WorldWideScience

Sample records for sweden social security

  1. Proposals to Restructure Social Security

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Diamond

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses five proposed changes in Social Security: indexing the normal retirement age to life expectancy (as Sweden is doing); investing part of the trust funds in private securities; partial privatization (as has been proposed by Senators Kerrey and Simpson, Sweden is doing and Mexico has done); replacing Social Security by individually mandated savings (as was done in Chile in 1981); and mandating employer provided retirement savings (as recently legislated in Australia and is e...

  2. Elements of social security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...... (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts....

  3. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable...

  4. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  5. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  6. Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  7. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L

    2007-03-15

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  8. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-03-01

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  9. Nord Stream, Sweden and Baltic Sea Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Robert L.

    2007-03-15

    In June 2006, FOI published the report: Sweden and the NEGP: a Pilot Study of the North European Gas Pipeline and Sweden's Dependence on Russian Energy, a base data report on a topic that FOI considered to be of rising importance. Much has happened since then and the NEGP has changed its name to Nord Stream and submitted an official notification on the intention of realising the project of constructing a gas pipeline from Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea. The primary aim of this report is to discuss and analyse some of the core aspects of Nord Stream and the pipeline project with regard to the security situation for the Baltic Sea region. The report constitutes an updated version of the previous report. Most of the old report still stands valid, especially concerning the historical survey of Russia's energy policy, but the new report has additional chapters and is broader in scope concerning the consequences of the project

  10. Social Security Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Social Security Bulletin (ISSN 1937-4666) is published quarterly by the Social Security Administration. The Bulletin is prepared in the Office of Retirement and...

  11. Disturbed security in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Lieder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of the article is an attempt to determine the course and consequences of terrorist attacks that took place in 2010 in Sweden and 2011 in Norway. A Comparative Study includes responses of societies and political elites of both countries.

  12. Health and social inequities in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1990-01-01

    Sweden is one of Europe's most egalitarian countries. The social inequities in living conditions have been gradually reduced to a level that is more equal than in most countries in Europe. Even if general health development has been positive during recent years, data reviewed here indicate...... that there may be adverse effects for some groups which may increase inequities. This article presents results on inequities in health from the Public Health Report of Sweden 1987 and discusses causal mechanisms and implications for health policy....

  13. Russia’s Security Relations with Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. RUSSIA’S SECURITY... RELATIONS WITH FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Rory J. Hayden September 2017 Thesis Advisor: Mikhail Tsypkin Co-Advisor: David S. Yost...THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of

  14. SOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    RESPONSIBILITY CENTCOM COALITION MEDIA SOCIAL MEDIA NEWS ARTICLES PRESS RELEASES IMAGERY VIDEOS TRANSCRIPTS VISITORS AND PERSONNEL FAMILY CENTER FAMILY READINESS CENTCOM WEBMAIL SOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY ACCOUNTABILITY HomeVISITORS AND PERSONNELSOCIAL MEDIA SECURITY FAQ on Security for Social Media Due to the widespread use of

  15. Social Enterprise, Social Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H. Thomas R.; Hafen, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    gradually been liberalised through the introduction of ele-ments of individual freedom of choice and decentralisation in welfare provision, a process initiated by a Centre-Right coalition during the end of the 1980s, continued by Social Democratic Govern-ments and most recently by the Centre-Right coalition....... As a result a new strain of social entrepreneurs making use of mainstream entrepreneurial logic – discovery, evaluation and exploitation of opportunities to create future goods and services – when addressing societal problems, demonstrating that it works to be both commercially oriented as well...... as ideologically driven. Sweden is no exception to this trend. However, when the President of the European Commission, José Manuel Barroso states that: “Social business can be indeed a very powerful agenda for change. To deliver better outcomes for the common good. To show that it is possible to do things more...

  16. Statistical security for Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts.

  17. Social Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suze Orman on Why Creating an Account is Important Suze Orman explains how a my Social Security account can help you plan for your retirement ... for same-sex couples? Open Government at Social Security Explore the benefits you may be due Plain ... About Us Accessibility FOIA Open Government Glossary ...

  18. Women and social security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, M.; Pennings, F.; Vonk, G.

    2015-01-01

    Does ‘the’ social security take sufficient account of women? Are its protection schemes sufficiently aimed at safeguarding women’s interests? These are the questions I was invited to answer for this handbook on social security law. At the same time I was asked to adopt an unorthodox approach, one

  19. Formando Trabajadores Sociales en Suecia Forming social workers in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Montesino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute cierta contradicción existente entre el contenido de la Educación en Trabajo Social de Suecia y las realidades cambiantes del sistema de bienestar sueco. La integración social de todos los ciudadanos ya no forma parte de las políticas que rigen las actividades de bienestar sueco, sin embargo, este enfoque sigue siendo una premisa en muchos de los contenidos de la educación institucionalizada de los trabajadores sociales en Suecia.This article discusses a certain contradiction that exists between the contents of the Swedish social work education and the changing realities of the Swedish welfare system. The social integration of all citizens is no longer part of the policies that direct the Swedish welfare activities, however, this approach continues to be taken for granted as a premise in several of the contents of the social workers' institutionalized education in Sweden.

  20. Social Influence for Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work marks the reveling of scientific premises intended to structure the issue of social influence for security. The approach has as aim the identification of those elements that define and characterize the social influence in order to manage conflict, from the perspective of public communication. The proposed approach establishes some synthetic, clear boundaries through the method of research and analysis of the concept of security, social influence, revealing the specifics of public communication in conflict management.

  1. Social security financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    After nearly 2 years of study, the 1979 Advisory Council on Social Security submitted its findings and recommendations in December. In February the Bulletin published the Executive Summary of the Council's report. Because of the continuing wide public interest in the future of social security financing, the Council's detailed findings and recommendations on that subject are published below. The Council unanimously reports that all current and future beneficiaries can count on receiving the payments to which they are entitled. Among the recommendations it calls for are partial financing with nonpayroll-tax revenues. Suggested changes include hospital insurance (HI) financed through portins of personal and corporate income taxes and a part of the HI insurance payroll tax diverted to cash benefits with the balance of this tax repealed. The Council also recommends that the social security cash benefits program be brought into long-run actuarial balance--with a payroll-tax rate increase in the year 2005. It rejects the idea of a value-added tax as being inflationary. Parenthetical remarks represent additional views of the Council members cited.

  2. Social security for seafarers globally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf; Canals, Luisa; Haarløv, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Social security for seafarers globally Background: Social security protection is one of the essential elements of decent work. The issue is complex and no previous epidemiological studies of the coverage among seafarers have yet been performed. Objectives: The aim was to overcome the gap...... of knowledge to promote the discussion and planning of the implementation of social security for all seafarers. Methods: The seafarers completed a short questionnaire concerning their knowledge about their social security status. Results: Significant disparities of coverage of social security were pointed out...... comes from poorer countries without substantial social security systems. The solutions suggested are to implement the minimum requirements as recommended by the ILO 2006 Convention, to survey the implementation and in the long term to struggle for global social equality. Key words: Social security...

  3. Social Pedagogy in Finland and Sweden: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hämäläinen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussing how the concept of social pedagogy has been used in Finland and Sweden, this paper provides a historical and systemic comparison of policies and practices of social pedagogy in these two countries. The main aim is to identify and explain the main similarities and differences between the Finnish and Swedish national trajectories of social pedagogical thinking and action. In the first phase of the analysis, country-specific features of social pedagogy were described paying attention to historical and structural aspects. In the second phase, these descriptions were compared in a dialogue between the au- thors, one from Finland and the other from Sweden. The dialogue-based comparison was targeted to ex- plain the identified similar and different features of social pedagogical policies and practices. The explanation was based on historical and systemic considerations, especially those of historical development, research activities, theory buildings, methodologies and techniques, professionalization and the practice fields, and the future prospects of social pedagogy.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical think- ing and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy  as an academic discipline  as well as a field of practice is partly different. Since social pedagogy has not been acknowl- edged as an academic discipline in Sweden, its outlook as a field of practice is on shaky ground, while in Finland the future of social pedagogy as an academic discipline  is uncertain because the social-peda- gogical know-how based on academic education is not well known and has not found general acceptance in the field’s practice.The analysis showed that the historical roots and theoretical foundations of social pedagogical thinking and action are very similar in Finland and Sweden but the position of social pedagogy as an academic discipline as well as a

  4. SOCIAL SECURITY IN MODERN ERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-28

    Mar 28, 2018 ... Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Bindura University of Science Education; Email. ... Lecturer, School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe, Mount ... There are two types of informal social security: traditional or family ...

  5. Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security in 6 European Countries contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain and the Nether-lands. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact...

  6. Military veterans and Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anya

    There are 9.4 million military veterans receiving Social Security benefits, which means that almost one out of every four adult Social Security beneficiaries has served in the United States military. In addition, veterans and their families make up almost 40 percent of the adult Social Security beneficiary population. Policymakers are particularly interested in military veterans and their families and have provided them with benefits through several government programs, including Social Security credits, home loan guarantees, and compensation and pension payments through the Department of Veterans Affairs. It is therefore important to understand the economic and demographic characteristics of this population. Information in this article is based on data from the March 2004 Current Population Survey, a large, nationally representative survey of U.S. households. Veterans are overwhelmingly male compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries who are more evenly split between males and females. Military veterans receiving Social Security are more likely to be married and to have finished high school compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries, and they are less likely to be poor or near poor than the overall beneficiary population. Fourteen percent of veterans receiving Social Security benefits have income below 150 percent of poverty, while 25 percent of all adult Social Security beneficiaries are below this level. The higher economic status among veterans is also reflected in the relatively high Social Security benefits they receive. The number of military veterans receiving Social Security benefits will remain high over the next few decades, while their make-up and characteristics will change. In particular, the number of Vietnam War veterans who receive Social Security will increase in the coming decades, while the number of veterans from World War II and the Korean War will decline.

  7. Commission on Social Security

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    A commission studying past, present, and future social stakes ! For many years we have been hearing about the problems of funding of health insurance benefits in our different Member States. At CERN we are not totally immune from this problem.  To start with, let us recall that we have a mutual-benefit scheme which covers everyone for the consequences of the uncertainties in life (illness and accidents). The rules of our scheme are established by CERN in the framework of a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee, the CERN Health Insurance Scheme Board (CHISB), which is also in charge of managing the scheme.  The work of the “ProtSoc” (Protection SocialeSocial Security) commission, as we like to call it at the Staff Association, is to help your representatives on the CHISB, by preparing together with them the subjects and positions to be put forward and defended. This commission, which groups together the staff delegates who wish to invest their ...

  8. Social Security at the Crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Social security schemes need to be streamlined and the underlying policies made more coherent to obtain the fullest possible return on expenditure. Third World countries need to reflect very seriously on the role of social security in the development process and on the management problems involved. (CT)

  9. Japanese Mobile Phone Usage in Sweden - Technological and Social Prerequisites

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Susanne; Hillerdal, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Japan is an advanced country when it comes to mobile phone technology. This thesis firstly investigates the mobile phone usage in Japan. Secondly it describes the prerequisites for implementation of some distinguished Japanese mobile phone functions in Sweden. This is done from a social as well as a technological aspect. The Japanese mobile phone usage is investigated on three levels; governmental, industrial and consumer. The governmental level is characterised by an ICT policy which strives...

  10. Social security and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sangheon; Torm, Nina

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how social security provision - a key determinant of formality - impacts on small and medium-sized firm performance in Viet Nam. Based on enterprise census data covering all registered firms from 2006 to 2011, the authors find that firms which increase their social...... security coverage by 10 per cent experience a revenue gain of 1.4-2.0 per cent per worker and a profit gain of up to 1.8 per cent, depending on the survival time of the firm. However, given the time lag between 'investment' (in social security contributions) and returns (enhanced firm performance...

  11. Social Security, Intergenerational Transfers, and Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Junsen Zhang; Junxi Zhang

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of social security in a simple model of endogenous growth with alternative motives of having children are analyzed. It shows how the effects of social security depend on the size of the social security tax, the motive to have children, and the pattern of intergenerational transfers. The pattern of intergenerational transfers itself, however, is shown to change with the social security tax rate. When the social security tax is not too high, social security increases ...

  12. Social Security and Medicare Benefits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Cash benefits and rehabilitation benefits paid in each year from the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, and Disability Insurance Trust Funds, and benefits paid from...

  13. Banner prints social security numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins RA

    2014-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Monday edition of the Arizona Republic contained a story with potential interest to our readers. On the most recent address labels of Banner Health's magazine, Smart & Healthy, the addressee's Social Security or Medicare identification numbers, which are often identical to their Social Security numbers (1). The magazine was mailed to more than 50,000 recipients in Arizona late last week. The recipients are members of the Medicare Pion...

  14. Social Security's Surpluses: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that deliberation over how to manage social security's large trust fund balances is expected to continue. Urges social workers to participate in this debate because surpluses have implications for increasing quality of life of low- and moderate-income families. Continues earlier discussion (Dattalo, 1990) by assessing two recent proposals…

  15. Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear industry is - like in many countries - in a state of rejuvenation. During the coming ten years, 6000 new staff will be employed, which in volume corresponds to the entire present industry. These numbers are based on retirements (easy to estimate), increased needs due to new-build, and to increased mobility of the new staff to be employed (more difficult to estimate). Until now, employment in nuclear power have often lasted very long. We anticipate, however, that the young people that will be recruited will be less prone to stay at the same place for long. Until now, Sweden has never had a dedicated bachelor level nuclear engineering programme. This will, however, change. A new programme will start at Uppsala University in autumn 2010. An existing 3-year bachelor-level mechanics engineering education programme will get a third-year specialization in nuclear engineering. This specialization has been designed to allow students from any technical college or university in Sweden with mechanical or electric engineering in the curriculum. The studies will be in Swedish. Industry is involved both as sponsors and as contributors. The industry educational company (KSU) is closely involved, e.g. with simulator training. The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, has offered an international MSc in nuclear engineering since 2008. The programme has attracted 10-15 students per year. In addition, students at other programmes participate in some courses, resulting in about 25 students in an average course. Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg, has started a new nuclear engineering MSc programme in autumn 2009. The programme has equal shares of reactor physics/technology and nuclear chemistry, reflecting the competence profile at Chalmers. This special curriculum is highly appreciated by the Ringhals nuclear power plant nearby, that houses three PWRs, and needs staff with combined reactor physics and nuclear chemistry competence. Uppsala

  16. Action at sea: Transport security exercise conducted off the coast of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Stig; Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    As in an action movie, ships, helicopters and uniformed people set the scene off the coast of Sweden on 6 May 2015 when national authorities conducted an exercise on security while transporting spent nuclear fuel. The exercise was part of a joint project with the IAEA to test and evaluate a new IAEA guide on planning, conducting and evaluating transport security exercises. The test subject and model was the security framework of Sweden’s national nuclear transport system, which regularly ships used fuel from power plants along the coast to the country’s interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel.

  17. Social Security Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuschler, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    .... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...

  18. Social Security for All?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    While China has made advances in creating a social welfare system, there are still large imbalances between urban and rural areas. Now the government is striving to bring more people into the system Asmile appears on Feng Qunlin’s faceatthe mention of 20

  19. Does social capital protect mental health among migrants in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerof, Susanne Sundell; Stafström, Martin; Westerling, Ragnar; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2016-09-01

    Poor mental health is common among migrants. This has been explained by migration-related and socio-economic factors. Weak social capital has also been related to poor mental health. Few studies have explored factors that protect mental health of migrants in the post-migration phase. Such knowledge could be useful for health promotion purposes. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse associations between financial difficulties, housing problems and experience of discrimination and poor mental health; and to detect possible effect modification by social capital, among recently settled Iraqi migrants in Sweden. A postal questionnaire in Arabic was sent to recently settled Iraqi citizens. The response rate was 51% (n = 617). Mental health was measured by the GHQ-12 instrument and social capital was defined as social participation and trust in others. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression. Poor mental health was associated with experience of discrimination (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.73-4.79), housing problems (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.84-4.22), and financial difficulties (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.19), after adjustments. Trust in others seemed to have a protective effect for mental health when exposed to these factors. Social participation had a protective effect when exposed to experience of discrimination. Social determinants and social capital in the host country play important roles in the mental health of migrants. Social capital modifies the effect of risk factors and might be a fruitful way to promote resilience to factors harmful to mental health among migrants, but must be combined with policy efforts to reduce social inequities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A Model of Social Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom-Jensen, Byron Zachary

    2017-01-01

    of Scandinavian achievements were variable in their ideological outlook and sometimes deliberately challenged the existence and goals of New Deal policies. Moreover, this essay explores the usage of Scandinavia in New Deal social legislation by examining the policymaking rhetoric of the Social Security Act...... and its 1939 amendments. The surprising plasticity of the Scandinavian image amongst policymakers ultimately reveals the fluid nature of both New Deal-era politics and the Scandinavian images it appropriated....

  1. Social security systems in Tanzania: Phase I Overview of social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper starts by examining the concept of social security in Tanzania, showing that there are three key issues in social security which have not been adequately addressed by existing social security schemes and need immediate attention. The paper then examines the nature and forms of social security in Tanzania in a ...

  2. Austerity, Discipline and Social Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asja Hrvatin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the manifestations of the global crisis of financial capitalism and the policies arising from it was the imposition of austerity measures, which not only resulted in privatization of the commons and general expropriation of the people, but also managed to introduce new mechanisms of discipline and punishment. Debt, being the fundament of relations in society, forced itself into the system of social security: new legislation, regulating welfare benefits, has now shifted to a method for the criminalization of poverty, deepening class differences and transforming social workers (and the system of social security as a whole into a moralizing, bureaucratic machine for disciplining the population. The new legislation also shows a lack of reflection on the changes that need to be made to the welfare state in order to create social services that meet the needs and desires of individuals. Instead of improvements that provide decent living conditions and a new system of social rights (to deal with the problems resulting from precarious working conditions, people are faced with depersonalization, humiliation and increased hate speech and other fascist practices. The effect of austerity measures on the social security system does not end with the devastation of service users’ lives and their communities, which are slowly becoming exhausted, individualized and devoid of solidarity. It also means a big step backwards for the core ethics and principles of social work. Social workers are increasingly alienated from their clients and the communities they live in. They function more in the service of the government and its policies rather than as advocates of people’s rights.

  3. Ethnic differences in social participation and social capital in Malmo, Sweden: a population-based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate ethnic differences in different aspects of social participation in Malmö, Sweden. The public health survey in Malmö 1994 is a cross-sectional study. A total of 5600 randomly chosen individuals aged 20–80 years were asked to complete a postal questionnaire. The participation rate was 71%. The population was divided into categories born in Sweden, Denmark/Norway, other Western countries, former Yugoslavia, Poland, Arabic speaking countries and all other ...

  4. Online, Batch and CICS Social Security Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A database that contains client preference information for the SSA initiated Social Security Statement as well as other data including SSN, disposition for paper SS...

  5. Social Security Administration Data for Enumeration Accuracy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides data at the national level from federal fiscal year 2006 onwards for the accuracy of the assignment of Social Security numbers (SSN) based on...

  6. Social Capital and the Educational Achievement of Young People in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtoui, Alireza; Neergaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's conceptualization of social capital (the social stratification perspective), this study examines the impact of social capital on the educational outcomes of young people in Sweden, with a focus on the extra-familial aspect of social capital -- that is, social capital generated by parental networks and active membership in…

  7. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.

  8. Social Security Funds Clamor for Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秉文

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed the institutional deficiencies inherent in China’s social security system based on a dissection of various social security fund violations. It holds that the unscientific design in social security system is the root cause for social security fund violations, which is reflected in low level of social security unification, irrational investment system and legislative loopholes etc. Currently, China’s social security funds are facing risks in management and in system; The key of risk control lies in the reforming of the overall framework of social security system through the following aspects: 1) readjust the unified account system structure to raise the level of unification; 2) reform funds investment system to boost ROI; 3) speeding up legislative to regulate the administrative costs and the behaviors of its entities.

  9. Social security reform: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Robert K. Triest

    1997-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a trend toward longer life expectancy and reduced birth rates across the globe. This is good news -- the pressures created by rapid population growth are being relaxed, and people are more likely to live to old age -- but it creates problems for programs such as Social Security, which are designed to provide for the consumption needs of the elderly. In the United States, the retirement of the baby boom generation will result in a decrease in the number of workers per ...

  10. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L.; Hammersmith, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social S...

  11. Banner prints social security numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Monday edition of the Arizona Republic contained a story with potential interest to our readers. On the most recent address labels of Banner Health's magazine, Smart & Healthy, the addressee's Social Security or Medicare identification numbers, which are often identical to their Social Security numbers (1. The magazine was mailed to more than 50,000 recipients in Arizona late last week. The recipients are members of the Medicare Pioneer Accountable Care Organization, a government health-care plan that Banner serves. Banner generated its mailing list from information it received from the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, which is an agency within the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS responsible for administration of several federal health-care programs. Although medical information has been protected by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA since 1996, penalties were recently increased. Civil monetary penalties were increased from a maximum of $100 ...

  12. SOCIAL SECURITY OF TURKISH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ÖZTUNA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Law No. 5510 realized within the social security reform aims providing a structure which presents equal scope and quality of social security service other all citizens. According to Labor Law No 4857, unionization of sportsmen in Turkish legal environment is possible, sport clubs and sportsmen are continuing to live without so many rights and obligations but they didn’t. Aim of this study; to prove sportsmen of location of the labour law and to mark off. The purpose of the study is explained according to Law No. 4857 and Law No. 5510 Turkish athletes. Profesional athletes deemed to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. But amateur athletes don't seem to be insurance holders for the purposes of implementing short and long term insurance branches of No 5510 Law. According to the law 5774 regarding to be called as an g overnment athlete, within the adults category of the sports that are accepted as olympic, paralympic and deaflympic; pension is paid to the amateur athletes who became first, second or third at Olymic games, World or European Champions as an individual or team sports and to the national team coaches and assistant coaches of the athletes’ who became Olympic or World Champion as a team.

  13. 20 CFR 638.528 - Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social Security. 638.528 Section 638.528... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.528 Social Security. The Act provides that students are covered by title II of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 401 et seq.) and shall...

  14. Social Security and the Equity Premium Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Olovsson, Conny

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that social security may be an important factor in explaining the equity premium puzzle. In the absence of shortselling constraints, the young shortsell bonds to the middle-aged and buy equity. Social security reduces the bond demand of the middle-aged, thereby restricting the possibilities of the young to finance their equity purchases. Their equity demand increases as does the average return to equity. Social security also increases the covariance between future consumption...

  15. Securing social media in the enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Securing Social Media in the Enterprise is a concise overview of the security threats posed by the use of social media sites and apps in enterprise network environments. Social media sites and apps are now a ubiquitous presence within enterprise systems and networks, and are vulnerable to a wide range of digital systems attacks. This brief volume provides security professionals and network systems administrators a much-needed dive into the most current threats, detection techniques, and defenses for these attacks, and provides a roadmap for best practices to secure and manage social media wi

  16. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  17. A New Paradigm for Secure Social Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrelis, Emmanouil; Alexandris, Nikolaos

    Social Lending is one of the latest trends in Social Networking, offering a communication and financial channel between individual borrowers and lenders. The various Social Lending transaction schemes could be subject to multiple security threats, in both financial and technical terms, which could affect the integrity of the service as well as the trust of citizens. This paper provides an overview of the basic characteristics of Social Lending as well as an analysis the potential security issues suggesting some appropriate corrective measures. The ultimate target is to enforce the Social Lending effort with an information security foundation that could become an appreciable alternative to the "traditional" lending system.

  18. Social Security and Fighting Poverty in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Khemili

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the role of social security in fighting poverty in Metlaoui, Tunisia, using survey data collected between July 2012 and January 2014, covering 200 poor households. We used questionnaire data, which gave a thorough analysis of the reactions, behavior, and strategies adopted by poor households as a result of various forms of risk. Social security has an effect on a number of different areas, including health, education, housing, and income. Our methodology explored both complete and partial risk-sharing, to investigate the impact of social security schemes on the strategies adopted by households to cope with economic shocks. The estimation results of different models showed that social security could help social security-covered households choose less costly strategies to cope with risks. However, the role of social security remains insufficient, given that covered households had less confidence in its services and they adopted strategies of self-insurance or income smoothing. Overall, the results showed that social security plays an important role in Metlaoui, but it remains insufficient, especially for households that are not covered by social security and are suffering from heavy health expenditures.

  19. Social Networks and Corporate Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Gennadievna Kondratova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is defined in the article social networks as a tool in the hands of cyber-criminals to compromise the organization’s data. The author focuses on a list of threats to information security caused by social networks usage, which should be considered in the set up of information security management system of the company.

  20. Social Security and Part-Time Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euzeby, Alain

    1988-01-01

    Discusses rules governing social security and their implications for part-time employees in various countries. Topics include (1) methods of financing social security, (2) benefits, (3) measures concerning the unemployed, (4) a floor for employers' contributions, (5) graduated contribution rates, and (6) financial incentives. (CH)

  1. Accelerate China’s Social Security Legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延中

    2008-01-01

    Since the financial crisis in Asia in 1997, China’s social security system has undergone continual reform and readjustment, and has proved to be an integral part of government efforts to perfect the socialist market economy as well as in building a socialist harmonious society. Although social security construction has achieved certain results, it has also left a lot of problems. With the rapid growth of China’s economy and revenue, people from all walks of life are putting ever-increasing demands on the social security system; therefore, the construction of a sound social security system suited to China’s current situation still remains an arduous task. In this article, the author have reviewed the 10 years development of China’s social security system, analyzed problems and challenges and proposed its suggestions.

  2. [Universalization of health or of social security?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Algazi, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the architecture of Mexico's health system based on the main economic problem, failing to achieve a GDP growth rate to increase real wages and give workers in formal employment coverage social security. This analysis describes the relationship between social security of the population and employment status of it (either formal or informal employment) and the impact that this situation poses to our health system. Also, it ends with a reform proposal that will give all workers the same social rights, ie to grant universal social security.

  3. Stockholm conference. Summary of the international conference on the security of material in Stockholm, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Preventing illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources was a major international concern even before the spectre of nuclear terrorism was raised by terrorist attacks in September 2001. At an IAEA international conference in Stockholm, Sweden, convened in May 2001, international experts examined ways and means of strengthening systems for the protection of nuclear and radioactive material. The Conference - formally called 'Security of Material: Measures to Prevent, Intercept and Respond to Illicit Uses of Nuclear Material and Radioactive Sources' - was attended by more than 300 experts from around the world. It was organized by the IAEA in cooperation with the European Police Office (Europol), the International Criminal Police Organization - Interpol (ICPO-Interpol), and the World Customs Organization (WCO), and hosted by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. In the Conference Summary Document, participants underscored the importance of establishing stronger systems for nuclear security, and they outlined a number of steps for the future in particular areas. Following are excerpts from the Document. More information on the Conference is accessible on the IAEA's WorldAtom Web site at http://www.iaea.org/ worldatom/Press/P r elease/2001/ prn0110.shtml

  4. Cyber Security as Social Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Hadziosmanovic, D.; Dechesne, Francien

    2014-01-01

    Lessons from previous experiences are often overlooked when deploying security-sensitive technology in the real world. At the same time, security assessments often suffer from a lack of real-world data. This appears similar to general problems in technology assessment, where knowledge about

  5. Changing principles in European social security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, W.J.H.; Clasen, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The provision of social security benefits rests on normative principles of social justice. Most strongly manifest in earnings-related social insurance, the principle of reciprocity has been increasingly questioned on grounds of equity, adequacy and fiscal viability, in the wake of socio-economic

  6. The story of the social security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The use of the Social Security number (SSN) has expanded significantly since its inception in 1936. Created merely to keep track of the earnings history of U.S. workers for Social Security entitlement and benefit computation purposes, it has come to be used as a nearly universal identifier. Assigned at birth, the SSN enables government agencies to identify individuals in their records and businesses to track an individual's financial information. This article explores the history and meaning of the SSN and the Social Security card, as well as the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) SSN master file, generally known as the Numident. The article also traces the historical expansion of SSN use and the steps SSA has taken to enhance SSN integrity.

  7. Social Security Number Verification Service (SSNVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SSNVS is a service offered by SSA's Business Services Online (BSO). It is used by employers and certain third-party submitters to verify the accuracy of the names...

  8. Social Security for Composers and Free Lances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossel-Majdan, Karl

    1982-01-01

    Internationally, cultural policies are tending toward increased socioeconomic and legal support for creative artists. Austrian cultural policies which encourage art and cultural professional organizations, increased copyright protection, and greater social security for free-lance artists are discussed. (AM)

  9. Smoking: Taxing health and social security

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, Brian S.; Pitts, M. Melinda

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is costly in terms of not only its effects on smokers' health but also the direct and indirect financial costs it imposes on smokers and their families. For instance, premature death caused by smoking may redistribute Social Security income in unexpected ways that affect behavior and reduce the economic well-being of smokers and their dependents. ; This article examines the effects of smoking-attributable mortality on the net marginal Social Security tax rate (NMSSTR)—the di...

  10. Predicting Social Security numbers from public data

    OpenAIRE

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Gross, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Information about an individual's place and date of birth can be exploited to predict his or her Social Security number (SSN). Using only publicly available information, we observed a correlation between individuals' SSNs and their birth data and found that for younger cohorts the correlation allows statistical inference of private SSNs. The inferences are made possible by the public availability of the Social Security Administration's Death Master File and the widespread accessibility of per...

  11. Diversity Policing–Policing Diversity: Performing Ethnicity in Police and Private-Security Work in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Hansen Löfstrand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws upon two separate studies on policing in Sweden, both investigating “ethnic diversity” as a discourse and a practice in the performance of policing functions: one interview study with minority police officers from a county police authority and one ethnographic study of private security officers. To examine how “diversity policing” and the “policing of diversity” are performed by policing actors, their strategic reliance on an ethnically diverse workforce is examined. The official discourse in both contexts stressed “diversity policing” as a valuable resource for the effective execution of policing tasks and the legitimation of policing functions. There was, however, also another, more unofficial discourse on ethnicity that heavily influenced the policing agents’ day-to-day work. The resulting practice of “policing diversity” involved situated activities on the ground through which “foreign elements” in the population were policed using ethnicized stereotypes. Diversity in the policing workforce promoted the practice of ethnic matching, which, ironically, in turn perpetuated stereotypical thinking about Swedish “others”. A conceptual framework is developed for understanding the policing strategies involved and the disjuncture found between the widely accepted rationalities for recruiting an ethnically diverse workforce and the realities for that workforce’s effective deployment at the street level.

  12. Experiences of Facebook among media students in northern Sweden:living in a social media culture

    OpenAIRE

    Juntti-Henriksson, Ann-Kristin

    2013-01-01

    University students enrolled on the “Media and communication program” in northern Sweden have been interviewed regarding their use of social media. By examining the resulting narratives through approaching poststructuralism, the study put emphasis on how the media students think and feel about their use of Facebook. Media students are heavy Facebook users who spend many hours on the social network. As future professional workers in the media industry they have a multidimensional interest in s...

  13. Private support and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, F

    1998-01-01

    "The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the ¿family' and the ¿community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on social ties of lending and receiving support. It is shown that support is only an effective alternative in a limited number of situations." excerpt

  14. 32 CFR 806b.12 - Requesting the Social Security Number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requesting the Social Security Number. 806b.12... Number. When asking an individual for his or her Social Security Number, always give a Privacy Act... Social Security Number; and whether providing the Social Security Number is voluntary or mandatory. Do...

  15. Women and social security: a progressive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, L K

    1994-01-01

    This article explores some major assumptions underlying the Social Security system and alternative approaches to rendering the system more economically viable, meeting the income needs of the elderly and/or providing greater equity under its benefit and taxation provisions. It attempts to show that the current structure of Social Security not only reinforces but also exacerbates the underlying economic inequalities in our nation's political economy under the guise of a social insurance program. In addressing selected benefit and taxation issues, the article focuses on how working and older women are faring in the 1990s under the Social Security system. It argues that although the program theoretically is gender neutral, its impact is not. Women, particularly those who are single, are poorly served. The article concludes that a progressive restructuring of the Social Security system itself is imperative if we are to meet the needs of a large percentage of workers, older people, and the economic and social demands of the 1990s and beyond. It also offers some suggestions for such change.

  16. Social Integration as Professional Field: Psychotherapy in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Johnsson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes and analyses the emergence and development of a professional field called social integration. Ideas, theories, and occupational practices forming this field are explored, particularly those related to the development of a new discipline, that of psychotherapy. The development of three occupations (psychiatry, psychology and social work and their professionalisation is described through their qualitative and quantitative take‑offs in particular historical periods. Three periods are identified: formation, 1850-1920, when psychiatry was defined as a medical sub-discipline; consolidation, 1920-1945, with the institutionalisation of psychiatric care, and with psychoanalysis and mental hygiene as qualitatively new cognitive bases for practitioners; and professionalisation, 1945-1980, with the deinstitutionalisation of psychiatric care and the professionalisation of psychologists and social workers. New ideas on subjectivity and individualism, new welfare state institutions, as well as collaborative professionalism all favoured the creation of psychotherapy as professional knowledge, and a possible new profession of psychotherapists.

  17. Ethnic heterogeneity, social capital and psychological distress in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Singh, Charisse M; Rostila, Mikael; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Forsell, Yvonne; Engström, Karin

    2018-05-25

    Ethnic heterogeneity has been linked to both protective and detrimental effects on mental health. Few studies have investigated the role of social capital in this relationship and none have found that it has an explanatory role. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between two measures of ethnic heterogeneity and psychological distress in Stockholm County, as well as the explanatory role of social capital for individuals with Swedish-background, foreign-background and those who are foreign-born. This study used data collected from respondents aged 18-64 to the 2002, 2006, 2010 baseline questionnaires of the Stockholm Public Health Cohort and was linked with individual and area-level register information. Ethnic heterogeneity was the main exposure, measured by: 1) ethnic density, defined as the proportion of first and second generation immigrants with 2 foreign-born parents; and 2) ethnic diversity, using the fragmentation index. Social capital measures of individual and contextual-level social support and horizontal trust were the main explanatory factors of interest. The outcome, psychological distress, was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire-12 with a 2/3 cut-off. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multi-level poisson regression with robust variances. Age and sex adjusted analyses for the whole study population demonstrated that a 10% increase in ethnic density or diversity was associated with a 1.06 (1.05-1.07) times higher prevalence of psychological distress. In the stratified analyses, both foreign-born respondents and those with Swedish-background showed increasing prevalence of psychological distress with increasing ethnic heterogeneity. However, this trend was entirely explained by socioeconomic factors in the Swedish-background respondents and by additional adjustments for individual and contextual social support and horizontal trust for the foreign-born. Further adjustment for contextual

  18. Mining social networks and security informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Özyer, Tansel; Rokne, Jon; Khoury, Suheil

    2013-01-01

    Crime, terrorism and security are in the forefront of current societal concerns. This edited volume presents research based on social network techniques showing how data from crime and terror networks can be analyzed and how information can be extracted. The topics covered include crime data mining and visualization; organized crime detection; crime network visualization; computational criminology; aspects of terror network analyses and threat prediction including cyberterrorism and the related area of dark web; privacy issues in social networks; security informatics; graph algorithms for soci

  19. Security and trust in online social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Carminati, Barbara; Viviani, Marco; Viviani, Marco; Carminati, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The enormous success and diffusion that online social networks (OSNs) are encountering nowadays is vastly apparent. Users' social interactions now occur using online social media as communication channels; personal information and activities are easily exchanged both for recreational and business purposes in order to obtain social or economic advantages. In this scenario, OSNs are considered critical applications with respect to the security of users and their resources, for their characteristics alone: the large amount of personal information they manage, big economic upturn connected to thei

  20. 34 CFR 668.36 - Social security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security number. 668.36 Section 668.36 Education... Islands, and the Republic of Palau, the Secretary attempts to confirm the social security number a student... Security Administration. If the Social Security Administration confirms that number, the Secretary notifies...

  1. New government to make social security cutbacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2003-01-01

    In May 2003, a new coalition government of the Christian Democrats and two liberal parties, VVD and D66, took office in the Netherlands. The parties' coalition agreement provides for major cutbacks in public spending, largely targeted on social security expenditure. The trade unions are fiercely

  2. Speeding decisions. Social security's information exchange program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Kitt; Hastings, Bob

    2011-05-01

    The Social Security Administration has plenty of reasons to streamline its records request process-more than 15 million reasons each year, in fact. That's why it has been pioneering information exchange projects with the private sector, including use of the Nationwide Health Information Network.

  3. Operator's and insurer's relationship with social security organizations in the course of individual damage compensation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprimoz, Jacques.

    1995-01-01

    The Paris and Vienna Conventions internationally agreeded that health care and hospitalization guarantee and disability pension or death due to victim's outside the nuclear installations, as well as the organization funds contributions should be fixed by the internal rights of each Signatory Part. The present study, applicable to nine countries (Germany, Belgium, Brazil, France, Italy, Low Countries, United Kingdom, Sweden and Switzerland) sets up that the social security levels are more or less high and that the charges contributions could be important in countries under subrogation, even reduced or null in countries under imputation. In cases of transfrontier accidents, the contributions extension relies on harmonized rights with the social security organizations of victim's countries. Each indenominity victim's dossier could take a long time. The study concludes that the regulatory services of the social security organizations and their responsible operators or substitutes insurers should coordinate their interventions by using the information system

  4. Vietnam: expanding the social security system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzin, D

    1996-01-01

    Viet Nam's shift toward a market-oriented economy has been associated with annual gross domestic product growth of more than 8% over the past 5 years. At the same time, the emergence of private-sector enterprises and subsequent closure of many state-run enterprises have had profound implications for Viet Nam's social protection systems. At present, only 5.6 million of the country's 33 million workers are covered under the state-run social insurance system. In 1995, the government moved to include private enterprises with 10 or more employees in its state benefits system. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has been working with the Vietnamese Government to design and implement a social security system that would extend coverage progressively to excluded sectors and provide support to workers who have become unemployed as a result of the economic transition process. At its Eighth National Congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party approved a 5-year social and economic plan calling for such an expansion of the social insurance system as well as for a guaranteed standard of living for pensioners. To facilitate anticipated changes, activities that were previously divided between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor have been assigned to the newly formed Vietnam Social Insurance (VSI) Organization. Under consideration is a plan to combine some VSI activities with those of the Vietnam Health Insurance Organization. The ILO will assist with training, computerization, and social security fund investing. Noncompliance is a major obstacle to planned expansion of the social security system; about 90% of private firms are still not paying into the system.

  5. Non proliferation and disarmament: nuclear disarmament and security policies in Sweden (1946-1975) - Historical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2007-06-01

    The author first outlines that Sweden appeared during the Cold War as committed against nuclear weapons, but in fact concentrated this commitment on the objective of nuclear disarmament of nuclear countries without having a very clear position on the objective of non proliferation as it was defined at the end of the 1950's, and also maintained a (secret for while) military nuclear programme which has been progressively given up from the middle of the 1960's. Then, the author discusses why Sweden adopted this double posture, its effects on the international scene, and achievements and setbacks of the Swedish diplomacy with respect to disarmament until the first NPT review conference of 1975

  6. Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Africa, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This report, which is part of a four-volume series, provides a cross-national comparison of the social security systems in 48 countries in Africa. It summarizes the...

  7. Social Security Number Replacement Card Applications filed via the Internet

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Social Security Administration (SSA) provides a variety of ways to conduct business with the agency. SSA offers members of the public the opportunity to request...

  8. A Life-Cycle Analysis of Social Security with Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kaiji

    2009-01-01

    This paper incorporates two features of housing in a life-cycle analysis of social security: housing as a durable good and housing market frictions. We find that with housing as a durable good unfunded social security substantially crowds out housing consumption throughout the life cycle. By contrast, aggregate non-durable consumption is higher when social security is present, although it is postponed until late in life. Moreover, in the presence of housing market frictions, social security l...

  9. Social Security privatization: balancing efficiency and fairness

    OpenAIRE

    C. Alan Garner

    1997-01-01

    This article examines these fundamental issues of economic efficiency and fairness that should be weighed when considering Social Security privatization. The first section summarizes the challenges to the current system and outlines various options for reform. The second section explains how privatization could improve economic efficiency, and briefly considers the difficult issue of the transition costs in moving from the current system to full privatization. The third section discusses impo...

  10. Security and privacy preserving in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chbeir, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This volume aims at assessing the current approaches and technologies, as well as to outline the major challenges and future perspectives related to the security and privacy protection of social networks. It provides the reader with an overview of the state-of-the art techniques, studies, and approaches as well as outlining future directions in this field. A wide range of interdisciplinary contributions from various research groups ensures for a balanced and complete perspective.

  11. Drug-abusing women in Sweden: marginalization, social exclusion and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byqvist, Siv

    2006-12-01

    A quantitative epidemiological prevalence study of problem drug abuse in Sweden is the basis for a study of differences between drug abuse among men and women. A significant difference between genders was that, of those who come to the attention of the authorities, fewer women than men abuse drugs. The women were younger than the men. A greater percent of women abused amphetamines and injected heroin, as well as abusing tranquilizers/soporifics. A larger proportion of women than men were unemployed. The men had a significantly longer history of drug abuse than the women, a greater percent of them were born outside Sweden, and more of them had smoked heroin and used cannabis. A greater percent of the men had used illegal means to finance their abuse. There was a group of women (17%, median age 32) at the margins of the society, i.e. who had no work or place of residence, socialized solely with other addicts and financed their habit by illegal activities. Abuse of amphetamines and heroin was the most common. The majority of the women were polydrug abusers. Sweden has historically had, and continues to have, a large number of amphetamine abusers, but has now also developed a distinct population of heroin addicts.

  12. Social networking mining, visualization, and security

    CERN Document Server

    Dehuri, Satchidananda; Wang, Gi-Nam

    2014-01-01

    With the proliferation of social media and on-line communities in networked world a large gamut of data has been collected and stored in databases. The rate at which such data is stored is growing at a phenomenal rate and pushing the classical methods of data analysis to their limits. This book presents an integrated framework of recent empirical and theoretical research on social network analysis based on a wide range of techniques from various disciplines like data mining, social sciences, mathematics, statistics, physics, network science, machine learning with visualization techniques, and security. The book illustrates the potential of multi-disciplinary techniques in various real life problems and intends to motivate researchers in social network analysis to design more effective tools by integrating swarm intelligence and data mining.  

  13. 26 CFR 301.7701-11 - Social security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security number. 301.7701-11 Section 301... ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Definitions § 301.7701-11 Social security number. For purposes of this chapter, the term social security number means the taxpayer identifying number of an individual or...

  14. 42 CFR 435.910 - Use of social security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of social security number. 435.910 Section 435... of social security number. (a) The agency must require, as a condition of eligibility, that each... religious objections, refuses to obtain a Social Security Number (SSN). The identification number may be...

  15. 49 CFR 10.29 - Social Security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Social Security numbers. 10.29 Section 10.29... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.29 Social Security numbers. (a) No individual is denied any right... which is required by Federal statute; or (2) The disclosure of a Social Security number when such...

  16. 20 CFR 209.3 - Social security number required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Social security number required. 209.3... RAILROAD EMPLOYERS' REPORTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES § 209.3 Social security number required. Each employer shall furnish to the Board a social security number for each employee for whom any report is submitted...

  17. 45 CFR 205.52 - Furnishing of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing of social security numbers. 205.52... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.52 Furnishing of social security numbers. The... furnish to the State or local agency a social security account number, hereinafter referred to as the SSN...

  18. 4 CFR 83.9 - Social Security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social Security number. 83.9 Section 83.9 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE RECORDS PRIVACY PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS § 83.9 Social Security number. (a) GAO may not require individuals to disclose their Social Security Number (SSN) unless...

  19. 14 CFR 1212.604 - Social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social security numbers. 1212.604 Section... REGULATIONS Instructions for NASA Employees § 1212.604 Social security numbers. (a) It is unlawful for NASA to...' refusal to disclose their social security numbers, except where: (1) The disclosure is required by law; or...

  20. African Social Security Systems: An Ordinal Evaluation | Dixon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to rank the social security systems in 45 African countries using a comparative evaluation methodology that enables an assess ment to be ma(le of a country's statutory social security intention. The conclusion drawn is that the spread of African social security system design standards are ...

  1. Social Security in Zimbabwe : Phase I Overview of social security in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most people are covered by non-formal arrangements and the family and community still play a critical role in social protection even though poverty has impacted negatively on their ability to do this effectively. Churches are another source of social security. Semi-formal arrangements include burial societies, savings and ...

  2. Social differentials in speed-premium effects in childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Hoem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, parents receive a parental-leave allowance of a high percentage (currently 80% of their pre-birth salary for about a year in connection with any birth. If they space their births sufficiently closely, they avoid a reduction in the allowance caused by any reduced income earned between the births. The gain is popularly called a "speed premium". In previous work we have shown that childbearing was sped up correspondingly. This is clear evidence of a causal effect of a policy change on childbearing behavior. In the present paper, we study how this change in behavior was adopted in various social strata of the Swedish population.

  3. The Relationship between Media Consumption and Feeling of Social Security

    OpenAIRE

    Bijan khajeNoori; Mehdi Kaveh

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionThe concept of social security and a Feeling of security and the citizens, as a key element in achieving the projected, is important Sociologists and criminologist shave always paid special attention has been sought. Study of the factors influencing the feeling of security, can increase the feeling of security is work. Also enhance citizens' feeling of security and welfare of the citizens and to accept responsibility and commitment will do. The widespread use of social media in re...

  4. Trends in work disability with mental diagnoses among social workers in Finland and Sweden in 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantonen, O; Alexanderson, K; Pentti, J; Kjeldgård, L; Hämäläinen, J; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Kivimäki, M; Vahtera, J; Salo, P

    2017-12-01

    Aims Social workers report high levels of stress and have an increased risk for hospitalisation with mental diagnoses. However, it is not known whether the risk of work disability with mental diagnoses is higher among social workers compared with other human service professionals. We analysed trends in work disability (sickness absence and disability pension) with mental diagnoses and return to work (RTW) in 2005-2012 among social workers in Finland and Sweden, comparing with such trends in preschool teachers, special education teachers and psychologists. Records of work disability (>14 days) with mental diagnoses (ICD-10 codes F00-F99) from nationwide health registers were linked to two prospective cohort projects: the Finnish Public Sector study, years 2005-2011 and the Insurance Medicine All Sweden database, years 2005-2012. The Finnish sample comprised 4849 employees and the Swedish 119 219 employees covering four occupations: social workers (Finland 1155/Sweden 23 704), preschool teachers (2419/74 785), special education teachers (832/14 004) and psychologists (443/6726). The reference occupations were comparable regarding educational level. Risk of work disability was analysed with negative binomial regression and RTW with Cox proportional hazards. Social workers in Finland and Sweden had a higher risk of work disability with mental diagnoses compared with preschool teachers and special education teachers (rate ratios (RR) 1.43-1.91), after adjustment for age and sex. In Sweden, but not in Finland, social workers also had higher work disability risk than psychologists (RR 1.52; 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.81). In Sweden, in the final model special education teachers had a 9% higher probability RTW than social workers. In Sweden, in the final model the risks for work disability with depression diagnoses and stress-related disorder diagnoses were similar to the risk with all mental diagnoses (RR 1.40-1.77), and the probability of RTW was 6% higher in

  5. Social security income and the utilization of home care: Evidence from the social security notch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    This paper exploits Social Security law changes to identify the effect of Social Security income on the use of formal and informal home care by the elderly. Results from an instrumental variables estimation strategy show that as retirement income increases, elderly individuals increase their use of formal home care and become less likely to rely on informal home care provided to them by their children. This negative effect on informal home care is most likely driven by male children withdrawing from their caregiving roles. The empirical results also suggest that higher Social Security benefits would encourage the use of formal home care by those who would not have otherwise used any type of home care and would also encourage the use of both types of home care services among elderly individuals. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Market Valuation of Accrued Social Security Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    John Geanakoplos; Stephen P. Zeldes

    2009-01-01

    One measure of the health of the Social Security system is the difference between the market value of the trust fund and the present value of benefits accrued to date. How should present values be computed for this calculation in light of future uncertainties? We think it is important to use market value. Since claims on accrued benefits are not currently traded in financial markets, we cannot directly observe a market value. In this paper, we use a model to estimate what the market price for...

  7. Social security reform in two stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ranulfo Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Brazilian social security reform during the Fernando Henrique and Lula Administrations. After comparing the contexts in which the different Constitutional Amendment proposals (PECs were submitted and the behavior by Members of Congress during the two periods, we argue that a contextual change (namely a switch in places between government and opposition affected the distribution of preferences and resources between the players and impacted the government in the various arenas in which the game was being played, and that as a result the reformist agenda has made more progress under the current Workers' Party administration.

  8. 7 CFR 273.6 - Social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Social security numbers. 273.6 Section 273.6... normally uses the Receipt of Application for a Social Security Number, Form SSA-5028, as evidence that an... security numbers. (a) Requirements for participation. The State agency shall require that a household...

  9. 76 FR 68243 - Social Security Rulings, SSR 91-1c and SSR 66-18c; Rescission of Social Security Rulings (SSR) 66...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ..., Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: SSRs make available... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2011-0068] Social Security Rulings, SSR 91-1c and SSR 66-18c; Rescission of Social Security Rulings (SSR) 66-18c and SSR 91-1c AGENCY: Social Security...

  10. Social security in developing countries : operation and dynamics of social security mechanisms in rural Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, A.H.M.

    1994-01-01

    This study, which is based on field research carried out in Swaziland from October 1989 to December 1990, starts with an introductory chapter followed by three theoretical chapters on social security in developing countries. The content of these chapters is illustrated with an extensive case study

  11. Social security in developing countries : some theoretical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, A.H.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of social security and criticizes the ILO definition of the concept as too limited to analyse non-Western social security systems. It develops an alternative definition which includes, firstly, the protection by society of individuals or social groups against a fall

  12. 20 CFR 422.103 - Social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... personal interview with the dependent is not required. Form SS-5 may be obtained at: (i) Any local social... previously assigned social security number(s), if any, of the applicant. A personal interview may be required... sponsoring agency of a refugee, if no personal mailing address is available). (d) Social security number...

  13. The role of income differences in explaining social inequalities in self rated health in Sweden and Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngwe, M A; Diderichsen, F; Whitehead, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse to what extent differences in income, using two distinct measures-as distribution across quintiles and poverty-explain social inequalities in self rated health, for men and women, in Sweden and Britain. DESIGN: Series of cross sectional surveys, the Swedish Survey...... of Living Conditions (ULF) and the British General Household Survey (GHS), during the period 1992-95. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Swedish and British men and women aged 25-64 years. Approximately 4000 Swedes and 12 500 Britons are interviewed each year in the cross sectional studies used. The sample contains...... 15 766 people in the Swedish dataset and 49 604 people in the British dataset. MAIN RESULTS: The magnitude of social inequalities in less than good self rated health was similar in Sweden and in Britain, but adjusting for income differences explained a greater part of these in Britain than in Sweden...

  14. Social Security and the Evolution of Elderly Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Gary V. Engelhardt; Jonathan Gruber

    2004-01-01

    We use data from the March 1968-2001 Current Population Surveys to document the evolution of elderly poverty over this time period, and to assess the causal role of the Social Security program in reducing poverty rates. We develop an instrumental variable approach that relies on the large increase in benefits for birth cohorts from 1885 through 1916, and the subsequent decline and flattening of real benefits growth due to the Social Securing 'notch', to estimate of Social Security on elderly ...

  15. Will Pre-Funding Provide Security for Social Security? A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Brown

    2000-01-01

    President Clinton has proposed creating larger social security funds and investing a portion of them in the private sector. Others have suggested more radical reforms such as moving social security from a defined-benefit scheme to a defined contribution plan based on the Chilean model. These proposals are based on the goal of creating higher investment returns, which would make social security benefits easier to finance in the long run. After an extensive review of the literature, this paper ...

  16. Who's (Still) Above the Social Security Payroll Tax Cap?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Woo; Janelle Jones; John Schmitt

    2012-01-01

    The Social Security payroll tax cap is the earnings level above which no further Social Security taxes are collected. The cap is currently at $110,100, though legislation has been introduced in Congress to apply the Social Security payroll tax to earnings above $250,000 (but not between the current cap and this level). This issue brief updates earlier work, finding that 5.8 percent of workers would be affected if the Social Security cap were eliminated entirely and 1.4 percent would be affect...

  17. Saving and Social Security Wealth: A Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    H. Yigit Aydede

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt in the literature to investigate the effects of public social security on aggregate consumption in a time-series setting for a developing country, Turkey that has one of the most generous social security systems in the OECD region. In order to quantify the social security variable, the paper uses the social security wealth (SSW) series calculated for the first time for Turkey and shows that SSW is the largest part of the household wealth in Turkey and therefore...

  18. DATA Act File C Award Financial - Social Security

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The DATA Act Information Model Schema Reporting Submission Specification File C. File C includes the agency award information from the financial accounting system at...

  19. Agricultural policy and social returns to eradication programs: the case of Aujeszky's disease in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, H; Lexmon, A; Robertsson, J A; Lundeheim, N; Wierup, M

    1997-02-01

    Economic-welfare analysis of animal disease prevention programs frequently ignore the constraints of the agricultural policy environment. Prevention programs affect producers, consumers and the government. The policy environment to a large extent determines the magnitude as well as the distribution of benefits of the program among these groups. The Swedish hog industry has been exposed to three major policy changes during the 1990-1995 period. These scenarios involve various degrees of government intervention in the agricultural sector including internal market deregulation and EU-membership. Aujeszky's disease is a virus disease with swine as the natural infection reservoir. Piglets are the most fragile and an outbreak of the disease results in symptoms such as shaking, cramps and convulsions with an increase in the mortality rate. Slaughter hogs suffer from coughing, fever and reduce their feed consumption. During the last 20-25 years the incidence of Aujeszky's disease (AD) has been increasing in Sweden. In 1989 an eradication program was undertaken. A model is developed to analyze social benefits of an eradication program given variations in agricultural policy. The model refers to the specifics of the AD-program implemented in Sweden. The expected benefits of the program are evaluated using a welfare-economic analysis applying cost-benefit analysis. Total benefits of the program are evaluated across herd and size categories and different regions. Data concerning the frequency of the virus among various categories of herds prior to enacting the program were used (Wahlström et al., 1990). In addition, data from an agricultural insurance company were used to estimate the conditional probability of an outbreak given that the herd is infected. Biological and technical parameter values were collected from a variety of sources. The results of the analysis indicate that the program is economically viable given a social rate of discount in the range of 3-5% without

  20. "If We Just Knew Who Should Do It", or the Social Organization of the Archiving of Archaeology in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvila, Isto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper analyses the work practices and perspectives of professionals working with archaeological archives and the social organization of archaeological archiving and information management in Sweden. Method: The paper is based on an interview study of Swedish actors in the field of archaeological archiving (N = 16). Analysis: The…

  1. A National Security Strategy for Sweden: Balancing Risks and Opportunities in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    physics and chemistry. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) links a higher concentration of greenhouse gases to an increase in atmospheric...Command and Staff College. International Security Studies: AY10 Coursebook . Montgomery, 2009. Air Command and Staff College. War Studies Course: AY10... Coursebook . Montgomery, 2009. Assadourian, Eric (Project Director at the World Watch Institute). Vital Signs 2007-2008; The Trends that are Shaping Our

  2. Inequality in oral health related to early and later life social conditions: a study of elderly in Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülcan, Ferda; Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-02-10

    A life course perspective recognizes influences of socially patterned exposures on oral health across the life span. This study assessed the influence of early and later life social conditions on tooth loss and oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) of people aged 65 and 70 years. Whether social inequalities in oral health changed after the usual age of retirement was also examined. In accordance with "the latent effect life course model", it was hypothesized that adverse early-life social conditions increase the risk of subsequent tooth loss and impaired OIDP, independent of later-life social conditions. Data were obtained from two cohorts studies conducted in Sweden and Norway. The 2007 and 2012 waves of the surveys were used for the present study. Early-life social conditions were measured in terms of gender, education and country of birth, and later-life social conditions were assessed by working status, marital status and size of social network. Logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to analyse the data. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) was used to adjust estimates for missing responses and loss to follow-up. Early-life social conditions contributed to tooth loss and OIDP in each survey year and both countries independent of later-life social conditions. Lower education correlated positively with tooth loss, but did not influence OIDP. Foreign country of birth correlated positively with oral impacts in Sweden only. Later-life social conditions were the strongest predictors of tooth loss and OIDP across survey years and countries. GEE revealed significant interactions between social network and survey year, and between marital status and survey year on tooth loss. The results confirmed the latent effect life course model in that early and later life social conditions had independent effects on tooth loss and OIDP among the elderly in Norway and Sweden. Between age 65 and 70, inequalities in tooth loss related to marital

  3. 20 CFR 422.120 - Earnings reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. 422.120 Section 422.120 Employees... reported without a social security number or with an incorrect employee name or social security number. (a... social security number or with a different employee name or social security number than shown in SSA's...

  4. Review of Social Networking Sites' Security and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, SHUN

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays social media networking has dramatically increased. Social networking sites like Facebook make users create huge amount of profiles and share personal information within networking of different users. Social networking exposes personal information far beyond the group of friends. And that information or data on social media networking could be potential threat to people's information security and privacy. In this review, we are going to view the privacy risks and security problem...

  5. Effect of social capital on food security among rural farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the effect of social capital on food security of rural farming households in Abia State, Nigeria with specific focus on measuring social capital dimensions among the rural farming households; determining the food security status of the households; analyzing the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of ...

  6. 76 FR 65558 - Rescission of Social Security Ruling 97-2p

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ...-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2007-0092] Rescission of Social Security Ruling 97-2p AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of rescission of Social Security Ruling...

  7. ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENDITURES OF SOCIAL SECURITY FUNDS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Ivanchuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the expenditures for social protection, social security funds finance administrative direction, which should correspond to the amount of functions performed by a particular fund. The purpose of the paper is to determine ways to reduce administrative expenditures of state social security funds in the conditions of reforming Ukrainian economy. For this purpose, the authors investigate distribution of the expenditures between social security funds, analyse dynamics and structure of assignments for fund administration, and suggest possible ways to rationalize maintenance cost for these institutions. Methodology. Administrative expenditures are an integral part of the cost of social security funds and include particular items of expenses in the budget of these institutions. Applying a systematic approach to calculating the administrative costs of social security funds of Ukraine the authors have taken into account the expenditures related to funding management, support for information systems, and organization of work with insured people. Results of the survey showed that in 2007–2016 Pension Fund of Ukraine incurred the largest part of social expenditures (more than 90% compared with other social insurance funds (less than 10%. At the same time, the administrative expenses were divided approximately into two halves between Pension Fund and other social security funds. In 2015, the government launched a reform of social insurance funds that aimed to reduce funds to three institutions but a decrease in the total amount of administrative expenditures has not been achieved yet. In addition, Pension Fund of Ukraine was least burdened with administrative expenses, while other social security funds with a relatively small share of social expenditures were burdened with administrative expenditures much more. Practical implications. Research showed that nowadays the existence of several social security funds in Ukraine is economically

  8. Participatory Social-Ecological Modeling in Eutrophication Management: the Case of Himmerfjärden, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Franzén

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is increasingly seen as central in natural resource management. It is also required by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which identifies three levels of participation; information, consultation, and active involvement. In this paper we discuss the active involvement of stakeholders, using our experience from a case study in the Himmerfjärden region, which is a coastal area southwest of Stockholm, Sweden. Our study used the systems approach proposed by the European Union research project called Science and Policy Integration for Coastal System Assessment (SPICOSA, in which local stakeholders and a study site team constructed an integrated simulation model of a crucial coastal management issue. In this case the issue was nitrogen enrichment. We showed how stakeholder participation in the modeling process helped identify interesting and currently relevant management scenarios, and how the modeling process facilitated communication of the likely ecological, economic, and social effects of these scenarios to the stakeholders. In addition, stakeholders also reported social gains in terms of network building. We managed to actively involve local stakeholders in water issues, and the research process clearly strengthened the social capital in the Himmerfjärden region, and created a basis for future collaboration regarding water management. Our experience indicates that the approach we tried is a useful tool for promoting active stakeholder involvement in water management projects. Also, the results of our science and policy integration approach indicated that the study site team assumed a leadership role, which is a commonly recognized factor in successful natural resource management.

  9. Explaining the social gradient in sickness absence: a study of a general working population in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Jesper; Hensing, Gunnel; Holmgren, Kristina; Torén, Kjell

    2013-06-05

    Some previous studies have proposed potential explanatory factors for the social gradient in sickness absence. Yet, this research area is still in its infancy and in order to comprise the full range of socioeconomic positions there is a need for studies conducted on random population samples. The main aim of the present study was to investigate if somatic and mental symptoms, mental wellbeing, job strain, and physical work environment could explain the association between low socioeconomic position and belonging to a sample of new cases of sick-listed employees. This study was conducted on one random working population sample (n = 2763) and one sample of newly sick-listed cases of employees (n = 3044), drawn from the same random general population in western Sweden. Explanatory factors were self-rated 'Somatic and mental symptoms', 'Mental well-being', 'job strain', and 'physical work conditions' (i.e. heavy lifting and awkward work postures). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Somatic and mental symptoms, mental well-being, and job strain, could not explain the association between socioeconomic position and sickness absence in both women and men. However, physical work conditions explained the total association in women and much of this association in men. In men the gradient between Non-skilled manual OR 1.76 (1.24;2.48) and Skilled manual OR 1.59 (1.10;2.20), both in relation to Higher non-manual, remained unexplained. The present study strengthens the scientific evidence that social differences in physical work conditions seem to comprise a key element of the social gradient in sickness absence, particularly in women. Future studies should try to identify further predictors for this gradient in men.

  10. 77 FR 54646 - Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR) 12-1(8); Correction; Petersen v. Astrue, 633 F.3d 633...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... II of the Social Security Act AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security Acquiescence Ruling; Correction. SUMMARY: The Social Security Administration published a document... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0046] Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR...

  11. Self-rated health and social capital in Iraqi immigrants to Sweden: The MEDIM population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Louise; Lindström, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Poor self-rated health is an estimator of quality of life and a predictor of mortality seldom studied in immigrant populations. This work aimed to study self-rated health in relation to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and comorbidity in immigrants from Iraq - one of the largest non-European immigrant group in Sweden today - and to compare it with the self-rated health of native Swedes. The study was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2012 among citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30-65 years and born in Iraq or Sweden. All participants underwent a health examination and answered questionnaires on self-rated health, social capital, comorbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. In total, 1348 Iraqis and 677 Swedes participated. Poor self-rated health was identified in 43.9% of Iraqis and 21.9% of native Swedes ( psocial capital was highly prevalent in the immigrants. Female gender showed higher odds of poor self-rated health in Iraqis than in Swedes (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.5, p interaction =0.024), independent of other risk factors connected to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle or comorbidity. Although public health initiatives promoting social capital, socioeconomic status and comorbidity in immigrants are crucial, the excess risk of poor self-rated health in Iraqi women is not fully attributed to known risk factors for self-rated health, but remains to be further explored.

  12. The (social) construction of information security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    While the philosophical foundations of information security have been unexamined, there is an implicit philosophy of what protection of information is. This philosophy is based on the notion of containment, taken from analogies with things that offer physical security (e.g., buildings, safes,

  13. Social capital, political trust and experience of cannabis smoking: A population-based study in southern Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether political mistrust in the Riksdag (the national parliament in Sweden) is an independent characteristic of cannabis smokers, or whether it reflects low confidence in people in general, and therefore low social capital. METHOD: The 2004 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study answered by 27,757 respondents aged 18-80 with a 59% response rate providing data on political trust, cannabis smoking, and potential confounders. RES...

  14. Social Security Administration Retirement, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (RSDI) Improper Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset shows improper payment experience for the Social Security Retirement, Survivors, and Disability Insurance program paid to workers, their dependents, and...

  15. Rural social security for Zimbabwe: Challenges and opportunities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For them, the remaining sources of livelihood now reside in non-formal social security arrangements anchored upon a staggering cultural base being eroded by the fast encroaching tide of neoliberal individualistic ways of life. Regrettably, government has got no institutional framework to promote non-formal security ...

  16. Information Technology Management: Social Security Administration Practices Can Be Improved

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Clay

    2001-01-01

    To improve SSAs IT management practices, we recommend that the Acting Commissioner of Social Security direct the Chief Information Officer and the Deputy Commissioner for Systems to complete the following actions...

  17. Social Security and Pensions in Lebanon: A Non-Contributory ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    UPGRADING LEBANON’ S ECONOMIC ANALYTICAL CAPACITY PROJECT 105541

    analysis of the need for pension reform and a public financial perspective on pension reform, and a proposal for ... Elderly people, who are seventy and above today, will not benefit from ..... component of existing Lebanese social security cost.

  18. National Pending of Social Security Hearing Requests by Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Report refers to the National total of cases pending at the hearing level and the number and percentages of those cases that were in either electronic format (EF) or...

  19. Reforming the South African Social Security Adjudication System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reforming the South African Social Security Adjudication System: innovative experiences ... Dispute resolution systems in the labour relations, business competition ... the rights of access to justice, to a fair trial and to just administrative action).

  20. A Game-Theoretical Approach to Multimedia Social Networks Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders. PMID:24977226

  1. Child poverty vs Medicare and Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H B

    1997-01-01

    The series of government safety net programs provides economic security primarily to older populations. In this period of competition for limited federal resources, the need to create a public awareness of the continuing and growing poverty of children is emphasized.

  2. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  3. Evaluating pay-as-you-go social security systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Andreas; Wüthrich, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for welfare analysis of unfunded social security systems. Based on an overlapping generations model with endogenous labor supply, we derive a formula for the evaluation of existing pay-as-you-go social security systems that depends on impulse response functions and projected growth rates only. We propose an implementation strategy based on reduced form estimates of a VAR model that is valid under weak assumptions about the deep structure of the model. Our meth...

  4. Social Security Numbers in Medicaid Records: Reporting and Validity, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Czajka; Shinu Verghese

    2013-01-01

    This report presents findings from a validation study of Social Security numbers (SSNs) in Medicaid Statistical Information System (MSIS) records for the fourth quarter of federal fiscal year 2009. The study produced results for the nation and the states on how often SSNs were reported in MSIS records and how often the reported SSNs passed a validation test at the U.S. Census Bureau, based on data obtained from the Social Security Administration.

  5. Using the social security system to deliver housing policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Louise, Gee Wing

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the interaction between housing policy and the social security benefits that support housing costs. Analysis concerns the extent and type of State intervention in housing, thus explaining the dynamic between State and individual responsibility in housing policy. This thesis involves an exploration of the different treatment of the owner-occupied and the rented housing sectors, with reference to the social security benefits which fund ongoing housing costs. This thesis see...

  6. Implementation of Learning Organization Components in Ardabil Social Security Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Zirak

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the implementation of learning organization characteristics based on Marquardt systematic model in Ardabil Social Security Hospital. The statistical population of this research was 234 male and female employees of Ardabil Social Security Hospital. For data collection, Marquardt questionnaire was used in the present study which its validity and reliability had been confirmed. Statistical analysis of hypotheses based on independent samples t-test showed that lear...

  7. Financial Hardship Before and After Social Security's Early Eligibility Age

    OpenAIRE

    Richard W. Johnson; Gordon B.T. Mermin

    2009-01-01

    Although poverty rates for Americans ages 65 and older have plunged over the past half century, many people continue to fall into poverty in their late fifties and early sixties. This study examines financial hardship rates in the years before qualifying for Social Security retirement benefits at age 62 and investigates how the availability of Social Security improves economic well-being at later ages. The analysis follows a sample of adults from the 1937-39 birth cohort for 14 years, trackin...

  8. Econometric modeling of the balance of social security Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Figueiredo de Sousa

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to build models using econometrics techniques to explain the components of the balance of Social Security System, or in other words, the net value of tax revenues and the benefit values of the General Regime of Social Security. These models were subjected to statistic validations indicated in the theoretical reference of econometrics, to apply the method of ordinary least square from the classic model of linear regression. From an increasing longevity and the gradual decr...

  9. Marriage choices and social reproduction.: The interrelationship between partner selection and intergenerational socioeconomic mobility in 19th-century Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dribe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the relationship between partner selection and socioeconomic status (SES attainment and mobility in five rural parishes in southern Sweden, 1815-1894. Three different aspects of partner selection are considered: age, social origin, and geographical origin. We use an individual-level database containing information on the SES origin (parental land holding and occupation, age difference, and place of birth of the married couple. The results show a powerful association between partner selection and SES attainment and mobility. Social heterogamy was particularly important, but age heterogamy and geographic exogamy was also clearly related to both SES attainment and mobility.

  10. Problematising internal security: Crime, community and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Bruun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the problematisation of crime, crime prevention and security in contemporary security policy programmes using three Finnish internal security programmes and theory-based content analysis. The study is based on the theory (the perspective of an analytics of government. The findings highlight the central meaning of social exclusion and community as security practices wherein social exclusion is seen as a threat to security and a risk for crime. Indeed, community-based crime prevention plays a central role in the programmes along with the worry about serious crimes and the high level of homicides. A fluid governing policy without crime and accidents is the implicit goal of these programmes.

  11. Reforming the South African social security adjudication system: innovative experiences from South African non-social security jurisdictions

    OpenAIRE

    Nyenti, MAT

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no uniform social security dispute resolution system in South Africa due to the piecemeal fashion in which schemes were established or protection against individual risks regulated. The result is that each statute provides for its own dispute resolution institution(s) and processes. There are also various gaps and challenges in the current social security dispute resolution systems, some of these relating to the uncoordinated and fragmented nature of the system; inaccessibi...

  12. [Social Security Needs Social Medicine: Self-image of Physicians Practicing Social Medicine in Statutory Health Insurances and Social Security Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchtern, E; Bahemann, A; Egdmann, W; van Essen, J; Gostomzyk, J; Hemmrich, K; Manegold, B; Müller, B; Robra, B P; Röder, M; Schmidt, L; Zobel, A; von Mittelstaedt, G

    2015-09-01

    In January, 2014, the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention established a working group on the self-image of the physicians active in the field of social medicine (medical expertise and counseling). The result of this work is the contribution presented here after consensus was achieved by specialists of social medicine from different fields and institutions (social security etc.) and in good cooperation with Prof. Dr. Gostomzyk and Prof. Dr. Robra. Based on the importance of an up to date social medicine for claimants and recipients of benefits on the one hand and the social security system on the other, and also on a description of the subjects, objectives and methods the following aspects are presented: · The perspective of social medicine. · Qualification in social medicine, concerning specialist training and continuing medical education. · The fields of duty of experts in social medicine. · The proceedings in social medicine. The working group identified challenges for the specialists in social medicine by a narrowed perception of social medicine by physicians in hospitals and practice, accompanied by an enlarged importance of expertise in social medicine, by the demand for more "patient orientation" and gain of transparency, and concerning the scientific foundation of social medicine. The working group postulates: · The perspective of social medicine should be spread more widely.. · Confidence in experts of social medicine and their independency should be strengthened.. · The not case-related consulting of the staff and executives should be expanded.. · Social medicine in practice needs support by politics and society, and especially by research and teaching.. · Good cooperation and transfer of experiences of the different branches of social security are essential for the impact of social medicine.. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Social security administration in India- study of provident funds and pension scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Madhava P

    2005-01-01

    Social Security is becoming a distinct part of social policy of India and the time has come to give a serious thought to ever increasing Social Security needs of the population. There are diversified views on extension of Social Security coverage. Some say it should be limited to only working population and to their families and while others say that the entire population should be covered under Social Security programmes. Social Security schemes further have been branched out as protective...

  14. Distinguishing Between Private Law and Social-Security Law in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article attempts to highlight the potential danger in applying private-law principles to social-security law in deciding whether or not social grants should be deducted from awards for damages. Typically, this issue comes to the fore where a damage-causing event, such as death, sets into motion a system that provides for ...

  15. Identifying the Enemy: Social Categorization and National Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Kristene

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to understand the interplay between informal articulations of social categories and formal instantiations of those categories in official language. Specifically, it explores the process of social categorization as it is used to identify threats to national security. The research employed a qualitative, document-based,…

  16. Legal aspects of Polish Tax and Social Security in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Parlińska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are describing legal aspects of treatment of farming sector in the tax and social security system in Poland. Tax System in Polish Agriculture is an integral part of Polish Tax System. Most taxes paid by farmers are property taxes, which supplied the budget of main local authority in Poland (municipality. In some cases farmers pay also personal income tax and value added tax like those, who run specific agricultural production as well individual farmers who operate through a limited liability company are subject to corporate income tax. The social security fund for farmers (known as KRUS was speared in 1990 from the social security system (ZUS. Farmers receive similar benefits with regard to health care, education, and social welfare although the contributions into the farmers system are lower then under the ZUS system.

  17. 12 CFR 792.68 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security numbers... Act § 792.68 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The head of each NCUA Office shall take... furnish Social Security numbers, and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security numbers...

  18. 28 CFR 16.53 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1974 § 16.53 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each component shall ensure that employees... privilege as a result of refusing to provide their social security numbers, unless the collection is... provide their social security numbers must be informed of: (1) Whether providing social security numbers...

  19. 77 FR 67724 - Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Ruling 05-1(9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ...-1213 or TTY 1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0058] Rescission of Social Security Acquiescence Ruling 05-1(9) AGENCY: Social Security Administration. [[Page 67725

  20. Social Security: a financial appraisal for the median voter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galasso, V

    Several explanations have been proposed for why voters continue to support unfunded social security systems. Browning (1975) suggests that the extremely large unfunded pension systems of most democracies depend on the existence of a voting majority composed of middle-aged and older people who fail to fully internalize the cost of financing the system. In fact, when voting, economically rational workers consider only their current and future contributions to the system and their expected pension benefits--not their past contributions, which they regard as sunk costs. If, for a majority of voters, the expected continuation return from social security exceeds the return from alternative assets, an unfunded social security system is politically sustainable. This article explores the validity of Browning's proposition by quantifying the returns that U.S. voters in presidential elections from 1964 to 1996 have obtained, or expect to obtain, from Social Security. Did "investments" in Social Security outperform alternative forms of investment, such as mutual funds or pension funds, for a majority of the voters? What can be expected for the future? The U.S. Social Security system redistributes income within age cohorts on the basis of sex, income, and marital status. To account for some of these features, the median voter is represented by a family unit whose members--a husband who accounts for 70 percent of household earnings and a wife who accounts for 30 percent--make joint economic and voting decisions. Thus, retirement and survival benefits paid out to the spouse of an insured worker can be included in the calculation of Social Security returns. Interval estimates of voters' family incomes from the U.S. Census Bureau were used to obtain the median voter's household earnings. The median voter's age is derived from the ages of those who voted in presidential elections, not from the ages of the entire electorate. The median voter's contributions to Social Security are the

  1. Financial forecasts accuracy in Brazil's social security system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Patrick Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available Long-term social security statistical forecasts produced and disseminated by the Brazilian government aim to provide accurate results that would serve as background information for optimal policy decisions. These forecasts are being used as support for the government's proposed pension reform that plans to radically change the Brazilian Constitution insofar as Social Security is concerned. However, the reliability of official results is uncertain since no systematic evaluation of these forecasts has ever been published by the Brazilian government or anyone else. This paper aims to present a study of the accuracy and methodology of the instruments used by the Brazilian government to carry out long-term actuarial forecasts. We base our research on an empirical and probabilistic analysis of the official models. Our empirical analysis shows that the long-term Social Security forecasts are systematically biased in the short term and have significant errors that render them meaningless in the long run. Moreover, the low level of transparency in the methods impaired the replication of results published by the Brazilian Government and the use of outdated data compromises forecast results. In the theoretical analysis, based on a mathematical modeling approach, we discuss the complexity and limitations of the macroeconomic forecast through the computation of confidence intervals. We demonstrate the problems related to error measurement inherent to any forecasting process. We then extend this exercise to the computation of confidence intervals for Social Security forecasts. This mathematical exercise raises questions about the degree of reliability of the Social Security forecasts.

  2. Financial forecasts accuracy in Brazil's social security system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Patrick Alves da; Puty, Claudio Alberto Castelo Branco; Silva, Marcelino Silva da; Carvalho, Solon Venâncio de; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2017-01-01

    Long-term social security statistical forecasts produced and disseminated by the Brazilian government aim to provide accurate results that would serve as background information for optimal policy decisions. These forecasts are being used as support for the government's proposed pension reform that plans to radically change the Brazilian Constitution insofar as Social Security is concerned. However, the reliability of official results is uncertain since no systematic evaluation of these forecasts has ever been published by the Brazilian government or anyone else. This paper aims to present a study of the accuracy and methodology of the instruments used by the Brazilian government to carry out long-term actuarial forecasts. We base our research on an empirical and probabilistic analysis of the official models. Our empirical analysis shows that the long-term Social Security forecasts are systematically biased in the short term and have significant errors that render them meaningless in the long run. Moreover, the low level of transparency in the methods impaired the replication of results published by the Brazilian Government and the use of outdated data compromises forecast results. In the theoretical analysis, based on a mathematical modeling approach, we discuss the complexity and limitations of the macroeconomic forecast through the computation of confidence intervals. We demonstrate the problems related to error measurement inherent to any forecasting process. We then extend this exercise to the computation of confidence intervals for Social Security forecasts. This mathematical exercise raises questions about the degree of reliability of the Social Security forecasts.

  3. Financial forecasts accuracy in Brazil’s social security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Long-term social security statistical forecasts produced and disseminated by the Brazilian government aim to provide accurate results that would serve as background information for optimal policy decisions. These forecasts are being used as support for the government’s proposed pension reform that plans to radically change the Brazilian Constitution insofar as Social Security is concerned. However, the reliability of official results is uncertain since no systematic evaluation of these forecasts has ever been published by the Brazilian government or anyone else. This paper aims to present a study of the accuracy and methodology of the instruments used by the Brazilian government to carry out long-term actuarial forecasts. We base our research on an empirical and probabilistic analysis of the official models. Our empirical analysis shows that the long-term Social Security forecasts are systematically biased in the short term and have significant errors that render them meaningless in the long run. Moreover, the low level of transparency in the methods impaired the replication of results published by the Brazilian Government and the use of outdated data compromises forecast results. In the theoretical analysis, based on a mathematical modeling approach, we discuss the complexity and limitations of the macroeconomic forecast through the computation of confidence intervals. We demonstrate the problems related to error measurement inherent to any forecasting process. We then extend this exercise to the computation of confidence intervals for Social Security forecasts. This mathematical exercise raises questions about the degree of reliability of the Social Security forecasts. PMID:28859172

  4. Unmasking the social engineer the human element of security

    CERN Document Server

    Hadnagy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Learn to identify the social engineer by non-verbal behavior Unmasking the Social Engineer: The Human Element of Security focuses on combining the science of understanding non-verbal communications with the knowledge of how social engineers, scam artists and con men use these skills to build feelings of trust and rapport in their targets. The author helps readers understand how to identify and detect social engineers and scammers by analyzing their non-verbal behavior. Unmasking the Social Engineer shows how attacks work, explains nonverbal communications, and demonstrates with visuals the c

  5. How to supplement Social Security fairly and effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilarducci, Teresa

    2010-04-01

    Over the past 3 decades, the base upon which Americans obtain income for retirement has become increasingly tied to fluctuations in the financial markets. Because Social Security provides a small percentage of pre-retirement income in retirement, most of the nation's workers need a supplement to Social Security. This study demonstrates the failure of the 401(k) system and advances a bold, but realistic, solution to America's crumbling retirement system: guaranteed retirement accounts (GRAs), a universal government program that supplements Social Security by providing guaranteed rates of return, by locking up balances until retirement, and by mandating annuities at retirement-with survivor's benefits. The GRA plan is compared to other proposals, including President Obama's, which aims to expand the voluntary, commercial, individually directed account-based system.

  6. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  7. Reforming the South African Social Security Adjudication System: Innovative Experiences from South African Non-Social Security Jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Ashu Tako Nyenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no uniform social security dispute resolution system in South Africa due to the piecemeal fashion in which schemes were established or protection against individual risks regulated. The result is that each statute provides for its own dispute resolution institution(s and processes. There are also various gaps and challenges in the current social security dispute resolution systems, some of these relating to the uncoordinated and fragmented nature of the system; inaccessibility of some social security institutions; inappropriateness of some current appeal institutions; the lack of a systematic approach in establishing appeal institutions; a limited scope of jurisdiction and powers of adjudication institutions; inconsistencies in review and/or appeal provisions in various laws; an unavailability of alternative dispute resolution procedures; and an absence of institutional independence of adjudication institutions or forums. The system is therefore in need of reform. In developing an appropriate system, much can be learned from innovative experiences in comparative South African non-social security jurisdictions on the establishment of effective and efficient dispute resolution frameworks. Dispute resolution systems in the labour relations, business competition regulation and consumer protection jurisdictions have been established to realise the constitutional rights of their users (especially the rights of access to justice, to a fair trial and to just administrative action. They thus provide a benchmark for the development of the South African social security dispute resolution system.

  8. Developing a secured social networking site using information security awareness techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius O. Okesola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ever since social network sites (SNS became a global phenomenon in almost every industry, security has become a major concern to many SNS stakeholders. Several security techniques have been invented towards addressing SNS security, but information security awareness (ISA remains a critical point. Whilst very few users have used social circles and applications because of a lack of users’ awareness, the majority have found it difficult to determine the basis of categorising friends in a meaningful way for privacy and security policies settings. This has confirmed that technical control is just part of the security solutions and not necessarily a total solution. Changing human behaviour on SNSs is essential; hence the need for a privately enhanced ISA SNS. Objective: This article presented sOcialistOnline – a newly developed SNS, duly secured and platform independent with various ISA techniques fully implemented. Method: Following a detailed literature review of the related works, the SNS was developed on the basis of Object Oriented Programming (OOP approach, using PhP as the coding language with the MySQL database engine at the back end. Result: This study addressed the SNS requirements of privacy, security and services, and attributed them as the basis of architectural design for sOcialistOnline. SNS users are more aware of potential risk and the possible consequences of unsecured behaviours. Conclusion: ISA is focussed on the users who are often the greatest security risk on SNSs, regardless of technical securities implemented. Therefore SNSs are required to incorporate effective ISA into their platform and ensure users are motivated to embrace it.

  9. Securing Social Media : A Network Structure Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiluka, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its democratized nature, online social media (OSM) attracts millions of users to publish and share their content with friends as well as a wider audience at little cost. Such a vast user base and a wealth of content, however, presents its own challenges. First, the amount of user-generated

  10. Economic independence, labour law and social security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtmaat, H.M.T.; Kravaritou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This work is based on papers presented at a conference entitled "The Sex of Labour Law in Europe/Le Sexe du droit du travail en Europe", which was held at the European University Institute in Florence. The contributors argue that law in general, and especially social and labour law, is not asexual,

  11. The Impact of Emotional Social Support on Elders' Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Woltil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity persists as a social problem in the U.S., putting its victims at risk of poor nutritional and overall health. Being food insecure is defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally safe foods or the inability to access such foods in socially acceptable ways. Food insecurity research tends to focus on younger populations, particularly households with children. Food insecurity among the elderly is, therefore, poorly understood, both in prevalence and in prevention and intervention methods. Addressing this gap, the present study examined the relationships between emotional social support and food security using data from the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in an effort to further the understanding of food insecurity among elders. Specifically, the effects of an emotional social support presence, number of support sources and types of support sources on food security were observed using OLS linear regression. Results indicated that emotional social support alleviated the risk of food insecurity, even when household income, marital/partnership status and health status were controlled for. However, the source of the support mattered: elders who reported a spouse as the primary source of support were more likely to report being food secure, while those who reported an “other” primary source of support were more likely to report being food insecure. Number of support sources were not significantly related to food security.

  12. Theory, Demonstration and Methods Research on Social Security of Migrant Workers by Domestic Scholar

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Weifang

    2011-01-01

    Social security of migrant workers has been significant in dissolving social contradictions and achieving the economic and social development in China during the transitional period. The researches of domestic scholar on social security of migrant workers can be classified into three categories. Firstly, theoretical analysis on social security of migrant workers, including researches on the appeal of social security and misunderstanding of recognition, theory-construction of rural worker soci...

  13. 10 CFR 1008.22 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 1008.22... security numbers. (a) The System Manager of each system of records which utilizes social security numbers... individuals may not be required to furnish social security numbers without statutory authorization, and that...

  14. 6 CFR 5.33 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of social security numbers. 5... OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 5.33 Use and collection of social security numbers. Each... to 1975; and (b) That individuals requested to provide their social security numbers must be informed...

  15. Legislation regarding social protection of children and youth in Sweden with particular emphasis on protection from abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Slobodan 2

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of children from abuse and neglect is a current problem in the world. The consequences of violence against children are very important because they can leave behind permanent bodily injuries up to severe invalidity, as well as psychological consequences which very often lead to transmission of violence into next generations. In most extreme cases death occurs as a consequence of abuse and neglect. In this paper authors present legislation which regulate social protection of children and youth in Sweden, with special emphasis on protection from abuse and neglect. Sweden is a country in which social care of most vulnerable groups including children, was always at the top of priorities. Authors made comparative analysis of Swedish and domestic (Serbian laws regarding protection of children from violence, with particular emphasis on mandatory report of these cases from professionals who are in regular professional contact with children. Authors will also put emphasis on duties of medical doctors in the system of protection of children and youth from abuse and neglect.

  16. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PAY SYSTEM AND SOCIAL SECURITY IN SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela – Andreea Nastasie

    2012-01-01

    In the current context of economic crisis which manifests the world can see a very important role of the pay systems and social security in economic and social life. Staff wages means establishing a salary entitlements owed to employees and their payment, as established at the end of collective or individual employment contracts. In Spain there are various collective agreements according to geographical areas and activities. A fair and balanced wage was and will remain a core area of human re...

  17. Research on Issues concerning Social Security for Migrant Workers in Harmonious Society

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the status quo of social security for migrant workers in China, and points out that there are deep system and concept reasons for the lack of labor rights and interests security, social security, equality and the right to development, political participation channels for the current migrant workers. This article then expounds the adverse effects of lack of social security for migrant workers on building a harmonious society: the lack of social security for migrant worker...

  18. Who Lives Alone During Old Age? Trends in the Social and Functional Disadvantages of Sweden's Solitary Living Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A; Fors, Stefan; Fritzell, Johan; Lennartsoon, Carin; Agahi, Neda

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies specific social and functional disadvantages associated with living alone during old age in Sweden and assesses whether these associations have changed during recent decades. Data came from repeated cross-sectional surveys of Swedish adults aged 77+ during 1992-2014. Findings indicate that several types of disadvantage are consistently associated with the probability of living alone including financial insecurity and having never married for women and having never married and mobility impairment for men. Also for older men, low education has become an increasing strong determinant of living alone. These findings suggest that older adults who live alone are a subgroup that is particularly, and in some cases increasingly, vulnerable with respect to social and functional status. This has important policy implications related to addressing the needs of this growing subgroup as well as methodological implications for studies on the health effects of living alone.

  19. Social security, dynamic efficiency and self-control problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2008-01-01

    We develop an OLG model with uncertainty on labor income and death age to study the welfare implications of unfunded Social Security programs in an economy where agents are affected by temptation à la Gul and Pesendorfer (2001, Econometrica 69, 1403). Tempted agents give additional value to the

  20. Social Status, Traditional Food Taboos and Food Security: A Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to examine adherence to traditional food taboos by women in Imo State, and relate that to social status and food security. Data was collected from 72 women across the three agricultural zones of the State. It was found that age, income and education are some factors affecting adherence to these ...

  1. Social security as Markov equilibrium in OLG models: A note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin

    2011-01-01

    I refine and extend the Markov perfect equilibrium of the social security policy game in Forni (2005) for the special case of logarithmic utility. Under the restriction that the policy function be continuous, instead of differentiable, the equilibrium is globally well defined and its dynamics...

  2. Social Security Disability Insurance: Essential Protection when Work Incapacity Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, Virginia P.; Ekman, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) is an essential lifeline for millions of Americans. Without it, many families would be in deep financial distress. SSDI is insurance that workers pay for through premiums deducted from their pay. In return, workers gain the right to monthly benefits if a disabling condition ends their capacity to earn a…

  3. Stochastic models of the Social Security trust funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Clark; Manchester, Joyce

    Each year in March, the Board of Trustees of the Social Security trust funds reports on the current and projected financial condition of the Social Security programs. Those programs, which pay monthly benefits to retired workers and their families, to the survivors of deceased workers, and to disabled workers and their families, are financed through the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Trust Funds. In their 2003 report, the Trustees present, for the first time, results from a stochastic model of the combined OASDI trust funds. Stochastic modeling is an important new tool for Social Security policy analysis and offers the promise of valuable new insights into the financial status of the OASDI trust funds and the effects of policy changes. The results presented in this article demonstrate that several stochastic models deliver broadly consistent results even though they use very different approaches and assumptions. However, they also show that the variation in trust fund outcomes differs as the approach and assumptions are varied. Which approach and assumptions are best suited for Social Security policy analysis remains an open question. Further research is needed before the promise of stochastic modeling is fully realized. For example, neither parameter uncertainty nor variability in ultimate assumption values is recognized explicitly in the analyses. Despite this caveat, stochastic modeling results are already shedding new light on the range and distribution of trust fund outcomes that might occur in the future.

  4. Poverty, Security and Social Assistance: Challenges of Brazilian Social Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ornellas Mauriel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents partial results of a study about anti-poverty programs in Brazil. The main contribution of the text is that it relates certain characteristics of the anti poverty programs to theoretical categories that have influenced the debate about social policy in the contemporary context. Special attention is given to the relation of these programs with national social assistance policy. The article begins from the hypothesis that the logic that had inspired the construction of social policies was reconsidered, based on a transformation in the theoretical understanding of the social issue and of ways to confront it. This change appears in the texts in the priority given to poverty as a category of analysis, which is understood as an absence of capacities. This theoretically and methodologically configures an individualistic perspective on social issues, the principal theoretical source for which is the thinking of Amartya Sen.

  5. Sweden - Physics in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-11-15

    In its continual monitoring of physics in its Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) recently visited Sweden, where it met at the University of Lund in September. Physics in Sweden is flourishing, with both a long CERN tradition and excellent prospects for future collaboration. On the experimental side, about 80 researchers, including about 30 graduate students, out of a total of 110 (including 50 graduate students), concentrate on CERN for their work. The main centres of experimental activity are: Chalmers- Goteborg; Lund (particle physics and relativistic heavy ion groups), the Royal Institute of Technology - KTH - Stockholm, the University of Stockholm, and Uppsala. Engineering support staff in particle and highenergy nuclear physics number about 25. There is a strong Swedish participation (34 researchers from Lund, Stockholm, and Uppsala) in the Delphi experiment at LEP with a full commitment to higher energy running at LEP2, in the CP-LEAR experiment, JETSET studies at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring and in a LEAR hyperon experiment. Sweden is also well represented in CERN's extensive programme of nuclear and heavy ion physics, with 12 researchers active in the heavy ion programme, and a contingent in the SMC muon beam experiment. The strong Swedish interest in CERN's heavy ion programme was underlined by a special national contribution of 1.5M Swiss francs to the new lead ion injector. At lower energies, there is also good Swedish participation (mainly from the Chalmers Institute) in the Isolde online isotope separator. The national physics community has always appreciated CERN's diversified programmes and has greatly benefited as a result. For the future, there is an important involvement (some 40 physicists) in the ATLAS experiment at CERN's LHC collider. Swedish groups have been active in 11 research and development project for LHC physics. Sweden's heavy ion activity will continue at the RHIC heavy ion collider being

  6. Sweden - Physics in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In its continual monitoring of physics in its Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) recently visited Sweden, where it met at the University of Lund in September. Physics in Sweden is flourishing, with both a long CERN tradition and excellent prospects for future collaboration. On the experimental side, about 80 researchers, including about 30 graduate students, out of a total of 110 (including 50 graduate students), concentrate on CERN for their work. The main centres of experimental activity are: Chalmers- Goteborg; Lund (particle physics and relativistic heavy ion groups), the Royal Institute of Technology - KTH - Stockholm, the University of Stockholm, and Uppsala. Engineering support staff in particle and highenergy nuclear physics number about 25. There is a strong Swedish participation (34 researchers from Lund, Stockholm, and Uppsala) in the Delphi experiment at LEP with a full commitment to higher energy running at LEP2, in the CP-LEAR experiment, JETSET studies at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring and in a LEAR hyperon experiment. Sweden is also well represented in CERN's extensive programme of nuclear and heavy ion physics, with 12 researchers active in the heavy ion programme, and a contingent in the SMC muon beam experiment. The strong Swedish interest in CERN's heavy ion programme was underlined by a special national contribution of 1.5M Swiss francs to the new lead ion injector. At lower energies, there is also good Swedish participation (mainly from the Chalmers Institute) in the Isolde online isotope separator. The national physics community has always appreciated CERN's diversified programmes and has greatly benefited as a result. For the future, there is an important involvement (some 40 physicists) in the ATLAS experiment at CERN's LHC collider. Swedish groups have been active in 11 research and development project for LHC physics. Sweden's heavy ion activity will continue at the RHIC

  7. Theory, Demonstration and Methods: Research on Social Security of Migrant Workers by Domestic Scholar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Social security of migrant workers has been significant in dissolving social contradictions and achieving the economic and social development in China during the transitional period. The researches of domestic scholar on social security of migrant workers can be classified into three categories. Firstly, theoretical analysis on social security of migrant workers, including researches on the appeal of social security and misunderstanding of recognition, theory-construction of rural worker social security, policy defects and equity construction in social security system of migrant workers. Secondly, real studies on social security of migrant workers, including researches on sequence of demand and influencing factors of social security of migrant workers as well as intrinsic motivation forming the perspective on social security. Lastly, road exploration of establishing social security system, including researches on the multi-level development of rural worker social security system, comparison of "Double-low method", "Guangdong Method" and "Shanghai Method" of the social security of migrant workers in Zhejiang Province and establishing multi-level social security system according to the hierarchy after the internal differentiation.

  8. Research Advances of Social Security Problems in China —Visualization Research based on Bibliometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳

    2016-01-01

    This article summarized the research progress and characteristics of Chinese social security issues from 2000 papers, which record in CNKI. We find that, the topic in the field of social security is board and dispersion. Due to the huge system and complex problem of social security, there is no central theme. Through cluster analysis, multi dimensional scaling analysis and social network analysis, we got the high frequency keywords atlas. Then, we summarized the research topic to six parts. They are rural social security, urban and rural social security co-ordination, vulnerable group social security, social security fund management, the social insurance system, and social security system and government responsibility. It summed up the theme of the module, meanwhile, combined the practice analysis.

  9. Security Policy at Road’s End? The Roles of Sweden and Finland in the Nordic-Baltic Defence Cooperation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnerstig Mike

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses a number of questions related to Nordic and to an extent also Nordic-Baltic defence cooperation. First of all, how far has Nordic and Nordic-Baltic defence cooperation come today? Secondly, what are the differences in the approaches of Sweden and Finland when it comes to defence cooperation, especially regarding NATO, in the Nordic-Baltic area? As a first analytical result, it is apparent that the rhetorical standing of the Nordic and Nordic-Baltic defence cooperation process is greater than its real achievements, especially in terms of defence integration. Secondly, it seems also to be clear that the defence and security policy debates of Sweden and Finland are quite different. Some problems identified in the debates within the two countries, respectively, are very similar although the suggested solutions vary very remarkably. Regarding the key issue of NATO membership, the developments of the last few years suggest that the Swedish political establishment, as well as the general public, might be closer to a substantial discussion of NATO membership than their Finnish equivalents.

  10. The Mexican Social Security counterreform: pensions for profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, A C

    1999-01-01

    The social security counterreform, initiated in 1997, forms part of the neoliberal reorganization of Mexican society. The reform implies a profound change in the guiding principles of social security, as the public model based on integrality, solidarity, and redistribution is replaced by a model based on private administration of funds and services, individualization of entitlement, and reduction of rights. Its economic purpose is to move social services and benefits into the direct sphere of private capital accumulation. Although these changes will involve the whole social security system--old-age and disability pensions, health care, child care, and workers' compensation--they are most immediately evident in the pension scheme. The pay-as-you-go scheme is being replaced by privately managed individual retirement accounts which especially favor the big financial groups. These groups are gaining control over huge amounts of capital, are authorized to charge a high commission, and run no financial risks. The privatization of the system requires decisive state intervention with a legal change and a sizable state subsidy (1 to 1.5 percent of GNP) over five decades. The supposed positive impact on economic growth and employment is uncertain. A review of the new law and of the estimates of future annuities reveals shrinking pension coverage and inadequate incomes from pensions.

  11. Health and Social Security Needs of Rickshaw Pullers in Ranchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant; Thomas, Joe; Wadhwa, Sonal S; Mishra, Aprajita; Dasgupta, Smita

    2016-07-01

    A significant number of "marginalized" population groups are denied their health rights, healthcare access, benefits of government health programs, and other health-related social security benefits. These population groups, particularly the rickshaw pullers of India, are vulnerable because of their poor social and economic status, migration history, lack of permanent settlements, lack of social capital, and so on. These reasons, coupled with other social-political reasons, lead to no or limited access to health services and poor health conditions. This study intends to explore and understand the context and health seeking behavior of rickshaw pullers in Ranchi, the capital city of Jharkhand state in India, with special reference to wider social determinants of health such as, access, affordability, and delivery of health services. The data was collected from 1,000 rickshaw pullers from 40 "rickshaw garages" in Ranchi. The findings of the study show that rickshaw pullers can't afford to "attach" much importance to their health due to various reasons and suffer from a variety of occupational and other illnesses. The health conditions of the rickshaw pullers are affected by poverty, negligence, illiteracy, lack of awareness and unavailability of affordable, quality health services. These are only a symptom of the larger structural issues affecting health. The study suggests that rickshaw pullers, being a marginalized and excluded population group, require special health and social security programs that include safe, affordable, and accessible services along with a special focus on health education, behavior change, and promotion of appropriate health-seeking behavior.

  12. Social security status and mortality in Belgian and Spanish male workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Duran

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: MRR differences between Belgium and Spain for unemployed workers could be partly explained because of differences between the two social security systems. Future studies should further explore mortality differences between countries with different social security systems.

  13. 75 FR 64389 - Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2010-0066] Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System (OIS) Development Planning; Request for Comment...) to provide independent advice and recommendations on plans and activities to create an occupational...

  14. Effective surveillance for homeland security balancing technology and social issues

    CERN Document Server

    Flammini, Francesco; Franceschetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Effective Surveillance for Homeland Security: Balancing Technology and Social Issues provides a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the surveillance and protection of citizens and critical infrastructures against natural and deliberate threats. Focusing on current technological challenges involving multi-disciplinary problem analysis and systems engineering approaches, it provides an overview of the most relevant aspects of surveillance systems in the framework of homeland security. Addressing both advanced surveillance technologies and the related socio-ethical issues, the book consists of 21 chapters written by international experts from the various sectors of homeland security. Part I, Surveillance and Society, focuses on the societal dimension of surveillance-stressing the importance of societal acceptability as a precondition to any surveillance system. Part II, Physical and Cyber Surveillance, presents advanced technologies for surveillance. It considers developing technologie...

  15. Importance of managing intangible assets in enhancing dynamic capabilities of firms: cases from Sweden and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schiller, Stefan; Perera, Hector

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews a social entrepreneurial initiative to set up a solar-powered incubator in Bubulo, Uganda, initiated by a group of Sweden-based entrepreneurship students. Using an Actor-Network Theoryinformed approach, it addresses the question of how the original aims of the initiative shifted as it moved from Sweden to Uganda, securing new allies and resources. In the tracing of this movement from northern Europe to central Africa, concepts from Actor-Network Theory, such as ‘translati...

  16. Information technology as a tool for the Italian Institute of Social Security (INPS) in the management of social security and civil disability: Pro and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammicheli, Michele; Scaglione, Marcella

    2018-01-01

    We examine, from a medical-legal perspective, the pro and cons of the information technology procedures that the Italian Institute of Social Security (INPS) has implemented to manage the provision of social disability assistance, meaning that separate from the payment of pension contributions, being welfare, anchored to an administrative requirement by way of the compulsory payment of a minimum social security contribution.

  17. How strong is the Social Security safety net? Using the Elder Index to assess gaps in economic security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Jan E; Li, Yang; Xu, Ping

    2018-04-16

    Older Americans rely heavily on Social Security benefits (SSBs) to support independent lifestyles, and many have few or no additional sources of income. We establish the extent to which SSBs adequately support economic security, benchmarked by the Elder Economic Security Standard Index. We document variability across U.S. counties in the adequacy levels of SSBs among older adults. We find that the average SSBs fall short of what is required for economic security in every county in the United States, but the level of shortfall varies considerably by location. Policy implications relating to strengthening Social Security and other forms of retirement income are discussed.

  18. Implementation of Learning Organization Components in Ardabil Social Security Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Zirak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the implementation of learning organization characteristics based on Marquardt systematic model in Ardabil Social Security Hospital. The statistical population of this research was 234 male and female employees of Ardabil Social Security Hospital. For data collection, Marquardt questionnaire was used in the present study which its validity and reliability had been confirmed. Statistical analysis of hypotheses based on independent samples t-test showed that learning organization characteristics were used more than average level in some subsystems of Marquardt model and there was a significant difference between current position and excellent position based on learning organization characteristic application. According to the research findings, more attention should be paid to the subsystems of learning organization establishment and balanced development of these subsystems.

  19. Expanding Social Security in Indonesia: the Processes and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Asep Suryahadi; Vita Febriany; Athia Yumna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of social security provision in Indonesia, which has evolved from very little in its early years to the privilege of formal sector workers during the New Order period to universal coverage, at least in principle, in the current period. These changes were in line with and driven by the developments of the Indonesian economy in general, which has gone through various episodes marked by both booms and crises. There are two important milestones in the developmen...

  20. Social Security System in India: An International Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Rupak Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Surajit

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines selected components of social security system in India and compares them with their OECD counterparts. Historically, the Indian policy makers have viewed the pension system as a welfare measure and therefore, it lacks in financial professionalism, diversification, and in the belief that pension funds can also be treated as an asset. The Indian system is biased towards the organized formal sector as workers in this sector are benefitted with the provisions under various lab...

  1. The Security of Organizations and Individuals in Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Elyashar, Aviad

    2016-01-01

    The serious privacy and security problems related to online social networks (OSNs) are what fueled two complementary studies as part of this thesis. In the first study, we developed a general algorithm for the mining of data of targeted organizations by using Facebook (currently the most popular OSN) and socialbots. By friending employees in a targeted organization, our active socialbots were able to find new employees and informal organizational links that we could not find by crawling with ...

  2. Age structure of the population in Belgium and social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooghe, G

    1991-01-01

    The effects of demographic aging and of various socioeconomic factors on the social security system in Belgium are explored. "Special attention is given to the impact of the ageing of the population on the pension problem. Based on a simple formula a series of percentages of taxation have been calculated as a function of shifts in the proportion of retired vs. active population and in the proportion of the average income vs. the average amount of pension. One of the conclusions is that the progressive ageing of the population will become the most significant factor in the growth of social expenditures." excerpt

  3. Helping the Hacker? Library Information, Security, and Social Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. C. Thompson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Social engineering is the use of nontechnical means to gain unauthorized access to information or computer systems. While this method is recognized as a major security threat in the computer industry, little has been done to address it in the library field. This is of particular concern because libraries increasingly have access to databases of both proprietary and personal information. This tutorial is designed to increase the awareness of library staff in regard to the issue of social engineering.

  4. ExpertiSZe, a tool for determining the effects of social security legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Jorgen S.; Kordelaar, P.J.M.; Kordelaar, P.J.M.; Wassink, J.G.J.; van 't Eind, G.J.; Grütters, C.A.F.M.

    1992-01-01

    Social security legislation plays an important role in the Dutch society. In view of this, the effects of social security legislation have to be analysed carefully before new legislation can be made. Due to the growing complexity of legislation on the social security domain, this analysis has become

  5. 31 CFR 1.32 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 1.32 Use and disclosure of social security numbers. (a) In general. An... such individual's refusal to disclose his social security number. (b) Exceptions. The provisions of... Federal statute, or (2) The disclosure of a social security number to any Federal, State, or local agency...

  6. 8 CFR 103.35 - Use and collection of Social Security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS POWERS AND DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.35 Use and collection of Social Security numbers. The use and collection of Social Security numbers shall be in accordance with 28 CFR 16.56. [40 FR... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use and collection of Social Security...

  7. 29 CFR 71.12 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Use and collection of social security numbers. 71.12 Section... UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 71.12 Use and collection of social security numbers. (a) Each component unit that requests an individual to disclose his social security account number shall provide the...

  8. 41 CFR 105-64.105 - When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-64.105 When may Social Security Numbers (SSNs) be collected? (a) Statutory or regulatory authority must exist for collecting Social Security Numbers for record systems that use the SSNs as a method of... collect Social Security Numbers. (b) In compliance with OMB M-07-16 (Safeguarding Against and Responding...

  9. 28 CFR 700.25 - Use and collection of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... numbers. (a) Each system manager of a system of records that utilizes Social Security numbers as a method... furnish Social Security numbers without statutory or regulatory authorization and that individuals who are requested to provide Social Security numbers voluntarily must be advised that furnishing the number is not...

  10. 24 CFR 5.216 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.216 Section 5.216 Housing and Urban Development...; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers; Procedures for Obtaining Income Information Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and...

  11. 20 CFR 422.104 - Who can be assigned a social security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who can be assigned a social security number... General Procedures § 422.104 Who can be assigned a social security number. (a) Persons eligible for SSN assignment. We can assign you a social security number if you meet the evidence requirements in § 422.107 and...

  12. 38 CFR 1.575 - Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Social security numbers... Affairs Records § 1.575 Social security numbers in veterans' benefits matters. (a) Except as provided in... because of refusal to disclose to the Department of Veterans Affairs a social security number. (b) VA...

  13. 24 CFR 242.68 - Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 242.68 Section 242.68 Housing and Urban Development... Requirements § 242.68 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of Social Security Numbers...

  14. 12 CFR 1204.9 - Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS PRIVACY ACT IMPLEMENTATION § 1204.9 Does FHFA collect and use Social Security numbers? FHFA collects Social Security numbers only when it is necessary and authorized. At least annually, the Privacy... of refusing to provide their Social Security numbers, unless the collection is authorized either by a...

  15. 28 CFR 802.23 - Use and disclosure of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his or her social security number. (b... which is required by Federal statute, or (2) The disclosure of a social security number to any Federal... identity of an individual. (c) Requests for disclosure of social security number. If the Agency requests an...

  16. 38 CFR 3.216 - Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... social security numbers. 3.216 Section 3.216 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements § 3.216 Mandatory disclosure of social security numbers. Any person who applies for or receives..., furnish the Department of Veterans Affairs upon request with his or her social security number and the...

  17. 13 CFR 102.35 - Use and collection of Social Security Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 102.35 Use and collection of Social Security Numbers. Each Program/Support Office Head or designee... their social security numbers, unless: (1) The collection is authorized either by a statute; or (2) The social security numbers are required under statute or regulation adopted prior to 1975 to verify the...

  18. 78 FR 6168 - Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Service Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2013-0001] Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2012 Service Contract Inventories. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  19. 77 FR 3836 - Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Service Contract...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2011-0105] Public Availability of Social Security Administration Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2011 Service Contract Inventories. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  20. Human Development Index and Efficiency level of Social Security Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sepehrdost

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hospitals as one of the main institutions providing health care services play an important role in the health system and allocate a high percentage of health sector's budget to them. This study aimed to answer whether social security hospitals efficiency levels are the same for all provinces in Iran? And whether any relationship exists between the human development indexes (HDI of the provinces and technical efficiency levels of the hospitals?Materials & Methods: Data envelopment analysis model has been used to measure technical efficiency of 65 social security hospitals, including small hospitals (working with lower than one hundred active beds and large hospitals (working with over one hundred active beds during the years 2007 to 2009. Further, the relationship between human development index and technical efficiency of hospitals in the provinces has been analyzed.Results: Results show that the average technical efficiency of small and large hospitals working in low and medium HDI provinces (0.912 and 0.937 are more than the average technical efficiency of hospitals in higher HDI provinces (0.870 and 0.887.Conclusion: It is recommended that social security organization concentrated distribute its hospital services in provinces with lower HDI and higher density of population living under the coverage of organization’s insurance. This will eventually puts its positive effects on per capita income of people, as well as more equitable distribution of income. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:32-38

  1. Female and male entrepreneurs in Sweden and the Netherlands : a test of liberal and social feminism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.; Voerman, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a nonparametric interest rate term structure model and investigate its implications on term structure dynamics and prices of interest rate derivative securities. The nonparametric spot interest rate process is estimated from the observed short-term interest

  2. Private support and social securityPrivate support and social security

    OpenAIRE

    Frans van Dijk

    1998-01-01

    The issue is addressed whether assistance to persons in need can be left to the `family' and the `community'. In that case people depend on their social networks. The support a person receives through a given network of social ties is examined. However, ties are diverse and subject to change. By means of a model of the dynamics of social ties, the conditions for adequate private support are analyzed. The sustainability of private support over time is examined by incorporating the impact on so...

  3. Family medicine and practice in the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Casas Patiño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The central ideas of this research paper are related to the practice of family medicine as a specialty. It focuses in its origins, problems, unique characteristics, limitations, scope, management, and processes within the context of primary care of the Mexican Social Security System. This approach was based on a qualitative, hermeneutical study closely related to the Structural Functionalism Theory. Within this framework, medical practice is seen as an equation: Meaning = action + function/structure. This offers an approach to the understanding of reality through surveys and observations in five categories: identity, activity, purpose, values/norms, and power/relationship. The practice of family medicine is defined as a medical act in the Mexican Social Security Institute. This act is limited to a brief encounter and a prescription, which makes it a short, fleeting, medicalized interaction. The result is a negative social imaginary of the physician, the patient and the whole of society. Thus, individuals and society host a negative social imaginary bestowed on doctors and users of the health system.

  4. Macroeconomic Implications of Changes in Social Security Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Bagis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish social insurance system has been feverishly debated for years, particularly through its burden on the economy. The most recent reform is an attempt to neutralize the deterioration within the social security system and its effects on the economy. After the recent reform, ‘the way that retirement benefits are calculated’ is changed unfavorably for workers and the minimum age for retirement is increased. In particular, for an agent with 25 years of social security tax payments, the replacement rate is down from 65 percent to 50 percent. On the other hand, retirement age is up from 60 to 65. The aim of this paper is to investigate the macroeconomic effects of these changes using an OLG model. The author’s findings indicate that labor supply, output and capital stock increase when changes above are applied to the benchmark economy calibrated to the Turkish economy data in 2005. A critical change with the current reform is that the marginal benefit of working has become uniform over ages. In a simulation exercise, the marginal retirement benefit in the benchmark economy is changed to be uniform over ages while keeping the size of social security system unchanged. As a result, the benefit of retiring at a later period increases. However, uniform distribution of the marginal benefits itself decreases both the capital stock and output of the economy. Increasing the retirement age, on the other hand, has positive effects on the economy since agents obtain retirement benefits for fewer years and at an older age. Age increase has substantial positive effects on the labor supply, the capital stock, and the output.

  5. Towards Shibboleth-based security in the e-infrastructure for social sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Wei; Daw, Michael; Procter, Rob; Voss, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The e-Infrastructure for e-Social Sciences project leverages Grid computing technology to provide an integrated platform which enables social science researchers to securely access a variety of e-Science resources. Security underpins the e-Infrastructure and a security framework with authentication and authorization functionality is a core component of the e-Infrastructure for social sciences. To build the security framework, we adopt Shibboleth as the basic authentication and authorization i...

  6. Principle Of Non-Regression And Social Security: Security And Trust Protection, Reservation Of The Possible And Non-Regression In The Fundamental Social Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Garcia Schwarz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain and analyze, from the perspective of the material and effective dimensions of fundamental social rights, questions that concern the relevance of security and trust for the social pact and, as a consequence, to the non-regression in the fundamental social rights in general and in the social security in particular. It reveals that, while the retrogression is not absolute, retrogression must be fully justified. The research is descriptive and explanatory, documentary-bibliographical.

  7. The dynamics of social-ecological systems in urban landscapes: Stockholm and the National Urban Park, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmqvist, T; Colding, J; Barthel, S; Borgstrom, S; Duit, A; Lundberg, J; Andersson, E; Ahrné, K; Ernstson, H; Folke, C; Bengtsson, J

    2004-06-01

    This study addresses social-ecological dynamics in the greater metropolitan area of Stockholm County, Sweden, with special focus on the National Urban Park (NUP). It is part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and has the following specific objectives: (1) to provide scientific information on biodiversity patterns, ecosystem dynamics, and ecosystem services generated; (2) to map interplay between actors and institutions involved in management of ecosystem services; and (3) to identify strategies for strengthening social-ecological resilience. The green areas in Stockholm County deliver numerous ecosystem services, for example, air filtration, regulation of microclimate, noise reduction, surface water drainage, recreational and cultural values, nutrient retention, and pollination and seed dispersal. Recreation is among the most important services and NUP, for example, has more than 15 million visitors per year. More than 65 organizations representing 175,000 members are involved in management of ecosystem services. However, because of population increase and urban growth during the last three decades, the region displays a quite dramatic loss of green areas and biodiversity. An important future focus is how management may reduce increasing isolation of urban green areas and enhance connectivity. Comanagement should be considered where locally managed green space may function as buffer zones and for management of weak links that connect larger green areas; for example, there are three such areas around NUP identified. Preliminary results indicate that areas of informal management represent centers on which to base adaptive comanagement, with the potential to strengthen biodiversity management and resilience in the landscape.

  8. Social and emotional training in Swedish classrooms for the promotion of mental health: results from an effectiveness study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Birgitta; Sandell, Rolf; Bremberg, Sven

    2008-06-01

    Mental ill-health is a major problem worldwide. It includes depression, aggressive behavior, feeling down and alcohol and drug abuse. Since all children go to school, the school is an obvious arena for health interventions. A set of educational techniques named Social and Emotional Learning, based on the use by teachers of cognitive and behavioral methods, which teaches students self-control, social competence, empathy, motivation and self-awareness, has shown promising results in the USA. This paper reports on the application of similar techniques in Sweden (the Social and Emotional Training [SET] program). The study has a quasi-experimental longitudinal design, with two intervention and two control schools. A wide range of instruments, both Swedish and international, are employed. In this paper, results from the school years 1999-2000 (baseline) through to 2001-2002 are reported. Both the intervention and the data collection were performed by ordinary school staff in a routine school setting. Independent bi-annual ratings of teachers' performance were moderate to high, and teachers' perceptions of the program were generally, although by no means universally, high. However, their performance was poorer with regard to the collection of data. In terms of promotion, findings with regard to the impact of the program on mental health are generally favorable-in particular through the promotion of aspects of self-image, including well-being and the hindering of aggressiveness, bullying, attention-seeking and alcohol use. There was, however, no differential effect on social skills. It seems that SET has the potential to operate effectively as a health-promoting intervention during the school period, although its main impact may rather be to act as a brake on the deterioration in some aspects of mental health that is common during adolescence. Positively significant relationships were found on some but not all of the instrument scales, and effect sizes were medium.

  9. Social Security And Mental Illness: Reducing Disability With Supported Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Robert E.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Bond, Gary R.; Goldman, Howard H.

    2010-01-01

    Social Security Administration disability programs are expensive, growing, and headed toward bankruptcy. People with psychiatric disabilities now constitute the largest and most rapidly expanding subgroup of program beneficiaries. Evidence-based supported employment is a well-defined, rigorously tested service model that helps people with psychiatric disabilities obtain and succeed in competitive employment. Providing evidence-based supported employment and mental health services to this population could reduce the growing rates of disability and enable those already disabled to contribute positively to the workforce and to their own welfare, at little or no cost (and, depending on assumptions, a possible savings) to the government. PMID:19414885

  10. [Disintegration of the prison system, public security and social exclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixo, Marcelo

    2016-06-01

    The defense of human rights, namely one of the most important duties of the legislature, is a considerable challenge in the day-to-day business of parliament. The opinions and practices of elected representatives reflect the security concerns and fears of society that engender a vast process of social exclusion. In this context, the defense of the right to health of persons deprived of liberty seems an especially difficult task, as shown in the interview of State Congressman Marcelo Freixo, the Coordinator of the Human Rights Commission of the Legislative Assembly in Rio de Janeiro and creator of the State Mechanism for Preventing and Combating Torture.

  11. 36 CFR 1202.22 - Will NARA need my Social Security Number?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Will NARA need my Social Security Number? (a) Before a NARA employee or NARA contractor asks you to provide your social security number (SSN), he or she will ensure that the disclosure is required by... Security Number? 1202.22 Section 1202.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  12. 24 CFR 200.6 - Employer identification and social security numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification and social security numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of social security numbers and employer identification numbers by applicants and... security numbers. 200.6 Section 200.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  13. Security and Vulnerability Assessment of Social Media Sites: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jensen; Zhao, Sherry Y.

    2015-01-01

    While the growing popularity of social media has brought many benefits to society, it has also resulted in privacy and security threats. The authors assessed the security and vulnerability of 50 social media sites. The findings indicate that most sites (a) posted privacy and security policies but only a minority stated clearly their execution of…

  14. Energy in Sweden 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    Energy in Sweden is published annually and is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists, companies, teachers and the general public with a coherent and easily available source of information on developments in the energy sector. Statistics are presented up to and including year 2007, when possible. Energy in Sweden presents facts about the use and supply of energy, present energy- and climate policy and policy measures, energy prices and energy markets, the impact of energy systems on the environment, and an international outlook. A new chapter for this year is Secure energy supply. There is also a chapter on Sweden's share of renewable energy calculated with the definition by the European commission. See also the publication Energy in Sweden - Facts and Figures 2008 where the tabular data behind most of the diagrams in Energy in Sweden are presented. Most of the publication is based on official statistics up to and including 2007, complemented where possible by input reflecting current events and decisions up to the middle of 2008

  15. Education for Social Change: Highlander Education in the Appalachian Mountains and Study Circles in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The article explores how education promotes social change. Using the philosophical foundations of adult education outlined by Elias and Merriam (2001, "Philosophical foundations of adult education" (3rd ed.), Krieger) as an analytical framework, the article compares the similarities and differences between popular education forms in two…

  16. Gender Equality and Social Policy: Implications of a Study of Parental Leave in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of parental leave as a social policy designed to eliminate the traditional, gender-based division of labor. Examined whether fathers' taking parental leave equalized women's and men's involvement in the labor market and in child care once the leave was over by analyzing 319 sets of Swedish parents. (Author/ABL)

  17. Nuclear waste management in Sweden: a challenge also for the social scientist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundqvist, G.; Soederberg, O.

    1991-01-01

    SKN (The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel) has since 1983 supported research in the social sciences in connection with the nuclear waste issue. The studies have among other things focused on: - public perception and public knowledge of the nuclear waste. - how risks in a long term perspective are perceived. - how the mass media has paid attention to the nuclear waste issue during the 1980s. These studies have been made by political scientists and psychologists. This paper includes an account for some of the more interesting results form this research. However, the paper starts with a discussion of the motives behind the decisions to support and use social science research in connection with the nuclear waste issue. In brief: Why is social science important? This question is relevant not only to the nuclear waste issue but also to many other questions which are dependent on research and technical skill, attract public concern, are politically controversial and require social regulations. Examples of this kind of questions which grow in importance in our modern technical society are: nuclear power, biotechniques, chemicals; computerization and many environmental problems. (au)

  18. 77 FR 51842 - Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR) 12-X(8); Petersen v. Astrue, 633 F.3d 633 (8th Cir. 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ..., 1-800-772-1213 or TTY 1-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0046] Social Security Acquiescence Ruling (AR... Social Security Act AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of Social Security...

  19. Social Security Administration - Quarterly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Supplemental Security Income Blind and Disabled Applicants (2016-onwards)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for SSI Blind and Disabled benefits from fiscal...

  20. Importance of security and socialization in europeans life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena Şerb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the importance of safety and socialization in the lives of individuals. The influence of agents of socialization (school, family, friends are manifested as differences in preferences, feelings and thoughts of people. The article is structured in two parts. The first part presents the knowledge in the field, but in the context of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. In the second part is carried out an research among Europeans about some aspect of their lives: how they spend their free time, the feeling of attachment to the community, a sense of security and availability to communicate personal matters to their group of friends. The research method was investigating the secondary sources (database obtained from the survey from a site specializing in the analysis of living conditions of Europeans - European Social Survey. After the reception and processing of results in Excel and SPSS we obtained a general conclusion that people need to socialize, to be part of a group and feel safe.

  1. The Norrtaelje model: a unique model for integrated health and social care in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Monica Andersson; Calltorp, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Many countries organise and fund health and social care separately. The Norrtaelje model is a Swedish initiative that transformed the funding and organisation of health and social care in order to better integrate care for older people with complex needs. In Norrtaelje model, this transformation made it possible to bringing the team together, to transfer responsibility to different providers, to use care coordinators, and to develop integrated pathways and plans around transitions in and out of hospital and from nursing homes to hospital. The Norrtaelje model operates in the context of the Swedish commitment to universal coverage and public programmes based on tax-funded resources that are pooled and redistributed to citizens on the basis of need. The experience of Norrtaelje model suggests that one way to promote integration of health and social care is to start with a transformation that aligns these two sectors in terms of high level organisation and funding. This transformation then enables the changes in operations and management that can be translated into changes in care delivery. This "top-down" approach must be in-line with national priorities and policies but ultimately is successful only if the culture, resource allocation and management are changed throughout the local system.

  2. Populous, Precarious – Protected? The Paradox of Social Security for South Asian Agricultural Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Social security is firmly rising on the international agenda. Discourses that depart from the assumption that societies can only afford a certain level of social expenditure give way to a recognition that social security is an important investment in development. New

  3. Social security of a business entity: place and role of accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Жиглей, Ірина Вікторівна

    2017-01-01

    Concepts and levels of security on the whole as well as social security' of a business entity in particular have been considered. Factors of social insecurity have been enumerated. Disadvantages of social activity of business entities in Ukraine have been compared with the reflection of this activity in the accounting system.

  4. Institutional Root Cause of the Irregularity of Social Security Funds in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingwen Zheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes institutional defects in the Chinese social security system, based on irregularities in social security funds revealed in the Audit Report by the China National Audit Office. The author divides the irregularities into five categories according to the nature of fund use. The results show that the institutional root cause of the irregularities lies in the unreasonable design and operation of the social security system, which currently faces management and institutional risks. This paper argues that simple rhetoric about strengthening regulation and supervision cannot help to reduce illegal practices, or to realize risk control. The only solution is to reform the social security system. Specifically, the Chinese Government should regulate the administrative cost of the social security system,and the behavior of its agencies, through legislation, reform the investment regime to increase rate of return of pension assets, and adjust and reshape the existing social security system, so as to elevate its pooling level.

  5. Inner Security in Media from the perspective of social science and media studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Bidlo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Security and entertainment are moving closer together. The term Securitainment expresses in this context, the mediation of security through entertainment formats. This will open a new space for Internal Security, which includes its own actors and patterns of interpretation. This space is portrayed in the media and follows the logic of media for attention but is also part of the process of social control. The mass media are therefore an instance of the design of internal security, social control and an interpretation producer. Mass media become actors of the internal security. They provide a symbolic representation of security.

  6. Does Social Security Affect Retirement and Labor Supply? Using the Chilean Experience as an Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Cerda

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the effects of the social security system over retirement and labor supply decision of individuals aged 55 to 65 in Chile. We use the 1998 CASEN survey elaborated by the Chilean government. Due to regulations established by the current social security law, two social security systems coexist on 1998: the .Pay-as-you-go. and the individual account system. This property of the dataset, allows us to disentangle the effects of those two systems over retirement and labor supply....

  7. The digitalisation of service work – social partner responses in Denmark, Sweden and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The discussion on the digitalisation of work has intensified in recent years. The literature points to two main trends accelerated by digitalisation – work automation that eliminates or changes job functions, and the creation of work without jobs via digital platforms. This article addresses...... in the unilateral, tripartite and bipartite arenas on various forms of neo-corporatist labour market regulation. The focus is on service work in the private sector, an area of the economy currently under pressure from both automation and the trend towards work without jobs. Whereas the social partners seem...... to be very active in the unilateral arena in all three countries, responses differ in the tripartite and bipartite arenas. The article concludes by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of the responses in the face of current digitalisation trends and existing models of labour market regulation....

  8. Greening the Restaurant Industry: Exploring Corporate Social Responsibilty (CSR) motives of certified organic food service businesses in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Finlayson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    With growing levels of organic food consumption in the retail sector and government municipality goals to increase consumption of organic foods at public schools and institutions, private, independant food service businesses in Sweden risk slipping under the radar when it comes to understanding how they are responding to the global problem of industrialised, fossil fuel intensive and highly unsustainable agriculture. In Sweden, KRAV, an incorporaed association that develops standards for orga...

  9. DATA Act File B Object Class and Program Activity - Social Security

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The DATA Act Information Model Schema Reporting Submission Specification File B. File B includes the agency object class and program activity detail obligation and...

  10. Quarterly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Social Security Retirement and Survivor Claimants (2014-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Retirement and Survivor benefits for fiscal...

  11. Quarterly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Social Security Retirement and Survivor Claimants (2016-onwards)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides quarterly volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for Retirement and Survivor benefits from fiscal...

  12. A real social position of ethnic minorities in the area of medical care and social security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagradić Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work contains research of the position of ethnic minorities in two important existential areas such are medical care and social security. The author puts under a critical analyze not only semantics of the ideas and phrases of medical care and, especially, social security themselves, believing that their inaccurate meaning and usage hide more than they expose facts and relations according to which it is possible to detect and describe a real position of ethnic minorities in the post-dayton society of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but also the experience of implementation of rules from those areas, which should enable them to use the rights defined. Of course, his attention is specially focused on members of Roma ethnic minority, for which he claims to be the most sensible, and that their members, unlike members of all the other ethnic minorities in BiH, are most, or more precisely, only discriminated a-pro-pos the protection of their rights in the areas of medical care and social security, which is not only a responsibility of institutions that provide services in the mentioned areas of life. By using a method of analysis of contents of legal (constitutions, laws, conventions, charters, resolutions, sublegal acts and political (reports, evaluations, analyses, strategies, action plans etc. documents, and by analyzing real life features, processes, relations and events in contemporary BiH society, the author came to sociologically relevant insights of real social and legally-political positions of ethnic minorities in BiH, a state and courses in the areas of medical care and social security and clearly formulated a conclusion that members of ethnic minority determined collectivities, apart from Roma, are in no way ancillary positioned compared to members of constitutional people of post-dayton BiH.

  13. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The Distributional Impact of Social Security Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A; Reznik, Gayle L; Tamborini, Christopher R; Iams, Howard M

    2017-01-01

    Using microsimulation, we estimate the effects of three policy proposals that would alter Social Security's eligibility rules or benefit structure to reflect changes in women's labor force activity, marital patterns, and differential mortality among the aged. First, we estimate a set of options related to the duration of marriage required to receive divorced spouse and survivor benefits. Second, we estimate the effects of an earnings sharing proposal with survivor benefits, in which benefits are based entirely on earned benefits with spouses sharing their earnings during years of marriage. Third, we estimate the effects of adjusting benefits to reflect the increasing differential life expectancy by lifetime earnings. The results advance our understanding of the distributional effects of these alternative policy options on projected benefits and retirement income, including poverty and supplemental poverty status, of divorced and widowed women aged 60 or older in 2030.

  15. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2018-01-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer’s premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers’ compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. PMID:25995374

  16. Entitlement to Sickness Benefits in Sweden: The Social Insurance Officers Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Müssener

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social insurance offices (SIOs handle a wide range of complex assessments of the entitlement to sickness benefits for an increasing number of clients on sick leave and consequently, the demands on the SIOs have increased considerably.Aim: To gain deeper knowledge of the problems experienced by the SIOs in their work associated with entitlement to sickness benefits.Method: A descriptive and explorative qualitative approach was used to analyse data from two focus-group interviews, including six participants in each group.Results: The participants discussed different dilemmas in regard to; physicians’ responsibility for issuing sickness certificates, interactions with the insured individuals, disclosure of decisions, communications with medical consultants, documentation of sickness benefit claims, threats in the workplace, as well as their own competence. The SIOs regarded incomplete information on sickness certificates as a main problem, because they frequently had to contact the client and the physicians who issued the certificates in order to obtain further details, leading to delays in the decision-making whether to grant sickness benefits.Conclusions: More knowledge regarding SIOs work is required to improve the methods used in the sickness insurance system and to ensure adequate training of new staff members.

  17. Supplemental security income and social security disability insurance coverage among long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Parsons, Helen M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Leisenring, Wendy; Donelan, Karen; Warner, Echo L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Park, Elyse R

    2015-06-01

    Supplemental security income (SSI) and social security disability insurance (DI) are federal programs that provide disability benefits. We report on SSI/DI enrollment in a random sample of adult, long-term survivors of childhood cancer (n = 698) vs a comparison group without cancer (n = 210) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who completed a health insurance survey. A total of 13.5% and 10.0% of survivors had ever been enrolled on SSI or DI, respectively, compared with 2.6% and 5.4% of the comparison group. Cranial radiation doses of 25 Gy or more were associated with a higher risk of current SSI (relative risk [RR] = 3.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05 to 7.56) and DI (RR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.06) enrollment. Survivors with severe/life-threatening conditions were more often enrolled on SSI (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 2.04 to 6.96) and DI (RR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.45 to 5.14) compared with those with mild/moderate or no health conditions. Further research is needed on disability-related financial challenges after childhood cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. An integrated health and social care organisation in Sweden: creation and structure of a unique local public health and social care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øvretveit, John; Hansson, Johan; Brommels, Mats

    2010-10-01

    Research and citizens have noted failures in coordinating health and social services and professionals, and the need to address this issue to realize benefits from increasing specialisation. Different methods have been proposed and one has been structural integration of separate services within one organisation. This paper reports an empirical longitudinal study of the development of an integrated health and social care organisation in Sweden combining service provision, purchasing and political governance for a defined population. The study found a combination of influences contributed to the development of this new organisation. The initial structural macro-integration facilitated, but did not of itself result in better clinical care coordination. Other actions were needed to modify the specialised systems and cultures which the organisation inherited. The study design was not able to establish with any degree of certainty whether better patient and cost outcomes resulted, but it did find structural and process changes which make improved outcomes likely. The study concludes that coordinated actions at different levels and of different types were needed to achieve care coordination for patients and that a phased approach was necessary where management capacity and outside expertise are limited. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. “Lifting Up the Issue”: Exploring Social Work Responses to Economic Abuse as a Form of Intimate Partner Violence in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Coutts, Lindsay Mae

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Social work Men’s violence against women in intimate relationships is a pervasive and serious social problem that negatively impacts a women’s life in a multitude of ways. Economic abuse is one tactic commonly used by an abuser to control their partner’s financial resources and independence. Unfortunately, there is limited research on this form of intimate partner violence, especially in the context of Sweden. The aim of this study was to illuminate the issue of economic...

  20. Status homogamy in the preindustrial marriage market: partner selection according to age, social origin, and place of birth in nineteenth-century rural Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Lundh, Christer

    2009-10-01

    This article studies partner selection according to three dimensions: social origin, age, and place of birth. The authors use micro-level data from local population registers in five parishes in southern Sweden from 1815 to 1895. The results confirm that all three aspects were important but that socioeconomic status was the most important characteristic, structuring much of the selection process. The importance of social and age homogamy remained stable over the period, while geographic exogamy became more frequent, which could be interpreted in terms of an increasing openness of rural society. The authors also find some indications of exchange of characteristics in the partner selection process.

  1. Social Network Characteristics and Daily Smoking among Young Adults in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Rostila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies have shown that friends’ smoking behavior is strongly associated with an individual’s own risk for smoking. However, few studies have examined whether other features of social networks, independently or conjointly with friends’ smoking behavior, may influence the risk for smoking. Because it is characterized by the growing importance of friendship networks, the transition from adolescence to young adulthood may constitute a particularly relevant period on which to focus our investigation of network influences on smoking behavior. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the consequences of peer smoking as well as other network characteristics (friends’ other health behaviors, relationship content, and structural aspects of the network on the risk for smoking among young adults. The data was based on a cross-sectional survey of Swedish 19-year-olds carried out in 2009 (n = 5,695 with a response rate of 51.6%. Logistic regression was the primary method of analysis. The results show that having a large percentage of smokers in one’s network was by far the most important risk factor for daily smoking. The risk of daily smoking was 21.20 (CI 14.24. 31.54 if 76%–100% of the network members smoked. Having a high percentage of physically active friends was inversely associated with daily smoking. The risk of smoking was 0.65 (CI 0.42. 1.00 if 76%–100% of the network members were physically active. No main associations between the other network characteristics (relationship content and structural aspects of the network and smoking were found. However, there was an interaction between the percentage of smokers in the network and relationship content (i.e., trust, relationship quality and propensity to discuss problems: positive relationship content in combination with peer smoking may increase the risk of smoking. Women with a high percentage of smokers in their networks were also at higher risk of daily

  2. 20 CFR 423.1 - Suits against the Social Security Administration and its employees in their official capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Register, and are available on-line at the Social Security Administration's Internet site, http... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suits against the Social Security... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SERVICE OF PROCESS § 423.1 Suits against the Social Security Administration and its...

  3. In the shadow of the welfare society ill-health and symptoms, psychological exposure and lifestyle habits among social security recipients: a national survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindgren Eva-Carin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sweden social security is a means-tested financial allowance. The Social Services Act states that an individual is entitled to financial support when his/her needs are not met in any other way. The aim of the present study was to analyse the prevalence and impact of various illness factors and symptoms in social security recipients compared to non-recipients in a welfare state, in this case Sweden. Methods A simple random sample of 20 100 individuals was selected from a national survey that covered all individuals in the 18–84 year age group in Sweden. A postal survey was thereafter conducted. Multiple logistic regression was employed as a statistical test. Odds ratio (OR and a 95% confidence interval (CI was used. Results Social security recipients were found to have a significantly higher risk in most of the studied variables. Reduced psychological wellbeing measured by means of the GHQ12 was significantly higher in this group compared to the rest of the population (OR 1.41 CI 1.03–1.94 and their lack of trust was greater (OR 1.96, CI 1.45–2.66. They reported more sleep disturbances (OR 2.16, CI 1.58–2.94 and suffered from anxiety (OR 1.74, CI 1.28–2.36. Their dental health was worse (OR 2.44, CI 1.82–3.28 and they had more pain in their hands and legs (OR 1.57, CI 1.16–2.12. Social security recipients were more often humiliated (OR 1.79, CI 1.31–2.44 and exposed to threat (OR 1.69, CI 1.09–2.61. They were less physically active (OR 1.56, CI 1.17–2.08, had a poorer diet (OR 1.95, CI 1.45–2.63 and were more often smokers (OR 3.20, CI 2.37–4.33. Implication The challenge for the welfare state consists of recognising the significance of both structural and lifestyle factors as a means of reducing the health gap.

  4. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden – epidemiological studies of register data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Anna-Clara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased) between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15–1.40) when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04–2.24) and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01–2.50) than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02–3.98). Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the general social

  5. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden--epidemiological studies of register data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Anna-Clara

    2013-06-27

    The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased) between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15-1.40) when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04-2.24) and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01-2.50) than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02-3.98). Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the general social

  6. Social inequalities in mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden – epidemiological studies of register data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Clara Hollander

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this PhD project was to increase knowledge, using population-based registers, of how pre- and post-migration factors and social determinants of health are associated with inequalities in poor mental health and mortality among refugees and other immigrants to Sweden. Study I and II had cross-sectional designs and used logistic regression analysis to study differences in poor mental health (measured with prescribed psychotropic drugs purchased between refugee and non-refugee immigrants. In Study I, there was a significant difference in poor mental health between female refugees and non-refugees (OR=1.27; CI=1.15–1.40 when adjusted for socio-economic factors. In Study II, refugees of most origins had a higher likelihood of poor mental health than non-refugees of the same origin. Study III and IV had cohort designs and used Cox regression analysis. Study III analysed mortality rates among non-labour immigrants. Male refugees had higher relative risks of mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR=1.53; CI=1.04–2.24 and external causes (HR=1.59; CI=1.01–2.50 than male non-refugees did, adjusted for socio-economic factors. Study IV included the population with a strong connection to the labour market in 1999 to analyse the relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment. The lowest relative risk was found among employed Swedish-born men and the highest among foreign-born females who lost employment during follow-up (HR=3.47; CI=3.02–3.98. Immigrants, and particularly refugees, have poorer mental health than native Swedes. Refugee men have a higher relative mortality risk for cardiovascular disease and external causes of death than do non-refugees. The relative risk of hospitalisation due to depressive disorder following unemployment was highest among immigrant women. To promote mental health and reduce mortality among immigrants, it is important to consider pre- and post-migration factors and the

  7. Lifetime distributional effects of Social Security retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen; Toder, Eric; Iams, Howard

    This article presents three measures of the distribution of actual and projected net benefits (benefits minus payroll taxes) from Social Security's Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) for people born between 1931 and 1960. The results are based on simulations with the Social Security Administration's Model of Income in the Near Term (MINT), which projects retirement income through 2020. The base sample for MINT is the U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation panels for 1990 to 1993, matched with Social Security administrative records. The study population is grouped into 5-year birth cohorts and then ranked by economic status in three ways. First, the population is divided into five groups on the basis of individual lifetime covered earnings, and their lifetime present values of OASI benefits received and payroll taxes paid are calculated. By this measure, OASI provides much higher benefits to the lowest quintile of earners than to other groups, but it becomes less redistributive toward lower earners in more recent birth cohorts. Second, people are ranked by shared lifetime covered earnings, and the values of shared benefits received and payroll taxes paid are computed. Individuals are assumed to split covered earnings, benefits, and payroll taxes with their spouses in the years they are married. By the shared covered earnings measure, OASI is still much more favorable to persons in the lower income quintiles, although to a lesser degree than when people are ranked by individual covered earnings. OASI becomes more progressive among recent cohorts, even as net lifetime benefits decline for the entire population. Finally, individuals are ranked on the basis of their shared permanent income from age 62, when they become eligible for early retirement benefits, until death. Their annual Social Security benefits are compared with the benefits they would have received if they had saved their payroll taxes in individual accounts and used the

  8. Social inequality in fetal growth: a comparative study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the period 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Diderichsen, F; Arntzen, A

    2008-01-01

    ,077,584; Finland n = 400,442; Norway n = 929,458; Sweden n = 1,761,562). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Slope index of inequality (SII) and mean differences in birthweight for gestational age, SII and risk differences in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. RESULTS: In all countries....... CONCLUSION: The economic recession in Denmark in the 1980s was concurrent with an increase in disparities in fetal growth, whereas the economic recession in Finland and Sweden in the early 1990s did not substantially increase the socioeconomic inequality in fetal growth. The economic growth in the later part...... of the 1990s may have diminished the socioeconomic inequality in fetal growth in Finland, Norway, and Sweden....

  9. 78 FR 37244 - Submission for Review: We Need Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security Disability Benefits, RI 98-7. As required... Personnel Management. Title: We Need Important Information About Your Eligibility for Social Security... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: We Need Important Information About Your...

  10. 22 CFR 308.7 - Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved] 308.7 Section 308.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.7 Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved] ...

  11. How portable is social security for migrant workers? : A review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Taha (Nurulsyahirah); M. Messkoub (Mahmood); K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the literature on the portability of social security entitlements for migrant workers, who moved along North-North, South- North, and South-South migration flows. Portability of social security entitlements is the ability of migrant workers to preserve, maintain, and

  12. 38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs. 3.201 Section 3.201 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans...

  13. 75 FR 7546 - Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Eliminate the Social Security Number (SSN) as an Identification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Census Bureau 15 CFR Part 30 [Docket Number: 090422707-91445-02] RIN 0607-AA48 Foreign Trade Regulations (FTR): Eliminate the Social Security Number (SSN) as an Identification... Trade Regulations (FTR) to eliminate the requirement to report a Social Security Number (SSN) as an...

  14. 42 CFR 401.130 - Materials available at social security district offices and branch offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (HIM-10). (13) Home Health Agency Manual (HIM-11). (14) Outpatient Physical Therapy Provider Manual... social security district offices and branch offices: (1) Claims Manual of the Social Security Administration. (2) Department Staff Manual on Organization, Department of Health and Human Services, Part F, CMS...

  15. Social Protection and Economic Security of North African Migrant Workers in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA PARASCHIVESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes and analyses the situation of Maghrebis in France, as far as social security is concerned. The paradoxical situation experienced by these immigrants is related to their eligibility for social security and their discrimination on the labour market. As such, Maghrebis form the precarious layer of French society.

  16. 12 CFR 404.21 - Submission of social security and passport numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of social security and passport numbers. 404.21 Section 404.21 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Access to Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 404.21 Submission of social security and...

  17. On China’s Social Security System and Traditional Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢浙

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelation between China’s social security system and traditional Chinese culture, pointing out the meaning of the study, and that China’s social security system is a carrier and representation of traditional Chinese culture and

  18. Social Security and Saving: A Time-Series Econometrics Pedagogical Example (With "R" Code)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassell, Charles S., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    In 1974, and then again in 1996, Martin Feldstein published studies of the impact of the Social Security system on private saving in the U.S. economy. He found that Social Security depressed personal saving by a substantial amount--up to 50 percent. The author uses the Feldstein data and empirical models in this article to illustrate the steps in…

  19. 77 FR 43639 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2011-0090] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA)/Department of Veterans Affairs (VA.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503...

  20. 77 FR 54943 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2012-0016] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA)/Department of Veterans Affairs (VA.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Pub. L. 100-503...

  1. 75 FR 5166 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2009-0043] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration/Railroad Retirement Board (SSA/RRB))-- Match... INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 Public Law (Pub. L.) 100-503...

  2. A Guanxi Shibboleth based security infrastructure for e-social science

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Wei; Young, Alistair; Arshad, Junaid; Finch, June; Procter, Rob; Turner, Andy

    2008-01-01

    An e-Social Science infrastructure generally has security requirements to protect their restricted resources or services. As a widely accepted authentication and authorization technology, Shibboleth supports the sharing of resources on interinstitutional federation. Guanxi is an open source implementation of the Shibboleth protocol and architecture. In this paper, we propose a security infrastructure for e-social science based on the Guanxi Shibboleth. This security infrastructure presents tw...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-vested worker covered under Social Security? 404.1402 Section 404.1402 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are a non-vested worker, we (the Social Security Administration) will consider your services in the railroad...

  4. [Evolution of worker's health in the social security medical examination in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Júnior, Afrânio Gomes; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia; Roselli-Cruz, Amadeu

    2012-10-01

    In order to analyze the practice of the social security medical examination starting from the introduction of the worker's health paradigms, data was gathered on the granting of social security disability benefits to assess worker illness based on notification of work-related accidents in the cement industries of Rio de Janeiro. From 2007 to 2009 there was only one notification, which involved a worker handling toxic waste instead of the energy matrix. However, the analysis revealed sources and mechanisms of illness overlooked in the social security medical examination, which is still focused on the one-cause-only logic of occupational medicine. To achieve the worker's health paradigms, changes are required to alter the way of conducting the social security medical examination, by re-establishing partnerships, training human resources, adopting epidemiological indicators, as well as setting and assessing social security goals that transcend the mere granting of disability benefits.

  5. Crowd Sensing-Enabling Security Service Recommendation for Social Fog Computing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Su, Zhou; Wang, Shen; Li, Jianhua

    2017-07-30

    Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT) to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on "friend" relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems.

  6. Crowd Sensing-Enabling Security Service Recommendation for Social Fog Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on “friend” relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems.

  7. Crowd Sensing-Enabling Security Service Recommendation for Social Fog Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Su, Zhou; Li, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT) to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on “friend” relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems. PMID:28758943

  8. Classes in Themselves and for Themselves: The Practice of Monitorial Education for Different Social Classes in Sweden, 1820-1843

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Esbjörn

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the monitorial system of education in Sweden between 1820 and 1843. In contrast to previous research, which has emphasised monitorial education as a method for disciplining poor children, this article compares the use of the method in schools for the working classes and in academic schools. Using concepts such as…

  9. Social support and marginalization as determinants of prenatal care in women with social security in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Cisneros, Maritza; Medina-Gómez, Oswaldo Sinoe

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal care ensures favorable results for maternal-fetal health and, to that end, it must be provided early, periodically, comprehensively and with high coverage. To find out the social determinants of prenatal care in women affiliated to the Mexican Institute of Social Security during 2014. Cross-sectional study where the association of social conditions, social support and family functioning with inadequate prenatal care was analyzed. A descriptive analysis was performed; hypothesis tests were used with chi-square (95% level of confidence). The prevalence ratio and Mann-Whitney's U-test were estimated to compare medians and logistic regression. Of the interviewed women, 58.1% had inadequate prenatal care, mainly associated with unplanned pregnancy, poor social support, low level of education and higher marginalization. Not having leaves of absence granted by employers was the main barrier in those women who did not attend health services. There is a need for strategies to be designed and implemented to enable understanding the interaction between different biological and social dimensions of the health-disease process and reduce health inequities that affect pregnant women, in order to achieve good prenatal care and to implement alternative models guaranteeing its efficiency. Copyright: © 2018 SecretarÍa de Salud.

  10. Evaluating the Sustainability of the Spanish Social Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social security has remarkable relevance in the general context of Spanish economy. This system is viable if the volume of active population increases at a higher rate than the number of pensioners does and if, in addition, active population is employed by the productive system. The reports of the National Institute of Statistics about Spanish demography demonstrate how these conditions are not met as of today, because our society has one of the highest aging rates and also a remarkable increase in the dependency rate. Through various techniques of time series analysis, this paper reveals the current economic trends in Spain to demonstrate the need for structural reforms of the system so as to make it more sustainable in the long term. To achieve this, it is necessary to change the financing model to a mixed one where the capitalization method plays a significant role, and also to implement urgent measures in order to reduce the barriers to business and employment development.

  11. Stochastic Actuarial Modelling of a Defined-Benefit Social Security Pension Scheme: An Analytical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Subramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Among the systems in place in different countries for the protection of the population against the long-term contingencies of old-age (or retirement), disability and death (or survivorship), defined-benefit social security pension schemes, i.e. social insurance pension schemes, by far predominate, despite the recent trend towards defined-contribution arrangements in social security reforms. Actuarial valuations of these schemes, unlike other branches of insurance, continue to be carried out a...

  12. Interrelations between Energy Security Economics and Social Cohesion: Analysis of a Lithuanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Genys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing attention to sustainable development in academic discourse fosters discussions on how energy security affects society. In most cases the discussions consider the political and economic consequences, which affect or may affect the society. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania. To achieve this aim the interrelations between energy security, energy economics and social cohesion are discussed. The theoretical framework of social cohesion (introduced by J. Jenson and P. Bernard is presented and applied in empirical analysis. The operationalization of empirical variables is based on economic, political and socio-cultural - activity areas, which are analyzed to verify the dichotomies between public attitudes and the actual behavior of society. These dichotomies help to distinguish six analytical dimensions, on the basis of which we created 17 empirical indicators, which analysis allows for describing the impact of Lithuanian energy security economics on social cohesion in quantitative data. The statistical analyses showed that the impact of attitudinal dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has an almost neutral effect: 3.05 (1-very negative; 3-neutral, 5-very positive. Whereas, the impact of behavioural dimensions of energy security economics on social cohesion has a negative effect: 2.47. The aggregated average of the overall impact of energy security economics on social cohesion in Lithuania has a negative effect: 2.76.

  13. Tax Compliance and Social Security Contributions – The Case Of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaz LESNIK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will examine the causes behind the higher level of compliance with social security contributions in comparison with other tax categories in the case of Slovenia. The results of econometric models suggest that the activities of the Tax Administration of the Republic of Slovenia, which were more stringently performed in the area of social security contributions in the most recent period, are an important – but not the only factor – behind the higher level of compliance in connection with social security contributions. At the same time, the decrease in tax compliance with other taxes (income tax, corporate income tax, and VAT did not essentially influence the higher level of compliance with social security contributions. The more consistent treatment of unpaid social security contributions as a criminal offence and the higher public awareness about the importance of paying social security contributions in the latest period are recognized as important factors which simultaneously constitute the main difference between social security contributions and other taxes. The higher level of public awareness about the benefits that result from public services financed with taxes is recognized as a possible way to more optimally collect taxes in Slovenia.

  14. Income distribution patterns from a complete social security database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzsy, N.; Néda, Z.; Santos, M. A.

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the income distribution of employees for 9 consecutive years (2001-2009) using a complete social security database for an economically important district of Romania. The database contains detailed information on more than half million taxpayers, including their monthly salaries from all employers where they worked. Besides studying the characteristic distribution functions in the high and low/medium income limits, the database allows us a detailed dynamical study by following the time-evolution of the taxpayers income. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of this kind (a previous Japanese taxpayers survey was limited to two years). In the high income limit we prove once again the validity of Pareto’s law, obtaining a perfect scaling on four orders of magnitude in the rank for all the studied years. The obtained Pareto exponents are quite stable with values around α≈2.5, in spite of the fact that during this period the economy developed rapidly and also a financial-economic crisis hit Romania in 2007-2008. For the low and medium income category we confirmed the exponential-type income distribution. Following the income of employees in time, we have found that the top limit of the income distribution is a highly dynamical region with strong fluctuations in the rank. In this region, the observed dynamics is consistent with a multiplicative random growth hypothesis. Contrarily with previous results obtained for the Japanese employees, we find that the logarithmic growth-rate is not independent of the income.

  15. 24 CFR 5.218 - Penalties for failing to disclose and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and verify Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 5.218 Section 5.218 Housing and Urban... REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Disclosure and Verification of Social Security Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers; Procedures for Obtaining Income Information Disclosure and Verification of Social Security...

  16. 20 CFR 404.469 - Nonpayment of benefits where individual has not furnished or applied for a Social Security number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not furnished or applied for a Social Security number. 404.469 Section 404.469 Employees' Benefits... or applied for a Social Security number. No monthly benefits will be paid to an entitled individual... or her Social Security number, or, if the individual has not been assigned a number, he or she makes...

  17. 48 CFR 1552.224-70 - Social security numbers of consultants and certain sole proprietors and Privacy Act statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Social security numbers of... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.224-70 Social security numbers of consultants and... provision in all solicitations. Social Security Numbers of Consultants and Certain Sole Proprietors and...

  18. 20 CFR 220.37 - When a child's disability determination is governed by the regulations of the Social Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Inclusion as a disabled child in the employee's annuity rate under the social security overall minimum. (2... governed by the regulations of the Social Security Administration. 220.37 Section 220.37 Employees... Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.37 When a...

  19. 78 FR 9987 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0071] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative Law Judges (ALJs); Correction AGENCY: Social Security...

  20. 78 FR 22361 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0071] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias, Misconduct, or Discrimination by Administrative Law Judges (ALJs); Correction AGENCY: Social Security...

  1. Social Media Marketing vs. Prevalent Marketing Practices Master Thesis : A Study of Marketing Approaches for Micro firms in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Muhammad; ghaffar, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Background In Sweden almost 90% of businesses are micro in nature which plays a pivotal role in the economy by generating employment opportunities as well as serving a source of instilling entrepreneurial spirit and innovation. Due to their invaluable contributions to the economy, their survival through revenue generating marketing practices has become an area of much more interest than ever realized before. A common misconception prevalent is that marketing in micro businesses is just a mini...

  2. Food and nutrition security as gendered social practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, A.

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the world, the food security of households and the nutrition security of individual household members, in particular that of children, are still at risk, in spite of the progress made in combatting hunger at the global level. The prevailing opinion among scientists and development

  3. New technologies and emerging threats: personnel security adjudicative guidelines in the age of social networking

    OpenAIRE

    Festa, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Publicized incidents involving espionage or violence by government employees with security clearances have raised concern for the personnel security community. The guidelines used to adjudicate security clearances were last updated in 2005; since that time, significant technological developments, especially in social media and communications, have emerged. This thesis developed a comprehensive list of current Internet behaviors, and us...

  4. Twitter, Facebook, and Ten Red Balloons: Social Network Problem Solving and Homeland Security

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (February 2011), v.7 no.1 This essay, the winner of the Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS) Essay Contest in 2010, looks at how homeland security could benefit from crowd-sourced applications accessed through social networking tools such as Twitter and Facebook. Christopher M. Ford looks at the apparent efficacy of two such endeavors: the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency'۪s (DARPA) competition to find ten 8-foot balloo...

  5. The Migration Security in Russian Society amid Ethnic and Social Conflicts Aggravation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N А Tkacheva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available National security protection emerges as an indispensable factor for the development of personality, society, and state amid the increasing complexity of international migration processes. The article touches upon the peculiarities of ethnic and social relations between migrants and members of the host country providing insight into the novel category of "migration security".

  6. Yearly Data for Spoken Language Preferences of Social Security Disability Insurance Claimants (2011-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This data set provides annual volumes for language preferences at the national level of individuals filing claims for ESRD Medicare benefits for federal fiscal years...

  7. A blueprint for social security reform: a report by the National Council of Welfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    This report is a first response to the discussion paper entitled, 'Improving Social Security in Canada' which was tabled in Parliament on October 5, 1994 by the Minister of Human Resources Development...

  8. A profile of social security child beneficiaries and their families: sociodemographic and economic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Christopher R; Cupito, Emily; Shoffner, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Using a rich dataset that links the Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation calendar-year 2004 file with Social Security benefit records, this article provides a portrait of the sociodemographic and economic characteristics of Social Security child beneficiaries. We find that the incidence ofbenefit receipt in the child population differs substantially across individual and family-level characteristics. Average benefit amounts also vary across subgroups and benefit types. The findings provide a better understanding of the importance of Social Security to families with beneficiary children. Social Security is a major source of family income for many child beneficiaries, particularly among those with low income or family heads with lower education and labor earnings.

  9. Social Security and the Retirement and Savings Behavior of Low Income Households1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Klaauw, Wilbert; Wolpin, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and estimate a model of retirement and savings incorporating limited borrowing, stochastic wage offers, health status and survival, social security benefits, Medicare and employer provided health insurance coverage, and intentional bequests. The model is estimated on sample of relatively poor households from the first three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), for whom we would expect social security income to be of particular importance. The estimated model is used to simulate the responses to changes in social security rules, including changes in benefit levels, in the payroll tax, in the social security earnings tax and in early and normal retirement ages. Welfare and budget consequences are estimated. PMID:21566719

  10. The Soft Side of Cyber Security - Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Elkjer

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cyber-security is growing. With the continued digitization of our everyday life we become increasingly vulnerable to cyber-attacks – also personally. Therefore, it is an issue to be taken extremely seriously.......The importance of cyber-security is growing. With the continued digitization of our everyday life we become increasingly vulnerable to cyber-attacks – also personally. Therefore, it is an issue to be taken extremely seriously....

  11. Trends and Correlates of Consenting to Provide Social Security Numbers: Longitudinal Findings from the General Social Survey (1993-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Shin, Hee-Choon; Rosen, Zohn; Kang, Jeong-han; Dykema, Jennifer; Muennig, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Privacy and confidentiality are often of great concern to respondents answering sensitive questions posed by interviewers. Using the 1993-2010 General Social Survey, we examined trends in the provision of social security numbers (SSNs) and correlates of those responses. Results indicate that the rate of SSN provision has declined over the past…

  12. Imperfect Annuity Markets, Unintended Bequests, and the Optimal Age Structure of Social Security Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Feldstein

    1989-01-01

    The social security program now provides a constant real benefit throughout each retirees lifetime. This paper examines whether total welfare would rise if benefits were lower in early retirement years (when most individuals have some saving with which to finance consumption) and higher in later years (when the uncertainty of survival and the absence of actuarially fair private annuities makes the availability of social security benefits more important.) The analysis shows that there is a pot...

  13. Sample Loss and Survey Bias in Estimates of Social Security Beneficiaries: A Tale of Two Surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Czajka; James Mabli; Scott Cody

    2008-01-01

    Data from the Census Bureau’s Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the Current Population Survey (CPS) provide information on current and potential beneficiaries served by Social Security Administration (SSA) programs. SSA also links administrative records to the records of survey respondents who provide Social Security numbers. These matched data expand the content of the SIPP and CPS files to fields available only through SSA and Internal Revenue Service records—such as l...

  14. Fair Secure Computation with Reputation Assumptions in the Mobile Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of mobile devices and wireless technologies, mobile social networks become increasingly available. People can implement many applications on the basis of mobile social networks. Secure computation, like exchanging information and file sharing, is one of such applications. Fairness in secure computation, which means that either all parties implement the application or none of them does, is deemed as an impossible task in traditional secure computation without mobile social networks. Here we regard the applications in mobile social networks as specific functions and stress on the achievement of fairness on these functions within mobile social networks in the presence of two rational parties. Rational parties value their utilities when they participate in secure computation protocol in mobile social networks. Therefore, we introduce reputation derived from mobile social networks into the utility definition such that rational parties have incentives to implement the applications for a higher utility. To the best of our knowledge, the protocol is the first fair secure computation in mobile social networks. Furthermore, it finishes within constant rounds and allows both parties to know the terminal round.

  15. Return to work after renal transplantation: a study of the Brazilian Public Social Security System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, Alexandre Augusto; Reichelt, Angela J; Dos Santos, Edson F; Albuquerque, Galton C; Kramer, José S P; Hirakata, Vania N; Garcia, Valter D

    2014-12-15

    Return to work is an objective parameter used worldwide to evaluate the success of organ transplantation and is especially feasible after renal transplantation. This study sought to describe the frequency of return to work after renal transplantation and related characteristics. Retrospective cohort of 511 isolated kidney transplant recipients was recruited from a Brazilian referral center from January 2005 to December 2009; all were matched to the public social security database to determine inclusion and benefit awards, as well as the rate of resumption of contributions to the public social security system, a surrogate marker of work rehabilitation. Characteristics associated with work return were analyzed. No social security records were found for 28 subjects. The remaining 483 subjects had a mean age of 45±13 years; 62% were male; 401 (83%) received some public social security benefit; 298 were paying dues and could, therefore, receive temporary or permanent disability benefits. Of these, 78 subjects made social security payments after transplantation, resulting in a work return rate of 26% (95% confidence interval, 21-32). Younger age, living donor graft, and chronic glomerulonephritis were significantly associated with return to work. In Brazil, most renal transplant recipients are on social security benefits, but only a small proportion return to work after surgery. Clinical characteristics may help define work resumption trends.

  16. [From assimilation to multiculturalism. Twenty years of policy and social research on immigration in Sweden (1966-1985)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, C

    1991-03-01

    "The essay analyzes the immigration policy pursued by Sweden from 1966, the year in which the first commission was established for this particular area, till 1985, the year in which an important reform was passed regarding the reception of refugees. The focal point of this immigration policy is singled out halfway in the 70's when the assimilation model is repudiated in favor of multiculturalism. One of the main features of this policy is the priority role accorded to research. The author examines the main fields of interest pursued by researchers, in particular the more recent studies on the ethnic-cultural dimension of the immigration phenomenon." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  17. Sweden's help

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The Government of Sweden has decided to provide funds for the Agency to use for agreed projects in developing countries, and the Board of Governors has authorized the Director General to conclude an agreement to bring the scheme into effect. The Agency will administer the funds and will select and process requests to be considered for their use; it will also be responsible for project supervision and control. Responsibility for implementing the agreement on behalf of the Swedish Government is entrusted to the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) which functions under the auspices of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and administers Swedish bilateral technical, financial and humanitarian assistance. SIDA has already provided, or has agreed to provide, assistance for a number of Agency technical co-operation programmes and for the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste. (author)

  18. Analysis of Department of Defense social media policy and its impact on operational security

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardi, Eric V.; Murphy, Mark; Kim, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The emergence and rapid adoption of social media by society has forced the Department of Defense (DOD) to adapt, and ultimately develop and incorporate, social media policy into its cybersecurity strategy. While social media has influenced DOD strategy, it has also had a direct impact on the organization’s operational security (OPSEC). DOD personnel using social media represent a potential OPSEC risk through the various ways and means ...

  19. Reliance on social security benefits by Swedish patients with ill-health attributed to dental fillings: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi-Akbar, Aron; Svedberg, Pia; Alexanderson, Kristina; Ekstrand, Jan; Sandborgh-Englund, Gunilla

    2012-08-30

    Some people attribute their ill health to dental filling materials, experiencing a variety of symptoms. Yet, it is not known if they continue to financially support themselves by work or become reliant on different types of social security benefits. The aim of this study was to analyse reliance on different forms of social security benefits by patients who attribute their poor health to dental filling materials. A longitudinal cohort study with a 13-year follow up. The subjects included were 505 patients attributing their ill health to dental restorative materials, who applied for subsidised filling replacement. They were compared to a cohort of matched controls representing the general population (three controls per patient). Annual individual data on disability pension, sick leave, unemployment benefits, and socio-demographic factors was obtained from Statistics Sweden. Generalized estimating equations were used to test for differences between cohorts in number of days on different types of social security benefits. The cohort of dental filling patients had a significantly higher number of days on sick leave and disability pension than the general population. The test of an overall interaction effect between time and cohort showed a significant difference between the two cohorts regarding both sick leave and disability pension. In the replacement cohort, the highest number of sick-leave days was recorded in the year they applied for subsidised replacement of fillings. While sick leave decreased following the year of application, the number of days on disability pension increased and peaked at the end of follow-up. Ill health related to dental materials is likely to be associated with dependence on social security benefits. Dental filling replacement does not seem to improve workforce participation.

  20. Reliance on social security benefits by Swedish patients with ill-health attributed to dental fillings: a register-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimi-Akbar Aron

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some people attribute their ill health to dental filling materials, experiencing a variety of symptoms. Yet, it is not known if they continue to financially support themselves by work or become reliant on different types of social security benefits. The aim of this study was to analyse reliance on different forms of social security benefits by patients who attribute their poor health to dental filling materials. Methods A longitudinal cohort study with a 13-year follow up. The subjects included were 505 patients attributing their ill health to dental restorative materials, who applied for subsidised filling replacement. They were compared to a cohort of matched controls representing the general population (three controls per patient. Annual individual data on disability pension, sick leave, unemployment benefits, and socio-demographic factors was obtained from Statistics Sweden. Generalized estimating equations were used to test for differences between cohorts in number of days on different types of social security benefits. Results The cohort of dental filling patients had a significantly higher number of days on sick leave and disability pension than the general population. The test of an overall interaction effect between time and cohort showed a significant difference between the two cohorts regarding both sick leave and disability pension. In the replacement cohort, the highest number of sick-leave days was recorded in the year they applied for subsidised replacement of fillings. While sick leave decreased following the year of application, the number of days on disability pension increased and peaked at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Ill health related to dental materials is likely to be associated with dependence on social security benefits. Dental filling replacement does not seem to improve workforce participation.

  1. Social differences in who receives questions and advice about smoking habits when visiting primary care - Results from a population based study in Sweden in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molarius, Anu; Hellstrand, Mats; Engström, Sevek

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there are social disparities in who receives questions and advice on smoking habits when visiting primary care and whether these disparities can be explained by differences in smoking habits. The study is based on 30,188 individuals aged 16-84 years who responded to a population survey questionnaire in 2012 in four counties in mid-Sweden (response rate 51%). Multivariate logistic regression models were used in statistical analyses. A total of 32% of those who visited a health care centre during the last three months reported that they were asked about their smoking habits during their latest visit, 6% received advice. In general, daily smokers received more often questions, and especially advice, than non-smokers. Persons with low education received more advice than persons with high education due to higher smoking prevalence. However, persons on disability pension and the unemployed were less frequently asked about their smoking habits than employees even though they smoke more. Women received less often questions and advice than men. Persons born outside the Nordic countries received advice twice as often as native Swedes regardless of whether they were daily smokers or not. In Sweden, those who are asked and, in particular, receive advice about changing their smoking habits while visiting primary care are mainly those who need it most. But the findings also imply that measures to reduce smoking should be intensified for women and are perhaps too intense for persons born outside the Nordic countries.

  2. SOCIAL CAPITAL AS THE BASIS FOR THE FORMATION OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC SECURITY IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Sukhostavets

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is the basis for the definition of the future concept of rural areas management. Therefore, one of the most important tasks is to determine the various factors of existence, development, and formation of social capital. One of these factors is the security of rural areas and the definition of how social capital affects it. The analysis of the available scientific works in various areas reveals the lack of consensus in the definition of the category “socio-economic security of rural areas”. This is due to the fact that the definition of social and economic security of rural areas is identified with such concepts as the ability to provide resistance to various internal and external environmental influences. The purpose of the study is to determine the nature of social capital, as well as to study its impact on the socio-economic security of the state. The methodology of the research is based on the monographic method, the method of dialectic cognition, the scenario methods used to find the optimal scenario implementation option; SWOT-analysis is used to assess the positive or negative impact of social capital on the socio-economic security of rural areas. Understanding the essence of socio-economic security has led to the conclusion that it consists of economic, social, environmental and other types of security. The term “social security” in the understanding of researchers usually has two interpretations: traditional (absence of threats to the society and alternative (absence of threats from the society. It is proved that the social security of the region should be focused on ensuring primarily human rights and freedoms, namely, personal, political, social, economic, cultural, environmental, and family ones. Social and economic security should also provide social standards and guarantees, as well as norms. The economic basis of the security of rural areas is manifested in the development of market relations, infrastructure

  3. Keep going in adversity – using a resilience perspective to understand the narratives of long-term social assistance recipients in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marttila Anneli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In Sweden, means-tested social assistance serves as a temporary, last resort safety net. However, increasing numbers of people are receiving it for longer periods and about a third has assistance for more than a year. The aim of this study was to explore the ways social assistance recipients manage long lasting adversity and their roles as active, rather than passive, agents in this process, using a resilience perspective. Method The study is based on thirteen in-depth interviews with long-term social assistance recipients from diverse areas in Stockholm County. The interviews were guided by narrative inquiry to interpret and construct stories of experiences and are part of a larger qualitative study exploring experiences of living on social assistance in Sweden. Results Experiences of cumulative adversity during many years compounded recipients’ difficulties in finding ways out of hardship. They had different strategies to deal with adversities, and many had underlying “core problems”, including mental health problems, which had not been properly resolved. Recipients’ showed resistance in adverse situations. Some made attempts to find ways out of hardship, whereas others struggled mainly to achieve a sense of mastering life. They received important support from individual professionals in different authorities, but mostly the help from the welfare system was fragmented. Conclusions Social assistance recipients in this study demonstrated agency in ways of managing long lasting difficulties, sometimes caused by “core problems”, which were often accumulated into complex difficulties. Resilience was about keeping going and resisting these difficulties. To find ways out of social assistance required help from different welfare agencies and professionals and was hindered by the fragmentation of services. This study shows that there is a need for more long-term personalised, comprehensive support, including

  4. Sweden's largest Facebook study

    OpenAIRE

    Denti, Leif; Barbopoulus, Isak; Nilsson, Ida; Holmberg, Linda; Thulin, Magdalena; Wendeblad, Malin; Andén, Lisa; Davidsson, Emelie

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet has made it easier for people to socially interact than ever before. Today, the most popular channel is Facebook with over 845 million users world wide. In Sweden, the number of users amount to approximately half of the population. We had two aims with this study. First, we investigate which areas of Facebook usage that Swedish Facebook users consider more important vis-a-vis less important. We were also interested in how users convey their persona through t... m...

  5. A Socially Inclusive Pathway to Food Security: The Agroecological Alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. McKay (Ben)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction__ With roughly 1 billion people unable to meet their minimum daily caloric intake, the issue of food security is imperative to overcoming rural poverty. The way in which we produce food plays an extremely important role in solving the hunger epidemic and reaching

  6. Caregiver Sensitivity, Contingent Social Responsiveness, and Secure Infant Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Kassow, Danielle Z.

    2008-01-01

    Findings from two research syntheses of the relationship between caregiver sensitivity and secure infant attachment and one research synthesis of factors associated with increased caregiver use of a sensitive interactional style are presented. The main focus of analysis was the extent to which different measures of caregiver contingent social…

  7. Social Status and the Demand for Security and Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossklags, Jens; Barradale, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    . The method of investigation used is experimental, with 146 subjects interacting in high- or low-status assignments and the subsequent change in the demand for security and privacy being related to status assignment with a significant t-statistic up to 2.9, depending on the specification. We find that a high...

  8. Flexibility and security : National social models in transitional labour markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muffels, R.J.A.; Crouch, Colin; Wilthagen, A.C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aggregate and individual data are used to test the association between employment performance and different ways of reconciling flexibility and security in European labour markets. Particular use is made of statistics on individuals’ labour market transitions as revealed by national labour force

  9. Symmetry in Social Construction during ERP Implementation: A Systems Security Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Njenga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle of symmetry in enterprise resource planning (ERP systems implementation holds that the researcher should deploy impartial explanation in cases of success as in cases of failure. This article examines the symmetry intrinsic in social construction within the various stages of the ERP development life cycle, from initiation to implementation. Discourse on symmetry focuses on whether social constructs are able to influence ERP implementation positively (success or negatively (failure and whether this exposes ERP systems to information security risk. The theoretical lens of social construction of technology (SCOT theory, a theory premised on social interaction between agents and technology artefacts, is applied for this purpose. The research was quantitative with a survey having been conducted on information technology (IT and information security (IS practitioners. Results of the study highlight the significant role social construction plays because of the direct linkage it has with the implementation of information security controls in ERP systems.  The research delineated five social constructs, namely positional influence, reward influence, coercive influence, expert influence and referent influence. For purposes of this research and on the sampling criteria applied, the construct ‘expert influence’, a typology of social construction, is shown to be more domineering than other typologies of social construction and is seen as providing symmetrical balance between governing ERP security (success and risk (failure. Implications of these results for theory and practice are discussed in the main article.

  10. A study on the barriers of the implementation of social security act in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, an analytical review was done on the historical process and contexts of welfare system and social security in order to analyze and evaluate the main features of this act especially in the area of medical services. It was also attempted to study the executive barriers of the appropriate implementation of social ...

  11. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all Spanish...

  12. Social Information Processing, Security of Attachment, and Emotion Regulation in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security…

  13. Security risks:threats & rewards in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Punjabi, V. (Vikesh)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the last decade, without any doubt, social media i.e. social network platforms that are mainly created in order to interact with each other such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google +, Tumblr, Instagram, Flickr, Myspace, Blogs, YouTube, or any user generated content websites gained huge access in public daily life including individuals and organizations. These social network platforms, especially Facebook, Twi...

  14. Comprehensive Social Media Security Analysis & XKeyscore Espionage Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Ali.Zare Hudaib

    2014-01-01

    Social networks can offer many services to the users for sharing activities events and their ideas. Many attacks can happened to the social networking websites due to trust that have been given by the users. Cyber threats are discussed in this paper. We study the types of cyber threats, classify them and give some suggestions to protect social networking websites of variety of attacks. Moreover, we gave some antithreats strategies with future trends.

  15. [Changes in workers' rehabilitation procedures under the Brazilian social security system: modernization or undermining of social protection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mara Alice Batista Conti; Iguti, Aparecida Mari

    2008-11-01

    This article describes the changes in workers' rehabilitation practices under the Brazilian National Social Security Institute (INSS) in the 1990s, in the context of neoliberal economic adjustment measures, based on an analysis of INSS documents from 1992 to 1997. The INSS plan for "modernization" of workers' rehabilitation led to: (1) dismantling of multidisciplinary teams; (2) induction of workers to accept proportional retirement pensions and voluntary layoffs; (3) under-utilization of the remaining INSS professional staff; (4) elimination of treatment programs for workers' rehabilitation; and (5) dismantling of INSS rehabilitation centers and clinics. The changes in the Brazilian social security system undermined the county's social security project and hegemony and reduced social security reform to a mere management and fiscal issue. Current "rehabilitation" falls far short of the institution's original purpose of social protection for workers, while aiming at economic regulation of the system to contain costs of workers' benefits. Workers that suffer work-related accidents are denied occupational rehabilitation, which aggravates their social disadvantage when they return to work.

  16. Behavioral analysis of use personal service e-balance Indonesian social security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gunawan; Fitriani, Novi; Nurul Fajar, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Indonesian Social Security is the one of the government agencies that is trusted to organize social security. With help of Information technology that growing these day, Indonesian Social Security is also developing E-Balance application, where previously all activities for checking balance is done by giving their slip details through the nearest branch to be distributed to each company. So far there is no research that reviewing e-Balance. Hence, the authors is interested to do research related factors that influence the behavior of the use of E-Balance Indonesian Social Security in the Jakarta area and model that can describe those factors Authors distributing questioners to 193 respondents and perform data processing. The result of this study is to know the factors that influence the behavior of use Personal Service E-Balance Indonesian Social Security and model that can describe those factors. The result shows that UTAUT 2 model is not match with this research and need to be enhanced. After enhancement, there are 3 factors that being significant. Such as Behavioral Intention, Effort Expectancy and Social Influence while the others are not supported and need to be customize.

  17. Social Security Contributions and Return Migration Among Older Male Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Emma; Vega, Alma

    2017-06-01

    For decades, scholars have studied the effects of immigration on the U.S. social security system. To date, this research has been primarily limited to migrants within the United States and does not consider those who return to their countries of origin. We estimate the proportion of male Mexican return migrants who contributed to the U.S. social security system and analyze their socioeconomic characteristics and migration histories. We also estimate the proportion that receive or expect to receive U.S. social security benefits. Using probit regression on the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), we describe the predictors of having contributed to the U.S. social security system among Mexican males in Mexico aged 50 years and older who at some point lived in the United States. We find that 32% of male return migrants reported having contributed to the U.S. social security system, but only 5% of those who contributed, received or expected to receive benefits. Those who reported having contributed spent more years in the United States and were more likely to be U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents than those who did not contribute. Immigrants often pay Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance taxes using legitimate or illegitimate social security numbers and return to their home countries without collecting U.S. social security benefits. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Psychological factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in the educational environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmeleva E.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative sociocultural transformations that are taking place in modern society and the resulting psychological transformation of personality and mode of life strongly require searching for ways of providing social safety to the next generation, with teachers being the implementers of this process. Teachers’ professionalism is determined by their willingness to solve personal and socially relevant problems, including the willingness to provide social security for other people, to thwart social risks, and to build constructive interpersonal relationships. The aim of our research was to reveal and to analyze the psychological factors affecting the readiness of teachers to ensure social security in educational environments. The environmental factors of social risk have been theoretically characterized. It has been shown that the essential factor in ensuring students’ social security is providing a safe social environment in educational institutions; such an environment provides the learners and the teachers with sociopsychological security and psychosocial well-being. The empirical part of our study was devoted to identifying negative social phenomena in the schools in the Ivanovo region (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 700 students and to identifying the personally and professionally important qualities of the teachers and the subjective psychological factors of their readiness to ensure social security in the educational environment (through interviewing 300 teachers; the administration of the questionnaires and the interviewing were followed by an assessment of their significance (with the help of a questionnaire administered to 140 teachers. Using factor analysis we identified the relevant indicators and grouped them into six factors of the readiness of teachers to ensure a safe educational environment. Relevant personal and professional qualities of teachers were revealed; these are the subjective factors of the

  19. social security and national insurance trust of ghana annual reports

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    company's activities and financial performance. The Social ... Hence, this paper attempts to evaluate the readability of annual reports of SSNIT and establish the ... One of the tenets of effective communication is ... Scheme and to cater for the First Tier of the contributory ..... Corporate. Social Responsibility and Environmental.

  20. Children’s Sense of Security in Social Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Imanian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a study of the sense of security of middle-class children in Iran. Through taking a grounded theory approach, it explores the concept of insecurity in homes and cities and children’s reactions to feeling insecure. To do so, Draw and Write, Picture-Aided Questionnaire, and interview were applied to 100 children between 7 and 14 years of age. The findings revealed an ever-present feeling of anxiety and helplessness which was rooted in the human security conditions and in children’s status in society. The children showed two different reactions of active and passive when facing this feeling. As a consequence of active strategy, children grow a sense of fear management, become optimistic, and feel satisfied. Those who passively react to feeling insecure grow a desire for power and become depressed and unable to trust others.

  1. An improved smartcard for the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA): A proof of life based solution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthethwa, Sthembile

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Conference on Information Science and Security, Pattaya, Thailand, 19 - 22 December 2016 An improved smartcard for the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA): A proof of life based solution Mthethwa, S. Barbour, G. Thinyane, M...

  2. A Socially Inclusive Pathway to Food Security: The Agroecological Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Ben McKay

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction__ With roughly 1 billion people unable to meet their minimum daily caloric intake, the issue of food security is imperative to overcoming rural poverty. The way in which we produce food plays an extremely important role in solving the hunger epidemic and reaching the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of eradicating extreme hunger and poverty. The dominant model of agricultural development practised by many countries today is based on chemical-intensive agr...

  3. Social Protection for Enhanced Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Devereux

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies several positive synergies between social protection programmes and food security outcomes. One function of social protection is to manage and reduce vulnerability, and several instruments are reviewed – weather-indexed insurance, public works programmes, emergency food aid and buffer stock management – which all contribute to stabilising income and access to food across good and bad years, or between the harvest and the hungry season. Other social protection instruments...

  4. Social Media - DoD’s Greatest Information Sharing Tool or Weakest Security Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. SOCIAL MEDIA – DOD’S GREATEST INFORMATION SHARING TOOL...appropriateness and effectiveness of these policies in securing the information network. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Social media , information...TYPE Civilian Research Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) August 2009-April 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Social Media

  5. distinguishing between private law and social-security law in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dmillard

    DEDUCTING SOCIAL GRANTS FROM CLAIMS FOR LOSS OF SUPPORT. 2011 VOLUME 14 No 4 ... Two recent conflicting decisions in Makhuvela v Road Accident Fund. 1 and Road ..... permanently unfit for work. Notwithstanding this, his ...

  6. Comparison of the Efficiency of Budget Financing and the Social Security of a Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Kuklin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the theoretical and economic aspects of the category “security” are considered, the distinction between philosophical and socio-economic approaches to the understanding of social security is drawn. From the point of view of the system approach, the place of social security for national security protection is determined. The theoretical content of the category “social security” is shown; in the authors’ treatment, the specifying concepts such as “social risks”, “danger”, “threat” are given. For the purpose of risks identification (deviations and the revealing of the factors of inefficient financing, the methodological tools for the assessment of the social security of a region are proposed. These tools are based on the integrated assessment of the regional socio-economic indexes and the indexes assessing the budgetary financing of the territory. The methodical approach offered by the authors is based on the detection of dependencies between the social and financial security of a region. As estimates, the indicators reflecting the level of social security in the territory of residence are chosen: income, expenses of the consolidated budget of a region, growth rate of gross regional product, rate of natural population growth, level of unemployment, population share with the income below living level. This approach is approved on the example of Perm Krai and Sverdlovsk region; the regularities, the favourable and adverse periods for social security of the region are revealed. The received estimates are ranged depending on a temporary log of growth (fall, elasticity and sensitivity to the budget financing. The results of the assessment have shown that, from the point of view of social security protection, Perm Krai has entered a stage of deep recession, which started in 2012. Similar tendencies are observed in the Sverdlovsk region. Nevertheless, considering both a visible variety and the dominating influence of

  7. Dreams that do not come true: Re-addressing social security to expand old-age social protection : The case of informal workers in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.E.A. Joya (Nancy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on old-age income security, with the objective to explore obstacles and opportunities to expand social protection for informal workers in El Salvador. It first introduces the main concepts and debates on social security, social protection, coverage and informality, to

  8. Social Media Platforms as a Tool for Sharing Emotions. A Perspective upon the National Security Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Diana LEON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotions importance increases even more in the context of the national security agencies. Since their mission is to protect and defend the citizens against attacks and also to provide leadership and justice services to other agencies and partners, the aim of the information they post on social media should be twofold: on the one hand, it should reflect the attitudes, values and beliefs, supported by the institution, and on the other hand, it should have an impact on citizens feeling of security. But, do they manage to meet these demands? Are they focusing on impressing the audience or they concentrate on sharing specific emotions? Is it a marketing strategy or a knowledge strategy? Starting from these, the purpose of this research is to set a nexus between emotions and the use of social media by the national security organizations. In other words, we aim (i to determine the main types of emotions, (ii to establish whether these are shared within the social media platforms, (iii to identify the purpose for which the national security organizations use social media, (iv to determine whether social media could serve as Ba for the national security organizations. In order to achieve these objectives, we employ an ethic approach and develop a longitudinal study based on quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The results prove that social media platforms may serve as Ba since they appear as a shared space which fosters individual and collective knowledge creation and sharing. The national security agencies  use social media platforms for combining the classical four types of Ba: originating Ba (it shares its emotions, feelings and thoughts through its posts, interacting Ba (through the generated reactions and comments, it ensures the development of shared models and the conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, cyber Ba (by fostering the virtual interaction among its followers and exercising Ba (by facilitating the creation of

  9. Construction Strategies of Social Security System for Wan-jiang Urban Belt’s Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical debate and practice exploration on social security of migrant workers were introduced.The political direction and security layer on social security for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt were analyzed:the first layer is to implement wage payment guarantee and employment injury insurance;the second layer is to emphasize serious disease insurance and endowment insurance;the third layer is unemployed insurance and social assistance.The primary strategy of building a social security system for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt was put up:wage payment guarantee system that is united in certain regions should be promoted;employment injury insurance system that is undertaken by enterprises should be built;a social health care system for serious diseases should be set up;multi-layers endowment insurance system for migrant workers should be created;vocational training and training in how to start a business should be built as well as the unemployment insurance system;social assistant system based on the basic cost of living allowances should be set up.

  10. Exploring the youth experience about sense of social security: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinekesh, Ahdieh; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmael; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Ardalan, Gelayol; Djalalinia, Shirin

    2017-12-01

    Undoubtedly, one of the vital needs of man is security. Determinants and related factors to sense of social security is one of the most important research priorities, especially in adolescents and young people. To identify the factors affecting the social security of the youth. In 2017, using conventional content analysis, and benefiting from semi-structured in-depth interviews, we conducted a qualitative study exploring the opinions of young people about their feelings regarding social security. First, a targeted sampling method was determined to collect the data. Participants were young volunteers aged 18 to 30 who were selected from Tehran, the capital of Iran. Inclusion criteria for participants were willingness to participate in the study and ability to express their experiences. Data was extracted from 21 participants. The participants consisted of 21 young people who met the study inclusion criteria, of whom 12 participants were male. Their mean age was 24.4±0.41 years and their education varied from primary school to master's degree. Under two main categories of the need for economic and financial security and the need for a safe society, we extracted 11 subcategories following 32 codes. According to the findings, most participants agreed on the important role that sense of social security has in their lives and their health. The important role of sense of social security in participant's lives and health was the main important point of our findings, emphasized by most of participants. Based on the results; the assessment of the specific needs of different target groups, the design, development and implementation of health programs led to more effective interventions.

  11. Social connectedness is associated with food security among peri-urban Peruvian Amazonian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwenyth O; Surkan, Pamela J; Zelner, Jon; Paredes Olórtegui, Maribel; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Caulfield, Laura E; Gilman, Robert H; Kosek, Margaret N

    2018-04-01

    Food insecurity is a major global public health issue. Social capital has been identified as central to maintaining food security across a wide range of low- and middle-income country contexts, but few studies have examined this relationship through sociocentric network analysis. We investigated relationships between household- and community-level social connectedness, household food security, and household income; and tested the hypothesis that social connectedness modified the relationship between income and food security. A cross-sectional census with an embedded questionnaire to capture social relationships was conducted among eleven peri-urban communities. Community connectedness was related to study outcomes of food security and per-capita income through regression models. Of 1520 households identified, 1383 were interviewed (91.0%) and 1272 (83.9%) provided complete data. Households in the youngest communities had the most total contacts, and the highest proportion of contacts outside of the community. Household income was also associated with more outside-community contacts (0.05 more contacts per standard deviation increase in income, psecure households reported more contacts nearby (0.24 increase in household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) for each additional contact, psecurity (-0.92 decrease in HFIAS for each one-unit increase in community mean degree, p=0.008). There was no evidence that social connectedness modified the relationship between income and food security such that lower-income households benefited more from community membership than higher-income households. Although households reported networks that spanned rural villages and urban centers, contacts within the community, with whom food was regularly shared, were most important to maintaining food security. Interventions that build within-community connectedness in peri-urban settings may increase food security.

  12. Physicians' Self-Conceptions of Their Expertise in Statutory Health Insurance and Social Security Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Wolfgang; Nüchtern, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    Medical experts who practice social medicine have a strong ethical approach for their professional positions. Their reports must reflect an objective, independent, high-quality assessment of interactions between health status and the disability of individuals. However, they must simultaneously consider the societal involvement of these individuals when determining the framework of the Statutory Health Insurance and Social Security Systems. Their task is to recommend sociomedical benefits that are tailored to suit personal needs and that respect the individual life situations of the persons involved, thus complementing the efforts of healthcare professionals in clinical settings. The editorial describes the self-conception of this medical specialty on behalf of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP). Policy makers in social insurances and social security systems generally must respect independent sociomedical recommendations as a crucial point for further realistic development activities.

  13. Extension of social security coverage for the informal economy in Indonesia : surveys in the urban and rural informal economy

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, John; Hirose, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extension of social security coverage to workers in the informal economy. In particular, the paper presents the results of surveys assessing social security needs of workers in the informal economy in both urban and rural areas. The outcome of these surveys provides primary information for the development of effective policy on social security coverage extension to these groups of workers.

  14. Effects of macroeconomic trends on social security spending due to sickness and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jahangir; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Jansson, Bjarne

    2004-11-01

    We analyzed the relationship between macroeconomic conditions, measured as unemployment rate and social security spending, from 4 social security schemes and total spending due to sickness and disability. We obtained aggregated panel data from 13 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries for 1980-1996. We used regression analysis and fixed effect models to examine spending on sickness benefits, disability pensions, occupational-injury benefits, survivor's pensions, and total spending. A decline in unemployment increased sickness benefits spending and reduced disability pension spending. These effects reversed direction after 4 years of unemployment. Inclusion of mortality rate as an additional variable in the analysis did not affect the findings. Macroeconomic conditions influence some reimbursements from social security schemes but not total spending.

  15. Trends in social security benefits for oral and oropharyngeal cancer from 2006 to 2013 in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; Cascaes, Andreia Morales

    2018-01-01

    to analyze the trends in the concession of social security sick pay for oral and oropharyngeal cancer, from 2006 to 2013, in Brazil. time series study using data of workers insured by the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security (INSS); Prais-Winsten generalized linear regressions were used to calculate the annual percentage change (APC). social security benefits for oral and oropharyngeal cancer presented significant increase (APC=9.0%; 95%CI 1.4; 17.4); benefits for other parts of the mouth, nasopharynx, oropharynx, floor of mouth and palate have also shown significant increase; the areas of trade (5.5%) and manufacturing (5.2%) were the most prevalent activities; there was a high proportion of fields in blank in the information systems (average of 72.9%). trends in occupational benefits for oral and oropharyngeal cancer showed significant increase.

  16. Computer Security: Social Media - Dos and Don’ts

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    Do you blog frequently? Send tweets about what you've done? Keep a lively Facebook profile? Comment regularly on interactive forums? Many of us do.    "Social media", i.e. Twitter, Facebook, public blogs, interactive forums and public commenting functions on websites, are widely used for sharing information, outreach and contact with the world. While you can make use of social media for many different purposes, the lines between private and public, personal and professional are often blurred. Consequently, it is often difficult to get the balance right. As a social animal, you want to be frank, open and communicative and share your knowledge, experiences, opinions, feelings and life with your peers. On the other hand, while working at or for CERN, you cannot act in the void but have to respect CERN’s Code of Conduct, CERN’s Computing Rules and, for CERN personnel, the Staff Rules and Regulations. Therefore, if your posts include mention ...

  17. Social differences in who receives questions and advice about smoking habits when visiting primary care – Results from a population based study in Sweden in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Molarius

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether there are social disparities in who receives questions and advice on smoking habits when visiting primary care and whether these disparities can be explained by differences in smoking habits. The study is based on 30,188 individuals aged 16–84 years who responded to a population survey questionnaire in 2012 in four counties in mid-Sweden (response rate 51%. Multivariate logistic regression models were used in statistical analyses. A total of 32% of those who visited a health care centre during the last three months reported that they were asked about their smoking habits during their latest visit, 6% received advice. In general, daily smokers received more often questions, and especially advice, than non-smokers. Persons with low education received more advice than persons with high education due to higher smoking prevalence. However, persons on disability pension and the unemployed were less frequently asked about their smoking habits than employees even though they smoke more. Women received less often questions and advice than men. Persons born outside the Nordic countries received advice twice as often as native Swedes regardless of whether they were daily smokers or not. In Sweden, those who are asked and, in particular, receive advice about changing their smoking habits while visiting primary care are mainly those who need it most. But the findings also imply that measures to reduce smoking should be intensified for women and are perhaps too intense for persons born outside the Nordic countries.

  18. Social security and retirement decision: A positive and normative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Social insurance for the elderly is judged responsible for the widely observed trend towards early retirement. In a world of laissez-faire or in a first-best setting, there would be no such trend. However, when first-best instruments are not available, because health and productivity are not observable, the optimal social insurance policy may imply a distortion on the retirement decision. The main point we make is that while there is no doubt that retirement systems induce an excessive bias t...

  19. The Influence of Globalization on the Change and Convergence of Social Security Transfer: An Empirical Analysis for OECD Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Hwang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a cross-section of OECD countries, this paper examines the relationship between globalization and the change and convergence of social security transfer. Globalization has arguably had a profound impact on the use of social protection in states, since it is normally accompanied with increases in income inequality, polarization, and unemployment. In addition, globalization may lead to socio- economic policy harmonization across countries. The empirical results show that there exists a significant and positive relationship between social security transfer in GDP and the globalization index based on political, economic, and social integrations. Also, we found the convergence phenomenon of social security transfer in OECD countries, applying the traditional methodology of convergence and convergence. Therefore, there is evidence in OECD countries that globalization indirectly affects the convergence of social security transfer in addition to direct relation to social security transfer in GDP.

  20. Immigration Control: A New Role for the Social Security Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    aid alterations Yellow. pink, and blue planchettes (discs) No sensory - Very time-consuming for a imeplanted in a random pattern on front and aid...with a magnifying glass counterfeiters, cannot replicate this effect HHS seal blue planchettes , and the words Sensory aid Fluorescent inks not Social

  1. Distribution of Responsibility for Social Security and Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Kongshøj

    It is shown that legislation of unemployment insurance and active labour market policy is set by the national government. Legislation with respect to employment protection, however, is largely left to the social partners, i.e. the dismissal of salaried workers is regulated by a special piece...

  2. Breach of Personal Security through Applicative use of Online Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Nikolovski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article there is an attempt to indicate the threats of potential to breach of personal security through applicative use of internet as well as applicative use of online social networks. In addition to many other ways of privacy protection applicative users of social network’s sites must take into considerations the risk of distributing private data. Through a series of actions and settings users can customize the security settings with the ultimate goal of reducing the risk of attack on their privacy.

  3. How Family Status and Social Security Claiming Options Shape Optimal Life Cycle Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubener, Andreas; Maurer, Raimond; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2016-04-01

    We show how optimal household decisions regarding work, retirement, saving, portfolio allocations, and life insurance are shaped by the complex financial options embedded in U.S. Social Security rules and uncertain family transitions. Our life cycle model predicts sharp consumption drops on retirement, an age-62 peak in claiming rates, and earlier claiming by wives versus husbands and single women. Moreover, life insurance is mainly purchased on men's lives. Our model, which takes Social Security rules seriously, generates wealth and retirement outcomes that are more consistent with the data, in contrast to earlier and less realistic models.

  4. The reformulation of emotional security theory: the role of children's social defense in developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T; Martin, Meredith J

    2013-11-01

    Although children's security in the context of the interparental relationship has been identified as a key explanatory mechanism in pathways between family discord and child psychopathology, little is known about the inner workings of emotional security as a goal system. Thus, the objective of this paper is to describe how our reformulation of emotional security theory within an ethological and evolutionary framework may advance the characterization of the architecture and operation of emotional security and, in the process, cultivate sustainable growing points in developmental psychopathology. The first section of the paper describes how children's security in the interparental relationship is organized around a distinctive behavioral system designed to defend against interpersonal threat. Building on this evolutionary foundation for emotional security, the paper offers an innovative taxonomy for identifying qualitatively different ways children try to preserve their security and its innovative implications for more precisely informing understanding of the mechanisms in pathways between family and developmental precursors and children's trajectories of mental health. In the final section, the paper highlights the potential of the reformulation of emotional security theory to stimulate new generations of research on understanding how children defend against social threats in ecologies beyond the interparental dyad, including both familial and extrafamilial settings.

  5. INTERNET SECURITY – TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL AWARENESS OF THE DANGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laskowski Piotr Paweł

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes selected issues related to user safety on the Internet. This safety consists of a number of factors such as the technology that we use to communicate and to browse the Internet, and habits and behaviors that we have acquired and through which we can identify at least some typical hazards encountered on the Web. Knowledge of software and the ability to use it and to configure it properly as well as checking regularly for security updates reduces the risk of data loss or identity theft. Public awareness of threats continues to grow, but there are also new, previously unknown threats; that is why it is so important to inform of the dangers by all available channels of communication.

  6. The Praxis of Social Enterprise and Human Security: An Applied Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm David Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of social enterprise within development NGO work might lead one to suspect it has been irredeemably corrupted by neo-liberal capitalism. However, using the tools of capitalism is not the same as subscribing to the values of capitalism. This paper is situated at the intersection of five fields: human security, international development, social enterprise, social franchising, and left-wing anti-capitalist thought. It examines the relevance of social en­terprise to human security and to development, the relationship between social enterprise and the anti-capitalist values of the left, and it then focuses on social franchising—a subset of social enterprise that highlights the importance of cooperation—suggesting that it may be a useful methodology for NGOs carrying out educational work in parts of the developing world. It syn­thesises and extends ideas that I have presented elsewhere [1-3], it draws on ethnographic fieldwork on the Thai-Burma border, and it puts forward an agenda for further applied research that is rooted in a sociological analysis of civil society and contributes to the human security paradigm.

  7. Tenure security, social relations and contract choice: Endogenous matching in the Chinese land rental market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianlei; Zhou, Yuepeng; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    In China, land rental transactions have increased considerably since the 1990s, but there exists a high degree of segmentation and informal features. The rental transactions between partners with close social relations and the use of informal contracts remain a common phenomenon in many regions, which strongly reduce the potential of the land rental market to enhance productivity and equity. The current literature postulates that the insecurity of land property rights may restrict land transactions between members of same social relations. Studies conducted in China show that the land rentals between partners with closer social relations prefer informal contracts because these contracts are self-enforced based on trust and reputation. However, little literature has jointly examined the effect of land tenure security and social relations on joint decisions of partner and contract choice in the Chinese land rental market. Based on household data collected in Jiangxi and Liaoning provinces in 2015, this paper aims to examine the relationship between land tenure security perceptions, social relation and land rental contract choices in China. We differentiate between formal and informal contracts of land rental activities because they have different enforcement mechanisms and thus different risk-sharing strategy. With regards to social relations, we differ among relatives, villagers living in the same village and strangers according to social distance. In order to reduce estimation bias without accounting for endogenous matching between landlords and tenants, we investigate the joint partner and contract choices in the land rental market using a nested logit framework. The paper contributes to the literature on the effect of tenure security and social relations on land rental contracts by (i) taking into account endogenous matching between landlords and tenants, and estimating the joint decisions of partner and contract choice, and (ii) examining the effect of perceived

  8. Individual social security accounts: issues in assessing administrative feasibility and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K A; Salisbury, D L

    1998-11-01

    Whether to add individual accounts (IAs) to the Social Security system is a highly political issue. But almost lost in the debate so far have been any practical considerations about how to administer such accounts. Any discussion of whether to create individual accounts must also address the basic but critical questions of how they would work: Who would run them? What would they cost? Logistically, are they even possible? This EBRI Issue Brief provides an overview of the most salient administrative issues facing the current Social Security reform debate--issues that challenge proponents to carefully think through how their proposals could be implemented so as to achieve their policy goals. The options and difficulties in administering IAs raise concerns that cut across ideology. The object of this report is neither to dissuade the advocates nor support the critics of individual accounts. Rather, it is to bring practical considerations to a political debate that has largely ignored the pragmatic challenges of whether IAs would be too complex for participants to understand or too difficult for record keepers to administer. The major findings in this analysis include: Adding individual accounts to Social Security could be the largest undertaking in the history of the U.S. financial market, and no system to date has the capacity to administer such a system. The number of workers currently covered by Social Security--the largest single entitlement program in the nation--is at least four times higher than the combined number of all tax-favored employment-based retirement accounts in the United States, which are administered by hundreds of entities. Direct comparisons between employment-based retirement savings plans and Social Security reform are tenuous at best. Social Security covers workers and businesses that are disproportionately excluded from employment-based plans. Because of these differences, a system of individual Social Security accounts would be more

  9. Domestic Labor and the Lack of Social Security Protection in Brazil: Questions for Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Lourdes de Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes domestic labor in Brazil, considering gender, the sexual division of labor and social security, which are influenced by the social transformations of the late 20th century. To do so, a dialog was established with various theoreticians including: Boschetti, Hirata, Kergoat, Nogueira and Saffioti.A historical review of the sexual division of labor in capitalist society is conducted, utilizing the concept of gender and examining inequality between men and women in the work force. Then, looking at social security in Brazil, the  implications of counter reforms to the system for female labor and particularly for domestic work are analyzed, identifying the real lack of social protection suffered by the entire working class.

  10. U.S. Social Security at 75 years: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Dalmer D

    2010-01-01

    Is the historical development of the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program unique or similar to the development of social security programs in other industrialized countries? The U.S. Social Security program was adopted some 40 to 50 years after those of most Western European nations. The United States thus had the opportunity to choose from a number of models and clearly chose to follow the classic social insurance path of such countries as Austria, France, and Germany, which in 1935 already had considerable experience administering earnings-related, employer/worker-financed old-age pension programs. Although based on the traditional social insurance model, OASDI evolved in certain unique ways, including the rejection over the course of succeeding decades of any reliance on general revenue financing, the importance attached to long-range (75-year) actuarial projections, and the relative generosity of benefits for survivors and dependents.

  11. National Security in the Nuclear Age. A Conference for State Social Studies Coordinators on Pre-Collegiate National Security Education (Washington, DC, June 26-July 1, 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, B. Thomas; And Others

    This conference report addresses education on national security and international relations in secondary school courses in the social studies. Main conclusions of the conference are: (1) Topics on national security should be added to the secondary school curriculum. (2) Current institutional and instructional settings are open to inclusion of…

  12. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, María Andreé, 1985-; Duran Jordà, Xavier, 1974-; Zaballa, Elena; Sánchez Niubò, Albert; Delclòs i Clanchet, Jordi, 1956-; Benavides, Fernando G. (Fernando García)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and deat...

  13. eHealth in Belgium, a new "secure" federal network: role of patients, health professions and social security services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Francis Roger

    2011-02-01

    eHealth platform is the official federal network in Belgium (created by law on 21 August 2008) devoted to a secure exchange of health data in many types of applications, such as health care purposes, simplification of administrative procedures and contribution to health policy. It implies a controlled access to decentralized databases and uses encrypted personal data. The national identification number has been chosen in order to authenticate the requester, the patient, and the receiver of information exchange. Authorizations have to be respected in order to obtain personal health data. Several questions are raised about its security: the lack of mandatory request for systematic journaling on accesses to the electronic patient record as well as the absence of explicit procedures for sanctions in case of unauthorized access, the new role of social security administration in managing security where a eHealth manager can be both judge and party (in the function of trusted third party for health data encryption and of a required lawyer for texts proposed by physicians to the Commission for the protection of private life). Another critic concerns the number of physicians in minority and the absence of patients' delegates in the eHealth Board. At a time when the patient is becoming a partner in the care team, should not he be the gate-keeper for the access to his own health record? How could networks help him to get the appropriate knowledge to contribute to care and to write his testament of life? Recent laws (on private life, patient rights and euthanasia) have contributed to a behavioural change in citizens and physician attitudes. Recommendations are made in order to improve the acceptability of eHealth platform. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral health status in older adults with social security in Mexico City: Latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Angel; García-Peña, Carmen

    2014-02-01

    To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as "Edentulous" (15.2%), "Class 1 = Unfavorable" (13.7%), "Class 2 = Somewhat favorable" (10.4%), and "Class 3 = Favorable" (60.7%). Using "Class 3 = Favorable" as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico.

  15. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...

  16. Risk and confidence: towards a new social contract for security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.

    2002-01-01

    The situation of radiation protection should be put in the more general perspective of risk governance where new patterns of risk governance necessitate periodic updating of social trust within open decision making processes. This trend also affects the traditional risk governance patterns in the sense that their legitimacy is grounded on social delegation and no more on authority or scientific evidence. Whatever is the dominant pattern of risk governance there is consequently a real challenge for radiation protection to explicit and share with society the rationales of its expertise. This is why the spreading of a radiation protection culture is a key challenge for a better integration of radiation protection in modern societies. Standards and norms should no more be prepared in the darkness of internalized decision making processes limited to Public Authorities, experts and operators. The use of standards should also be clearly linked with the acquisition and maintenance of a radiation protection culture. Radiation protection cannot remain in the hand of a few specialists. It should become a concern for all the exposed categories of actors in the relevant contexts. (author)

  17. EU coordination of national social security in multiple cross border situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.

    2011-01-01

    The coordination of the national social security is one of the crucial fields of cooperation between EU Member States. The coordination is based on the principle of application of one legislation at a time in cases of employment being executed in one or more than one Member State. Persons moving

  18. The Functioning of the Fiscal and Social Security Systems in a Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei DUMITRESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments in the ICT sector have opened the way to transforming the industrial economy into a digital - based one. The present paper offers a perspective on the impact of the new informational technologies on the society in general and on the organization and functioning of the fiscal and social security systems in Romania in particular.

  19. Predicting Preschoolers' Attachment Security from Fathers' Involvement, Internal Working Models, and Use of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Lisa A.; Coyl, Diana D.; Freeman, Harry

    2008-01-01

    Associations between preschoolers' attachment security, fathers' involvement (i.e. parenting behaviors and consistency) and fathering context (i.e. fathers' internal working models (IWMs) and use of social support) were examined in a subsample of 102 fathers, taken from a larger sample of 235 culturally diverse US families. The authors predicted…

  20. Social Security Reform and Population Ageing in a Two-Sector Growth Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groezen, B.J.A.M.; Meijdam, A.C.; Verbon, H.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of reducing unfunded social security and population ageing on economic growth and welfare, both for a small open economy and for a closed economy.The economy consists of a service sector and a commodity sector.Productivity growth only occurs in the latter sector and

  1. Social security reform and population ageing in a two-sector growth model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groezen, Bas van; Meijdam, L.; Verbon, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the e¤ects of reducing unfunded social security and population ageing on economic growth and welfare, both for a small open economy and for a closed economy. The economy consists of a service sector and a commodity sector. Productivity growth only occurs in the latter sector

  2. Generating Random Samples of a Given Size Using Social Security Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard C.; Brauchle, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    The purposes of this article are (1) to present a method by which social security numbers may be used to draw cluster samples of a predetermined size and (2) to describe procedures used to validate this method of drawing random samples. (JOW)

  3. Social Security Contribution to Productivity and Wages in Labour Organization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriadi, Y. N.

    2017-03-01

    This research is investigating the discrepancy fulfilment of the right to social security and decent wages to increase labour productivity in the perspective of labour organizations, in which the company provides social security, and wages have not been able to meet the needs of workers, on the other hand, the workers are always required to increase productivity. Therefore, this study aims to identify the social security and wages that affect labour productivity. So this research will provide input to the company to undertake effective measures and efficient for the company’s sustainability. This research was conducted using a survey method approach and quantitative data analysis techniques that are causal comparative sample of 223 respondents from 504 study population includes all labour organization’s District and municipal in Banten Province. The results showed the significant influence of social security and wages to increase labour productivity. Therefore, companies are required to act strategically in maintaining prohibitionists labour through re-design of the work environment, increase workers’ participation, intervention, and satisfy the needs of workers whose impact will be realized understanding between workers and companies in maintaining the company’s business.

  4. The Social Security Program and the Private Sector Alternative: Lessons from History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadagno, Jill

    1987-01-01

    Used historical evidence to analyze how private sector benefits worked in the past in light of the debate surrounding the Social Security benefits and the federal deficit. Among conclusions reached are that the private sector failed to provide adequate protection for older citizens, and that benefits were inequitably distributed on basis of gender…

  5. Experience of Social Media, Training and Development on Work Proficiency: A Qualitative Study with Security Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyireh, Rexford Owusu; Okyireh, Marijke Akua Adobea

    2016-01-01

    How useful is social media and training programs to the development of professionals in the security sector? In this study the researchers examined three key issues pertaining to training programs. These were marketing of training programs, participant experiences of training content and work proficiency. A sample of ten participants of a forensic…

  6. Career Obsolescence and Social Security: Emerging Education Policy Issues in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandow, Stuart A.

    This document is the second in a series of studies designed to examine the legal aspects of various potential educational problems in our society. This particular study deals with the case of a highly trained aerospace technician who sues the social security trust for loan benefits, arguing that he is economically disabled and has been retired by…

  7. Social security reform in a dynastic life-cycle model with endogenous fertility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim; Belush, Volha

    -, č. 381 (2009), s. 1-51 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : fertility * social security * fiscal policy * public expenditures * taxation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp381.pdf

  8. Social security wealth and aggregate consumption : An extended life-cycle model estimated for The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    In this paper a method is developed to calculate a wealth variable accounting for the existence of the basic old-age provisions in The Netherlands (AOW). In line with Feldstein's extended life-cycle model, consumption functions with (gross) social security wealth are estimated for The Netherlands

  9. 77 FR 74913 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ...; Computer Matching Program (Social Security Administration (SSA)/Office of Personnel Management (OPM.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. General The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Public Law (Pub... computer matching involving the Federal government could be performed and adding certain protections for...

  10. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    -, 9/2008 (2008), s. 1-34 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ies.fsv.cuni.cz/default/file/download/id/8361

  11. The Approaches to Narrowing Urban-Rural Income Gap——From the Perspective of Rural Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From the situations about the incomes and life quality of the urban and rural residents,the thesis briefly introduces the status quo of the urban-rural income gap and explores the impact of the income gap on social economy:firstly,it hampers economic development;secondly,it is detrimental to the social development.Then the thesis analyzes the role of a sound social security in narrowing urban-rural income gap:at first,it broadens the institutional environment of improving the agricultural efficiency;secondly,it eliminates the uncertainties influencing the farmers’ income;thirdly,it improves the farmers’ capacity to increase income;at last,it enhances the farmers’ consciousness of wealth.Next the thesis inquires into the problems existing in the system of rural social security:the first problem is more obviously fragmented system;the second is inadequate security projects and narrower coverage;the third is an obvious lack of equality in urban and rural security;the fourth is even less sound management system;the last is the lagging of legislation.Afterwards the thesis proposes the countermeasures and suggestions to improve the system of rural social security and narrow urban-rural income gap:firstly,to integrate the social security system in rural areas;secondly,to perfect security projects and enhance the security system;thirdly,to integrate the administrative management of social security;at last,to enforce the legal system.

  12. Exclusión y seguridad social en el plan de desarrollo Exclusion and social security in the Development Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Salazar Oscar

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo analiza la forma en que el Plan de Desarrollo "Cambio para contruir la Paz" trata el sistema de seguridad social y su interpretacion sobre las causas de la exclusion social. El plan carece de una vision de conjunto del sistema por cuanto no aborda los aspectos reisgos profesionles y pensiones; articula el concepto de solidaridad a las relaciones interpersonales y, asi, subestima el papel del Estado en el logro de esa meta. Por otra parte, las politicas laborales esbozadas en el Plan conducen en forma inexorable a una mayor exclusion social. En cuanto al sistema de seguridad social en salud, dado que la cobertura se ha extendido mediante el regimen subsidiado, la ausencia de una politica que promueva el control social puede acentuar la clientelizacion que Estado manifiesta querer combatir.This article analyzes the way that the Development Plan "Changeto Build Peace" treats the social security system and its interpretation of the causes of social exclusion. The Plan lacks a vision of the system as a whole as it does not address the aspects of professional risks and pensions; it articula tes the concept of solidarity to interpersonal relations and thus underestimates the role of the State in achieving that goal. Moreover, the labor policies outlined in the Plan lead inexorably to greater social exclusion. As far as the social security system for health, given that coverage has been extended by meansof the subsidized regime, the absence of a policy that promotes social control may accentuate the clientelization of the State which the Plan claims to want to combato.

  13. The 2012 Recommendation concerning national floors of social protection (No. 202) : The human rights approach to social security in ILO wrapping paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Gijsbert

    2013-01-01

    The International Labour Organisation (ILO) has a long tradition of developing minimum social security standards. However, the value of these instruments is increasingly criticised. A central point in this criticism is that the standards are not based upon the notion of a right to social security

  14. Earnings Sharing in the U.S. Social Security System: A Microsimulation Analysis of Future Female Retirees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iams, Howard M.; Reznik, Gayle L.; Tamborini, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: As part of an ongoing effort to analyze the distributional implications of potential policy reforms to the U.S. Social Security system, we consider the widely discussed reform of earnings sharing. Such an approach has been viewed as a way to "update" Social Security's family benefits based on marital status and as a means to…

  15. 78 FR 8217 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0071] Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-1p; Titles II and XVI: Agency Processes for Addressing Allegations of Unfairness, Prejudice, Partiality, Bias... the third column, the fourth line under the ``Summary'' heading, change ``SSR-13-Xp'' to ``SSR-13-1p...

  16. Social-Ecological Transformation for Ecosystem Management: the Development of Adaptive Co-management of a Wetland Landscape in Southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Olsson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the emergence of an adaptive co-management system for wetland landscape governance in southern Sweden, a process where unconnected management by several actors in the landscape was mobilized, renewed, and reconfigured into ecosystem management within about a decade. Our analysis highlights the social mechanisms behind the transformation toward ecosystem management. The self-organizing process was triggered by perceived threats among members of various local stewardship associations and local government to the area's cultural and ecological values. These threats challenged the development of ecosystem services in the area. We show how one individual, a key leader, played an instrumental role in directing change and transforming governance. The transformation involved three phases: 1 preparing the system for change, 2 seizing a window of opportunity, and 3 building social-ecological resilience of the new desired state. This local policy entrepreneur initiated trust-building dialogue, mobilized social networks with actors across scales, and started processes for coordinating people, information flows and ongoing activities, and for compiling and generating knowledge, understanding, and management practices of ecosystem dynamics. Understanding, collaborative learning, and creating public awareness were part of the process. A comprehensive framework was developed with a shared vision and goals that presented conservation as development, turned problems into possibilities, and contributed to a shift in perception among key actors regarding the values of the wetland landscape. A window of opportunity at the political level opened, which made it possible to transform the governance system toward a trajectory of ecosystem management. The transformation involved establishing a new municipal organization, the Ecomuseum Kristianstads Vattenrike (EKV. This flexible organization serves as a bridge between local actors and governmental bodies and is

  17. THE EVOLUTION AND FUTURE OF SOCIAL SECURITY IN AFRICA: AN ACTUARIAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Badat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social Security in most African countries has evolved significantly in terms of perspectives, motives, governance as well as innovation of benefits and administration. African countries are slowly, one by one, beginning to reassess the role of social security in correcting several social ills. Empowerment programs and grants are increasingly being provided via social security to women and the youth. From the roots of social security, even very low income countries, some of which have recently experienced several years of civil war and extreme economic hardships, have begun to improve benefit structures and amounts, which include national medical benefits. The attention being provided to social security and how it fits into a nation’s plans to lift itself out of poverty is increasingly involving the actuarial profession from international organisations such as ILO and ISSA as well as consulting actuaries and academics. Assessing and ensuring sustainability of social security benefits requires actuarial valuations to take long-term consequences involving demographic changes into account in the face of providing the benefits in the short term; asset liability modelling to ensure adequate resources are held; ensuring that results are appropriately reported and communicated to key stakeholders; as well as developing long-term strategic plans and dynamic systems surrounding all of these issues. In this paper, the role of actuaries is brought to the centre of the increasingly changing face and evolving culture of social security in taking Africa closer to poverty alleviation. La Seguridad Social en la mayoría de los países africanos ha evolucionado significativamente en cuanto a perspectivas, motivos, gobernanza, así como en innovación en las prestaciones y la adminsitración. Los países africanos están comenzando a reevaluar el papel de la Seguridad Social en la eliminación de determinados problemas sociales. Los programas de acción y los

  18. Social climate along the pathway of care in women's secure mental health service: variation with level of security, patient motivation, therapeutic alliance and level of disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C G; Anagnostakis, K; Fox, E; Silaule, P; Somers, J; West, R; Webster, A

    2011-07-01

    Social climate has been measured in a variety of therapeutic settings, but there is little information about it in secure mental health services, or how it may vary along a gender specific care pathway. To assess social climate in women's secure wards and its variation by level of security and ward type, therapeutic alliance, patient motivation, treatment engagement and disturbed behaviour. Three-quarters (80, 76%) of staff and nearly all (65, 92%) of patients in the two medium-security wards and two low-security wards that comprised the unit completed the Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) and the California Psychotherapy Alliance Scale (CALPAS); patients also completed the Patient Motivation Inventory (PMI). Pre-assessment levels of disturbed behaviour and treatment engagement were recorded. Social climate varied according to ward type and level of security. EssenCES ratings indicative of positive social climate were associated with lower levels of security; such ratings were also associated with lower behavioural disturbance and with higher levels of motivation, treatment engagement and therapeutic alliance. This serial cross-sectional survey indicated that use of the EssenCES alone might be a good practical measure of treatment progress/responsivity. A longitudinal study would be an important next step in establishing the extent to which it would be useful in this regard. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Key Conceptions of Social Security: the International Practice and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dluhopolska Tetiana I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide globalization processes and the political-military conflicts have exacerbated the problem of social security of the people of various world countries, which is usually seen from the perspective of both the State and the individual citizen. The article is aimed at analyzing the existing conceptions of social security from different perspectives – political, economic efficiency, and narrative. An analysis of political theories of social security (majority rational voting; pressure groups has determined that they are based on the redistribution processes, and winning of the individual economic agents is achieved in the political struggle for various «social prizes». An analysis of theories of efficiency (optimal redistribution; optimal retirement insurance; prodigal father; misguided Keynesian; longevity insurance; government economizes on administration costs; return on human capital investment has determined that they rely on market «fiasco» and can help in understanding which from the social protection programs minimize market failures. An analysis of the descriptive (narrative theories (chain letters; lump of labor; monopoly capitalism; nearly rational policy has determined that they are difficult subject to the mathematical interpretation and partially repeat ideas of the previous concepts.

  20. A legislative history of the Social Security Protection Act of 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Passage of the original Social Security Act in 1935, Public Law (P.L.) 74-271, represented one of the watershed achievements of social welfare reform in American history. For the first time, workers were guaranteed a basic floor of protection against the hardships of poverty. In the ensuing decades, more than 100 million beneficiaries have realized the value of this protection through the receipt of monthly Social Security payments. As this guarantee has endured and progressed, the policies and administration of such a vast and complex program have required ongoing modifications-more than 150 such revisions over the past 73 years. To some extent, these amendments can be seen as an ongoing refinement process, with the Social Security Protection Act of 2004 (SSPA) being another incremental step in the development of a social insurance program that best meets the evolving needs of American society. This article discusses the legislative history of the SSPA in detail. It includes summaries of the provisions and a chronology of the modification of these proposals as they passed through the House and Senate, and ultimately to the president's desk.

  1. Evaluation of factors influencing patient satisfaction in social security hospitals in Mazandaran province, North of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Kelarijani, Seyed Ebrahim; Jamshidi, Reza; Heidarian, Ali Reza; Khorshidi, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Patient satisfaction is affected by hospital services and may have an effect on the cultural, social and personal conditions of the people living in the region. This research aimed to evaluate the patient satisfaction in social security hospitals in Mazandaran province. From Spring 2012 to Summer 2013, all patients admitted to social security hospitals in Mazandaran province were entered in the study. Data regarding to inhabitation, sex, income and patients' educational level and satisfaction with the hospital services were collected. Seven hundred seventy-six patients with mean age of 47.35±7.41 years were analyzed. Patient's inhabitant, educational attainment and income level had a significant relationship with patient satisfaction level (ppatients' gender. The results show that the patient's inhabitant, educational and income level are related to attain patients' satisfaction.

  2. The effects of a social media policy on pharmacy students' facebook security settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jennifer; Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina

    2011-11-10

    To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy.

  3. Trajectories of income and social benefits for mothers and fathers of children with cancer: A national cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Ayako; Montgomery, Scott; Bottai, Matteo; Hovén, Emma I

    2018-04-01

    The contribution of different income sources from work and social benefits to trajectories of income for the parents of children with cancer has not been empirically investigated. Using Swedish registers, parents of children with an incidence cancer diagnosis between 2004 and 2009 were identified and matched with parents of children without cancer (reference parents). A total of 20,091 families were followed from the year before the diagnosis to a maximum of 8 years. Generalized linear models estimated the ratios of mean incomes from work and social benefits and of its total. Around the time of the child's cancer diagnosis, the total income was on average up to 6% higher among the mothers of children with cancer compared with reference mothers, but no differences were noted among fathers. Income from work dropped to the lowest level around the time of a cancer diagnosis, with swift recovery noted for fathers but not for mothers. Sickness and childcare-related benefits were up to 6 times larger for the parents of children with cancer than reference parents. As social benefits diminished after approximately 3 years, the total income of mothers of children with cancer became lower than that of reference mothers, and the gap widened over time. Social benefits appeared to ease the financial burden during the years around a cancer diagnosis. However, mothers experienced persistently lower income after benefits diminished. Experiences differed by single-parent versus dual-parent households, the survival of the child with cancer, and other relevant characteristics. Further investigation is needed for potential long-term consequences for mothers, including their career and future pension in retirement. Cancer 2018;124:1492-500. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  4. A security approach based on honeypots: Protecting Online Social network from malicious profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatna Elmendili, Nisrine Maqran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the fast development and the exponential utilization of social networks have prompted an expansion of social Computing. In social networks users are interconnected by edges or links, where Facebook, twitter, LinkedIn are most popular social networks websites. Due to the growing popularity of these sites they serve as a target for cyber criminality and attacks. It is mostly based on how users are using these sites like Twitter and others. Attackers can easily access and gather personal and sensitive user’s information. Users are less aware and least concerned about the security setting. And they easily become victim of identity breach. To detect malicious users or fake profiles different techniques have been proposed like our approach which is based on the use of social honeypots to discover malicious profiles in it. Inspired by security researchers who used honeypots to observe and analyze malicious activity in the networks, this method uses social honeypots to trap malicious users. The two key elements of the approach are: (1 The deployment of social honeypots for harvesting information of malicious profiles. (2 Analysis of the characteristics of these malicious profiles and those of deployed honeypots for creating classifiers that allow to filter the existing profiles and monitor the new profiles.

  5. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-03-07

    The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1,022 ,79 Social Security members: 840,770 (82.2%) contributors and 182,009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of the cohort with mortality registries. Published by the BMJ

  6. The Potential Effects of Obesity on Social Security Claiming Behavior and Retirement Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Melissa A Z; Shoffner, Dave; O'Leary, Samantha

    2018-04-16

    Obesity prevalence among Americans has increased for nearly three decades. We explore the relationship between the rise in obesity and Social Security retirement benefit claiming, a decision impacting nearly all aging Americans. Specifically, we investigate whether obesity can affect individuals' decision to claim benefits early, a choice that has important implications for financial security in retirement, particularly for those with lower socioeconomic status (SES). We use a microsimulation model called MINT6 (Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6) to demonstrate the potential effects of obesity on subjective life expectancy and claiming behavior. We impute obesity status using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which describes the distribution of obesity prevalence within the United States by gender, poverty status, and race/ethnicity. We find that the rise in obesity and the consequent incidence of obesity-related diseases may lead some individuals to make claiming decisions that lead to lower monthly and lifetime Social Security retirement benefits. Further, we find that the potential economic impact of this decision is larger for those with lower SES. We present a behavioral perspective by addressing the potential effects that obesity can have on individuals' retirement decisions and their resulting Social Security retirement benefits.

  7. Soup kitchen users' social representations of healthy eating associated with their household food security status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina BENTO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether what users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, think about a healthy diet and the challenges they face to eat healthy are associated with their household food security status. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,656 users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte. Socioeconomic and household food security data, and healthy-eating discourses were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were submitted to descriptive analyses for constructing frequency distribution tables, and to univariate analysis. Discourse analysis was based on the social representation theory. Results: To cut, reduce, avoid, not eat, eat less, and decrease carbohydrates, salt, meats, various beverages, and other foods are the most frequent changes (71.4% that food-secure users have made or intend to make. Food-insecure users intended to eat more fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and other foods (34.4%. The main obstacles food-secure and food-insecure users face to adopt a healthier diet are lack of time (82.9% and low income (53.5%, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: What users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte think about food and the obstacles they face to adopt a healthier diet are related to their household food security status. The results provide valuable data for effective proposals of food and nutrition education, which should act on the producers of subjectivity in this group and consider this group's food and nutrition security status.

  8. The impact of population ageing on the social security expenditure and economic growth in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, N

    1987-05-01

    The author considers the impact of demographic aging in Japan on the social security system and on economic growth. It is argued that "First of all, as the cost of social security (including social services) increases remarkably at the earlier stage of ageing, the disposable (after tax) income and private consumption of the present labour force generation tend to increase at a lower growth rate than that of the GNP....Secondly if pension systems are based on terminal funding schemes, the ageing of the population increases savings (net increase of the amount of the pension funds) at the earlier stage of the ageing of the population. Thirdly, there is a time lag between the increase of social security benefits and the decrease in the personal savings ratio. The high ratio of savings and the shortage of aggregate demand as well as the high pressure for export in...recent Japan can partly be attributed to the above factors." Possible future economic scenarios as demographic ageing in Japan proceeds are described, and policies to avert anticipated problems are outlined. (SUMMARY IN JPN) excerpt

  9. Harmonization of social security law of Serbia with the law of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Velizar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the author shortly exposes Communitarian social security law and remained tasks of the harmonization of Serbian legislation in this field. Recently some amendments of legislation were made in order to strengthen principles of gender equality and prevent discrimination, to regulate employment of persons with disability, as well as to install supervision in Institutions for occupational retirement. Regarding the compulsory social insurance in Serbia it may be concluded that there exists a high degree of compliance with the EU legislation, with an exception of privileged mode of entitlement for old age and disability pensions for women and partial disability caused by work injury where it is necessary to conclude agreements on social security with 10 EU states members. On the other side, occupational retirement provision is partially incompatible with Communitarian social security law, i.e. with Directive 2003/41/EC in the field of technical provision, as well as with Directive 113/2004/EU regarding the obligation of equation of the life expectancy for both sexes.

  10. SOSYAL GÜVENLİK SİSTEMİ AÇISINDAN GÜVENCELİ ESNEKLİK (FLEXICURITY IN TERMS OF SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Demirsat KÖLEOĞLU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity is a fact that synchronically interests and impresses employee and employer. Flexicurity fact becomes concrete with some genuine provisions. This provision is appropriate law framework, active labour market policies, lifelong learning and social security system. In this study, it is aimed to analyze flexicurity fact in the context of social security systems. In this reasons, income security and combination security are explicated through social security systems.

  11. New Forms of Youth Participation and Work in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Jurgen

    1985-01-01

    Surveys past and current youth employment and social participation programs in Sweden. Maintains that while these were effective in giving Sweden one of the lowest youth unemployment rates among market-economy nations, more must be done to ensure meaningful social participation of youth in the community. (JDH)

  12. Caseworkers’ discretions of eligibility to social insurance in Denmark and Sweden – signs of Neoliberalism in Scandinavian welfare states?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stensöta, Helena

    It has been argued that the Scandinavian welfare states have been resilient to trends of globalization and fiscal crises, and that the global pressure of neoliberalism has led to a partial retrenchment rather than a restructuring during last decades. This conclusion is, however, drawn without...... closer attention to the problem of implementation and the fact that many welfare state programs receive their ultimate content through street level contact between citizens and street-level bureaucrats. In this article, we address the question of whether there is an impact of neoliberal trends...... in Scandinavian social policies when paying attention to the everyday work of street level bureaucrats or whether the universal welfare regime ’protects’ against a neoliberal impact. Comparing conclusions on SLBs’ discretionary styles in sickness-benefits casework from two separate studies situated...

  13. Social impact theory based modeling for security analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Systemix Global Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The nuclear fuel cycle is investigated for the perspective of the nuclear non-proliferation. The random number generation of the Monte-Carlo method is utilized for the analysis. Five cases are quantified by the random number generations. These values are summed by the described equations. The higher values are shown in 52{sup nd} and 73{sup rd} months. This way could be a useful obligation in the license of the plant construction. The security of the nuclear fuel cycle incorporated with nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated using social impact theory. The dynamic quantification of the theory shows the non-secured time for act of terrorism which is considered for the non-secured condition against the risk of theft in nuclear material. For a realistic consideration, the meta-theoretical framework for modeling is performed for situations where beliefs, attributes or behaviors of an individual are influenced by those of others.

  14. Social impact theory based modeling for security analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is investigated for the perspective of the nuclear non-proliferation. The random number generation of the Monte-Carlo method is utilized for the analysis. Five cases are quantified by the random number generations. These values are summed by the described equations. The higher values are shown in 52 nd and 73 rd months. This way could be a useful obligation in the license of the plant construction. The security of the nuclear fuel cycle incorporated with nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated using social impact theory. The dynamic quantification of the theory shows the non-secured time for act of terrorism which is considered for the non-secured condition against the risk of theft in nuclear material. For a realistic consideration, the meta-theoretical framework for modeling is performed for situations where beliefs, attributes or behaviors of an individual are influenced by those of others.

  15. Librarians as Advocates of Social Media for Researchers: A Social Media Project Initiated by Linköping University Library, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sassa; Svenningsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Librarians at Linköping University help researchers keep abreast of developments in their fields and to increase the visibility of their work. Strategic, professional use of social media ought to be an essential part of a researcher's communication strategy. This article investigates the level of awareness of the professional use of social media…

  16. Effects of employer-sponsored health insurance costs on Social Security taxable wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtless, Gary; Milusheva, Sveta

    2013-01-01

    The increasing cost of employer contributions for employee health insurance reduces the share of compensation subject to the Social Security payroll tax. Rising insurance contributions can also have a more subtle effect on the Social Security tax base because they influence the distribution of money wages above and below the taxable maximum amount. This article uses the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to analyze trends in employer health insurance contributions and the distribution of those costs up and down the wage distribution. Our analysis shows that employer health insurance contributions increased faster than overall compensation during 1996-2008, but such contributions grew only slightly faster among workers earning less than the taxable maximum than they did among those earning more. Because employer health insurance contributions represent a much higher percentage of compensation below the taxable maximum, health insurance cost trends exerted a disproportionate downward pressure on money wages below the taxable maximum.

  17. The deconstruction of family medicine in Mexico: the case of the Mexican Institute of Social Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Casas Patiño

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Family medicine is the essence of medical care. It is the main access to primary health care and the gateway to the largest health system in Latin America: the Mexican Institute of Social Security. This condition leads to complexity in the organizational model of health care. The question, thus, is what constraints are set from the hegemonic biomedical State system that allows and promotes family medicine with limits? Deconstruction is a theoretical framework that can defragment study elements of a whole, allowing us to approach the development and redefinition of a new family medicine. This article looks at the model of Mexican family medicine from the standpoint of deconstruction theory, specifically looking at the case of the Mexican Institute of Social Security.

  18. Should the poor have no medicines to cure? A study on the association between social class and social security among the rural migrant workers in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ming

    2017-11-07

    The rampant urbanization and medical marketization in China have resulted in increased vulnerabilities to health and socioeconomic disparities among the rural migrant workers in urban China. In the Chinese context, the socioeconomic characteristics of rural migrant workers have attracted considerable research attention in the recent past years. However, to date, no previous studies have explored the association between the socioeconomic factors and social security among the rural migrant workers in urban China. This study aims to explore the association between socioeconomic inequity and social security inequity and the subsequent associations with medical inequity and reimbursement rejection. Data from a regionally representative sample of 2009 Survey of Migrant Workers in Pearl River Delta in China were used for analyses. Multiple logistic regressions were used to analyze the impacts of socioeconomic factors on the eight dimensions of social security (sick pay, paid leave, maternity pay, medical insurance, pension insurance, occupational injury insurance, unemployment insurance, and maternity insurance) and the impacts of social security on medical reimbursement rejection. The zero-inflated negative binomial regression model (ZINB regression) was adopted to explore the relationship between socioeconomic factors and hospital visits among the rural migrant workers with social security. The study population consisted of 848 rural migrant workers with high income who were young and middle-aged, low-educated, and covered by social security. Reimbursement rejection and abusive supervision for the rural migrant workers were observed. Logistic regression analysis showed that there were significant associations between socioeconomic factors and social security. ZINB regression showed that there were significant associations between socioeconomic factors and hospital visits among the rural migrant workers. Also, several dimensions of social security had significant

  19. Country report: Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Sweden has twelve nuclear power reactors with a combined capacity of 9900 MW net electric power. According to a resolution passed by parliament in 1980, Sweden will terminate its use of nuclear power in the year 2010, at the latest. According to generally accepted guidelines, the spent nuclear fuel will be kept in interim storage for approximately 40 years after which, according to present plans, it will be deposited in geological formations in Sweden

  20. Assessing work disability for social security benefits: international models for the direct assessment of work capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Ben Baumberg; Garthwaite, Kayleigh; Warren, Jon; Bambra, Clare

    2017-08-25

    It has been argued that social security disability assessments should directly assess claimants' work capacity, rather than relying on proxies such as on functioning. However, there is little academic discussion of how such assessments could be conducted. The article presents an account of different models of direct disability assessments based on case studies of the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Norway, the United States of America, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, utilising over 150 documents and 40 expert interviews. Three models of direct work disability assessments can be observed: (i) structured assessment, which measures the functional demands of jobs across the national economy and compares these to claimants' functional capacities; (ii) demonstrated assessment, which looks at claimants' actual experiences in the labour market and infers a lack of work capacity from the failure of a concerned rehabilitation attempt; and (iii) expert assessment, based on the judgement of skilled professionals. Direct disability assessment within social security is not just theoretically desirable, but can be implemented in practice. We have shown that there are three distinct ways that this can be done, each with different strengths and weaknesses. Further research is needed to clarify the costs, validity/legitimacy, and consequences of these different models. Implications for rehabilitation It has recently been argued that social security disability assessments should directly assess work capacity rather than simply assessing functioning - but we have no understanding about how this can be done in practice. Based on case studies of nine countries, we show that direct disability assessment can be implemented, and argue that there are three different ways of doing it. These are "demonstrated assessment" (using claimants' experiences in the labour market), "structured assessment" (matching functional requirements to workplace demands), and "expert assessment" (the

  1. Social Media Platforms as a Tool for Sharing Emotions. A Perspective upon the National Security Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Ramona-Diana LEON; Liana Maria MARCU

    2016-01-01

    Emotions importance increases even more in the context of the national security agencies. Since their mission is to protect and defend the citizens against attacks and also to provide leadership and justice services to other agencies and partners, the aim of the information they post on social media should be twofold: on the one hand, it should reflect the attitudes, values and beliefs, supported by the institution, and on the other hand, it should have an impact on citizens feeling of securi...

  2. The Optimal Time for Claiming Social Security Benefits: A Methodological Note

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Friedman

    2014-01-01

    The optimal age for initiating Social Security benefits and the initiation versus postponement of benefits decision are the subjects of a number of recent papers. It is generally agreed that an initiation versus postponement of benefits decision may have significant consequences, but there is less agreement about how to model the problem or measure its financial implications. By law benefits are paid only to live beneficiaries. Thus, the anticipated future benefits should be weighted by the r...

  3. The Analysis of the Relationship Between IT and the organizational Agility of Bojnourd Social Security Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Bahramzadeh; Hossein Ali Bahramzadeh; Gorji Mohammad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    In the current research the relationship between the acceptance of IT and organizational agility of Bojnourd Social Security Hospital is analyzed. In this regard, Davis's technology acceptance model (TAM) and organizational agility, based on the model of London Institute study, has been examined. The statistical population is the entire hospital staff of 360. The sample size was determined 186 by using Krejcie and Morgan table. This research is practical in terms of purpose, and in terms of m...

  4. Cyber Security & Social Media: How Big is Your Digital Footprint and Why Should You Care

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    With the popularity of social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram etc. we find our selves more connected to cyberspace than at any previous time in history. This constant connectiveness and sharing of daily lives in almost realtime, has some serious implications for cyber security and privacy. The talk will discuss the very real threat of our ever growing digital footprint, and what if anything we can do to mitigate the risks.

  5. Reforming Social Security: A Practical and Workable System of Personal Retirement Accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Fred T. Goldberg, Jr.; Michael J. Graetz

    1999-01-01

    This paper details a method for implementing personal retirement accounts (PRAs) as a part of Social Security reform. The approach described here answers the following questions: how funds are collected and credited to each participants' retirement account; how money is invested; and how funds are distributed to retirees. It is designed to accommodate a variety of answers to a wide range of important policy questions; to minimize administrative costs and distribute those costs in a fair and r...

  6. Policy risk in action: pension reforms and social security wealth in Hungary, Czech Republic, and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Libor; Kopecsni, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 58, 7-8 (2008), s. 329-358 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : pension reforms * social security * policy risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1137_dusek-kopecsni_-_329-358-opravené.pdf

  7. Behavioural assumptions in labour economics: Analysing social security reforms and labour market transitions

    OpenAIRE

    van Huizen, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to test behavioural assumptions in labour economics models and thereby improve our understanding of labour market behaviour. The assumptions under scrutiny in this study are derived from an analysis of recent influential policy proposals: the introduction of savings schemes in the system of social security. A central question is how this reform will affect labour market incentives and behaviour. Part I (Chapter 2 and 3) evaluates savings schemes. Chapter 2 exam...

  8. New approach to training in citizen security from the social link university–community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicta Gregoria González-Leal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article bases the need for a new conception in the training approaches in the training institutions of citizen security professionals, due to the present changes in the 21st century at the state, regional and local level, where the protagonism of the same lies In responding to the new challenges, trends and challenges present in society. It also analyzes the significance of the university's social connection with the communities, so that the praxis of the students goes beyond the understanding of the problems to the search for possible alternatives for their solution, with the consequent social transformations that this bring along.

  9. The Societal Security Standardization Promotes Social Management Sdentification——Interview with Wang Zhongmin, President of CNIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China Standardization:In February 2011,President Hu Jintao gave an important speech on the opening ceremony of the seminar of social management and its innovation for provincial and ministerial level leaders,stressing that the scientific level of social management must be raised and building a social management system with Chinese socialism charactetistics.Would you please talk about the role of the societal security standardization in improving the scientific social manageraent?

  10. Risk perception and environmental health concerns in conditions of social security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarova, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: this study explores the connection between the perception of different societal risk, health concerns and behavioral attitudes of people in condition of social security threat. Two small and two big industrial towns were chosen in order to observe the social and psychological price of the structural changes in the industry such as unemployment and its reflection on the households and the individuals' social attitudes. Key stakeholders were interviewed and questionnaire survey was carried out. The results showed high level of risk sensitivity and health concerns when people felt threatened by lack of social and economic security. The pollution was found to be important problem when it caused direct and obvious risk to human health and the environment. In the same time reverse environmental behavior like insensitiveness and neglectful attitude was observed in cases when the health consequences of the pollution were perceived to be unclear and with delayed effect. In situation of a great socio-economic threat noninvolvement helped the individuals to adapt. The research proved the influence of several risk characteristics on risk perception. It was found a connection between the risk perception and risk controllability, voluntariness of exposure and cost/benefits distribution. In the study areas respondents' judgments on these characteristics reflected directly their social status and material state. The study presented here is in progress - it i's supported by research grant from Open Society Foundation. (author)

  11. 76 FR 18812 - Submission for Review: We Need the Social Security Number of the Person Named Below, RI 38-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: We Need the Social Security Number of the... request (ICR) 3206-0144, We Need the Social Security Number of the Person Named Below, RI 38-45. As... Operations, Retirement Services, Office of Personnel Management. Title: We Need the Social Security Number of...

  12. Social security status and mortality in Belgian and Spanish male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Xavier; Vanroelen, Christophe; Deboosere, Patrick; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    To assess differences in mortality rates between social security statuses in two independent samples of Belgian and Spanish male workers. Study of two retrospective cohorts (Belgium, n=23,607; Spain, n=44,385) of 50-60 year old male employees with 4 years of follow-up. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Mortality for subjects with permanent disability was higher than for the employed, for both Belgium [MRR=4.56 (95% CI: 2.88-7.21)] and Spain [MRR=7.15 (95% CI: 5.37-9.51)]. For the unemployed/early retirees, mortality was higher in Spain [MRR=1.64 (95% CI: 1.24-2.17)] than in Belgium [MRR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.46-1.71)]. MRR differences between Belgium and Spain for unemployed workers could be partly explained because of differences between the two social security systems. Future studies should further explore mortality differences between countries with different social security systems. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of temporary social security benefits due to respiratory disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildefonso, Simone de Andrade Goulart; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Albuquerque-Oliveira, Paulo Rogério

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of temporary social security benefits due to respiratory disease granted to employees, as well as the number of lost workdays and costs resulting from those in Brazil between 2003 and 2004. Cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Unified System of Benefits of the Brazilian Institute of Social Security (INSS, Instituto Nacional de Seguro Social) and the Brazilian Social Registry Database. Data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and type of economic activity, as well as type, duration and cost of benefits, were compiled. Respiratory diseases accounted for 1.3% of the total number of temporary social security benefits granted by INSS, with a prevalence rate of 9.92 (per 10,000 employment contracts). Females and individuals older than 50 years of age were the most affected. Non-work-related benefits were more common than were work-related benefits. The most prevalent diseases were pneumonia, asthma and COPD, followed by laryngeal and vocal cord diseases. The most prevalent types of economic activity were auxiliary transportation equipment manufacturing, tobacco product manufacturing and computer-related activities. The mean duration of benefits was 209.68 days, with a mean cost of R$ 4,495.30 per occurrence. Respiratory diseases caused by exogenous agents demanded longer sick leave (mean, 296.72 days) and greater cost (mean, R$ 7,105.74). The most prevalent diseases were airway diseases and pneumonia. Workers from auxiliary transportation equipment manufacturing, tobacco product manufacturing and computer-related activities were the most affected. Diseases caused by exogenous agents demanded longer sick leaves and resulted in greater costs.

  14. The energy transition in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Sweden has the distinction of having started several major changes to its energy supply at an early stage. The country has no fossil reserves, and so was importing increasing volumes of oil products in the years following World War II. Yet it rapidly perceived the geopolitical risks generated by such oil dependency, and so developed its nuclear capacity, enabling it to reduce quickly the role of oil in its economy after the shocks of the 1970's. Sweden has also managed to exploit its natural resources. Until the 2000's, hydropower was able to enter the market without public assistance. By contrast, wood could not have gained its current market share without a policy combining public aid for investment and penalties for competing energies. The severe economic crisis which hit the country between 1991 and 1993 led such penalties being converted into taxes, notably a tax on CO_2 emissions that came into force in 1991. This helped Sweden reconstruct its tax system, to finance its social model. The challenge highlighted the country's ability to generate consensus policy guidelines. One of these guidelines was to react immediately after initial warnings about climate change. Sweden first strengthened its energy efficiency policy, structuring field actions through a national agency backed up by partner organizations in local communities to help consumers - individuals or industries - technically and economically. Sweden then adopted an unusual instrument to promote renewable electricity, namely its system of green certificates. Implemented in 2003, this system has spurred the development of the cheapest sources of renewable energy, two-thirds coming from onshore wind and one third from biomass. The cost of this support still remains remarkably moderate today. At the end of 2014, Sweden thus only used fossil fuels to provide 30% of its primary energy supplies, while renewables accounted for 52% of final energy consumption. Energy consumption per capita remains high, but

  15. Social Security for China’s Migrant Workers – Providing for Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “migrant workers” derives from the household registration system of China’s planned economy period. The continued existence of that system conflicts with the development of an integrated labour market. The current social security system, based on household registration and a large number of local pools, discriminates against migrant workers because of their mobility and the lack of mechanisms to transfer benefits between pools. As a result, migrants have made major contributions to China’s economic development but do not get the same benefits as urban residents. Faced with this challenge, China’s government has begun to introduce policy reforms to improve social security for migrants. This article explores this development through a focus on old-age insurance. It analyses the special needs of migrants, the obstacles facing policy development and the proposed solutions. It argues that social justice and social equity require the development of a system that treats all citizens equally, and that the logic of an integrated labour market will ultimately require a unified national system of old-age insurance.

  16. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  17. Environmental security as related to scale mismatches of disturbance patterns in a panarchy of social-ecological landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni Zurlini; Irene Petrosillo; Nicola Zaccarelli; Kurt Riitters

    2008-01-01

    Environmental security, as the opposite of environmental fragility (vulnerability), is multilayered, multi-scale and complex, existing in both the objective realm of biophysics and society, and the subjective realm of individual human perception. For ecological risk assessments (ERAs), the relevant objects of environmental security are social-ecological landscapes (...

  18. 26 CFR 1.31-2 - Credit for “special refunds” of employee social security tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... security tax. 1.31-2 Section 1.31-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.31-2 Credit for “special refunds” of employee social security tax. (a) In general. (1) In the case of an employee receiving wages from more than one employer...

  19. 20 CFR 410.686b - Fee for services performed for an individual before the Social Security Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Representation of Parties § 410.686b Fee for services performed for an individual before the Social Security... person or in writing; (ii) There was a death or serious illness in the individual's family; (iii...

  20. Energy in Sweden 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    The annual Energy in Sweden report, and its sister publication, Energy in Sweden - Facts and Figures 2010 (STEM-ET--2010-46), are intended to provide decision makers, journalists, companies, teachers and the public with coherent and easily available information on developments in the energy sector. Most of the publication is based on official statistics up to and including 2009, complemented where possible by input reflecting current events and decisions up to the middle of 2010. Energy in Sweden presents facts about the use and supply of energy, present energy- and climate policy and policy measures, energy prices and energy markets, the impact of energy systems on the environment and an international outlook etc. See also the publication Energy in Sweden - Facts and Figures 2010 where the tabular data behind most of the diagrams in Energy in Sweden are presented

  1. Energy in Sweden 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    The annual Energy in Sweden report, and its sister publication, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures (STEM-ET--2009-29), are intended to provide decision makers, journalists, companies, teachers and the public with coherent and easily available information on developments in the energy sector. Most of the publication is based on official statistics up to and including 2008, complemented where possible by input reflecting current events and decisions up to the middle of 2009. Energy in Sweden presents facts about the use and supply of energy, present energy- and climate policy and policy measures, energy prices and energy markets, the impact of energy systems on the environment and an international outlook etc. See also the publication Energy in Sweden - Facts and Figures 2009 where the tabular data behind most of the diagrams in Energy in Sweden are presented

  2. PSYCHOSOCIAL WELL-BEING AS AN INDICATOR OF SOCIAL SECURITY OF PERSON AND SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Kislyakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Summarizes theoretical approaches to the definition of psychosocial well-being. It shows the relationship of psychosocial well-being, social tension, social security and social health. As the methodology of research used the environmental approach. Actualized the problem of psychosocial well-being of students in modern conditions. It shows the results of the study of subjective well-being of the students using the technique of «Scale of subjective well-being» (Perrudet-Badoux, Mendelssohn and Chiche, adaptation VM Sokolova. The findings relate to the need to include indicators of psychosocial well-being of the person in the system of corresponding psycho-pedagogical and socio-psychological support of the university.

  3. Institutional trust in the national social security and municipal healthcare systems for the elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Atsuko; Ryu, Shuhei; Nagata, Satoko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2012-09-01

    Japanese social security systems and institutions for the elderly, as well as the general attitude toward elderly care services among the Japanese population, have been undergoing a dramatic change. By examining the association between institutional trust, which is a representative element of social capital, and anxiety regarding receiving elderly care, we can uncover clues toward building a more robust social security system for the elderly. This study examines the relationship between institutional trust, in the national social security and municipal healthcare systems for the elderly, and anxiety with respect to receiving elderly care among the general Japanese population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire that was returned by mail in January and February 2005. The target population was 4735 community residents aged 20-75 years, who lived in the city of Koka, Shiga, Japan. A total of 2264 questionnaires were included in the analysis. A binominal logistic regression analysis showed that responses of 'trust' [odds ratio (OR): 2.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.01-4.30] and 'strongly trust' (OR: 3.80, 95% CI: 1.55-9.31) for the national system were associated with not having anxiety regarding elderly care, compared with the reference category of feeling strongly distrust. However, trust in the municipal system showed no association with this anxiety. These results indicate the importance of developing strategies to increase a common trust in the national care services for the elderly to reduce the anxiety people feel regarding whether they will be able to receive elderly care when required.

  4. Prevalence and duration of social security benefits allowed to workers with asthma in Brazil in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Anadergh Barbosa de Abreu; Ildefonso, Simone de Andrade Goulart

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and duration of social security benefits (SSBs) claims to registered workers with asthma in Brazil by the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security in 2008. This was a retrospective, descriptive study, based on information obtained from the Brazilian Unified Benefit System database, on the number of SSB claims granted to registered workers with asthma in 2008. The reference population was the monthly mean number of workers registered in the Brazilian Social Registry Database in 2008. The variables studied were type of economic activity, gender, age, and type/duration of the SSB claim. The relationship between work and asthma was evaluated by the prevalence ratio (PR) between work-related and non-work-related SSB claims for asthma. In 2008, 2,483 SSB claims were granted for asthma, with a prevalence of 7.5 allowances per 100,000 registered workers. The prevalence was higher among females than among males (PR = 2.1 between the sexes). Workers > 40 years of age were 2.5 times more likely to be granted an SSB claim for asthma than were younger workers. The prevalence was highest among workers engaged in the following types of economic activity: sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing (78.8, 22.4, and 22.2 claims/100,000 registered workers, respectively). The median (interquartile range) duration of SSB claims for asthma was 49 (28-87) days. Asthma is a major cause of sick leave, and its etiology has a strong occupational component. This has a major impact on employers, employees, and the social security system. Being female, being > 40 years of age, and working in the areas of urban sanitation/sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing increase the chance of sick leave due to asthma.

  5. Security of social network credentials for accessing course portal: Users' experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuk, Norliza; Fong, Choo Sok; Chun, Koo Lee

    2015-12-01

    Social login (SL) has recently emerged as a solution for single sign-on (SSO) within the web and mobile environments. It allows users to use their existing social network credentials (SNC) to login to third party web applications without the need to create a new identity in the intended applications' database. Although it has been used by many web application providers, its' applicability in accessing learning materials is not yet fully investigated. Hence, this research aims to explore users' (i.e., instructors' and students') perception and experience on the security of SL for accessing learning contents. A course portal was developed for students at a higher learning institution and it provides two types of user authentications (i) traditional user authentication, and (ii) SL facility. Users comprised instructors and students evaluated the login facility of the course portal through a controlled lab experimental study following the within-subject design. The participants provided their feedback in terms of the security of SL for accessing learning contents. The study revealed that users preferred to use SL over the traditional authentication, however, they concerned on the security of SL and their privacy.

  6. An investigation into users' information security awareness on social networks in south western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius O. Okesola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social networks (SNs offer new and exciting opportunities for interaction among people, cutting across different stratum of the society and providing a ubiquitous mechanism that supports a wide variety of activities. They are at the same time being exploited by criminals to fraudulently obtain information from unsuspecting users. Unfortunately, the seamless communication and semblance of safety assumed by most users make them oblivious to the potential online dangers. Objective: Using quantitative methods on selected social sites, this study empirically examined the information security awareness of SN users in south western Nigeria. Method: A self-designed research instrument was administered for data collection while descriptive and inferential statistics were employed using chi-square, cross-tabulation and t-test for data analysis and result interpretation. Result: Findings from the analysed data suggest that the risk perception vary among male and female SN users and that the general perception of risks regarding SN usage is also very low. Conclusion: Adequate security awareness coupled with detailed legal measures are required to keep SNs secured. However, an individual is duly responsible for the habit of ignoring potential risks posed by the networks.

  7. Secure and Privacy-Preserving Data Sharing and Collaboration in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks of Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinlong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSN integrated with connected medical sensors and cloud-based health data storage provide preventive and curative health services in smart cities. The fusion of social data together with real-time health data facilitates a novel paradigm of healthcare big data analysis. However, the collaboration of healthcare and social network service providers may pose a series of security and privacy issues. In this paper, we propose a secure health and social data sharing and collaboration scheme in MHSN. To preserve the data privacy, we realize secure and fine-grained health data and social data sharing with attribute-based encryption and identity-based broadcast encryption techniques, respectively, which allows patients to share their private personal data securely. In order to achieve enhanced data collaboration, we allow the healthcare analyzers to access both the reencrypted health data and the social data with authorization from the data owner based on proxy reencryption. Specifically, most of the health data encryption and decryption computations are outsourced from resource-constrained mobile devices to a health cloud, and the decryption of the healthcare analyzer incurs a low cost. The security and performance analysis results show the security and efficiency of our scheme.

  8. Variability in social reasoning: The influence of attachment security on the attribution of goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Dunfield

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last half decade there has been a growing move to apply the methods and theory of cognitive development to questions regarding infants’ social understanding. Though this combination has afforded exciting opportunities to better understand our species’ unique social cognitive abilities, the resulting findings do not always lead to the same conclusions. For example, a growing body of research has found support for both universal similarity and individual differences in infants’ social reasoning about others’ responses to incomplete goals. The present research examines this apparent contradiction by assessing the influence of attachment security on the ability of university undergraduates to represent instrumental needs versus social-emotional distress. When the two varieties of goals were clearly differentiated, we observed a universally similar pattern of results (Expt. 1a/b. However, when the goals were combined, and both instrumental need and social-emotional distress were presented together, individual differences emerged (Expt. 2, 3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that by integrating the two perspectives of shared universals and individual differences, important points of contact can be revealed supporting a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the nature of human social reasoning.

  9. Flexicurity as a measuring leakage protection of workers: between "social pollution" and "total security".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Massimo Cammalleri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Was not the labour problem the same everywhere? The paper at­tempts to answer this question by proposing a re-interpretation of flexicurity through the comparison with the economic concepts of externalities and distortion of competition. After a methodological and epistemological premise, based on a multidisciplinary literature, the paper - crit­ically addresses the origins of flexicurity and argues that it lacks an archetypical definition, especially in the formulation of the EU Commission. Hence, the paper considers flexicurity as any balance between flexibility and security and, therefore, pro­poses ordering any set of contracts, providing the same balance and with the same regulatory framework, in “communities”. It is assumed, therefore, that communities can differ either in terms of a “protective” trade­-off, where the differential is not a surrogate measure of security, or in terms of an economic trade-off, where it is met by the provision of social insurance or security. One of these sets is called community 0 and it corresponds to undeclared work, not only illegal, but also completely devoid of security and fully flexible. After identifying from ILO, EU and constitutional sources the foundation of the “incompressibility” of rights which guarantee decent work, the paper likens decent work to a public good of general interest, in the same way as laws generally recognize the natural environment. On the basis of this comparative axiom, the paper proposes considering the dispersion of security produced by undeclared work as “un-decent” work and, therefore, as a form of “pollution”. The paper proposes, conversely, to define as a “total secure” environment one where there is no loss of se­curity and, therefore, a non-polluted environment. Because an environment can be little or very polluted, the paper proposes considering as social pollution any form, even legal, of security leakage - such as that induced by the

  10. Factor structure of the Essen Climate Evaluation Schema measure of social climate in a UK medium-security setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milsom, Sophia A; Freestone, Mark; Duller, Rachel; Bouman, Marisa; Taylor, Celia

    2014-04-01

    Social climate has an influence on a number of treatment-related factors, including service users' behaviour, staff morale and treatment outcomes. Reliable assessment of social climate is, therefore, beneficial within forensic mental health settings. The Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) has been validated in forensic mental health services in the UK and Germany. Preliminary normative data have been produced for UK high-security national health services and German medium-security and high-security services. We aim to validate the use of the EssenCES scale (English version) and provide preliminary normative data in UK medium-security hospital settings. The EssenCES scale was completed in a medium-security mental health service as part of a service-wide audit. A total of 89 patients and 112 staff completed the EssenCES. The three-factor structure of the EssenCES and its internal construct validity were maintained within the sample. Scores from this medium-security hospital sample were significantly higher than those from earlier high-security hospital data, with three exceptions--'patient cohesion' according to the patients and 'therapeutic hold' according to staff and patients. Our data support the use of the EssenCES scale as a valid measure for assessing social climate within medium-security hospital settings. Significant differences between the means of high-security and medium-security service samples imply that degree of security is a relevant factor affecting the ward climate and that in monitoring quality of secure services, it is likely to be important to apply different scores to reflect standards. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The welfare state, pensions, privatization: the case of Social Security in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Boff, R B

    1997-01-01

    In all high-income nations, the welfare state is under challenge, with particular concern voiced about the burden of retirement pensions on the public fisc and on younger workers. The strongest drive against social insurance is taking place in the United States, which has less of it than other nations and appears to be in the best position to meet future entitlement claims. In this article, the author examines the liabilities that the U.S. Social Security system is likely to incur over the next 35 years and finds that there is little danger that the system will fall into insolvency. Privatizing Social Security is not necessary to assure the integrity of future pension benefits. Furthermore, the cost-benefit ratio of privatization appears to be unfavorable, as borne out by the mandatory private pension plan in effect in Chile. Some wealthy nations will face greater demographic strains than the United States, but all need to retain the welfare state as a foundation for future changes in the world of work.

  12. Unionism, the Decision-Making Process and Social Security Reform in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the vast literature on social security reform there are relatively few studies that analyze the participation of representatives coming from the union movement in the decision-making process. This article aims to fill part of that gap in Brazilian academic production on unionism and public policy. In situations in which unionist representatives support the ruling party, does the union bloc tend to defend the specific interests of their base of social representation or to follow the guidance of the party coalition of which they are part? The study addresses this research problemby analyzing the participation of the union bloc in the decision-making process of a social security reform, Proposal of Amendment to the Constitution, Article 40 (PEC 40, during the first term of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's government. The main findings of the study confirm the thesis of party predominance. In an institutional political scenario in which party discipline prevails, unionist representatives and senators tend to follow the guidance of the party coalition even under contrary pressures from their electoral base. The research sheds light on the relations involved between the Executive and Legislative branches, in the process of changing public policy, in which a government considered to be allied imposes losses for specific sectors of the union base, notably the active and inactive public servants of the federal government, states and municipalities.

  13. The Effects of a Social Media Policy on Pharmacy Students’ Facebook Security Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild, Carinda; James, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine how students entering a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program used Facebook privacy settings before and after the college's social media policy was presented to them. Methods. The Facebook profiles of all entering first-year pharmacy students across 4 campuses of a college of pharmacy were evaluated. Ten dichotomous variables of interest were viewed and recorded for each student's Facebook account at 3 time points: before the start of the semester, after presentation of the college's social media policy, and at the end of the semester. Data on whether a profile could be found and what portions of the profile were viewable also were collected. Results. After introduction of the policy, a significant number of students increased their security settings (made information not visible to the public) related to Facebook walls, information pages, and links. Conclusions. Making pharmacy students aware of a college's social media policy had a positive impact on their behaviors regarding online security and privacy. PMID:22171105

  14. Security Administration Reports Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains SSA Security Reports that allow Information Security Officers (ISOs) to access, review and take appropriate action based on the information contained in the...

  15. Work-related illness, work-related accidents, and lack of social security in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago Echeverri, María Teresa; Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Granja Palacios, Consuelo

    2017-08-01

    The impacts of neoliberal or market-based social security reforms in health have been extensively studied. How such reforms transformed employment-related insurance and entitlements, however, has received significantly less attention. This study aims to understand how the employment insurance system operates in Colombia and to assess how the experience of workers seeking social security entitlements relates to the system's structure. We conducted an ethnographic study of the Colombian Occupational Risk System between May 2014 and March 2016, with two main components: 1) analysis of the system itself through in-depth interviews with 32 people working in leadership positions and a systematic review of the system's most important legislation, and 2) a study of people who experienced problems receiving entitlements and were challenging the assessment of their work-related illness or accident. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 people, followed up with half of them, and reviewed their case files. We found that difficulties accessing health care services, payments for medical leave, job reassignments, severance packages, and filing for pension benefits were common to all cases and resulted from overwhelming bureaucratic and administrative demands. Regional and national evaluation bodies dictate whether a given illness or accident is work-related, and establish a percentage of Loss of Wage Earning Capacity (LWEC). People's disabled bodies rarely reached the threshold of 50% LWEC to qualify for disability pensions. The lengthy process that workers were forced to endure to obtain work-related entitlements always involved the judiciary. The three competing for-profit financial sectors (health insurance, pension funds, and Occupational Risk Administrators) actively challenged workers' demands in order to increase their profits. We conclude that these for-profit sectors work contrary to the principles that sustain social security. Indeed, they push sick and disabled

  16. Social Security Measures for Elderly Population in Delhi, India: Awareness, Utilization and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Charu; Gupta, Kalika; Banerjee, Bratati; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2017-05-01

    World population of elderly is increasing at a fast pace. The number of elderly in India has increased by 54.77% in the last 15 years. A number of social security measures have been taken by Indian government. To assess awareness, utilization and barriers faced while utilizing social security schemes by elderly in a secondary care hospital situated in a rural area in Delhi, India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 individuals aged 60 years and above in a secondary care hospital situated in a rural area in Delhi. A pre-tested, semi-structured schedule prepared in local language was used. Data was analysed using SPSS software (version 17.0). Chi-square test was used to observe any statistical association between categorical variables. The results were considered statistically significant if p-value was less than 0.05. A majority of study subjects were females (54.2%), Hindu (89.7%), married (60.3%) and were not engaged in any occupation (82.8%). Awareness about Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) was present among 286 (79.4%) and Annapurna scheme in 193 (53.6%) subjects. Among 223 subjects who were below poverty line, 179 (80.3%) were aware of IGNOAPS; while, 112 (50.2%) were utilizing the scheme. There was no association of awareness with education status, occupation, religion, family type, marital status and caste (p>0.05). Corruption and tedious administrative formalities were major barriers reported. Awareness generation, provision of information on how to approach the concerned authority for utilizing the scheme and ease of administrative procedures should be an integral part of any social security scheme or measure. In the present study, about 79.4% of elderly were aware and 45% of the eligible subjects were utilizing pension scheme. Major barriers reported in utilization of schemes were corruption and tedious administrative procedures.

  17. The social security scheme in Thailand: what lessons can be drawn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Supachutikul, A; Lertiendumrong, J

    1999-04-01

    The Social Security Scheme was launched in 1990, covering formal sector private employees for non-work related sickness, maternity and invalidity including cash benefits and funeral grants. The scheme is financed by tripartite contributions from government, employers and employees, each of 1.5% of payroll (total of 4.5%). The scheme decided to pay health care providers, whether public or private, on a flat rate capitation basis to cover both ambulatory and inpatient care. Registration of the insured with a contractor hospital was a necessary consequence of the chosen capitation payment system. The aim of this paper is to review the operation of the scheme, and to explore the implications of capitation payment and registration for utilisation levels and provider behaviour. A key weakness of the scheme's design is suggested to be the initial decision to give employers not employees the responsibility for choosing the registered hospitals. This was done for administrative reasons, but it contributed to low levels of use of the contractor hospitals. In addition, low levels of use were also probably the result of the potential for cream skimming, cost shifting from inpatient to ambulatory care and under-provision of patient care, though since monitoring mechanisms by the Social Security Office were weak, these effects are difficult to detect conclusively. Mechanisms to improve utilisation levels were gradually introduced, such as employee choice of registered hospitals and the formation of sub-contractor networks to improve access to care. A beneficial effect of the capitation payment system was that the Social Security Fund generated substantial reserves and expenditures on sickness benefits were well stabilised. The paper ends by recommending that future policy amendments should be guided by research and empirical findings and that tougher monitoring and enforcement of quality of care standards are required.

  18. Security of attachment and quality of mother-toddler social interaction in a high-risk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltigan, John D; Lambert, Brittany L; Seifer, Ronald; Ekas, Naomi V; Bauer, Charles R; Messinger, Daniel S

    2012-02-01

    The quality of children's social interactions and their attachment security with a primary caregiver are two widely studied indices of socioemotional functioning in early childhood. Although both Bowlby and Ainsworth suggested that the parent-child interactions underlying the development of attachment security could be distinguished from other aspects of parent-child interaction (e.g., play), relatively little empirical research has examined this proposition. The aim of the current study was to explore this issue by examining concurrent relations between toddler's attachment security in the Strange Situation Procedure and quality of mother-child social interaction in a high-risk sample of toddlers characterized by prenatal cocaine exposure and low levels of maternal education. Analyses of variance suggested limited relations between attachment security and quality of social interaction. Further research examining the interrelations among various components of the parent-child relationship is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The experience of living with sensory hyperreactivity-accessibility, financial security, and social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderholm, Anna; Söderberg, Anna; Nordin, Steven

    2011-08-01

    Odor intolerance is a frequently reported problem, predominantly among women. Our purpose was to illuminate how individuals living with sensory hyperreactivity (SHR; a form of odor intolerance) experience its impact on accessibility, financial security, and social relationships. Data were collected by having 12 women with SHR write descriptive texts. These texts were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Six themes were identified: Being limited in participating in society, being forced to behave incompatibly with one's personality, experiencing lack of understanding and respect from others, experiencing insecurity, being dependent on others, and being forced to choose between the plague and cholera.

  20. Framing and Claiming: How Information-Framing Affects Expected Social Security Claiming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey R.; Kapteyn, Arie; Mitchell, Olivia S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that Social Security benefit claiming decisions are strongly affected by framing and are thus inconsistent with expected utility theory. Using a randomized experiment that controls for both observable and unobservable differences across individuals, we find that the use of a “breakeven analysis” encourages early claiming. Respondents are more likely to delay when later claiming is framed as a gain, and the claiming age is anchored at older ages. Additionally, the financially less literate, individuals with credit card debt, and those with lower earnings are more influenced by framing than others. PMID:28579641

  1. Framing and Claiming: How Information-Framing Affects Expected Social Security Claiming Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey R; Kapteyn, Arie; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides evidence that Social Security benefit claiming decisions are strongly affected by framing and are thus inconsistent with expected utility theory. Using a randomized experiment that controls for both observable and unobservable differences across individuals, we find that the use of a "breakeven analysis" encourages early claiming. Respondents are more likely to delay when later claiming is framed as a gain, and the claiming age is anchored at older ages. Additionally, the financially less literate, individuals with credit card debt, and those with lower earnings are more influenced by framing than others.

  2. An Examination of Organizational Information Protection in the Era of Social Media: A Study of Social Network Security and Privacy Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates information protection for professional users of online social networks. It addresses management's desire to motivate their employees to adopt protective measures while accessing online social networks and to help their employees improve their proficiency in information security and ability to detect deceptive…

  3. Disability and Adult Life: Dependence on Social Security among Former Students with Special Educational Needs in Their Late Twenties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, Jon Olav

    2013-01-01

    This article, by Jon Olav Myklebust from Volda University, Norway, presents analyses of social security dependence among students with special educational needs in Norway who at the start of upper secondary school had various disabilities--of a somatic, psychological and/or social nature. They were all educated in ordinary schools, in special or…

  4. Legal rights, efficiency and citizen involvement in the administration of social security cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Hielmcrone, Nina

    2010-01-01

    for the accretion of new special rules. They merely have to be coded into the system. The government’s modernisation programme has been carried out at the expense of transparency and the legal rights of the citizens. This article deals with Danish legislation; the mechanisms in question are common not only......The Danish social security legislation has been distinguished in recent years by an intense growth in rules and regulations. Numerous laws and ordinances have been promulgated, which make it extremely difficult for both citizens and authorities to come to grips with the laws, much less to gain...... to a vast growth in very detailed and complex rules and thereby lack of transparency for citizens and social workers. The fact that benefits are administered with the aid of computers means that neither administrators nor politicians find the abundance of rules to be a problem, and no limits are thereby set...

  5. Security and privacy of EHR systems--ethical, social and legal requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses social, ethical and legal concerns about security and privacy that arise in the development of international interoperable health information systems. The paper deals with these concerns under four rubrics: the ethical status of electronic health records, the social and legal embedding of interoperable health information systems, the overall information-requirements healthcare as such, and the role of health information professionals as facilitators. It argues that the concerns that arise can be met if the development of interoperability protocols is guided by the seven basic principles of information ethics that have been enunciated in the IMIA Code of Ethics for Health Information Professionals and that are central to the ethical treatment of electronic health records.

  6. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  7. “Food Security” versus Cash Transfers: Comparative Analysis of Social Security Approaches in India and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Vance

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Amongst Global South nations grappling with the problems of both food security and poverty relief, two of the largest are Brazil and India. Though the nations of course differ in a host of socioeconomic, cultural and geopolitical respects, they do face similar problems of sharp income inequality, displacement of rural populations into cities and increasing battles over land and agricultural ownership. At the same time, both countries have had, until recently, a long period of sustained economic growth, as well as centre-left governments (the Workers’ Party in the case of Brazil, the Indian National Congress in the case of India, attempting to spread the benefits of that growth to a wider social strata. The differential approaches that the social security systems in each nation took in attempting to address the problem of food security are, therefore, instructive in understanding how these questions should be approached on a policy level. Though of course constrained in each case by differing economic and political contexts, as well as path dependencies within each country’s existing social protection regime, there are lessons in their successes and failures. Moreover, an approach which would recognize the best aspects of each policy program could be instrumental in designing a food security policy which reconciles institutional and individual problem levels. This paper will examine the political logics which informed both approaches, with an eye to seeing how these were played out in their concrete effects as implemented.

  8. Global maize trade and food security: implications from a social network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food security might arise if maize availability was decreased due to factors such as diversion to nonfood uses, climatic factors, or plant diseases. Using data on imports and exports from the U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics Database for each year from 2000 to 2009 inclusive, we summarized statistics on volumes of maize trade between pairs of nations for 217 nations. There is evidence of market segregation among clusters of nations; with three prominent clusters representing Europe, Brazil and Argentina, and the United States. The United States is by far the largest exporter of maize worldwide, whereas Japan and the Republic of Korea are the largest maize importers. In particular, the star-shaped cluster of the network that represents U.S. maize trade to other nations indicates the potential for food security risks because of the lack of trade these other nations conduct with other maize exporters. If a scenario arose in which U.S. maize could not be exported in as large quantities, maize supplies in many nations could be jeopardized. We discuss this in the context of recent maize ethanol production and its attendant impacts on food prices elsewhere worldwide. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Radiological physics in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstam, Rune

    1980-01-01

    Development of radiological or radiation physics as a separate discipline in Sweden is outlined. Growth in number of hospital physicists is compared with that of some other countries for the period 1950-1975. The main duties of hospital physicists are described. Undergraduate and postgraduate courses in radiation physics in Sweden are discussed. A microtron and a multi-source cobalt-60 unit are described. (M.G.B.)

  10. Kabbalah in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karlsson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history of Kabbalah in Sweden. The reader is presented with an overall view to Kabbalah in Sweden: first, the Johannes Bureus and the Nordic Kabbalah, Kabbalah after Bureus, Kabbalistic literature, and last, Kabbalah in Sweden today. When the Kabbalah reached Sweden it was mainly the non-Jewish Kabbalah that gained influence, even if its Jewish roots were acknowledged. Johannes Bureus unites, in a similar fashion as do the Christian Kabbalists in continental Europe, Christian motifs with the symbolic world of the Kabbalah. Bureus, however, adds runes, ancient Norse gods and Gothic ideas in his own unique manner. The Kabbalah invites speculation and the search for correspondences which has caused the Kabbalah in Sweden to be united with a number of other traditions. Bureus combined the Kabbalah with runes and Gothicism; in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries we can find the Kabbalah in Freemasonry and Esoteric societies, while the Kabbalah in the twentieth century and onwards has been associated with New Age, Parapsychology and Indian Mysticism. Apart from Bureus, most Kabbalists in Sweden have followed the trends that flourished in the rest of the world. Bureus was the first to create a specifically Swedish interpretation of the Kabbalah.

  11. Symptom validity issues in the psychological consultative examination for social security disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    This article is about Social Security Administration (SSA) policy with regard to the Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) for Social Security Disability, particularly with respect to validation of the responses and findings. First, the nature of the consultation and the importance of understanding the boundaries and ethics of the psychologist's role are described. Issues particular to working with low-functioning claimants usually form a large part of these examinations. The psychologist must understand various forms of non-credible behavior during the PCE, and how malingering might be considered among other non-credible presentations. Issues pertaining to symptom validity testing in low-functioning claimants are further explored. SSA policy with respect to symptom validity testing is carefully examined, with an attempt to answer specific concerns and show how psychological science can be of assistance, particularly with evidence-based practice. Additionally, the nature and importance of techniques to avoid the mislabeling of claimants as malingerers are examined. SSA requires the use of accepted diagnostic techniques with which to establish impairment, and this article describes the implementation of that requirement, particularly with respect to validating the findings.

  12. [Direct service costs of diabetes mellitus hospitalisations in the Mexican Institute of Social Security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Zapata, Leonardo; Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Aracena-Genao, Belkis; Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Nieto-López, Emmanuel Salvador

    To estimate the direct costs related to hospitalizations for diabetes mellitus and its complications in the Mexican Institute of Social Security METHODS: The hospital care costs of patients with diabetes mellitus using diagnosis-related groups in the IMSS (Mexican Institute of Social Security) and the hospital discharges from the corresponding E10-E14 codes for diabetes mellitus were estimated between 2008-2013. Costs were grouped according to demographic characteristics and main condition, and were estimated in US dollars in 2013. 411,302 diabetes mellitus discharges were recorded, representing a cost of $1,563 million. 52.44% of hospital discharges were men and 77.26% were for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The biggest cost was attributed to peripheral circulatory complications (34.84%) and people from 45-64 years of age (47.1%). Discharges decreased by 3.84% and total costs by 1.75% in the period analysed. The complications that caused the biggest cost variations were ketoacidosis (50.7%), ophthalmic (22.6%) and circulatory (18.81%). Hospital care for diabetes mellitus represents an important financial challenge for the IMSS. The increase in the frequency of hospitalisations in the productive age group, which affects society as a whole, is an even bigger challenge, and suggests the need to strengthen monitoring of diabetics in order to prevent complications that require hospital care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The potential impact of multidimesional geriatric assessment in the social security system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi, Graziamaria; Ambrosino, Immacolata; Massari, Marco; De Lucia, Onofrio; Simplicio, Sirio; Dragone, Michele; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Piccioni, Massimo; Ferrara, Nicola; Campobasso, Carlo Pietro

    2018-01-12

    To evaluate the efficacy of multidimensional geriatric assessment (MGA/CGA) in patients over 65 years old in predicting the release of the accompaniment allowance (AA) indemnity by a Local Medico-Legal Committee (MLC-NHS) and by the National Institute of Social Security Committee (MLC-INPS). In a longitudinal observational study, 200 Italian elder citizens requesting AA were first evaluated by MLC-NHS and later by MLC-INPS. Only MLC-INPS performed a MGA/CGA (including SPMSQ, Barthel Index, GDS-SF, and CIRS). This report was written according to the STROBE guidelines. The data analysis was performed on January 2016. The evaluation by the MLC-NHS and by the MLC-INPS was in agreement in 66% of cases. In the 28%, the AA benefit was recognized by the MLC-NHS, but not by the MLC-INPS. By the multivariate analysis, the best predictors of the AA release, by the MLC-NHS, were represented by gender and the Barthel Index score. The presence of carcinoma, the Barthel Index score, and the SPMQ score were the best predictors for the AA release by MLC-INPS. MGA/CGA could be useful in saving financial resources reducing the risk of incorrect indemnity release. It can improve the accuracy of the impairment assessment in social security system.

  14. Food security as a social movement in neo-liberal times: Envisaging a role for social sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder

    2008-01-01

    Food is one of the vital elements of human existence and human health. The right to food is equivalent to the right to life. From production to consumption, food involves many important cultural, social, and economic activities of human societies. Yet, despite advances in science and technology...... that have modernized food production and distribution, hunger and malnutrition still threaten the health and well-being of millions of people around the world. Estimates suggest that 800 million people in ‘developing’ countries are undernourished; of these 207.6 million reside in India alone. Food security...... is affected by food availability and affordability, which in turn, is largely influenced by the state of agriculture. The pivotal importance of agriculture in the fight against hunger and poverty lies in the fact that around 2.5 billion people in developing countries live in rural areas and are engaged...

  15. Social Milieu Oriented Routing: A New Dimension to Enhance Network Security in WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianggui; Chen, Li; Jia, Huiling

    2016-02-19

    In large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in order to enhance network security, it is crucial for a trustor node to perform social milieu oriented routing to a target a trustee node to carry out trust evaluation. This challenging social milieu oriented routing with more than one end-to-end Quality of Trust (QoT) constraint has proved to be NP-complete. Heuristic algorithms with polynomial and pseudo-polynomial-time complexities are often used to deal with this challenging problem. However, existing solutions cannot guarantee the efficiency of searching; that is, they can hardly avoid obtaining partial optimal solutions during a searching process. Quantum annealing (QA) uses delocalization and tunneling to avoid falling into local minima without sacrificing execution time. This has been proven a promising way to many optimization problems in recently published literatures. In this paper, for the first time, with the help of a novel approach, that is, configuration path-integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations, a QA-based optimal social trust path (QA_OSTP) selection algorithm is applied to the extraction of the optimal social trust path in large-scale WSNs. Extensive experiments have been conducted, and the experiment results demonstrate that QA_OSTP outperforms its heuristic opponents.

  16. Changes in Spending and Labor Supply in Response to a Social Security Benefit Cut: Evidence from Stated Choice Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavande, Adeline; Rohwedder, Susann

    2017-12-01

    We investigate how individuals in the U.S. expect to adjust their labor force participation and savings if Social Security benefits were cut by 30 percent. Respondents were asked directly what they would do under this scenario. Using the resulting stated choice data we find that respondents would on average reduce spending by 18.2 percent before retirement and 20.4 percent after retirement. About 34.1% of respondents state they would definitely work longer and they would postpone claiming Social Security by 1.1 years. We investigate how working longer and claiming Social Security later would compensate partially for the loss in benefits among the individuals who are currently working, under the assumption that individuals retire and claim at the same time. Individuals would increase their Social Security benefits from the post-reform level due to additional earnings entering the benefit calculation and a smaller early claiming penalty (or higher delayed claiming credit). As a result, the Social Security benefit people would receive would drop on average by 21 rather than 30 percent. Still, the net financial loss, even after accounting for additional earnings, is sizeable for individuals in the lowest wealth tertile.

  17. Earnings and Financial Compensation from Social Security Systems Correlate Strongly with Disability for Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliunas, Andrius; Wiberg, Michael; Tinghög, Petter; Glaser, Anna; Gyllensten, Hanna; Alexanderson, Kristina; Hillert, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients earn lower incomes and receive higher benefits. However, there is limited knowledge of how this is correlated with their disability. To elucidate sources and levels of income among MS patients with different disability, assessed with the Expanded Disability Status Scale. A total of 7929 MS patients aged 21-64 years and living in Sweden in 2010 were identified for this cross-sectional study. Descriptive statistics, logistic and truncated linear regression models were used to estimate differences between MS patients regarding earnings, disability pension, sickness absence, disability allowance, unemployment compensation, and social assistance. The average level of earnings was ten times lower and the average level of health- related benefits was four times higher when comparing MS patients with severe and mild disability. MS patients with severe disability had on average SEK 166,931 less annual income from earnings and SEK 54,534 more income from benefits compared to those with mild disability. The combined average income for MS patients was 35% lower when comparing patients in the same groups. The adjusted risk ratio for having earnings among MS patients with severe disability compared to the patients with mild disability was 0.33 (95% CI 0.29-0.39), while the risk ratio for having benefits was 1.93 (95% CI 1.90-1.94). Disease progression affects the financial situation of MS patients considerably. Correlations between higher disability and patient income were observed, suggesting that earnings and benefits could be used as measures of MS progression and proxies of disability.

  18. From Parent-Child Mutuality to Security to Socialization Outcomes: Developmental Cascade toward Positive Adaptation in Preadolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Boldt, Lea J.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    A developmental cascade from positive early parent-child relationship to child security with the parent to adaptive socialization outcomes, proposed in attachment theory and often implicitly accepted but rarely formally tested, was examined in 100 mothers, fathers, and children followed from toddler age to preadolescence. Parent-child Mutually Responsive Orientation (MRO) was observed in lengthy interactions at 38, 52, 67, and 80 months; children reported their security with parents at age 8. Socialization outcomes (parent- and child-reported cooperation with parental monitoring and teacher-reported school competence) were assessed at age 10. Mediation was tested with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013). The parent-child history of MRO significantly predicted both mother-child and father-child security. For mother-child dyads, security mediated links between history of MRO and cooperation with maternal monitoring and school competence, controlling for developmental continuity of the studied constructs. For father-child dyads, the mediation effect was not evident. PMID:26258443

  19. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winde Lee D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6% responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5% responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The

  20. Social Security and divorce or death benefits storyboard (S(2)D(2)BS): an interactive participant learning exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Pamela Pitman

    2014-01-01

    Using the concept of an interactive or living storyboard, the author discusses the use of seven case narratives constructed for the sole purpose of teaching introductory gerontology or geriatric students about the distribution of Social Security benefits after spousal death. Additional information is included pertaining to Social Security benefits payable to divorced persons after the death of the former spouse, including the status of married same-sex couples. Narratives include representations of a male breadwinner model couple, a two-earner couple who have similar/dissimilar earnings prior to retirement, a divorced couple with a remarriage after a death, a gay couple with and without children, and a female primary breadwinner couple. Updated information from the Social Security Administration, as well as information on game preparation, scripts, and debriefing questions are included.

  1. [Demographic aging and social security. The insufficiency of old age pensions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham Chande, R

    1993-01-01

    The demographic transition is leading to demographic aging in Mexico, as lower fertility and greater life expectancy combine to produce absolute and percentage increases in the elderly population. Concern is growing about satisfying the material needs of the elderly population. Only a few developed countries are able to furnish adequate pensions to their retired workers through social security systems. In Mexico, class inequity is a greater determinant of the level of pension coverage than is generational solidarity. Mexico's 1990 census showed that the population of 81,250,000 was comprised of 24,517,000 economically active and 56,733,000 inactive persons. Of the 24,517,000 economically active, 7,282,000 mostly lower level employees and laborers were affiliated only with the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). 2,308,000 were covered by the IMSS and one of the complementary pension systems sponsored by the largest and most organized private companies. 2,629,000 were entitled to pensions through public sector employment and 584,000 through quasipublic employment. The remaining 11,571,000 had no rights to a pension. In other words, 47% of the labor force was not covered by any retirement pension system. 375,000 of the 5,007,000 persons over age 60 in the economically inactive population had some sort of pension from the IMSS. In 1990, 92% received the minimum pension, equivalent to 70% of the minimum salary. 229,000 had an IMSS pension and a complementary private pension. 196,000 pensioners in the public sector received an average pension of 1.5 times the minimum salary. 66,000 retired workers in quasipublic enterprises received pensions with automatic adjustments for inflation that frequently equaled 20 times the minimum salary. The total number of recipients of pensions of all types was 888,000,leaving 4,119,000 persons over 60 with no pension. Because of the deficiencies of the social security system, families must continue to be the institution that aids

  2. The central dose register for the nuclear industry in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widell, C.-O.

    1978-06-01

    The central dose register for the nuclear industry in Sweden has been in operation since 1974. The system contains today about 18 000 persons in the register. The dose information is stored on discs on a CDC Cyber 172 computer and all information to and from the system is handled by terminals at the different nuclear sites. The terminals are connected to the computer by normal telephone lines. Most doses are recorded on TLD. The data from the TLD readers is automatically transferred to the computer via punched tape and the local computer terminal. The dose results are stored under the person's unique social security number. It is also possible to use social security number systems of other countries. The dose register system also supervises the condition of the readers and their calibration by circulation dosimeters which have been given a reference dose. The information from the system can be obtained on many different types of lists, for example, annual, quarterly, monthly, departementally, personal history, job number. (author)

  3. Measurement issues associated with using survey data matched with administrative data from the Social Security Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Paul S; Fisher, T Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Researchers using survey data matched with administrative data benefit from the rich demographic and economic detail available from survey data combined with detailed programmatic data from administrative records. The research benefits of using these matched data are too numerous to mention. But there are drawbacks as well, and those drawbacks have received less systematic attention from researchers. We focus on survey data matched with administrative data from the Social Security Administration and address the strengths and weaknesses of each in four specific areas: (1) program participation and benefits, (2) disability and health information, (3) earnings, and (4) deferred compensation. We discuss the implications of these strengths and weaknesses for decisions that researchers must make regarding the appropriate data source and definition for the concepts in question. From this discussion, some general conclusions are drawn about measurement issues associated with using matched survey and administrative data for research, policy evaluation, and statistics.

  4. HOW RESILIENT IS THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL? FLEXIBILITY OR/AND SECURITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta GHEBREA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to assess the resilience of the European social model (ESM against recent challenges. Resilience depends on effectively managing the contradictions of the ESM. Flexicurity is an example of managing contradictions between security and flexibility. The contribution of flexicurity to the resilience of the ESM is determined by the development of the abilities necessary for resilience. Our research evaluates the performance of these abilities using statistical and document analyses. The results show that flexicurity policies perform satisfactorily relative to their resilience abilities. Still, the ability to respond is less effective due to significant differences among the Member States (regarding the implementation of flexicurity policies and to insufficient openness and functionality of the European labour market. Nevertheless, the European flexicurity policies redefine the ESM by adding a touch of a more mobile, autonomous and free-spirited approach, thus representing a solution to both preserve valuable tradition and modernise the ESM.

  5. Barriers to Employment Among Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries in the Mental Health Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milfort, Roline; Bond, Gary R; McGurk, Susan R; Drake, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This study examined barriers to employment among Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries who received comprehensive vocational and mental health services but were not successful in returning to work. This study examined barriers to employment among 430 SSDI beneficiaries with mental disorders who received evidence-based vocational and mental health services for two years but worked less than one month or not at all. Comprehensive care teams, which included employment specialists, made consensus judgments for each participant, identifying the top three barriers to employment from a checklist of 14 common barriers. Teams most frequently identified three barriers to employment: poorly controlled symptoms of mental illness (55%), nonengagement in supported employment (44%), and poorly controlled general medical problems (33%). Other factors were identified much less frequently. Some SSDI beneficiaries, despite having access to comprehensive services, continued to experience psychiatric impairments, difficulty engaging in vocational services, and general medical problems that limited their success in employment.

  6. Lowering social security's duration-of-marriage requirement: distributional effects for future female retirees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Christopher R; Whitman, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A number of alternatives to Social Security's auxiliary benefit system have been proposed in the context of changes in American family and work patterns. This article focuses on one modification therein-lowering the 10-year duration-of-marriage requirement for divorced spouses. Using a powerful microsimulation model (MINT), we examine the distributional effects of extending spouse and survivor benefit eligibility to 5- and 7-year marriages ending in divorce among female retirees in 2030, a population largely comprised of baby boomers. Results show that the options would increase benefits for a small share of female retirees, around 2 to 4%, and would not affect the vast majority of low-income divorced older women. However, of those affected, the options would substantially increase benefits and lower incidence of poverty and near poor. Low-income divorced retirees with marriages between 5 and 9 years in length and a deceased former spouse face the greatest potential gains.

  7. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  8. Automatic health record review to help prioritize gravely ill Social Security disability applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kenneth; Ho, Yen-Yi; Erickson, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Every year, thousands of patients die waiting for disability benefits from the Social Security Administration. Some qualify for expedited service under the Compassionate Allowance (CAL) initiative, but CAL software focuses exclusively on information from a single form field. This paper describes the development of a supplemental process for identifying some overlooked but gravely ill applicants, through automatic annotation of health records accompanying new claims. We explore improved prioritization instead of fully autonomous claims approval. We developed a sample of claims containing medical records at the moment of arrival in a single office. A series of tools annotated both patient records and public Web page descriptions of CAL medical conditions. We trained random forests to identify CAL patients and validated each model with 10-fold cross validation. Our main model, a general CAL classifier, had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.915. Combining this classifier with existing software improved sensitivity from 0.960 to 0.994, detecting every deceased patient, but reducing positive predictive value to 0.216. True positive CAL identification is a priority, given CAL patient mortality. Mere prioritization of the false positives would not create a meaningful burden in terms of manual review. Death certificate data suggest the presence of truly ill patients among putative false positives. To a limited extent, it is possible to identify gravely ill Social Security disability applicants by analyzing annotations of unstructured electronic health records, and the level of identification is sufficient to be useful in prioritizing case reviews. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Measuring the burden of preventable diabetic hospitalisations in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Palacios, David G; Cairns, John; Masetto, Cynthia

    2016-08-02

    The prevalence of diabetes among adults in Mexico has increased markedly from 6.7 % in 1994 to 14.7 % in 2015. Although the main diabetic complications can be prevented or delayed with timely and effective primary care, a high percentage of diabetic patients have developed them imposing an important preventable burden on Mexican society and on the health system. This paper estimates the financial and health burden caused by potentially preventable hospitalisations due to diabetic complications in hospitals operated by the largest social security institution in Latin America, the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), in the period 2007-2014. Hospitalisations in IMSS hospitals whose main cause was a diabetic complication were identified. The financial burden was estimated using IMSS diagnostic-related groups. To estimate the health burden, DALYs were computed under the assumption that patients would not have experienced complications if they had received timely and effective primary care. A total of 322,977 hospitalisations due to five diabetic complications were identified during the period studied, of which hospitalisations due to kidney failure and diabetic foot represent 78 %. The financial burden increased by 8.4 % in real terms between 2007 and 2014. However, when measured as cost per IMSS affiliate, it decreased by 11.3 %. The health burden had an overall decrease of 13.6 % and the associated DALYs in 2014 reached 103,688. Resources used for the hospital treatment of diabetic complications are then not available for other health care interventions. In order to prevent these hospitalisations more resources might need to be invested in primary care; the first step could be to consider the financial burden of these hospitalisations as a potential target for switching resources from hospital care to primary care services. However, more evidence of the effectiveness of different primary care interventions is needed to know how much of the burden could

  10. Energy in Sweden 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-11-15

    Energy in Sweden is published annually, and is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with coherent and easily available information on developments in the energy sector. Most of the publication is based on official statistics up to and including 2006, complemented where possible by input reflecting current events and decisions up to the middle of 2007. The publication consists of eight chapters: Current energy and climate policy areas; Policy measures and incentives; Sweden's energy balance; Energy use; Energy markets; An international perspective; The environmental situation; and, Energy facts

  11. Energy in Sweden 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-11-15

    Energy in Sweden is published annually, and is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with coherent and easily available information on developments in the energy sector. Most of the publication is based on official statistics up to and including 2006, complemented where possible by input reflecting current events and decisions up to the middle of 2007. The publication consists of eight chapters: Current energy and climate policy areas; Policy measures and incentives; Sweden's energy balance; Energy use; Energy markets; An international perspective; The environmental situation; and, Energy facts

  12. SOCIAL CONDITIONALITY OF INFORMATION SECURITY PROTECTION BY CRIMINAL LAW IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    EFREMOVA MARINA ALEKSANDROVNA

    2016-01-01

    Information security is one of the components of the national security in the Russian Federation. The role of the information component in the national security has become significantly more important. The criminal law needs to be updated in order to enhance its effectiveness with regard to criminal law protection of information security.

  13. Large scale wind energy conversion system (WECS) design and installation as affected by site wind energy characteristics, grouping arrangement, and social acceptance. [Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungstrom, O

    1977-01-01

    The Swedish wind energy prospecting program includes special features of determining site wind characteristics and design of WECS group stations, which are described briefly, such as applications of normalized WDP-Wind Duration Profiles, WHP-Wind Height Profiles and how these are affected by site location and terrain roughness. A set of WEC-Wind Energy Classes (1 to 4) is introduced as an aid in territorial wind energy surveys. A survey of Sweden's WEPA-Wind Energy Producing Areas--with associated distribution over WEC-2-4 is presented. In order to determine the corresponding wind energy production capacity, the problem of optimizing WECS group station design for cost effective energy production per land usage must be solved. Here, the effects of WECS unit size and spacing on specific annual energy production, TWh/km/sup 2/, yr, are analyzed with the use of specific group station models in the 40 to 100 MW capacity range, applying WECS unit sizes 50kW, 1 MW and 5 MW, studying the energy balance for typical group stations. By applying the specific productivity data for 1 to 5 MW systems, a survey of the WEPA-associated wind energy production capacity in Sweden is presented.

  14. Policy Needs for Social Security in the Process of Citizenization of the Peri-urban Farmers:A Case Study of Hefei City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jiang-lin; CHEN Rui; NI Wen-cong

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a survey of transformational towns and villages in High-tech Development District, Yaohai District and Shushan District, Hefei City. Using data, we analyze the "sideline effect" and inherent contradiction of transformational cities, research the policy needs for social security and its trend in the citizenization process of the peri-urban farmers. On this basis, we construct the social security policy system that can adapt to the accelerated process of urbanization. Finally, we put forth the following recommendations for the social security policy in the citizenization process of the peri-urban farmers: distinguishing different groups’ policy needs for social security; attaching importance to people’s dynamic policy needs for social security in urbanization; focusing on the adaptability of social security policy transformation in urbanization; attaching importance to the social psychosocial environment of social security policy transformation in urbanization; achieving the trinity of non-farm conversion, urbanization and citizenization in the process of urbanization; strengthening the government’s dominant position in the building of social security policy system.

  15. Un referente histórico de la seguridad social en Colombia A historical referent of social security in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Bernal Rodríguez

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available La prestación de los servicios de salud en colombia ha evolucionado a través del tiempo pasando de un sistema higienista sectorial y autoritario a uno de seguridad social amplio, generalizado, estatal y participativo. Las realidades que se vivieron en épocas remotas de la historia del país así como las normas que permitieron los primeros avances en la creación del actual sistema sirven de marco introductorio a los cambios que en el siglo XX vivió la república en esta materia. Se mencionan y describen en forma cronológica la legislación y características principales que actualmente rigen la prestación de los servicios de salud en el país. Por último, el artículo presenta las recientes modificaciones a las leyes vigentes e invita a la reflexión acerca de la necesidad por parte de los funcionarios de la salud de mayores conocimientos en otros campos del saber que influyen en la prestación de dichos servicios. Health attention in Colombia has evolved from a hygienist, sectarian and authoritative system to a general, governmental, wide and participating social security system. Realities lived in the history of the country as well as the first rules in the present system creation are exposed as an introductory reference for the description of changes related to this subject during the past century in this republic. The main laws concerning Colombian health services are described in a chronological order. The article also presents the new laws‘modifications and invites to a reflection by health officers about the need for greater knowledge in other subjects that influence health attention

  16. Beyond EU flexicurity. A hybrid model to financing social security: towards 'totalse­cirity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Massimo Cammalleri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The poses the empiric bases to introduces kind of 'so­cial security tax' to fight undeclared work, to reduce externalities, to substitute trust in the market with true and strong financial social protection. Therefore this paper tries to give a little contribu­tion to break link between work and se­curity's financing. It aims to demonstrate (also but not only, according to economics perspect­ive as flexicurity-balance can work in accordance with art. 31 and art. 34 of the Charter of Funda­mental Rights of the European Union, social justice, worker se­curity, whether the ex­ternalities in­side flexicur­ity's trade-off will be charged to flexibi­lity. One con­siders universal like wide­spread, as well as flexicurity studies consider it. One considers not to change anything about sub­jective and objective assumptions in benefits, as well as in contri­bution over workers' wages. - on the contrary one considers must not change (except possibles little ad­justments. The effect of the hybrids is the one way. It should introduce a virtuous cycle to reduce the gap in com­petitiveness between local production and extra E.U.

  17. Sweden - energy situation 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The energy situation of Sweden is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (UA) [de

  18. Endemic Tularemia, Sweden, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Lara; Arneborn, Malin; Tegnell, Anders; Giesecke, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Tularemia cases have been reported in Sweden since 1931, but no cyclical patterns can be identified. In 2003, the largest outbreak of tularemia since 1967 occurred, involving 698 cases. Increased reports were received from tularemia-nonendemic areas. Causal factors for an outbreak year and associated geographic distribution are not yet understood.

  19. Sweden after the referendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragnarson, P.

    1981-01-01

    Interest in the nuclear programme has slumped in the public and political arenas since the referendum in March 1980. How Sweden is now preparing for the implementation of the limited 12-reactor programme, and the associated fuel cycle, in particular the world's first away from reactor irradiated fuel storage, is discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Social representations and information security of children and adolescents: the point of view of teachers (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovina I.B.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of attention of the authors is the consideration of information security of children and adolescents as the object of social representations. Discusses the need for the theory of social representations to develop prophylactic and preventive programs in the field of information security of children and adolescents, in particular, says that the effectiveness of prevention and preventive programs is determined by how this information is understood by the target group, through what filters it passes. Briefly outlines the main provisions of the theory of social representations, discusses the functions of social representations, the mechanism of action ideas. Analyzed in a few studies, the focus of which was the presentation on new technologies, particularly mobile phones and the Internet. Presents the results of a series of studies devoted to the study of information security of children and adolescents, including the results of the first part of a research project dedicated to the analysis of how parents and teachers understand information security and what strategies to protect children and adolescents from dangerous information they are ready to use.