n = 48...

  1. Gambling in Sweden: the cultural and socio-political context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2014-02-01

    To provide an overview, with respect to Sweden, of the cultural history of gambling, the commercialization of gambling, problem gambling research, the prevalence of problem gambling and its prevention and treatment. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Sweden; involvement in gambling research and regulation. Gambling has long been part of Swedish culture. Since about 1980 the gambling market, although still largely monopolistic, has been commercialized. At the same time, problem gambling has emerged as a concept in the public health paradigm. Debate regarding whether or not Sweden's national restrictions on the gambling market are compliant with European Community legislation has helped to put problem gambling on the political agenda. Despite expanded gambling services, the extent of problem gambling on the population level has not changed significantly over the past decade. The stability of problem gambling in Sweden at the population level suggests a homeostatic system involving the gambling market, regulation, prevention and treatment and adaption to risk and harm by gamblers. We have relatively good knowledge of the extent and characteristics of problem gambling in Sweden and of how to treat it, but little is known of how to prevent it effectively. Knowledge is needed of the effectiveness of regulatory actions and approaches, and of responsible gambling measures implemented by gambling companies. © 2013 The Author, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Extreme Events: low and high total ozone over Arosa, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Ribatet, M.; Stübi, R.; Weihs, P.; Holawe, F.; Peter, T.; Davison, A. C.

    2009-04-01

    The frequency distribution of days with extreme low (termed ELOs) and high (termed EHOs) total ozone is analyzed for the world's longest total ozone record (Arosa, Switzerland - for details see Staehelin et al.,1998a,b), with new tools from extreme value theory (e.g. Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007). A heavy-tail focused approach is used through the fitting of the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) to the Arosa time series. Asymptotic arguments (Pickands, 1975) justify the use of the GPD for modeling exceedances over a high (or below a low) enough threshold (Coles, 2001). The analysis shows that the GPD is appropriate for modeling the frequency distribution in total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold. While previous studies focused on so termed ozone mini-holes and mini-highs (e.g. Bojkov and Balis, 2001, Koch et al., 2005), this study is the first to present a mathematical description of extreme events in low and high total ozone for a northern mid-latitudes site (Rieder et al., 2009). The results show (a) an increase in days with extreme low (ELOs) and (b) a decrease in days with extreme high total ozone (EHOs) during the last decades, (c) that the general trend in total ozone is strongly determined by these extreme events and (d) that fitting the GPD is an appropriate method for the estimation of the frequency distribution of so-called ozone mini-holes. Furthermore, this concept allows one to separate the effect of Arctic ozone depletion from that of in situ mid-latitude ozone loss. As shown by this study, ELOs and EHOs have a strong influence on mean values in total ozone and the "extremes concept" could be further used also for validation of Chemistry-Climate-Models (CCMs) within the scientific community. References: Bojkov, R. D., and Balis, D.S.: Characteristics of episodes with extremely low ozone values in the northern middle latitudes 1975-2000, Ann. Geophys., 19, 797-807, 2001. Coles, S.: An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of

  3. Quality of renewable energy utilization in transport in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy utilization in transportation (RES-T) is a long way behind its utilization in power (RES-E) and heat (RES-H) sectors. International and national environmental policies have recently given a lot of emphasis on this problem. For that reason information is sought on how to implement solutions both politically and technologically. As Sweden is a global leader in this area, it can provide valuable examples. In 2012 Sweden became the first country to reach the binding requirement of the European Union for at least 10 % share for renewable energy in transport energy consumption. But qualitative development has been even stronger than quantitative. Among the success stories behind qualitative progress, most noteworthy are those created by innovative municipal policies. By 2030 Sweden aims to achieve fossil fuel independent road transport system and by 2050 completely carbon neutral transport system in all modes of transport.

  4. TRENDS IN UNEMPLOYMENT DURING THE LAST ECONOMIC RECESSION IN SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Potrykus-Czapp

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, state debt is one of the lowest in the European Union, inflation is low, the banking system operates soundly and the Swedish economy is diverse, highly competitive and successful. The standard of living is high in the entire country. The present social and economic success in Sweden was built on the conclusions drawn from the world financial crisis in the ‘90s and the global financial crisis between 2007-2008. The first effects of the global economic crisis in the form of rising unemployment appeared in Europe when we could observe a sharp increase in joblessness. This article discusses the problem of and methods of dealing with unemployment in Sweden during the recent economic recession.

  5. Sweden's Leadership in a Climate Constrained World. An analysis for Sweden of the Greenhouse Development Rights framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartha, Sivan; Baer, Paul; Athanasiou, Tom; Kemp-Benedict, Eric

    2008-10-15

    This report presents an analysis of the Greenhouse Development Rights framework applied to the case of Sweden. Its objective is to provide useful quantitative guidance on Sweden's role as a leader in our climate constrained world. It presents guidance that is rigorous from the standpoint of climate science and framed in the context of a right to development for the world's poor. This analysis fully accounts for Sweden's true responsibility, by looking beyond territorial emissions alone, and reckoning emissions in terms of Sweden's net 'carbon footprint.' Accounting for carbon embedded in imports, exports and international transport reveals that Sweden's responsibility is 17% larger than would be inferred by considering Sweden's territorial emissions alone. Sweden will naturally have significant obligations under any burden-sharing regime that is based on capacity and responsibility, and only more so under a regime that honors a right to development. Under the GDR framework, our indicative quantification suggests that Sweden's share of responsibility and capacity, and hence its obligation under a politically viable climate regime, will be approximately 0.51% of the global total in 2010. This can be compared to the US's 33%, the EU's 26%, Japan's 7.8%, China's 5.5%, and India's 0.5%. Sweden's 0.51% share of the global total is thus not large in absolute terms, though it is rather large relative to Sweden's small size (0.14% of the global population). These national shares shift over time, as countries' relative proportion of income and emissions change. In light of the emergence of rapidly growing developing country economies, Sweden's share of the global total obligation is projected to decline to 0.43% by 2020, and to 0.35% by 2030. This quantification of Sweden's obligation is useful in two complementary ways. First, if the total global costs of an emergency climate

  6. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  7. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  8. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  9. Future of Social Studies Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikalin, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Social studies education [Sosyal Bilgiler] in Turkey has been defined as an integrated field of study after the curriculum reform over the last decade. This interdisciplinary notion of social studies education is established in the curriculum as a result of modeling NCSS (National Council for the Social Studies) standards. This new social studies…

  10. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  11. Multigrade Schooling in Turkey: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Naciye

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews multigrade schooling in Turkey, with an emphasis on its status in the education system, as well as the curriculum practices, teacher training and problems associated with it. It is viewed by the State as an "inevitable" practice that arises through limited number of pupils and classrooms in small and scattered…

  12. Teacher Perspective on Internet Censorship in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktay, Sayim

    2018-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase both in the number of users and the number of websites providing data since the invention of Internet; it has become the richest and most used source of information. However, several countries, including Turkey, resort to censorship owing to the fact that anybody can publish on the Internet with sometimes…

  13. Global attention to Turkey due to desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camci Cetin, S; Karaca, A; Haktanir, K; Yildiz, H

    2007-05-01

    Desertification has recognized as an environmental problem by many international organizations such as UN, NATO and FAO. Desertification in Turkey is generally caused by incorrect land use, excessive grazing, forest fires, urbanization, industry, genetic erosion, soil erosion, salinization, and uncontrolled wild type plants picking. Due to anthropogenic destruction of forest, steppe flora gradually became dominant in Anatolia. In terms of biodiversity, Turkey has a significant importance in Europe and Middle East. Nine thousands plant species naturally grown in Turkey, one third of them are endemic. Also, endemic species of vertebrates, thrive in the lakes and marshy areas. The studies of modelling simulation of vegetation on the effects of Mediterranean climate during the Roman Classical period by using vegetation history showed that, in 2000 years BP, Mediterranean countries were more humid than today. Turkey is a special place on the global concern in terms of desertification because of biodiversity, agricultural potential, high population, social and economical structure, topographical factors and strategic regional location. Communication among scientists, decision makers and international non-profit organizations must be improved.

  14. Anthropometric and performance characteristics of Turkey National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research was to determine the anthropometric, somatotype and performance characteristics of the Turkish National U-14 Female Volleyball Team that participated in the national team selection session. Fifty- eight (58) female volleyball players from various towns in Turkey camped to compete in ...

  15. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing

  16. living in Kapulukaya Dam Lake (Kirikkale, Turkey)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... This study involves the investigation of the breeding properties of Esox lucius (L., 1758) living in. Kapulukaya Dam Lake in Turkey. It was observed that the fish reaches sexual maturity at the age of 3, and the breeding period starts in February and ends in March. The highest and lowest gonadosomatic.

  17. Regional Diffusion of Divorce in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, K.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    While demographic change has been well documented for many Western countries, much less is known about demographic transitions in other countries, including Turkey. Demographic change in European societies can be characterized by, amongst others, increased prevalence of divorce. Although it is often

  18. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    statements of various senior politicians, including the current President and former Prime Minister ..... rhetorical and policy shift. By attaching great .... Presidents of. Somalia and Somaliland met in Ankara (27 May 2016). 37 A. Özerdem, “How Turkey is emerging as a development partner in Africa”. (2014). The Guardian ...

  19. Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih; Kaczmarek, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the opinions of general education teachers working in public elementary schools in Turkey regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities into their classrooms and their willingness also to include students with more severe learning disabilities. One hundred and ninety-four general education teachers completed the…

  20. Neotectonic fault structures in the Lake Thun area (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Stefano C.; Herwegh, Marco; Schlunegger, Fritz; Hübscher, Christian; Weiss, Benedikt J.; Schmelzbach, Cédric; Horstmeyer, Heinrich; Merz, Kaspar; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2016-04-01

    Strong historic earthquakes (i.e. intensities I0 ≥ V) in Switzerland are well documented by the earthquake catalogue of Switzerland ECOS-09 (e.g. Frutigen, 1729 AD, Mw=5.2, I0=VI). Many of these strong events can be recognized paleoseismically by large subaquatic, earthquake-triggered mass movements that occur frequently in Swiss Lakes. Some of these represent the occasional occurrence of even stronger earthquakes (i.e. Mw ˜6.5) in the Alpine region (Strasser et al., 2013), which are expected to produce noticeable surface ruptures. However, convincing evidence for Quaternary displacements with offset surface expressions have scarcely been found (e.g., Wiemer et al., 2009). Applying a multi-disciplinary approach, this study presents potential candidates for such faults in the larger Lake Thun area at the edge of the Alps. The overdeepened basin of Lake Thun is situated at the northern Alpine front, which extends orthogonally to the general strike direction of the Alpine nappe front. The northern shoreline is predominantly shaped by the front of the Subalpine Molasse, which is in strong contrast to the south western shore built by the structurally higher units of the Middle and Lower Penninic nappes. This pattern with obvious differences of both lake sides suggests a major fault along the lake axis and high tectonic activity during nappe emplacement, i.e. from Eocene times throughout the Late Miocene. The area is dominated today by a strike-slip stress regime with a slight normal faulting component (Kastrup et al., 2004). As part of a multi-disciplinary study, attempting to find potential neotectonically active fault structures in the Lake Thun area, a 2D ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was conducted. The aim of the GPR survey was to link observations from a multichannel reflection seismic survey and a multibeam bathymetric survey carried out in Lake Thun with findings in a nearby gravel quarry revealing suspicious deformation features such as rotated gravel

  1. Trends of Ozone in Switzerland since 1992 (TROZOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, C.; Mathis, H.; Furger, M.; Prevot, A.S.H

    2004-07-01

    This work reports on the trends of the daily afternoon (noon to midnight) maximum ozone concentrations at 15 of the 16 stations of the Swiss air quality monitoring network (NABEL) during the period 1992-2002. The use of numerous meteorological parameters and additional data allowed a detailed seasonal analysis of the influence of the weather on the ozone maxima at the different stations. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed separately for each station and season in order to detect the parameters which best explain the variability of the daily ozone maximum concentrations. During the warm seasons (summer and spring) the most explanatory parameters are those related to the ozone production, in particular the afternoon temperature. In winter, the most explanatory variables are the ones influencing the vertical mixing and thus the ozone destruction by titration with NO and dry deposition, like the afternoon global radiation. The trends of both the measured and meteorologically corrected ozone maxima were calculated. The year-to-year variability in the ozone maxima was lowered by a factor of 3 by the meteorological correction. Significantly positive trends of corrected ozone maxima of 0.3 - 1.1 ppb/year were found at the low altitude stations in winter and autumn as well as at Lausanne - urban station - in all the seasons, mainly due to the lower loss of ozone by reaction with NO as a consequence of the decreased emissions of primary pollutants during the 90s. This could be partially confirmed by the lower trends of O{sub X} (sum O{sub 3} of and NO{sub 2}) maxima compared to the trends in ozone maxima. The absence of negative trends of the median or mean ozone maxima north of the Alps in summer suggests that the decrease in the emissions of ozone precursors did not have a strong impact on the afternoon maximum ozone concentrations during the last decade. In contrast to the project TOSS (Trends of Ozone in Southern Switzerland), no significantly negative

  2. Turkey Psoriasis Treatment Guide-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Akyol

    2016-08-01

    used for biologic therapy for treatment of psoriasis. In this guideline severity of psoriasis has been determined, treatment phases and treatment goals have been identified and consensus recommendations have been proposed about appropiate treatment modalities in the light of recent guidelines, meta-analytic studies and experiences in Turkey. This guideline, published in 2012, have been updated in 2016 by adding new information.

  3. Attitudes toward reintroduction of European bison (Bison bonasus) to Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsten, Axel

    2014-01-01

    The European bison (Bison bonasus) is no longer present in the wild fauna of Sweden. Reintroduction, an attempt to reestablish a viable population of a species in an area to which it is native, has been discussed. To make such an operation successful it is essential to know the attitudes of the stakeholders involved. This study has sensed the attitudes toward reintroducing E. bison to Sweden. It was done through a survey sent to the Wildlife Management Boards (Boards) and to landowners/farmer...

  4. Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1998-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-23

    Russia Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Yugos lavi a /Fede ra l Republic(Serbia/Monte negro .) CRS-91... Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador French Guiana Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica

  5. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, 11. Pakistan, 1. Poland, 1. Qatar, 1. Romania, 2. Saudi Arabia, 8. Senegal, 1. Slovakia (Slovak Republic), 1. South Africa, 1,332. Spain, 4. Sri Lanka, 1. Sudan, 1. Sweden, 9. Switzerland, 4. Tanzania, 5. Thailand, 1. Turkey, 1. Uganda, 10. United Arab Emirates, 1. United Kingdom, 94. United States, 99. Unknown, 1.

  6. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puerto Rico, 1. Romania, 9. Russian Federation, 5. Saudi Arabia, 3. Senegal, 2. South Africa, 11. Spain, 4. Sri Lanka, 3. Sudan, 2. Sweden, 4. Switzerland, 1. Syrian Arab Republic, 3. Taiwan, 10. Tanzania, 3. Thailand, 7. Togo, 2. Trinidad and Tobago, 1. Tunisia, 20. Turkey, 29. Ukraine, 8. United Kingdom, 22. United States ...

  7. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peru, 1. Philippines, 2. Poland, 7. Portugal, 4. Romania, 2. Russian Federation, 3. Rwanda, 1. Saudi Arabia, 7. Slovakia (Slovak Republic), 2. South Africa, 646. Sri Lanka, 3. Sudan, 2. Swaziland, 1. Sweden, 2. Switzerland, 3. Tanzania, 19. Thailand, 1. Turkey, 3. Uganda, 9. Ukraine, 7. United Kingdom, 148. United States ...

  8. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    witnessed remarkable trend of economic liberalization. Countries ... particular economy. Less, if at all exist, has been attempted to examine how does the given country edge in trade following the exodus of her citizens abroad; that is .... Nevis; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Uganda; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United.

  9. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Netherlands, 2. Nigeria, 3. Pakistan, 6. Philippines, 1. Poland, 1. Qatar, 3. Romania, 3. Russian Federation, 1. Rwanda, 1. Saudi Arabia, 5. Serbia, 7. South Africa, 4. Spain, 3. Sweden, 1. Switzerland, 1. Taiwan, 2. Thailand, 2. Turkey, 5. United Arab Emirates, 1. United Kingdom, 11. United States, 49. Unknown, 1. Uruguay, 3.

  10. The Early Teaching of Modern Languages. A Summary of Reports from Sixteen Countries. Council of Europe: Symposium on Modern Languages in Primary Education (Bakkerne, Holte [near Copenhagen], 20-25 September, 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, P. H.

    The results of a questionnaire from 16 European countries concerning the early teaching of modern languages are presented. The 16 countries involved are: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The findings…

  11. 77 FR 52791 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Minimum Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States... analysis by the Macroeconomic Assessment Group, a working group of the BCBS, found that the stronger Basel... apply to top- tier banking organizations domiciled in the United States with $50 billion or more in...

  12. Using the Patriot Act to Turn North Korea’s Dirty Money into a Bargaining Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    BDA facilitated this illicit behavior—which included distributing counterfeit US currency, smuggling black market tobacco products, and drug...the privileged leaders of the bureaucracy and the military have access to foreign cars, imported food, medicines , and other luxuries. These...Luxembourg, Mexico , New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom

  13. GPM Ground Validation NASA EPFL-LTE Parsivel DSD Data Lausanne, Switzerland V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA EPFL-LTE Parsivel DSD Data Lausanne, Switzerland dataset consists of a network of 16 Parsivel disdrometers deployed on the Ecole...

  14. Small states, international pressures, and interlocking directorates: the cases of Switzerland and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, E.M.; Schnyder, G.

    2008-01-01

    Interlocking directorate networks among business enterprises have increasingly come under pressure due to internationalization and deregulation of markets. We show that in the small and internationalized economies of Switzerland and the Netherlands extensive changes have taken place. However,

  15. Prevention of hemoglobinopathies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Çürük

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are the most common genetic disorders in Turkey. The incidence of beta thalassemia and sickle cell trait (HbAS is 2.0% and 0.3% respectively. In addition to HbS, 51 abnormal hemoglobins and 42 different beta thalassemia mutations have been detected by DNA analysis. In Turkey, beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia cause major health problems. For thirty years, screening programs for carriers, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis have sought to prevent hemoglobinopathies. In 1983, the first prenatal diagnosis center was established for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia at Hacettepe University, Ankara. After many populationscreening studies, a law was passed in 1993 by the Turkish Parliament for the eradication of hemoglobinopathies. Forty-one premarital screening centers were set up by the Ministry of Health in the 33 provinces where most of the transfusion-dependent thalassemic patients live. The mothers at risk for hemoglobinopathies were given genetic counseling and directed to prenatal diagnosis centers. Since 1990, four prenatal diagnosis centers have been established at university hospitals in Adana, Antalya, Istanbul and Izmir. A total of 5255 prenatal diagnoses have been made for sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia in 5 centers; 1338 fetuses have been diagnosed as homozygous or compound heterozygotes for hemoglobinopathies. Prenatal diagnosis was performed on families who had decided to terminate the pregnancy if it were to be found that the fetus was affected. 血红蛋白病是土耳其最为常见的遗传性疾病。乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性状(HbAS)的发病率分别为2.0%和0.3%。除HbS外,已通过NDA分析检测出51种异常血红蛋白和42种乙型地中海贫血突变基因。在土耳其,乙型地中海贫血和镰状细胞性贫血会导致严重的健康问题。30年来,一直在为病原携带者提供筛选项目,以及遗传咨询和产前诊断服务,

  16. Sulphur emission control areas and transport strategies -the case of Sweden and the forest industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergqvist, Rickard; Turesson, Marcus; Weddmark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    .... The seas around Sweden are included in the ECA and achieving the new sulphur directive requires shipowners to take actions that will increase the cost of transporting goods by ship from Sweden...

  17. 78 FR 61981 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Anders Zorn: Sweden's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Anders Zorn: Sweden's Master Painter... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Anders Zorn: Sweden's Master Painter...

  18. On the effects of subsurface parameters on evaporite dissolution (Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidane, Ali; Zechner, Eric; Huggenberger, Peter; Younes, Anis

    2014-05-01

    Uncontrolled subsurface evaporite dissolution could lead to hazards such as land subsidence. Observed subsidences in a study area of Northwestern Switzerland were mainly due to subsurface dissolution (subrosion) of evaporites such as halite and gypsum. A set of 2D density driven flow simulations were evaluated along 1000 m long and 150 m deep 2D cross sections within the study area that is characterized by tectonic horst and graben structures. The simulations were conducted to study the effect of the different subsurface parameters that could affect the dissolution process. The heterogeneity of normal faults and its impact on the dissolution of evaporites is studied by considering several permeable faults that include non-permeable areas. The mixed finite element method (MFE) is used to solve the flow equation, coupled with the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) and the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG) to solve the diffusion and the advection parts of the transport equation. Results show that the number of faults above the lower aquifer that contains the salt layer is considered as the most important factor that affects the dissolution compared to the other investigated parameters of thickness of the zone above the halite formation, a dynamic conductivity of the lower aquifer, and varying boundary conditions in the upper aquifer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying food losses and the potential for reduction in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Claudio; Stoessel, Franziska; Baier, Urs; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    A key element in making our food systems more efficient is the reduction of food losses across the entire food value chain. Nevertheless, food losses are often neglected. This paper quantifies food losses in Switzerland at the various stages of the food value chain (agricultural production, postharvest handling and trade, processing, food service industry, retail, and households), identifies hotspots and analyses the reasons for losses. Twenty-two food categories are modelled separately in a mass and energy flow analysis, based on data from 31 companies within the food value chain, and from public institutions, associations, and from the literature. The energy balance shows that 48% of the total calories produced (edible crop yields at harvest time and animal products, including slaughter waste) is lost across the whole food value chain. Half of these losses would be avoidable given appropriate mitigation measures. Most avoidable food losses occur at the household, processing, and agricultural production stage of the food value chain. Households are responsible for almost half of the total avoidable losses (in terms of calorific content). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Development of a "Neighborhood in Solidarity" in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwygart, Marion; Plattet, Alain; Ammor, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a case study based on the "Neighborhood in Solidarity" (NS) methodology to illustrate its application in a locality of 8,000 inhabitants in Switzerland. This specific project is proposed to exemplify the global aim of the NS methodology. That aim is to increase the integration of elderly persons in societies in order to improve their quality of life. The case study demonstrates the enhancement of the capacity of the older people to remain actively engaged in their neighborhood. The article focuses on the creation of an autonomous community of empowered older people who can resolve their own problems after a 5-year project. The construction of the local community is presented throughout the six steps of the methodology: (1) preliminary analysis, (2) diagnostic, (3) construction, (4) project design, (5) project implementation, and (6) empowerment and with three degrees of involvement (community, participative, and integrative involvement). Performance and output indicators, quality indicators, and social determinants of health assess the development of the local project. The impacts of the projects which are illustrated in this specific example motivated this publication to inspire practitioners from other countries.

  1. Evaluation of e-bike accidents in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T; Scaramuzza, G; Schmitt, K-U

    2014-12-01

    The acceptance and usage of electric bicycles has rapidly increased in Switzerland in the last years. Hence this topic has been addressed by policy makers with the aim to facilitate new transport modes and, moreover, to improve their safety. Police-recorded accidents of the years 2011 and 2012 involving a total of 504 e-bikers and 871 bicyclists were analysed. National figures were compared with those of a rural and an urban environment. Most e-bikers who were involved in accidents were 40-65 years old. It was found that most e-bikers sustained single accidents and that helmet usage was higher in the investigated rural environment than in the investigated urban area. The evaluation of the injury severity of e-bikers, particularly compared to bicyclists, lead to diverging results. The findings presented in this study are intended to serve as a benchmark since basic information on characteristics of e-bike accidents is provided. With respect to differences between the injury severity of e-bikers and bicyclists to-date no clear statement can be drawn. It is suggested to regularly evaluate e-bike accidents to show trends and/or identify changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biotechnology in Switzerland and a glance at Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, A

    2000-01-01

    The roots of biotechnology go back to classic fermentation processes, which starting from spontaneous reactions were developed by simple means. The discovery of antibiotics made contamination-free bioprocess engineering indispensable, which led to a further step in technology development. On-line analytics and the use of computers were the basis of automation and the increase in quality. On both sides of the Atlantic, molecular biology emerged at the same time, which gave genetic engineering in medicine, agriculture, industry and environment new opportunities. The story of this new advanced technology in Switzerland, with a quick glance at Germany, is followed back to the post-war years. The growth of research and teaching and the foundation of the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) are dealt with. The promising phase of the 1960s and 1970s soon had to give way to a restrictive policy of insecurity and anxiousness, which, today, manifests itself in the rather insignificant contributions of many European countries to the new sciences of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, as well as in the resistance to the use of transgenic agricultural crops and their products in foods.

  3. Social determinants of mental health service utilization in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Michelle; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether mental health services utilization in Switzerland is equitably distributed (i.e., predicted only by the need of a person). Data on 17,789 participants of the Swiss Health Survey 2012 (≥15 years) was analysed. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict: having been in treatment for a psychological problem; having used psychotropic medication; having had medical treatment for depression; and having visited a psychologist or psychotherapist. Need (depression severity and risky alcohol consumption) and socio-demographic variables were used as independent variables. Depression severity was the strongest predictor for using mental health services. In contrast, risky alcohol consumption was not associated with an increased likelihood of using mental health services. After adjusting for need, the following groups were less likely to use (some of) the mental health services: males, young people, participants who (almost) work full-time, single/unmarried, non-Swiss people and those living in rural areas. Education and income were not significantly associated with the outcomes in the adjusted analyses. Some socio-demographic subgroups are less likely to use mental health services despite having the same need.

  4. An empirical perspective for understanding climate change impacts in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Paul; Bigalke, Moritz; Büntgen, Ulf; Colombaroli, Daniele; Conedera, Marco; Feller, Urs; Frank, David; Fuhrer, Jürg; Grosjean, Martin; Heiri, Oliver; Luterbacher, Jürg; Mestrot, Adrien; Rigling, Andreas; Rössler, Ole; Rohr, Christian; Rutishauser, This; Schwikowski, Margit; Stampfli, Andreas; Szidat, Sönke; Theurillat, Jean-Paul; Weingartner, Rolf; Wilcke, Wolfgan; Tinner, Willy

    2018-01-01

    Planning for the future requires a detailed understanding of how climate change affects a wide range of systems at spatial scales that are relevant to humans. Understanding of climate change impacts can be gained from observational and reconstruction approaches and from numerical models that apply existing knowledge to climate change scenarios. Although modeling approaches are prominent in climate change assessments, observations and reconstructions provide insights that cannot be derived from simulations alone, especially at local to regional scales where climate adaptation policies are implemented. Here, we review the wealth of understanding that emerged from observations and reconstructions of ongoing and past climate change impacts in Switzerland, with wider applicability in Europe. We draw examples from hydrological, alpine, forest, and agricultural systems, which are of paramount societal importance, and are projected to undergo important changes by the end of this century. For each system, we review existing model-based projections, present what is known from observations, and discuss how empirical evidence may help improve future projections. A particular focus is given to better understanding thresholds, tipping points and feedbacks that may operate on different time scales. Observational approaches provide the grounding in evidence that is needed to develop local to regional climate adaptation strategies. Our review demonstrates that observational approaches should ideally have a synergistic relationship with modeling in identifying inconsistencies in projections as well as avenues for improvement. They are critical for uncovering unexpected relationships between climate and agricultural, natural, and hydrological systems that will be important to society in the future.

  5. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature Rights

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Olivier BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Catherine JONES Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that, in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of Administration (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNAL' (people who do...

  6. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    Signature Rights In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Jean BOILLOT Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Jean-Pierre RIUNAUD We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNAL" (people who do not hold a contract of employment, association or apprenticeship w...

  7. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature Rights

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with their Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of these procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure, as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Oliver BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Hélène HALLER-MAUGER David JACOBS Catherine NEDERMAN Chris ONIONS Claudio PARRINELLO Jeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that, in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNAL' (people w...

  8. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Signature Rights In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Oliver BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON David JACOBS Catherine JONES Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Chris ONIONS Claudio PARRINELLO The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNAL' (p...

  9. PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    SIGNATURE RIGHTS In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d’accueil. •\tOliver BRÜNING •\tVinod CHOHAN •\tLyndon EVANS •\tJohn FERGUSON •\tHélène HALLER-MAUGER •\tDavid JACOBS •\tPhilippe LEBRUN •\tCatherine NEDERMAN •\tChris ONIONS •\tClaudio PARRINELLO •\tJeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisation d...

  10. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2006-01-01

    Signature rights In accordance with their Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of these procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure, as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Oliver BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Catherine JONES Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Chris ONIONS Claudio PARRINELLO The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that, in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNA...

  11. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Signature Rights In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organizations personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles daccueil. Oliver BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Hélène HALLER-MAUGER David JACOBS Catherine NEDERMAN Chris ONIONS Claudio PARRINELLO Jeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as E...

  12. PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    SIGNATURE RIGHTS In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d’accueil. •\tOliver BRÜNING •\tPhilip BRYANT •\tLyndon EVANS •\tJohn FERGUSON •\tHélène HALLER-MAUGER •\tDavid JACOBS •\tPhilippe LEBRUN •\tCatherine NEDERMAN •\tChris ONIONS •\tClaudio PARRINELLO •\tJeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence per...

  13. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature Rights

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Olivier BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Catherine JONES Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for perso...

  14. PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    SIGNATURE RIGHTS In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the "note verbale" procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the "Protocoles d’accueil": •\tOliver BRÜNING •\tInger CARRIERO •\tLyndon EVANS •\tHélène HALLER-MAUGER •\tDavid JACOBS •\tPhilippe LEBRUN •\tJean-Pol MATHEYS •\tCatherine NEDERMAN •\tChris ONIONS •\tJeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or resid...

  15. Association between education and quality of diabetes care in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatz, Aline; Casillas, Alejandra; Stringhini, Silvia; Zuercher, Emilie; Burnand, Bernard; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status is associated with higher prevalence of diabetes, worse outcomes, and worse quality of care. We explored the relationship between education, as a measure of socioeconomic status, and quality of care in the Swiss context. Data were drawn from a population-based survey of 519 adults with diabetes during fall 2011 and summer 2012 in a canton of Switzerland. We assessed patients and diabetes characteristics. Eleven indicators of quality of care were considered (six of process and five of outcomes of care). After bivariate analyses, regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and diabetic complications were performed to assess the relationship between education and quality of care. Of 11 quality-of-care indicators, three were significantly associated with education: funduscopy (patients with tertiary versus primary education were more likely to get the exam: odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004-3.3) and two indicators of health-related quality of life (patients with tertiary versus primary education reported better health-related quality of life: Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life: β=0.6 [95% CI, 0.2-0.97]; SF-12 mean physical component summary score: β=3.6 [95% CI, 0.9-6.4]). Our results suggest the presence of educational inequalities in quality of diabetes care. These findings may help health professionals focus on individuals with increased needs to decrease health inequalities.

  16. Visas for Switzerland and France - Time needed to process applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Please note that any person required to be in possession of a visa in order to take up functions at CERN must start the application process sufficiently early to allow the visa to be issued in time.   The submission of an incomplete application, local circumstances and an increase in applications before the summer holiday period can all result in considerable variation in the time needed to process your application and issue the visa. You are therefore recommended to submit your visa application at least three months, and not later than 21 days, prior to your departure date. We would also like to remind you that the Swiss Consulate in Paris and the French Consulate in Geneva can issue visas exclusively to people resident within their respective spheres of competence (i.e. those who are holders of a French or Swiss residence permit respectively). You must therefore obtain all visas required for stays longer than three months in France or Switzerland from the visa-issuing authority competent for ...

  17. Valuing water resources in Switzerland using a hedonic price model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Diana; Siber, Rosi; Brouwer, Roy; Logar, Ivana; Sanadgol, Dorsa

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, linear and spatial hedonic price models are applied to the housing market in Switzerland, covering all 26 cantons in the country over the period 2005-2010. Besides structural house, neighborhood and socioeconomic characteristics, we include a wide variety of new environmental characteristics related to water to examine their role in explaining variation in sales prices. These include water abundance, different types of water bodies, the recreational function of water, and water disamenity. Significant spatial autocorrelation is found in the estimated models, as well as nonlinear effects for distances to the nearest lake and large river. Significant effects are furthermore found for water abundance and the distance to large rivers, but not to small rivers. Although in both linear and spatial models water related variables explain less than 1% of the price variation, the distance to the nearest bathing site has a larger marginal contribution than many neighborhood-related distance variables. The housing market shows to differentiate between different water related resources in terms of relative contribution to house prices, which could help the housing development industry make more geographically targeted planning activities.

  18. Trends and determinants of time in bed in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubelmann, Cédric; Guessous, Idris; Theler, Jean-Marc; Haba-Rubio, José; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2014-10-15

    There is limited information regarding sleep duration and determinants in Switzerland. We aimed to assess the trends and determinants of time in bed as a proxy for sleep duration in the Swiss canton of Geneva. Data from repeated, independent cross-sectional representative samples of adults (≥ 18 years) of the Geneva population were collected between 2005 and 2011. Self-reported time in bed, education, monthly income, and nationality were assessed by questionnaire. Data from 3,853 participants (50% women, 51.7 ± 10.9 years) were analyzed. No significant trend was observed between 2005 and 2011 regarding time in bed or the prevalence of short (≤ 6 h/day) and long (> 9 h/day) time in bed. Elderly participants reported a longer time in bed (year-adjusted mean ± standard error: 7.67 ± 0.02, 7.82 ± 0.03, and 8.41 ± 0.04 h/day for 35-50, 50-65, and 65+ years, respectively, p 9,500 SFr, respectively, p < 0.001). Multivariable-adjusted polytomous logistic regression showed short and long time in bed to be positively associated with obesity and negatively associated with income. In a Swiss adult population, sleep duration as assessed by time in bed did not change significantly between 2005 and 2011. Both clinical and socioeconomic factors influence time in bed.

  19. Diffusion experiments at Mont Terri (Switzerland): overview and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoye, S. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN DEI SARG), Lab. d' Etudes des Transferts dans les Sols et le sous-sol, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    Several diffusion experiments have been performed at the field scale in the underground rock laboratory of Mont Terri (Switzerland) to verify the reliability of diffusion parameters obtained at lab scale. The principle of in situ diffusion experiments is based on the injection, in a packer-off section of a borehole, of a tracer cocktail diffusing into the rock and whose its concentration decrease is monitored by means of a circulation circuit located at the surface. Subsequently, the interval section is over-cored and analysed for the tracer profiles. Overall, the obtained tracer data confirmed that diffusion is the dominant transport process for solutes in Opalinus Clay. The diffusivity and diffusion porosity of anions was found to be lower than tritiated water, indicating anion exclusion effect. Concerning the cations, one observed that when the interaction of these species with clay surface was stronger, their decrease relative to HTO in interval was faster and their penetration depth was lower (max 3 cm after 10 months for Cs{sup +}). Finally, in situ data were found to be consistent with small-scale lab diffusion experiments performed parallel to the bedding plane, suggesting that the up-scaling effects for diffusion are small. (author)

  20. Measles epidemic in Switzerland and other parts of Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Commission

    2008-01-01

    There has been a measles epidemic in Switzerland since November 2006. By April 2008 the number of cases had reached almost 2500, with over 1300 since the beginning of the year alone. All cantons are affected but to varying degrees, the largest number of cases occurring in the north and east of the country. In all cases, the low vaccination coverage is responsible for the spread of this highly contagious disease. The contagious period starts 4 days before the rash appears and lasts until 4 days afterwards. In the event of infection, children must be kept away from school and measures must be taken to protect those who come into contact with them, which may include vaccination if the infection is less than 72 hours old. The Swiss and international health authorities recommend the following measures to prevent the spread of the disease: those who have already contracted the disease, received 2 doses of the vaccine (often in the form of the combined MMR - measles, mumps, rubella...

  1. National survey report on PV power applications in Switzerland 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesser, P. [Nova Energie GmbH, Aarau (Switzerland); Hostettler, T. [Ingenieurbuero Hostettler, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This annual report was published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the International Energy Agency's work on the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems (PVPS). The political situation in Switzerland with regard to the promotion of photovoltaics (PV) and new legislation in the energy area is discussed. The report provides information on installed PV power, costs and prices and the Swiss PV industry. Examples of PV applications are presented and data on the cumulative installed PV power in various application sectors is presented and discussed. Highlights, major projects and various demonstration and field-test programmes are dealt with, as are public budgets for market stimulation. Figures on the development, production and prices of PV cells and modules are presented. Swiss balance-of-system products are reviewed, as are PV-related services and the value of the Swiss PV business. A review of non-technical factors and new initiatives completes the report.

  2. Usage, Potentials and Challenges of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in Slovenia, Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Jus, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    In the master’s thesis, the main potentials, challenges and usage of Information Building Modelling (BIM) in Slovenia, Austria, Germany and Switzerland are presented, including its, because BIM is currently the most widely discussed topic in civil engineering. The study was based on a questionnaire that was carefully created at the HSLU (Hochschule Luzern) in Switzerland. We participated in the last phases of its development. With the help of the results of the questionnaire, we evaluated ...

  3. Stroke in Switzerland: social determinants of treatment access and cost of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snozzi, Philippe; Blank, Patricia R; Szucs, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Few useful empirical data on stroke are available for Switzerland. The aim of this study was to collect data on the use of medical resources and associated costs among stroke patients. Special attention was paid to possible correlations between epidemiologic indicators, sociodemographic variables, resource use, and costs. We carried out a representative population survey of 19,123 households in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland with computer-assisted telephone interviews in 2005. Detailed sociodemographic data and information on the use of resources were collected from 509 individuals aged 15-75 years who had cared for a stroke patient in the past 1-2 years. In the last 1-2 years, a total of 7.8% of households were affected by stroke in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, whereas only 4.3% of households were affected in the French-speaking part of Switzerland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, P Switzerland. Patients with supplementary insurance were treated more frequently as inpatients than patients with statutory insurance (OR: 2.14, P = .014), and patients with a low household income were referred less frequently to an inpatient rehabilitation facility than those with medium or high household income (OR = .58, P Switzerland. Patients without supplementary insurance or with low household income were less likely to receive inpatient treatment. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Time trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring European countries 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Anita; Mark, Michael Thomas; Steiner, Annik; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2015-01-01

    What are the trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring countries? Mortality data and population estimates 1996-2010 were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office for Switzerland and the World Health Organization Mortality Database (http://www.who.int/healthinfo/mortality_data/en/) for Austria, Germany, France and Italy. Age standardised mortality rates (ASMRs, European standard) per 100 000 person-years were calculated for the population Switzerland and neighbouring countries cancer mortality in persons Switzerland from 16.2 to 20.3 per 100 000 person years, EAPC 2.0 [95% CI 1.4 to 2.6]). Compared with its neighbouring countries, Switzerland showed the lowest rates for all groups of avoidable cancer mortality in males 2008-2010. Overall avoidable cancer mortality decreased, indicating achievements in cancer care and related health policies. However, increasing trends in avoidable cancer mortality through primary prevention for females suggest there is a need in Switzerland and its European neighbouring countries to improve primary prevention.

  5. Providing Quality Therapeutics in Switzerland: Role of the Stakeholders and Recent Incentives for Further Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Marie; Samer, Caroline; Rollason, Victoria; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules

    2015-07-01

    Quality therapeutics play an important role in Switzerland's health care and economy. Switzerland holds a key position in the world of research and development, as well as in drug production. Recently, new emphasis has been placed on promoting clinical research and maintaining Switzerland's position as a center of excellence in the field. Recent revisions to the law regarding medical trials in human research allow for better allocation of regulatory resources and simplified procedures for drugs already authorized in Switzerland. The country has its own regulatory agency, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (Swissmedic), which is a public institution of the Swiss government. Swissmedic is responsible for ensuring safety in medicines, particularly regarding authorizations and market surveillance in the sector of medicinal products and medical devices. Although the centralized authorization procedure of the European Union for medicines does not apply to Switzerland, there are mutual recognition mechanisms between the Swiss medicine regulatory authority and the European Medicines Agency. Swissmedic is also in charge of postmarketing safety and oversees the national pharmacovigilance center, which collaborates closely with the World Health Organization center in Uppsala. In addition, university hospital-based clinical pharmacologists, who are involved in basic science and clinical research, regulatory affairs, ethics committees, and pharmacovigilance, promote quality therapeutics. This article discusses the role of the various stakeholders and the recent efforts made to provide a better allocation of resources aimed at further improving quality therapeutics in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceptions of diabetes control among people with type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin in Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brod, Meryl; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M; Barnett, Anthony H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate perceptions of control among people with uncontrolled and well controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with basal insulin, as well as differences in perceptions and diabetes management practices between the two groups. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Web surveys of 1012 pe...

  7. Perceptions of diabetes control among physicians and people with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on basal insulin in Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brod, Meryl; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M; Barnett, Anthony H

    2016-01-01

    Objective A large proportion of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain uncontrolled on basal insulin. Yet, there is limited understanding of how people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (PWUD) perceive control and insulin intensification and whether their perceptions differ from those of physic...

  8. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to

  9. 76 FR 23321 - New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, New Sweden Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the New Sweden...

  10. 76 FR 27663 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ..., Netherlands and Sweden Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... purified carboxymethylcellulose from Mexico and Sweden would not be likely to lead to continuation or... subject imports from Finland, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Sweden would not be likely to lead to...

  11. The Role of the School Library: Reflections from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Libraries are critical learning spaces and may play a significant role in intercultural education initiatives, particularly in Sweden where the national curriculum ascribes central functions to libraries for learning activities. Unfortunately, the ways in which teachers and librarians may collaborate to leverage mutual resources is not fully…

  12. Sweden's Engagement with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Bae, Jinsun

    2015-01-01

    on semistructured interviews of individuals who have taken part in Swedish engagement programs. Findings: - Besides having its embassy in Pyongyang and serving as a protecting power for the U.S., Sweden has provided capacity building programs for North Korean government officials and scholars and has taken part...

  13. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  14. Individualized Mathematics Teaching. Results from the IMU Project in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Inger

    The Individual Mathematics Teaching Project (IMU) has been under development in the upper level (grades 7-9) of the comprehensive school in Sweden since 1964. Its goals are (1) to construct and test self-instruction study material in mathematics, (2) to find suitable teaching methods and work forms for the use of this material, (3) to try out…

  15. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  16. The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique…

  17. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1999; Energilaeget i siffror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This supplement contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1999, STEM-ET-82-1999). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English.

  18. Lise Meitner in Sweden 1938-1960: Exile from physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1994-08-01

    Lise Meitner fled Germany for Sweden in 1938. Her professional difficulties in Stockholm coupled with her exclusion from the discovery of fission diminished her ability to work, damaged her reputation and, in the opinion of many of her contemporaries, kept her from a Nobel prize.

  19. Salmonella-associated Deaths, Sweden, 1997–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Ternhag, Anders; Törner, Anna; Ekdahl, Karl; Giesecke, Johan

    2006-01-01

    We examined excess deaths after infection with Salmonella in a registry-based matched cohort study of 25,060 persons infected abroad and 5,139 infected within Sweden. The domestically infected have an increased standardized mortality ratio, whereas those who acquired Salmonella infection abroad had no excess risk of death.

  20. Schooling of Immigrant Children in West Germany, Sweden, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, I.

    1975-01-01

    The focus of this article is on children of migrant workers and immigrants in the schools of West Germany, Sweden and England. One central problem, that of language, is considered both as it is dealt with in policy, i. e., in curricula, and as it is actually implemented in some programs, which are typical for the actions in these countries.…

  1. Intra- and Extrafamilial Child Homicide in Sweden, 1971-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somander, Lis K. H.; Rammer, Lennart M.

    1991-01-01

    Over a 10-year period, 96 children (age 0-14) were victims of homicide in Sweden, an average annual rate of 0.6 per 100,000 children. Most homicides were intrafamilial in nature. Cases of child abuse by a parent and cases of sexual abuse among the homicide victims were infrequent. (Author/JDD)

  2. The Ultimate in Flexitime: From Sweden, by Way of Volvo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul

    1988-01-01

    In the Volvo component plant on Koping, Sweden, an innovative system of multiple shifts and flexible working hours is offered to employees. The system meets the needs of those who are available for work at certain times and helps curtail turnover and absenteeism. (JOW)

  3. Parental Divorce and Union Disruption among Young Adults in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…

  4. The Metal Hoard from Pile in Scania, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandkilde, Helle

    The metal hoard from Pile has branded the onset of the rich Nordic Bronze Age since its discovery in 1864 at the coast of Scania in southwestern Sweden. Yet, this book provides the first detailed documentation, scientific examination and historical interpretation. Indeed, Pile emerges as the earl...

  5. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1998; Energilaeget i siffror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This supplement contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1998, STEM-ET--26-98). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English

  6. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1997; Energilaeget i siffror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Facts and figures 1997 contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1997). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English

  7. Johanna and Tommy: Two Preschoolers in Sweden with Brittle Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millde, Kristina; Brodin, Jane

    Information is presented for caregivers of Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) and their families. Approximately five children with brittle bones are born in Sweden annually. Two main types of brittle bone disease have been identified: congenita and tarda. Typical symptoms include numerous and unexpected fractures, bluish…

  8. Biology and outbreaks of Microdiprion pallipes (Hymenoptera; Diprionidae) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, E. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology)

    1994-01-01

    During outbreaks, Microdiprion pallipes (Fall.) is the most destructive of the pine sawflies in Sweden. Its distribution includes most provinces, but damaging outbreaks have until recently occurred only in two inland areas in northern Sweden. These areas are characterised by high elevation, a harsh climate, and slow tree growth. The four recorded outbreak periods showed a 10 year periodicity. Outside these areas, a lesser outbreak occurred in 1988 to 1990, on the east coast (province of Uppland). Outbreak patterns, life history variation, and mortality factors were studied. Factors that may explain the distribution of outbreaks and the population patterns were identified.Experimental and observational evidence on the potential of various factors to influence fecundity, dispersal, and survival was evaluated. In the outbreak areas, there were few major population factors. Parasitism by Rhorus substitutor (Thunb.) was the largest cause of larval mortality and the only important density-dependent mortality factor. The different diapause strategies of M. pallipes and R. substitutor may contribute to stabilize this system. Different flight periods of the host and the parasitoid may explain a possible correlation between weather and outbreaks. Elsewhere in Sweden, where low population densities prevail, there may be similarities in population processes between M. pallipes and the other widely distributed diprionids with solitary larvae, which never have attained outbreak densities in Sweden. Interactions with other diprionids through shared natural enemies may be an important population process and may influence the distribution of outbreaks. 37 refs, 4 figs, 11 tabs

  9. Privatizing Education: Free School Policy in Sweden and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…

  10. Students' Perspectives on Raising Achievement through Inclusion in Essunga, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Persson, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A Swedish municipality that has transformed its position at the bottom of the national school league tables to top within three years--through inclusive education--has attracted much attention both in Sweden and internationally. This article offers the students' perspectives on the transformation and how they have experienced success. A social…

  11. Are Teacher Assessments Biased?--Evidence from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Erica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if the probability of being graded up in the school leaving certificates increases if the teacher is of the same gender as the student or if the teacher and the student both have a foreign background. The analysis is based on data on grade 9 students in Mathematics from Sweden. I find that female students and non-native…

  12. A novel stroke locus identified in a northern Sweden pedigree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janunger, T.; Nilsson-Ardnor, S.; Wiklund, P.-G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The population of northern Sweden is characterized by reduced genetic diversity and a high incidence of stroke. We sought to reduce genetic variation further, using genealogic analysis in a set of nuclear families affected by stroke, and we subsequently performed a genome-wide scan...

  13. Coordination between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wadmann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insights into effective policy strategies for improved coordination of care is needed. In this study we describe and compare the policy strategies chosen in Denmark and Sweden, and discuss them in relation to interorganisational network theory. Policy practice: The policy initiatives to improve collaboration between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden include legislation and agreements aiming at clarifying areas of responsibility and defining requirements, creation of links across organisational boarders. In Denmark many initiatives have been centrally induced, while development of local solutions is more prominent in Sweden. Many Danish initiatives target the administrative level, while in Sweden initiatives are also directed at the operational level. In both countries economic incentives for collaboration are weak or lacking, and use of sanctions as a regulatory mean is limited. Discussion and conclusion: Despite a variety of policy initiatives, lacking or poorly developed structures to support implementation function as barriers for coordination. The two cases illustrate that even in two relatively coherent health systems, with regional management of both the hospital and general practice sector, there are issues to resolve in regard to administrative and operational coordination. The interorganisational network literature can provide useful tools and concepts for interpreting such issues.

  14. Local School Governance in Sweden: Boards, Parents, and Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Mikael; Johansson, Olof; Nihlfors, Elisabet; Skott, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Sweden has recently seen three major political attempts to empower parents through national regulations--the transferal of authority from the state to district school boards, the heavy promotion of independent schools, and the introduction of local school boards at municipality schools. This article provides an overview of these developments by…

  15. Struggles for Legitimacy in Mother Tongue Instruction in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganuza, Natalia; Hedman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the pedagogical beliefs, practices and ideological assumptions of 15 teachers who work with mother tongue instruction in Sweden. Despite support through provisions in Swedish laws, mother tongue instruction is clearly a marginalized subject, not least due to its non-mandatory status, the limited time allocated for it and…

  16. A Partial Equilibrium Analysis of Sunflower Market in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    B. Miran; G. Unakitan

    2006-01-01

    Sunflower oil is the most preferred vegetable oil in Turkey. 35% of total consumption of vegetable oil issunflower oil. Sunflower seed import is approximately 500-650 thousand tons while sunflower seedproduction is 800-850 thousand tons in the last years. The main objective of this study is to determine thereasons of deficiency of vegetable oil in Turkey and to suggest some solutions. For this objective, theprospective situation and the market structure of sunflower seed in Turkey has estimat...

  17. Groundwater contamination and its effect on health in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Alper; Tayfur, Gökmen

    2011-01-01

    The sources of groundwater pollution in Turkey are identified, and pathways of contaminants to groundwater are first described. Then, the effects of groundwater quality on health in Turkey are evaluated. In general, sources of groundwater contamination fall into two main categories: natural and anthropogenic sources. Important sources of natural groundwater pollution in Turkey include geological formations, seawater intrusion, and geothermal fluid(s). The major sources of anthropogenic ground...

  18. PRAGMATIC FRIENDSHIP IN THE UK-TURKEY RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KONONOVA, Alexandra; KORNİLOV, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThe article deals with peculiarities of contemporary United Kingdom-Turkey relations. The authors consider strategic (conceptual) dimension of the bilateral relations, do research on the most important joint projects of the two states and pay a special attention to the EU accession of Turkey process influence on the relations between Britain under Prime Minister David Cameron and the Republic of Turkey under Prime Minister Recep Erdogan.Keywords: Strategic partnership, bilateral relat...

  19. SECURITIZATION OF MIGRATION: THE CASE OF TURKEY-EU RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    YÜKSEL, Sinem

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing “securitization of migration” in Turkey-European Union (EU) relations. The Copenhagen School’s theory of securitization, multisectoral security approach and speech act are given special emphasis in this regard. The major argument of this article is that the EU has securitized migration from Turkey mainly for political reasons; thus, securitization of migration in Turkey-EU relations is a political choice. Firstly, it is aimed to set theoretical foundation of the...

  20. Assessement of user needs for climate change scenarios in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Liniger, Mark; Flückiger-Knutti, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing demand to assess and inform about future climate change and its impacts on society and ecosystems and to deduce appropriate adaptation strategies. The basis for such assessments are reliable and up-to-date climate change scenarios on the local to regional scale. In Switzerland, an important step has been accomplished by the release of the climate scenarios in 2011 ("CH2011"). New climate model simulations, an improved scientific understanding and new statistical downscaling tools make an update of these scenarios necessary. An important component toward the new national scenarios "CH2018" are the consideration of user needs in order to ensure that the new scenarios are user-tailored and hence find a wide applicability. The new CH2018 scenarios are developed in the framework of the recently founded National Center for Climate Services (NCCS). To get a better overview of who the users of climate scenarios are and what they need, a comprehensive market research was undertaken. The survey targeted the most climate-relevant sectors, and considered representatives from administration, research and private companies across Switzerland. The survey comprised several qualitative group interviews with key stakeholders, as well as a written questionaire, answered by more than one hundred users. Additionally, two workshops were organized to gather the needs in dissemination of climate scenarios. The results of the survey show the necessity to classify the user needs according to the level of usage: "intensive users" are mainly researchers who handle large climate scenario data for further use in subsequent impact studies; "extensive users" are usually from administrations or consulting companies and perform simple calculations for specific questions or use provided graphics and tables; "facilitators" are usually from media, NGOs or schools and process and disseminate scenario information for a specific target group. The less intensive the usage of climate

  1. Geothermal energy in Switzerland - outline lecture; Uebersichtsvortrag Geothermie Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, M. [Bundesamt fuer Energiewirtschaft, Bern (Switzerland); Gorhan, H.L. [Elektrowatt Engineering AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    CO{sub 2}- emission in Switzerland need to be reduced over the next 50 years. In 1990, a first step towards improvement was taken by the Swiss Feseral Office of Energy by establishing the ``Energy 2000`` action plan. Apart from practical recommendations for general energy saving measures, this programme provides also clear objectives in respect to increased and more effecient utilization of indigenious and renewable energy resources. Geothermal energy is one of these resources. In addition to the amount of geothermal heat delivered in 1990, it is planned to produce a further 170 GWh of geothermal energy by the year 2000. This correesponnds to about 6% of a total of 3000 GWh which, it is envisaged, will be produced by all alternative heat resources together by the year 2000. Today, most geothermal energy is provided by shallow borehole heat exchangers. However, intensive development of wide ranging and innovative geothermal techniques is taking place at present. These R and D activities, as well as projects at present being realised, receive significant support from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den kommenden 50 Jahren soll und muss CO{sub 2}-Emission in der Sweiz betraechtlich reduziert werden. Einen ersten Schritt dazu bildet das. im Jahre 1990 vom bundesamtes fuer Energiewirtschaft erarbeitete, Programm ``Energie 2000``. Nebst konkreten Vorschlaegen zum allgemeinen Energiesparen wurden in diesem programm auch Zielsetzungen fuer eine vermehrte, innovative und efficiente Nutzung von einheimischen und erneuerbaren Energieressourcen formuliert. Dazu zaelt auch die Geometrie. Zusaetzlich zur bereits im Jahre 1990 produzierten Waerme soll die Geometrie im Jahr 2000 ca. 170 GWh an Waermeenergie lifern. Das entspricht ca.6% der fuer das Jahr 2000 geplanten Gesamtalternativ- Energieproduktion von 3000 GWh. Bei der geothermischen Energieproduktion satmmt bis heute der groesste Anteil von untiefen Erdwaermesonden. Die Anwendung neuer und

  2. Inter-communal migrations in Switzerland: a "mountain factor"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Camenisch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To go beyond existing publications on inter-communal migrations in Switzerland, this paper focuses on a comparison of behaviours between communes of different types: rural, urban, mountain, tourist, etc. It is based on two sets of data: the Swiss Population Census (1999-2008 and the Swiss Household Panel. This paper has two main conclusions of this paper: first, contrary to the dominant practice which compares communes according to their respective difference between in-migration and out-migration rate, this paper highlights the contrast between “warm” and “cold” communes (comparing the migration rate itself; there is a "mountain factor" which means that most inter-communal migrations occur within the mountain zone, or within the Swiss Plateau.Prolongeant les publications existantes sur les migrations intercommunales en Suisse, l'article focalise son attention sur les comportements différenciés des communes selon les types dont elles relèvent: urbaines, montagnardes, touristiques, rurales, etc. Il repose sur l'utilisation des données du recensement fédéral de la population (1999-2008 et sur celles du Panel Suisse des Ménages. Il parvient à deux conclusions principales: les communes que l'on compare le plus souvent en fonction de leur bilan migratoire, peuvent aussi être utilement différenciées selon qu'elles sont « chaudes » ou « froides » (avec un taux de migration fort ou faible, quelque soit le solde; il existe un "effet montagne" qui signifie ici la propension des migrations à se faire principalement à l'intérieur de la zone de montagne suisse ou à l'intérieur du Plateau suisse.

  3. Environmental inventories for future electricity supply systems for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Doka, G.; Knoepfel, I. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    This report provides the analysis of environmental inventories for selected electricity supply systems considered as possible options to meet the expected electricity demand in Switzerland in year 2030. Two possible electricity demand level cases were postulated by VSE, both under the basic assumption of economic growth: a high-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 2% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 1% from year 2010 to year 2030, and a low-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 1% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 0.5% from year 2010 to year 2030. The base (i.e. secured) supply in year 2030 will be, according to VSE, totally dominated by hydro with rather minor contributions from combined heat-and-power plants, small gas turbines, incinerators and solar photovoltaic plants. Due to decommissioning of the currently operating nuclear power plants and expiration of long-term electricity import contracts there will eventually occur a gap between the postulated electricity demand and the base supply. VSE provided seven options to cover this gap, defined in terms of mixes with different contributions from gas, coal, nuclear and solar chains; in this context a distinction is also made with respect to shares of domestic and imported electricity. The systems considered represent advanced technologies, regarded as either typical or most suitable for the Swiss conditions. System-specific input to the present analysis has been partially generated based on direct contacts with the industry. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was used to establish environmental inventories for the systems analysed. The analysis has been performed on three levels:(1) individually for each system considered, (2) comparison of systems, (3) comparison of supply options. Results are also provided for these three levels.

  4. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. Methods A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well as indicators of smartphone use and addiction. Smartphone addiction was assessed using a short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate demographic and health-related predictors of smartphone addiction. Results Smartphone addiction occurred in 256 (16.9%) of the 1,519 students. Longer duration of smartphone use on a typical day, a shorter time period until first smartphone use in the morning, and reporting that social networking was the most personally relevant smartphone function were associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was more prevalent in younger adolescents (15–16 years) compared with young adults (19 years and older), students with both parents born outside Switzerland, persons reporting lower physical activity, and those reporting higher stress. Alcohol and tobacco consumption were unrelated to smartphone addiction. Discussion Different indicators of smartphone use are associated with smartphone addiction and subgroups of young people have a higher prevalence of smartphone addiction. Conclusions The study provides the first insights into smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and predictors of smartphone addiction in young people from a European country, which should be extended in further studies. PMID:26690625

  5. Damage costs due to bedload transport processes in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoux, A.; Andres, N.; Turowski, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    In Alpine regions, floods are often associated with erosion, transport and deposition of coarse sediment along the streams. These processes are related to bedload transport and pose a hazard in addition to the elevated water discharge. However, it is unclear to what extent they contribute to total damage caused by natural hazards. Using the Swiss flood and landslide damage database - which collects financial damage data of naturally triggered floods, debris flows and landslides - we estimated the contribution of fluvial bedload transport processes to total damage costs in Switzerland. For each database entry an upper and lower limit of financial losses caused by or related to bedload transport processes was estimated, and the quality of the estimate was judged. When compared to total damage, the fraction of bedload transport damage in the 40 yr study period lies between 0.32 and 0.37. However, this value is highly variable for individual years (from 0.02 to 0.72). Bedload transport processes have induced cumulative financial losses between CHF 4.3 and 5.1 billion. Spatial analysis revealed a considerable heterogeneous distribution with largest damage for mountainous regions. The analysis of the seasonal distribution shows that more than 75 % of the bedload damage costs occurs in summer (June-August), and ∼ 23% in autumn (September-November). With roughly 56 %, by far most of the damage has been registered in August. Bedload transport processes are presently still inadequately understood, and the predictive quality of common bedload equations is often poor. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of bedload transport as a natural hazard and financial source of risk, and thus the need for future structured research on transport processes in steep streams.

  6. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well as indicators of smartphone use and addiction. Smartphone addiction was assessed using a short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate demographic and health-related predictors of smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction occurred in 256 (16.9%) of the 1,519 students. Longer duration of smartphone use on a typical day, a shorter time period until first smartphone use in the morning, and reporting that social networking was the most personally relevant smartphone function were associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was more prevalent in younger adolescents (15-16 years) compared with young adults (19 years and older), students with both parents born outside Switzerland, persons reporting lower physical activity, and those reporting higher stress. Alcohol and tobacco consumption were unrelated to smartphone addiction. Different indicators of smartphone use are associated with smartphone addiction and subgroups of young people have a higher prevalence of smartphone addiction. The study provides the first insights into smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and predictors of smartphone addiction in young people from a European country, which should be extended in further studies.

  7. Occupational maxillofacial fractures: a 3-year survey in central Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggensperger, Nicole M; Danz, Jan; Heinz, Zimmermann; Iizuka, Tateyuki

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine occupational facial fractures in central Switzerland. Concomitant injuries were also studied. The Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery at the University Hospital in Berne provides a 24-hour maxillofacial trauma service for its population (1.6 million). The present study was comprised of 42 patients (8.4% of treated maxillofacial injuries) with occupational maxillofacial fractures registered at this unit between 2000 and 2002. Information on the topic of occupation, the cause of the accidents, and the topographic location of the fractures was analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 44.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 41:1. Sixty-nine percent of the injuries occurred in farm and forestry workers and in construction laborers during the summertime (33%). Workers in these occupations carried a 127-fold (farm and forestry workers) and a 44-fold (construction laborers) higher risk of incurring maxillofacial fractures than did service and office workers. Injuries were most frequently (43%) caused by a thrown, projected, or falling object. Eighty-two percent of the fractures occurred in the midface region and at the skull base. Fifty-nine percent of the patients had concomitant injuries. In 69%, surgery was necessary, the mean duration of their hospital stay being 4.8 days. The probability of sustaining work-related maxillofacial traumata is correlated to the nature of the occupation. Farm and forestry workers are at the highest risk, most frequently injured by being struck by an object or an animal. The introduction of personalized safety measures should become obligatory in high-risk occupations.

  8. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne eMoser

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are facing a challenging transition towards more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviours (i.e. sufficiency. While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behaviour.This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviours in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N=150 to examine preferences for behaviours with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviours, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behaviour. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet. Thus, it seems

  9. Impact of climate change in Switzerland on socioeconomic snow indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucki, Edgar; Marty, Christoph; Fierz, Charles; Weingartner, Rolf; Lehning, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Snow is a key element for many socioeconomic activities in mountainous regions. Due to the sensitivity of the snow cover to variations of temperature and precipitation, major changes caused by climate change are expected to happen. We analyze the evolution of some key snow indices under future climatic conditions. Ten downscaled and postprocessed climate scenarios from the ENSEMBLES database have been used to feed the physics-based snow model SNOWPACK. The projected snow cover has been calculated for 11 stations representing the diverse climates found in Switzerland. For the first time, such a setup is used to reveal changes in frequently applied snow indices and their implications on various socioeconomic sectors. Toward the end of the twenty-first century, a continuous snow cover is likely only guaranteed at high elevations above 2000 m a.s.l., whereas at mid elevations (1000-1700 m a.s.l.), roughly 50 % of all winters might be characterized by an ephemeral snow cover. Low elevations (below 500 m a.s.l.) are projected to experience only 2 days with snowfall per year and show the strongest relative reductions in mean winter snow depth of around 90 %. The range of the mean relative reductions of the snow indices is dominated by uncertainties from different GCM-RCM projections and amounts to approximately 30 %. Despite these uncertainties, all snow indices show a clear decrease in all scenario periods and the relative reductions increase toward lower elevations. These strong reductions can serve as a basis for policy makers in the fields of tourism, ecology, and hydropower.

  10. Rare earth element mobility in the Roffna Gneiss, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocke, Robert D.; Hanson, Gilbert N.; Grünenfelder, Marc

    1987-02-01

    The Roffna Gneiss, a deformed Hercynian granite porphyry within the Penninic nappes of eastern Switzerland, underwent extreme cataclasis with the progressive development of phengite towards the margins of the nappe under conditions of the glaucophane schist to greenschist facies. This resulted in the selective mobilization of major and trace elements over distances of 10's to 100's of meters and the resetting of the Rb — Sr whole rock isotopic systems some 100 my ago. The component ratios and compositionvolume relationships of progressively deformed gneiss samples studied here suggest that this process was essentially isovolumetric. The mineralogy of the deformation sequence appears to have been controlled by a reaction involving the breakdown of microcline, albite and biotite and the formation of phengite and quartz. The fluids introduced Mg and H2O, promoting the development of phengite, and removed the Na being released by the breakdown of albite. The fluids were most probably derived from the surrounding Triassic carbonates and quartzites. These relatively high fO2 and carbonate rich fluids also introduced rare earth elements (REE) into the gneiss. The gneiss was progressively enriched in Eu up to 60%, Y up to 40%, and Yb up to 100%. These enrichments are associated with the development of epitaxial xenotime around zircon in the most phengite-rich sample. While the REE were mobile, uranium and thorium were essentially immobile. The formation of xenotime was suggested to explain the observed heavy REE enrichment when large differences in the REE contents were found for replicate analyses using HF and then lithium metaborate for dissolution. These differences arose because xenotime, like monazite, can be difficult (if not impossible) to dissolve in hydrofluoric acid. Due to the possibility of incomplete sample dissolution, we now recommend fusion with lithium metaborate for all REE, Lu — Hf or Sm — Nd studies.

  11. Centre‐Periphery Conflict and Ideological Distance in Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Röth, Leonce; Kaiser, André; Varol, Çağan; Sadioğlu, Uğur

    2016-01-01

    ... largely neglected by scholars of territorial politics. Turkey is such a ‘negative case’. We argue that ideological distance prevents national parties from accommodating peripheral authority claims...

  12. The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ostrand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. By the end of 2014, an estimated 7.6 million people were internally displaced and 3.7 million Syrians had fled the country since the conflict began (OCHA 2014; UNHCR 2015a. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict is dire, and it has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries. Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey host massive numbers of Syrian refugees, and Syrians have been seeking protection beyond these countries in increasing numbers since 2011.This paper looks at the burdens and costs of the Syrian refugee crisis and considers how they have, or have not, been shared by the international community at large, and in particular by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also considers to what degree Syrians have been able to find protection in states outside the region. Germany and Sweden, by the end of 2014, had provided protection to the largest number of Syrian refugees outside the region. Although Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States differ in the level of protection provided to Syrians, all four states have increased protection to Syrians via resettlement and asylum (and in the case of the US temporary protected status since 2012. Despite this, the degree of protection provided by the four states is modest in relation to that provided by neighboring countries to Syria, and far more could be done. This paper also argues that the international community as a whole has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the Syrian refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement.The paper puts forward two general recommendations to reduce the strain on neighboring countries: increase the level of burden sharing by the international

  13. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M Fani; Erbas, Belkıs; Durak, Hatice

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before.

  14. Internet censorship in Turkey: University students' opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ozkan, Arda Arikan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study university students’ opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio‐political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey,the opinions of university students (n=138 are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire aimed to collect dataon some chosen aspects of censorship which are internet access regulation by legal authorities, online pornographiccontent, websites distributing illegal and crime related information and the political and religious aspects of the internetcensorship. The findings about these four basic aspects toward the online censorship revealed that despite the highproportion of approval, participants have a confused and inconsistent attitude towards the issue especially within theapplication and the idea of censorship. In a broader aspect, the findings can be interpreted as a sign of university students’insufficient knowledge and understanding towards the current situation and the possible future of online censorship inTurkey

  15. A Case of Familial Polydactyly From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billur Sezgin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polydactyly is among the most frequently encountered congenital anomalies of the extremities. Although it is usually presented in an isolated and sporadic manner, familial cases can also be rarely encountered. Such familial polydactyly cases usually follow an autosomal dominant inheritance with variable genetic penetration and are usually bilateral and symmetric. A case of rare familial polydactyly from Turkey is presented. Four siblings, two girls and two boys, presented with bilateral, symmetric preaxial polydactyly affecting both hands and feet. These siblings also had four other unaffected siblings along with an affected father and grandmother (the father’s mother. Although the cases portrayed duplication at different levels, the general definition of familial polydactyly with bilateral, symmetric inheritance is observed in these cases. Other rare familial polydactyly cases have been reported in the literature as well, and this case serves as a typical example of this rare entity from Turkey.

  16. ‘CHILD BRIDE’ PROBLEM IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Kaynak Malatyali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ‘Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways. In addition, there are some factors which contribute the problem including legal gaps, education level of the family and the daughter, economical conditions, stereotypes, traditional practices and sexism level. Finally, it is suggested that the reasons for the problem of ‘child brides’ are multi-dimensional and therefore it requires a similar approach.

  17. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Zehra [Ege University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey); Bozkurt, M. Fani; Erbas, Belkis [Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Durak, Hatice [Dokuz Eyluel University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Izmir (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before. (orig.)

  18. REMITTANCES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin KARAMELIKLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Savings are one of the important determinants beyond the theories of economic growth. Therefore remittances and foreign direct investment inflows have importance for the countries having insufficient savings. This study examines the relationship between economic growth, remittances, foreign direct investment inflows and gross domestic savings in Turkey during the period 1974-2013 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach. We found that remittances, foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings had positive impact on economic growth.

  19. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-26

    will be like ‘rain from hell ,’” CNN, June 29, 2016; Nick Ashdown, “Turkey’s Tourism Plummets amid Bombings and Crisis with Russia,” Jerusalem Post...Refugee Deal Crumbles, There Will Be Hell to Pay,” Foreign Policy, June 7, 2016. Around the time of the March 2016 deal, the closure of various migration...economic and political rights, particularly through barriers to trade with and travel to countries other than Turkey

  20. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan Engin

    2015-01-01

    While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind intern...

  1. Microbiology of Fresh Comminuted Turkey Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-12

    37). On several . occasions, meat from turkeys has been implicated in LJ, The amount of poultry consumed per capita in this outbreaks of...abattoirs and processing plants. be involved in outbreaks of staphylococcal intoxication. Cooked red meat products with their natural enteric However, if...incriminated sources in foodborne containing large numbers of enterotoxin producing outbreaks of Salmonella infections (31). staphylococci, This product would

  2. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  3. Hydropower in Turkey: potential and market assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    The Turkish hydropower market provides huge opportunities for investors and suppliers. Successful market entry is not easy, however, as the market is still not fully liberalized, the need for local intelligence is large and the competition is increasing. There are also potential political, reputational and environmental risks, typical for an emerging economy. The World Bank global 'Ease of doing business' ranking (2010), ranks Turkey as number 73 of 183 countries. (Author)

  4. Regional Inequality of Sport Facilities in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Çiftçi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of social utility of distribution of intercity sport facilities in Turkey for people. Atkinson indices were used in the study. Statistical data of TUIK was used for the application. The index coefficients revealed an imbalance in the regional distribution of sport facilities for the people, and a substantial loss of social utility for the people. According to the values calculated for people, the levels of social utility of total sport facili...

  5. Healthcare information technology infrastructures in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogac, A; Yuksel, M; Ertürkmen, G L; Kabak, Y; Namli, T; Yıldız, M H; Ay, Y; Ceyhan, B; Hülür, U; Oztürk, H; Atbakan, E

    2014-05-22

    The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for "Health-Net"), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients' Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. With the introduction of the "Health Transformation Program" in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality.

  6. Malaria cases in Switzerland from 2005 to 2015 and recent rise of imported Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eperon, Gilles; Durieux-Paillard, Sophie; Mauris, Anne; Chappuis, François; Gysin, Nicole

    2017-10-24

    Reporting cases of malaria to the Federal Office of Public Health has been mandatory in Switzerland since 1974. We analysed notifications of imported confirmed malaria cases between 2005 and 2015 in Switzerland or Liechtenstein. Data for previously visited countries, nationality and reason for travelling were analysed. In contrast with the impressive drop of malaria cases reported worldwide since 2000, we found that the number of malaria cases imported yearly in Switzerland doubled in 2014 and 2015 compared to the average for the preceding decade. Since 2014, Plasmodium vivax infection represented 36% of all diagnosed malaria cases in Switzerland, compared to 11% in the decade leading to 2013. Most of the vivax malaria patients originated from the Horn of Africa, especially from Eritrea. This rise in cases was a consequence not only of an increase in the number of Eritrean refugees, but also their vivax malaria incidence rate, which jumped from 1-3‰ previously to 12‰ in 2014. This is a trend that is not matched by national statistics in Eritrea. An unreported increased incidence in the country of origin (Eritrea) might be the cause of the rise of Pv cases imported into Switzerland, but infections are also likely to occur along the harsh and long migration journey. This epidemiology highlights the need to register and use primaquine for the treatment of latent-phase P. vivax malaria in Switzerland, a medicine currently neither marketed nor systematically reimbursed. Moreover, general practitioners should be aware of this specific epidemiological situation in order to avoid misdiagnosis of febrile Eritreans even months after they reach Switzerland.

  7. [Publication performances of university clinics for anesthesiology: Germany, Austria and Switzerland from 2001 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, G; Ausserer, J; Wenzel, V; Pehböck, D; Widmann, T; Lindner, K; Hamm, P; Paal, P

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the publication performance of university departments of anesthesiology in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The number of publications, original articles, impact factors and citations were evaluated. A search was performed in PubMed to identify publications related to anesthesiology from 2001 to 2010. All articles from anesthesiology journals listed in the fields of anesthesia/pain therapy, critical care and emergency medicine by the "journal citation report 2013" in Thomson Reuters ISI web of knowledge were included. Articles from non-anaesthesiology journals, where the stem of the word anesthesia (anes*, anaes*, anäst*, anast*) appears in the affiliation field of PubMed, were included as well. The time periods 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared. Articles were allocated to university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland via the affiliation field. A total of 45 university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland and 125,979 publications from 2,863 journals (65 anesthesiology journals, 2,798 non-anesthesiology journals) were analyzed. Of the publications 23 % could not be allocated to a given university department of anesthesiology. In the observation period the university department of anesthesiology in Berlin achieved most publications (n = 479) and impact points (1,384), whereas Vienna accumulated most original articles (n = 156). Austria had the most publications per million inhabitants in 2006-2010 (n=50) followed by Switzerland (n=49) and Germany (n=35). The number of publications during the observation period decreased in Germany (0.5 %), Austria (7 %) and Switzerland (8 %). Tables 2 and 4-8 of this article are available at Springer Link under Supplemental. The research performance varied among the university departments of anesthesiology in Germany, Austria and Switzerland whereby larger university departments, such as Berlin or Vienna published most. Publication output in Germany, Austria and

  8. Filicide cases in Turkey, 1995-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Mustafa; Ince, Haluk; Ince, Nurhan; Arican, Nadir; Sozen, Sevki

    2003-10-01

    To determine socio-demographic features and criminal liability of individuals who committed filicide in Turkey. The study involved 85 cases of filicide evaluated by the 4th Specialized Board of the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul in the 1995-2000 period. We assessed the characteristics of parents who committed filicide (age, sex, education level, employment status, and criminal liability) and children victims (age, sex, own or stepchild), as well as the causes of death. There were 85 parents who committed filicide (41 fathers and 44 mothers) and 96 children victims. The mean age of mothers who committed filicide (52% of filicides) was 26.5-/+7.7 years, and the mean age of fathers (48% of filicides) was 36.1-/+10.0 years (t=-5.00, pfilicide were unemployed and illiterate. Filicide in Turkey was equally committed by mothers and fathers. More than half of the parents were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders and came from disadvantageous socioeconomic environments, where unemployment and illiteracy rates are highly above the average of Turkey.

  9. Occurrence of Helicobacter pullorum in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Piva, Silvia; Rossi, Mirko; Pasquali, Frédérique; Lucchi, Alex; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2011-05-05

    In order to investigate the occurrence of Helicobacter pullorum in turkeys, caecum contents collected at the slaughterhouse from 55 animals intensively reared in 11 farms were sampled. Gram-negative curved rod bacteria were isolated by a modified Steele and McDermott filter technique and further identified as H. pullorum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven and 31 isolates, randomly selected from each positive farm, underwent phenotypic (biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests) and genotypic characterization (PFGE and AFLP analysis), respectively. Forty-two out of 55 animals (76.4%) and all the 11 farms sampled were positive for H. pullorum. Isolates showed similar biochemical characteristics and whole cell protein profiles but showed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity. Ten out of 11 isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics with erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance being the most frequently detected. This is the first description of H. pullorum in turkeys. H. pullorum is a frequent intestinal colonizer in turkeys; therefore, attention should be given to clarify the food-borne risk linked to carcass contamination. Antibiotic resistance is a concern since high values of resistance rates were observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip

    2005-04-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 {yields} 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely.

  11. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozen, Adnan; Ozalp, Mehmet [Gazi Univ., Mechanical Education Dept., Ankara (Turkey); Arcaklioglu, Erol [Kirikkale Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Kirikkale (Turkey); Kanit, E. Galip [Turkish State Meteorological Office, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-04-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000-2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingol, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkopru, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koycegiz, Manavgat, Dortyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R{sup 2} value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R{sup 2}=0.9998). The MAPE and R{sup 2} for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely (Author)

  12. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.

  13. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  14. Hierarchical structure of Turkey's foreign trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    We examine the hierarchical structures of Turkey's foreign trade by using real prices of their commodity export and import move together over time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on Turkey's foreign trade during the 1996-2010 period by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). These periods are divided into two subperiods, such as 1996-2002 and 2003-2010, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. We perform the bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure much better. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic ties. Our results show that the DE (Germany), UK (United Kingdom), FR (France), IT (Italy) and RU (Russia) are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other countries. We have also found that these countries play a significant role for Turkey's foreign trade and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  15. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  16. History of forensic medicine in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal

    2009-05-01

    Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaroğlu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library.

  17. Effect of Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP) to Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Turkey Nuggets Derived from White and Dark Turkey Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Surjoseputro, Sutarjo; Naryanto, Petrus Sri; Fatoni, Meliawati

    2014-01-01

    Turkey meat is a well-known foodstuff and source of protein in the United States, while in Indonesia turkey meat has not yet optimally processed as a foodstuff. The advantages of turkey meat are: has low calorie, high protein than other poultry meats, and good source of vitamin and mineral. Contrary to chicken meat, turkey meat has low fat content and high collagen, and therefore makes the meat very tough. This research was using two kinds of meat, the white meat (the breast) and the dark mea...

  18. Development of a Historical Hydrological online research and application platform for Switzerland - Historical Hydrological Atlas of Switzerland (HHAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    It is planned to develop and maintain a historical hydrological online platform for Switzerland, which shall be specially designed for the needs of research and federal, cantonal or private institutions being interested in hydrological risk assessment and protection measures. The aim is on the one hand to facilitate the access to raw data which generally is needed for further historical hydrological reconstruction and quantification, so that future research will be achieved in significantly shorter time. On the other hand, new historical hydrological research results shall be continuously included in order to establish this platform as a useful tool for the assessment of hydrological risk by including the long term experience of reconstructed pre-instrumental hydrological extreme events like floods and droughts. Meteorological parameters that may trigger extreme hydrological events, like monthly or seasonally resolved reconstructions of temperature and precipitation shall be made accessible in this platform as well. The ultimate goal will be to homogenise the reconstructed hydrological extreme events which usually appeared in the pre anthropogenic influence period under different climatological as well as different hydrological regimes and topographical conditions with the present day state. Long term changes of reconstructed small- to extreme flood seasonality, based on municipal accounting records, will be included in the platform as well. This helps - in combination with the before mentioned meteorological parameters - to provide an increased understanding of the major changes in the generally complex overall system that finally causes hydrological extreme events. The goal of my presentation at the Historical Climatology session is to give an overview about the applied historical climatological and historical hydrological methodologies that are applied on the historical raw data (evidence) to reconstruct pre instrumental hydrological events and meteorological

  19. Acute cocaine-related health problems in patients presenting to an urban emergency department in Switzerland: a case series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bodmer, Michael; Enzler, Florian; Liakoni, Evangelia; Bruggisser, Marcel; Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-01-01

    .... We therefore conducted a retrospective analysis of 165 acute, laboratory-confirmed cocaine intoxications admitted to an urban emergency department in Switzerland between January 2007 and March 2011...

  20. Patient safety issues in office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Schwappach, David; Harder, Yves; Staender, Sven; Elger, Bernice

    2017-08-01

    To identify the spectrum of patient safety issues in office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland. Purposive sample of 23 experts in surgery and anaesthesia and quality and regulation in Switzerland. Data were collected via individual qualitative interviews using a researcher-developed semi-structured interview guide between March 2016 and September 2016. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using conventional content analysis. Issues were categorised under the headings "structure", "process", and "outcome". Experts identified two key overarching patient safety and regulatory issues in relation to office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland. First, experts repeatedly raised the current lack of data and transparency of the setting. It is unknown how many surgeons are operating in offices, how many and what types of operations are being done, and what the outcomes are. Secondly, experts also noted the limited oversight and regulation of the setting. While some standards exists, most experts felt that more minimal safety standards are needed regarding the requirements that must be met to do office-based surgery and what can and cannot be done in the office-based setting are needed, but they advocated a self-regulatory approach. There is a lack of empirical data regarding the quantity and quality office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland. Further research is needed to address these research gaps and inform health policy in relation to patient safety in office-based surgery and anaesthesia in Switzerland. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.