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Sample records for sweden response rates

  1. Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    In 1985, Sweden's population stood at 8.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 0.2%. The infant mortality rate was 6.4/1000, and life expectancy was 76 years for men and 82 years for women. The gross domestic product was US$100.2 billion, with a per capita income of $11,989. Of the work force of 4.34 million, 4.9% are in agriculture, 29.8% work in industry, 21.3% are employed in the commerce and finance sector, and 43.9% are engaged in services. Among the social problems Sweden faces are the increasingly large proportion of the population over age 65 years and the challenge of integrating immigrants into social and political life while preserving national languages and customs. Development during the 1970s was less favorable than in most comparable countries; however, industrial recovery during the 1980s has restored the competitiveness of Swedish exports. There is general agreement that investment in new plants and machinery must be increased and wages and consumption must be moderated if Sweden is to expand its industrial sector.

  2. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in Sweden 1987-2002 : regional incidence and case fatality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffijberg, H.; Buskens, E.; Granath, F.; Adami, J.; Ekbom, A.; Rinkel, G. J. E.; Blomqvist, P.

    Background: Incidence estimates of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in Sweden vary, which may be caused by regional variations. Reliable estimates of age-specific case fatality rates are lacking. We analysed regional incidence rates and case fatality rates of SAH in Sweden. Methods: The Swedish

  3. Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Vingård, Eva; Josephson, Malin

    2007-12-01

    This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi(2)-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age.

  4. Smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence: 40-year trends in Sweden 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence in Sweden. National smoking rates were found from Swedish National Statistics on smoking habits. Based on smoking rates for the years 1970-2010, periodontal disease prevalence estimates were calculated for the age bracket 40-70 years and smoking-associated relative risks between 2.0 and 20.0. The impact of smoking on the population was estimated according to the concept of population attributable fraction. The age-standardized smoking rate in Sweden declined from 44% in 1970 to 15% in 2010. In parallel with the smoking decline the calculated prevalence estimate of periodontal disease dropped from 26% to 12% assuming a 10-fold smoking-associated relative risk. Even at more moderate magnitudes of the relative risk, e.g. 2-fold or 5-fold, the prevalence decrease was quite tangible, suggesting that the current prevalence in Sweden is about 20-50% of the level 40 years ago. The population attributable fraction, estimating the portion of the disease that would have been avoided in the absence of smoking, was 80% in 1970 and 58% in 2010 at a ten-fold relative risk. Calculated estimates of periodontal disease prevalence are closely related to real changes in smoking rate. As smoking rate drops periodontal disease prevalence will drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The role of income differences in explaining social inequalities in self rated health in Sweden and Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngwe, M A; Diderichsen, F; Whitehead, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse to what extent differences in income, using two distinct measures-as distribution across quintiles and poverty-explain social inequalities in self rated health, for men and women, in Sweden and Britain. DESIGN: Series of cross sectional surveys, the Swedish Survey....... In Britain the distribution across income quintiles explained 47% of the social inequalities in self rated health among women and 31% among men, while in Sweden it explained, for women 13% and for men 20%. Poverty explained 22% for British women and 8% for British men of the social inequalities in self rated...... health, while in Sweden poverty explained much less (men 2.5% and women 0%). CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of social inequalities in self rated health was similar in Sweden and in Britain. However, the distribution of income across occupational social classes explains a larger part of these inequalities...

  6. Incidence rates of asthma, rhinitis and eczema symptoms and influential factors in young children in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, M.; Hagerhed-Engman, L.; Sigsgaard, T.

    2008-01-01

    period of breast-feeding. Allergic symptoms in parents were also a strong risk factor for incident asthma, as well as for rhinitis and eczema. Conclusion: When comparing incident rates of asthma between different studies it is important to realize that different definitions of the healthy baseline......Aim: To estimate the incidence rates for asthma, rhinitis and eczema symptoms and to investigate the importance of different influential factors for the incidence of these symptoms. Methods: The Dampness in Building and Health study commenced in the year 2000 in Varmland, Sweden with a parental...

  7. Evaluations of the effects of Sweden's spanking ban on physical child abuse rates: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, R E; Johnson, B

    1999-10-01

    Sweden's 1979 law banning corporal punishment by parents was welcomed by many as a needed policy to help reduce physical abuse of children. This study reviews the published empirical evidence relevant to that goal. Only seven journal articles with pertinent data were located. One study reported that the rate of physical child abuse was 49% higher in Sweden than in the USA, comparing its 1980 Swedish national survey with the average rates from two national surveys in the United States in 1975 and 1985. In contrast, a 1981 retrospective survey of university students suggested that the Swedish abuse rate had been 79% less than the American rate prior to the Swedish spanking ban. Some unpublished evidence suggests that Swedish rates of physical child abuse have remained high, although child abuse mortality rates have stayed low there. A recent Swedish report suggested that the spanking ban has made little change in problematic forms of physical punishment. The conclusion calls for more timely and rigorous evaluations of similar social experiments in the future.

  8. Self-rated health and social capital in Iraqi immigrants to Sweden: The MEDIM population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Louise; Lindström, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Poor self-rated health is an estimator of quality of life and a predictor of mortality seldom studied in immigrant populations. This work aimed to study self-rated health in relation to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and comorbidity in immigrants from Iraq - one of the largest non-European immigrant group in Sweden today - and to compare it with the self-rated health of native Swedes. The study was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2012 among citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30-65 years and born in Iraq or Sweden. All participants underwent a health examination and answered questionnaires on self-rated health, social capital, comorbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. In total, 1348 Iraqis and 677 Swedes participated. Poor self-rated health was identified in 43.9% of Iraqis and 21.9% of native Swedes ( pcapital was highly prevalent in the immigrants. Female gender showed higher odds of poor self-rated health in Iraqis than in Swedes (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.5, pinteraction=0.024), independent of other risk factors connected to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle or comorbidity. Although public health initiatives promoting social capital, socioeconomic status and comorbidity in immigrants are crucial, the excess risk of poor self-rated health in Iraqi women is not fully attributed to known risk factors for self-rated health, but remains to be further explored.

  9. Pornography consumption, sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health among male adolescents in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2013-09-01

    To describe patterns of pornography use among high school boys and to investigate differences between frequent, average, and nonfrequent users of pornography with respect to sexual experiences, lifestyles, and self-rated health. A population-based classroom survey among 16-year-old boys (n = 477), from 53 randomly selected high school classes in 2 towns in mid-Sweden. Almost all boys, 96% (n = 453), had watched pornography. Frequent users of pornography (everyday) (10%, n = 47) differed from average users (63%, n = 292) and nonfrequent users (27%, n = 126). Frequent users versus average users and nonfrequent users had more sexual experiences, such as one night stands (45, 32, 25%, respectively) and sex with friends more than 10 times (13, 10, 2%). A higher proportion of frequent users spent more than 10 straight hours at the computer several times a week (32, 5, 8%) and reported more relationship problems with peers (38, 22, 21%), truancy at least once a week (11, 6, 5%), obesity (13, 3, 3%), use of oral tobacco (36, 29, 20%), and use of alcohol (77, 70, 52%) versus average and nonfrequent users. One third of frequent users watched more pornography than they actually wanted. There were no differences between the groups regarding physical and psychological self-rated health. The boys, defined as frequent users of pornography, were more sexually experienced, spent more time at the computer, and reported an unhealthier lifestyle compared with average and nonfrequent users. No differences regarding self-rated health were detected even though obesity was twice as common among frequent users.

  10. Antibiotic prescribing in relation to diagnoses and consultation rates in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden: use of European quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrstrup, Mia; van der Velden, Alike; Engstrom, Sven; Goderis, Geert; Molstad, Sigvard; Verheij, Theo; Coenen, Samuel; Adriaenssens, Niels

    2017-03-01

    To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing in primary care in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden using European disease-specific antibiotic prescribing quality indicators (APQI) and taking into account the threshold to consult and national guidelines. A retrospective observational database study. Routine primary health care registration networks in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden. All consultations for one of seven acute infections [upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, bronchitis, pneumonia and cystitis] and the antibiotic prescriptions in 2012 corresponding to these diagnoses. Consultation incidences for these diagnoses and APQI values (a) the percentages of patients receiving an antibiotic per diagnosis, (b) the percentages prescribed first-choice antibiotics and (c) the percentages prescribed quinolones. The consultation incidence for respiratory tract infection was much higher in Belgium than in the Netherlands and Sweden. Most of the prescribing percentage indicators (a) were outside the recommended ranges, with Belgium deviating the most for URTI and bronchitis, Sweden for tonsillitis and the Netherlands for cystitis. The Netherlands and Sweden prescribed the recommended antibiotics (b) to a higher degree and the prescribing of quinolones exceeded the proposed range for most diagnoses (c) in Belgium. The interpretation of APQI was found to be dependent on the consultation incidences. High consultation incidences were associated with high antibiotic prescription rates. Taking into account the recommended treatments from national guidelines improved the results of the APQI values for sinusitis in the Netherlands and cystitis in Sweden. Quality assessment using European disease-specific APQI was feasible and their inter-country comparison can identify opportunities for quality improvement. Their interpretation, however, should take consultation incidences and national guidelines into account. Differences in

  11. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  12. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Frances Goldscheider; Eva Bernhardt; Maria Brandén

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in th...

  13. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  14. Exploring similarities and differences in hospital adverse event rates between Norway and Sweden using Global Trigger Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deilkås, Ellen Tveter; Risberg, Madeleine Borgstedt; Haugen, Marion; Lindstrøm, Jonas Christoffer; Nylén, Urban; Rutberg, Hans; Michael, Soop

    2017-03-20

    In this paper, we explore similarities and differences in hospital adverse event (AE) rates between Norway and Sweden by reviewing medical records with the Global Trigger Tool (GTT). All acute care hospitals in both countries performed medical record reviews, except one in Norway. Records were randomly selected from all eligible admissions in 2013. Eligible admissions were patients 18 years of age or older, undergoing care with an in-hospital stay of at least 24 hours, excluding psychiatric and care and rehabilitation. Reviews were done according to GTT methodology. Similar contexts for healthcare and similar socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have inspired the Nordic countries to exchange experiences from measuring and monitoring quality and patient safety in healthcare. The co-operation has promoted the use of GTT to monitor national and local rates of AEs in hospital care. 10 986 medical records were reviewed in Norway and 19 141 medical records in Sweden. No significant difference between overall AE rates was found between the two countries. The rate was 13.0% (95% CI 11.7% to 14.3%) in Norway and 14.4% (95% CI 12.6% to 16.3%) in Sweden. There were significantly higher AE rates of surgical complications in Norwegian hospitals compared with Swedish hospitals. Swedish hospitals had significantly higher rates of pressure ulcers, falls and 'other' AEs. Among more severe AEs, Norwegian hospitals had significantly higher rates of surgical complications than Swedish hospitals. Swedish hospitals had significantly higher rates of postpartum AEs. The level of patient safety in acute care hospitals, as assessed by GTT, was essentially the same in both countries. The differences between the countries in the rates of several types of AEs provide new incentives for Norwegian and Swedish governing bodies to address patient safety issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  15. Soil Methane Sink Capacity Response to a Long-Term Wildfire Chronosequence in Northern Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall P McNamara

    Full Text Available Boreal forests occupy nearly one fifth of the terrestrial land surface and are recognised as globally important regulators of carbon (C cycling and greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon sequestration processes in these forests include assimilation of CO2 into biomass and subsequently into soil organic matter, and soil microbial oxidation of methane (CH4. In this study we explored how ecosystem retrogression, which drives vegetation change, regulates the important process of soil CH4 oxidation in boreal forests. We measured soil CH4 oxidation processes on a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. Across these islands the build-up of soil organic matter was observed to increase with time since fire disturbance, with a significant correlation between greater humus depth and increased net soil CH4 oxidation rates. We suggest that this increase in net CH4 oxidation rates, in the absence of disturbance, results as deeper humus stores accumulate and provide niches for methanotrophs to thrive. By using this gradient we have discovered important regulatory controls on the stability of soil CH4 oxidation processes that could not have not been explored through shorter-term experiments. Our findings indicate that in the absence of human interventions such as fire suppression, and with increased wildfire frequency, the globally important boreal CH4 sink could be diminished.

  16. A comparative population-based study of prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva, Switzerland from 1973 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cynthia; Naidoo, Nasheen; Yang, Qian; Hartman, Mikael; Verkooijen, Helena M; Loy, En Yun; Bouchardy, Christine; Chia, Kee Seng; Chia, Sin Eng

    2012-06-06

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in Sweden and Geneva, and the third most common in men in Singapore. This population-based study describes trends in the incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva (Switzerland) from 1973 to 2006 and explores possible explanations for these different trends. Data from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were extracted from national cancer registries in Singapore (n = 5,172), Sweden (n = 188,783) and Geneva (n = 5,755) from 1973 to 2006. Trends of incidence and mortality were reported using the Poisson and negative binomial regression models. The age, period and birth-cohort were tested as predictors of incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer. Incidence rates of prostate cancer increased over all time periods for all three populations. Based on the age-period-cohort analysis, older age and later period of diagnosis were associated with a higher incidence of prostate cancer, whereas older age and earlier period were associated with higher mortality rates for prostate cancer in all three countries. This study demonstrated an overall increase in incidence rates and decrease in mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva. Both incidence and mortality rates were much lower in Singapore. The period effect is a stronger predictor of incidence and mortality of prostate cancer than the birth-cohort effect.

  17. Sources of Persistence in Regional Start-Up Rates - evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Martin; Koster, Sierdjan

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between start-up rates and regional economic development has been studied rather extensively in recent years. Dynamics in start-up rates have however received considerably less attention. In this paper we analyze the persistence of start-up rates across Swedish regions over a decade and analyze the sources of persistence. We find overall persistence in start-up rates. Start-up rates of a decade earlier are able to explain over 40 % of the variation in current start-up rates a...

  18. Infections with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Cytokine Responses in 2 Persons Bitten by Ticks, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grankvist, Anna; Sandelin, Lisa Labbé; Andersson, Jennie; Fryland, Linda; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Forsberg, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection was determined in 102 persons bitten by ticks in Sweden. Two infected women had erythematous rashes; 1 was co-infected with a Borrelia sp., and the other showed seroconversion for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Both patients had increased levels of Neoehrlichia DNA and serum cytokines for several months. PMID:26197035

  19. Lymphogranuloma venereum rates increased and Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes changed among men who have sex with men in Sweden 2004-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Jenny; Carlsson, Ola; Airell, Åsa; Strömdahl, Susanne; Bratt, Göran; Herrmann, Björn

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in Sweden since 2004 and to study in detail a consecutive number of Chlamydia trachomatis cases in men who have sex with men (MSM) during a 10 month period (September 2014 to July 2015). LGV increased from sporadic import cases in 2004 to comprise a spread within Sweden in 2016. Initially, only the L2b ompA genotype was detected, but in 2015 half of the genotyped LGV cases were L2 genotype. The changing genotype distribution in Sweden is linked to increased LGV spread in Europe. High-resolution multilocus sequence typing of 168 C. trachomatis cases from MSM in 2015 resulted in 29 sequence types, of which 3 accounted for 49 % of cases. The increased rates and different genotypes of LGV indicate that more concern for high-risk taking MSM is needed to avoid further spread of this invasive infection.

  20. Comparing removal efficiency and reaction rates of organic micro-pollutants during ozonation from different municipal waste water treatment plants effluents in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-taliawy, Haitham; Ekblad, Maja; Nilsson, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The Removal of about 50 micro-pollutants from 7 waste water treatment plant effluents –in Sweden- was tested on pilot scale. Different ozone doses and two different pilots with different reactor sizes and retention times were tested. Ozone reaction rates depended on DOC concentration in the water...

  1. Birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates among their offspring : a population-based study from Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Siau-Wei; Liu, Jenny; Juay, Lester; Czene, Kamila; Miao, Hui; Salim, Agus; Verkooijen, Helena M; Hartman, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With improvements in treatment of cancer, more men of fertile age are survivors of cancer. This study evaluates trends in birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates of their offspring. METHODS: From the Swedish Multi-generation Register and Cancer Register, we identified

  2. Sources of persistence in regional start-up rates-evidence from Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, Martin; Koster, Sierdjan

    This article assesses the spatial-temporal persistence of a dynamic phenomenon: start-ups. Two mechanisms that explain persistence in start-up rates are distinguished: (i) determinants of start-ups that are spatially 'sticky' and durable and (ii) path dependence in start-up activities in the form of

  3. A cross-sectional and semantic investigation of self-rated health in the northern Sweden MONICA-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller Göran

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-Rated Health (SRH correlates with risk of illness and death. But how are different questions of SRH to be interpreted? Does it matter whether one asks: “How would you assess your general state of health?”(General SRH or “How would you assess your general state of health compared to persons of your own age?”(Comparative SRH? Does the context in a questionnaire affect the answers? The aim of this paper is to examine the meaning of two questions on self-rated health, the statistical distribution of the answers, and whether the context of the question in a questionnaire affects the answers. Methods Statistical and semantic methodologies were used to analyse the answers of two different SRH questions in a cross-sectional survey, the MONICA-project of northern Sweden. Results The answers from 3504 persons were analysed. The statistical distributions of answers differed. The most common answer to the General SRH was “good”, while the most common answer to the Comparative SRH was “similar”. The semantic analysis showed that what is assessed in SRH is not health in a medical and lexical sense but fields of association connected to health, for example health behaviour, functional ability, youth, looks, way of life. The meaning and function of the two questions differ – mainly due to the comparing reference in Comparative SRH. The context in the questionnaire may have affected the statistics. Conclusions Health is primarily assessed in terms of its sense-relations (associations and Comparative SRH and General SRH contain different information on SRH. Comparative SRH is semantically more distinct. The context of the questions in a questionnaire may affect the way self-rated health questions are answered. Comparative SRH should not be eliminated from use in questionnaires. Its usefulness in clinical encounters should be investigated.

  4. Gender differences in the association between cognitive social capital, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms: a comparative analysis of Sweden and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhina, Kateryna; Ng, Nawi; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Eriksson, Malin

    2016-01-01

    Social capital is one of the social determinants of health, but there is still a lack of studies comparing its significance for health in different cultural settings. This study investigates and compares the relations between individual cognitive social capital and depressive symptoms and self-rated health in Sweden and Ukraine for men and women separately. Two cross-sectional nationally representative surveys of adult populations were used for the analysis. Data from the Ukraine's World Health Survey and the Sweden's National Public Health Survey were analyzed in this comparative study. The independent variable, cognitive social capital, was operationalized as institutional trust and feelings of safety. Depressive symptoms and self-rated health were used as the outcome variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and the 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. The model also adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Institutional trust is higher in Sweden compared to Ukraine (31 % of the Swedes vs. 12 % of the Ukrainians reported high trust to their national government/parliament). There is a strong association between self-rated health and institutional trust for both sexes in Sweden (odds ratio/OR = 1.99; 95 % CI = 1.58-2.50 for women and OR = 1.82, CI = 1.48-2.24 for men who reported low institutional trust compared with those with high institutional trust) but only for women (OR = 1.88, CI = 1.12-3.15) in Ukraine. Trust thus seems to be more important for self-rated health of women and men in Sweden compared to their counterparts in Ukraine. Significant associations between depressive symptoms and institutional trust were not observed in either country after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. A lack of feeling of safety increased the odds of having depressive symptoms among women (OR = 1.97, CI = 1.41-2.76) and men (OR = 3.91, CI = 2.19-6.97) in Sweden. The same association was

  5. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    , but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour...... of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys....

  6. Changes in rates of arthroscopy due to degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Ville M; Sihvonen, Raine; Paloneva, Juha; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-02-01

    Knee arthroscopy is commonly performed to treat degenerative knee disease symptoms and traumatic meniscal tears. We evaluated whether the recent high-quality randomized control trials not favoring arthroscopic surgery for degenerative knee disease affected the procedure incidence and trends in Finland and Sweden. We conducted a bi-national registry-based study including all adult (aged ≥18 years) inpatient and outpatient arthroscopic surgeries performed for degenerative knee disease (osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative meniscal tears) and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland between 1997 and 2012, and in Sweden between 2001 and 2012. In Finland, the annual number of operations was 16,389 in 1997, reached 20,432 in 2007, and declined to 15,018 in 2012. In Sweden, the number of operations was 9,944 in 2001, reached 11,711 in 2008, and declined to 8,114 in 2012. The knee arthroscopy incidence for OA was 124 per 10(5) person-years in 2012 in Finland and it was 51 in Sweden. The incidence of knee arthroscopies for meniscal tears coded as traumatic steadily increased in Finland from 64 per 10(5) person-years in 1997 to 97 per 10(5) person-years in 2012, but not in Sweden. The incidence of arthroscopies for degenerative knee disease declined after 2008 in both countries. Remarkably, the incidence of arthroscopy for degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears is 2 to 4 times higher in Finland than in Sweden. Efficient implementation of new high-quality evidence in clinical practice could reduce the number of ineffective surgeries.

  7. Government Disaster Response and Narrative Retrospection - A Comparative Study of the Electoral Impacts in Denmark and Sweden of the 2004 Tsunami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the nexus between disaster response and voting behaviour through a comparative study of the electoral dynamics in the immediate aftermath of the 2004 Tsunami in Denmark and Sweden. The paper addresses three hypotheses of retrospection: (i) blind retrospection where voters...... that voters did not appear to immediately punish the Danish and Swedish governments for the Tsunami despite the severe impacts and the widespread public disapproval of the governments’ disaster responses. The concept of narrative retrospection shows how there was limited pressure to politicize the government......’s disaster management efforts in Denmark, while the brunt of the political blame in Sweden occurred more than a year after the Tsunami....

  8. Antibiotic prescribing in relation to diagnoses and consultation rates in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden : use of European quality indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyrstrup, Mia; van der Velden, Alike|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/20448295X; Engstrom, Sven; Goderis, Geert; Molstad, Sigvard; Verheij, Theo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126027668; Coenen, Samuel; Adriaenssens, Niels

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing in primary care in Belgium, the Netherlands and Sweden using European disease-specific antibiotic prescribing quality indicators (APQI) and taking into account the threshold to consult and national guidelines. DESIGN: A retrospective

  9. Baseline response rates affect resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cook, James E; Lattal, Kennon A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session. Resistance to extinction in the yoked-interval component was always either greater or equal to that in the variable-ratio component. In Experiment 2, resistance to extinction was compared for two groups of rats that exhibited either high or low response rates when maintained on identical variable-interval schedules. Resistance to extinction was greater for the lower-response-rate group. These results suggest that baseline response rate can contribute to resistance to change. Such effects, however, can only be revealed when baseline response rate and reinforcement rate are disentangled (Experiments 1 and 2) from the more usual circumstance where the two covary. Furthermore, they are more cleanly revealed when the programmed contingencies controlling high and low response rates are identical, as in Experiment 2. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating......Identifying ways to efficiently maximize the response rate to surveys is important to survey-based research. However, evidence on the response rate effect of donation incentives and especially altruistic and egotistic-type text appeal interventions is sparse and ambiguous. By a randomized survey...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  11. High Rate of Treatment Failures in Nonimmune Travelers Treated With Artemether-Lumefantrine for Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Sweden: Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Effectiveness and Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondén, Klara; Wyss, Katja; Jovel, Irina; Vieira da Silva, Antero; Pohanka, Anton; Asghar, Muhammad; Homann, Manijeh Vafa; Gustafsson, Lars L; Hellgren, Urban; Färnert, Anna

    2017-01-15

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Since the introduction of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Sweden, treatment failures have been reported in adults. A retrospective comparative analysis of treatment regimen for P. falciparum malaria in adults in Stockholm during 2000-2015 was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of AL. Parasite genotyping and drug concentrations were investigated in the AL treatment failures. Among the total 397 P. falciparum episodes, 310 were treated with oral regimen only (95 AL, 162 mefloquine, 36 atovaquone-proguanil [AP], and 17 others), and 87 were administered initial intravenous therapy (38 artesunate and 49 quinine) followed by oral treatments. Five late treatment failures were detected after AL and one slow response to AP. The effectiveness of AL alone was 94.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.1%-98.3%), compared with 99.5% for other oral regimens (P = .003). All AL failures occurred in European men and the effectiveness in this group was only 73.7% (95% CI, 48.8%-90.0%). Genotyping confirmed recrudescence of the initial parasite populations and drug resistance markers revealed no clinically significant resistance patterns. Lumefantrine concentrations suggested subtherapeutic concentrations in at least 2 cases. Our findings indicate a high rate of symptomatic late treatment failures after 6-dose AL regime in nonimmune adults, especially in men. Our report warrants the need to establish optimal dosing of AL in adults and to alert clinicians about the importance of informing patients regarding the risk of parasites reappearing weeks after AL treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  13. Energy in Sweden 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Swedish Energy Agency's main duty is to assist the evolution of Sweden's energy system into a reliable, ecologically and economically sustainable system. The Agency is also responsible for the collection, processing and publication of official statistics in the energy field. The annual Energy in Sweden report, and its sister publication, Energy in Sweden - Facts and Figures (download able from the Agency's web site), are intended to provide decision makers, journalists, businesses, teachers and the public with co herent and easily accessible information on developments in the energy sector. The report also provides an overview of Sweden's current energy and climate policy, policy measures, the use and supply of energy, energy prices and energy markets, together with information on the effects of the energy system on the environment. Starting with Energy in Sweden 2012, the structure and layout of the report has been revised, to produce a shorter report than in previous years. It is the intention that this shorter format should be published in alternate years, alternating with a longer version. The new structure means that the division into chapters has been changed. The presentation of energy use is now divided up into chapters in the respective sections for the three sectors of residential and services, industry and transport. The presentation of energy supply is divided into two chapters: Primary Energy Carriers and Secondary Energy Carriers. The statistics which provide the foundation for the publication are based mainly on official statistics up to and including 2010, complemented where possible by input reflecting current events and decisions up to the summer of 2011. The Agency's annual publication, Energy Indicators, complements this Energy in Sweden report with details of a number of indicators for monitoring the progress towards energy policy objects.

  14. Panel design effects on response rates and response quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Seger; Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTo understand changes in individuals' opinions and attitudes it would be best to collect data through panels. Such panels, however, often cause irritation among respondents, resulting in low response rates and low response quality. We address whether this problem can be alleviated by

  15. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Martha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. Methods A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP that matched Australian electoral records were approached. Results The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. Conclusion The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  16. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2008-11-03

    Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking) water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP) that matched Australian electoral records were approached. The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  17. The digitalisation of service work – social partner responses in Denmark, Sweden and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The discussion on the digitalisation of work has intensified in recent years. The literature points to two main trends accelerated by digitalisation – work automation that eliminates or changes job functions, and the creation of work without jobs via digital platforms. This article addresses...... to be very active in the unilateral arena in all three countries, responses differ in the tripartite and bipartite arenas. The article concludes by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of the responses in the face of current digitalisation trends and existing models of labour market regulation....... in the unilateral, tripartite and bipartite arenas on various forms of neo-corporatist labour market regulation. The focus is on service work in the private sector, an area of the economy currently under pressure from both automation and the trend towards work without jobs. Whereas the social partners seem...

  18. Historical experience (1850-1950 and 1961-2014) of insect species responsible for forest damages in Sweden: influence of environmental and land management changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudoran, Mihaela-Mariana; Marquer, Laurent; Jönsson, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing climate change can influence the dynamic of insect populations and therefore the Insect species Responsible for Forest Damages ("insects-RFD" hereafter). Investigations of how much insects-RFD respond to environmental changes is necessary for control measures to prevent the spread of specific insects-RFD. These investigations are of critical importance to forestry and ecosystem services today. The present study aims at identifying the main insects-RFD in Sweden, and exploring the relationships between insects-RFD and environmental and land management changes. The recorded insect attacks based on historical reports, literature and databases, were synthesized for North, Central and South of Sweden, and for two periods at yearly time scales: 1850-1950 and 1961-2014. A series of analyses has been carried out based on this dataset: 1-Principal component analyses to assess which insect species have caused the major forest damages, 2-Ratios broadleaved versus conifer insect host trees to estimate the main types of damaged forests, and 3- Canonical correspondence analysis to evaluate how much environmental (temperature, precipitation and storms) and land management (land areas for wood production and standing volume) changes have affected insects-RFD. The results show a general increase and high diversity in insects-RFD between 1911 and 1950 in all Sweden. From 1961 insects-RFD decrease in all regions and then they become stable from 1991 to 2014, excepted in the South after 1991 when insects-RFD decrease. Conifers (pine and spruce) are the most attacked trees since at least 1850 in all Sweden. Ips typographus (spruce host tree) is confirmed to be the major insects-RFD to entire Sweden, following by Blastophagus piniperda and minor (pine host tree) before 1950 and Microdiprion pallipes (pine host tree) from 1961. Canonical correspondence analysis shows that the spread of insects-RFD might be related to environmental changes. More particularly, the temporal

  19. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  20. Recent breeding history of dog breeds in Sweden: modest rates of inbreeding, extensive loss of genetic diversity and lack of correlation between inbreeding and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, M; Laikre, L

    2014-01-01

    One problem in modern dogs is a high occurrence of physical diseases, defects and disorders. Many breeds exhibit physical problems that affect individual dogs throughout life. A potential cause of these problems is inbreeding that is known to reduce the viability of individuals. We investigated the possible correlation between recent inbreeding and health problems in dogs and used studbook data from 26 breeds provided by the Swedish Kennel Club for this purpose. The pedigrees date back to the mid-20th century and comprise 5–10 generations and 1 000–50 000 individuals per pedigree over our study period of 1980–2010. We compared levels of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation measured in relation to the number of founding animals during this period in the investigated dog breeds that we classified as ‘healthy’ (11 breeds) or ‘unhealthy’ (15) based on statistics on the extent of veterinary care obtained from Sweden's four largest insurance companies for pets. We found extensive loss of genetic variation and moderate levels of recent inbreeding in all breeds examined, but no strong indication of a difference in these parameters between healthy versus unhealthy breeds over this period. Thus, recent breeding history with respect to rate of inbreeding does not appear to be a main cause of poor health in the investigated dog breeds in Sweden. We identified both strengths and weaknesses of the dog pedigree data important to consider in future work of monitoring and conserving genetic diversity of dog breeds. PMID:24289536

  1. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  2. Response of moose hunters to predation following wolf return in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Wikenros

    Full Text Available Predation and hunter harvest constitute the main mortality factors affecting the size and dynamics of many exploited populations. The re-colonization by wolves (Canis lupus of the Scandinavian Peninsula may therefore substantially reduce hunter harvest of moose (Alces alces, the main prey of wolves.We examined possible effects of wolf presence on hunter harvest in areas where we had data before and after wolf establishment (n = 25, and in additional areas that had been continuously exposed to wolf predation during at least ten years (n = 43. There was a general reduction in the total number of moose harvested (n = 31,827 during the ten year study period in all areas irrespective of presence of wolves or not. However, the reduction in hunter harvest was stronger within wolf territories compared to control areas without wolves. The reduction in harvest was larger in small (500-800 km2 compared to large (1,200-1,800 km2 wolf territories. In areas with newly established wolf territories moose management appeared to be adaptive with regard to both managers (hunting quotas and to hunters (actual harvest. In these areas an instant reduction in moose harvest over-compensated the estimated number of moose killed annually by wolves and the composition of the hunted animals changed towards a lower proportion of adult females.We show that the re-colonization of wolves may result in an almost instant functional response by another large predator-humans-that reduced the potential for a direct numerical effect on the density of wolves' main prey, the moose. Because most of the worlds' habitat that will be available for future colonization by large predators are likely to be strongly influenced by humans, human behavioural responses may constitute a key trait that govern the impact of large predators on their prey.

  3. Building Fluent Performance: Measuring Response Rate and Multiplying Response Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Precision teaching emerged from O.R. Lindsley's pristine application of Skinner's natural science of behavior, with a focus on response rate measurement and free operant procedures. When applied with human learners in instructional settings, these first principles led to a series of developments framed in this paper as four kinds of ceilings that…

  4. Maternal and paternal self-rated health and BMI in relation to lifestyle in early pregnancy: the Salut Programme in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurenius, Eva; Lindkvist, Marie; Sundqvist, Magdalena; Ivarsson, Anneli; Mogren, Ingrid

    2011-11-01

    This study's aim was to increase knowledge about maternal and paternal self-rated health and body mass index in relation to lifestyle during early pregnancy. Study subjects were expectant parents visiting antenatal care (2006-07) as part of the Salut Programme in northern Sweden. During early pregnancy, 468 females and 413 male partners completed questionnaires. The questions addressed sociodemography, self-rated general health, weight and height, satisfaction with weight, and lifestyle, such as dietary habits, physical activity, sleeping pattern, and alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. Most rated their general health as good, very good, or excellent, although women less often than men (88% and 93%). The sex difference was more prominent when restricting the comparison to self-rated health being very good or excellent--49% of the women compared to 61% of the men. Being overweight or obese was common (53% of the men and 30% of the women). Few participants fulfilled the national recommendations with respect to a health-enhancing lifestyle; this was somewhat more common for women than men. Expectant parents with normal body mass index and vigorous physical activity were more likely to have very good or excellent self-rated health. Most expectant parents perceived their general health as good, although this perception was less for women than men. Being overweight and having a non-health-enhancing lifestyle were more common for men than women. Thus, there is need for more powerful health-promoting interventions for expectant parents.

  5. Can financial insecurity and condescending treatment explain the higher prevalence of poor self-rated health in women than in men? A population-based cross-sectional study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molarius Anu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Women have in general poorer self-rated health than men. Both material and psychosocial conditions have been found to be associated with self-rated health. We investigated whether two such factors, financial insecurity and condescending treatment, could explain the difference in self-rated health between women and men. Methods The association between the two factors and self-rated health was investigated in a population-based sample of 35,018 respondents. The data were obtained using a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18-75 years in 2008. The area covers 55 municipalities in central Sweden and the overall response rate was 59%. Multinomial odds ratios for poor self-rated health were calculated adjusting for age, educational level and longstanding illness and in the final model also for financial insecurity and condescending treatment. Results The prevalence of poor self-rated health was 7.4% among women and 6.0% among men. Women reported more often financial insecurity and condescending treatment than men did. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health in relation to good self-rated health was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.17-1.42 for women compared to men when adjusted for age, educational level and longstanding illness. The association became, however, statistically non-significant when adjusted for financial insecurity and condescending treatment. Conclusion The present findings suggest that women would have as good self-rated health as men if they had similar financial security as men and were not treated in a condescending manner to a larger extent than men. Longitudinal studies are, however, required to confirm this conclusion.

  6. Can financial insecurity and condescending treatment explain the higher prevalence of poor self-rated health in women than in men? A population-based cross-sectional study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molarius, Anu; Granström, Fredrik; Feldman, Inna; Blomqvist, Marina Kalander; Pettersson, Helena; Elo, Sirkka

    2012-09-01

    Women have in general poorer self-rated health than men. Both material and psychosocial conditions have been found to be associated with self-rated health. We investigated whether two such factors, financial insecurity and condescending treatment, could explain the difference in self-rated health between women and men. The association between the two factors and self-rated health was investigated in a population-based sample of 35,018 respondents. The data were obtained using a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18-75 years in 2008. The area covers 55 municipalities in central Sweden and the overall response rate was 59%. Multinomial odds ratios for poor self-rated health were calculated adjusting for age, educational level and longstanding illness and in the final model also for financial insecurity and condescending treatment. The prevalence of poor self-rated health was 7.4% among women and 6.0% among men. Women reported more often financial insecurity and condescending treatment than men did. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health in relation to good self-rated health was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.17-1.42) for women compared to men when adjusted for age, educational level and longstanding illness. The association became, however, statistically non-significant when adjusted for financial insecurity and condescending treatment. The present findings suggest that women would have as good self-rated health as men if they had similar financial security as men and were not treated in a condescending manner to a larger extent than men. Longitudinal studies are, however, required to confirm this conclusion.

  7. Recent breeding history of dog breeds in Sweden: modest rates of inbreeding, extensive loss of genetic diversity and lack of correlation between inbreeding and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, M; Laikre, L

    2014-04-01

    One problem in modern dogs is a high occurrence of physical diseases, defects and disorders. Many breeds exhibit physical problems that affect individual dogs throughout life. A potential cause of these problems is inbreeding that is known to reduce the viability of individuals. We investigated the possible correlation between recent inbreeding and health problems in dogs and used studbook data from 26 breeds provided by the Swedish Kennel Club for this purpose. The pedigrees date back to the mid-20th century and comprise 5-10 generations and 1 000-50 000 individuals per pedigree over our study period of 1980-2010. We compared levels of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation measured in relation to the number of founding animals during this period in the investigated dog breeds that we classified as 'healthy' (11 breeds) or 'unhealthy' (15) based on statistics on the extent of veterinary care obtained from Sweden's four largest insurance companies for pets. We found extensive loss of genetic variation and moderate levels of recent inbreeding in all breeds examined, but no strong indication of a difference in these parameters between healthy versus unhealthy breeds over this period. Thus, recent breeding history with respect to rate of inbreeding does not appear to be a main cause of poor health in the investigated dog breeds in Sweden. We identified both strengths and weaknesses of the dog pedigree data important to consider in future work of monitoring and conserving genetic diversity of dog breeds. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...... in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should...

  9. A comparative approach for modeling of CO2 storage capacity and associated pressure response - analysis of data from South Scania site, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liang; Yang, Zhibing; Jung, Byeongju; Joodaki, Saba; Niemi, Auli; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Erlström, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    Comprehensive modeling with models of varying level of accuracy can give valuable information for the appraisal of CO2 storage potential and the assessment of risks for a given site. Here, we present a comparative modeling approach/workflow where a sequence of mathematical models of different levels of complexity are applied. These models span from semi-analytical solution to three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulator. The Scania Site, southwest Sweden where the geological model was developed within the MUSTANG project activities is selected for an example study. Initially, a semi-analytical approach is used to investigate pressure increase induced by CO2 injection so as to determine a viable injection strategy (including injection rate and number of injection wells) and parameter sensitivity. The result is then used as a starting point in subsequent numerical simulations with TOUGH2/ECO2N for 2D and 3D simulations. At the same time a simplified numerical model with the vertical equilibrium (VE) approach is also implemented. A systematic comparison is done between the different methods in terms of pressure response. CO2 spreading during both the injection and post-injection phase is also carefully compared between the 2D, VE and 3D numerical simulations. Through these comparisons we can thus identify a model with the appropriate level of complexity according to the objectives of the modeling study. Given the data available, we show an effective modeling strategy in achieving order-of-magnitude estimates on the behavior of the identified CO2 traps during and after the injection.

  10. Do 'flexicurity' Policies Work for People With Low Education and Health Problems? A Comparison of Labour Market Policies and Employment Rates in Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Ashley; Nylén, Lotta; Backhans, Mona; Boye, Katarina; Thielen, Karsten; Whitehead, Margaret; Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    People with limiting longstanding illness and low education may experience problems in the labor market. Reduced employment protection that maintains economic security for the individual, known as "flexicurity," has been proposed as a way to increase overall employment. We compared the development of labor market policies and employment rates from 1990 to 2010 in Denmark and the Netherlands (representing flexicurity), the United Kingdom, and Sweden. Employment rates in all countries were much lower in the target group than for other groups over the study period. However, "flexicurity" as practiced in Denmark, far from being a "magic bullet," appeared to fail low-educated people with longstanding illness in particular. The Swedish policy, on the other hand, with higher employment protection and higher economic security, particularly earlier in the study period, led to higher employment rates in this group. Findings also revealed that economic security policies in all countries were eroding and shifting toward individual responsibility. Finally, results showed that active labor market policies need to be subcategorized to better understand which types are best suited for the target group. Increasing employment among the target group could reduce adverse health consequences and contribute to decreasing inequalities in health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Teacher Rated School Ethos and Student Reported Bullying-A Multilevel Study of Upper Secondary Schools in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Låftman, Sara B; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-12-13

    School ethos refers to the school leadership's purposive efforts to shape and direct the attitudes, values and behaviors needed in order to promote an active learning environment and to prevent the emergence of undesirable behaviors by creating shared meaning and common goals for the school. The aim of this study was to examine how teacher rated aspects of school ethos are linked with manifestations of bullying among 11th grade students. Five teacher-rated sub-dimensions of school ethos (staff stability, teacher morale, structure-order, student focus, and academic atmosphere) were examined in relation to student-reported perpetration of and exposure to traditional school bullying and cyberbullying. The data material combines student and teacher information from two separate data collections performed in 2016, comprising teachers and students in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. Analyses showed that bullying was associated with all but one of the five sub-dimensions of school ethos, namely structure and order for dealing with bullying behaviors at the school. Results are discussed in light of this counter-intuitive finding. Our findings nevertheless lend support to the idea that the social organization of schools, as reflected in their teacher-rated ethos, can affect individual students' attitudes in a way that prevents the emergence of bullying behavior among students.

  12. Teacher Rated School Ethos and Student Reported Bullying—A Multilevel Study of Upper Secondary Schools in Stockholm, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitte Modin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available School ethos refers to the school leadership’s purposive efforts to shape and direct the attitudes, values and behaviors needed in order to promote an active learning environment and to prevent the emergence of undesirable behaviors by creating shared meaning and common goals for the school. The aim of this study was to examine how teacher rated aspects of school ethos are linked with manifestations of bullying among 11th grade students. Five teacher-rated sub-dimensions of school ethos (staff stability, teacher morale, structure-order, student focus, and academic atmosphere were examined in relation to student-reported perpetration of and exposure to traditional school bullying and cyberbullying. The data material combines student and teacher information from two separate data collections performed in 2016, comprising teachers and students in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. Analyses showed that bullying was associated with all but one of the five sub-dimensions of school ethos, namely structure and order for dealing with bullying behaviors at the school. Results are discussed in light of this counter-intuitive finding. Our findings nevertheless lend support to the idea that the social organization of schools, as reflected in their teacher-rated ethos, can affect individual students’ attitudes in a way that prevents the emergence of bullying behavior among students.

  13. Teacher Rated School Ethos and Student Reported Bullying—A Multilevel Study of Upper Secondary Schools in Stockholm, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Låftman, Sara B.; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-01-01

    School ethos refers to the school leadership’s purposive efforts to shape and direct the attitudes, values and behaviors needed in order to promote an active learning environment and to prevent the emergence of undesirable behaviors by creating shared meaning and common goals for the school. The aim of this study was to examine how teacher rated aspects of school ethos are linked with manifestations of bullying among 11th grade students. Five teacher-rated sub-dimensions of school ethos (staff stability, teacher morale, structure-order, student focus, and academic atmosphere) were examined in relation to student-reported perpetration of and exposure to traditional school bullying and cyberbullying. The data material combines student and teacher information from two separate data collections performed in 2016, comprising teachers and students in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. Analyses showed that bullying was associated with all but one of the five sub-dimensions of school ethos, namely structure and order for dealing with bullying behaviors at the school. Results are discussed in light of this counter-intuitive finding. Our findings nevertheless lend support to the idea that the social organization of schools, as reflected in their teacher-rated ethos, can affect individual students’ attitudes in a way that prevents the emergence of bullying behavior among students. PMID:29236039

  14. Stillbirths and rate of neonatal deaths in 76,761 postterm pregnancies in Sweden, 1982-1991: a register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemarsson, I; Källén, K

    1997-08-01

    To study stillbirths and neonatal mortality in the postterm period. Register study of information obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (MBR), National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm. Singleton pregnancies with deliveries occurring between 1982 and 1991 were selected involving 914,702 women (of whom 76,761 had a postterm pregnancy continuing beyond the 42nd week of amenorrhea). All 2,043 records of dead infants were scrutinized before analysis of neonatal deaths. Stratification was made for year of birth, maternal age, and parity. Generally, the rates of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were low. The stillbirth rate was highest for primiparas at 38 completed weeks (2.72%), lowest at 40 weeks (1.23%), then increasing to 2.26% in the postterm period. The difference vs. multiparas was significant from 41 weeks onwards. Neonatal mortality was increased at 41 completed weeks for primiparas, but for multiparas it changed significantly first in the postterm period. The OR for a primipara to have an intrauterine death increased from 1.50 at 41 weeks (1.0 at 40 weeks) to 1.79 at 42 weeks and beyond. The OR for multiparas showed no sign of increase as gestation progressed. The results of this study indicate an increased risk of stillbirth with gestational age for primiparas but not for multiparas. The neonatal death rate was increased for both primiparas and multiparas (after 42 completed weeks).

  15. Lower extremity soft tissue reconstruction and amputation rates in patients with open tibial fractures in Sweden during 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampe, Ulrika; Weiss, Rüdiger J; Stark, Birgit; Sommar, Pehr; Al Dabbagh, Zewar; Jansson, Karl-Åke

    2014-10-16

    The rates of soft tissue reconstruction and amputation after open tibial fractures have not been studied on a national perspective. We aimed to determine the frequency of soft tissue coverage after open tibial fracture as well as primary and secondary amputation rates. Data on all patients (> = 15 years) admitted to hospital with open tibial fractures were extracted from the Swedish National Patient Register (1998-2010). All surgical procedures, re-admissions, and mechanisms of injury were analysed accordingly. The risk of amputation was calculated using logistic regression (adjusted for age, sex, mechanism of injury, reconstructive surgery and fixation method). The mean follow-up time was 6 (SD 3.8) years. Of 3,777 patients, 342 patients underwent soft tissue reconstructive surgery. In total, there were 125 amputations. Among patients with no reconstructive surgery, 2% (n = 68 patients) underwent amputation. In an adjusted analysis, patients older than 70 years (OR = 2.7, 95%, CI = 1.1-6) and those who underwent reconstructive surgery (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.6-5.8) showed higher risk for amputation. Fixations other than intramedullary nailing (plate, external fixation, closed reduction and combination) as the only method were associated with a significant higher risk for amputation (OR 5.1-14.4). Reconstruction within 72 hours (3 days) showed better results than reconstruction between 4-90 days (p = 0.04). The rate of amputations after open tibial fractures is low (3.6%). There is a higher risk for amputations with age above 70 (in contrast: male sex and tissue reconstruction are rather indicators for more severe soft tissue injuries). Only a small proportion of open tibial fractures need soft tissue reconstructive surgery. Reconstruction with free or pedicled flap should be performed within 72 hours whenever possible.

  16. Lower extremity soft tissue reconstruction and amputation rates in patients with open tibial fractures in Sweden during 1998–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The rates of soft tissue reconstruction and amputation after open tibial fractures have not been studied on a national perspective. We aimed to determine the frequency of soft tissue coverage after open tibial fracture as well as primary and secondary amputation rates. Methods Data on all patients (> = 15 years) admitted to hospital with open tibial fractures were extracted from the Swedish National Patient Register (1998–2010). All surgical procedures, re-admissions, and mechanisms of injury were analysed accordingly. The risk of amputation was calculated using logistic regression (adjusted for age, sex, mechanism of injury, reconstructive surgery and fixation method). The mean follow-up time was 6 (SD 3.8) years. Results Of 3,777 patients, 342 patients underwent soft tissue reconstructive surgery. In total, there were 125 amputations. Among patients with no reconstructive surgery, 2% (n = 68 patients) underwent amputation. In an adjusted analysis, patients older than 70 years (OR = 2.7, 95%, CI = 1.1-6) and those who underwent reconstructive surgery (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.6-5.8) showed higher risk for amputation. Fixations other than intramedullary nailing (plate, external fixation, closed reduction and combination) as the only method were associated with a significant higher risk for amputation (OR 5.1-14.4). Reconstruction within 72 hours (3 days) showed better results than reconstruction between 4–90 days (p = 0.04). Conclusions The rate of amputations after open tibial fractures is low (3.6%). There is a higher risk for amputations with age above 70 (in contrast: male sex and tissue reconstruction are rather indicators for more severe soft tissue injuries). Only a small proportion of open tibial fractures need soft tissue reconstructive surgery. Reconstruction with free or pedicled flap should be performed within 72 hours whenever possible. PMID:25323662

  17. Firefighter Incident Rehabilitation: Interpreting Heart Rate Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; Haller, Jeannie M; Benedict, Ron; Moore-Merrell, Lori

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this observational study was to document the heart rate (HR) responses of firefighters during incident rehabilitation following firefighting activity in a high-rise building with a simulated fire on the 10th floor. Additionally, the study investigated potential factors, including firefighting workload, ambient temperature, firefighter movement, and individual characteristics, that may have affected HR during recovery. Firefighters (n = 198) were assigned to perform a simulation of fire suppression, search and rescue, or material support during one of six firefighting trials that involved different crew sizes and ascent modes, and were performed in different environmental conditions. After completing the simulated firefighting activity, firefighters reported to a rehabilitation area on the 8th floor. The rehabilitation area was staffed by firefighter/paramedics. HR was monitored continuously during simulated firefighting activity and a 15-minute rehabilitation period. Average HR during rehabilitation (HRmean) was calculated and compared across trials. Simulated firefighting activity was performed in the summer in Virginia, USA, and ambient conditions varied among trials (mean ± SD: 31 ± 4°C; 46 ± 15% relative humidity; 32 ± 4°C heat index). Duration of simulated firefighting activity ranged from 12.0 to 20.3 minutes among trials (mean: 15.4 ± 5.2 minutes). Over all trials, mean peak HR during simulations was 173 ± 18 beats·min(-1). Mean HR over all trials at entry into rehabilitation was 149 ± 24 beats·min(-1). Following 15 minutes of recovery, mean HR over all trials was 126 ± 23 beats·min(-1). Exploratory analyses revealed that higher workload during firefighting (stair trials), higher ambient temperature (≥30°C), greater movement during rehabilitation (≥0.1 g-force), higher age (≥45 years), and higher BMI (≥30.0 kg·m(-2)) were associated with higher HR responses during rehabilitation. During complex emergency

  18. Family Structure, Child Living Arrangement and Mothers' Self-rated Health in Sweden-A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, Sara C; Gähler, H Michael

    2017-04-01

    Alternate living, i.e. children living 50-50 with their parents following separation is emerging as a new family form. This study is the first to differentiate separated mothers with sole/main custody from mothers with alternately living children, analysing health outcomes and using a sample representative of the population. The association between the self-rated health (SRH) of mothers and different family structures are examined. Parental cooperation is included in the analyses as a potential mediator. Data on 755 mothers from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Single mothers with sole/main custody reported poorer SRH than couple mothers in intact families while the difference was not significant for single mothers with children living alternately and mothers in stepfamilies. Controlling for potential confounders, probabilities for poor SRH for single mothers were reduced. The excess risk among mothers with sole/main custody may be due to poorer socioeconomic conditions. Employment was significantly more common among mothers with alternate living and an important explanatory factor for their better health compared to single mothers with sole/main custody. Adjusting for parental cooperation lowered the increased probability for poor SRH among single mothers with sole/main custody compared to single mothers with alternate living.

  19. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  20. Health care technology in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, E.; Banta, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    Health care in Sweden is a public sector responsibility and equity in access to care is quite important. The Swedish system is organized into several levels, with the Federation of County Councils at the top, and with regional, county, and local levels. In theory, the four hospital tiers developed

  1. Differentiating Telephone Surveys from Telemarketing to Increase Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Joey; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finds that including the statement "I'm not selling anything" in a telephone survey introduction does not significantly affect response rates. Shows that only an introduction with a university reference significantly increased response rates. (SR)

  2. The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ostrand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. By the end of 2014, an estimated 7.6 million people were internally displaced and 3.7 million Syrians had fled the country since the conflict began (OCHA 2014; UNHCR 2015a. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict is dire, and it has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries. Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey host massive numbers of Syrian refugees, and Syrians have been seeking protection beyond these countries in increasing numbers since 2011.This paper looks at the burdens and costs of the Syrian refugee crisis and considers how they have, or have not, been shared by the international community at large, and in particular by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also considers to what degree Syrians have been able to find protection in states outside the region. Germany and Sweden, by the end of 2014, had provided protection to the largest number of Syrian refugees outside the region. Although Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States differ in the level of protection provided to Syrians, all four states have increased protection to Syrians via resettlement and asylum (and in the case of the US temporary protected status since 2012. Despite this, the degree of protection provided by the four states is modest in relation to that provided by neighboring countries to Syria, and far more could be done. This paper also argues that the international community as a whole has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the Syrian refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement.The paper puts forward two general recommendations to reduce the strain on neighboring countries: increase the level of burden sharing by the international

  3. A high rate of HIV-1 acquisition post immigration among migrants in Sweden determined by a CD4 T-cell decline trajectory model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, J; Sönnerborg, A; Svedhem, V; Neogi, U; Marrone, G

    2017-10-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about the extent to which migrants become HIV-1 infected after arrival in European countries. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which migrants to Sweden become HIV-1 infected post immigration using a CD4 T-cell decline trajectory model. All migrants (n = 2268) who were ≥ 15 years old, were diagnosed with HIV-1 infection in the period 1983-2013, had a known year of arrival in Sweden, did not have primary HIV infection and were not infected via mother-to-child transmission were included in the study. The CD4 T-cell decline trajectory model was applied and estimates of HIV acquisition were compared to the clinical reports. Phylogenetic analysis was performed in a subset of patients to explore whether this would favour the model or the doctor's estimate. The model estimated 19% of individuals to have been infected after arrival in Sweden, whereas the physician's estimate was 12%. In 79% of cases the estimates agreed. Discordance was predominantly seen when the doctor estimated HIV acquisition to have occurred before arrival in Sweden, while the model estimated it to have occurred after arrival in Sweden, and this type of discordance was seen in 10% of all patients. The probability of a discordance was greater for older patients, those with a high first CD4 T-cell count and those infected via heterosexual transmission. The phylogenetic analysis showed a higher concordance with the CD4 model than with the clinical reports (36 vs. 13%, respectively). The model indicated that a substantially higher proportion of migrants are infected after arrival in Sweden than estimated using clinical routine reports. It is therefore important to further emphasize primary preventive measures among migrants who have established themselves in their new country. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  4. Stagnation only on the surface? The implications of skill and family responsibilities for the gender wage gap in Sweden, 1974-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Katarina; Halldén, Karin; Magnusson, Charlotta

    2017-03-31

    The wage differential between women and men persists in advanced economies despite the inflow of women into qualified occupations in recent years. Using five waves of the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey (LNU), this paper explores the gender wage gap in Sweden during the 1974-2010 period overall and by skill level. The empirical analyses showed that the general gender wage gap has been nearly unchanged for the past 30 years. However, the gender difference in wage in less qualified occupations fell considerably, whereas the gender pay gap remained stable for men and women in qualified occupations. The larger significance of family responsibilities for wages in qualified occupations is one likely explanation for this result. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  5. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen...... breathing completely reversed the decrease in maximal heart rate to values not different from those at sea level. In conclusion, dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade with domperidone demonstrates that hypoxic exercise in humans activates D(2)-receptors, resulting in a decrease in circulating levels...

  6. Sweden health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders; Glenngård, Anna H; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Life expectancy in Sweden is high and the country performs well in comparisons related to disease-oriented indicators of health service outcomes and quality of care. The Swedish health system is committed to ensuring the health of all citizens and abides by the principles of human dignity, need and solidarity, and cost-effectiveness. The state is responsible for overall health policy, while the funding and provision of services lies largely with the county councils and regions. The municipalities are responsible for the care of older and disabled people. The majority of primary care centres and almost all hospitals are owned by the county councils. Health care expenditure is mainly tax funded (80%) and is equivalent to 9.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) (2009). Only about 4% of the population has voluntary health insurance (VHI). User charges fund about 17% of health expenditure and are levied on visits to professionals, hospitalization and medicines. The number of acute care hospital beds is below the European Union (EU) average and Sweden allocates more human resources to the health sector than most OECD countries. In the past, the Achilles heel of Swedish health care included long waiting times for diagnosis and treatment and, more recently, divergence in quality of care between regions and socioeconomic groups. Addressing long waiting times remains a key policy objective along with improving access to providers. Recent principal health reforms over the past decade relate to: concentrating hospital services; regionalizing health care services, including mergers; improving coordinated care; increasing choice, competition and privatization in primary care; privatization and competition in the pharmacy sector; changing co-payments; and increasing attention to public comparison of quality and efficiency indicators, the value of investments in health care and responsiveness to patients needs. Reforms are often introduced on the local level, thus the pattern of

  7. HAMDALA: STRATEGIC RESPONSE TO EXCHANGE RATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For Nigeria at the inception of SAP, a major strategic importance in the nexus of the exchange rate policy was the reduction of the parallel market premium given the existence of the market side by side the official markets. The Hamdala, a group of Hausa `currency sellers' came into existence as a reaction to the need to act ...

  8. Exporter Price Response to Exchange Rate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund

    Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....... ows bring us closer to the transaction level where rm decisions are actually made. I nd that the utilization of monthly data does add new information about the average level of pricing-to-market, and the di¤erences between long-run pricing-to-market and short-run pricing-to-market. Furthermore, I nd...

  9. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  10. Responses of prawn to water flow rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vascotto, G.L.; Nilas, P.U.

    1987-05-28

    An aquarium study to determine the responses of postlarval macrobrachium rosenbergii to varying water changes was carried out. Six week old postlarvae were raised in glass aquaria receiving 0, 1.15, 7.2 and 14.4 water changes per day over a 12 week period. The treatments had significant influences on survival, biomass, and average size of the animals. Maximum survival and highest biomass were found in the 1.15 water turnover treatment; however, this treatment also produced the smallest average size animals. Early high mortalities were attributed to poor growing conditions in the high and low flow treatments, while later mortality appeared to be biomass dependent.

  11. Responses to sheep browsing at different stocking rates: water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywods: botany; browsing; carbohydrates; carbon; carbon allocation; Eastern Sweet Grassveld; Eriocephalus ericoides; palatability; photosynthesis; polyphenols; Pteronia tricephala; response; semi-arid; sheep; shrubs; South Africa; stocking rates; water relations; acceptability; elevation; karoo; photosynthetic rate; plant ...

  12. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  13. Adherence to optimal heart rate control in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: insight from a survey of heart rate in heart failure in Sweden (HR-HF study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, M; Ahrenmark, U; Berglund, S; Lindholm, C J; Lehto, A; Broberg, A Månsson; Tasevska-Dinevska, G; Wikstrom, G; Ågard, A; Andersson, B

    2017-12-01

    Despite that heart rate (HR) control is one of the guideline-recommended treatment goals for heart failure (HF) patients, implementation has been painstakingly slow. Therefore, it would be important to identify patients who have not yet achieved their target heart rates and assess possible underlying reasons as to why the target rates are not met. The survey of HR in patients with HF in Sweden (HR-HF survey) is an investigator-initiated, prospective, multicenter, observational longitudinal study designed to investigate the state of the art in the control of HR in HF and to explore potential underlying mechanisms for suboptimal HR control with focus on awareness of and adherence to guidelines for HR control among physicians who focus on the contributing role of beta-blockers (BBs). In 734 HF patients the mean HR was 68 ± 12 beats per minute (bpm) (37.2% of the patients had a HR >70 bpm). Patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (n = 425) had the highest HR (70 ± 13 bpm, with 42% >70 bpm), followed by HF with preserved ejection fraction and HF with mid-range ejection fraction. Atrial fibrillation, irrespective of HF type, had higher HR than sinus rhythm. A similar pattern was observed with BB treatment. Moreover, non-achievement of the recommended target HR (70 bpm optimal and an equal number considered a HR of >70 bpm too high, but without recommending further action. Furthermore, suboptimal HR control cannot be attributed to the use of BBs because there was neither a difference in use of BBs nor an interaction with BBs for HR >70 bpm compared with HR HF care.

  14. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  15. Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Denmark and Sweden have some of the largest public sectors in Europe. They are also characterized by predominantly voluntaristic labor market models where collective bargaining and employee involvement play a relatively strong role in public sector employment relations (ER). In this chapter, we...... more profound in Sweden than in Denmark, but they took place before the 2008 crisis. In Sweden, an economic crisis in the 1990s was a much more important driver than the post- 2008 crisis. The 1990s crisis contributed to an earlier implementation of NPM and to a higher degree of decentralization...

  16. Maximizing response rates in survey research: Issues and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Clay Siebert

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Collecting accurate data is a challenge for researchers, and securing sufficient response rates can be especially difficult, particularly when asking respondents to reveal sensitive information. This paper will review the relevant literature and illustrate the issues by reporting the methodes used to collect data for Work and Well Being: A Study of North Carolina Social Workers. By following a rigorous protocol, the study achieved a 75% response rate (N=751, a sample that was representative of the population, and minimal response bias. The results highlight the ways in which social work researchers can explore difficult substantive arenas and yet achieve an excellent response.

  17. Do low survey response rates bias results? Evidence from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald R. Rindfuss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developed countries, response rates have dropped to such low levels that many in the population field question whether the data can provide unbiased results. Objective: The paper uses three Japanese surveys conducted in the 2000s to ask whether low survey response rates bias results. A secondary objective is to bring results reported in the survey response literature to the attention of the demographic research community. Methods: Using a longitudinal survey as well as paradata from a cross-sectional survey, a variety of statistical techniques (chi square, analysis of variance (ANOVA, logistic regression, ordered probit or ordinary least squares regression (OLS, as appropriate are used to examine response-rate bias. Results: Evidence of response-rate bias is found for the univariate distributions of some demographic characteristics, behaviors, and attitudinal items. But when examining relationships between variables in a multivariate analysis, controlling for a variety of background variables, for most dependent variables we do not find evidence of bias from low response rates. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with results reported in the econometric and survey research literatures. Low response rates need not necessarily lead to biased results. Bias is more likely to be present when examining a simple univariate distribution than when examining the relationship between variables in a multivariate model. Comments: The results have two implications. First, demographers should not presume the presence or absence of low response-rate bias; rather they should test for it in the context of a specific substantive analysis. Second, demographers should lobby data gatherers to collect as much paradata as possible so that rigorous tests for low response-rate bias are possible.

  18. Heart Rate Responses to Synthesized Affective Spoken Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirja Ilves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of brief synthesized spoken words with emotional content on the ratings of emotions and heart rate responses. Twenty participants' heart rate functioning was measured while they listened to a set of emotionally negative, neutral, and positive words produced by speech synthesizers. At the end of the experiment, ratings of emotional experiences were also collected. The results showed that the ratings of the words were in accordance with their valence. Heart rate deceleration was significantly the strongest and most prolonged to the negative stimuli. The findings are the first suggesting that brief spoken emotionally toned words evoke a similar heart rate response pattern found earlier for more sustained emotional stimuli.

  19. Organization and overall job satisfaction among publicly employed, salaried dentists in Sweden and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordell, Sven; Söderfeldt, Björn; Hjalmers, Karin; Berthelsen, Hanne; Bergström, Kamilla

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden and Denmark, clinical dentistry is changing and public dentistry is in transition towards more market orientation. Dentists' overall job satisfaction is important for how public dentistry can fulfil the new expectations from patients, the public and politicians. The aim of this study was to investigate what organizational factors were important for publicly employed salaried dentists' overall job satisfaction. A random sample of active, general dental practitioners (private and publicly employed) was selected in Denmark and in Sweden, and they received a postal questionnaire. The number of questionnaires was 1835 and the response rate was 68% (n = 1226). This study analysed only the publicly employed dentists. The sampling frame for the Swedish dentists was 431, response rate 68.9% (n = 297) and for the Danish ones 194, response rate 81.9% (n = 159). Multivariate regression was used with overall job satisfaction as a dependent variable. Common organizational variables were important. The used model explained between 32% (Sweden) and 39% (Denmark) of the variance in overall job satisfaction. The only significant individual factor was less job satisfaction for Swedish dentists born outside Sweden. An organizational climate characterized by a focus on professional values was associated with job satisfaction in both countries. Among the Swedish dentists, number of colleagues and degree of influence were also important and among the Danish ones sufficient time for patients. Organizational factors had an impact on salaried publicly employed dentists' overall job satisfaction in both countries. The findings may have implications for other Human Service Organizations with employed professionals.

  20. Population Survey Features and Response Rates: A Randomized Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yimeng; Kopec, Jacek A; Cibere, Jolanda; Li, Linda C; Goldsmith, Charles H

    2016-08-01

    To study the effects of several survey features on response rates in a general population health survey. In 2012 and 2013, 8000 households in British Columbia, Canada, were randomly allocated to 1 of 7 survey variants, each containing a different combination of survey features. Features compared included administration modes (paper vs online), prepaid incentive ($2 coin vs none), lottery incentive (instant vs end-of-study), questionnaire length (10 minutes vs 30 minutes), and sampling frame (InfoCanada vs Canada Post). The overall response rate across the 7 groups was 27.9% (range = 17.1-43.4). All survey features except the sampling frame were associated with statistically significant differences in response rates. The survey mode elicited the largest effect on the odds of response (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61, 2.59), whereas the sampling frame showed the least effect (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.34). The highest response was achieved by mailing a short paper survey with a prepaid incentive. In a mailed general population health survey in Canada, a 40% to 50% response rate can be expected. Questionnaire administration mode, survey length, and type of incentive affect response rates.

  1. Kabbalah in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karlsson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history of Kabbalah in Sweden. The reader is presented with an overall view to Kabbalah in Sweden: first, the Johannes Bureus and the Nordic Kabbalah, Kabbalah after Bureus, Kabbalistic literature, and last, Kabbalah in Sweden today. When the Kabbalah reached Sweden it was mainly the non-Jewish Kabbalah that gained influence, even if its Jewish roots were acknowledged. Johannes Bureus unites, in a similar fashion as do the Christian Kabbalists in continental Europe, Christian motifs with the symbolic world of the Kabbalah. Bureus, however, adds runes, ancient Norse gods and Gothic ideas in his own unique manner. The Kabbalah invites speculation and the search for correspondences which has caused the Kabbalah in Sweden to be united with a number of other traditions. Bureus combined the Kabbalah with runes and Gothicism; in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries we can find the Kabbalah in Freemasonry and Esoteric societies, while the Kabbalah in the twentieth century and onwards has been associated with New Age, Parapsychology and Indian Mysticism. Apart from Bureus, most Kabbalists in Sweden have followed the trends that flourished in the rest of the world. Bureus was the first to create a specifically Swedish interpretation of the Kabbalah.

  2. Improving Completion Rates in Adult Education through Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Mariager-Anderson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Dropout is a serious problem within education. This article reports on an intervention project, titled "New Roles for the Teacher--Increased Completion Rates Through Social Responsibility," which sought to reduce nonattendance and drop-out rates in the Danish adult educational system by improving teachers' competences. This goal was…

  3. RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT RATES OF NITROGEN BY FIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to determine the optimum nitrogen fertilizer rate for the area as well as select the rice varieties that responded optimally. A split plot .... sub-plot were used for the measurement of growth parameters. .... 0.66. RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT RATES OF NITROGEN BY FIVE VARIETIES OF SWAMP RICE (ORZA SATIVA LINN). 23 ...

  4. Single-chamber, rate-responsive pacemaker-mediated tachycardia

    OpenAIRE

    Bohm, Adam; Kiss, Robert; Dorian, Paul; Pinter, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    The case of a patient with a unipolar VVIR, who developed a sensor-driven increased pacing rate at rest following pulse generator replacement, is presented. The cause was pectoral muscle stimulation, which triggered a sensor-driven rate response in the supine position. The possible causes and management are discussed.

  5. Factors influencing compliance to hygiene routines in community care - the viewpoint of medically responsible nurses in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Marianne; Kihlgren, Annica; Perseius, Kent-Inge

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to describe factors influencing compliance to hygiene routines in community care in Swedish municipalities from the perspective of medically responsible nurses (MRN). A web-based questionnaire was sent to all MRNs in Swedish municipalities, N = 268. Beside demographical background data, the questionnaire contained two core open-ended questions generating free text data. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Four categories of factors were found: resources, management, staff and external factors. All four categories contained subcategories. To some extent, the challenges to uphold adequate compliance to hygiene routines seem different in community care than in hospitals. Resources regarding equipment and supplies seem as an uncertain asset and uneven distributed among municipalities. Home likeness was seen as a major obstacle for upholding adequate hygiene routines. To uphold sufficient hygiene routines in a person's home or in a home-like environment might be one of the major challenges for community health care in the future. The MRN's narratives suggest that Registered Nurses have a key role in upholding sufficient hygiene in community care. This report might contribute in providing them with more knowledge to take on this urgent task. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  6. Growth and development rates have different thermal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Woodward, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Growth and development rates are fundamental to all living organisms. In a warming world, it is important to determine how these rates will respond to increasing temperatures. It is often assumed that the thermal responses of physiological rates are coupled to metabolic rate and thus have the same temperature dependence. However, the existence of the temperature-size rule suggests that intraspecific growth and development are decoupled. Decoupling of these rates would have important consequences for individual species and ecosystems, yet this has not been tested systematically across a range of species. We conducted an analysis on growth and development rate data compiled from the literature for a well-studied group, marine pelagic copepods, and use an information-theoretic approach to test which equations best describe these rates. Growth and development rates were best characterized by models with significantly different parameters: development has stronger temperature dependence than does growth across all life stages. As such, it is incorrect to assume that these rates have the same temperature dependence. We used the best-fit models for these rates to predict changes in organism mass in response to temperature. These predictions follow a concave relationship, which complicates attempts to model the impacts of increasing global temperatures on species body size.

  7. Perception of emotionally loaded vocal expressions and its connection to responses to music. A cross-cultural investigation: Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Russia and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija eWaaramaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on voice quality and the perception of the basic emotions from speech samples in cross-cultural conditions. It was examined whether voice quality, cultural or language background, age or gender were related to the identification of the emotions. Professional actors (n2 and actresses (n2 produced nonsense sentences (n32 and protracted vowels (n8 expressing the six basic emotions, interest and a neutral emotional state. The impact of musical interests on the ability to distinguish between emotions or valence (on an axis positivity – neutrality – negativity from voice samples was studied. Listening tests were conducted on location in five countries: Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the USA with 50 randomly chosen participants (25 males and 25 females in each country. The participants (total N=250 completed a questionnaire eliciting their background information and musical interests. The responses in the listening test and the questionnaires were statistically analysed. Voice quality parameters and the share of the emotions and valence identified correlated significantly with each other for both genders. The percentage of emotions and valence identified was clearly above the chance level in each of the five countries studied, however, the countries differed significantly from each other for the identified emotions and the gender of the speaker. The samples produced by females were identified significantly better than those produced by males. Listener’s age was a significant variable. Only minor gender differences were found for the identification. Perceptual confusion in the listening test between emotions seemed to be dependent on their similar voice production types. Musical interests tended to have a positive effect on the identification of the emotions. The results also suggest that identifying emotions from speech samples may be easier for those listeners who share a similar language or cultural background

  8. Perception of emotionally loaded vocal expressions and its connection to responses to music. A cross-cultural investigation: Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Russia, and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija; Leisiö, Timo

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on voice quality and the perception of the basic emotions from speech samples in cross-cultural conditions. It was examined whether voice quality, cultural, or language background, age, or gender were related to the identification of the emotions. Professional actors (n2) and actresses (n2) produced non-sense sentences (n32) and protracted vowels (n8) expressing the six basic emotions, interest, and a neutral emotional state. The impact of musical interests on the ability to distinguish between emotions or valence (on an axis positivity – neutrality – negativity) from voice samples was studied. Listening tests were conducted on location in five countries: Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA with 50 randomly chosen participants (25 males and 25 females) in each country. The participants (total N = 250) completed a questionnaire eliciting their background information and musical interests. The responses in the listening test and the questionnaires were statistically analyzed. Voice quality parameters and the share of the emotions and valence identified correlated significantly with each other for both genders. The percentage of emotions and valence identified was clearly above the chance level in each of the five countries studied, however, the countries differed significantly from each other for the identified emotions and the gender of the speaker. The samples produced by females were identified significantly better than those produced by males. Listener's age was a significant variable. Only minor gender differences were found for the identification. Perceptual confusion in the listening test between emotions seemed to be dependent on their similar voice production types. Musical interests tended to have a positive effect on the identification of the emotions. The results also suggest that identifying emotions from speech samples may be easier for those listeners who share a similar language or cultural background with the

  9. Boundaries of Mind and Nature - Human responses to changing landscapes over 2000 year during the Neolithic in Uppland, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hackwitz, Kim; Löwenborg, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    In the near future we are facing a global environmental situation where hydrological changes undoubtedly will take place. These changes will have an impact on the landscapes and affect socio-environmental systems. An understanding of the effects of the long-term interplay between society, hydrology and landscape must become one of the main platforms on which societies prospects for the next century will be based. In this paper I will present new information derived from a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to put forward the experience of the landscape and different boundaries; topographical, ideological and historical by using methods such as water catchment areas and regression equations. This is combined with the archaeological record and theories on experience derived from the concept of Historical Ecology. The main aim is to identify Neolithic territories from a long term perspective. The question to be discussed is: How did people experience and respond to different boundaries in a changing coastal landscape? Emphasis is given to the hydrological patterns and the role of water for the construction of geographically defined, social and sustainable landscapes. Just as human-environment interactions are crucial in creating landscapes, environmental changes are likely to have strong impacts on social constructions. Environmental changes cause diverse social effects and social relations are essential for understanding the responses to such changes as well as for understanding patterns of land use and the social and political construction of the landscape. An important aspect of reconstructing land use is therefore to analyse the cultural, social, and economic factors that drive land use decisions in relation to the initial conditions and emergent properties of the landscape. The Uppland area has undergone dramatic changes since the inland ice retreated around 10,000 BC. This process offered new land for occupation and at the same time changed

  10. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Response elimination, reinforcement rate and resurgence of operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A

    2013-11-01

    The effects of reinforcement rate of alternative responding on resurgence were studied in six experiments with pigeons. In Experiment 1A, key pecking was maintained on a multiple variable-interval (VI) VI schedule in the Training phase. In the Response-Elimination phase, a variable differential-reinforcement-of-other-behavior (DRO) schedule was in effect in each component. Reinforcement rates were equal and then, higher in one (rich) component, and lower in the other (lean), than in the Training phase. More resurgence occurred in the lean component, but this could have resulted from response-rate differences between components in the Training-phase. Experiment 1B was a replication of Experiment 1A, but with experimentally-naïve pigeons. Response-Elimination phase reinforcement rates were manipulated systematically in subsequent experiments: In Experiment 2, reinforcement rate was equal, in one component, and lower or higher in the other, than in the Training phase. In Experiment 3, reinforcers were discontinued before differential reinforcement rates were effected. In Experiment 4, reinforcement rates first were differential and, then, equal to those in the Training phase. In Experiments 5 and 6, differential reinforcement rates were arranged by using fixed-DROs and VIs for pecking a different key, respectively. Even though resurgence was not obtained with every pigeon, at least some small-magnitude resurgence occurred in each experiment and was not related systematically to reinforcement rates of alternative responding. Schedule differences, response topography, order of conditions and the length of each phase were not sufficient to account for these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, Per; Donovan, E R

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection...... on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols...... and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR...

  13. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... infants (0.00195 and 0.00145) and intrapartum deaths of non-malformed infants (0.00042 and 0.00019) was significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. CONCLUSION: Application of the Nordic-Baltic Perinatal Death Classification on perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden in 1991 raises the questions...... as to why the rate of perinatal death of malformed infants is higher in Denmark than in Sweden and whether intrapartum care in Denmark could be improved....

  14. Ecological Regime Shifts in Lake Kälksjön, Sweden, in Response to Abrupt Climate Change Around the 8.2 ka Cooling Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsalu-Wendrup, L.; Conley, D.J.; Snowball, I.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed diatom record from Lake Ka¨ lksjo¨ n, westcentral Sweden, reveals two periods of abrupt ecological change correlative with the 8.2 ka cooling event. Using a combination of abrupt step changes and piece-wise linear regressions, the diatom data were analyzed for change points over time...

  15. Reviewing the Research on Mail Survey Response Rates: Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    One approach to examining the findings of multiple studies is descriptive. This descriptive review of the research on increasing the response rates to mail surveys is based on studies also subjected to a meta-analysis. An initial narrative review identified the studies to be used in both analyses, and results will allow the possibility of…

  16. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  17. Response of Amaranth ( Amaranthus hybridus ) to Different Rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus) to different rates and times of nitrogen (N) application was studied at Teaching and Research Farm,University of Ado-Ekiti in the late seasons of 2003 and 2004. The N was applied at 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ ha as urea (46%N) at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after sowing.Growth ...

  18. Flux rates of atmospheric lead pollution within soils of a small catchment in northern Sweden and their implications for future stream water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Bindler, Richard; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin; Emteryd, Ove; Renberg, Ingemar

    2006-08-01

    It is not well-known how the accumulated pool of atmospheric lead pollution in the boreal forest soil will affect the groundwater and surface water chemistry in the future as this lead migrates through the soil profile. This study uses stable lead isotopes (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios) to trace the transport of atmospheric lead pollution within the soil of a small catchment and predict future lead level changes in a stream draining the catchment. Low 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios for the lead in the soil water (1.16 +/- 0.02; 2.43 +/- 0.03) and streamwater (1.18 +/- 0.03; 2.42 +/- 0.03) in comparison to that of the mineral soil (>1.4; >2.5) suggest that atmospheric pollution contributes by about 90% (65-100%) to the lead pool found in these matrixes. Calculated transport rates of atmospheric lead along a soil transect indicate that the mean residence time of lead in organic and mineral soil layers is at a centennial to millennial time scale. A maximum release of the present pool of lead pollution in the soil to the stream is predicted to occur within 200-800 years. Even though the uncertainty of the prediction is large, it emphasizes the magnitude of the time lag between the accumulation of atmospheric lead pollution in soils and the subsequent response in streamwater quality.

  19. What's 'left' in the 'Garden of Sweden'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gregg M

    2013-01-01

    Liberalization, restructuring, and retrenchment have been underway in Sweden for more than two decades and have rapidly accelerated under the current non-socialist coalition government. It is uncertain how much of the Swedish social policy model is "left" now, in terms of both what remains of it and its political character. A cross-temporal look at developments within Sweden reveals striking and continual rollbacks and marketization since the 1990s. However, this view must be qualified, both because Sweden's undisputed descent is from a comparatively lofty position and because there have been some noteworthy, but often ignored, gains even amidst marked decline over the past few decades. A cross-national examination indicates that, despite rapidly rising rates of income and wealth inequality, Sweden remains an egalitarian leader in several respects. This view must be qualified, too, because, while it continues to routinely out-perform Anglo nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Sweden is less often, and less notably, distinct from several of its continental counterparts in Europe now. Moreover, the foundation of the model, labor strength, has been significantly undermined.

  20. Heart Rate Response of Professional Musicians When Playing Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L; Irwin, Conor; Lightfoot, J T

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim was to determine the level of physiological stress evoked while playing music in a standing position as indicated by heart rate (HR) response. A secondary aim was to analyze the effect of music genre (classic rock, western, contemporary Christian, and metal rock) on the relative HR response. Lastly, we considered potential physiological initiators of the music-playing-induced HR response. HR response was monitored in 27 professional musicians (3 women, 24 men) between the ages of 21 and 67 yrs old during rehearsal and public performances. The percent maximal HR (%MHR) evoked was determined by taking a percentage of the age-predicted maximal HR for each musician and comparing the average %MHR in each genre during public and rehearsal events. The role of the potential initiators of these responses (e.g., number of years playing in public, event type, instrument type, tempo, etc.) was determined using multiple regression analyses. The overall average %MHR responses were 52 ± 5% and 59 ± 5% during rehearsal and public performances, respectively, with genre type having a significant effect on the HR response (p=0.01). Body mass index and tempo were each found to be significant contributors to the HR response while playing music (r²=0.506, p=0.001). Playing music professionally evokes considerable increases in HR response, with music genre influencing the level of the physiological response. We concluded that 50% of the HR response while playing music was associated with body mass index, music tempo, and instrument type.

  1. Child Health Systems in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Björn; Blennow, Margareta; Hjern, Anders; Söder, Olle; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2016-10-01

    On a national level, several factors are responsible for Sweden's leading position in achieving the excellent health of children because Sweden has experienced a long history of peace and success in establishing a parliamentary democracy throughout the 20th century. Among the different sectors of society, Sweden has been able to focus on prevention and health promotion. The Swedish health care system is publicly financed based on local taxation. Pediatricians working in secondary and tertiary care are employed by the public sector, whereas family physicians are employed by both the private and public sectors. The pediatric departments at county and university levels provide a high quality of inpatient care for neonates and children. The county hospital pediatric departments typically include one neonatal ward and one ward for older children. Subspecialization exists even at the county level, and there is close cooperation between the county level and subspecialist units at the university level. Within the primary care sector, most children receive care from family physicians. The majority of family physicians have completed 3 months of pediatrics in their basic training program. In the more densely populated areas there are also pediatric ambulatory care centers working mostly with referrals from the family physicians. Preventive care is carried out at midwife-led maternity health centers, nurse-led Child Health Centers, and nurse-led school health care settings and reach almost everyone (99%). All health care for children and adolescents is free of charge up to 18 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Decreased heart rate variability responses during early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Brinth, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating to postope......BACKGROUND: Intact orthostatic blood pressure regulation is essential for early mobilization after surgery. However, postoperative orthostatic hypotension and intolerance (OI) may delay early ambulation. The mechanisms of postoperative OI include impaired vasopressor responses relating...... to postoperative autonomic dysfunction. Thus, based on a previous study on haemodynamic responses during mobilization before and after elective total hip arthroplasty (THA), we performed secondary analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) and aimed to identify possible abnormal postoperative autonomic responses...... in relation to postural change. METHODS: A standardized mobilization protocol before, 6 and 24 h after surgery was performed in 23 patients scheduled for elective THA. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure was measured by photoplethysmography and HRV was derived from pulse wave interbeat intervals and analysed...

  3. High strain rate response of rabbit femur bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shunmugasamy, Vasanth Chakravarthy; Gupta, Nikhil; Coelho, Paulo G

    2010-11-16

    Strain rate dependence of the mechanical response of hard tissues has led to a keen interest in their dynamic properties. The current study attempts to understand the high strain rate characteristics of rabbit femur bones. The testing was conducted using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar equipped with a high speed imaging system to capture the fracture patterns. The bones were also characterized under quasi-static compression to enable comparison with the high strain rate results. The quasi-static compressive moduli of the epiphyseal and diaphyseal regions were measured to be in the range of 2-3 and 5-7GPa, respectively. Under high strain rate loading conditions the modulus is observed to increase with strain rate and attains values as high as 15GPa for epiphyseal and 30GPa for diaphyseal regions of the femur. The strength at high strain rate was measured to be about twice the quasi-static strength value. A large number of small cracks initiated on the specimen surface close to the incident bar. Coalescence of crack branches leading to fewer large cracks resulted in specimen fragmentation. In comparison, the quasi-static failure was due to shear cracking. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cholesterol enhances classical conditioning of the rabbit heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Bernard G; Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Darwish, Deya S; Wang, Desheng; Burhans, Lauren B; Gonzales-Joekes, Jimena; Deci, Stephen; Stankovic, Goran; Sparks, D Larry

    2007-07-19

    The cholesterol-fed rabbit is a model of atherosclerosis and has been proposed as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Feeding rabbits cholesterol has been shown to increase the number of beta amyloid immunoreactive neurons in the cortex. Addition of copper to the drinking water of cholesterol-fed rabbits can increase this number still further and may lead to plaque-like structures. Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in cholesterol-fed rabbits is retarded in the presence of these plaque-like structures but may be facilitated in their absence. In a factorial design, rabbits fed 2% cholesterol or a normal diet (0% cholesterol) for 8 weeks with or without copper added to the drinking water were given trace classical conditioning using a tone and periorbital electrodermal stimulation to study the effects of cholesterol and copper on classical conditioning of heart rate and the nictitating membrane response. Cholesterol-fed rabbits showed significant facilitation of heart rate conditioning and conditioning-specific modification of heart rate relative to normal diet controls. Consistent with previous research, cholesterol had minimal effects on classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response when periorbital electrodermal stimulation was used as the unconditioned stimulus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala of the cholesterol-fed rabbits. Supplementation of drinking water with copper increased the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex of cholesterol-fed rabbits but did not produce plaque-like structures or have a significant effect on heart rate conditioning. The data provide additional support for our finding that, in the absence of plaques, dietary cholesterol may facilitate learning and memory.

  5. The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons From Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Sweden faced a banking and exchange rate crisis that led it to rescue banks that had experienced large losses on their balance sheets and that threatened a collapse of the banking system...

  6. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  7. Heart rate responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by structural alterations and dysfunction in central autonomic regulatory regions, which may impair dynamic and static cardiovascular regulation, and contribute to other syndrome pathologies. Characterizing cardiovascular responses to autonomic challenges may provide insights into central nervous system impairments, including contributions by sex, since structural alterations are enhanced in OSA females over males. The objective was to assess heart rate responses in OSA versus healthy control subjects to autonomic challenges, and, separately, characterize female and male patterns. We studied 94 subjects, including 37 newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA patients (6 female, age mean ± std: 52.1 ± 8.1 years; 31 male aged 54.3 ± 8.4 years, and 57 healthy control subjects (20 female, 50.5 ± 8.1 years; 37 male, 45.6 ± 9.2 years. We measured instantaneous heart rate with pulse oximetry during cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. All challenges elicited significant heart rate differences between OSA and control groups during and after challenges (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. In post-hoc analyses, OSA females showed greater impairments than OSA males, which included: for cold pressor, lower initial increase (OSA vs. control: 9.5 vs. 7.3 bpm in females, 7.6 vs. 3.7 bpm in males, OSA delay to initial peak (2.5 s females/0.9 s males, slower mid-challenge rate-of-increase (OSA vs. control: -0.11 vs. 0.09 bpm/s in females, 0.03 vs. 0.06 bpm/s in males; for hand grip, lower initial peak (OSA vs. control: 2.6 vs. 4.6 bpm in females, 5.3 vs. 6.0 bpm in males; for Valsalva maneuver, lower Valsalva ratio (OSA vs. control: 1.14 vs. 1.30 in females, 1.29 vs. 1.34 in males, and OSA delay during phase II (0.68 s females/1.31 s males. Heart rate responses showed lower amplitude, delayed onset, and slower rate changes in OSA patients over healthy controls, and impairments may be more pronounced in

  8. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  9. Age at smoking initiation and self-rated health among second grade high school boys and girls in Scania, Sweden, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristina; Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2015-11-18

    Smoking is usually initiated early in life and most adult regular smokers have started smoking before 18 years of age. A younger age at smoking initiation is associated with risk taking behaviours and worse health outcomes regarding psychological and somatic conditions, suggested to be caused by exposure during critical developmental periods. The present study aims to investigate self-rated health among second grade high school boys and girls related to age at smoking initiation (health survey among children and adolescents in 2012. The study was cross-sectional with retrospective information about first time cigarette smoking experiences among 3245 boys and 3434 girls in second grade of high school. Self-rated health was assessed with the question "How do you rate your general health". Associations of age at smoking initiation, current smoking status and poor self-rated health were investigated with logistic regression models. Crude odds ratios of poor self-rated health were increased for all smoking groups compared to never smokers. Former smoking boys and currently smoking girls with early smoking initiation had the highest odds ratios of poor self-rated health, with odds ratios (OR) 2.4 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.5-3.7) and OR 2.9 (95 % CI: 2.3-3.6), respectively. After adjustments for sociodemographic factors, health-related behaviours, psychosocial factors, weight and functional disabilities, the results were attenuated, but remained statistically significant regarding former and current smoking boys with early smoking initiation, OR 2.0 (95 % CI: 1.1-3.7) and OR 1.7 (95 % CI: 1.1-2.4) and for current smoking girls with early and later smoking initiation, OR 2.1 (95 % CI: 1.5-2.8) and OR 1.5 (95 % CI: 1.1-2.0). Boys and girls in second grade of high school with early smoking initiation reported poorer self-rated health than later initiators and never smokers. Poorer self-rated health persisted also after smoking cessation among early initiating

  10. The effect of heart rate on the heart rate variability response to autonomic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, George E

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR) or heart period (R-R interval), has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20) or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9) autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD) and the high frequency (HF) variability (HF, 0.24-1.04 Hz) were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec)(2) for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF) while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation) even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  11. The Effect of Heart Rate on the Heart Rate Variability Response to Autonomic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate (HR or heart period (R-R interval, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. However, it is not widely appreciated that, due to the inverse curvilinear relationship between HR and R-R interval, HR per se can profoundly influence HRV. It is, therefore, critical to correct HRV for the prevailing HR particularly, as HR changes in response to autonomic neural activation or inhibition. The present study evaluated the effects of HR on the HRV response to autonomic interventions that either increased (submaximal exercise, n = 25 or baroreceptor reflex activation, n = 20 or reduced (pharmacological blockade: β-adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor antagonists alone and in combination, n = 25, or bilateral cervical vagotomy, n = 9 autonomic neural activity in a canine model. Both total (RR interval standard deviation, RRSD and the high frequency variability (HF, 0.2 to 1.04 Hz were determined before and in response to an autonomic intervention. All interventions that reduced or abolished cardiac parasympathetic regulation provoked large reductions in HRV even after HR correction [division by mean RRsec or (mean RRsec2 for RRSD and HF, respectively] while interventions that reduced HR yielded mixed results. β-adrenergic receptor blockade reduced HRV (RRSD but not HF while both RRSD and HF increased in response to increases in arterial blood (baroreceptor reflex activation even after HR correction. These data suggest that the physiological basis for HRV is revealed after correction for prevailing HR and, further, that cardiac parasympathetic activity is responsible for a major portion of the HRV in the dog.

  12. Socioeconomic differences in self-rated oral health and dental care utilisation after the dental care reform in 2008 in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molarius, Anu; Engström, Sevek; Flink, Håkan; Simonsson, Bo; Tegelberg, Ake

    2014-11-18

    The aims of this study were to determine self-rated oral health and dental attendance habits among Swedish adults, with special reference to the role of social inequalities, after the Swedish dental care reform in 2008. The study is based on a survey questionnaire, sent to 12,235 residents of a Swedish county, in 2012. The age group was 16-84 years: 5,999 (49%) responded. Using chi-square statistics, differences in prevalence of self-rated oral health and regular dental attendance were analysed with respect to gender, age, educational level, family status, employment status and country of birth. Self-rated poor oral health was analysed by multivarite logistic regression adjusting for the different socio-demographic factors, financial security and having refrained from dental treatment for financial reasons. Three out of four respondents (75%) reported fairly good or very good oral health. Almost 90% claimed to be regular dental attenders. Those who were financially secure reported better oral health. The differences in oral health between those with a cash margin and those without were large whereas the differences between age groups were rather small. About 8% reported that they had refrained from dental treatment for financial reasons during the last three months. Self-rated poor oral health was most common among the unemployed, those on disability pension or on long-term sick leave, those born outside the Nordic countries and those with no cash margin (odds ratios ranging from 2.4 to 4.4). The most important factor contributing to these differences was having refrained from dental treatment for financial reasons. The results are relevant to strategies intended to reduce social inequalities in oral health, affirming the importance of the provision of equitable access to dental care.

  13. Energy in Sweden 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  14. Energy in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  15. Sweden's largest Facebook study

    OpenAIRE

    Denti, Leif; Barbopoulus, Isak; Nilsson, Ida; Holmberg, Linda; Thulin, Magdalena; Wendeblad, Malin; Andén, Lisa; Davidsson, Emelie

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet has made it easier for people to socially interact than ever before. Today, the most popular channel is Facebook with over 845 million users world wide. In Sweden, the number of users amount to approximately half of the population. We had two aims with this study. First, we investigate which areas of Facebook usage that Swedish Facebook users consider more important vis-a-vis less important. We were also interested in how users convey their persona through t... m...

  16. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV and a high viscosity (HV semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020, with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively while fullness was higher (P<0.001. In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001, higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001 and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001. However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  17. High Rates of Tramadol Use among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents in Malmö, Sweden: A Study of Hair Analysis of Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Olsson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU is a growing problem and tramadol has been suggested as an emerging problem in young treatment-seeking individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate, through hair analysis, NMPOU in this group and, specifically, tramadol use. Methods. In a study including 73 treatment-seeking adolescents and young adults at an outpatient facility for young substance users, hair specimens could be obtained from 59 subjects. Data were extracted on sociodemographic background variables and psychiatric diagnoses through MINI interviews. Results. In hair analysis, tramadol was by far the most prevalent opioid detected. Thirty-two percent screened positive for opioids, and of those, all but one were positive for tramadol. Ninety-eight percent reported problematic cannabis use. Significantly more opioid-positive patients also screened positive for other (noncannabis drugs, compared to nonopioid users. Sixty-four percent fulfilled criteria of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders, other than substance use disorders according to MINI. Fifty-three percent met the symptom criteria count of ADHD above cut-off level. Conclusion. In the present setting, tramadol, along with high rates of cannabis use, may represent a novel pattern of substance use among young treatment-seeking subjects with problematic substance use and high rates of concurrent psychiatric problems.

  18. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  19. Porphyria in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunell, S; Floderus, Y; Henrichson, A; Harper, P

    2006-01-01

    In a brief survey the work of Swedish porphyrinologists through time is presented, from the organic chemist Jakob Berzelius 1840 to the molecular biologists of today. The building up in Stockholm of a Swedish national competence centre for porphyria is touched upon and the emergence of a computerized national register on the porphyria gene carriers in the country described. Figures for the prevalences of the seven different forms of porphyria diagnosed in Sweden are given. The geographical distribution of gene mutation spectra is shown for the most frequent form, acute intermittent porphyria. The organisation at Porphyria Centre Sweden of its diagnostic and consultative services is described, as is the decentralized model for porphyria care applied in the form of a clinical network covering the long and sparsely populated country. The ideas and activities of the Swedish Porphyria Patients' Association are presented. Its focus on protection-by-information of the porphyria gene carrier against maltreatment in health service contacts, and against other exposures to environmental threats to his or her health, is discussed. The combined efforts of the national porphyria centre and the patients' association have resulted in early and accurate diagnosis of most of the porphyria gene carriers in the country. The information to the carriers and to the health service regarding the mechanisms of the diseases and the importance of avoiding exposure to disease triggering environmental factors have greatly reduced porphyric morbidity. In the case of the acute porphyrias, by this programme and after the introduction of heme arginate in the therapy, mortality in the acute phase has become extremely rare in Sweden. In contrast, probably due to greater awareness of the high risk for liver cancer in acute porphyrias the number of hepatoma cases diagnosed has increased. The current research activities at the Porphyria Centre which aim at finding ways to substitute the mutated gene in

  20. Venipuncture procedure affects heart rate variability and chronotropic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Esco, Michael R; E Bechke, Emily; Feito, Yuri; M Williamson, Cassie; Brown, Danielle; Price, Brandi

    2017-10-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to be influenced by several factors such as noise, sleep status, light, and emotional arousal; however, little evidence is available concerning autonomic responses to a venipuncture. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of HRV indexes and heart rate (HR) during and following a venipuncture procedure among healthy individuals. 33 healthy individuals (22.8 ± 0.56 years, 167 ± 1.56 cm, 69.5 ± 2.61 kg) participated. Testing included 10-minute HRV analysis prior to the venipuncture, a 1-minute venipuncture procedure followed by a 10-minute analysis of HRV, and a total recording of 21 minutes. The first 5 minutes of the 21-minute recordings were discarded, and the remaining 5 minutes of the resting segment was analyzed (PRE), and the last 5 minutes of the 21-minute recording (POST). The log transformation of the time domain root mean squared of successive differences (lnRMSSD) and the frequency domains of high frequency (lnHF) and low frequency (lnLF) and LF/HF ratio (lnLF/HF) were used to quantify autonomic activity. HR was measured in 1-minute segments at 2 minutes prior (PRE), venipuncture (STICK), and post (P1-5). HR significantly increased at STICK (P = 0.002), and fell below resting at P-5 (P < 0.001). lnRMSSD and lnHF increased significantly by POST (P < 0.001, P = 0.005). lnLF/HF ratio significantly decreased at POST (P = 0.047), while no significant changes occurred for lnLF (P = 0.590). HRV and HR are influenced for 10 minutes following the venipuncture procedure. Practitioners and researchers who are interested in collecting blood and measuring HRV need to account for the influence of the venipuncture. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency Reduces the Immune Response, Phagocytosis Rate, and Intracellular Killing Rate of Microglial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Marie Luise; Schütze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Götz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(I·C) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

  2. How Many Responses Do We Need? Using Generalizability Analysis to Estimate Minimum Necessary Response Rates for Online Student Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbase, Margaret W; Germond, Michèle; Cerutti, Bernard; Vu, Nu V; Baroffio, Anne

    2015-01-01

    CONSTRUCT: The study compares paper and online ratings of instructional units and analyses, with the G-study using the symmetry principle, the response rates needed to ensure acceptable precision of the measure when compliance is low. Students' ratings of teaching contribute to the quality of medical training programs. To date, many schools have replaced pen-and-paper questionnaires with electronic forms, despite the lower response rates consistently reported with the latter. Few available studies have examined the effects of low response rates on the reliability and precision of the evaluation measure. Moreover, the minimum number of raters to target when response rates are low remains unclear. Descriptive data were derived from 799 students' paper and online ratings of 11 preclinical instructional units (PIUs). Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The generalizability method applying the symmetry principle approach was used to analyze the precision of the measure with a reference standard error of mean (SEM) set at 0.10; optimization models were built to estimate minimum response rates. Overall, response rates were 74% and 30% (p Higher SEM levels and significantly larger 95% confidence intervals of PIUs rating scores were observed with online evaluations. To keep the SEM within preset limits of precision, a minimum of 48% response rate was estimated for online formats. The proposed generalizability analysis allowed estimating the minimum response needed to maintain acceptable precision in online evaluations. The effects of response rates on accuracy are discussed.

  3. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  4. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  5. Effects of Personalization and Invitation Email Length on Web-Based Survey Response Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trespalacios, Jesús H.; Perkins, Ross A.

    2016-01-01

    Individual strategies to increase response rate and survey completion have been extensively researched. Recently, efforts have been made to investigate a combination of interventions to yield better response rates for web-based surveys. This study examined the effects of four different survey invitation conditions on response rate. From a large…

  6. Comparing Response Rates in E-Mail and Paper Surveys: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tse-Hua; Fan, Xitao

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined 35 study results within last 10 years that directly compared the response rates of e-mail versus mail surveys. Individual studies reported inconsistent findings concerning the response rate difference between e-mail and mail surveys, but e-mail surveys generally have lower response rate (about 20% lower on the average)…

  7. A randomised trial and economic evaluation of the effect of response mode on response rate, response bias, and item non-response in a survey of doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Anthony; Jeon, Sung-Hee; Joyce, Catherine M; Humphreys, John S; Kalb, Guyonne; Witt, Julia; Leahy, Anne

    2011-09-05

    Surveys of doctors are an important data collection method in health services research. Ways to improve response rates, minimise survey response bias and item non-response, within a given budget, have not previously been addressed in the same study. The aim of this paper is to compare the effects and costs of three different modes of survey administration in a national survey of doctors. A stratified random sample of 4.9% (2,702/54,160) of doctors undertaking clinical practice was drawn from a national directory of all doctors in Australia. Stratification was by four doctor types: general practitioners, specialists, specialists-in-training, and hospital non-specialists, and by six rural/remote categories. A three-arm parallel trial design with equal randomisation across arms was used. Doctors were randomly allocated to: online questionnaire (902); simultaneous mixed mode (a paper questionnaire and login details sent together) (900); or, sequential mixed mode (online followed by a paper questionnaire with the reminder) (900). Analysis was by intention to treat, as within each primary mode, doctors could choose either paper or online. Primary outcome measures were response rate, survey response bias, item non-response, and cost. The online mode had a response rate 12.95%, followed by the simultaneous mixed mode with 19.7%, and the sequential mixed mode with 20.7%. After adjusting for observed differences between the groups, the online mode had a 7 percentage point lower response rate compared to the simultaneous mixed mode, and a 7.7 percentage point lower response rate compared to sequential mixed mode. The difference in response rate between the sequential and simultaneous modes was not statistically significant. Both mixed modes showed evidence of response bias, whilst the characteristics of online respondents were similar to the population. However, the online mode had a higher rate of item non-response compared to both mixed modes. The total cost of the online

  8. Peanut canopy temperature and NDVI response to varying irrigation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. In this study, peanut was grown under a VRI system to evaluate the impact of differential irrigation rates on peanut yield. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of differenti...

  9. Rate of coronary flow adaptation in response to changes in heart rate before and during anesthesia for coronary artery surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wezel, H. B.; Kal, J. E.; Vergroesen, I.; Vroom, M. B.; de Graaf, R.; Dankelman, J.; Porsius, M.; Spaan, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rate of adaptation of coronary blood flow in response to stepwise changes in heart rate (HR) has been extensively studied in dogs and goats to improve our understanding of the dynamics of coronary regulation processes and their pathophysiology and to obtain time constants for

  10. Response rates to oestrogen treatment in perimenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, P; Tofteng, Charlotte L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise women with no response or with a good response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), evaluated by change in bone mineral density (BMD). Design: Nested case-control study within a comprehensive cohort study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study...... (DOPS), perimenopausal women were allocated to either HRT or no HRT. In the present study, we included 466 women who had been treated with HRT for 5 years and 466 untreated women from the same cohort. Non-responders were women in the treatment group, who decreased in BMD more than the mean decrease...... observed in the untreated group. Good responders were women with a larger increase in BMD than the upper 95% percentile of untreated women. Baseline characteristics were evaluated as predictors of response to HRT. RESULTS: 8.4 and 5.6% were classified as non-responders, whereas 25 and 57% were good...

  11. Solar transition region and coronal response to heating rate perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariska, John T.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of Doppler shifts in UV emission lines formed in the solar transition region show continual plasma downflows and impulsive plasma upflows. Using numerical simulations, the authors examine the conjecture that areas of downflowing plasma are the base regions of coronal loops in which the heating is gradually decreasing and that areas of upflowing plasma are the base regions of coronal loops in which the heating rate is gradually increasing. Beginning with a coronal loop in equilibrium, the heating rate is reduced on time scales of 100, 1000, and 2000 s to 10 percent and 1 percent of the initial value, and the loop is allowed to evolve to a new equilibrium. The heating rate for the cooled models is then increased back to the initial value on the same time scales. While significant mass motions do develop in the simulations, both the emission measure and the velocity at 100,000 K do not show the characteristics present in UV observations.

  12. Response Rates in Mail Surveys: A Review of the Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    As a predominant research method, the mail survey has been the subject of a considerable body of research. Several major reviews of research have been published that attempt to synthesize findings of empirical studies and identify techniques that stimulate responses. The review articles are examined, identifying procedures and potential…

  13. The Effect of Police Response Time on Crime Clearance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes i Vidal, Jordi; Kirchmaier, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Police agencies devote vast resources to minimising the time that it takes them to attend the scene of a crime. Despite this, the long-standing consensus is that police response time has no meaningful effect on the likelihood of catching offenders. We revisit this question using a uniquely rich...

  14. Gonadal hormones and heart rate as an emotional response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loos, Wolter Statius

    1988-01-01

    Animai experiments may give information on the physiology of hormones under stress conditions. The model for the investigation of acute emotional stress in animals that has been chosen permits the study of heart rate in freely moving laboratory rats as a sensitive psychophysiological parameter, This

  15. GPs opinions and perceptions of chiropractic in Sweden and Norway: a descriptive survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sweden, chiropractic is not included in mainstream health care. In Norway chiropractic is a recognized health care profession. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of chiropractic among Swedish and Norwegian General Practitioners (GPs). Methods Eight hundred surveys in each country were distributed randomly by post to Swedish and Norwegian GPs offices. The survey contained two main sections: Experiences and opinions about chiropractic and referral patterns. The data were then described and compared between the countries. Results In Sweden the response rate was 44.8% and in Norway 45.3%. More than half of the Swedish GPs participating in this study stated that they had poor knowledge about chiropractic, while just a tenth of Norwegian GPs stated the same. Nearly all Norwegian GPs had some experience of chiropractic treatment whilst a fairly large number of the Swedish GPs said that they had no experience at all of chiropractic. It was twice as common for GPs in Norway to refer patients to a chiropractor as compared to Sweden. However, Swedish and Norwegian GPs agreed that chiropractors were competent to treat musculo-skeletal conditions with an adequate education to be part of mainstream medicine. Conclusions Swedish and Norwegian GPs agree that chiropractors are competent to treat musculoskeletal conditions. However, there are many differences in GPs perceptions of chiropractic between the two countries and the overall picture indicates that chiropractic is more accepted and recognised as a health care profession in Norway. PMID:24128386

  16. Effects of Vibration and G-Loading on Heart Rate, Breathing Rate, and Response Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinez, Angelica; Ayzenberg, Ruthie; Liston, Dorian B.; Stone, Leland S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace and applied environments commonly expose pilots and astronauts to G-loading and vibration, alone and in combination, with well-known sensorimotor (Cohen, 1970) and performance consequences (Adelstein et al., 2008). Physiological variables such as heart rate (HR) and breathing rate (BR) have been shown to increase with G-loading (Yajima et al., 1994) and vibration (e.g. Guignard, 1965, 1985) alone. To examine the effects of G-loading and vibration, alone and in combination, we measured heart rate and breathing rate under aerospace-relevant conditions (G-loads of 1 Gx and 3.8 Gx; vibration of 0.5 gx at 8, 12, and 16 Hz).

  17. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  18. Systemic lupus international collaborating clinics renal activity/response exercise: comparison of agreement in rating renal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michelle; Kasitanon, Nuntana; Singh, Sukminder; Link, Kimberly; Magder, Laurence; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Hanly, John G; Nived, Ola; Sturfelt, Gunnar; van Vollenhoven, Ronald; Wallace, Daniel J; Alarcón, Graciela S; Adu, Dwomoa; Avila-Casado, Carmen; Bernatsky, Sasha R; Bruce, Ian N; Clarke, Ann E; Contreras, Gabriel; Fine, Derek M; Gladman, Dafna D; Gordon, Caroline; Kalunian, Kenneth C; Madaio, Michael P; Rovin, Brad H; Sanchez-Guerrero, Jorge; Steinsson, Kristjan; Aranow, Cynthia; Balow, James E; Buyon, Jill P; Ginzler, Ellen M; Khamashta, Munther A; Urowitz, Murray B; Dooley, Mary Anne; Merrill, Joan T; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Font, Josef; Tumlin, James; Stoll, Thomas; Zoma, Asad

    2008-06-01

    To assess the degree to which physicians agree with each other and with ratings obtained with 3 existing responder indices, in rating the response to treatment of lupus nephritis. Lupus nephritis patient medical records from 125 pairs of visits (6 months apart) were used to create renal response scenarios. Seven nephrologists and 22 rheumatologists rated each scenario as demonstrating complete response, partial response, same, or worsening. The plurality (most frequent) rating of renal response by the physicians was compared with the calculated score from the renal component of the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index (original and updated [2004] version) and of the Responder Index for Lupus Erythematosus (RIFLE). The degree of agreement among the physicians was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The degree of agreement between the plurality physician rating and ratings obtained with the established response indices was assessed using the kappa statistic. The ICC among all physicians was 0.64 (0.62 for nephrologists and 0.67 for rheumatologists). The chance-adjusted measure of agreement (kappa coefficient) between the plurality physician rating and the calculated score obtained using established indexes was 0.50 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.38-0.61) for the RIFLE, 0.14 (95% CI 0.03-0.25) for the original BILAG, and 0.23 (95% CI 0.21-0.44) for the BILAG 2004. These findings indicate that rheumatologists as a group and nephrologists as a group have equal agreement in their rating of renal response. There was moderate agreement between plurality physician ratings and ratings obtained using the renal component of the RIFLE. Ratings of response using an index based on the original BILAG did not have good agreement with the plurality physician rating.

  19. Response of welsh onion to various rates of compost application

    OpenAIRE

    Maryati,; Warjana; Isnaini, Soni

    2011-01-01

    This research???s objective was to study effect of various rates of compost on growth and yield of welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) in Sekincau, West Lampung. An experiment was conducted in dry season of 2004, started from August and harvested in November 2004. It was arranged in a randomized completed block design. Treatments were no-compost, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 t ha-1 compost. Results revealed that compost increased plant height, tiller number, root length, number of dr...

  20. Long-term ecosystem level experiments at Toolik Lake, Alaska, and at Abisko, Northern Sweden: generalizations and differences in ecosystem and plant type responses to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Clemmensen, K.E.; Shaver, G.R.; Williams, M.; Callaghans, T.V.; Chapin, F.S.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Gough, L.; Hobbie, S.E.; Jonasson, S.; Lees, J.A.; Michelsen, A.; Press, M.C.; Richardsons, S.J.; Rueth, H.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term ecosystem-level experiments, in which the environment is manipulated in a controlled manner, are important tools to predict the responses of ecosystem functioning and composition to future global change. We present the results of a meta-analysis performed on the results of long-term

  1. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-15

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  2. Sweden's Leadership in a Climate Constrained World. An analysis for Sweden of the Greenhouse Development Rights framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartha, Sivan; Baer, Paul; Athanasiou, Tom; Kemp-Benedict, Eric

    2008-10-15

    This report presents an analysis of the Greenhouse Development Rights framework applied to the case of Sweden. Its objective is to provide useful quantitative guidance on Sweden's role as a leader in our climate constrained world. It presents guidance that is rigorous from the standpoint of climate science and framed in the context of a right to development for the world's poor. This analysis fully accounts for Sweden's true responsibility, by looking beyond territorial emissions alone, and reckoning emissions in terms of Sweden's net 'carbon footprint.' Accounting for carbon embedded in imports, exports and international transport reveals that Sweden's responsibility is 17% larger than would be inferred by considering Sweden's territorial emissions alone. Sweden will naturally have significant obligations under any burden-sharing regime that is based on capacity and responsibility, and only more so under a regime that honors a right to development. Under the GDR framework, our indicative quantification suggests that Sweden's share of responsibility and capacity, and hence its obligation under a politically viable climate regime, will be approximately 0.51% of the global total in 2010. This can be compared to the US's 33%, the EU's 26%, Japan's 7.8%, China's 5.5%, and India's 0.5%. Sweden's 0.51% share of the global total is thus not large in absolute terms, though it is rather large relative to Sweden's small size (0.14% of the global population). These national shares shift over time, as countries' relative proportion of income and emissions change. In light of the emergence of rapidly growing developing country economies, Sweden's share of the global total obligation is projected to decline to 0.43% by 2020, and to 0.35% by 2030. This quantification of Sweden's obligation is useful in two complementary ways. First, if the total global costs of an emergency climate

  3. Gambling in Sweden: the cultural and socio-political context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2014-02-01

    To provide an overview, with respect to Sweden, of the cultural history of gambling, the commercialization of gambling, problem gambling research, the prevalence of problem gambling and its prevention and treatment. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Sweden; involvement in gambling research and regulation. Gambling has long been part of Swedish culture. Since about 1980 the gambling market, although still largely monopolistic, has been commercialized. At the same time, problem gambling has emerged as a concept in the public health paradigm. Debate regarding whether or not Sweden's national restrictions on the gambling market are compliant with European Community legislation has helped to put problem gambling on the political agenda. Despite expanded gambling services, the extent of problem gambling on the population level has not changed significantly over the past decade. The stability of problem gambling in Sweden at the population level suggests a homeostatic system involving the gambling market, regulation, prevention and treatment and adaption to risk and harm by gamblers. We have relatively good knowledge of the extent and characteristics of problem gambling in Sweden and of how to treat it, but little is known of how to prevent it effectively. Knowledge is needed of the effectiveness of regulatory actions and approaches, and of responsible gambling measures implemented by gambling companies. © 2013 The Author, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Social media and journalism study 2013 - Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Pole, K.; Gulyás, A

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of the wider 2013 social journalism study and reports specifically on Sweden. It suggests that journalists in Sweden are a moderately high user of social media, using it regularly for their work particularly for sourcing stories. Using cluster analysis the largest group is the Architects suggesting that journalism in Sweden is dominated by active social media users.

  5. Intra- and Extrafamilial Child Homicide in Sweden, 1971-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somander, Lis K. H.; Rammer, Lennart M.

    1991-01-01

    Over a 10-year period, 96 children (age 0-14) were victims of homicide in Sweden, an average annual rate of 0.6 per 100,000 children. Most homicides were intrafamilial in nature. Cases of child abuse by a parent and cases of sexual abuse among the homicide victims were infrequent. (Author/JDD)

  6. Rate limit of protein elastic response is tether dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Ronen; Hermans, Rodolfo I.; Popa, Ionel; Stirnemann, Guillaume; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Berne, Bruce J.; Fernandez, Julio M.

    2012-01-01

    The elastic restoring force of tissues must be able to operate over the very wide range of loading rates experienced by living organisms. It is surprising that even the fastest events involving animal muscle tissues do not surpass a few hundred hertz. We propose that this limit is set in part by the elastic dynamics of tethered proteins extending and relaxing under a changing load. Here we study the elastic dynamics of tethered proteins using a fast force spectrometer with sub-millisecond time resolution, combined with Brownian and Molecular Dynamics simulations. We show that the act of tethering a polypeptide to an object, an inseparable part of protein elasticity in vivo and in experimental setups, greatly reduces the attempt frequency with which the protein samples its free energy. Indeed, our data shows that a tethered polypeptide can traverse its free-energy landscape with a surprisingly low effective diffusion coefficient Deff ∼ 1,200 nm2/s. By contrast, our Molecular Dynamics simulations show that diffusion of an isolated protein under force occurs at Deff ∼ 108 nm2/s. This discrepancy is attributed to the drag force caused by the tethering object. From the physiological time scales of tissue elasticity, we calculate that tethered elastic proteins equilibrate in vivo with Deff ∼ 104–106 nm2/s which is two to four orders magnitude smaller than the values measured for untethered proteins in bulk. PMID:22895787

  7. Characterization of Nonlinear Rate Dependent Response of Shape Memory Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Brent; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.; Chen, Yi-Chao; Whitley, Karen S.

    2007-01-01

    the material while it was above its glass transition temperature. After deforming the material to a specified applied strain, the material was then cooled to below the glass transition temperature (Tg) while retaining the deformed shape. Finally, the specimen was heated again to above the transition temperature, and the resulting shape recovery profile was measured. Results show that strain recovery occurs at a nonlinear rate with respect to time. Results also indicate that the ratio of recoverable strain/applied strain increases as the applied strain increases.

  8. Assessing the role of alternative response rates and reinforcer rates in resistance to extinction of target responding when combining stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Bai, John Y H; Skinner, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Studies of behavioral momentum reveal that reinforcing an alternative response in the presence of a target response reduces the rate of target responding but increases its persistence, relative to training the target response on its own. Because of the parallels between these studies and differential-reinforcement techniques to reduce problem behavior in clinical settings, alternative techniques to reduce problem behavior without enhancing its persistence are being explored. One potential solution is to train an alternative response in a separate stimulus context from problem behavior before combining the alternative stimulus with the target stimulus. The present study assessed how differences in reinforcement contingencies and rate for alternative responding influenced resistance to extinction of target responding when combining alternative and target stimuli in pigeons. Across three experiments, alternative stimuli signaling a response-reinforcer dependency and greater reinforcer rates more effectively decreased the persistence of target responding when combining alternative and target stimuli within the same extinction tests, but not when compared across separate extinction tests. Overall, these findings reveal that differences in competition between alternative and target responding produced by contingencies of alternative reinforcement could influence the effectiveness of treating problem behavior through combining stimulus contexts. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Tactics to Increase Course Evaluation Response Rates: A Comparison of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacek, Laura

    2015-01-01

    When an institution decides to move to online teaching evaluations, they often face concerns that their response rates will fall with the change. This fear need never come to pass, however. There are many interventions that can raise response rates. Good communication strategies, improved student and faculty engagement, and grade hold are just a…

  10. Survey Response Rates and Survey Administration in Counseling and Clinical Psychology: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Pamela S.; Green, Kathy E.; Martinussen, Monica

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results of a meta-analysis of survey response rates in published research in counseling and clinical psychology over a 20-year span and describes reported survey administration procedures in those fields. Results of 308 survey administrations showed a weighted average response rate of 49.6%. Among possible moderators, response…

  11. Effects of high, low, and thinning rates of alternative reinforcement on response elimination and resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Shahan, Timothy A

    2013-07-01

    A common treatment for operant problem behavior is alternative reinforcement. When alternative reinforcement is removed or reduced, however, resurgence of the target behavior can occur. Shahan and Sweeney (2011) developed a quantitative model of resurgence based on behavioral momentum theory that suggests higher rates of alternative reinforcement result in faster response elimination and greater resurgence when removed, whereas lower rates of alternative reinforcement result in slower response elimination but are followed by less resurgence. Thus, the present study was designed to examine whether faster target response elimination and less resurgence could be achieved by beginning with a high rate of alternative reinforcement and gradually thinning it such that a low rate is ultimately removed during a simulated treatment lapse. Results showed that high rates of alternative reinforcement were more effective than low or thinning rates at target response suppression but resulted in resurgence when discontinued. Low and thinning rates, on the other hand, were less effective at response suppression but target responding did not increase when alternative reinforcement was discontinued. The quantitative model cannot currently account for the finding that lower-rate alternative reinforcement may not effectively disrupt behavior relative to an extinction only control. Relative advantages of high, low, thinning, or no alternative reinforcement are discussed with respect to suppression of target response rate during treatment, resurgence when alternative reinforcement is removed, and alternative response persistence, while taking into account differences between this animal model and modern applied behavior analytic treatments. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Great Britain, Sweden, and Malmö, Sweden: the impact of differences in case ascertainment on observed incidence trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Ramón; Turesson, Ingemar; Landgren, Ola; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Cuzick, Jack

    2016-01-21

    The increased incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) across China and East Asia stimulated us to examine the current rates in Great Britain, where rates increased dramatically in the second half of the 20th century. However, rates have been stable and high during this period in Malmö, Sweden, where there is a keen interest in MM. We thus assessed recent changes in MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden, and examined how these changes might explain recent reports of increased MM incidence across Asia. Estimation of MM incidence for Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. MM incidence data for Great Britain (1975-2009) were obtained from Cancer Research UK and for Sweden (1970-2009) from the Swedish Cancer Registry. MM incidence data from Malmö, Sweden, were available from 1950 to 2012. Age-specific incidence of MM in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö increased progressively with age, even among the oldest group. The MM age-adjusted incidence (European standard population) increased by 69% from 1975-1979 to 2005-2009 in Great Britain, from 3.2/100,000 to 5.4/100,000. The largest increases occurred among those 70-79 years of age, for whom rates increased from 17.9/100,000 to 33.6/100,000; reflecting an increase of 69%. During this same period, the age-adjusted incidence (European stand population) in Sweden overall remained stable, at approximately 4.7/100,000. MM age-specific incidence is now similar in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö. We believe this is a result of improvements in case ascertainment in Great Britain, particularly among the elderly. Similar changes can be predicted to occur across Asia as improved access to healthcare contributes to better diagnosis of MM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. [Response rates in three opinion surveys performed through online questionnaires in the health setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerny Perreten, Nicole; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Astray Mochales, Jenaro; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Blanco Ancos, Luis Miguel; Lópaz Pérez, Ma Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The main advantages of online questionnaires are the speed of data collection and cost savings, but response rates are usually low. This study analyzed response rates and associated factors among health professionals in three opinion surveys in the autonomous region of Madrid. The participants, length of the questionnaire and topic differed among the three surveys. The surveys were conducted by using paid Internet software. The institutional e-mail addresses of distinct groups of health professionals were used. Response rates were highest in hospitals (up to 63%) and administrative services and were lowest in primary care (less than 33%). The differences in response rates were analyzed in primary care professionals according to age, sex and professional category and only the association with age was statistically significant. None of the surveys achieved a response rate of 60%. Differences were observed according to workplace, patterns of Internet usage, and interest in the subject. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Positive and negative reasons for sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan

    2014-02-12

    This article investigates various reasons for sickness presenteeism (SP), that is, going to work despite illness. The research questions asked is: What are the main reported reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden? Cross-sectional survey in Norway and Sweden. Use of binomial logistic regression analysis. A random sample of people aged between 20 and 60 years was obtained from complete and updated databases of the Norwegian and Swedish populations. A postal questionnaire was sent to the selected individuals, with response rate 33% (n=2843). 2533 workers responded to questions about SP during the last 12 months. The article informs about the distribution of reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden, selected by the respondents from a closed list. The article also examines which factors influence the most often reported reasons for SP. 56% of the Norwegian and Swedish respondents experienced SP in the previous year. The most frequently reported reasons for SP include not burden colleagues (43%), enjoy work (37%) and feeling indispensable (35%). A lower proportion of Norwegians state that they cannot afford taking sick leave adjusted OR (aOR 0.16 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.22)), while a higher proportion of Norwegians refer to that they enjoy their work (aOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.09)). Women and young workers more often report that they do not want to burden their colleagues. Managers (aOR=2.19 (95% CI 1.67 to 2.86)), highly educated persons and the self-employed more often report that they are indispensable. Positive and negative reasons for SP are reported, and there are significant differences between respondents from the two countries. The response rate is low and results must be interpreted with caution. Cross-sectional study.

  15. Antibody responses to Bordetella pertussis Fim2 or Fim3 following immunization with a whole-cell, two-component, or five-component acellular pertussis vaccine and following pertussis disease in children in Sweden in 1997 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallander, Hans; Advani, Abdolreza; Alexander, Frances; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Pratt, Catherine; Hall, Ian; Gorringe, Andrew R

    2014-02-01

    Bordetella pertussis fimbriae (Fim2 and Fim3) are components of a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine [DTaP5]), and antibody responses to fimbriae have been associated with protection. We analyzed the IgG responses to individual Fim2 and Fim3 in sera remaining from a Swedish placebo-controlled efficacy trial that compared a whole-cell vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine [DTwP]), a two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP2), and DTaP5. One month following three doses of the Fim-containing vaccines (DTwP or DTaP5), anti-Fim2 geometric mean IgG concentrations were higher than those for anti-Fim3, with a greater anti-Fim2/anti-Fim3 IgG ratio elicited by DTaP5. We also determined the responses in vaccinated children following an episode of pertussis. Those who received DTaP5 showed a large rise in anti-Fim2 IgG, reflecting the predominant Fim2 serotype at the time. In contrast, those who received DTwP showed an equal rise in anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, indicating that DTwP may provide a more efficient priming effect for a Fim3 response following contact with B. pertussis. Anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were also determined in samples from two seroprevalence studies conducted in Sweden in 1997, when no pertussis vaccine was used and Fim2 isolates predominated, and in 2007, when either DTaP2 or DTaP3 without fimbriae was used and Fim3 isolates predominated. Very similar distributions of anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were obtained in 1997 and 2007, except that anti-Fim3 concentrations in 1997 were lower. This observation, together with the numbers of individuals with both anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, strongly suggests that B. pertussis expresses both Fim2 and Fim3 during infection.

  16. Antibody Responses to Bordetella pertussis Fim2 or Fim3 following Immunization with a Whole-Cell, Two-Component, or Five-Component Acellular Pertussis Vaccine and following Pertussis Disease in Children in Sweden in 1997 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallander, Hans; Advani, Abdolreza; Alexander, Frances; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Pratt, Catherine; Hall, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis fimbriae (Fim2 and Fim3) are components of a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine (diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis vaccine [DTaP5]), and antibody responses to fimbriae have been associated with protection. We analyzed the IgG responses to individual Fim2 and Fim3 in sera remaining from a Swedish placebo-controlled efficacy trial that compared a whole-cell vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine [DTwP]), a two-component acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP2), and DTaP5. One month following three doses of the Fim-containing vaccines (DTwP or DTaP5), anti-Fim2 geometric mean IgG concentrations were higher than those for anti-Fim3, with a greater anti-Fim2/anti-Fim3 IgG ratio elicited by DTaP5. We also determined the responses in vaccinated children following an episode of pertussis. Those who received DTaP5 showed a large rise in anti-Fim2 IgG, reflecting the predominant Fim2 serotype at the time. In contrast, those who received DTwP showed an equal rise in anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, indicating that DTwP may provide a more efficient priming effect for a Fim3 response following contact with B. pertussis. Anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were also determined in samples from two seroprevalence studies conducted in Sweden in 1997, when no pertussis vaccine was used and Fim2 isolates predominated, and in 2007, when either DTaP2 or DTaP3 without fimbriae was used and Fim3 isolates predominated. Very similar distributions of anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations were obtained in 1997 and 2007, except that anti-Fim3 concentrations in 1997 were lower. This observation, together with the numbers of individuals with both anti-Fim2 and anti-Fim3 IgG concentrations, strongly suggests that B. pertussis expresses both Fim2 and Fim3 during infection. PMID:24307240

  17. Space education in Kiruna, Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sandahl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The town of Kiruna in the north of Sweden has a concentration of space activities and space research with, for example, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Esrange, the ESA Salmijärvi satellite station, and EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Radar Scientific Association. The Department of Space Science is a joint department between the two most northern universities in Sweden, Luleå University of Technology and Umeå University in collaboration with the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. It offers a range of education programmes in the space field. There are bachelor and master programmes in space engineering, and a bridging programme for students without a science background from secondary school. The Department also contributes to courses for teachers, Ph.D. courses and secondary school level courses. One master´s program and a three week summer course are given entirely in English and welcome international students. Thanks to good cooperation with Esrange students can build and fly experiments on high altitude balloons and sounding rockets and also take a large responsibility for the management of the projects. Close interaction with research and industry is an important part of the education.

  18. Why do young children die in the UK? A comparison with Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Parag; Sammons, Helen M; Choonara, Imti

    2015-10-01

    The UK has a high child mortality rate, whereas Sweden's is lower (under-five mortality rates of five and three, respectively, in 2011).We therefore wished to compare causes of death in young children aged Sweden for the same period were obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare. Causes of death were compared statistically using χ(2) test. There were a total of 14,104 and 1036 deaths aged Sweden, respectively, between 2006 and 2008. The total numbers of live births during the same period were 2,295,964 and 315,884, respectively. The overall mortality rate in the UK was 614 per 100,000 children which was significantly higher than that in Sweden (328; pSweden were 10.1, 88.6 and 34.8, respectively. They were all significantly more frequent in the UK than in Sweden (pSweden (p<0.001). In order to reduce the mortality rate in the UK, we need to try and reduce the causes of prematurity. Additionally, the care of children with treatable infections should be reviewed to understand ways in which to reduce the differences in mortality seen. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy in small cell lung cancer limited-disease. Dose response, feasibility and outcome for patients treated in western Sweden, 1998-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallqvist, Andreas; Rylander, Hillevi; Bjoerk-Eriksson, Thomas; Nyman, Jan [ Dept. of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    Addition of thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) to chemotherapy (CHT) can increase overall survival in patients with small cell lung cancer limited-disease (SCLC-LD). Accelerated fractionation and early concurrent platinum-based CHT, in combination with prophylactic cranial irradiation, represent up-front treatment for this group of patients. Optimised and tailored local and systemic treatment is important. These concepts were applied when a new regional treatment programme was designed at Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital in 1997. The planned treatment consisted of six courses of CHT (carboplatin/etoposide)+TRT{+-}prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). Standard TRT was prescribed as 1.5 Gy BID to a total of 60 Gy during 4 weeks, starting concomitantly with the second or third course of CHT. However, patients with large tumour burdens, poor general condition and/or poor lung function received 45 Gy, 1.5 Gy BID, during 3 weeks. PCI in 15 fractions to a total dose of 30 Gy was administered to all patients with complete remission (CR) and 'good' partial remission (PR) at response evaluation. Eighty consecutive patients were treated between January 1998 and December 2004. Forty-six patients were given 60 Gy and 34 patients 45 Gy. Acute toxicity occurred as esophagitis grade III (RTOG/EORTC) in 16% and as pneumonitis grade I-II in 10%. There were no differences in toxicity between the two groups. Three- and five-year overall survival was 25% and 16%, respectively. Median survival was 20.8 months with no significant difference between the two groups. In conclusion, TRT with a total dose of 60 or 45 Gy is feasible with comparable toxicity and no difference in local control or survival. Distant metastasis is the main cause of death in this disease; the future challenge is thus further improvement of the systemic therapy combined with optimised local TRT.

  20. Import Response to Exchange Rate Fluctuations: A Micro-level Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Amber Li; Jenny Xu; Carol Zhao Chen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents theory and evidence on firms' import responses to exchange rate fluctuations using disaggregated Chinese imports data. The paper develops a heterogeneous-firm trade model that predicts import responses at both extensive and intensive margins as well as the more profound adjustment under ordinary trade than processing trade. Next, the paper empirically investigates import responses to exchange rate fluctuations at extensive and intensive margins in both the short run and th...

  1. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  2. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  3. The burden of chickenpox disease in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Widgren

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickenpox vaccine is not included in the routine childhood vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to estimate the baseline of national chickenpox disease burden, as comprehensive studies, required for an assessment regarding vaccine introduction, are lacking. Methods We used available health care registers and databases; the death register, hospitalisations register, communicable disease notifications database, Stockholm County registers on consultations in specialist and primary care, temporary parental benefit to care for a sick child, and searches on the health care system’s website. From each data source, records regarding chickenpox were identified and extracted, either using relevant diagnosis codes (ICD-10 or key words. A descriptive analysis with regards to number of cases and incidence, severity, and seasonality, was carried out covering the time period 2007 to 2013. Results There were on average 333 patients hospitalised annually due to chickenpox, yielding a hospitalisation rate of 3.56/100,000 person-years. We found a slight male predominance in hospitalised cases. The highest hospitalisation rate was seen in 1 year-olds, whereas the peak in primary care consultations was in 2 year-olds. Nearly a quarter of children had parents who reported absence from work to care for them when sick with chickenpox. The average yearly death rate from chickenpox was 0.034/100,000 person-years. The duration of hospital stay increased with age. The seasonality in number of searches on the health care website corresponded well with hospitalisations and primary care consultations with peaks in spring. Conclusions This study shows chickenpox death and hospitalisation rates in range with other European countries without routine vaccination. Swedish children fall ill with chickenpox at a very young age. The study provides essential input for future discussions on the introduction of routine chickenpox

  4. Responses of chemical erosion rates to transient perturbations in physical erosion rates, and implications for relationships between chemical and physical erosion rates in regolith-mantled hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Ken L.; West, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between chemical erosion rates (W) and physical erosion rates (E) is of wide interest due to their roles in driving landscape evolution, supplying nutrients to soils and streams, and modulating the global carbon cycle. Measured relationships between W and E vary around the globe, with some regions exhibiting positive correlations between W and E, some negative correlations, and others no correlation within uncertainty. Here we use a numerical model for mineral weathering in well-mixed ridgetop regolith to explore how complex W- E relationships can be generated by simple transient perturbations in E. We show that a Gaussian perturbation in E can produce positive or negative responses in W, and can result in a variety of hysteresis loops - clockwise, counterclockwise, or figure-eight - in plots of W against E. The nature of the transient response depends on the shape of the steady-state W- E relationship, which is set by regolith mineralogy, and the ratio of E to the maximum possible regolith production rate. The response time of W is controlled by the response time of soluble mineral concentrations at low E, where soluble mineral concentrations are low, and by the response time of regolith thickness at high E, where regolith thickness is low. These complex W- E relationships arise in the absence of variations in climate and lithology, which suggests that transients may account for some of the observed differences in W- E relationships among field sites, even among sites that share the same climate and lithology.

  5. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different

  6. Choice of rating scale labels: implication for minimizing patient satisfaction response ceiling effect in telemedicine surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Caterina; Lam, Tony C M

    2014-12-01

    Lack of response variability is problematic in surveys because of its detrimental effects on sensitivity and consequently reliability of the responses. In satisfaction surveys, this problem is caused by the ceiling effect resulting from high satisfaction ratings. A potential solution strategy is to manipulate the labels of the rating scale to create greater discrimination of responses on the high end of the response continuum. This study examined the effects of a positive-centered scale on the distribution and reliability of telemedicine satisfaction responses in a highly positive respondent population. In total, 216 telemedicine participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions as defined by the form of Likert scale: (1) 5-point Balanced Equal-Interval, (2) 5-point Positive-Packed, and (3) 5-point Positive-Centered Equal-Interval. Although the study findings were not statistically significant, partially because of sample size, the distribution and internal consistency reliability of responses occurred in the direction hypothesized. Loading the rating scale with more positive labels appears to be a useful strategy for reducing the ceiling effect and increases the discrimination ability of survey responses. The current research provides a survey design strategy to minimize ceiling effects. Although the findings provide some evidence suggesting the benefit of using rating scales loaded with positive labels, more research is needed to confirm this, as well as extend it to examine other types of rating scales and the interaction between rating scale formats and respondent characteristics.

  7. Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvemark, A S

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden. Neo-Malthusianism arrived in Sweden at the beginning of the 1880s when Knut Wicksell gave a public lecture at a youth meeting of a temperance society in Uppsala. The lecture resulted in public scandal and made neo-Malthusian ideas known overnight in Sweden. Wicksell maintained that poverty was the primary cause of most evils in society, and it was caused by the pressure from population increase on the means of subsistence. In his lecture he referred to Malthus explicitly and gave a summary of the Malthusian principle of population on which he based his reasoning. At the time he only knew of Malthus' ideas indirectly by reading George Drysdale's book, "The Elements of Social Science." The questions that arise are whether Malthus' ideas were only indirectly studied and whether neo-Malthusiansim was just seen as an equivalent of birth control and contraceptives, the very means of preventive checks for population growth that Malthus condemned for moral reasons. Wicksell focused on the causes and consequences of emigration in a lecture in 1881. He again saw rapid population growth as the cause of poverty, which in turn caused emigration. The rapid rise in Swedish emigration in the 1880s created considerable interest. Generally, the common view at the time was that Sweden suffered from a certain population pressure and corresponding underemployment. Johan Leffler, a young economist, had a different opinion. He saw the problem in an outspoken Malthusian way, suggesting that under the prevailing overpopulation in Sweden emigration could not be harmful. At the turn of the centruy Gustav Sundbarg was among those describing emigration as a deadly threat to Swedish society. Sundbarg not only turned against Malthus, but he also condemned neo-Malthusianism for moral reasons. Sundbarg maintained that demographic and economic development over the 19th century did not verify Malthus' assumption that population

  8. Inverse strain rate effect on cyclic stress response in annealed Zircaloy-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Rao, G.; Verma, Preeti; Chakravartty, J. K.; Nudurupati, Saibaba; Mahobia, G. S.; Santhi Srinivas, N. C.; Singh, Vakil

    2015-02-01

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of annealed Zircaloy-2 was investigated at 300 and 400 °C at different strain amplitudes and strain rates of 10-2, 10-3, and 10-4 s-1. Cyclic stress response showed initial hardening with decreasing rate of hardening, followed by linear cyclic hardening and finally secondary hardening with increasing rate of hardening for low strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. The rate as well the degree of linear hardening and secondary hardening decreased with decrease in strain rate at 300 °C, however, there was inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response at 400 °C and cyclic stress was increased with decrease in strain rate. The fatigue life decreased with decrease in strain rate at both the temperatures. The occurrence of linear cyclic hardening, inverse effect of strain rate on cyclic stress response and deterioration in fatigue life with decrease in strain rate may be attributed to dynamic strain aging phenomena resulting from enhanced interaction of dislocations with solutes. Fracture surfaces revealed distinct striations, secondary cracking, and oxidation with decrease in strain rate. Deformation substructure showed parallel dislocation lines and dislocation band structure at 300 °C. Persistent slip band wall structure and development of fine Corduroy structure was observed at 400 °C.

  9. Reexamining traditional issues in survey research: Just how evil is the anathema of low response rate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S.B. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States). Science/Engineering Education Division; Boser, J.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Survey researchers have long been exhorted to strive for high response rates in order to maximize the likelihood that the respondents are representative of the population being surveyed. It is not surprising then, that much survey research has been directed towards examining the effects of various manipulatable factors on response rate. It is clear that attempts to reach the goal of minimizing the likelihood of nonresponse bias through testing various methods of increasing survey response rates have consumed much research and debate. The results obtained in this research have been inconsistent. Some studies have found significant differences, others have found none. The present study was designed to determine the extent to which the results of an employment survey of former graduates of a teacher preparation program would have been affected by changes in response rate.

  10. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... to some extent could reflect differences in the quality of care, indicated by the numbers of perinatal deaths in categories of potentially avoidable deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 97% of all perinatal deaths in 1991 in the two countries were analyzed. A new classification focusing...... on potential avoidability from a health services perspective was elaborated at a Nordic-Baltic workshop, using the variables: time of death in relation to admission and delivery, fetal malformation, gestational age, growth-retardation and Apgar score at 5 min. RESULTS: Rates of perinatal deaths of malformed...

  11. Cardiodynamic and neurohormonal importance of atrial contribution in rate-responsive pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Y; Shimai, S; Nagae, Y; Ibuki, C; Takano, T; Tanaka, S; Hayakawa, H

    1993-07-01

    To elucidate the physiologic importance of atrial contribution in recently developed rate-responsive pacing, changes in cardiodynamics and neurohormonal factors were analyzed during exercise in patients with respiratory rate-dependent, rate-responsive atrial (AAIR; n = 6) and ventricular (VVIR; n = 9) demand mode pacemakers implanted for sick sinus syndrome. With increasing pacing rate during bicycle ergometer exercise, the AAIR group had significant increases in cardiac index (p AAIR group. At rest, the mean plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (p AAIR group and normal subjects (n = 8). Atrial natriuretic peptide, norepinephrine, and cyclic adenosine and guanosine monophosphates were significantly greater (p AAIR group (116.4 +/- 51.5) and normal subjects (30.8 +/- 19.2; p < 0.05); this suggested a further increase in the nonphysiologic atrial overload with VVIR pacing. The data show both the neurohormonal and cardiodynamic importance of atrioventricular synchrony in rate-responsive pacing.

  12. Effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensing, M; Mainz, Jan; Kramme, O

    1999-01-01

    Randomized trials were performed in Denmark and The Netherlands to determine the effect of mailed reminders on the response rate in surveys among patients in general practice. In both countries, general practitioners handed out questionnaires to 200 adult patients who came to visit them. An inter......) but not in Denmark (87% versus 81%, respectively). Mailed reminders can improve the response rate in surveys related to a general practice, but they are not effective in all situations....

  13. Placebo response rate in clinical trials of fistulizing Crohn's disease: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Luthra, Pavit; Hanauer, Stephen B; Travis, Simon P; Harris, M Scott; Reinisch, Walter

    2014-12-01

    It is important to determine the magnitude and identify modifiers of the rate of response to placebo in clinical trials of fistulizing Crohn's disease (CD), to understand disease progression, and to calculate sample size. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of rates of response to placebo in trials of patients with fistulizing CD. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, EMBASE CLASSIC, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing pharmacologic agents with placebo in adults with fistulizing CD. We identified studies that reported complete fistula closure, partial closure, or response. Data were extracted as intention-to-treat analyses and pooled by using a random-effects model. Proportions of patients who received placebo and had complete or partial fistula(e) closure were calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The effects of trial characteristics on the magnitude of response to placebo were examined. Thirteen RCTs were eligible for our analysis; these included 579 patients assigned to placebo groups. The pooled rate of response to placebo, among all RCTs, for complete fistula closure was 15.6% (95% CI, 10.9%-20.9%), with significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 62.5%, P = .001). The pooled rate of response to placebo for partial fistula closure or response in 9 trials, comprising 423 patients, was 18.3% (95% CI, 14.8%-22.1%). Rates of response to placebo were significantly lower in trials with shorter durations of therapy and shorter intervals to assessment of fistula closure. Neither exposure to the pharmacologic agent during the induction phase of the same (or related) RCT nor concomitant medications had any effect. In a meta-analysis of rate of response to placebo in patients with fistulizing CD, we found that fistulae closed in almost 1/6 patients given placebo in RCTs of pharmacologic agents. Future research should identify characteristics of patients that predict response to placebo. Copyright

  14. Coordination between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wadmann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insights into effective policy strategies for improved coordination of care is needed. In this study we describe and compare the policy strategies chosen in Denmark and Sweden, and discuss them in relation to interorganisational network theory. Policy practice: The policy initiatives to improve collaboration between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden include legislation and agreements aiming at clarifying areas of responsibility and defining requirements, creation of links across organisational boarders. In Denmark many initiatives have been centrally induced, while development of local solutions is more prominent in Sweden. Many Danish initiatives target the administrative level, while in Sweden initiatives are also directed at the operational level. In both countries economic incentives for collaboration are weak or lacking, and use of sanctions as a regulatory mean is limited. Discussion and conclusion: Despite a variety of policy initiatives, lacking or poorly developed structures to support implementation function as barriers for coordination. The two cases illustrate that even in two relatively coherent health systems, with regional management of both the hospital and general practice sector, there are issues to resolve in regard to administrative and operational coordination. The interorganisational network literature can provide useful tools and concepts for interpreting such issues.

  15. The History of Tuberculosis Management in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Wallstedt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB.

  16. The history of tuberculosis management in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstedt, Helen; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences in the contents of two randomized surveys of GPs' prescribing intentions affected response rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Arash; van der Meulen, Jan; Russell, Ian

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the differences in response rates and the presence of response bias in two randomized surveys of prescribing intentions for statins and asthma. We conducted the surveys of British general practitioners (GPs) in 2002. The two surveys had similar designs, formats, administration time, administration methods, and target populations. We compared the response rates to the two surveys while controlling for the characteristics of respondents with nonrespondents. We also compared early respondents with late respondents and assessed heterogeneity in the answers of early and late respondents to two key questions. The response rates to the two surveys were significantly different (statins: 27%; asthma: 19%; P=0.002). We found no interaction between the survey type and any of the GP and practice characteristics we examined. The GPs' answers to the key questions did not differ regardless of the timing of the responses. We demonstrated that the surveys' contents significantly influenced the response rates. We found no evidence that the nonrespondents would have answered the key questions differently. Future studies should investigate the mechanisms by which contents of surveys may influence response rate.

  18. Stuttered and Fluent Speakers' Heart Rate and Skin Conductance in Response to Fluent and Stuttered Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Hudock, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found simultaneous increases in skin conductance response and decreases in heart rate when normally fluent speakers watched and listened to stuttered speech compared with fluent speech, suggesting that stuttering induces arousal and emotional unpleasantness in listeners. However, physiological responses of persons…

  19. Effects of corporate social responsibility and governance on its credit ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-young; Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings.

  20. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  1. Micro-Structural Response of DP 600 to High Strain Rate Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, Brian; Schneider, Judy; Jones, Stanley E.

    2008-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the micro-structural response of DP 600 subjected to high strain rate, ballistic impact tests. The ballistic tests were conducted using normal impact of a hardened steel penetrator into a 2 mm thick sheet of DP 600. The average strain rates produced from this test method are on the order of 10(exp 5)/s. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructure before and after high strain rate deformation. A variation in material response was observed between tests conducted at 0.8 x 105 and 25 x 10(exp 5)/s.

  2. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute {gamma}-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.

  3. Oligodendroglial response to ionizing radiation: Dose and dose-rate response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Richard P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    An in vitro system using neuroglia from neonatal rat brain was developed to examine the morphologic, immunocytochemical and biochemical response of oligodendroglia to ionizing radiation. Following acute γ-irradiation at day-in-culture (DIC) 8, oligodendrocyte counts at DIC 14 were 55% to 65% of control values after 2 Gy, and 29% to 36% after 5 Gy. Counts increased to near-normal levels at DIC 21 in the 2 Gy group and to 75% of normal in the 5 Gy group. Myelin basic protein levels (MBP) at DIC 14 were 60% of control values after 2 Gy, and 40% after 5 Gy. At DIC 21, MBP after 2 Gy was 45% greater than that observed at DIC 14, but MBP, as a fraction of age-matched control values, dropped from 60% to 50%. Following 5 Gy, absolute MBP changed little between DIC 14 and DIC 21, but decreased from 40% to 25% of control cultures. The response to split-dose irradiation indicated that nearly all sublethal damage in the oligodendrocyte population (and its precursors) was repaired within 3 h to 4 h. A new compartmental cell model for radiation response in vitro of the oligodendrocyte population is proposed and examined in relation to the potential reaction to radiation injury in the brain.

  4. Improving response rate and quality of survey data with a scratch lottery ticket incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Frank; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2012-04-19

    The quality of data collected in survey research is usually indicated by the response rate; the representativeness of the sample, and; the rate of completed questions (item-response). In attempting to improve a generally declining response rate in surveys considerable efforts are being made through follow-up mailings and various types of incentives. This study examines effects of including a scratch lottery ticket in the invitation letter to a survey. Questionnaires concerning oral health were mailed to a random sample of 2,400 adults. A systematically selected half of the sample (1,200 adults) received a questionnaire including a scratch lottery ticket. One reminder without the incentive was sent. The incentive increased the response rate and improved representativeness by reaching more respondents with lower education. Furthermore, it reduced item nonresponse. The initial incentive had no effect on the propensity to respond after the reminder. When attempting to improve survey data, three issues become important: response rate, representativeness, and item-response. This study shows that including a scratch lottery ticket in the invitation letter performs well on all the three.

  5. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  6. Does age matter? The influence of age on response rates in a mixed-mode survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Dietsch, Alia

    2014-01-01

    The appeal of cost savings and faster results has fish and wildlife management agencies considering the use of Internet surveys instead of traditional mail surveys to collect information from their constituents. Internet surveys, however, may suffer from differential age-related response rates, potentially producing biased results if certain age groups respond to Internet surveys differently than they do to mail surveys. We examined this concern using data from a mixed-mode angler survey conducted in South Dakota following the 2011 fishing season. Results indicated that young anglers (16–18) had the lowest return rates and senior anglers (65+) had the highest, regardless of survey mode. Despite this consistency in response rates, we note two concerns: (a) lower Internet response rates and (b) different age groups represented by the Internet and mail survey samples differed dramatically. Findings indicate that constituent groups may be represented differently with the use of various survey modes.

  7. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States... on carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden. SUMMARY: The Commission... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  8. The effectiveness of a monetary incentive offer on survey response rates and response completeness in a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengchao Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving adequate response rates is an ongoing challenge for longitudinal studies. The World Trade Center Health Registry is a longitudinal health study that periodically surveys a cohort of ~71,000 people exposed to the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York City. Since Wave 1, the Registry has conducted three follow-up surveys (Waves 2–4 every 3–4 years and utilized various strategies to increase survey participation. A promised monetary incentive was offered for the first time to survey non-respondents in the recent Wave 4 survey, conducted 13–14 years after 9/11. Methods We evaluated the effectiveness of a monetary incentive in improving the response rate five months after survey launch, and assessed whether or not response completeness was compromised due to incentive use. The study compared the likelihood of returning a survey for those who received an incentive offer to those who did not, using logistic regression models. Among those who returned surveys, we also examined whether those receiving an incentive notification had higher rate of response completeness than those who did not, using negative binomial regression models and logistic regression models. Results We found that a $10 monetary incentive offer was effective in increasing Wave 4 response rates. Specifically, the $10 incentive offer was useful in encouraging initially reluctant participants to respond to the survey. The likelihood of returning a survey increased by 30% for those who received an incentive offer (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4, and the incentive increased the number of returned surveys by 18%. Moreover, our results did not reveal any significant differences on response completeness between those who received an incentive offer and those who did not. Conclusions In the face of the growing challenge of maintaining a high response rate for the World Trade Center Health Registry follow-up surveys, this study showed the value of offering a

  9. Sparse district-heating in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Stefan Forsaeus [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Building Technology and Mechanics, P.O. Box 24036, SE-400 22 Goeteborg (Sweden); Reidhav, Charlotte [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Lygnerud, Kristina [Goeteborg University, School of Business, Economics and Law, Department of Business Administration, P.O. Box 610, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-07-15

    This paper presents a review of the sparse district-heating research programme undertaken in Sweden between 2002 and 2006. The goal of the programme was to increase the future competitiveness for district heat in low heat density areas, e.g., suburban single-family houses and small villages. Such areas are unfavourable, since revenues from heat sold are low compared with the investment cost for the local distribution network. In Sweden, district heat has a dominant position in the heat market for residential and service-sector buildings. In order for the business to grow, it is necessary to increase the rate of expansion in the detached-house segment. This is why the programme was initiated. The extent of the programme was set at EUR 3.6 million with equal financing from the Swedish District-Heating Association and the Swedish Energy-Agency. The research was carried out in three phases: a state of the art survey; a development phase focused on productivity gains where new research on both technology and customer interaction was performed; and finally a demonstration phase where new methods were tested in full-scale field operation. The programme has shown that the Swedish district-heating industry needs to adjust in order to reach a higher profitability for sparse district-heating investments. Tradition from large-scale high-density district heating is hard to scale to fit sparse district-heating systems. For example, the construction becomes very labour intensive and the industry is weak when it comes to market-oriented business logic, sales and private customer interaction. Innovation seems to be a way forward and active management of innovations is a way to create increased value of the investments. Other keys to improving the profitability of sparse district-heating investments are more efficient working routines (resulting in higher productivity) and revised ways of customer communications. These seem more important than increasing efficiency in district

  10. Interdependence of response rates, survival rates, stage and histology after radio-/chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szepesi, T.; Kaercher, K.H.; Schratter, A.; Breitenecker, G.; Szalay, S.; Janisch, H.

    1982-11-01

    Between February 1977 and February 1981, 55 patients with ovarian cancer (45 at stage III and 10 at stage IV) underwent simultaneous radio-/chemotherapy and early therapeutic second-look operation. The overall response rate amounts to 94%, 63% of which are complete and 31% are partial emissions. Stage III comprises 74% complete and 26% partial remissions. Patients with complete remission at stage III have a significantly longer tumor-free survival time than patients with partial remission (median 16 vs. 8 months). A longer overall survival time (median 30 vs. 16 months) is also significant. At stage III there have been 74% successful therapeutic second operations. In all patients with residual tumors above 2 cm in diameter after primary operation a response rate of 92% could be achieved, 52% showed complete remissions. The survival time proved to be independent of both histological parameter and age. The remaining residual tumor above or under 2 cm in diameter in any single location is, however, a significant prognostic factor for long-time survival. Possible curative chances for patients with stage III disease are only to be expected through interdisciplinary oncological cooperation.

  11. Transient response of the global mean warming rate and its spatial variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Risbey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth has warmed over the past century. The warming rate (amount of warming over a given period varies in time and space. Observations show a recent increase in global mean warming rate, which is initially maintained in model projections, but which diverges substantially in future depending on the emissions scenario followed. Scenarios that stabilize forcing lead to much lower warming rates, as the rate depends on the change in forcing, not the amount. Warming rates vary spatially across the planet, but most areas show a shift toward higher warming rates in recent decades. The areal distribution of warming rates is also changing shape to include a longer tail in recent decades. Some areas of the planet are already experiencing extreme warming rates of about 1 °C/decade. The fat tail in areal distribution of warming rates is pronounced in model runs when the forcing and global mean warming rate is increasing, and indicates a climate state more prone to regime transitions. The area-proportion of the Earth displaying warming/cooling trends is shown to be directly related to the global mean warming rate, especially for trends of length 15 years and longer. Since the global mean warming rate depends on the forcing rate, the proportion of warming/cooling trend areas in future also depends critically on the choice of future forcing scenario. Keywords: Climate variability, Climate projection, Transient response, Extreme warming

  12. Creep Strain and Strain Rate Response of 2219 Al Alloy at High Stress Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Wagner, John A.; Lisagor, W. Barry

    1998-01-01

    As a result of high localized plastic deformation experienced during proof testing in an International Space Station connecting module, a study was undertaken to determine the deformation response of a 2219-T851 roll forging. After prestraining 2219-T851 Al specimens to simulate strains observed during the proof testing, creep tests were conducted in the temperature range from ambient temperature to 107 C (225 F) at stress levels approaching the ultimate tensile strength of 2219-T851 Al. Strain-time histories and strain rate responses were examined. The strain rate response was extremely high initially, but decayed rapidly, spanning as much as five orders of magnitude during primary creep. Select specimens were subjected to incremental step loading and exhibited initial creep rates of similar magnitude for each load step. Although the creep rates decreased quickly at all loads, the creep rates dropped faster and reached lower strain rate levels for lower applied loads. The initial creep rate and creep rate decay associated with primary creep were similar for specimens with and without prestrain; however, prestraining (strain hardening) the specimens, as in the aforementioned proof test, resulted in significantly longer creep life.

  13. INOPS Survey data report for Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Severin, Majbritt Christine

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Sweden. The statistics rely on data collected in the period from May 2015 to June 2015 through an online survey...... send to managers in all 290 municipalities in Sweden....

  14. Increased alcohol use over the past 20 years among the oldest old in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelfve Susanne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - Increased alcohol consumption among old people, reported in many countries, will likely present a major challenge to public health and policy in the future. In Sweden, current knowledge about old people’s alcohol consumption is incomplete because of limited historical data and a dearth of nationally representative studies. We describe the frequency of alcohol consumption among the oldest old in Sweden over a 20-year period by sex, age, education, living situation, mobility and Activities of Daily Living. METHODS - We used repeated cross-sectional survey data from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD, conducted in 1992, 2002 and 2011. The samples were nationally representative of the Swedish population aged 77+, with response rates of 95.4%, 84.4% and 86.2% (total n=2007. Self-reported consumption frequency was measured with the question “How often do you drink alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer or spirits?” RESULTS - Frequency of alcohol consumption increased among the oldest old from 1992 to 2011. The proportion reporting no or less-than-monthly alcohol consumption decreased, whereas the proportion reporting weekly consumption increased. This was true for men, women and most age and educational groups. The period change in consumption frequency was not explained by changes in demographic factors, living situation or functional capacity during the study period. CONCLUSIONS - Alcohol use increased among the oldest old in Sweden during the 20-year study period. More liberal attitudes toward alcohol could contribute to the increased use. The increase in weekly alcohol consumers suggests an increase in the number of older risk consumers.

  15. Recent hip fracture trends in Sweden and Denmark with age-period-cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, B E; Björk, J; Cooper, C; Abrahamsen, B

    2017-01-01

    This study used nationwide hip fracture data from Denmark and Sweden during 1987-2010 to examine effects of (birth) cohort and period. We found that time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in the two countries. Results also indicated that hip fracture rates may increase in the not so far future. The reasons for the downturn in hip fracture rates remain largely unclear but circumstances earlier in life seem important. We ascertained hip fractures in the populations ≥50 years in Denmark and Sweden in national discharge registers. Country- and sex-specific age-period-cohort (APC) effects during 1987-2010 were evaluated by log-likelihood estimates in Poisson regression models presented as incidence rate ratios (IRR). There were 399,596 hip fractures in SE and 248,773 in DK. Age-standardized hip fracture rate was stable in SE men but decreased in SE women and in DK. Combined period + cohort effects were generally stronger in SE than DK and in women than men. IRR per period ranged from 1.05 to 1.30 in SE and 0.95 to 1.21 in DK. IRR per birth cohort ranged from 1.07 to 3.13 in SE and 0.77 to 1.67 in DK. Relative period effects decreased with successive period in SE and described a convex curve in DK. Relative cohort effects increased with successive birth cohort in both countries but with lower risks for DK women and men and SE women born around the 1930s (age 75-86 years today and responsible for most hip fractures) partly explaining the recent downturn. Men and women born thereafter however seem to have a higher hip fracture risk, and we expect a reversal of the present decline in rates, with increasing hip fracture rates in both Denmark and Sweden during the upcoming decade. Time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in SE and DK. This may reflect differences in general health as evident in known differences in life expectancy, healthcare organization, and prevention such as use of anti-osteoporosis drugs. Analyses indicate that hip

  16. Lottery incentives did not improve response rate to a mailed survey: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ian A; Khoo, Oliver K; Young, Jane M; Solomon, Michael J; Rae, Hamish

    2008-06-01

    Our study aimed to examine the effect of an instant lottery ticket incentive on the response rate to a mailed questionnaire in a population of trauma patients. A randomized controlled trial at a major trauma center with 728 patients randomized into 2 groups prior to mailing of a questionnaire. One group of patients (Group A) had a sentence inserted into the cover letter stating that they would receive a $4 instant lottery ticket upon receipt of a completed questionnaire; Group B did not have an incentive. The response rate for both groups was measured after the initial mailing and at the end of the study. The results were analyzed using the X2 test to compare 2 proportions and a P value of .05 was considered significant. The early response rate in Group A was lower than in Group B, and the response rates for both groups were similar at final follow-up. The differences at both time periods were not statistically significant. The use of an instant lottery ticket incentive did not improve the response rate to a mailed questionnaire.

  17. Heat shock response in yeast involves changes in both transcription rates and mRNA stabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Castells-Roca

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the heat stress response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by determining mRNA levels and transcription rates for the whole transcriptome after a shift from 25 °C to 37 °C. Using an established mathematical algorithm, theoretical mRNA decay rates have also been calculated from the experimental data. We have verified the mathematical predictions for selected genes by determining their mRNA decay rates at different times during heat stress response using the regulatable tetO promoter. This study indicates that the yeast response to heat shock is not only due to changes in transcription rates, but also to changes in the mRNA stabilities. mRNA stability is affected in 62% of the yeast genes and it is particularly important in shaping the mRNA profile of the genes belonging to the environmental stress response. In most cases, changes in transcription rates and mRNA stabilities are homodirectional for both parameters, although some interesting cases of antagonist behavior are found. The statistical analysis of gene targets and sequence motifs within the clusters of genes with similar behaviors shows that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulons apparently contribute to the general heat stress response by means of transcriptional factors and RNA binding proteins.

  18. Getting physicians to open the survey: little evidence that an envelope teaser increases response rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician surveys are an important tool to assess attitudes, beliefs and self-reported behaviors of this policy relevant group. In order for a physician to respond to a mailed survey, they must first open the envelope. While there is some evidence that package elements can impact physician response rates, the impact of an envelope teaser is unknown. Here we assess this by testing the impact of adding a brightly colored "$25 incentive" sticker to the outside of an envelope on response rates and nonresponse bias in a survey of physicians. Methods In the second mailing of a survey assessing physicians' moral beliefs and views on controversial health care topics, initial nonrespondents were randomly assigned to receive a survey in an envelope with a colored "$25 incentive" sticker (teaser group or an envelope without a sticker (control group. Response rates were compared between the teaser and control groups overall and by age, gender, region of the United States, specialty and years in practice. Nonresponse bias was assessed by comparing the demographic composition of the respondents to the nonrespondents in the experimental and control condition. Results No significant differences in response rates were observed between the experimental and control conditions overall (p = 0.38 or after stratifying by age, gender, region, or practice type. Within the teaser condition, there was some variation in response rate by years since graduation. There was no independent effect of the teaser on response when simultaneously controlling for demographic characteristics (OR = 0.875, p = 0.4112. Conclusions Neither response rates nor nonresponse bias were impacted by the use of an envelope teaser in a survey of physicians in the United States.

  19. [Adequacy of of pacemakers responsive to the volume-minute ventilation rate in heart transplantation patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, J R; Castro, I; Lima, L L; Reis, A; Kalil, R A; Prates, P R; Lucchese, F A; Halperin, C; Pereira, E; Rodrigues, R

    1995-06-01

    To evaluate in the late post-operative period (PO) the chronotropic response to exercise of patients submitted to orthotopic cardiac transplantation (CT) and the implant of a cardiac pacemaker (PM). A rate response ventricular PM (VVI+R) which uses minute ventilation (MV) as a sensor was implanted in five patients in the early PO of CT due to chronotropic incompetence. The patients were 31 to 64 years old and the indication to implant of PM was low ventricular escape rhythm following atrial taquicardia/bradycardia (one case) or sinus bradycardia (4 cases). The study was performed by means of paired exercise tests using Naughton protocol in order to compare the heart rate in VVI (prefixed heart rate) and VVIR+MV (rate response) mode. The duration of the exercise was compared between the two modes of stimulation. In VVI mode the heart rate was significantly lower than in VVIR+MV mode for comparable periods of exercise (101 +/- 12 ppm vs 132 +/- 4 ppm; p < 0.05); in VVIR+MV mode the patients had a prolonged time of exercise as compared to VVI mode (15 +/- 7 min vs 12 +/- 7 min; NS). The MV rate response PM provided patients with satisfactory heart during exercise and may be an adequate option to patients submitted to CT who present chronotropic incompetence.

  20. Energy use in Sweden: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Johnson, F.; Howarth, R.; Price, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Andersson, B.; Andersson, B.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Handelshoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-01

    This report analyzes the evolution of energy use in Sweden since the early 1970s. The purpose of the study, which is sponsored by NUTEK, Department of Energy Efficiency, the Swedish Agency for Technical and Industrial Development, is to shed light on the future path of energy use in Sweden by quantifying and understanding changes in past energy use. Energy efficiency has been identified by Swedish authorities in countless official studies as a key element in Sweden`s efforts to restrain oil imports, reduce reliance on nuclear power, reduce environmental impacts of energy use, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. To understand the role or performance of energy efficiency in the 1970s and 1980s in Sweden, and what this performance means about the future, the authors seek answers to three broad questions: (1) How has the structure and efficiency of energy use in Sweden evolved since the early 1970s, and where data permit, since even earlier? What caused these changes? (2) How does the structure of energy use in Sweden differ from that of other countries, and how has the evolution of energy use in Sweden differed from developments in other countries? (3) How much energy has Sweden saved, and why? Are these savings permanent? To what extent were they offset by changes in the structure of energy use? And to what extent is the magnitude of these savings dependent upon the way we measure energy use? The report reviews the long-term evolution of Swedish energy use, focusing on developments in five sectors of the economy: residential, service, industrial (manufacturing and {open_quotes}other industry{close_quotes} defined as mining, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and construction), travel, and freight. The authors then examine Swedish energy use in a broader perspective, drawing detailed comparisons to other nations. Finally, they discuss a series of issues that hover over the future of energy demand in Sweden.

  1. Daily physical activity and heart rate response in people with a unilateral traumatic transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Johannes B; Schrauwen, Hannelore J; Stam, Henk J

    2008-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that people with a unilateral traumatic transtibial amputation are less active than people without an amputation, and to explore whether both groups have a similar heart rate response while walking. A case-comparison study. General community. Nine subjects with a unilateral traumatic transtibial amputation and 9 matched subjects without known impairments. Not applicable. Percentage of dynamic activities in 48 hours (expressing activity level). Additionally, we examined heart rate and percentage heart rate reserve during walking (expressing heart rate response) and body motility during walking (expressing walking speed). These parameters were objectively measured at participants' homes on 2 consecutive days. Subjects with an amputation showed a lower percentage of dynamic activities (6.0% vs 11.7% in a 48-h period, P=.02). No significant differences were found between the 2 groups in heart rate (91.1 bpm vs 89.5 bpm, P=.86) and percentage heart rate reserve during walking (28.2% vs 27.5%, P=1.0). Body motility during walking was lower in the amputation group (.14 g vs .18 g, Ptranstibial amputation are considerably less active than persons without known impairments. The results indicate that heart rate response during walking is similar in both groups, and is probably regulated by adapting one's walking speed.

  2. Predictors of response rates to a long term follow-up mail out survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A Koloski

    Full Text Available Very little is known about predictors of response rates to long-term follow-up mail-out surveys, including whether the timing of an incentive affects response rates. We aimed to determine whether the timing of the incentive affects response rates and what baseline demographic and psychological factors predict response rates to a 12 year follow-up survey.Participants were 450 randomly selected people from the Penrith population, Australia who had previously participated in a mail-out survey 12 years earlier. By random allocation, 150 people received no incentive, 150 received a lottery ticket inducement with the follow-up survey and 150 received a lottery ticket inducement on the return of a completed survey.The overall response rate for the study was 63%. There were no significant differences in terms of response rates between the no incentive (58.8%;95%CI 49.8%,67.3%, incentive with survey (65.1%;95%CI 56.2%,73.3% and promised incentive (65.3%;95%CI 56.1%,73.7% groups. Independent predictors of responding to the 12 year survey were being older (OR=1.02, 95%CI 1.01,1.05,P=0.001 and being less neurotic as reported on the first survey 12 years earlier (OR=0.92, 95%CI 0.86,0.98, P=0.010.Psychological factors may play a role in determining who responds to long-term follow-up surveys although timing of incentives does not.

  3. Response function and count rates with the SODART Bragg-Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halm, I.; Wiebicke, H.J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1998-01-01

    The SODART X-ray telescope includes an Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OCS) providing an energy resolving power around 1000 by Bragg reflection upon crystals. The SODART-OCS response function is used within the XSPEC package for the calculation of count rates for X-ray line and continuum registra......The SODART X-ray telescope includes an Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OCS) providing an energy resolving power around 1000 by Bragg reflection upon crystals. The SODART-OCS response function is used within the XSPEC package for the calculation of count rates for X-ray line and continuum...

  4. An advance letter did not increase the response rates in a telephone survey: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Renee N; Reid, Alison; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-12-01

    To test the impact of an advance letter on response and cooperation rates in a nationwide telephone survey, given previous inconsistent results. Within the context of a larger telephone survey, 1,000 Australian households were randomly selected to take part in this trial. Half were randomly allocated to receive an advance letter, whereas the remainder did not receive any advance communication. Response and cooperation rates were compared between the two groups. A total of 244 interviews were completed, 134 of which were with households that had been sent an advance letter. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant difference in response between those who had received a letter and those who had not (26.8% vs. 22.0%, respectively). In addition, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of either cooperation (78.4% vs. 79.7%) or response rate (56.3% vs. 57.9%), and no clear differences emerged in terms of the demographic characteristics of the two groups. An advance letter was not seen to be effective in increasing response or cooperation rates in a nationwide telephone survey. Researchers should consider alternative methods of increasing participation in telephone surveys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The rate of immune escape vanishes when multiple immune responses control an HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W M; Wijnker, Gilles; de Boer, Rob J

    2013-09-15

    During the first months of HIV infection, the virus typically evolves several immune escape mutations. These mutations are found in epitopes in viral proteins and reduce the impact of the CD8⁺ T cells specific for these epitopes. Recent data show that only a subset of the epitopes escapes, that most of these escapes evolve early, and that the rate of immune escape slows down considerably. To investigate why the evolution of immune escape slows down over the time of infection, we have extended a consensus mathematical model to allow several immune responses to control the virus together. In the extended model, most escapes also occur early, and the immune escape rate becomes small later, and typically only a minority of the epitopes escape. We show that escaping one of the many immune responses provides little advantage after viral setpoint has been approached because the total killing rate hardly depends on the breadth of the immune response. If the breadth of the immune response slowly wanes during disease progression, the model predicts an increase in the rate of immune escape at late stages of infection. Overall, the most striking prediction of the model is that HIV evolves a small number of immune escapes, in both relative and absolute terms, when the CTL immune response is broad.

  6. Can financial insecurity and condescending treatment explain the higher prevalence of poor self-rated health in women than in men? A population-based cross-sectional study in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Molarius Anu; Granström Fredrik; Feldman Inna; Blomqvist Marina; Pettersson Helena; Elo Sirkka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Women have in general poorer self-rated health than men. Both material and psychosocial conditions have been found to be associated with self-rated health. We investigated whether two such factors, financial insecurity and condescending treatment, could explain the difference in self-rated health between women and men. Methods The association between the two factors and self-rated health was investigated in a population-based sample of 35,018 respondents. The data were o...

  7. In Situ Rates of Sulfate Reduction in Response to Geochemical Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeshaw, T.A.; McGuire, J.T.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Smith, E.W.

    2011-01-01

    Rates of in situ microbial sulfate reduction in response to geochemical perturbations were determined using Native Organism Geochemical Experimentation Enclosures (NOGEEs), a new in situ technique developed to facilitate evaluation of controls on microbial reaction rates. NOGEEs function by first trapping a native microbial community in situ and then subjecting it to geochemical perturbations through the introduction of various test solutions. On three occasions, NOGEEs were used at the Norman Landfill research site in Norman, Oklahoma, to evaluate sulfate-reduction rates in wetland sediments impacted by landfill leachate. The initial experiment, in May 2007, consisted of five introductions of a sulfate test solution over 11 d. Each test stimulated sulfate reduction with rates increasing until an apparent maximum was achieved. Two subsequent experiments, conducted in October 2007 and February 2008, evaluated the effects of concentration on sulfate-reduction rates. Results from these experiments showed that faster sulfate-reduction rates were associated with increased sulfate concentrations. Understanding variability in sulfate-reduction rates in response to perturbations may be an important factor in predicting rates of natural attenuation and bioremediation of contaminants in systems not at biogeochemical equilibrium. Copyright ?? 2011 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2011 National Ground Water Association.

  8. Shortening a survey and using alternative forms of prenotification: Impact on response rate and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Sarah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that survey response rates are decreasing and that the level of survey response can be influenced by questionnaire length and the use of pre-notification. The goal of the present investigation was determine the effect of questionnaire length and pre-notification type (letter vs. postcard on measures of survey quality, including response rates, response times (days to return the survey, and item nonresponse. Methods In July 2008, the authors randomized 900 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota aged 25-65 years to one of two versions of the Talley Bowel Disease Questionnaire, a survey designed to assess the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID. One version was two pages long and the other 4 pages. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, respondents were randomized to survey length and one of two pre-notification types, letter or postcard; 780 residents ultimately received a survey, after excluding those who had moved outside the county or passed away. Results Overall, the response rates (RR did not vary by length of survey (RR = 44.6% for the 2-page survey and 48.4% for the 4-page or pre-notification type (RR = 46.3% for the letter and 46.8% for the postcard. Differences in response rates by questionnaire length were seen among younger adults who were more likely to respond to the 4-page than the 2-page questionnaire (RR = 39.0% compared to 21.8% for individuals in their 20s and RR = 49.0% compared to 32.3% for those in their 30s. There were no differences across conditions with respect to item non-response or time (days after mailing to survey response. Conclusion This study suggests that the shortest survey does not necessarily provide the best option for increased response rates and survey quality. Pre-notification type (letter or postcard did not impact response rate suggesting that postcards may be more beneficial due to the lower associated costs of this method of contact.

  9. Serum testosterone and heart rate response to short-term intense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serum testosterone and heart rate responses to short strenuous physical exercise were studied in twenty-one non-athletic male students. The body mass index was also determined. Serum testosterone rose significantly (p<0.05) from 0.8±0.2 ng/ml to 1.7±0.2 ng/ml (273.5±100.2%, p<0.05). Likewise, the heart rate rose ...

  10. Individual differences in eye blink rate predict both transient and tonic pupil responses during reversal learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Sara; Knapen, Tomas; Theeuwes, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The pupil response under constant illumination can be used as a marker of cognitive processes. In the past, pupillary responses have been studied in the context of arousal and decision-making. However, recent work involving Parkinson's patients suggested that pupillary responses are additionally affected by reward sensitivity. Here, we build on these findings by examining how pupil responses are modulated by reward and loss while participants (N = 30) performed a Pavlovian reversal learning task. In fast (transient) pupil responses, we observed arousal-based influences on pupil size both during the expectation of upcoming value and the evaluation of unexpected monetary outcomes. Importantly, after incorporating eye blink rate (EBR), a behavioral correlate of striatal dopamine levels, we observed that participants with lower EBR showed stronger pupil dilation during the expectation of upcoming reward. Subsequently, when reward expectations were violated, participants with lower EBR showed stronger pupil responses after experiencing unexpected loss. Across trials, the detection of a reward contingency reversal was reflected in a slow (tonic) dilatory pupil response observed already several trials prior to the behavioral report. Interestingly, EBR correlated positively with this tonic detection response, suggesting that variability in the arousal-based detection response may reflect individual differences in striatal dopaminergic tone. Our results provide evidence that a behavioral marker of baseline striatal dopamine level (EBR) can potentially be used to describe the differential effects of value-based learning in the arousal-based pupil response. PMID:28961277

  11. ICT and Intellectual Disability: A Survey of Organizational Support at the Municipal Level in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsten, Camilla; Marmstål Hammar, Lena; Martin, Lene; Göransson, Kerstin

    2017-07-01

    Young adults today have grown up in a society where information and communication technology (ICT) support empowerment and social participation. Young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability are at risk for marginalization by the digital divide. The aim was to map and describe how municipal organizations in Sweden organize support in terms of policy and strategies to enable the use of ICT in social care for adults with a mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey including all municipalities in Sweden (n = 290) was conducted (response rate: 51%, n = 147). Descriptive statistics were used. Findings indicate a lack of organizational support for staff as well as for young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Municipalities request more knowledge about strategies for making ICT available. Despite the lack of comprehensive strategies for ICT, some Swedish municipalities have taken the initiative in this area. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Gambling and problem gambling in Sweden: changes between 1998 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max W; Romild, Ulla; Volberg, Rachel A

    2014-12-01

    Gambling participation and rates of problem gambling change over time in response to a variety of factors including gambling availability, demographic changes and adaptation at individual and societal levels. These relationship are complex and only partially understood. The major aim of the present study was to provide general population estimates of gambling participation and problem gambling for Sweden and compare these estimates with estimates from a previous national study. The study was also designed to identify risk factors for problem gambling including change in these factors over time. Data are from the first phase of the Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs) in which a representative sample of 8,165 people was assessed using validated problem gambling and other measures to facilitate comparison with findings from the 1997/1998 Swedish Gambling Study (Swegs). Overall, it was found that gambling participation reduced markedly, although in some population sectors increases were evident for some forms including poker and electronic gaming machines. Lifetime prevalence of probable pathological gambling increased; however, past 12 months probable pathological and problem gambling prevalence did not. Males, younger adults and people born outside Sweden were at high risk in both studies. Significant prevalence increases were evident for people aged 18-24 and those with low levels of education. The results indicate that relationships between gambling exposure, participation and problems are dynamic with shifting implications for public health and social policy.

  13. Does response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlate with the conversion rate and survival in patients with unresectable colorectal liver metastases?: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, M; Hatano, E; Nishino, H; Seo, S; Taura, K; Uemoto, S

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the response rate of chemotherapy with molecular target agents correlates with the conversion rate, R0 resection rate, and survival in patients with initially unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). We reviewed the literature of prospective, controlled trials of systemic chemotherapy for patients with unresectable liver-only CRLM, including resectable extrahepatic metastases. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated. A total of 26 patient groups from 18 studies were reviewed. The response rate was significantly correlated with the conversion rate (r = 0.66) and R0 resection rate (r = 0.43) in overall patients. In subgroup analysis, only the conversion rate in patients with chemotherapy only (r = 0.75) and anti-EGFR therapy (r = 0.78) were significantly strongly correlated with the response rate. A non-significant strong trend toward correlation between response and conversion rates was observed in patients with bevacizumab (r = 0.73, p = 0.10). The regression line in the scatter plot of patients using bevacizumab showed a less steep slope. This indicated that conversion rates were relatively less affected by response rates under anti-VEGF therapy compared with the other patient groups. The response rate in chemotherapy-only patients was significantly correlated with median progression-free survival (r = 0.61) and overall survival (r = 0.66). Chemotherapy without molecular target agents and with anti-EGFR agents shows similar results of correlation between response and conversion/R0 resection rates. Under anti-VEGF therapy, conversion would be expected, even with a relatively lower response rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  14. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. METHOD: A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. RESULTS: Life expectancy was 24-28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland......, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (-0.8 years) and Sweden (-1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0-5.2), all diseases...

  15. Anger responses to psychosocial stress predict heart rate and cortisol stress responses in men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Lerman, Michelle; Wolf, Jutta M

    2014-11-01

    While previous research has suggested that anger and fear responses to stress are linked to distinct sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress responses, little is known about how these emotions predict hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. Further, earlier research primarily relied on retrospective self-report of emotion. The current study aimed at addressing both issues in male and female individuals by assessing the role of anger and fear in predicting heart rate and cortisol stress responses using both self-report and facial coding analysis to assess emotion responses. We exposed 32 healthy students (18 female; 19.6±1.7 yr) to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (TSST) and measured heart rate and salivary cortisol levels throughout the protocol. Anger and fear before and after stress exposure was assessed by self-report, and video recordings of the TSST were assessed by a certified facial coder to determine emotion expression (FACS). Self-reported emotions and emotion expressions did not correlate (all p>.23). Increases in self-reported fear predicted blunted cortisol responses in men (β=0.41, p=.04). Also for men, longer durations of anger expression predicted exaggerated cortisol responses (β=0.67 p=.004), and more anger incidences predicted exaggerated cortisol and heart rate responses (β=0.51, p=.033; β=0.46, p=.066, resp.). Anger and fear did not predict SNS or HPA activity for females (all p>.23). The current differential self-report and facial coding findings support the use of multiple modes of emotion assessment. Particularly, FACS but not self-report revealed a robust anger-stress association that could have important downstream health effects for men. For women, future research may clarify the role of other emotions, such as self-conscious expressions of shame, for physiological stress responses. A better understanding of the emotion-stress link may contribute to behavioral interventions targeting health-promoting ways of

  16. Rates of missing responses in personal digital assistant (PDA) versus paper assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palen, Lori-Ann; Graham, John W; Smith, Edward A; Caldwell, Linda L; Mathews, Catherine; Flisher, Alan J

    2008-06-01

    This article describes rates of missing item responses in personal digital assistant (PDA) assessments as compared to paper assessments. Data come from the evaluation of a classroom-based leisure, life skills, and sexuality education program delivered to high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses show that the paper assessments had much higher rates of missing-ness than PDA assessments. This association is moderated by item order. Certain analyses also suggest that paper assessments have higher rates of missingness for items pertaining to participants' sexual behavior. Implications of these results for evaluation research will be discussed.

  17. Couple childbearing plans and births in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E; Hoem, J M

    1998-08-01

    We use data from a nationally representative sample of Swedish couples to estimate effects of partners' childbearing plans on the rate of subsequent childbearing. Only 11% of the couples in this sample expressed plans in opposite directions (plan to have a child versus not to have a child), but 24% had differing levels of certainty about their plans. Of the couples in which both partners said they definitely planned to have another child, 44% had a child within two years. If neither partner planned to have another child, less than 2% of couples had a birth. The figure was 6% if the partners had opposing childbearing plans. Thus, both men and women exerted veto power over further childbearing. Disagreements were equally likely to be resolved in favor of the woman as of the man, and effects of partners' plans on the birth hazard did not depend on the couple's gender arrangements, family ideologies, or marital status. We discuss these results in the context of Sweden's public support for gender equality and for childrearing, its pervasive contraceptive regime, and its high rates of cohabitation. We also argue for the collection of data from partners in future family and fertility surveys.

  18. Minimal changes in heart rate of incubating American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) in response to human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Tracy E.; Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    An organism's heart rate is commonly used as an indicator of physiological stress due to environmental stimuli. We used heart rate to monitor the physiological response of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) to human activity in their nesting environment. We placed artificial eggs with embedded microphones in 42 oystercatcher nests to record the heart rate of incubating oystercatchers continuously for up to 27 days. We used continuous video and audio recordings collected simultaneously at the nests to relate physiological response of birds (heart rate) to various types of human activity. We observed military and civilian aircraft, off-road vehicles, and pedestrians around nests. With the exception of high-speed, low-altitude military overflights, we found little evidence that oystercatcher heart rates were influenced by most types of human activity. The low-altitude flights were the only human activity to significantly increase average heart rates of incubating oystercatchers (12% above baseline). Although statistically significant, we do not consider the increase in heart rate during high-speed, low-altitude military overflights to be of biological significance. This noninvasive technique may be appropriate for other studies of stress in nesting birds.

  19. Physiotherapy-supervised mobilization and exercise following cardiac surgery: a national questionnaire survey in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited published data are available on how patients are mobilized and exercised during the postoperative hospital stay following cardiac surgery. The aim of this survey was to determine current practice of physiotherapy-supervised mobilization and exercise following cardiac surgery in Sweden. Methods A prospective survey was carried out among physiotherapists treating adult cardiac surgery patients. A total population sample was identified and postal questionnaires were sent to the 33 physiotherapists currently working at the departments of thoracic surgery in Sweden. In total, 29 physiotherapists (response rate 88%) from eight hospitals completed the survey. Results The majority (90%) of the physiotherapists offered preoperative information. The main rationale of physiotherapy treatment after cardiac surgery was to prevent and treat postoperative complications, improve pulmonary function and promote physical activity. In general, one to three treatment sessions were given by a physiotherapist on postoperative day 1 and one to two treatment sessions were given during postoperative days 2 and 3. During weekends, physiotherapy was given to a lesser degree (59% on Saturdays and 31% on Sundays to patients on postoperative day 1). No physiotherapy treatment was given in the evenings. The routine use of early mobilization and shoulder range of motion exercises was common during the first postoperative days, but the choice of exercises and duration of treatment varied. Patients were reminded to adhere to sternal precautions. There were great variations of instructions to the patients concerning weight bearing and exercises involving the sternotomy. All respondents considered physiotherapy necessary after cardiac surgery, but only half of them considered the physiotherapy treatment offered as optimal. Conclusions The results of this survey show that there are small variations in physiotherapy-supervised mobilization and exercise following cardiac surgery in

  20. Reexamining Traditional Issues in Survey Research: Just How Evil Is the Anathema of Low Response Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sheldon B.; Boser, Judith A.

    This study was designed to determine the extent to which the results of an employment survey of graduates of a teacher preparation program would have been affected by changes in response rate. At the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, a followup of teacher education program graduates is conducted annually. A total of 284 graduates of the 1992…

  1. Factors Influencing Mail Survey Response Rates: What Do We Really Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    Most studies of mail survey methodology focus on specific design elements, but several major reviews of research have attempted to synthesize the findings of independent empirical studies. This study examined the review articles for what they have to say about factors influencing response rates and for their methodology. A literature review…

  2. Effect of Loading Rate and Orientation on the Compressive Response of Human Cortical Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    primarily animal cortical bone. Tennyson et al. (8) studied specimens from bovine femurs subjected to a range of strain rates from 10 to 450/s and provided a...Biomech. (Bristol, Avon) 2008, 23,1294–1298. 8. Tennyson , R. C.; Ewert, R. Niranjan, V. Dynamic Viscoelastic Response of Bone. Experimental Mechanics

  3. Heart rate response during sleep in elderly patients after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Variability in heart rate response (HRR) can be used as a measure for autonomic nervous system function, which may influence sleep disturbances and the recovery phase after major surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic function by assessment of HRR during sleep arousals in the po...

  4. The response rate at chemotherapy in advanced Hodgkin's disease reflected by peripheral lymphocyte count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizan, Z; Korec, S; Bohunický, L

    1978-01-01

    Forty patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease stage III and IV were treated with combination chemotherapy. Absolute lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood was determined before start to chemotherapy. Higher levels of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were associated with higher chemotherapy response rates. This difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.05).

  5. Effects of an Introductory Letter on Response Rates to a Teen/Parent Telephone Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I.; Mayer, Joni A.; Clapp, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a pilot study in preparation for a larger investigation that will rely on telephone surveys to assess select health behaviors of teens and their parents, with a focus on indoor tanning. This study used a randomized design to assess the impact of a presurvey letter on response rates to a telephone survey, as well as prevalence…

  6. Intake rates and the functional response in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) eating macro-invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goss-Custard, John D.; West, Andrew D.; Yates, Michael G.; Caldow, Richard W. G.; Stillman, Richard A.; Bardsley, Louise; Castilla, Juan; Castro, Macarena; Dierschke, Volker; Durell, Sarah E. A. Le V. Dit; Eichhorn, Goetz; Ens, Bruno J.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Udayangani-Fernando, P. U.; Ferns, Peter N.; Hockey, Philip A. R.; Gill, Jennifer A.; Johnstone, Ian; Kalejta-Summers, Bozena; Masero, Jose A.; Moreira, Francisco; Nagarajan, Rajarathina Velu; Owens, Ian P. F.; Pacheco, Cristian; Perez-Hurtado, Alejandro; Rogers, Danny; Scheiffarth, Gregor; Sitters, Humphrey; Sutherland, William J.; Triplet, Patrick; Worrall, Dave H.; Zharikov, Yuri; Zwarts, Leo; Pettifor, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    As field determinations take much effort, it would be useful to be able to predict easily the coefficients describing the functional response of free-living predators, the function relating food intake rate to the abundance of food organisms in the environment. As a means easily to parameterise an

  7. Market response to the public display of energy performance rating at property sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Hansen, Anders Rhiger; Kragh, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Energy labels have generally received positive response from consumers and have moved the market for white goods and cars in the direction of more energy-efficient products. On the real estate market, it was expected that an energy label, rating the energy performance of a property based...

  8. The heartbrake of social rejection: heart rate deceleration in response to unexpected peer rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunther Moor, B.; Crone, E.A.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Social relationships are vitally important in human life. Social rejection in particular has been conceptualized as a potent social cue resulting in feelings of hurt. Our study investigated the psychophysiological manifestation of hurt feelings by examining the beat-by-beat heart rate response

  9. Heart rate responses to agonistic encounters in greylag geese, Anser anser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, Claudia A. F.; Scheiber, Isabella B. R.; Weiss, Brigitte M.; Kotrschal, Kurt

    As in most social groups, agonistic interactions of various intensities are common in a goose flock. This may cause social stress, modulating heart rate (HR), which may serve as a measure of energetic investment and also of individual emotional involvement. We investigated HR responses to social

  10. Can Lottery Incentives Boost Web Survey Response Rates? Findings from Four Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguilles, Jerold S.; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Saunders, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Institutions of higher education rely on student surveys for a number of purposes, including planning, assessment, and research. Web surveys are especially prevalent given their ease of use and low-cost; yet, obtaining a high response rate is a challenge. Although researchers have investigated the use of incentives in traditional mail surveys,…

  11. Response and Remission in Adolescent Mania: Signal Detection Analyses of the Young Mania Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nick C.; Patrick, Danielle M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for defining response and remission in adolescents with acute mania. Method: Data were analyzed from three treatment studies of adolescents with acute mania (N = 99). Trained raters completed the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and clinicians completed the Clinical Global…

  12. Rates of Missing Responses in Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) versus Paper Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palen, Lori-Ann; Graham, John W.; Smith, Edward A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Mathews, Catherine; Flisher, Alan J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes rates of missing item responses in personal digital assistant (PDA) assessments as compared to paper assessments. Data come from the evaluation of a classroom-based leisure, life skills, and sexuality education program delivered to high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses show that the paper assessments had…

  13. Slew-rate dependence of tracer magnetization response in magnetic particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saqlain A; Ferguson, R M; Krishnan, K M

    2014-10-28

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a new biomedical imaging technique that produces real-time, high-resolution tomographic images of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle tracers. Currently, 25 kHz and 20 mT/μ0 excitation fields are common in MPI, but lower field amplitudes may be necessary for patient safety in future designs. Here, we address fundamental questions about MPI tracer magnetization dynamics and predict tracer performance in future scanners that employ new combinations of excitation field amplitude (Ho ) and frequency (ω). Using an optimized, monodisperse MPI tracer, we studied how several combinations of drive field frequencies and amplitudes affect the tracer's response, using Magnetic Particle Spectrometry and AC hysteresis, for drive field conditions at 15.5, 26, and 40.2 kHz, with field amplitudes ranging from 7 to 52 mT/μ0. For both fluid and immobilized nanoparticle samples, we determined that magnetic response was dominated by Néel reversal. Furthermore, we observed that the peak slew-rate (ωHo) determined the tracer magnetic response. Smaller amplitudes provided correspondingly smaller field of view, sometimes resulting in excitation of minor hysteresis loops. Changing the drive field conditions but keeping the peak slew-rate constant kept the tracer response almost the same. Higher peak slew-rates led to reduced maximum signal intensity and greater coercivity in the tracer response. Our experimental results were in reasonable agreement with Stoner-Wohlfarth model based theories.

  14. A nonlinear filter-bank model of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve: Rate responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Christian J.; O'Mard, Lowel P.; Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A.; Meddis, Ray

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study is to produce a functional model of the auditory nerve (AN) response of the guinea-pig that reproduces a wide range of important responses to auditory stimulation. The model is intended for use as an input to larger scale models of auditory processing in the brain-stem. A dual-resonance nonlinear filter architecture is used to reproduce the mechanical tuning of the cochlea. Transduction to the activity on the AN is accomplished with a recently proposed model of the inner-hair-cell. Together, these models have been shown to be able to reproduce the response of high-, medium-, and low-spontaneous rate fibers from the guinea-pig AN at high best frequencies (BFs). In this study we generate parameters that allow us to fit the AN model to data from a wide range of BFs. By varying the characteristics of the mechanical filtering as a function of the BF it was possible to reproduce the BF dependence of frequency-threshold tuning curves, AN rate-intensity functions at and away from BF, compression of the basilar membrane at BF as inferred from AN responses, and AN iso-intensity functions. The model is a convenient computational tool for the simulation of the range of nonlinear tuning and rate-responses found across the length of the guinea-pig cochlear nerve.

  15. Mechanical response of porcine skin under compression from low to high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Chiara; Butler, Ben; Williams, Alun; Brown, Katherine; Proud, William

    2013-06-01

    Uniaxial compression experiments were performed on fresh porcine skin samples at different strain rates to study the stress-strain response. Low strain rate experiments were performed with an Instron 5566, while high strain rates were achieved using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system. Magnesium bars and semiconductor strain gauges were used respectively to maximize the signal transmission from porcine skin to the output bar and to allow the signal measurement. Skin samples were harvested from different area of the animal to investigate the heterogeneity of such material. The experimental results showed that the mechanical response of skin in compression is strongly dependent on the strain rate of loading and on the location from which the samples were collected. Specimens collected from the rump showed a stiffer response compared to samples harvested from the thigh. Finally, a histological analysis of the samples post compression was carried out to examine the extent of tissue damage as a function of strain rate. This work is supported by the Atomic Weapons Establishment, UK and The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies at Imperial College London, UK.

  16. Neuronal response impedance mechanism implementing cooperative networks with low firing rates and μs precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Roni; Goldental, Amir; Marmari, Hagar; Brama, Haya; Stern, Edward A; Sardi, Shira; Sabo, Pinhas; Kanter, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Realizations of low firing rates in neural networks usually require globally balanced distributions among excitatory and inhibitory links, while feasibility of temporal coding is limited by neuronal millisecond precision. We show that cooperation, governing global network features, emerges through nodal properties, as opposed to link distributions. Using in vitro and in vivo experiments we demonstrate microsecond precision of neuronal response timings under low stimulation frequencies, whereas moderate frequencies result in a chaotic neuronal phase characterized by degraded precision. Above a critical stimulation frequency, which varies among neurons, response failures were found to emerge stochastically such that the neuron functions as a low pass filter, saturating the average inter-spike-interval. This intrinsic neuronal response impedance mechanism leads to cooperation on a network level, such that firing rates are suppressed toward the lowest neuronal critical frequency simultaneously with neuronal microsecond precision. Our findings open up opportunities of controlling global features of network dynamics through few nodes with extreme properties.

  17. Analysis of Factors Influencing Telephone Call Response Rate in an Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Matías-Guiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive epidemiology research involves collecting data from large numbers of subjects. Obtaining these data requires approaches designed to achieve maximum participation or response rates among respondents possessing the desired information. We analyze participation and response rates in a population-based epidemiological study though a telephone survey and identify factors implicated in consenting to participate. Rates found exceeded those reported in the literature and they were higher for afternoon calls than for morning calls. Women and subjects older than 40 years were the most likely to answer the telephone. The study identified geographical differences, with higher RRs in districts in southern Spain that are not considered urbanized. This information may be helpful for designing more efficient community epidemiology projects.

  18. Gender-specific cold responses induce a similar body-cooling rate but different neuroendocrine and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Skurvydas, Albertas; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Brazaitis, Marius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether there are any gender differences in body-heating strategies during cold stress and whether the immune and neuroendocrine responses to physiological stress differ between men and women. Thirty-two participants (18 men and 14 women) were exposed to acute cold stress by immersion to the manubrium level in 14 °C water. The cold stress continued until rectal temperature (TRE) reached 35.5 °C or for a maximum of 170 min. The responses to cold stress of various indicators of body temperature, insulation, metabolism, shivering, stress, and endocrine and immune function were compared between men and women. During cold stress, TRE and muscle and mean skin temperatures decreased in all subjects (Pcold strain did not differ between men and women, but men exhibited larger changes in the indicators of neuroendocrine (epinephrine level) and in immune (tumor necrosis factor-α level) responses (both Pcold stress, whereas women exhibited a greater insulative response. Despite the similar experience of cold strain in men and women, the neuroendocrine and immune responses were larger in men. Contrary to our expectations, the cooling rate was similar in men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Auditory steady state cortical responses indicate deviant phonemic-rate processing in adults with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen; Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Speech intelligibility is strongly influenced by the ability to process temporal modulations. It is hypothesized that in dyslexia, deficient processing of rapidly changing auditory information underlies a deficient development of phonological representations, causing reading and spelling problems. Low-frequency modulations between 4 and 20 Hz correspond to the processing rate of important phonological segments (syllables and phonemes, respectively) in speech and therefore provide a bridge between low-level auditory and phonological processing. In the present study, temporal modulation processing was investigated by auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) in normal-reading and dyslexic adults. Multichannel ASSRs were recorded in normal-reading and dyslexic adults in response to speech-weighted noise stimuli amplitude modulated at 80, 20, and 4 Hz. The 80 Hz modulation is known to be primarily generated by the brainstem, whereas the 20 and 4 Hz modulations are mainly generated in the cortex. Furthermore, the 20 and 4 Hz modulations provide an objective auditory performance measure related to phonemic- and syllabic-rate processing. In addition to neurophysiological measures, psychophysical tests of speech-in-noise perception and phonological awareness were assessed. On the basis of response strength and phase coherence measures, normal-reading and dyslexic participants showed similar processing at the brainstem level. At the cortical level of the auditory system, dyslexic subjects demonstrated deviant phonemic-rate responses compared with normal readers, whereas no group differences were found for the syllabic rate. Furthermore, a relationship between phonemic-rate ASSRs and psychophysical tests of speech-in-noise perception and phonological awareness was obtained. The results suggest reduced cortical processing for phonemic-rate modulations in dyslexic adults, presumably resulting in limited integration of temporal information in the dorsal phonological pathway.

  20. Recent hip fracture trends in Sweden and Denmark with age-period-cohort effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengren, B E; Björk, J; Cooper, C

    2017-01-01

    born thereafter however seem to have a higher hip fracture risk, and we expect a reversal of the present decline in rates, with increasing hip fracture rates in both Denmark and Sweden during the upcoming decade. CONCLUSIONS: Time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in SE and DK. This may......This study used nationwide hip fracture data from Denmark and Sweden during 1987-2010 to examine effects of (birth) cohort and period. We found that time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in the two countries. Results also indicated that hip fracture rates may increase in the not so...... far future. INTRODUCTION: The reasons for the downturn in hip fracture rates remain largely unclear but circumstances earlier in life seem important. METHODS: We ascertained hip fractures in the populations ≥50 years in Denmark and Sweden in national discharge registers. Country- and sex-specific age...

  1. Phase II stopping rules that employ response rates and early progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, John R; Tu, Dongsheng

    2008-08-01

    Phase II oncology trials traditionally have used response rate (RR) as the primary end point, but newer targeted agents require the consideration of alternative end points. High rates of early progressive disease (EPD) suggest inadequate drug activity and may be useful in the early stopping of trials. This study used a simulation to define a set of rules to assess a combined end point of RR and EPD. The simulation assumed a two-stage trial with a specified alpha error and power. It randomly generated the true response rate, r, of the agent under study and its true rate of early progressive disease, epd, for each run of the simulation. Two pairs of parameters were specified: (r(nul), epd(nul)) and (r(alt), epd(alt)). A drug was considered uninteresting for further development if r was less than or equal to r(nul) and epd was greater than or equal to epd(nul) (ie, the null hypothesis) and interesting for further development if r was greater than or equal to r(alt) or epd was less than or equal to epd(alt) (ie, the alternate hypotheses). Thresholds for the required number of patients with responses, n(r) and EPD, n(p), were generated for each set of parameters. Thresholds for n(r) and n(p) that satisfied the specified error rates were generated. There was at least an 89% likelihood that a study would be stopped at the first stage of accrual if r and epd were uninteresting. The simulation was able to establish stopping rules by combining the RR and the EPD that achieved the desired error rates. High rates of early stopping suggest that this design could shorten phase II trials of inactive agents.

  2. A controlled trial of envelope colour for increasing response rates in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Natasha; Hewitt, Catherine E; Torgerson, David J

    2011-06-01

    Postal questionnaires are widely used in health research to provide measurable outcomes in areas such as quality of life. Participants who fail to return postal questionnaires can introduce non-response bias. Previous studies within populations over the age of 65 years have shown that response rates amongst older people can be 60% or less. The current study sought to investigate whether envelope colour affected response rates in a study about the effectiveness of screening older women for osteoporosis. A total of 2803 eligible female participants aged between 70 and 85 were sent an invitation pack from their GP practice. The invitation was either in a brown or white envelope and contained a matching pre-paid reply envelope. A study questionnaire was also sent out in brown or white envelopes 1 week after consenting to participate in the trial. The overall response rate was 78%. There was little evidence of an effect of envelope colour on response to the invitation to participate in the trial (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87-1.24). Similarly, there was no influence of envelope colour on the number of participants returning their questionnaires (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.60-1.63). There was weak evidence of an effect of envelope colour on the response rates of the consent process (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00). When we updated a recent meta-analysis with the results of this study, there was a non-statistically- significant trend for greater response rates with brown envelopes compared with white envelopes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.86-1.64, I2=92%). However, the results where influenced by one study and when this study was excluded the pooled estimate was 0.98 (95% CI 0.89-1.08, I2=0%). This study found no evidence to suggest envelope colour has an effect on response to participate in a trial or questionnaire returns. There is weak evidence to suggest envelope colour may affect consent into a trial.

  3. Public Procurement of Innovation in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Ågren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sweden is often thought of as a country with a strong tradition for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Early on, Sweden recognized and developed procedures for using public procurement as a technologydevelopment tool. After a period where emphasis was put on this aspect...... of public procurement Sweden dropped many policy initiatives within this field. This was in part due to neo-liberal movements during the 1980s which in interaction with a distributed institutional setup led to the removal of incentives for a procuring authority to engage in public procurement of innovation....... Another contributing cause was poor policy guidance from the academia upon Sweden’s accession into the EU, which spread apprehension among procuring authorities. It is not until the last few years that Sweden has started to reengage in public procurement for innovation policy, by using predominantly...

  4. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Aggressiveness, family history of alcoholism, and the heart rate response to alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Jean-Marc; Pihl, Robert O; Séguin, Jean R; Nagin, Daniel; Vitaro, Frank; Carbonneau, René; Tremblay, Richard E

    2003-05-01

    Some sons of male alcoholics (SOMAs) are characterized by an increased heart rate (HR) response to alcohol intoxication, which is thought to reflect increased sensitivity to alcohol-induced reward. Such a response has also been related to increased physical aggression. However, the confounding effect of aggression in SOMAs may be obscuring the interpretation of these findings. The HR response to alcohol was therefore assessed in 4 groups: high/low aggressive SOMAs and high/low aggressive non-SOMAs. Results indicate that aggressive SOMAs had the highest intoxicated HR response and that they reported the most alcohol consumption. This suggests that in some cases the high comorbidity between alcohol misuse and aggression is related to an increased sensitivity to alcohol-induced reward.

  6. Exploring how to increase response rates to surveys of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palonen, Mira; Kaunonen, Marja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    To address the special considerations that need to be taken into account when collecting data from older people in healthcare research. An objective of all research studies is to ensure there is an adequate sample size. The final sample size will be influenced by methods of recruitment and data collection, among other factors. There are some special considerations that need to be addressed when collecting data among older people. Quantitative surveys of people aged 60 or over in 2009-2014 were analysed using statistical methods. A quantitative study of patients aged 75 or over in an emergency department was used as an example. A methodological approach to analysing quantitative studies concerned with older people. The best way to ensure high response rates in surveys involving people aged 60 or over is to collect data in the presence of the researcher; response rates are lowest in posted surveys and settings where the researcher is not present when data are collected. Response rates do not seem to vary according to the database from which information about the study participants is obtained or according to who is responsible for recruitment to the survey. Implications for research/practice To conduct coherent studies with older people, the data collection process should be carefully considered.

  7. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system in Ireland: methods and response rates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Keeffe, Linda M.

    2014-06-01

    To describe response rates and characteristics associated with response to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System study in Ireland (PRAMS Ireland). Using hospital discharge records of live births at a large, urban, obstetric hospital, a sampling frame of approximately 2,400 mother-infant pairs were used to alternately sample 1,200 women. Mothers’ information including name, address, parity, age and infant characteristics such as sex and gestational age at delivery were extracted from records. Modes of contact included an invitation letter with option to opt out of the study, three mail surveys, a reminder letter and text message reminder for remaining non-respondents. Sixty-one per cent of women responded to the PRAMS Ireland survey over a 133 day response period. Women aged <30, single women, multiparous women and women with a preterm delivery were less likely to respond. Women participating in PRAMS Ireland were similar to the national birth profile in 2011 which had a mean age of 32, were 40 % primiparous, 33 % single or never married and had a 28 % caesarean section rate. Survey and protocol changes are required to increase response rates above recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) thresholds of 65 % within the recommended 90 day data collection cycle. Additional efforts such as stratification and over-sampling are required to increase representativeness among hard to reach groups such as younger, single and multiparous women before expanding the project to an ongoing, national surveillance system in Ireland.

  8. Fewer peak trials per session facilitate acquisition of peak responding despite elimination of response rate differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Daren H

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown in previous research [Kaiser, D.H., 2008. The proportion of fixed interval trials to probe trials affects acquisition of the peak procedure fixed interval timing task. Behav. Process., 77 (1), 100-108] that rats acquired peak responding sooner when fewer peak trials were presented during sessions of training with the peak procedure timing task. One potential problem with that research was that there were large differences in response rates among the groups. The present experiment attempted to examine the effect of proportion of peak trials when differences in response rate were controlled. Two groups of rats were each simultaneously tested with two versions of the peak procedure. One group was tested with 10% peak trials per session, and the other group was tested with 50% peak trials per session. For both of the groups, one of the panel lights and levers was associated with the traditional peak procedure. The other panel light and lever was associated with a similar peak procedure; however, reinforcement was provided at the end of each peak trial. This manipulation eliminated differences in response rate among the groups, however, Group 10% acquired peak responding more quickly than Group 50%, effectively replicating previous work in the absence of a response bias.

  9. The high strain rate compressive response of Mg-Al alloy/fly Ash cenosphere composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    2011-02-01

    The strain rate dependence of mechanical properties of AZ91D alloy composites filled with 5 wt.% hollow fly ash cenosphere is examined in the strain rate range of 630-1,203 s-1 using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar system. In addition, a test scheme is designed to study the intermediate strain rate response of the material. Addition of fly ash caused grain refinement and finer precipitates in the matrix alloy. Compared to the matrix alloy, the energy absorption is higher in AZ91D/fly ash cenosphere composites at comparable strain rates. In addition, the yield strength is found to be about 19-41% higher in the composites containing fly ash cenospheres.

  10. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Bernhardt; Livia Sz. Oláh

    2008-01-01

    Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been e...

  11. Yoshio Nakajima. A Japanese Artist from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden.......Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden....

  12. Heart rate responses provide an objective evaluation of human disturbance stimuli in breeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Ursula; Mattern, Thomas; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Intuition is a poor guide for evaluating the effects of human disturbance on wildlife. Using the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes, as an example, we show that heart rate responses provide an objective tool to evaluate human disturbance stimuli and encourage the wider use of this simple and low-impact approach. Yellow-eyed penguins are a flagship species for New Zealand's wildlife tourism; however, unregulated visitor access has recently been associated with reduced breeding success and lower first year survival. We measured heart rate responses of Yellow-eyed penguins via artificial eggs to evaluate a range of human stimuli regularly occurring at their breeding sites. We found the duration of a stimulus to be the most important factor, with elevated heart rate being sustained while a person remained within sight. Human activity was the next important component; a simulated wildlife photographer, crawling slowly around during his stay, elicited a significantly higher heart rate response than an entirely motionless human spending the same time at the same distance. Stimuli we subjectively might perceive as low impact, such as the careful approach of a 'wildlife photographer', resulted in a stronger response than a routine nest-check that involved lifting a bird up to view nest contents. A single, slow-moving human spending 20 min within 2 m from the nest may provoke a response comparable to that of 10 min handling a bird for logger deployment. To reduce cumulative impact of disturbance, any human presence in the proximity of Yellow-eyed penguins needs to be kept at a minimum. Our results highlight the need for objective quantification of the effects of human disturbance in order to provide a sound basis for guidelines to manage human activity around breeding birds.

  13. Microchannel system for rate-controlled, sequential, and pH-responsive drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dasom; Lee, Jung Seung; Choi, Chang-Kuk; Lee, Hong-Pyo; Cho, Seung-Woo; Ryu, WonHyoung

    2017-12-18

    Controlled delivery of drug at a constant rate, in a sequential order, or responsive to environment conditions has been pursued for a long time to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic molecules and to minimize side effects of highly potent drugs. However, achieving such delicately-controlled delivery of a drug molecule is non-trivial and still remains a challenge. We propose the use of microchannels to control the rate, sequence, and pH-responsiveness of drug delivery for high precision and predictability. In this study, we introduce elementary drug delivery units consisting of micro-reservoirs and microchannels that have variations in their lengths, widths, numbers, and straightness. The release study demonstrates that the release rates of model drugs can be modulated by the design of microchannels. Finite element modeling of drug release predicts the performance of the drug delivery units with high accuracy. The possibility of sequential drug delivery is also demonstrated using biodegradable polymer plug in microchannels. Finally, pH-responsive delivery of drugs in microfluidic units is also discussed and demonstrated via cell viability tests. In this work, we developed microchannel-based drug delivery devices whose release rate could be accurately calculated and controlled by design of microchannel geometry. Although there have been many advances in microfabricated drug delivery systems, in particular, reservoir-based systems, no systematic investigation has been made to utilize the release channels. In our work, an equivalent electrical circuit concept was applied to the microfluidic systems for more detailed design and analysis. A microfluidic channel was regarded as an electrical resistor; their diffusion/electrical flux could be tuned with geometric factors such as length, width, a number of channel/resistor and their connections. Furthermore, from delivery rate control using channel geometry, multifunctional channel-based release systems for sequential and pH-responsive

  14. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Nina N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niemierko, Andrzej [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Larvie, Mykol [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Curtin, Hugh [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Loeffler, Jay S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); McKenna, Michael J. [Harvard Medical School, Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  15. Heart rate responses to standardized trauma-related pictures in acute posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Anke; Suendermann, Oliver; Boellinghaus, Inga; Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna; Gamer, Matthias; Briddon, Emma; Martin, Melanie Walwyn; Glucksman, Edward

    2010-10-01

    Physiological responses to trauma reminders are one of the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nevertheless, screening measures for PTSD largely rely on symptom self-reports. It has been suggested that psychophysiological assessments may be useful in identifying trauma survivors with PTSD (Orr and Roth, 2000). This study investigated whether heart rate (HR) responses to standardized trauma-related pictures distinguish between trauma survivors with and without acute PTSD. Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (N=162) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening and neutral pictures at 1 month post-trauma while their ECG was recorded. At 1 and 6 months, structured clinical interviews assessed PTSD diagnoses. Participants completed self-report measures of PTSD severity and depression, peritraumatic responses, coping behaviors and appraisals. Trauma survivors with acute PTSD showed greater HR responses to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, as indicated by a less pronounced mean deceleration, greater peak responses, and a greater proportion showing HR acceleration of greater than 1 beat per minute. There were no group differences in HR responses to generally threatening or neutral pictures. HR responses to trauma-related pictures contributed to the prediction of PTSD diagnosis over and above what could be predicted from self-reports of PTSD and depression. HR responses to trauma-related pictures were related to fear and data-driven processing during the trauma, safety behaviors, suppression of trauma memories, and overgeneralized appraisals of danger. The results suggest that HR responses to standardized trauma-related pictures may help identify a subgroup of patients with acute PTSD who show generalized fear responses to trauma reminders. The early generalization of triggers of reexperiencing symptoms observed in this study is consistent with associative learning and cognitive models of PTSD. 2010

  16. A regulated response to impaired respiration slows behavioral rates and increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cristina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available When mitochondrial respiration or ubiquinone production is inhibited in Caenorhabditis elegans, behavioral rates are slowed and lifespan is extended. Here, we show that these perturbations increase the expression of cell-protective and metabolic genes and the abundance of mitochondrial DNA. This response is similar to the response triggered by inhibiting respiration in yeast and mammalian cells, termed the "retrograde response". As in yeast, genes switched on in C. elegans mitochondrial mutants extend lifespan, suggesting an underlying evolutionary conservation of mechanism. Inhibition of fstr-1, a potential signaling gene that is up-regulated in clk-1 (ubiquinone-defective mutants, and its close homolog fstr-2 prevents the expression of many retrograde-response genes and accelerates clk-1 behavioral and aging rates. Thus, clk-1 mutants live in "slow motion" because of a fstr-1/2-dependent pathway that responds to ubiquinone. Loss of fstr-1/2 does not suppress the phenotypes of all long-lived mitochondrial mutants. Thus, although different mitochondrial perturbations activate similar transcriptional and physiological responses, they do so in different ways.

  17. The sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Norin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For a high-latitude country like Sweden snowfall is an important contributor to the regional water cycle. Furthermore, snowfall impacts surface properties, affects atmospheric thermodynamics, has implications for traffic and logistics management, disaster preparedness, and also impacts climate through changes in surface albedo and turbulent heat fluxes. For Sweden it has been shown that large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, or weather states, are important for precipitation variability. Although the link between atmospheric circulation patterns and precipitation has been investigated for rainfall there are no studies focused on the sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden.In this work we investigate the response of snowfall to eight selected weather states. These weather states consist of four dominant wind directions together with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns and enhanced positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The presented analysis is based on multiple data sources, such as ground-based radar measurements, satellite observations, spatially interpolated in situ observations, and reanalysis data. The data from these sources converge to underline the sensitivity of falling snow over Sweden to the different weather states.In this paper we examine both average snowfall intensities and snowfall accumulations associated with the different weather states. It is shown that, even though the heaviest snowfall intensities occur during conditions with winds from the south-west, the largest contribution to snowfall accumulation arrives with winds from the south-east. Large differences in snowfall due to variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are shown as well as a strong effect of cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns. Satellite observations are used to reveal the vertical structures of snowfall during the different weather states.

  18. The sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, Lars; Devasthale, Abhay; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2017-09-01

    For a high-latitude country like Sweden snowfall is an important contributor to the regional water cycle. Furthermore, snowfall impacts surface properties, affects atmospheric thermodynamics, has implications for traffic and logistics management, disaster preparedness, and also impacts climate through changes in surface albedo and turbulent heat fluxes. For Sweden it has been shown that large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, or weather states, are important for precipitation variability. Although the link between atmospheric circulation patterns and precipitation has been investigated for rainfall there are no studies focused on the sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden.In this work we investigate the response of snowfall to eight selected weather states. These weather states consist of four dominant wind directions together with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns and enhanced positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The presented analysis is based on multiple data sources, such as ground-based radar measurements, satellite observations, spatially interpolated in situ observations, and reanalysis data. The data from these sources converge to underline the sensitivity of falling snow over Sweden to the different weather states.In this paper we examine both average snowfall intensities and snowfall accumulations associated with the different weather states. It is shown that, even though the heaviest snowfall intensities occur during conditions with winds from the south-west, the largest contribution to snowfall accumulation arrives with winds from the south-east. Large differences in snowfall due to variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are shown as well as a strong effect of cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns. Satellite observations are used to reveal the vertical structures of snowfall during the different weather states.

  19. Evaluating research recruitment strategies to improve response rates amongst South African nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Nurse recruitment to and participation in empirical research is increasingly important in understanding and improving nursing practice. However, the low participation and recruitment rate amongst nurses is not well understood.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate three research recruitment methods for their impact on recruitment and participation rates amongst South African nurses.Motivation for the study: A limited number of studies exist that formally evaluates different recruitment strategies to improve participation in research amongst nurses within developing contexts, especially South Africa.Research approach, design and method: Participants were recruited using three different methods. Of the 250 nurses randomly selected and invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey, 201 agreed and 162 (81% returned the questionnaires.Main findings: Nursing management participation in the recruitment and data collection process produces more favourable response rates. Reminders and the use of shorter questionnaires also aid higher response rates.Practical/managerial implications: Reminders as well as face-to-face recruitment strategies (especially by a familiar person successfully improved participation rates amongst South African nurses in this study.Contribution/value-add: This study identifies some strategies that could be used more widely to increase the recruitment and participation of South African nurses in research whilst potentially improving their work situation.

  20. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan

    2011-01-01

    within a hierarchical model where the variables that influence the loading are divided into ergodic variables and time-invariant non-ergodic variables. The presented method for statistical response load extrapolation was compared with the existing methods based on peak extrapolation for the blade out-of-plane...... bending moment and the tower mudline bending moment of a pitch-controlled wind turbine. In general, the results show that the method based on average conditional exceedance rates predicts the extrapolated characteristic response loads at the individual mean wind speeds well and results in more consistent...

  1. Influence of Dose Rate on the Cellular Response to Low- and High-LET Radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozny, Anne-Sophie; Alphonse, Gersende; Battiston-Montagne, Priscillia; Simonet, Stéphanie; Poncet, Delphine; Testa, Etienne; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Rancoule, Chloé; Magné, Nicolas; Beuve, Michael; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treatment failure is mostly explained by locoregional progression or intrinsic radioresistance. Radiotherapy (RT) has recently evolved with the emergence of heavy ion radiations or new fractionation schemes of photon therapy, which modify the dose rate of treatment delivery. The aim of the present study was then to evaluate the in vitro influence of a dose rate variation during conventional RT or carbon ion hadrontherapy treatment in order to improve the therapeutic care of patient. In this regard, two HNSCC cell lines were irradiated with photons or 72 MeV/n carbon ions at a dose rate of 0.5, 2, or 10 Gy/min. For both radiosensitive and radioresistant cells, the change in dose rate significantly affected cell survival in response to photon exposure. This variation of radiosensitivity was associated with the number of initial and residual DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). By contrast, the dose rate change did not affect neither cell survival nor the residual DNA DSBs after carbon ion irradiation. As a result, the relative biological efficiency at 10% survival increased when the dose rate decreased. In conclusion, in the RT treatment of HNSCC, it is advised to remain very careful when modifying the classical schemes toward altered fractionation. At the opposite, as the dose rate does not seem to have any effects after carbon ion exposure, there is less need to adapt hadrontherapy treatment planning during active system irradiation.

  2. Characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Annica; Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Lövheim, Hugo; Edvardsson, David

    2017-12-01

    To identify characteristics of highly rated leadership in nursing homes. An ageing population entails fundamental social, economic and organizational challenges for future aged care. Knowledge is limited of both specific leadership behaviours and organizational and managerial characteristics which have an impact on the leadership of contemporary nursing home care. Cross-sectional. From 290 municipalities, 60 were randomly selected and 35 agreed to participate, providing a sample of 3605 direct-care staff employed in 169 Swedish nursing homes. The staff assessed their managers' (n = 191) leadership behaviours using the Leadership Behaviour Questionnaire. Data were collected from November 2013 - September 2014, and the study was completed in November 2016. A two-parameter item response theory approach and regression analyses were used to identify specific characteristics of highly rated leadership. Five specific behaviours of highly rated nursing home leadership were identified; that the manager: experiments with new ideas; controls work closely; relies on subordinates; coaches and gives direct feedback; and handles conflicts constructively. The regression analyses revealed that managers with social work backgrounds and privately run homes were significantly associated with higher leadership ratings. This study highlights the five most important leadership behaviours that characterize those nursing home managers rated highest in terms of leadership. Managers in privately run nursing homes and managers with social work backgrounds were associated with higher leadership ratings. Further work is needed to explore these behaviours and factors predictive of higher leadership ratings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Explicit Rate Adjustment (ERA: Responsiveness, Network Utilization Efficiency and Fairness for Layered Multicast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnuk PUANGPRONPITAG

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available To provide layered multicast with responsiveness, efficiency in network utilization, scalability and fairness (including inter-protocol fairness, intra-protocol fairness, intra-session fairness and TCP-friendliness for layered multicast, we propose in this paper a new multicast congestion control, called Explicit Rate Adjustment (ERA. Our protocol uses an algorithm relying on TCP throughput equation and Packet-bunch Probe techniques to detect optimal bandwidth utilization; then adjusts the reception rate accordingly. We have built ERA into a network simulator (ns2 and demonstrate via simulations that the goals are reached.

  4. Attenuated heart rate response in REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with Parkinson's disease with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder and patients with idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder have an attenuated heart rate response to arousals or to leg movements during...... associated with arousal or leg movement from all sleep stages was analyzed from 10 heartbeats before the onset of the sleep event to 15 heartbeats following onset of the sleep event. The heart rate reponse to arousals was significantly lower in both parkinsonian groups compared with the control group...

  5. Associations of objectively measured physical activity with daily mood ratings and psychophysiological stress responses in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Lydia; Steptoe, Andrew; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Bostock, Sophie; Mitchell, Ellen S; Hamer, Mark

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations of objectively measured physical activity with daily mood ratings and psychophysiological stress responses. We recruited 40 healthy females (aged 28.7 ± 6.1 yrs) who completed a once-a-day mood rating scale for 7 days, along with a 7-day assessment of physical activity using accelerometers and psychophysiological stress testing. The findings suggest that levels of physical activity as measured using an accelerometer are associated with both depressive symptoms over the past 2 weeks (CES-D) (r = - .33, p = .038) and with daily positive emotional style (r = .49, p = .001). The relationship between physical activity and positive emotional style remained after controlling for age, body mass index, and negative emotional style (t = 3.31, p = .002). Physical activity was not related to any psychophysiological stress responses. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Response rate in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents – ERICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the response rate and characteristics of people who either took part or not in from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) , according to information subsets. METHODS ERICA is a school-based, nation-wide investigation with a representative sample of 12 to 17-year-old adolescents attending public or private schools in municipalities with over 100,000 inhabitants in Brazil. Response rate of eligible subjects were calculated according to macro-regions, sex, age, and type of school (public or private). We also calculated the percentages of replacement schools in comparison with the ones originally selected as per the sample design, according to the types of schools in the macro-regions. The subjects and non-subjects were compared according to sex, age, and average body mass indices (kg/m2). RESULTS We had 102,327 eligible adolescents enrolled in the groups drawn. The highest percentage of complete information was obtained for the subset of the questionnaire (72.9%). Complete information regarding anthropometric measurements and the ones from the questionnaire were obtained for 72.0% of the adolescents, and the combination of these data with the 24-hour dietary recall were obtained for 70.3% of the adolescents. Complete information from the questionnaire plus biochemical blood evaluation data were obtained for 52.5% of the morning session adolescents (selected for blood tests). The response percentage in private schools was higher than the one in public schools for most of the combination of information. The ratio of older and male adolescents non-participants was higher than the ratio among participants. CONCLUSIONS The response rate for non-invasive procedures was high. The response rate for blood collection – an invasive procedure that requires a 12-hour fasting period and the informed consent form from legal guardians – was lower. The response rate observed in public schools was lower than in the private ones, and

  7. Response Rates for Mixed-Mode Surveys Using Mail and E-Mail/Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Patrick D.; Wolfe, Edward W.; Huang, Xiaoting; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines response rates for mixed-mode survey implementation involving mail and e-mail/Web components. Using Dillman's Tailored Design Method, 1,500 participants were sent a survey either (a) via mail with a follow-up contact via e-mail that directed them to a Web-based questionnaire or (b) via e-mail that directed them to a Web-based…

  8. Improving response rates using a monetary incentive for patient completion of questionnaires: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard Jo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an unconditional direct payment of £5 for the completion of postal questionnaires. Methods We recruited patients in general practice with knee problems from sites across the United Kingdom. An evidence-based strategy was used to follow-up patients at twelve months with postal questionnaires. This included an unconditional direct payment of £5 to patients for the completion and return of questionnaires. The first 105 patients did not receive the £5 incentive, but the subsequent 442 patients did. We used logistic regression to analyse the effect of introducing a monetary incentive to increase the response to postal questionnaires. Results The response rate following reminders for the historical controls was 78.1% (82 of 105 compared with 88.0% (389 of 442 for those patients who received the £5 payment (diff = 9.9%, 95% CI 2.3% to 19.1%. Direct payments significantly increased the odds of response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0, P = 0.009 with only 12 of 442 patients declining the payment. The incentive did not save costs to the trial – the extra cost per additional respondent was almost £50. Conclusion The direct payment of £5 significantly increased the completion of postal questionnaires at negligible increase in cost for an adequately powered study.

  9. Habituation of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to recurring acoustic startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W; Grafft, Amanda; Chapleau, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Startle habituation is a type of implicit and automatic emotion regulation. Diminished startle habituation is linked to several psychiatric or neurological disorders. Most previous studies quantified startle habituation by assessing skin conductance response (SCR; reflecting sympathetic-mediated sweating), eye-blink reflex, or motor response. The habituation of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to recurrent startle stimuli is not well understood. A variety of methods and metrics have been used to quantify parasympathetic activity and its effects on the heart. We hypothesized that these different measures reflect unique psychological and physiological processes that may habituate differently during repeated startle stimuli. We measured cardiac inter-beat intervals (IBIs) to recurring acoustic startle probes in 75 eight year old children. Eight acoustic stimuli of 500 ms duration were introduced at intervals of 15-25 s. Indices of parasympathetic effect included: (1) the initial rapid decrease in IBI post-startle mediated by parasympathetic inhibition (PI); (2) the subsequent IBI recovery mediated by parasympathetic reactivation (PR); (3) rapid, beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV) measured from the first seven IBIs following each startle probe. SCR and motor responses to startle were also measured. Results showed that habituation of PR (IBI recovery and overshoot) and SCRs were rapid and robust. In addition, changes in PR and SCR were significantly correlated. In contrast, habituation of PI (the initial decrease in IBI) was slower and relatively modest. Measurement of rapid HRV provided an index reflecting the combination of PI and PR. We conclude that different measures of parasympathetic-mediated heart rate responses to repeated startle probes habituate in a differential manner.

  10. THE RATE OF CLINICAL RESPONSE OF ORAL LOADING SODIUM VALPROATE IN ACUTELY MANLC PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K SHAFIEE

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acheiving accelerated clinical response is desirable in patients with acute manic episode. We conducted a prospective study to compare the rate of clinical response of oral loading sodium valproate versus standard dose titration. Methods: Fourty - two patients who met DSM - IV critevia for current manic episode and who had a "Young mania rating scale "score between 20 and 50 were randomly assigned on a double blind basis to recieve valproate oral "loading"(N = 21 at a dose of 20 mg/kg in divided doses for 7 days and valproate "non -loading" at a starting dose of 10 mg/kg followed by standard titration which at day 6 , they recieved 20 mg/kg valproate. Patients were scored at day 0, 3, 5 and 7 by a blindraterusing YMRS. Results: There was no significat differences between the groups in advers events and useing of adjunctive tranquilizer .The efficacy of valproate in both two groups was similar but " the rate of improvement on YMRS" over the first 3 days was significantly greater in loading group. Conclusion: Valproate oral loading with sodium valproate can induced a more rapid clinical response in acutely manic patient.

  11. Comparing Response Times and Error Rates in a Simultaneous Masking Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hermens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In simultaneous masking, performance on a foveally presented target is impaired by one or more flanking elements. Previous studies have demonstrated strong effects of the grouping of the target and the flankers on the strength of masking (e.g., Malania, Herzog & Westheimer, 2007. These studies have predominantly examined performance by measuring offset discrimination thresholds as a measure of performance, and it is therefore unclear whether other measures of performance provide similar outcomes. A recent study, which examined the role of grouping on error rates and response times in a speeded vernier offset discrimination task, similar to that used by Malania et al. (2007, suggested a possible dissociation between the two measures, with error rates mimicking threshold performance, but response times showing differential results (Panis & Hermens, 2014. We here report the outcomes of three experiments examining this possible dissociation, and demonstrate an overall similar pattern of results for error rates and response times across a broad range of mask layouts. Moreover, the pattern of results in our experiments strongly correlates with threshold performance reported earlier (Malania et al., 2007. Our results suggest that outcomes in a simultaneous masking paradigm do not critically depend on the outcome measure used, and therefore provide evidence for a common underlying mechanism.

  12. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika De Rubeis

    Full Text Available Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing. We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52 and disorganized attachment status (n = 45. Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051. These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  13. Intrapericardial denervation - Radial artery blood flow and heart rate responses to LBNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeever, Kenneth H.; Skidmore, Michael G.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1990-01-01

    The effects of intrapericardial denervation on the radial artery blood flow velocity (RABFV) and heart rate (HR) responses to LBNP in rhesus monkeys were investigated by measuring the RABFV transcutaneously by a continuous-wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter in order to derive an index of forearm blood flow response to low (0 to -20 mm Hg) and high (0 to -60 mm Hg) ramp exposures during supine LBNP. Four of the eight subjects were subjected to efferent and afferent cardiac denervation. It was found that, during low levels of LBNP, monkeys with cardiac denervation exhibited no cardiopulmonary baroreceptor-mediated change in the RABFV or HR, unlike the intact animals, which showed steady decreases in RABFV during both high- and low-pressure protocols. It is suggested that forearm blood flow and HR responses to low-level LBNP, along with pharmacological challenge, are viable physiological tests for verifying the completeness of atrial and cardiopulmonary baroreceptor denervation.

  14. Does social capital protect mental health among migrants in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerof, Susanne Sundell; Stafström, Martin; Westerling, Ragnar; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2016-09-01

    Poor mental health is common among migrants. This has been explained by migration-related and socio-economic factors. Weak social capital has also been related to poor mental health. Few studies have explored factors that protect mental health of migrants in the post-migration phase. Such knowledge could be useful for health promotion purposes. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse associations between financial difficulties, housing problems and experience of discrimination and poor mental health; and to detect possible effect modification by social capital, among recently settled Iraqi migrants in Sweden. A postal questionnaire in Arabic was sent to recently settled Iraqi citizens. The response rate was 51% (n = 617). Mental health was measured by the GHQ-12 instrument and social capital was defined as social participation and trust in others. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression. Poor mental health was associated with experience of discrimination (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.73-4.79), housing problems (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.84-4.22), and financial difficulties (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.19), after adjustments. Trust in others seemed to have a protective effect for mental health when exposed to these factors. Social participation had a protective effect when exposed to experience of discrimination. Social determinants and social capital in the host country play important roles in the mental health of migrants. Social capital modifies the effect of risk factors and might be a fruitful way to promote resilience to factors harmful to mental health among migrants, but must be combined with policy efforts to reduce social inequities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Determining dose rate with a semiconductor detector - Monte Carlo calculations of the detector response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordenfors, C

    1999-02-01

    To determine dose rate in a gamma radiation field, based on measurements with a semiconductor detector, it is necessary to know how the detector effects the field. This work aims to describe this effect with Monte Carlo simulations and calculations, that is to identify the detector response function. This is done for a germanium gamma detector. The detector is normally used in the in-situ measurements that is carried out regularly at the department. After the response function is determined it is used to reconstruct a spectrum from an in-situ measurement, a so called unfolding. This is done to be able to calculate fluence rate and dose rate directly from a measured (and unfolded) spectrum. The Monte Carlo code used in this work is EGS4 developed mainly at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is a widely used code package to simulate particle transport. The results of this work indicates that the method could be used as-is since the accuracy of this method compares to other methods already in use to measure dose rate. Bearing in mind that this method provides the nuclide specific dose it is useful, in radiation protection, since knowing what the relations between different nuclides are and how they change is very important when estimating the risks

  16. The performance quality rating scale (PQRS): reliability, convergent validity, and internal responsiveness for two scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Rose; Rios, Jorge; Polatajko, Helene; Wolf, Timothy; McEwen, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The performance quality rating scale (PQRS) is an observational measure of performance quality of client-selected, personally meaningful activities. It has been used inconsistently with different scoring systems, and there have been no formal publications on its psychometric properties. The purpose of this study was to test and compare the psychometric properties of two PQRS scoring systems in two populations. A secondary analysis of video recorded participant-selected activities from previous studies involving either adults living with stroke or children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) was conducted. Three pairs of raters scored the video recorded performances with PQRS operational definitions (PQRS-OD) and a generic rating system (PQRS-G). For inter-rater reliability, PQRS-OD ICCs were substantial, ranging from 0.83 to 0.93; while the PQRS-G ICCs were moderate, ranging from 0.71 to 0.77. Test-retest reliability was substantial, >0.80 (ICC), for both rating systems across all rater pairs. Internal responsiveness was high for both rating systems. Convergent validity with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was inconsistent, with scores ranging from low to moderate. Both scoring systems have demonstrated they are reliable and have good internal responsiveness. The PQRS-OD demonstrated greater consistency across raters and is more sensitive to clinically important change than the PQRS-G and should be used when greater accuracy is required. Further exploration of validity with actual rather than perceived performance measures is required.

  17. CHARADE: A characteristic code for calculating rate-dependent shock-wave response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.N.; Tonks, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this report we apply spatially one-dimensional methods and simple shock-tracking techniques to the solution of rate-dependent material response under flat-plate-impact conditions. This method of solution eliminates potential confusion of material dissipation with artificial dissipative effects inherent in finite-difference codes, and thus lends itself to accurate calculation of elastic-plastic deformation, shock-to-detonation transition in solid explosives, and shock-induced structural phase transformation. Equations are presented for rate-dependent thermoelastic-plastic deformation for (100) planar shock-wave propagation in materials of cubic symmetry (or higher). Specific numerical calculations are presented for polycrystalline copper using the mechanical threshold stress model of Follansbee and Kocks with transition to dislocation drag. A listing of the CHARADE (for characteristic rate dependence) code and sample input deck are given. 26 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Heart Rate Responses of a Head Referee During a Football Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, D J; McClintock, S L

    1983-10-01

    In brief: To determine the heart rate responses of a football official to both physical and psychological stress during actual game conditions, a head referee was telemetered continuously from one- half hour before until the end of a college football game. The referee's cardiac system was stressed throughout the monitoring period: The highest average heart rate was 161 beats min(-1) (85% of maximum), and the lowest average heart rate was 140 beats min(-1) (74% of maximum). Because officiating is largely anaerobic, the sustained sinus tachycardia was probably caused by psychological stress. Football officials should have a maximal ECG stress test every year and participate in an aerobic conditioning program on a regular basis.

  19. Managing non-response rates for the National Child Safety Seat Survey in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Wen, Tang; Snowdon, Anne W; Hussein, Abdulkadir; Ahmed, S Ejaz

    2011-04-01

    Canada has a Road Safety Vision of having the safest roads in the world, yet vehicle crashes have remained the leading cause of death of Canadian children for a number of years. Determine the influence of high rates of non-participation on the estimates for correct use of safety seats for child occupants in vehicles. Examine the impact of three different criteria for determining correct safety seat use on the estimates of correct use of safety seats for children in Canada. A national child seat safety survey was conducted in 200 randomly selected sites across Canada that included both naturalistic observation of child seat safety use at intersections and a detailed vehicle inspection in nearby parking lots. Non-participation in the detailed parking lot study was high. This study reports on statistical methods for managing high rates of non-response and compared estimates of correct use using three different criteria. Results revealed that high non-participation rates introduced bias into the raw estimates of correct safety seat use. Correct use estimates also varied substantially depending on which criterion (more stringent or less stringent) for correct use was applied in the analysis. When child age was the only criterion for correct use, estimates were higher than when more stringent criteria of child height and weight were applied to estimate rates of correct use. This study identifies the importance of managing high rates of non-response in safety seat observation studies using statistical techniques. Stringent criteria for correct use may provide more accurate estimates of the correct use of safety seats. Studies of child seat use in vehicles (using voluntary participation) may benefit from the use of naturalistic observation to capture non-participants' use of child occupant restraints, as it may more accurately estimate the rates of correct use in populations.

  20. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lončarić, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary

  1. Intake rates and the functional response in shorebirds (Charadriiformes) eating macro-invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss-Custard, John D; West, Andrew D; Yates, Michael G; Caldow, Richard W G; Stillman, Richard A; Bardsley, Louise; Castilla, Juan; Castro, Macarena; Dierschke, Volker; Durell, Sarah E A Le V Dit; Eichhorn, Goetz; Ens, Bruno J; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Udayangani-Fernando, P U; Ferns, Peter N; Hockey, Philip A R; Gill, Jennifer A; Johnstone, Ian; Kalejta-Summers, Bozena; Masero, Jose A; Moreira, Francisco; Nagarajan, Rajarathina Velu; Owens, Ian P F; Pacheco, Cristian; Perez-Hurtado, Alejandro; Rogers, Danny; Scheiffarth, Gregor; Sitters, Humphrey; Sutherland, William J; Triplet, Patrick; Worrall, Dave H; Zharikov, Yuri; Zwarts, Leo; Pettifor, Richard A

    2006-11-01

    As field determinations take much effort, it would be useful to be able to predict easily the coefficients describing the functional response of free-living predators, the function relating food intake rate to the abundance of food organisms in the environment. As a means easily to parameterise an individual-based model of shorebird Charadriiformes populations, we attempted this for shorebirds eating macro-invertebrates. Intake rate is measured as the ash-free dry mass (AFDM) per second of active foraging; i.e. excluding time spent on digestive pauses and other activities, such as preening. The present and previous studies show that the general shape of the functional response in shorebirds eating approximately the same size of prey across the full range of prey density is a decelerating rise to a plateau, thus approximating the Holling type II ('disc equation') formulation. But field studies confirmed that the asymptote was not set by handling time, as assumed by the disc equation, because only about half the foraging time was spent in successfully or unsuccessfully attacking and handling prey, the rest being devoted to searching.A review of 30 functional responses showed that intake rate in free-living shorebirds varied independently of prey density over a wide range, with the asymptote being reached at very low prey densities (<150/m-2). Accordingly, most of the many studies of shorebird intake rate have probably been conducted at or near the asymptote of the functional response, suggesting that equations that predict intake rate should also predict the asymptote.A multivariate analysis of 468 'spot' estimates of intake rates from 26 shorebirds identified ten variables, representing prey and shorebird characteristics, that accounted for 81% of the variance in logarithm-transformed intake rate. But four-variables accounted for almost as much (77.3%), these being bird size, prey size, whether the bird was an oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus eating mussels

  2. The effect of low dose rate on metabolomic response to radiation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudarzi, Maryam [Georgetown University, Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Washington, DC (United States); Mak, Tytus D. [Georgetown University, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC (United States); Chen, Congju; Smilenov, Lubomir B.; Brenner, David J. [Columbia University, Center for High-Throughput Minimally-Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry, New York, NY (United States); Fornace, Albert J. [Georgetown University, Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Washington, DC (United States); Georgetown University, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Metabolomics has been shown to have utility in assessing responses to exposure by ionizing radiation (IR) in easily accessible biofluids such as urine. Most studies to date from our laboratory and others have employed γ-irradiation at relatively high dose rates (HDR), but many environmental exposure scenarios will probably be at relatively low dose rates (LDR). There are well-documented differences in the biologic responses to LDR compared to HDR, so an important question is to assess LDR effects at the metabolomics level. Our study took advantage of a modern mass spectrometry approach in exploring the effects of dose rate on the urinary excretion levels of metabolites 2 days after IR in mice. A wide variety of statistical tools were employed to further focus on metabolites, which showed responses to LDR IR exposure (0.00309 Gy/min) distinguishable from those of HDR. From a total of 709 detected spectral features, more than 100 were determined to be statistically significant when comparing urine from mice irradiated with 1.1 or 4.45 Gy to that of sham-irradiated mice 2 days post-exposure. The results of this study show that LDR and HDR exposures perturb many of the same pathways such as TCA cycle and fatty acid metabolism, which also have been implicated in our previous IR studies. However, it is important to note that dose rate did affect the levels of particular metabolites. Differences in urinary excretion levels of such metabolites could potentially be used to assess an individual's exposure in a radiobiological event and thus would have utility for both triage and injury assessment. (orig.)

  3. Dynamics of a Delayed HIV-1 Infection Model with Saturation Incidence Rate and CTL Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Liu, Haihong; Xu, Chenglin; Yan, Fang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a five-dimensional virus model incorporating saturation incidence rate, CTL immune response and three time delays which represent the latent period, virus production period and immune response delay, respectively. We begin this model by proving the positivity and boundedness of the solutions. Our model admits three possible equilibrium solutions, namely the infection-free equilibrium E0, the infectious equilibrium without immune response E1 and the infectious equilibrium with immune response E2. Moreover, by analyzing corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of each of the feasible equilibria and the existence of Hopf bifurcation at the equilibrium point E2 are established, respectively. Further, by using fluctuation lemma and suitable Lyapunov functionals, it is shown that E0 is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproductive numbers for viral infection R0 is less than unity. When the basic reproductive numbers for immune response R1 is less than unity and R0 is greater than unity, the equilibrium point E1 is globally asymptotically stable. Finally, some numerical simulations are carried out for illustrating the theoretical results.

  4. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Sweden 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    , while households and other small consumers, numbering over 33 thousand, account for 2% of the total. The Swedish Energy Agency (SEA), under the Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and Communications, has the main responsibility for both oil and natural gas emergency response policy. Sweden fulfils its oil stockholding requirements to both the IEA and the European Union by placing minimum stockholding obligations on industry and major consumers. During a supply disruption and as a contribution to an IEA collective action, Swedish authorities would reduce the minimum obligation, thereby granting operators permission to draw stocks below the minimum level. In a natural gas crisis, supplies to protected customers (i.e. households) are safeguarded while the physical balance of the gas system would be maintained by restricting or discontinuing supplies to non-protected customers in a crisis. System operators are obliged to have in place crisis plans for dealing with emergency situations, including a strategy for reducing supplies to customers.

  5. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Epidemiology of lysosomal storage diseases in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Malin; Darin, Niklas; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Månsson, Jan-Eric

    2014-12-01

    There are more than 50 inherited lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), and this study examined the incidence of clinically diagnosed LSDs in Sweden. The number of patients diagnosed during 1980-2009 was compiled from the registries of the two Swedish diagnostic laboratories that cover the whole country. We identified 433 patients during the 30-year period, with a total incidence of one in every 6100 births and identified fairly constant annual diagnoses during the last 20 years. Krabbe disease was the most common (one in 39 000) followed by Gaucher disease (one in 47 000), metachromatic leukodystrophy and Salla disease. Gaucher disease was more frequent in Sweden than other European countries, due to a founder effect of the mutation (p.L444P) in northern Sweden. Metachromatic leukodystrophy was one of the most common LSDs, in common with other countries. Salla disease, which is very rare elsewhere, was the fourth most common, stemming from a founder mutation in the Salla region of northern Finland brought to Sweden by immigration. The collective incidence of LSDs in Sweden was essentially equal to other European countries, but with a somewhat different disease pattern. Our findings have implications for diagnostic algorithms and treatment strategies. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Radiation response of industrial materials: Dose-rate and morphology implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berejka, Anthony J.

    2007-08-01

    Industrial uses of ionizing radiation mostly rely upon high current, high dose-rate (100 kGy/s) electron beam (EB) accelerators. To a lesser extent, industry uses low dose-rate (2.8 × 10-3 kGy/s) radioactive Cobalt-60 as a gamma source, generally for some rather specific purposes, as medical device sterilization and the treatment of food and foodstuffs. There are nearly nine times as many (∼1400) high current EB units in commercial operation than gamma sources (∼160). However, gamma sources can be easily scaled-down so that much research on materials effects is conducted using gamma radiation. Likewise, laboratories are more likely to have very low beam current and consequently low dose-rate accelerators such as Van de Graaff generators and linear accelerators. With the advent of very high current EB accelerators, X-ray processing has become an industrially viable option. With X-rays from high power sources, dose-rates can be modulated based upon accelerator power and the attenuation of the X-ray by the distance of the material from the X-ray target. Dose and dose-rate dependence has been found to be of consequence in several commercial applications which can employ the use of ionizing radiation. The combination of dose and dose-rate dependence of the polymerization and crosslinking of wood impregnants and of fiber composite matrix materials can yield more economically viable results which have promising commercial potential. Monomer and oligomer structure also play an important role in attaining these desirable results. The influence of morphology is shown on the radiation response of olefin polymers, such as ethylene, propylene and isobutylene polymers and their copolymers. Both controlled morphology and controlled dose-rate have commercial consequences. These are also impacted both by the adroit selection of materials and through the possible use of X-ray processing.

  8. A nationwide postal questionnaire survey: the presence of airway guidelines in anaesthesia department in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Kati; Pöder, Ulrika; Högman, Marieann; Larsson, Anders; Nilsson, Ulrica

    2014-01-01

    In Sweden, airway guidelines aimed toward improving patient safety have been recommended by the Swedish Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine. Adherence to evidence-based airway guidelines is known to be generally poor in Sweden. The aim of this study was to determine whether airway guidelines are present in Swedish anaesthesia departments. A nationwide postal questionnaire inquiring about the presence of airway guidelines was sent out to directors of Swedish anaesthesia departments (n = 74). The structured questionnaire was based on a review of the Swedish Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care voluntary recommendations of guidelines for airway management. Mean, standard deviation, minimum/maximum, percentage (%) and number of general anaesthesia performed per year as frequency (n), were used to describe, each hospital type (university, county, private). For comparison between hospitals type and available written airway guidelines were cross tabulation used and analysed using Pearson's Chi-Square tests. A p- value of less than 0 .05 was judged significant. In total 68 directors who were responsible for the anaesthesia departments returned the questionnaire, which give a response rate of 92% (n 68 of 74). The presence of guidelines showing an airway algorithm was reported by 68% of the departments; 52% reported having a written patient information card in case of a difficult airway and guidelines for difficult airways, respectively; 43% reported the presence of guidelines for preoperative assessment; 31% had guidelines for Rapid Sequence Intubation; 26% reported criteria for performing an awake intubation; and 21% reported guidelines for awake fibre-optic intubation. A prescription for the registered nurse anaesthetist for performing tracheal intubation was reported by 24%. The most frequently pre-printed preoperative elements in the anaesthesia record form were dental status and head and neck mobility. Despite recommendations from the national

  9. Evoked response of heart rate variability using short-duration white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guo-She; Chen, Mei-Ling; Wang, Gin-You

    2010-06-24

    To investigate and to establish a model for evaluation of the instant cardiovascular responses to the noises of low-to-moderate intensity, sixteen healthy subjects were enrolled. The white noises were binaurally presented with a supra-aural earphone. The test intensities of noises were no noise, 50, 60, 70 and 80 dBA. Each noise was continued for 5 min and the electrocardiogram was simultaneously recorded. The cardiac autonomic responses were evaluated using power spectral analysis of the R-R contour obtained from digital signal processing of the ECG tracings. The result showed that the mean heart rate and mean blood pressure did not change significantly with the noises. However, the low-frequency power (LF) which represents cardiac autonomic modulations and the ratio (LHR) of LF to high-frequency power (HF) which reflects cardiac sympathetic modulations were significantly greater in the noise intensity of 50, 60, 70 and 80dBA (pnoise intensity (rho=0.90, pwhite noises can be detected using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability and the evoked responses may provide a sensitive way to evaluate the instant effect of noise to humans.

  10. Neural correlates of fear-induced sympathetic response associated with the peripheral temperature change rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yamazaki, Mika; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is essential for coping with environmental stressors such as fearful stimuli. Recent human imaging studies demonstrated that activity in some cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula cortex (aIC), is related to sympathetic activity. However, little is known about the functional brain connectivity related to sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. The participants were 32 healthy, right-handed volunteers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity when watching horror and control movies. Fingertip temperature was taken during the scanning as a measure of sympathetic response. The movies were watched a second time, and the degree of fear (9-point Likert-type scale) was evaluated every three seconds. The brain activity of the ACC, bilateral aIC, and bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) was correlated with the change rate of fingertip temperature, with or without fearful stimuli. Functional connectivity analysis revealed significantly greater positive functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ACC and between the amygdala and the aIC when watching the horror movie than when watching the control movie. Whole-brain psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that the functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC was modulated according to the fear rating. Our results indicate that the increased functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the ACC represents a sympathetic response to fearful stimuli. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correspondence of verbal descriptor and numeric rating scales for pain intensity: an item response theory calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Saliba, Debra

    2010-07-01

    Assessing pain intensity in older adults is critical and challenging. There is debate about the most effective way to ask older adults to describe their pain severity, and clinicians vary in their preferred approaches, making comparison of pain intensity scores across settings difficult. A total of 3,676 residents from 71 community nursing homes across eight states were asked about pain presence. The 1,960 residents who reported pain within the past 5 days (53% of total, 70% female; age: M = 77.9, SD = 12.4) were included in analyses. Those who reported pain were also asked to provide a rating of pain intensity using either a verbal descriptor scale (VDS; mild, moderate, severe, and very severe and horrible), a numeric rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain to 10 = worst pain imaginable), or both. We used item response theory (IRT) methods to identify the correspondence between the VDS and the NRS response options by estimating item parameters for these and five additional pain items. The sample reported moderate amounts of pain on average. Examination of the IRT location parameters for the pain intensity items indicated the following approximate correspondence: VDS mild approximately NRS 1-4, VDS moderate approximately NRS 5-7, VDS severe approximately NRS 8-9, and VDS very severe, horrible approximately NRS 10. This IRT calibration provides a crosswalk between the two response scales so that either can be used in practice depending on the preference of the clinician and respondent.

  12. Effects of autogenic training on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Chunmi

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to confirm the effects of autogenic training (AT) on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing school students experiencing stress related to clinical training. The study was carried out from September 2012 to April 2013 in a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group using a pretest-posttest design. The participants were 40 nursing students in their third year at either of two nursing colleges. All consented to participate. Nineteen nursing students at one college were assigned to the experimental group and underwent the 8-week AT program, and the other 21 were assigned to the control group and did not undergo any training. Stress response was assessed by questionnaire and HRV was measured three times, that is, before the program, at the end of the program, and 6 months after the end of the AT program. A significant time/group interaction was found for stress response (F = 4.68, p = .012), a subjective indicator. However, no significant interaction was found for the objective indicators of heart rate variability, normalized low frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), normalized high frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), or low frequency to high frequency ratio (F = 1.38, p = .257). The results suggest that AT provides an acceptable approach to stress reduction in nursing students. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Differential heart rate responses to social and monetary reinforcement in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, Jana; Schrimpf, Anne; García-García, Isabel; Villringer, Arno; Neumann, Jane; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by weight stigmatization; subsequently, individuals with obesity frequently face social rejection. It has been shown that recurrent negative social experiences can alter the perception of social cues. However, the way individuals with obesity process social stimuli is not well understood. This study aims to investigate obesity-related alterations in social compared to nonsocial information processing. Women with obesity (n = 14) and without obesity (n = 14) participated in a social and a monetary incentive delay task in which they anticipated and received positive, negative, and neutral outcomes in the form of faces or money. During the experiment, phasic heart rate changes and reaction times were measured. Women with obesity, compared to lean women, exhibited a stronger differentiation during the anticipation of monetary and social reinforcement, showing slower reaction times to social cues compared to monetary cues. During the outcome processing phase, women with obesity relative to controls demonstrated diminished heart rate responses particularly to negative social outcomes. Interestingly, differences in cardiac responses in participants with obesity were moderated by weight-related teasing experiences. In women with obesity, a higher BMI was associated with blunted cardiac responses to social cues relative to monetary cues only if they reported more emotional pain after weight-related teasing. Our results contribute to a better understanding of social information processing in obesity and give first evidence for the role of negative social experiences in reinforcement processing. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Clinical application of fluctuation dissipation theory - Prediction of heart rate response to spontaneous breathing trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niestemski, Liang R.; Chen, Man; Prevost, Robert; McRae, Michael; Cholleti, Sharath; Najarro, Gabriel; Buchman, Timothy G.; Deem, Michael W.

    2013-03-01

    Contrary to the traditional view of the healthy physiological state as being a single static state, variation in physiologic variables has more recently been suggested to be a key component of the healthy state. Indeed, aging and disease are characterized by a loss of such variability. We apply the conceptual framework of fluctuation-dissipation theory (FDT) to predict the response to a common clinical intervention from historical fluctuations in physiologic time series data. The non-equilibrium FDT relates the response of a system to a perturbation to natural fluctuations in the stationary state of the system. We seek to understand with the FDT a common clinical perturbation, the spontaneous breathing trial (SBT), in which mechanical ventilation is briefly suspended while the patient breathes freely for a period of time. As a stress upon the heart of the patient, the SBT can be characterized as a perturbation of heart rate dynamics. A non-equilibrium, but steady-state FDT allows us to predict the heart rate recovery after the SBT stress. We show that the responses of groups of similar patients to the spontaneous breathing trial can be predicted by this approach. This mathematical framework may serve as part of the basis for personalized critical care.

  15. The heartbrake of social rejection: heart rate deceleration in response to unexpected peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther Moor, Bregtje; Crone, Eveline A; van der Molen, Maurits W

    2010-09-01

    Social relationships are vitally important in human life. Social rejection in particular has been conceptualized as a potent social cue resulting in feelings of hurt. Our study investigated the psychophysiological manifestation of hurt feelings by examining the beat-by-beat heart rate response associated with the processing of social rejection. Study participants were presented with a series of unfamiliar faces and were asked to predict whether they would be liked by the other person. Following each judgment, participants were provided with feedback indicating that the person they had viewed had either accepted or rejected them. Feedback was associated with transient heart rate slowing and a return to baseline that was considerably delayed in response to unexpected social rejection. Our results reveal that the processing of unexpected social rejection is associated with a sizable response of the parasympathetic nervous system. These findings are interpreted in terms of a cardiovagal manifestation of a neural mechanism implicated in the central control of autonomic function during cognitive processes and affective regulation.

  16. Targeting modifiable risk factors in age-related macular degeneration in optometric practice in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lene Martin1,2 1School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden; 2School of Health Sciences, City, University of London, London, UK Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which ophthalmologists and optometrists in Sweden recommend the use of nutritional supplements, changes in diet, or smoking cessation to patients who are at risk of or with signs of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. In addition, this study also examined how these practitioners rate the strength of evidence for nutritional supplements in AMD management and which sources of information they consult to determine supplement recommendations for the prevention or treatment of AMD. Methods: This study implemented a cross-sectional design using data from a questionnaire. All Swedish optometrists and ophthalmologists who were registered in the membership databases of their respective professional organizations were invited to participate. The questionnaire contained 18 forced choice questions and one free text question and was organized into the following four sections: use of nutritional supplements, dietary advice, smoking and eye diseases, and strength of evidence and the sources of information regarding nutritional supplement interventions. Results: The response rate was 40.3% for optometrists and 5% for ophthalmologists. Optometrists were more likely than ophthalmologists to recommend nutritional supplements in AMD and provided significantly more advice about diet than did the ophthalmologists for both patients at risk for AMD and those with established disease. The ophthalmologists were more likely than the optometrists to rely on the findings from the age-related eye disease studies of AMD regarding treatment with and selection of supplements and to recommend smoking cessation. Conclusion: Common evidence-based strategies for AMD management among eye care professionals would presumably be beneficial for AMD

  17. HEART RATE AND BLOOD LACTATE RESPONSES TO CHANGQUAN AND DAOSHU FORMS OF MODERN WUSHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerri Luiz Ribeiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of specific training designed to enhance physiological aspects of performance relies heavily on the availability of accurate and validity physiological data. In the combat sport of Wushu, katas are used to develop aerobic fitness. It is arguably important to assess and monitor heart rate (HR and lactate (La responses when designing effective training programs. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate heart rate and lactate responses to forms execution among Wushu combatants. Male elite modern Wushu athletes (n = 4 from a South Brazilian regional team participated in the study. Athletes were aged 22.5 ± 2.08 years old and had at least eight years of Wushu experience. Athletes carried out the Changquan and Daoshu forms in random order, HR and La were measured pre- and post-exercise. Results indicate that HR was 176 ± 3 and 176 ± 2 bpm and La was 4.38 ± 1.3 and 5.15 ± 1.07 mmol·l-1 for Changquan and Daoshu forms, respectively. There were no significantly differences in HR and La between the two forms. HR values represent 89.2 ± 1.1 and 89.1 ± 1.8% of age-predicted maximal heart rate and lactate was near of 4 mmol·l-1 point. In conclusion, training programs to Wushu combatants could target the range of physiological values cited above with no differences between two forms

  18. Forecast of icing events at a wind farm in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for identifying icing events using a physical icing model, driven by atmospheric data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and applies it to a wind park in Sweden. Observed wind park icing events were identified by deviation from an idealized power...... was found to be very important for forecasting the correct icing period. One concern with the iceBlade approach was the relatively high false alarm rates at the end of icing events due to the ice not being removed rapidly enough. © 2014 American Meteorological Society....

  19. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  20. Abscisic acid and transpiration rate are involved in the response to boron toxicity in Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Rivero, Miguel Ángel; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan José; Herrera-Rodríguez, María Begoña; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for vascular plant development, but its toxicity is a major problem affecting crop yields in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In the literature, several genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and responses are upregulated in Arabidopsis roots after treatment with excess B. It is known that the AtNCED3 gene, which encodes a crucial enzyme for ABA biosynthesis, plays a key role in the plant response to drought stress. In this study, root AtNCED3 expression and shoot ABA content were rapidly increased in wild-type plants upon B-toxicity treatment. The Arabidopsis ABA-deficient nced3-2 mutant had higher transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and accumulated more B in their shoots than wild-type plants, facts that were associated with the lower levels of ABA in this mutant. However, in wild-type plants, B toxicity caused a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate. This response could be a mechanism to limit the transport of excess B from the roots to the leaves under B toxicity. In agreement with the higher transpiration rate of the nced3-2 mutant, this genotype showed an increased leaf B concentration and damage upon exposure to 5 mM B. Under B toxicity, ABA application decreased B accumulation in wild-type and nced3-2 plants. In summary, this work shows that excess B applied to the roots leads to rapid changes in AtNCED3 expression and gas exchange parameters that would contribute to restrain the B entry into the leaves, this effect being mediated by ABA. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

  2. The frequency response of dynamic friction: Enhanced rate-and-state models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabboi, A.; Putelat, T.; Woodhouse, J.

    2016-07-01

    The prediction and control of friction-induced vibration requires a sufficiently accurate constitutive law for dynamic friction at the sliding interface: for linearised stability analysis, this requirement takes the form of a frictional frequency response function. Systematic measurements of this frictional frequency response function are presented for small samples of nylon and polycarbonate sliding against a glass disc. Previous efforts to explain such measurements from a theoretical model have failed, but an enhanced rate-and-state model is presented which is shown to match the measurements remarkably well. The tested parameter space covers a range of normal forces (10-50 N), of sliding speeds (1-10 mm/s) and frequencies (100-2000 Hz). The key new ingredient in the model is the inclusion of contact stiffness to take into account elastic deformations near the interface. A systematic methodology is presented to discriminate among possible variants of the model, and then to identify the model parameter values.

  3. Manipulation of heart rate variability can modify response to anger-inducing stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Heather M; Penglis, Kathryn M; McDonald, Skye

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that heart rate variability (HRV) is a physiological indicator of the flexibility of the autonomic nervous system and can provide an objective measure of an individual's ability to appropriately match emotional responses to environmental demands. The present study investigated whether angry response to emotional stimuli was related to HRV, and whether manipulation of HRV using biofeedback could change the anger response in a healthy adult population. Fifty-eight participants received HRV biofeedback (n = 29) or an active control condition (n = 29). HRV measures included standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) power, and was recorded across three sessions: baseline, training, and anger induction. The anger induction procedure resulted in increased subjective experience of anger, as well as physiological changes. The biofeedback group had higher HRV than active controls both during the training session (SDNN and LF HRV) and during anger induction (LF HRV). HRV during anger induction was significantly associated with self-reported emotional response for participants receiving biofeedback but not for active controls. Results provide support for HRV as an index of emotion regulation, specifically anger. Further research is needed to determine whether long-term HRV biofeedback can have a lasting effect on managing anger.

  4. Age affects exercise-induced improvements in heart rate response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolac, E G; Roberts, C K; da Silva, J M Rodrigues; Guimarães, G V

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of age on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscle strength and heart rate (HR) response to exercise adaptation in women in response to a long-term twice-weekly combined aerobic and resistance exercise program. 85 sedentary women, divided into young (YG; n=22, 30.3 ± 6.2 years), early middle-aged (EMG; n=28, 44.1 ± 2.5 years), late middle-aged (LMG; n=20, 56.7 ± 3.5 years) and older (OG; n=15, 71.4 ± 6.9 years) groups, had their CRF, muscle strength (1-repetition maximum test) and HR response to exercise (graded exercise test) measured before and after 12 months of combined exercise training. Exercise training improved CRF and muscle strength in all age groups (Pdifferences were observed between groups. Exercise training also improved resting HR and recovery HR in YG and EMG (Pgroup. Combined aerobic and resistance training at a frequency of 2 days/week improves CRF and muscle strength throughout the lifespan. However, exercise-induced improvements in the HR recovery response to exercise may be impaired in late middle-aged and older women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. An exploration of heart rate response to differing music rhythm and tempos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ariany G; Guida, Heraldo L; Antônio, Ana Márcia Dos S; Marcomini, Renata S; Fontes, Anne M G G; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Roque, Adriano L; Silva, Sidney B; Raimundo, Rodrigo D; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate acute cardiac response and heart rate variability (HRV) when listening to differing forms of music. Eleven healthy men aged between 18 and 25 years old were included in the study. HRV was recorded at rest for ten minutes with no music, then were asked to listen to classical baroque or heavy metal music for a period of 20 min. It was noted that heart rate variability did not affect HRV indices for time and frequency. In conclusion, music with different tempos does not influence cardiac autonomic regulation in men. However more studies are suggested to explore this topic in greater detail. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of hemorrhage rate on early hemodynamic responses in conscious sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, Christopher G.; Daluwatte, Chathuri; Marques, Nicole R.; Khan, Muzna; Salter, Michael; Wolf, Jordan; Nelson, Christina; Salsbury, John; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Kinsky, Michael; Kramer, George C.; Strauss, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physiological compensatory mechanisms can mask the extent of hemorrhage in conscious mammals, which can be further complicated by individual tolerance and variations in hemorrhage onset and duration. We assessed the effect of hemorrhage rate on tolerance and early physiologic responses to hemorrhage in conscious sheep. Eight Merino ewes (37.4???1.1?kg) were subjected to fast (1.25?mL/kg/min) and slow (0.25?mL/kg/min) hemorrhages separated by at least 3?days. Blood was withdrawn until...

  7. Nonlinear Loading-Rate-Dependent Force Response of Individual Vimentin Intermediate Filaments to Applied Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Johanna; Witt, Hannes; Candelli, Andrea; Peterman, Erwin J. G.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Janshoff, Andreas; Köster, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells are to a great extent determined by the cytoskeleton, a composite network of different filamentous proteins. Among these, intermediate filaments (IFs) are exceptional in their molecular architecture and mechanical properties. Here we directly record stress-strain curves of individual vimentin IFs using optical traps and atomic force microscopy. We find a strong loading rate dependence of the mechanical response, supporting the hypothesis that IFs could serve to protect eukaryotic cells from fast, large deformations. Our experimental results show different unfolding regimes, which we can quantitatively reproduce by an elastically coupled system of multiple two-state elements.

  8. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young...... males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from......-intensity resistance training due to differential influences of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations on early and later phases of rising muscle force....

  9. Temperature response of denitrification rate and greenhouse gas production in agricultural river marginal wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, S A F; Blackwell, M S A; Leah, R; Cook, V; O'Connor, M; Maltby, E

    2013-05-01

    Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions. It was hypothesized that the temperature response is dependent on interactions with NO3--enriched flooding, and the physicochemical conditions of these soil types. Denitrification rate (mean, 746 ± 97.3 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ), net N2 O production (mean, 180 ± 26.6 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) and net CH4 production (mean, 1065 ± 183 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) were highest in the organic Histosol, with higher organic matter, ammonium and moisture, and lower NO3- concentrations. Heterotrophic respiration (mean, 127 ± 4.6 mg m(-2)  h(-1) ) was not significantly different between soil types and dominated total GHG (CO2 eq) production in all soil types. Generally, the temperature responses of denitrification rate and net N2 O production were exponential, whilst net CH4 production was unresponsive, possibly due to substrate limitation, and heterotrophic respiration was exponential but limited in summer at higher temperatures. Flooding with NO3- increased denitrification rate, net N2 O production and heterotrophic respiration, but a reduction in net CH4 production suggests inhibition of methanogenesis by NO3- or N2 O produced from denitrification. Implications for management and policy are that warming and flood events may promote microbial interactions in soil between distinct microbial communities and increase

  10. Genetic variation for farrowing rate in pigs in response to change in photoperiod and ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano, C A; Mulder, H A; Rashidi, H; Mathur, P K; Knol, E F

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal infertility is often observed as anestrus and a lower conception rate resulting in a reduced farrowing rate (FR) during late summer and early autumn. This is often regarded as an effect of heat stress; however, we observed a reduction in the FR of sows even after correcting for ambient temperature in our data. Therefore, we added change in photoperiod in the analysis of FR considering its effect on sow fertility. Change in photoperiod was modeled using the cosine of the day of first insemination within a year. On an average, the FR decreased by 2% during early autumn with decreasing daily photoperiod compared with early summer with almost no change in daily photoperiod. It declined 0.2% per degree Celsius of ambient temperature above 19.2°C. This result is a step forward in disentangling the 2 environmental components responsible for seasonal infertility. Our next aim was to estimate the magnitude of genetic variation in FR in response to change in photoperiod and ambient temperature to explore opportunities for selecting pigs to have a constant FR throughout the year. We used reaction norm models to estimate additive genetic variation in response to change in photoperiod and ambient temperature. The results revealed a larger genetic variation at stressful environments when daily photoperiod decreased and ambient temperatures increased above 19.2°C compared with neutral environments. Genetic correlations between stressful environments and nonstressful environments ranged from 0.90 (±0.03) to 0.46 (±0.13) depending on the severity of the stress, indicating changes in expression of FR depending on the environment. The genetic correlation between responses of pigs to changes in photoperiod and to those in ambient temperature were positive, indicating that pigs tolerant to decreasing daily photoperiod are also tolerant to high ambient temperatures. Therefore, selection for tolerance to decreasing daily photoperiod should also increase tolerance to high

  11. Talimogene Laherparepvec Improves Durable Response Rate in Patients With Advanced Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andtbacka, Robert H I; Kaufman, Howard L; Collichio, Frances; Amatruda, Thomas; Senzer, Neil; Chesney, Jason; Delman, Keith A; Spitler, Lynn E; Puzanov, Igor; Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Milhem, Mohammed; Cranmer, Lee; Curti, Brendan; Lewis, Karl; Ross, Merrick; Guthrie, Troy; Linette, Gerald P; Daniels, Gregory A; Harrington, Kevin; Middleton, Mark R; Miller, Wilson H; Zager, Jonathan S; Ye, Yining; Yao, Bin; Li, Ai; Doleman, Susan; VanderWalde, Ari; Gansert, Jennifer; Coffin, Robert S

    2015-09-01

    Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a herpes simplex virus type 1-derived oncolytic immunotherapy designed to selectively replicate within tumors and produce granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to enhance systemic antitumor immune responses. T-VEC was compared with GM-CSF in patients with unresected stage IIIB to IV melanoma in a randomized open-label phase III trial. Patients with injectable melanoma that was not surgically resectable were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to intralesional T-VEC or subcutaneous GM-CSF. The primary end point was durable response rate (DRR; objective response lasting continuously ≥ 6 months) per independent assessment. Key secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and overall response rate. Among 436 patients randomly assigned, DRR was significantly higher with T-VEC (16.3%; 95% CI, 12.1% to 20.5%) than GM-CSF (2.1%; 95% CI, 0% to 4.5%]; odds ratio, 8.9; P < .001). Overall response rate was also higher in the T-VEC arm (26.4%; 95% CI, 21.4% to 31.5% v 5.7%; 95% CI, 1.9% to 9.5%). Median OS was 23.3 months (95% CI, 19.5 to 29.6 months) with T-VEC and 18.9 months (95% CI, 16.0 to 23.7 months) with GM-CSF (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.00; P = .051). T-VEC efficacy was most pronounced in patients with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease and in patients with treatment-naive disease. The most common adverse events (AEs) with T-VEC were fatigue, chills, and pyrexia. The only grade 3 or 4 AE occurring in ≥ 2% of T-VEC-treated patients was cellulitis (2.1%). No fatal treatment-related AEs occurred. T-VEC is the first oncolytic immunotherapy to demonstrate therapeutic benefit against melanoma in a phase III clinical trial. T-VEC was well tolerated and resulted in a higher DRR (P < .001) and longer median OS (P = .051), particularly in untreated patients or those with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease. T-VEC represents a novel potential therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma. © 2015 by

  12. In Pichia pastoris, growth rate regulates protein synthesis and secretion, mating and stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebnegger, Corinna; Graf, Alexandra B; Valli, Minoska; Steiger, Matthias G; Gasser, Brigitte; Maurer, Michael; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2014-04-01

    Protein production in yeasts is related to the specific growth rate μ. To elucidate on this correlation, we studied the transcriptome of Pichia pastoris at different specific growth rates by cultivating a strain secreting human serum albumin at μ = 0.015 to 0.15 h(-1) in glucose-limited chemostats. Genome-wide regulation revealed that translation-related as well as mitochondrial genes were upregulated with increasing μ, while autophagy and other proteolytic processes, carbon source-responsive genes and other targets of the TOR pathway as well as many transcriptional regulators were downregulated at higher μ. Mating and sporulation genes were most active at intermediate μ of 0.05 and 0.075 h(-1) . At very slow growth (μ = 0.015 h(-1) ) gene regulation differs significantly, affecting many transporters and glucose sensing. Analysis of a subset of genes related to protein folding and secretion reveals that unfolded protein response targets such as translocation, endoplasmic reticulum genes, and cytosolic chaperones are upregulated with increasing growth rate while proteolytic degradation of secretory proteins is downregulated. We conclude that a high μ positively affects specific protein secretion rates by acting on multiple cellular processes. © 2014 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs Licence, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non- commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  13. The Effect of Incentives and Other Instructor-Driven Strategies to Increase Online Student Evaluation Response Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, James; Anson, Robert; Belcheir, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Course evaluations (often termed student evaluations of teaching or SETs) are pervasive in higher education. As SETs increasingly shift from pencil-and-paper to online, concerns grow over the lower response rates that typically accompany online SETs. This study of online SET response rates examined data from 678 faculty respondents and student…

  14. Income distribution and mortality in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lindholm

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The hypothesis that a high income inequality on a societal level is associated with poor health outcomes has been both rejected and accepted in empirical studies. Whether the influence of economic circumstances on health operates at the individual level or societal level has important implications on policy and intervention alternatives. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between income inequality and mortality in Swedish municipalities and if the relationship varies depending on the mean income or on the time-lag between income inequality and mortality.

    Methods: The study was based on register data on mean income and income inequality (Gini coefficients from Statistics Sweden 1982 and 1998, aggregated on the municipality level. Data on age-standardised death rates per 100,000 persons were obtained for 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2002. The analysis on 1998 was a test of the robustness of the results.

    Results: The relationship between high income inequality in 1982 and mortality in 1983 was negative with a similar relationship in 1998. Using latency periods, the results show a decreasing trend of mortality in relation to higher Gini coefficients. A positive relationship between Gini and mean income implies that municipalities with larger income distribution also had a higher mean income and vice versa.

    Conclusions: High income inequality does not have a negative effect on mortality in Swedish municipalities. The municipalities with high income inequality have also high mean income as opposed to many other countries. The income level seems to be more substantial for mortality than the income inequality.

  15. Introducing Micro-finance in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    The case describes the first year of efforts to introduce microfinance as a tool to work with vulnerable groups in Sweden, more particularly ex-convicts, former drug-addicts and longterm unemployed women of immigrant background. The teaching objective is to discuss whether micro-finance can be seen...... as a tool to catalyze social change in developed welfare states such as Sweden, or if it rather reinforces the very power structures it aims to subvert. The author uses the case to analyse the efforts to introduce a new concept to wellestablished economic and social actors, as well as to understand...

  16. Health and social inequities in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1990-01-01

    Sweden is one of Europe's most egalitarian countries. The social inequities in living conditions have been gradually reduced to a level that is more equal than in most countries in Europe. Even if general health development has been positive during recent years, data reviewed here indicate...... that there may be adverse effects for some groups which may increase inequities. This article presents results on inequities in health from the Public Health Report of Sweden 1987 and discusses causal mechanisms and implications for health policy....

  17. The risk of type 1 diabetes among offspring of immigrant mothers in relation to the duration of residency in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussen, Hozan Ismael; Moradi, Tahereh; Persson, Martina

    2015-05-01

    The risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increased in the second compared with the first generation of immigrants in Sweden. We investigated the effect of the mother's duration of stay in Sweden on the risk of T1DM in the offspring. Using data from national registries, we identified all subjects with T1DM among 984,798 children born in Sweden (aged 0-18 years) between 1992 and 2009. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CI were estimated using Poisson regression. Offspring of mothers living in Sweden for up to 5 years had a 22% lower risk of T1DM (adjusted IRR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63-0.96) compared with offspring of mothers living in Sweden for 11 years or more. The risk increased with the mother's duration of stay in Sweden. Our findings support the hypothesis that immigration to Sweden is associated with exposure to new environmental factors that contribute to the development of T1DM in genetically susceptible individuals. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Participation rates, response bias and response behaviours in the community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Christine; Segerer, Wolfgang; Gemperli, Armin; Brinkhof, Martin W G

    2015-10-08

    Surveying persons with disabilities is challenging, as targeted subjects may experience specific barriers to survey participation. Here we report on participation rates and response behaviour in a community survey of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland. The cross-sectional survey was implemented as part of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI) and represents the largest population-based SCI survey in Europe including nearly 2000 persons. Design features to enhance participation rates included the division of the questionnaire volume over three successive modules; recurrent and mixed-mode reminding of non-responders; and mixed-mode options for response. We describe participation rates of the SwiSCI community survey (absolute and cumulative cooperation, contact, response, and attrition rates) and report on response rates in relation to recruitment efforts. Potential non-response bias and the association between responders' characteristics and response behaviour (response speed: reminding until participation; response mode: paper-pencil vs. online completion) were assessed using regression modelling. Over the successive modules, absolute response rates were 61.1, 80.6 and 87.3% which resulted in cumulative response rates of 49.3 and 42.6% for the second and third modules. Written reminders effectively increased response rates, with the first reminder showing the largest impact. Telephone reminders, partly with direct telephone interviewing, enhanced response rate to the first module, but were essentially redundant in subsequent modules. Non-response to the main module was related to current age, membership of Swiss Paraplegic Association (SPA) and time since injury, but not to gender, lesion level and preferred language of response. Response speed increased with household income, but was not associated to other sociodemographic factors, lesion characteristics or health indicators. We found significant associations between online completion

  19. Method of administration affects adolescent post-immunization survey response rate: phone, paper, internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielak, Karen L; Buxton, Jane; McIntyre, Cheryl; Tu, Andrew; Botnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The recent introduction of new vaccines into the school-based immunization program in British Columbia (BC) included monitoring of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) for these new vaccines. This commentary discusses different methods used to collect AEFIs in school immunization campaigns and the effects on response rate. The results of a study using an internet-based tool inspired this paper. The study examined adverse events following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine given to grades 6 and 9 students. The low response rate of the internet survey resulted in insufficient findings regarding adverse events. Consequent to the analysis of the study's data, a literature review was conducted to examine survey methodologies used to collect adverse event data following school-based immunization of adolescents. A PubMed search used various combinations of the following terms: vaccine, immunization, immunization programs, reactogenicity, adverse reactions, safety, adolescent, schoolchildren, and survey. Potentially relevant papers were identified based upon the titles and abstracts and subsequently reviewed. Only four studies were deemed appropriate for comparison purposes: all were done in Canada.

  20. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell R Bennett

    Full Text Available Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular connections.

  1. Depressive dimensions and item response analysis of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Virginia; Santos, Borja; Yllá, Luis; Bulbena, Antoni; Bilbao, Juan; Fernández, Esther; de Lazarraga, Isabel Pérez; González-Pinto, Ana M; González-Pinto, Asunción

    2012-05-01

    Most patients having eating disorders (EDs) experience depressive symptoms. To date, there have been few reports about the different depressive dimensions in EDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the dimensions of depressive symptoms and highlight the distribution of the symptoms. The psychometric properties of these measures were tested using item response theory methods. A total of 103 consecutively admitted inpatients and outpatients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Fourth Edition, criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and EDs not otherwise specified were rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). A factor analysis of the HDRS-17 was carried out with the Cf-varimax rotation. Factor analysis showed 2 independent and clinically interpretable factors corresponding to "anxious depression" and "somatic complaints" that constituted the core of depression. For the HDRS-17, item response theory analyses revealed that most of the items were maximally related to the core concept of depression and provided a good functioning. The 17 items were distributed in almost the same way as in the factor analyses found by other authors with different clinical groups. We conclude therefore that for the sample of EDs, 2 factors constitute the core symptoms of depression and most of the items provided a good functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia blunts heart rate responses and alters neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Jameson, Heather; Dergacheva, Olga; Jain, Vivek; Alhusayyen, Mona; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-07-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea experience chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia (CIHH) during sleep that elicit sympathetic overactivity and diminished parasympathetic activity to the heart, leading to hypertension and depressed baroreflex sensitivity. The parasympathetic control of heart rate arises from pre-motor cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) located in nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX). The mechanisms underlying diminished vagal control of heart rate were investigated by studying the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and neurotransmission to CVNs evoked by acute hypoxia-hypercapnia (H-H) and CIHH. In vivo telemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in adult rats during 4 weeks of CIHH exposure. Retrogradely labelled CVNs were identified in an in vitro brainstem slice preparation obtained from adult rats exposed either to air or CIHH for 4 weeks. Postsynaptic inhibitory or excitatory currents were recorded using whole cell voltage clamp techniques. Rats exposed to CIHH had increases in blood pressure, leading to hypertension, and blunted heart rate responses to acute H-H. CIHH induced an increase in GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA and DMNX, respectively; and a reduction in glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs in both nuclei. CIHH blunted the bradycardia evoked by acute H-H and abolished the acute H-H evoked inhibition of GABAergic transmission while enhancing glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA. These changes with CIHH inhibit CVNs and vagal outflow to the heart, both in acute and chronic exposures to H-H, resulting in diminished levels of cardioprotective parasympathetic activity to the heart as seen in OSA patients. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  3. Numbering questionnaires had no impact on the response rate and only a slight influence on the response content of a patient safety culture survey: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundig, François; Staines, Anthony; Kinge, Thompson; Perneger, Thomas V

    2011-11-01

    In self-completed surveys, anonymous questionnaires are sometimes numbered so as to avoid sending reminders to initial nonrespondents. This number may be perceived as a threat to confidentiality by some respondents, which may reduce the response rate, or cause social desirability bias. In this study, we evaluated whether using nonnumbered vs. numbered questionnaires influenced the response rate and the response content. During a patient safety culture survey, we randomized participants into two groups: one received an anonymous nonnumbered questionnaire and the other a numbered questionnaire. We compared the survey response rates and distributions of the responses for the 42-questionnaire items across the two groups. Response rates were similar in the two groups (nonnumbered, 75.2%; numbered, 72.8%; difference, 2.4%; P=0.28). Five of the 42 questions had statistically significant differences in distributions, but these differences were small. Unexpectedly, in all five instances, the patient safety culture ratings were more favorable in the nonnumbered group. Numbering of mailed questionnaires had no impact on the response rate. Numbering influenced significantly the response content of several items, but these differences were small and ran against the hypothesis of social desirability bias. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  5. Cancer Mortality by Country of Birth, Sex, and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden, 1961–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth. PMID:24682217

  6. GERD assessment including pH metry predicts a high response rate to PPI standard therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandulski Arne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is reported in up to 40%. Patients with non erosive reflux disease (NERD have lower response rates compared to patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD; pH metry contributes to GERD diagnosis and is critical for proper diagnosis of NERD. Aim of the study was to assess the need for doubling esomeprazole standard dose (40 mg for 4 weeks in PPI naive patients with typical reflux symptoms and diagnosis of GERD based on endoscopy and 48 hours, wireless pH metry. Methods All patients underwent upper GI endoscopy. Symptoms were recorded with a structured questionnaire (RDQ and acid exposure was determined by 48 hours, wireless pH monitoring (BRAVO. In case of abnormal acid exposure, patients received a short term treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg q.d. for 4 weeks. If symptoms persisted, patients underwent a second pH metry on PPI and the dose was increased to 40 mg b.i.d. Results 31 consecutive patients with typical reflux symptoms underwent 48 hours pH monitoring. 22 patients (71% had abnormal acid exposure, 9 patients had normal pH metry (29%. Of the 9 patients with normal pH metry, 2 were found with erosive esophagitis and 7 without endoscopic abnormalities. 24 patients with documented GERD received esomeprazole treatment. 21 patients achieved complete symptom resolution with 40 mg q.d. after 4 weeks (88%. Only 2 patients required doubling the dose of esomeprazole for complete symptom resolution, 1 patient remained with symptoms. Conclusions Patients with typical reflux symptoms and abnormal acid exposure have a high response rate to standard dose esomeprazole regardless of whether they have ERD or NERD.

  7. Differences in heart rate response to adenosine and regadenoson in patients with and without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Fadi G; Heo, Jaekyeong; Franks, Billy; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Brent; Wang, Whedy; Iskandrian, Ami E

    2009-04-01

    Adenosine and regadenoson increase heart rate (HR) when used as stress agents to produce coronary hyperemia due to direct sympathetic stimulation. We hypothesized that the HR response will be lower in patients with than in those without diabetes mellitus (DM). We studied the HR response (percentage maximal increase) in 2,000 patients in The ADenoscan Versus regAdenosoN Comparative Evaluation for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (ADVANCE MPI 1 and 2) Trials with known DM status. There were 643 patients with a history of DM (65.4 +/- 0.4 years, 32% women) and 1,357 patients with no DM (65.5 +/- 0.3 years, 29% women). Compared with non-DM, the DM group had higher HR at baseline (68.4 +/- 0.48 vs 65.2 +/- 0.31 beat/min, P adenosine or regadenoson administration (29.4% +/- 0.64% vs 36.1% +/- 0.54%, P adenosine and regadenoson in patients with DM is blunted. If additional studies confer an agreement between traditional tests for determination of autonomic neuropathy and this measure, then examination of HR response to these agents during myocardial perfusion imaging might add prognostic power.

  8. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert [Uppsala University, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of {sup 137}Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of {sup 137}Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of {sup 137}Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of {sup 137}Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with

  9. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  10. Profile of match performance and heart rate response in Japanese amputee soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehana, Hirofumi; Miyamoto, Aya; Koshiyama, Kenichi; Tanaka Yanagiya, Toshio; Yoshimura, Masafumi

    2017-05-05

    The purpose of this study was to profile the match performance and heart rate response in Japanese amputee soccer. Twelve amputee soccer players participated in this study. Match data were collected 20 samples in 4 matches. Match performances data such as total distance, high-intensity running (HIR: ≥13km·h-1) were collected using a global positioning systems technology. Heart rate (HR) was recorded using short-range radio telemetry. In addition, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed immediately using Borg's original after the first half and the second half. This study showed that the distance covered over the 50 minutes of the match was 2984.2±56.1m, and it was significantly shorter in the second half than the first half (pamputee soccer. Results of this study indicated that the exercise intensity was high in amputee soccer. It would be considered that causes were amputee soccer own rules and exercise style. These findings would serve as the reference when advance the future studies of amputee soccer.

  11. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)); Kahlbom, U. (RiskPilot AB (Sweden)); Rollenhagen, C. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    The project aimed at studying the concept of nuclear safety culture and the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The project also aimed at looking how the power companies and the regulators view the current responsibilities and role of subcontractors in the Nordic nuclear safety culture as well as to inspect the special demands for safety culture in subcontracting chains. Interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16) during 2009. Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). Results gave insight into the nature and evaluation of safety culture in the nuclear industry. Results illustrated that there is a wide variety of views on matters that are considered important for nuclear safety within the Nordic nuclear community. However, the interviewees considered quite uniformly such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Results also gave insight into the characteristics of Nordic nuclear culture. Various differences in safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were uncovered. In addition to the differences, historical reasons for the development of the nuclear safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were pointed out. Finally, results gave implications that on the one hand subcontractors can bring new ideas and improvements to the plants' practices, but on the other hand the assurance of necessary safety attitudes and competence of the subcontracting companies and their employees is considered as a challenge. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide understanding of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a willingness to continuously develop one's competence and understanding. An effective and resilient nuclear safety culture has to foster a constant

  12. Mobility of Knowledge as a Recognition Challenge: Experiences from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the tensions between mobility, knowledge and recognition, and what the impact of migration could be on lifelong education and society. This is discussed with the case of Sweden as the starting point. The main issue in Sweden concerning migration is the admission of refugees. Sweden has had a relatively open policy…

  13. Recommodification, Unemployment, and Health Inequalities: Trends in England and Sweden 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrants, Kristin; Bambra, Clare; Nylen, Lotta; Kasim, Adetayo; Burstrom, Bo; Hunter, David

    2016-01-01

    Recommodification, the withdrawal of social welfare, has been going on for some decades in both Sweden and England. Recommodification disproportionately affects the unemployed because of their weak market position. We investigated the impact recommodification has had on health inequalities between the employed and unemployed in Sweden and England. Using national surveys, odds ratios for the likelihood of reporting less than good health between the employed and unemployed were computed annually between 1991 and 2011. The correlation between these odds ratios and net replacement rates was then examined. Health inequalities between the employed and unemployed were greater in 2011 than in 1991 in both countries. Sweden began with smaller health inequalities, but by 2011, they were in line with those in England. Sweden experienced more recommodification than England during this period, although it started from a much less commodified position. Correspondingly, correlation between unemployment benefit generosity and health inequalities was stronger in Sweden than in England. Recommodification is linked to ill health among the unemployed and to the health gap between the employed and unemployed. We propose that further recommodification will be associated with increased health inequalities between the employed and unemployed. © IMechE 2016.

  14. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Rivaroxaban in the Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begum, N.; Stephens, S.; Schoeman, O.; Fraschke, A.; Kirsch, B.; Briere, J.B.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Hout, B.A. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, coronary heart disease accounts for 7 million deaths each year. In Sweden, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of hospitalization and is responsible for 1 in 4 deaths. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg

  15. Stroke in young adults in northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Bo Traberg

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. To study different aspects of cerebral venous and arterial occlusive disease including cerebrospinalfluid hydrodynamics, epidemiology, aetiology, genetics, metabolic and haemostatic disorders, andcognitive function in young adults in Northern Sweden. Methods. Cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics were investigated with a constant pressure infusion methodin patients with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Ten patients were studied with serial examinations, upto 15 years after the onse...

  16. Aeolian dunes of south-central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardson, Martin; Alexanderson, Helena

    2017-04-01

    South-central Sweden is home to a number of small, inactive inland dune fields formed on former glaciofluvial deltas. A characteristic of these dune fields is the generally transverse shape of the dunes, in stark contrast to the rest of Sweden where parabolic dunes are the most common type. One of these dune fields is Bonäsheden in the county of Dalarna. It is the largest continuous dune field in Sweden and covers an area of approximately 15.5 km2. The dune field has the last few years been the target of thorough investigations utilising LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) based remote sensing, ground-penetrating radar, luminescence dating and sedimentological field investigations. The results show that the dunes of Bonäsheden and the adjacent dune field of Skattungheden formed mainly by north-westerly winds shortly after the deglaciation of this part of Sweden (10.5 ka), and subsequent events of dune formation were uncommon. Some later episodes of sand drift did occur, but only as minor coversand deposition. The dune field has had a more complex formation than previously thought; a shift in the wind pattern around 10 ka seems to have caused subsequent dunes to have formed by more westerly winds. The reason for this is still not determined, but the increased distance to the Scandinavian Ice Sheet would lessen the capacity of katabatic winds to influence the dune field.

  17. Toy Libraries in Sweden in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marianne; And Others

    Public and private organizations have developed toy libraries in Sweden for children with disabilities and children in need of special support for their development. Toy libraries have become places where parents can acquire advice with regard to play, meet a pedagogue with experience with children with handicaps, and meet other parents with the…

  18. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  19. Reconsidering School Politics: Educational Controversies in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredholm, Axel

    2017-01-01

    School politics in Sweden has recently moved in a conservative direction, emphasising the importance of conventional school subjects, stronger teacher authority and more discipline in the classroom. At the same time, consensus on the utility of such measures is lacking in the school debate. The conservative approach is often criticised as…

  20. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  1. Educational Careers for Gifted Students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    1998-01-01

    A study of the 10% most able students in Sweden (n=744) found entrance into higher education was influenced by the choice of program in upper secondary school, the marks received, the students' attitudes to school, and satisfaction with their performance. Parental and teacher support had an influence on males. (CR)

  2. Arm vs. Combined Leg and Arm Exercise: Blood Pressure Responses and Ratings of Perceived Exertion at the Same Indirectly Determined Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Di Blasio; Andrea Sablone; Paola Civino; Emanuele D'Angelo; Sabina Gallina; Patrizio Ripari

    2009-01-01

    Pre-participation screening is very important for prescribing and practising exercise safely. The aim of this study was to investigate both ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood pressure responses in two different types of exercises with matching duration and indirectly determined working heart rate (HR). Participants were 23 male students, who were generally healthy but sedentary. The time course of their RPE and blood pressure during a 50- minute work-out session on an arm crank erg...

  3. Response of Acala Cotton to Nitrogen Rates in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Hutmacher

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The responses of Acala cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. in California to a range of applied nitrogen (N treatments were investigated in a 5-year, multisite experiment. The experiment’s goals were to identify crop growth and yield responses to applied N and provide information to better assess the utility of soil residual N estimates in improving fertilizer management. Baseline fertilizer application rates for the lowest applied N treatments were based on residual soil nitrate-N (NO3-N levels determined on soil samples from the upper 0.6 m of the soil collected prior to spring N fertilization and within 1 week postplanting each year. Results have shown positive cotton lint yield responses to increases in applied N across the 56 to 224 kg N/ha range in only 41% (16 out of 39 of test sites. Soil NO3-N monitoring to a depth of 2.4 m in the spring (after planting and fall (postharvest indicate most changes in soil NO3- occur within the upper 1.2 m of soil. However, some sites (those most prone to leaching losses of soluble nutrients also exhibited net increases in soil NO3-N in the 1.2- to 2.4-m depth zone when comparing planting time vs. postharvest data. The lack of yield responses and soil NO3-N accumulations at some sites indicate that more efforts should be put into identifying the amount of plant N requirements that can be met from residual soil N, rather than solely from fertilizer N applications.

  4. Blood lactate, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion responses of elite surf lifesavers to high-performance competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Wade H; Kerr, Rebecca M; Spinks, Warwick L; Leicht, Anthony S

    2009-01-01

    A paucity of empirical research exists into surf lifesaving competition from which coaches and athletes may formulate training and recovery strategies. Seventeen (male=9; female=8) high-performance surf lifesavers (21.2+/-3.9 years) contested multiple rounds of team and individual events at a 2-day surf lifesaving competition. Individual events consisted of the multi-discipline ironman (IRON), paddle board (BOARD) and surf swim (SWIM). Blood lactate (BLa), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were determined following heats, semi-finals and final. IRON HR and RPE following semi-finals (153.0+/-21.6beatsmin(-1) and 14.4+/-1.5) and final (171.0+/-9.1beatsmin(-1) and 19.1+/-0.2) were greater than heats (141.8+/-17.2beatsmin(-1) and 12.0+/-1.9; psurf lifesavers employ race strategies with all-out maximal exercise limited to semi-finals and finals.

  5. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    : More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level......: In 2000, two cross-sectional samples of 8562 public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark were surveyed. The study outcome, self-reported number of sick-leave days the year preceding interview, was dichotomized into 7 days or less, and more than 7 days. Chi square test was used to analyse distribution......AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS...

  6. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup: A response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris A.

    2017-01-01

    We recently analyzed long-term (1951–2011) continental band-recovery data from lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and demonstrated that harvest rates declined through time, but annual survival rates exhibited no such trends; moreover, annual harvest and survival rates were uncorrelated for all age-sex classes. We therefore concluded that declining fecundity was most likely responsible for recent population declines, rather than changes in harvest or survival. Lindberg et al. (2017) critiqued our conclusions, arguing that we did little more than fail to reject a null hypothesis of compensatory mortality, postulated ecologically unrealistic changes in fecundity, and failed to give sufficient consideration to additive harvest mortality. Herein, we re-summarize our original evidence indicating that harvest has been compensatory, or at most weakly additive, and demonstrate that our analysis had sufficient power to detect strongly additive mortality if it occurred. We further demonstrate that our conclusions were not confounded by population size, band loss, or individual heterogeneity, as suggested by Lindberg et al. (2017), and we provide additional support for our conjecture that low fecundity played a major role in declining scaup populations during 1983–2006. We therefore reiterate our original management recommendations: given low harvest rates and lack of demonstrable effect on scaup survival, harvest regulations could return to more liberal frameworks, and waterfowl biologists should work together to continue banding lesser scaup and use these data to explore alternative hypotheses to identify the true ecological causes of population change, given that it is unlikely to be excessive harvest. 

  7. Heart rate and lactate response of junior handball players (Under 18 during competitive match play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Gupta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study highlights the heart rate (HR and blood lactate (La response of junior handball players of two positions – wings and backs, during competitive matches. Methods: Heart rate and blood lactate of twelve handball players – 6 Backs (B and 6 Wingers (W] – were recorded in quarter- and semifinal matches of the tournament. HR was recorded continuously by heart rate telemeter whereas La was measured at rest, after warm up and immediately after the end of first- and second halves of the matches. Results: Average HR and Maximum Heart Rate Reserve (MHRR of the players were similar in each half of play. No significant difference (p<0.05 in average HR and MHRR were observed between B (169±17.5 beats/min and 74.3±9.4% and W (169.5±16.3 beats/min and 74.1±8.5%. W and B played about 1/5th of their playing time above the Anerobic Threshold level. Average HR of the players in each 5 min of play could vary significantly but no such difference per 15 min of play was found. Lactate of W and B after the first half of play were 7.4±1.6 and 7.2±1.5 mM and after the end of the matches were 7.9±0.4 and 7.6±1.4 mM respectively. No significant difference in La was found between W and B. Conclusion: (a Handball play is a high intensity game, (b the workload does not vary between W and B, (c the intensity of play could vary in every 5 min of play but there is no difference in average intensity for each 15 min, and (d handball is played aerobically for majority of the time.

  8. The therapeutic effect of clinical trials: understanding placebo response rates in clinical trials – A secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walach Harald

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Placebo response rates in clinical trials vary considerably and are observed frequently. For new drugs it can be difficult to prove effectiveness superior to placebo. It is unclear what contributes to improvement in the placebo groups. We wanted to clarify, what elements of clinical trials determine placebo variability. Methods We analysed a representative sample of 141 published long-term trials (randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled; duration > 12 weeks to find out what study characteristics predict placebo response rates in various diseases. Correlational and regression analyses with study characteristics and placebo response rates were carried out. Results We found a high and significant correlation between placebo and treatment response rate across diseases (r = .78; p Conclusion Medication response rates and placebo response rates in clinical trials are highly correlated. Trial characteristics can explain some portion of the variance in placebo healing rates in RCTs. Placebo response in trials is only partially due to methodological artefacts and only partially dependent on the diagnoses treated.

  9. Physiological and morphological responses of Ischaemum rugosum Salisb. (wrinkled grass to different nitrogen rates and rice seeding rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Hussain Awan

    Full Text Available Ischaemum rugosum is a competitive weed in direct-seeded rice systems. Developing integrated weed management strategies that promote the suppression of weeds by crop density, cultivar selection, and nutrition requires better understanding of the extent to which rice interferes with the growth of this weed and how it responds to resource limitation due to rice interference. The growth of I. rugosum was studied when grown with four rice seeding rates (0, 25, 50, and 100 kg ha(-1 and four nitrogen (N rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1. Compared to the weed plants grown alone, weed tiller number was reduced by 63-80%, leaf number by 68-77%, leaf area by 69-77%, leaf biomass by 72-84%, and inflorescence biomass by 81-93% at the rice seeding rates of 25-100 kg ha(-1. All these parameters increased with increasing rates of N from 0 to 150 kg ha(-1. At weed maturity, I. rugosum plants were 100% taller than rice at 0 kg N ha(-1, whereas, with added N, the weeds were only 50% taller than rice. Weed biomass increased by 82-160%, whereas rice biomass increased by 92-229%, with the application of 50-150 kg N ha(-1. Added N favored rice biomass production more than it did the weed. Rice interference reduced the height and biomass of I. rugosum, but did not suppress its growth completely. I. rugosum showed the ability to reduce the effects of rice interference by increasing leaf area, leaf weight ratio, and specific leaf area, and by decreasing the root-shoot weight ratio in comparison to the weed plants grown alone. The results suggest that rice crop interference alone may reduce I. rugosum growth but may not provide complete control of this weed. The need for integrated weed management practices to effectively control this weed species is highlighted.

  10. Ecosystem Respiration Rates of Arctic Tundra Mesocosms in Response to Cold-Season Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbauer, S. F.; Moser, J. G.; Olivas, P. C.; Starr, G.; Mortazavi, B.

    2013-12-01

    temperature, showing an exponential-type response that closely fit a second order polynomial (r2>0.95) and the Arrhenius equation (r2 > 0.92). The Q10 values estimated with the Arrhenius equation at 10 °C intervals over the span of measured temperatures ranged from 4.8 to 6.1, with a decrease in Q10 with increased temperature. These results correspond to a ~20% increase in ER for a 1 °C increase in temperature at subzero temperatures. Given the already substantial increase in temperatures on the North Slope of Alaska over the last century (~ 2.9 °C), respiration rates during winter, though low, have likely already importantly increased.

  11. Durable response rate as an endpoint in cancer immunotherapy: insights from oncolytic virus clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Howard L; Andtbacka, Robert H I; Collichio, Frances A; Wolf, Michael; Zhao, Zhongyun; Shilkrut, Mark; Puzanov, Igor; Ross, Merrick

    2017-09-19

    Traditional response criteria may be insufficient to characterize full clinical benefits of anticancer immunotherapies. Consequently, endpoints such as durable response rate (DRR; a continuous response [complete or partial objective response] beginning within 12 months of treatment and lasting ≥6 months) have been employed. There has not, however, been validation that DRR correlates with other more traditional endpoints of clinical benefit such as overall survival. We evaluated whether DRR was associated with clinically meaningful measures of benefit (eg, overall survival [OS], quality of life [QoL], or treatment-free interval [TFI]) in a phase 3 clinical trial of an oncolytic virus for melanoma treatment. To evaluate the association between DRR and OS and to mitigate lead time bias, landmark analyses were used. QoL was evaluated using the FACT-BRM questionnaire (comprising the FACT-BRM Physical, Social/Family, Emotional, and Functional well-being domains, the Additional Concerns, Physical and Mental treatment-specific subscales, and the Trial Outcome Index [TOI]). TFI was defined as time from the last study therapy dose to first subsequent therapy dose (including any systemic anticancer therapy for melanoma after study therapy discontinuation). Four hundred thirty-six patients were included in the intent-to-treat population. Achieving DR was associated with a statistically significant improvement in OS in a landmark analysis at 9 months (HR = 0.07; P = 0.0003), 12 months (HR = 0.05, P < 0.0001), and 18 months (HR = 0.11; P = 0.0002) that persisted after adjusting for disease stage and line of therapy. Achieving a DR was associated with a longer median TFI (HR = 0.33; P = 0.0007) and a higher TOI improvement rate (58.1% versus 30.0%; P = 0.025). Achieving a DR was associated with clinical benefits such as improved OS and QoL and prolonged TFI, thus supporting the usefulness of DR as a meaningful immunotherapy clinical trial

  12. The self-reported use of research in clinical practice: a survey of occupational therapists in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wressle, Ewa; Samuelsson, Kersti

    2015-05-01

    Today, healthcare providers and occupational therapists are increasingly required to rely on evidence-based practices. In both outpatient and inpatient settings, the use of research-based practices can be identified using the Research Utilization Measure questionnaire. This study explores how occupational therapists in Sweden perceive research utilization. The Research Utilization Measure was sent to 807 randomly selected occupational therapists in Sweden, and the response rate was 59% (n = 472). The majority of respondents (56%, n = 256) reported use of research-based knowledge in their practice "very or rather often", although 49% (n = 225) of the therapists noted that they "very seldom or never" discussed research findings with their managers. Differences in answers for most items were related to degree of education and length of experience. Occupational therapists with higher education levels more often reported use of research in their clinical practice and therapists with greater experience less often reported use of research in their clinical practice. Education seems to influence the degree to which occupational therapists rely on research to inform their practices. A future challenge for managers and occupational therapists is to create strategic discussions on how to implement treatment that is based on current research.

  13. Adding Postal Follow-Up to a Web-Based Survey of Primary Care and Gastroenterology Clinic Physician Chiefs Improved Response Rates but not Response Quality or Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Melissa R; Powell, Adam A; Burgess, Diana J; Haggstrom, David A; Gravely, Amy A; Halek, Krysten; Bangerter, Ann; Shaukat, Aasma; Nelson, David B

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed whether postal follow-up to a web-based physician survey improves response rates, response quality, and representativeness. We recruited primary care and gastroenterology chiefs at 125 Veterans Affairs medical facilities to complete a 10-min web-based survey on colorectal cancer screening and diagnostic practices in 2010. We compared response rates, response errors, and representativeness in the primary care and gastroenterology samples before and after adding postal follow-up. Adding postal follow-up increased response rates by 20-25 percentage points; markedly greater increases than predicted from a third e-mail reminder. In the gastroenterology sample, the mean number of response errors made by web responders (0.25) was significantly smaller than the mean number made by postal responders (2.18), and web responders provided significantly longer responses to open-ended questions. There were no significant differences in these outcomes in the primary care sample. Adequate representativeness was achieved before postal follow-up in both samples, as indicated by the lack of significant differences between web responders and the recruitment population on facility characteristics. We conclude adding postal follow-up to this web-based physician leader survey improved response rates but not response quality or representativeness. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Low Complexity Encoder of High Rate Irregular QC-LDPC Codes for Partial Response Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMTAWIL, V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available High rate irregular QC-LDPC codes based on circulant permutation matrices, for efficient encoder implementation, are proposed in this article. The structure of the code is an approximate lower triangular matrix. In addition, we present two novel efficient encoding techniques for generating redundant bits. The complexity of the encoder implementation depends on the number of parity bits of the code for the one-stage encoding and the length of the code for the two-stage encoding. The advantage of both encoding techniques is that few XOR-gates are used in the encoder implementation. Simulation results on partial response channels also show that the BER performance of the proposed code has gain over other QC-LDPC codes.

  15. Enhancing Response Rates in Physician Surveys: The Limited Utility of Electronic Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Keith; Chapman, Kathryn; Shaw, Thomas; Perkins, Allen; Sullivan, Margaret Murray; Crutchfield, Susan; Reed, Eddie

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of offering physicians electronic options as alternatives to completing mail questionnaires. Data Source A survey of colorectal cancer screening practices of Alabama primary care physicians, conducted May–June 2010. Study Design In the follow-up to a mail questionnaire, physicians were offered options of completing surveys by telephone, fax, email, or online. Data Collection Method Detailed records were kept on the timing and mode of completion of surveys. Principal Findings Eighty-eight percent of surveys were returned by mail, 10 percent were returned by fax, and only 2 percent were completed online; none were completed by telephone or email. Conclusions Offering fax options increases response rates, but providing other electronic options does not. PMID:21492157

  16. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Gear Weight Under a Controlled Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derella, Cassandra C; Aichele, Kristin R; Oakman, Joyann E; Cromwell, Christina M; Hill, Jessica A; Chavis, Lauren N; Perez, Avery N; Getty, Allyson K; Wisdo, Tia R; Feairheller, Deborah L

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effects of personal protective equipment (PPE) weight on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), between volunteer firefighters (FF) and athletes. Athletes and FF were matched by body size and came to the lab twice for two treadmill tests. The "Regular" test was completed in normal fitness clothing, and PPE test was completed in full structural PPE with monitoring of HR assessment every minute and BP each stage. In the FF cohort, all submaximal HR and BP levels were different. HRmax and VO2max were also different (all P < 0.05). In athletes, HRmax was higher in Regular test than PPE. Future research should examine the effect of different PPE weights on HR and BP responses.

  17. A comparative study of educational inequality in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-01-01

    in Finland was relatively stable. Conclusions There were persisting educational inequalities in stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the 1980s and 1990s. Inequalities were stable or decreasing except in Sweden, where an increase in inequality was observed. This increase was not solely......Background The stillbirth rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are among the lowest in the world, but socioeconomic disparities in stillbirth still exist. This study examined the educational patterns in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. Methods...... socioeconomic factors from various national registers. Linear and logistic regression were used to calculate RR and risk differences for stillbirth according to maternal educational attainment. Results The risk of stillbirth was lowest in Finland and highest in Denmark. The risk decreased over time in Denmark...

  18. Cross-over trial of fetal heart rate response to halogen light and vibroacoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Jay M; Garcia, Greg; Fletcher, Beverly G; Rayburn, William F

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of halogen light and vibroacoustic stimulation on fetal heart rate (FHR) responsiveness and on nonstress test (NST) results. Sixty consecutively-chosen patients between 33 and 39 weeks of gestation underwent an NST on at least three weekly occasions. Each received halogen light (Vector Compact Sport Spot, Ft Lauderdale, FL, USA), vibroacoustic (SolaTone Artificial Larynx, Temecula, CA, USA), and no stimulation in a randomized order. The transabdominal light or vibroacoustic stimulation lasted for 10 seconds. If no initial FHR acceleration occurred, then the stimulus was repeated 10 minutes later up to a maximum of three times. The investigators who interpreted the FHR patterns were blinded as to the type of stimulus used. Reactive results were present in 171 tests (vibroacoustic: 98.3%; light: 96.6%; none: 93.3%). Compared with no stimulation, the mean difference in time from the onset of recorded "stimulation" to the first FHR acceleration was shorter (p vibroacoustic stimulation (2.6 minutes, 95% CI 0.8-4.4 minutes). The mean time difference until a reactive result was also shorter (p vibroacoustic stimulation (2.4 minutes, 95% CI 0.1-4.7 minutes) than with no stimulation. The need for repeated stimulation during each test was infrequent (light: 5.0%; vibroacoustic: 3.3%). No adverse effect from external stimulation was noted on the FHR tracing. Halogen light stimulation is an acceptable alternative to vibroacoustic stimulation in provoking a more rapid fetal heart rate response and in shortening the time before a reactive nonstress test result.

  19. Environmental legislation and the regulation of waste management in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This study examines the regulatory aspects of waste management in Sweden, with a particular emphasis on regulating organic compounds produced by waste-to-energy facilities. Since the early 1960s, waste-to-energy has played a significant role in managing waste in Sweden. In 1993, more than 50% of the municipal solid waste available for treatment or disposal following source separation efforts was processed in one of the 21 waste-to-energy facilities operating in Sweden. This report examines Sweden`s regulatory environment, its history of setting emission limits on waste management facilities, and the current status of regulations.

  20. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.

  1. A radiotelemetry system for analyzing heart rate responses during playback experiments in blackbirds (Turdus merula ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, P; Helb, H W; Koch, U T; Lösch, M

    1986-12-01

    In acoustical stimulus-response tests on European blackbirds (Turdus merula ) in cages and an outdoor aviary, alteration in heart rate (HR) was used to measure reaction strenght. HR was measured by radiotelemetry. The miniature transmitters newly developed for this task had to fulfill the following requirements: Simultaneous recordings of HR in several interacting animals; uninterrupted transmission of HR signals, sufficient range and battery life combined with low weight and easy handling properties. The miniature transmitters successfully used in this experiment had a quartz-stabilized oscillator. They weighed between 4.1 and 5.2 g and had a range of 3 m and a lifetime of 72 hrs (circuit diagram, Fig.1). The transmitted signal corresponded to a unitary impulse representing the S-wave of the ECG (Fig. 4b). Implanted electrodes were used to record ECG potentials. The transmitter was carried by the birds like a small rucksack tied to their backs. Electrode implantation and transmitter installation are described in detail. HR signals stored on audio tape were later transformed to frequency curves on a chart recorder (Fig. 3, 4a). Typical HR response curves are shown (Fig. 5). Statistical analysis of the data was performed on a DEC-PDP-11 computer using a special set of programs. The system has been successfully used to provide answers to experimental questions not previously obtainable with classical methods. Copyright © 1986. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Evaluation of Stress Response During Mesiodens Extraction Under General Anesthesia Using Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye-Won; Hyun, Hong-Keun; Kim, Young-Jae; Kim, Jung-Wook; Shin, Teo Jeon

    2017-05-01

    Stress related to dental treatment can be associated with negative outcomes. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective measurement of autonomic nervous system activity. Therefore, HRV was used to identify autonomic nervous system reactions during mesiodens extraction under general anesthesia in children. Electrocardiography was performed with customized software during treatment. HRV parameters were analyzed according to time and frequency domains during each dental procedure (local anesthesia, incision, flap, bone removal, extraction of mesiodens, and suturing). The relations of HRV parameters to age also were determined. Total autonomic nervous system activity decreased markedly after local anesthesia injection. Depending on the responses of sympathetic nerve activity, patients were categorized in a stress group and a nonstress group. The ratio of low-frequency power (LF) to high-frequency power (HF), an indication of sympathetic and parasympathetic balance, increased in the stress group after incision and flap formation. Conversely, the LF/HF ratio decreased during treatment in the nonstress group. However, HR, widely used to evaluate stress responses, did not change statistically during mesiodens extraction in either group. HRV parameters did not differ statistically according to age. The internal stress related to mesiodens extraction can be evaluated more objectively with HRV parameters than with conventional methods. Sympathetic nerve activity in the stress group differed from that in the nonstress group during the treatment procedures. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dropout Rates and Response Times of an Occupation Search Tree in a Web Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijdens Kea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Occupation is key in socioeconomic research. As in other survey modes, most web surveys use an open-ended question for occupation, though the absence of interviewers elicits unidentifiable or aggregated responses. Unlike other modes, web surveys can use a search tree with an occupation database. They are hardly ever used, but this may change due to technical advancements. This article evaluates a three-step search tree with 1,700 occupational titles, used in the 2010 multilingual WageIndicator web survey for UK, Belgium and Netherlands (22,990 observations. Dropout rates are high; in Step 1 due to unemployed respondents judging the question not to be adequate, and in Step 3 due to search tree item length. Median response times are substantial due to search tree item length, dropout in the next step and invalid occupations ticked. Overall the validity of the occupation data is rather good, 1.7-7.5% of the respondents completing the search tree have ticked an invalid occupation.

  4. The effect of a monetary incentive for administrative assistants on the survey response rate: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnav Agarwal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sufficient evidence that monetary incentives are effective in increasing survey response rates in the general population as well as with physicians. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a monetary incentive intended for administrative assistants on the survey response rate of physicians in leadership positions. Methods This was an ancillary study to a national survey of chairs of academic Departments of Medicine in the United States about measuring faculty productivity. We randomized survey participants to receive or not receive a $5 gift card enclosed in the survey package. The cover letter explained that the gift card was intended for the administrative assistants as a “thank you for their time.” We compared the response rates between the 2 study arms using the Chi-square test. Results Out of 152 participants to whom survey packages were mailed to, a total of 78 responses were received (51 % response rate. The response rates were 59 % in the incentive arm and 46 % in the no incentive arm. The relative effect of the incentive compared to no monetary incentive was borderline statistically significant (relative risk (RR = 1.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.99 to 1.87; p = 0.055. Conclusion Monetary incentives intended for administrative assistants likely increase the response rate of physicians in leadership positions.

  5. Heart rate response and parasympathetic modulation during recovery from exercise in boys and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilkey, Justin P; Overstreet, Matthew; Fernhall, Bo; Mahon, Anthony D

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of postexercise parasympathetic modulation, measured by heart rate variability (HRV), on heart rate recovery (HRR) in boys (n = 13, 10.1 ± 0.8 years) and men (n = 13, 23.9 ± 1.5 years) following maximal and submaximal exercise. Subjects completed 10 min of supine rest, followed by graded exercise on a cycle ergometer to maximal effort. On a separate day, subjects exercised at an intensity equivalent to ventilatory threshold. Immediately following both exercise bouts, 1-min HRR was assessed in the supine position. HRV was analyzed under controlled breathing during the final 5 min of rest and recovery in the time and frequency domains and transformed to natural log (ln) values. Boys had a greater 1-min HRR than men following maximal (58 ± 8 vs. 47 ± 11 beats·min(-1)) and submaximal (59 ± 8 vs. 47 ± 15 beats·min(-1)) exercise (p 0.05). In conclusion, it appears that greater parasympathetic modulation accounts for greater HRR following maximal exercise in boys versus men. Although submaximal HRR was greater in boys, parasympathetic responses were similar between groups.

  6. Oxygen consumption and heart rate responses to isolated ballet exercise sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Dos Santos Cunha, Giovani; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Follmer, Bruno; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Ballet stage performances are associated with higher cardiorespiratory demand than rehearsals and classes. Hence, new interest is emerging to create periodized training that enhances dancers' fitness while minimizing delayed exercise-induced fatigue and possible injuries. Finding out in what zones of intensity dancers work during different ballet movements may support the use of supplemental training adjusted to the needs of the individual dancer. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to describe dancers' oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) responses during the performance of nine isolated ballet exercise sets, as correlated with their first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2). Twelve female ballet dancers volunteered for the study. Their maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), VT1, and VT2 were determined by use of an incremental treadmill test. Nine sets of ballet movements were assessed: pliés, tendus, jetés, rond de jambes, fondus, grand adage (adage), grand battements, temps levés, and sautés. The sets were randomly executed and separated by 5 minute rest periods. ANOVA for repeated measurements followed by the Bonferroni Post-hoc test were applied (p ballet sets. This stratification followed closely, but not exactly, the variation in HR. For example, rond de jambes (156.8 ± 19 b·min(-1)) did not show any significant difference from all the other ballet sets, nor VT1 or VT2. It is concluded that the workloads of isolated ballet sets, based on VO2 responses, vary between low and moderate aerobic intensity in relation to dancers' VT1 and VT2. However, ballet set workloads may be higher when based on HR responses, due to the intermittent and isometric components of dance.

  7. Heart rate and lactate responses to taekwondo fight in elite women performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cardinale

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LA concentration before, during and after a competitive Tae kwon do (TKD fight performed by elite women performers. Specifically, we were interested to see weather HR and LA responses to competitive fight were greater than to TKD or karate exercises published in scientific literature. Seven international-standard women TKD fighters participated in the study. HR was recorded continuously throughout the fight using Polar Vantage telemetric HR monitors. LA samples were taken before and 3 min after the fight and analysed using an Accusport portable lactate analyzer. At the beginning of the fight, HR significantly increased (p<0.01 from pre-fight values of 91.6±9.9 beats min-1 to 144.1±13.6 beats min-1. During the whole fight the HRmean was 186.6±2.5 beats min-1 and remained significantly elevated (p<0.01 at 3 min into recovery. HR values expressed as a percentage of HRmax averaged during the whole fight at 91.7±2.6% respectively. LA concentration significantly increased (p<0.01 3 min after the fight and averaged 82% of LApeak values measured after the VO2max test. Results of the present study indicate that physiological demands of competitive TKD fight in women, measured by HR and LA responses, are considerably higher than the physiological demands of TKD or karate training exercises. The observed HR and LA responses suggest to us that conditioning for TKD should generally emphasise high-intensity anaerobic exercise.

  8. Effects of Tai Chi rehabilitation on heart rate responses in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rei-Yeuh; Koo, Malcolm; Kan, Chung-Ben; Yu, Zer-Ran; Chu, I-Tseng; Hsu, Chen-Tung; Chen, Cheng-Yun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a six-month Tai Chi (TC) exercise cardiac rehabilitation program on two prognostic factors of cardiac events, rate-pressure product and rate-pressure product reserve, in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients (N = 54) with CAD were recruited from the clinics of cardiology and cardiovascular surgery at a regional hospital in Taiwan. Twenty-two of them enrolled in the TC rehabilitation program which consisted of weekly 90-min sessions of Yang's style TC for six months in addition to receiving usual care. The remaining 32 patients received usual care only. Modified Bruce treadmill exercise test was performed to evaluate their exercise test responses at baseline and at six months. The change over time was significantly different between the TC and control group in peak rate-pressure product (RPP) (interaction between group and time, p = 0.029) and in RPP reserve (interaction between group and time p = 0.009) over the six-month period, there was a decrease in peak RPP of 32.0 mmHg x bpm x 10(-2) and in RPP reserve of 37.4 mmHg x bpm x 10(-2) in the TC group. In conclusion, participating in a six-month TC exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program was associated with improved peak RPP and RPP reserve during exercise testing in patients with CAD. TC exercise program may lead to a better prognosis for cardiac events in patients with CAD.

  9. Clinical experience of a new rate drop response algorithm in the treatment of vasovagal and carotid sinus syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, J B; Bexton, R S; Simonsen, E H; Markowitz, T; Erickson, M K

    2000-07-01

    Dual chamber pacing has proven beneficial in patients with sudden drops in heart rate as seen in vasovagal syncope and carotid sinus syndrome. Newer algorithms for faster detection of an insidious drop in heart rate and short lasting intervention pacing at a high rate, as in the rate drop response algorithm in the Medtronic Kappa series of pacemakers, might improve the effect of pacing. Two case reports, that demonstrate the use of these rate drop response algorithms, are presented. A 24-year-old woman with recurrent episodes of syncope and repeated tilt-table tests with vasovagal cardioinhibitory outcomes had a Medtronic Kappa 400 pacemaker implanted. Syncope was abolished during repeat tilt-table testing following pacemaker implantation and proper functioning of the rate drop response algorithm. The patient has been free of syncope during follow-up apart from a single episode that occurred due to neglect of vasovagal warning symptoms. A 52-year-old man with coronary artery disease developed recurrent blackouts. Carotid sinus massage resulted in 5.5 s of asystole and presyncope. A Medtronic Kappa 700 pacemaker with a rate drop response algorithm was implanted and the patient became asymptomatic. The rate drop response algorithm is discussed in detail based upon the case reports, and recommendations are given for the use of this algorithm in patients with vasovagal syncope and carotid sinus syndrome.

  10. Simulated response of conterminous United States ecosystems to climate change at different levels of fire suppression, CO2 emission rate, and growth response to CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Lenihan; Dominique Bachelet; Ronald P. Neilson; Raymond Drapek

    2008-01-01

    A modeling experiment was designed to investigate the impact of fire management, CO2 emission rate, and the growth response to CO2 on the response of ecosystems in the conterminous United States to climate scenarios produced by three different general circulation models (GCMs) as simulated by the MCl Dynamic General...

  11. Understanding the effect of response rate and class size interaction on students evaluation of teaching in a higher education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design...

  12. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.

    2015-12-01

    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c836-rapport.pdf Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  13. Entry into motherhood in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available On the background of the dramatic swings in the Swedish TFR since the mid-1980s we present a first attempt at assessing the impact of labor-market trends on the timing of the first birth based on individual-level register data covering all Swedish women born in 1950 or later. Among our covariates we have each woman's income, partitioned into any income earned from work, any unemployment benefits, and any public support for educational activities. We also have employment trends in her home municipality. The latter variables are included for every relevant year. We find that first-birth rates rose and fell in step with municipal employment levels. The effect is especially strong for young women, and the decline in first birth during the 1990s was concentrated primarily among women aged below 30. First-birth rates increased with a woman's earned income. Unemployed women did not have particularly low first-birth rates, but students did.

  14. Relict Mountain Permafrost Area (Loess Plateau, China) Exhibits High Ecosystem Respiration Rates and Accelerating Rates in Response to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Cuicui; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Qian; Smoak, Joseph M.; Yang, Yulong; Hu, Lian; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Guimin; Xu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tingjun

    2017-10-01

    Relict permafrost regions are characterized by thin permafrost and relatively high temperatures. Understanding the ecosystem respiration rate (ERR) and its relationship with soil hydrothermal conditions in these areas can provide knowledge regarding the permafrost carbon cycle in a warming world. In this study, we examined a permafrost area, a boundary area, and a seasonally frozen ground area within a relict permafrost region on the east edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Measurements from July 2015 to September 2016 showed that the mean annual ecosystem CO2 emissions for the boundary area were greater than the permafrost area. The Q10 value of the ERRs in the seasonally frozen ground area was greater than the permafrost area, indicating that the carbon emissions in the nonpermafrost areas were more sensitive to warming. The 1 year open-top chamber (OTC) warming increased soil temperatures in both the permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas throughout the year, and the warming increased the ERRs by 1.18 (0.99-1.38, with interquartile range) and 1.13 (0.75-1.54, with interquartile range) μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas, respectively. The OTC warming increased annual ERRs by approximately 50% for both permafrost and seasonally frozen ground areas with half the increase occurring during the nongrowing seasons. These results suggest that the ERRs in relict permafrost are high in comparison with arctic regions, and the carbon balance in relict permafrost areas could be greatly changed by climate warming.

  15. Interpretation of response categories in patient-reported rating scales: a controlled study among people with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutsson Ida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unambiguous interpretation of ordered rating scale response categories requires distinct meanings of category labels. Also, summation of item responses into total scores assumes equal intervals between categories. While studies have identified problems with rating scale response category functioning there is a paucity of empirical studies regarding how respondents interpret response categories. We investigated the interpretation of commonly used rating scale response categories and attempted to identify distinct and roughly equally spaced response categories for patient-reported rating scales in Parkinson's disease (PD and age-matched control subjects. Methods Twenty-one rating scale response categories representing frequency, intensity and level of agreement were presented in random order to 51 people with PD (36 men; mean age, 66 years and 36 age-matched controls (14 men; mean age, 66. Respondents indicated their interpretation of each category on 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS anchored by Never - Always, Not at all - Extremely, and Totally disagree - Completely agree. VAS values were compared between groups, and response categories with mean values and non-overlapping 95% CIs corresponding to equally spaced locations on the VAS line were sought to identify the best options for three-, four-, five-, and six-category scales. Results VAS values did not differ between the PD and control samples (P = 0.286 or according to educational level (P = 0.220, age (P = 0.220, self-reported physical functioning (P = 0.501 and mental health (P = 0.238, or (for the PD sample PD duration (P = 0.213 or presence of dyskinesias (P = 0.212. Attempts to identify roughly equally spaced response categories for three-, four-, five-, and six-category scales were unsuccessful, as the 95% CIs of one or several of the identified response categories failed to include the criterion values for equal distances. Conclusions This study offers an evidence

  16. Dissociation of temporal dynamics of heart rate and blood pressure responses elicited by conditioned fear but not acoustic startle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tovote, P.; Meyer, M.; Pilz, P.K.D.; Ronnenberg, A.; Ögren, S.O.; Stiedl, O.

    2005-01-01

    Fear-inducing stimuli were hypothesized to elicit fast heart rate (HR) responses but slow mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) responses and thus were studied in auditory fear conditioning and acoustic startle at high temporal resolution in freely moving mice and rats. Fear-induced instantaneous

  17. Psychiatric symptoms and response quality to self-rated personality tests: Evidence from the PsyCoLaus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Rudaz, Dominique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Capel, Roland; Vandeleur, Caroline L

    2017-06-01

    Despite the fact that research has demonstrated consistent associations between self-rated measures of personality dimensions and mental disorders, little has been undertaken to investigate the relation between psychiatric symptoms and response patterns to self-rated tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychiatric symptoms and response quality using indices from our functional method. A sample of 1,784 participants from a Swiss population-based cohort completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and a symptom checklist of 90 items (SCL-90-R). Different indices of response quality were calculated based on the responses given to the NEO-FFI. Associations among the responses to indices of response quality, sociodemographic characteristics and the SCL-90-R dimensions were then established. Psychiatric symptoms were associated with several important differences in response quality, questioning subjects' ability to provide valid information using self-rated instruments. As suggested by authors, psychiatric symptoms seem associated with differences in personality scores. Nonetheless, our study shows that symptoms are also related to differences in terms of response patterns as sources of differences in personality scores. This could constitute a bias for clinical assessment. Future studies could still determine whether certain subpopulations of subjects are more unable to provide valid information to self-rated questionnaires than others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Intratesticular and subcutaneous lidocaine alters the intraoperative haemodynamic responses and heart rate variability in male cats undergoing castration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldal, E.R.; Eriksen, T.; Kirpensteijn, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189846992; Nødtvedt, A.; Kristensen, A.T.; Sparta, F.M.; Haga, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of intratesticular and subcutaneous lidocaine in alleviating the intraoperative nociceptive response to castration, measured by pulse rate (PR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), and to test the applicability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in

  19. Heart Rate Profiles of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder in Response to Physical Play: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Wadsworth, Danielle W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the heart rate response of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to outdoor free play sessions during preschool was examined. Participants (n = 7; four children with ASD and three children who show typical development) wore Actiheart heart rate monitors during 6 school days. Using a single-subject design,…

  20. [Serious silicosis still exits in Sweden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, Bengt; Svartengren, Magnus

    2015-12-01

    Many measures have been taken in Sweden to eliminate the occurrence of serious silicosis. However, between 1997 and 2013 there were 111 deaths with silicosis as underlying cause, 110 men and 1 woman. In most cases the deceased was rather old; only fourteen persons were below 74 years of age. We have studied the exposure between 2007 and 2012 in the 71 persons who died of silicosis as underlying or contributing cause through medical records. We could find information regarding 48 of them. Ten persons worked in mines, 10 in stone industry, 14 with crushing or blasting of rock, 4 in foundries, 3 were concrete workers and 7 suffered exposure in other industries.  The study shows that the measures taken in Sweden have not been sufficient to totally eliminate serious silicosis.

  1. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  2. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenström, Jonas; Lindberg, Peter; Helander, Björn; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Herrmann, Björn; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  3. Blunted heart rate recovery is associated with exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Umuttan; Duzenli, Mehmet Akif; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Gok, Hasan

    2013-11-01

    Increased sympathetic activity and endothelial dysfunction are the proposed mechanisms underlying exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise (EBPR). However, data regarding heart rate behavior in patients with EBPR are lacking. We hypothesized that heart rate recovery (HRR) could be impaired in patients with EBPR. A total of 75 normotensive subjects who were referred for exercise treadmill test examination and experienced EBPR were included to this cross-sectional case-control study. The control group consisted of 75 age- and gender-matched normotensive subjects without EBPR. EBPR was defined as a peak exercise systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥210 mmHg in men and ≥190 mmHg in women. HRR was defined as the difference in HR from peak exercise to 1 min in recovery; abnormal HRR was defined as ≤12 beats/min. These parameters were compared with respect to occurrence of EBPR. Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP at baseline, peak exercise, and the first minute of the recovery were significantly higher in the subjects with EBPR. Mean HRR values were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in subjects with EBPR when compared with those without. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the decrease in systolic BP during the recovery and degree of HRR in individuals without EBPR (r = 0.42, P < 0.001). Such a correlation was not observed in subjects with EBPR (r = 0.11, P = 0.34). The percentage of abnormal HRR indicating impaired parasympathetic reactivation was higher in subjects with EBPR (29 % vs 13 %, P = 0.02). In logistic regression analyses, HRR and resting systolic BP were the only determinants associated with the occurrence of EBPR (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Decreased HRR was observed in normotensive individuals with EBPR. In subjects with normal BP response to exercise, a linear correlation existed between the degree of HRR and decrease in systolic BP during the recovery period. However, such a correlation

  4. Strong Treatment Response and High Maintenance Rates of Clozapine in Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasoff, Lauren I; Ahn, Kwangmi; Gochman, Peter; Broadnax, Diane D; Rapoport, Judith L

    2016-06-01

    Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare but severe form of the disorder, which is often treatment refractory. Short-term studies have indicated a greater differential efficacy, evident through effect sizes, favoring clozapine over other agents in alleviating negative symptoms in COS patients compared with adult-onset patients (AOS). There have been no data for COS patients on long-term compliance with clozapine treatment. Therefore, we wanted to know, over a span of up to 24 years, how many of our COS cohort had remained on clozapine for at least 2 years. We review short-term treatment data and present updated long-term data on compliance and functioning for our patients. We present the results for long-term medication maintenance over a 24 year observation period for our cohort of 131 patients. Of this cohort, 91.6% (120) were available for follow-up information from either in-person or telephone contact with the patient and/or family members. We defined clozapine compliance as ≥2 years receiving this medication and doing well. We were able to contact 120 of the 131 patients. In spite of the additional cost and inconvenience of regular blood monitoring, 87 patients (72.5%, 87/120) adhered to long-term clozapine maintenance therapy with dosages ranging from 50 to 900 mg, and a median dosage of 500 mg. This rate exceeds the long-term clozapine maintenance rates reported for AOS patients. Short-term data on differential efficacy and long-term maintenance data suggest a possibly greater efficacy of clozapine, relative to other antipsychotics, in COS than in AOS. Our overall findings indicate that very early-onset schizophrenic patients may be more responsive to clozapine. This extends other support for clozapine as an option in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia.

  5. Loss of lag-response curvilinearity of indices of heart rate variability in congestive heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Tushar P; Smith, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) is known to be impaired in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Time-domain analysis of ECG signals traditionally relies heavily on linear indices of an essentially non-linear phenomenon. Poincaré plots are commonly used to study non-linear behavior of physiologic signals. Lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information and analysis of Poincaré plots for various lags can provide interesting insights into the autonomic control of the heart. Methods Using Poincaré plot analysis, we assessed whether the relation of the lag between heart beats and HRV is altered in CHF. We studied the influence of lag on estimates of Poincaré plot indices for various lengths of beat sequence in a public domain data set (PhysioNet) of 29 subjects with CHF and 54 subjects with normal sinus rhythm. Results A curvilinear association was observed between lag and Poincaré plot indices (SD1, SD2, SDLD and SD1/SD2 ratio) in normal subjects even for a small sequence of 50 beats (p value for quadratic term 3 × 10-5, 0.002, 3.5 × 10-5 and 0.0003, respectively). This curvilinearity was lost in patients with CHF even after exploring sequences up to 50,000 beats (p values for quadratic term > 0.5). Conclusion Since lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information, these analyses provide insights into the autonomic control of heart rate that is influenced by the non-linearity of the signal. The differences in lag-response in CHF patients and normal subjects exist even in the face of the treatment received by the CHF patients. PMID:16768800

  6. Impact of The Endometrioma on Ovarian Response and Pregnancy Rate in In Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ovarian endometrioma on ovarian stimulation outcomes in in vitro fertilization cycles (IVF. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed 103 patients who underwent intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI procedures over a 24-months period. The study group consisted of 47 infertile women with either unilateral or bilateral ovarian endometrial cysts of less than 3 cm. The control group consisting of 57 patients with mild male factor infertility was candidate for ICSI treatment during the same time period as the study groups. Both groups were compared for number of oocytes retrieved, grades of oocytes, as well as embryo quantity and quality. Results: Our results showed similar follicle numbers, good embryo grades (A or B and pregnancy rates in the compared groups. However, patients with endometrioma had higher gonadotropin consumption than the control group. The mean number of retrieved oocytes in patients with endometrioma was significantly lower than control group (6.6 ± 3.74 vs. 10.4 ± 5.25 (p<0.001. In addition, patients with endometrioma had significantly lower numbers of metaphase II (MII oocytes (5 ± 3.21 than controls (8.2 ± 5.4 (p<0.001. In patients with unilateral endometrioma, there were no significant differences in main outcome measures between normal and involved ovaries in the patients with endometrioma. Conclusion: Patients with ovarian endometrioma had poor outcome. They showed poor ovarian response with lower total numbers of retrieved oocytes and lower MII oocytes during the stimulation phase; however, it does not affect the total number of embryos transferred per patient, quality of embryos, and pregnancy rate per patient.

  7. Loss of lag-response curvilinearity of indices of heart rate variability in congestive heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Michael L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart rate variability (HRV is known to be impaired in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF. Time-domain analysis of ECG signals traditionally relies heavily on linear indices of an essentially non-linear phenomenon. Poincaré plots are commonly used to study non-linear behavior of physiologic signals. Lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information and analysis of Poincaré plots for various lags can provide interesting insights into the autonomic control of the heart. Methods Using Poincaré plot analysis, we assessed whether the relation of the lag between heart beats and HRV is altered in CHF. We studied the influence of lag on estimates of Poincaré plot indices for various lengths of beat sequence in a public domain data set (PhysioNet of 29 subjects with CHF and 54 subjects with normal sinus rhythm. Results A curvilinear association was observed between lag and Poincaré plot indices (SD1, SD2, SDLD and SD1/SD2 ratio in normal subjects even for a small sequence of 50 beats (p value for quadratic term 3 × 10-5, 0.002, 3.5 × 10-5 and 0.0003, respectively. This curvilinearity was lost in patients with CHF even after exploring sequences up to 50,000 beats (p values for quadratic term > 0.5. Conclusion Since lagged Poincaré plots incorporate autocovariance information, these analyses provide insights into the autonomic control of heart rate that is influenced by the non-linearity of the signal. The differences in lag-response in CHF patients and normal subjects exist even in the face of the treatment received by the CHF patients.

  8. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Hård af Segerstad, Carl; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Ingemar Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway a...

  9. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Kerry A. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, J. Steve [Savannah River National Laboratory; Chandler, Greg T. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Iyer, Natraj C. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Hackney, B. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Leduc, Dan R. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  10. Female Professors in Sweden and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Anett

    2003-01-01

    The Research Training Network “Women in European Universities” focuses on career opportunities of women in higher education in seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). Within the frame of this network different aspects of career perspectives of women – and also men – are investigated. In a first working step a context analysis was conducted in order to give an understanding of the different systems of higher education, their changes an...

  11. Travel Behaviour of Online Shoppers in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hiselius Lena Winslott; Rosqvist Lena Smidfelt; Adell Emeli

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping opportunities are transforming travel behaviour for shopping and could potentially reduce the overall travel demand. Despite numerous studies on online shopping, only a few have taken an approach that includes trips for all travel purposes. Based on a web–survey, this paper provides results on travel behaviour for physical shopping for frequent, regular, and infrequent online shoppers in Sweden. The results indicate that frequent online shoppers make as many car trips (for bot...

  12. Sweden picks site for waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear power-plant operators in Sweden have selected a site where they can permanently store the country's spent nuclear fuel. The repository would be located 500 m below ground at Forsmark, roughly 200km north of Stockholm, which is already home to a nuclear power plant. The decision was taken after two decades of study by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), which is owned by the country's nuclear firms.

  13. Tag-based Heart Rate Measurements of Harbor Porpoises During Normal and Noise-exposed Dives to Study Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    nitrogen management and can provide information on the level of stress the animals routinely experience. Here we examine the dive heart rate...ventilation rate and activity in both captive and wild porpoise to better understand the dive response and how it may be overruled by noise exposure. We...acoustic data in captive and wild harbor porpoises. The specific objectives are 1) Quantify the physiological (heart and ventilation rates) and behavioral

  14. Lidocaine response rate in aEEG-confirmed neonatal seizures: Retrospective study of 413 full-term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeke, Lauren C; Toet, Mona C; van Rooij, Linda G M; Groenendaal, Floris; Boylan, Geraldine B; Pressler, Ronit M; Hellström-Westas, Lena; van den Broek, Marcel P H; de Vries, Linda S

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the seizure response rate to lidocaine in a large cohort of infants who received lidocaine as second- or third-line antiepileptic drug (AED) for neonatal seizures. Full-term (n = 319) and preterm (n = 94) infants, who received lidocaine for neonatal seizures confirmed on amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), were studied retrospectively (January 1992-December 2012). Based on aEEG findings, the response was defined as good (>4 h no seizures, no need for rescue medication); intermediate (0-2 h no seizures, but rescue medication needed after 2-4 h); or no clear response (rescue medication needed Lidocaine had a good or intermediate effect in 71.4%. The response rate was significantly lower in preterm (55.3%) than in full-term infants (76.1%, p lidocaine was significantly better than midazolam as second-line AED (21.4% vs. 12.7%, p = 0.049), and there was a trend for a higher response rate as third-line AED (67.6% vs. 57%, p = 0.086). Both lidocaine and midazolam had a higher response rate as third-line AED than as second-line AED (p lidocaine were the following: higher gestational age, longer time between start of first seizure and administration of lidocaine, lidocaine as third-line AED, use of new lidocaine regimens, diagnosis of stroke, use of digital aEEG, and hypothermia. Multivariable analysis of seizure response to lidocaine included lidocaine as second- or third-line AED and seizure etiology. Seizure response to lidocaine was seen in ~70%. The response rate was influenced by gestational age, underlying etiology, and timing of administration. Lidocaine had a significantly higher response rate than midazolam as second-line AED, and there was a trend for a higher response rate as third-line AED. Both lidocaine and midazolam had a higher response rate as third-line compared to second-line AED, which could be due to a pharmacologic synergistic mechanism between the two drugs. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Sweden 2013: Data From the National Quality Register for ECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanskog, Pia; Hultén, Martin; Landén, Mikael; Lundberg, Johan; von Knorring, Lars; Nordenskjöld, Axel

    2015-12-01

    The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) varies across countries. The aim of this study was to describe and explore the use of ECT in Sweden in 2013. The Swedish mandatory patient register of the National Board of Health and Welfare includes information on diagnoses and treatments, including ECT. All 56 hospitals that provide ECT in Sweden also report to the nonmandatory national quality register for ECT, which contains information on patient and treatment characteristics. In this study, we combined data from both registers. In addition, all hospitals responded to a survey concerning equipment and organization of ECT. We identified 3972 unique patients who received ECT in Sweden in 2013. This translates into 41 ECT-treated individuals per 100,000 inhabitants. Of these patients, 85% opted to participate in the quality register. The median age was 55 years (range, 15-94 years), and 63% were women. The indication was depression in 78% of the treatment series. Of 4 711 hospitalized patients with severe depression, 38% received ECT. The median number of treatments per index series was 7. Unilateral treatment was used in 86% of the series. In Sweden, ECT is used at a relatively high rate as compared with other western countries, and the rate was unchanged from the last survey in 1975. However, there is room for improvement in the specificity of use and availability of ECT for disorders where ECT is considered a first-line treatment.

  16. Response-guided induction therapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with excellent remission rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Jonas; Forestier, Erik; Heldrup, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course.......To evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course....

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 27: Flattening Filter Free VMAT Quality Assurance: Dose Rate Considerations for Detector Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viel, Francis; Duzenli, Cheryl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia (Canada); British Columbia Cancer Agency, Department of Medical Physics, Vancouver Centre (Canada); Camborde, Marie-Laure; Strgar, Vincent; Horwood, Ron; Atwal, Parmveer; Gete, Ermias [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Department of Medical Physics, Vancouver Centre (Canada); Karan, Tania [Stronach Regional Cancer Centre, Newmarket, ON (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Introduction: Radiation detector responses can be affected by dose rate. Due to higher dose per pulse and wider range of mu rates in FFF beams, detector responses should be characterized prior to implementation of QA protocols for FFF beams. During VMAT delivery, the MU rate may also vary dramatically within a treatment fraction. This study looks at the dose per pulse variation throughout a 3D volume for typical VMAT plans and the response characteristics for a variety of detectors, and makes recommendations on the design of QA protocols for FFF VMAT QA. Materials and Methods: Linac log file data and a simplified dose calculation algorithm are used to calculate dose per pulse for a variety of clinical VMAT plans, on a voxel by voxel basis, as a function of time in a cylindrical phantom. Diode and ion chamber array responses are characterized over the relevant range of dose per pulse and dose rate. Results: Dose per pulse ranges from <0.1 mGy/pulse to 1.5 mGy/pulse in a typical VMAT treatment delivery using the 10XFFF beam. Diode detector arrays demonstrate increased sensitivity to dose (+./− 3%) with increasing dose per pulse over this range. Ion chamber arrays demonstrate decreased sensitivity to dose (+/− 1%) with increasing dose rate over this range. Conclusions: QA protocols should be designed taking into consideration inherent changes in detector sensitivity with dose rate. Neglecting to account for changes in detector response with dose per pulse can lead to skewed QA results.

  18. Heart rate variability and inflammatory response in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zila, I; Mokra, D; Kopincova, J; Kolomaznik, M; Javorka, M; Calkovska, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate short-term heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of cardiac autonomic control in rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (100 microg/kg b.w.) and control group with an equivalent volume of saline. ECG recordings were done before (base) and 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after LPS or saline administration. HRV magnitude was quantified by time and frequency-domain analysis (mean RR interval, SDRR, RMSSD, spectral powers in low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands. Heart tissue homogenates and plasma were analyzed to determine interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and oxidative stress level (TBARS). Administration of lipopolysaccharide was followed by continuous rise in colonic body temperature compared to saline-treated controls. Endotoxemia in rats was accompanied by significant decrease in HRV spectral activity in high-frequency range at maximal body temperature (logHFpower: 1.2+/-0.5 vs. 1.9+/-0.6 ms(2), P<0.01). Increased IL-6 was found in heart tissue homogenates of LPS rats (8.0+/-0.6 vs. 26.4+/-4.8 pg/ml, (P<0.05). In conclusions, reduced HRV in HF band may indicate a decreased parasympathetic activity in LPS-induced endotoxemia as basic characteristics of altered cardiac control during response to endotoxemia.

  19. Selection of response criteria affects the success rate of oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tatsuya; Tsuiki, Satoru; Kobayashi, Mina; Nakayama, Hideaki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-03-01

    In oral appliance therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), treatment success is arbitrarily defined. We investigated if the selection of response criteria affected the success rate of oral appliance treatment. The effects of an oral appliance on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and nadir percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) were investigated in 224 OSA patients. Treatment success was defined as a reduction in AHI to 50% reduction in baseline AHI (criterion 1), a follow-up AHI of 50% reduction in baseline AHI (criterion 2), a >50% reduction in baseline AHI alone (criterion 3), or a >50% reduction in baseline AHI with the nadir SpO2 above 90% (criterion 4). The baseline AHI was reduced with an oral appliance in place compared with the follow-up value (23 ± 11-8.5 ± 8.7 events/h; Poral appliance treatment. To avoid adverse health outcomes, an adjunct definition of treatment success using SpO2 may be effective for patients who have more severe OSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal blood pressure and heart rate response to pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cristine H; Naldoni, Luciane M V; Ribeiro, Juliana Dos Santos; Meirelles, Maria Cristina C C; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Bø, Kari

    2014-07-01

    To assess whether maternal blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) change significantly in response to pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. Longitudinal exploratory study with repeated measurements. Twenty-seven nulliparous healthy women of mean age 23.3 years (range 18-36) and mean body mass index 23.4 (range 23.1-29.5). Individual supervised pelvic floor muscle training from gestational week 20 till 36 with assessment of BP and HR at gestational weeks 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured before and after each training session and HR was monitored during each session. Pelvic floor muscle training did not change BP. 77% (n = 21) of participants exceeded 70% of estimated maximum HR during at least one session. The time for exceeding 70% of estimated maximum HR was between 2.2 and 3.2 % of the total exercise session. Increases in BP and HR from gestational weeks 20 till 36 were within normal limits for pregnant women. Pelvic floor muscle training in nulliparous sedentary pregnant women does not increase BP. It significantly increases HR during the exercise sessions, but only for a limited period of time and with no negative long-term effect on BP or HR. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Lineup identification accuracy: The effects of alcohol, target presence, confidence ratings, and response time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kneller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the intoxication of many eyewitnesses at crime scenes, only four published studies to date have investigated the effects of alcohol intoxication on eyewitness identification performance. While one found intoxication significantly increased false identification rates from target absent showups, three found no such effect using the more traditional lineup procedure. The present study sought to further explore the effects of alcohol intoxication on identification performance and examine whether accurate decisions from intoxicated witnesses could be postdicted by confidence and response times. One hundred and twenty participants engaged in a study examining the effects of intoxication (control, placebo, and mild intoxication and target presence on identification performance. Participants viewed a simultaneous lineup one week after watching a mock crime video of a man attempting to steal cars. Ethanol intoxication (0.6 ml/kg was found to make no significant difference to identification accuracy and such identifications from intoxicated individuals were made no less confidently or slowly than those from sober witnesses. These results are discussed with respect to the previous research examining intoxicated witness identification accuracy and the misconceptions the criminal justice system holds about the accuracy of such witnesses.

  2. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and method to measure the functional dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kevin M [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can measure the parametric or functional response of a semiconductor device to exposure to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light. Comparisons of dose-rate response from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. The dependence of these changes on equivalent dose-rate pulse intensity and/or duration can be measured with the apparatus. The synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into the device under test can be used to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure while exposing the device to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light.

  3. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Adam; Schey, Carina; Dutton, Richard; Achana, Felix; Antonov, Karolina

    2014-02-13

    The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs.

  4. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013–2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. Methods A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. Results The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. Conclusion The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs. PMID:24524281

  5. An econometric analysis of regional differences in household waste collection: the case of plastic packaging waste in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Olle; Söderholm, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish producer responsibility ordinance mandates producers to collect and recycle packaging materials. This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analysis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policies, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors and environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, to be both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the monetary compensation from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used.

  6. A Conceptual Model for Projecting Coccolithophorid Growth, Calcification and Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation Rates in Response to Global Ocean Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A. Gafar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, light and carbonate chemistry all influence the growth, calcification and photosynthetic rates of coccolithophores to a similar degree. There have been multiple attempts to project the responses of coccolithophores to changes in carbonate chemistry, but the interaction with light and temperature remains elusive. Here we devise a simple conceptual model to derive a fit equation for coccolithophorid growth, photosynthetic and calcification rates in response to simultaneous changes in carbonate chemistry, temperature and light conditions. The fit equation is able to account for up to 88% of the variability in measured metabolic rates. Equation projections indicate that temperature, light and carbonate chemistry all have different modulating effects on both optimal growth conditions and the sensitivity of responses to extreme environmental conditions. Calculations suggest that a single extreme environmental condition (CO2, temperature, light will reduce maximum rates regardless of how optimal the other environmental conditions may be. Thus, while the response of coccolithophores to ocean change depends on multiple variables, the one which is least optimal will have the most impact on overall rates. Finally, responses to ocean change are usually reported in terms of cellular rates. However, changes in cellular rates can be a poor predictor for assessing changes in production at the community level. We therefore introduce a new metric, the calcium carbonate production potential (CCPP, which combines the independent effects of changes in growth rate and cellular calcium carbonate content to assess how environmental changes will impact coccolith production. Direct comparison of CO2 impacts on cellular CaCO3 production rates and CCPP shows that while the former is still at 45% of its pre-industrial capacity at 1,000 μatm, the latter is reduced to 10%.

  7. Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

    2003-06-27

    applications of NEOTRANS2, indicate that nonlinear threshold-type, dose-response relationships for excess stochastic effects (problematic nonlethal mutations, neoplastic transformation) should be expected after exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma rays or gamma rays in combination with high-LET alpha radiation. Similar thresholds are expected for low-dose-rate low-LET beta irradiation. We attribute the thresholds to low-dose, low-LET radiation induced protection against spontaneous mutations and neoplastic transformations. The protection is presumed mainly to involve selective elimination of problematic cells via apoptosis. Low-dose, low-LET radiation is presumed to trigger wide-area cell signaling, which in turn leads to problematic bystander cells (e.g., mutants, neoplastically transformed cells) selectively undergoing apoptosis. Thus, this protective bystander effect leads to selective elimination of problematic cells (a tissue cleansing process in vivo). However, this protective bystander effects is a different process from low-dose stimulation of the immune system. Low-dose, low-LET radiation stimulation of the immune system may explain why thresholds for inducing excess cancer appear much larger (possibly more than 100-fold larger) than thresholds for inducing excess mutations and neoplastic transformations, when the dose rate is low. For ionizing radiation, the current risk assessment paradigm is such that the relative risk (RR) is always ¡Ý 1, no matter how small the dose. Our research results indicate that for low-dose or low-dose-rate, low-LET irradiation, RR < 1 may be more the rule than the exception. Directly tied to the current RR paradigm are the billion-dollar cleanup costs for radionuclide-contaminated DOE sites. Our research results suggest that continued use of the current RR paradigm for which RR ¡Ý 1 could cause more harm than benefit to society (e.g., by spreading unwarranted fear about phantom excess risks associated with low-dose low

  8. Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Response of Injection-Molded Cenosphere/HDPE Syntactic Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath Kumar, B. R.; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-07-01

    High strain rate compressive properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix syntactic foams containing cenosphere filler are investigated. Thermoplastic matrix syntactic foams have not been studied extensively for high strain rate deformation response despite interest in them for lightweight underwater vehicle structures and consumer products. Quasi-static compression tests are conducted at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1 and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. Further, a split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized for characterizing syntactic foams for high strain rate compression. The compressive strength of syntactic foams is higher than that of HDPE resin at the same strain rate. Yield strength shows an increasing trend with strain rate. The average yield strength values at high strain rates are almost twice the values obtained at 10-4 s-1 for HDPE resin and syntactic foams. Theoretical models are used to estimate the effectiveness of cenospheres in reinforcing syntactic foams.

  9. Maximizing measurement efficiency of behavior rating scales using Item Response Theory: An example with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Christopher J; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2016-04-01

    Measurement efficiency is an important consideration when developing behavior rating scales for use in research and practice. Although most published scales have been developed within a Classical Test Theory (CTT) framework, Item Response Theory (IRT) offers several advantages for developing scales that maximize measurement efficiency. The current study provides an example of using IRT to maximize rating scale efficiency with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale (SSIS - TRS), a measure of student social skills frequently used in practice and research. Based on IRT analyses, 27 items from the Social Skills subscales and 14 items from the Problem Behavior subscales of the SSIS - TRS were identified as maximally efficient. In addition to maintaining similar content coverage to the published version, these sets of maximally efficient items demonstrated similar psychometric properties to the published SSIS - TRS. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Ekengren, Fredrik; Zagal Mach Wolfe, Ulla Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River....... Although in many ways unsuccessful and short-lived (the colony collapsed in 1656), New Sweden became a home for generations of colonists. This chapter focuses on the different aspects of their daily life: their longing and desperation, practices of homemaking and domesticating the landscape...

  11. Effect on survey response rate of hand written versus printed signature on a covering letter: randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN67566265

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayers Sarah

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important that response rates to postal surveys are as high as possible to ensure that the results are representative and to maximise statistical power. Previous research has suggested that any personalisation of approach helps to improve the response rate. This experiment tested whether personalising questionnaires by hand signing the covering letter improved the response rate compared with a non-personalised group where the investigator's signature on the covering letter was scanned into the document and printed. Methods Randomised controlled trial. Questionnaires about surgical techniques of caesarean section were mailed to 3,799 Members and Fellows of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists resident in the UK. Individuals were randomly allocated to receive a covering letter with either a computer printed signature or a hand written signature. Two reminders were sent to non-respondents. The outcome measures were the proportion of questionnaires returned and their time to return. Results The response rate was 79.1% (1506/1905 in the hand-signed group and 78.4% (1484/1894 in the scanned and printed signature group. There was no detectable difference between the groups in response rate or time taken to respond. Conclusion No advantage was detected to hand signing the covering letter accompanying a postal questionnaire to health professionals.

  12. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-15

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  13. Migrations of the Creative Class: Evidence from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Niedomysl, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    for other groups. The results, moreover, show that most migration activities for the creative class take place just after finishing university and that the creative class people move for jobs rather than place. The presented empirical findings of the article do not support central theoretical arguments...... competitive. This article focuses on the migration of the creative class in Sweden. Three questions, central to recent theoretical claims but until now overlooked, are addressed: (i) Do members of the creative class move more often compared to other migrant groups? (ii) Are they more selective...... in their destination choices, favouring regions with a favourable ‘people climate’? (iii) Do their reasons for migration differ from those of other migrant groups? Employing unique Swedish survey and register data, the results show that the migration rates of the creative class are only marginally higher than...

  14. When global rating of change contradicts observed change: Examining appraisal processes underlying paradoxical responses over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Powell, Victoria E; Rapkin, Bruce D

    2017-04-01

    Interpreting change scores is challenging when patients' global rating of change (GRC) scores contradict their observed change scores. We examine appraisal processes associated with having GRC-observed change contradictions. This secondary analysis of longitudinal multiple sclerosis (MS) registry data examined predictors of GRC scores in the whole sample (n = 858). Logistic modeling then examined predictors of membership in one of two paradoxical subgroups (n = 525): (a) Worsened GRC with unchanged observed Rand-12 Mental Component scores (MCS) (Symptom-Maximizers, n = 171) versus no change GRC among stable MCS subsample; and (b) same GRC with declined observed MCS scores (Symptom-Minimizers, n = 84) versus declining GRC among declining MCS subsample. Independent variables were cognitive appraisal processes from the Quality of Life (QOL) Appraisal Profile. GRC scores were more strongly associated with appraisal processes than with change in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (R 2 = 11 and 2 %, respectively). Symptom-Maximizers tended to focus on MS-related experiences and emphasize big changes; over time, they decreasingly defined QOL in terms of independence, increasingly focused on their MS, and increasingly compared themselves to doctor's predictions (Pseudo R 2 = 0.20). In contrast, Symptom-Minimizers tended not to recall recent episodes; over time, they focused increasingly on goals related to living situation and emphasized long-term concerns (Pseudo R 2 = 0.25). Appraisal explains more variance in GRC scores than do changes in PROs. People whose GRC assessment contradicts their observed change can be characterized by distinct cognitive appraisal processes reflecting response shift.

  15. Barometric pressure change and heart rate response during sleeping at 3000 m altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Handa, Yoko; Nose, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    We investigated effects of change in barometric pressure (P B) with climate change on heart rate (HR) during sleep at 3000 m altitude. Nineteen healthy adults (15 males and four females; mean age 32 years) participated in this study. We measured P B (barometry) and HR (electrocardiography) every minute during their overnight stay in a mountain lodge at 3000 m. We also measured resting arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and evaluated symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) by using the Lake Louise Questionnaire at 2305 and 3000 m, respectively. P B gradually decreased during the night at the speed of approximately - 0.5 hPa/h. We found that HR during sleep decreased linearly as P B decreased in all subjects, with significance (r = 0.492-0.893; all, P < 0.001). Moreover, cross correlation analysis revealed that HR started to decrease after 15 min following the decrease in P B, on average. SpO2 was 93.8 ± 1.7% at 2305 m before climbing, then decreased significantly to 90.2 ± 2.2% at the lodge before going to bed, and further decreased to 87.5 ± 2.7% after waking (all, P < 0.05). Four of the 19 subjects showed a symptom of AMS after waking (21%). Further, the decrease in HR in response to a given decrease in P B (ΔHR/ΔPB) was negatively related with a decrease in SpO2 from before going to bed to after waking at 3000 m (r = - 0.579, P = 0.009) and with total AMS scores after waking (r = 0.489, P = 0.033).

  16. Exposure-response analyses of blood pressure and heart rate changes for methylphenidate in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Yaning; Uppoor, Ramana S; Mehta, Mehul U; Farchione, Tiffany; Mathis, Mitchell V; Zhu, Hao

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the exposure-response (E-R) relationships of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) changes in healthy adults taking methylphenidate (MPH). Intensive time profiles of BP and HR from healthy adults in placebo and MPH treatment arms of seven clinical trials from the FDA internal database were utilized for this analysis. The analysis model contains a circadian component for placebo effect and an E-R component to describe drug effect. Internal validation was performed using goodness-of-fit plots and visual predictive check. A meta-database based on a systemic literature search was constructed and used for external validation of the developed models. We found that circadian models could quantify the time profiles of BP/HR in placebo arms. Linear models could describe the correlations between MPH concentrations, and BP/HR changes. The BP and HR changes were highly dependent on the shapes of MPH pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles without an apparent time delay. MPH has the greatest effect on HR, followed by systolic BP, and diastolic BP. Internal validation revealed that the developed models could adequately describe the circadian rhythms of HR and BP in placebo arms and the E-R relationships of MPH. External validation showed the models had good predictive capability of the literature data. In conclusion, the developed models adequately characterized the circadian rhythm and the MPH induced effects on BP and HR. The changes in BP and HR were highly correlated with MPH blood levels with no apparent delay. The time courses of BP and HR are similar to the MPH PK profiles. As a result, the immediate-release formulation may yield larger maximum BP and HR effect than the extended-release formulation under similar dose.

  17. Astroglial Pentose Phosphate Pathway Rates in Response to High-Glucose Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Takahashi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ROS (reactive oxygen species play an essential role in the pathophysiology of diabetes, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. Hyperglycaemia associated with diabetes enhances ROS production and causes oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells, but adverse effects of either acute or chronic high-glucose environments on brain parenchymal cells remain unclear. The PPP (pentose phosphate pathway and GSH participate in a major defence mechanism against ROS in brain, and we explored the role and regulation of the astroglial PPP in response to acute and chronic high-glucose environments. PPP activity was measured in cultured neurons and astroglia by determining the difference in rate of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and [6-14C]glucose. ROS production, mainly H2O2, and GSH were also assessed. Acutely elevated glucose concentrations in the culture media increased PPP activity and GSH level in astroglia, decreasing ROS production. Chronically elevated glucose environments also induced PPP activation. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that chronic high-glucose environments induced ER (endoplasmic reticulum stress (presumably through increased hexosamine biosynthetic pathway flux. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2, which regulates G6PDH (glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by enhancing transcription, was also observed in association with BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein expression. Acute and chronic high-glucose environments activated the PPP in astroglia, preventing ROS elevation. Therefore a rapid decrease in glucose level seems to enhance ROS toxicity, perhaps contributing to neural damage when insulin levels given to diabetic patients are not properly calibrated and plasma glucose levels are not adequately maintained. These findings may also explain the lack of evidence for clinical benefits from strict glycaemic control during the acute phase of stroke.

  18. Placebo response and remission rates in randomised trials of induction andmaintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jairath, Vipul; Zou, G. Y.; Parker, Claire E.; Macdonald, John K.; AlAmeel, Turki; Al Beshir, Mohammad; Almadi, Majid A.; Al-Taweel, Talal; Atkinson, Nathan S. S.; Biswas, Sujata; Chapman, Thomas; Dulai, Parambir S.; Glaire, Mark A.; Hoekman, Daniel R.; Koutsoumpas, Andreas; Minas, Elizabeth; Mosli, Mahmoud H.; Samaan, Mark; Khanna, Reena; Travis, Simon; D'Haens, Geert; Sandborn, William J.; Feagan, Brian G.

    2017-01-01

    Background It is important to minimize placebo rates in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to efficiently detect treatment differences between interventions. Historically, high placebo rates have been observed in clinical trials of ulcerative colitis (UC). A better understanding of factors

  19. A Comparison of Motoric and Verbal Responses on a Piagetian Rate-Time Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Ellen T.; Wolff, Peter

    1973-01-01

    An experiment demonstrating that children in Piaget's preoperational stage, who generally still cannot give conceptually correct answers to questions about rate and time, evidence an ability to imitate a given rate-time relationship demonstrated by the experimenter. (ST)

  20. NATO or Neutrality : Decisions by Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Kevin A. Chaney September 2017 Thesis Advisor: David S. Yost Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO OR NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN 5. FUNDING...Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Although Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are ethnically and

  1. KAMEDO Report No. 76: Floods in Poland in 1997 and in Sweden in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahren, Håkans; Ridez, Louis; Riddez, Louis; Dellgar, Uno

    2005-01-01

    Extensive flooding occurred in Poland in 1997 and in Sweden in 2000. These events and their management are reviewed in this Report. The floods in Poland were more extensive than in Sweden as they covered some 10% of Poland's landmass. An estimated 55 persons died as a direct result of the floods in Poland and none were reported due to the flood in Sweden. No epidemics were encountered in either country, presumably related to the extensive use of bottled water and radio instructions to boil all water before its use. The water supply was interrupted and untreated water was taken into the water distribution systems. Chlorination of the water supplies was added in Sweden. Sewage and refuse management was problematic. The heathcare system was impacted profoundly in Poland both by direct damage to hospitals and/or loss of essential services such as electricity and water supplies. Government responses are described with the needs in Poland being extensive including the need for outside assistance. Some pathways used for obtaining aid were outside of government coordination. Comprehensive conclusions and recommendations derived from the observations are provided.

  2. Understanding parental gender preferences in advanced societies: Lessons from Sweden and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Vikat

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Extending recent research on parental gender preferences in the Nordic countries, this study uses unique register data from Finland and Sweden (1971-1999 that provide us with the opportunity to compare childbearing dynamics and possible underlying sex preferences among natives and national minorities, namely Finnish-born immigrants in Sweden and members of the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. Moreover, our Swedish data allow us to investigate regional and educational differences in child-sex specific fertility behavior of two-child mothers in 1981-1999. For Finland, we observe a continuous boy preference among the national majority and the Swedish-speaking minority as reflected in higher third-birth rates of mothers of two girls than of mothers of two boys. Evidence of similar preferences is found for Finnish-born migrants in Sweden, where the native-born population appears to have developed a girl preference, though. In all cases, we also observe clear indications of a preference for having at least one child of each sex. Generally speaking, our findings support an interpretation of parental gender preferences as a longstanding cultural phenomenon, related to country of childhood socialization rather than language group. Our analysis of regional and educational differentials in Sweden reveals no evidence which supports diffusion theories of persistence and change in parents' sex preferences for children.

  3. Improvements in logistics could increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömsöe, A; Afzelius, S; Axelsson, C; Södersved Källestedt, M L; Enlund, M; Svensson, L; Herlitz, J

    2013-06-01

    In a review based on estimations and assumptions, to report the estimated number of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started and to speculate about possible future improvements in Sweden. An observational study. All ambulance organisations in Sweden. Patients included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry who suffered an OHCA between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. Approximately 80% of OHCA cases in Sweden in which CPR was started are included. None In 11 005 patients, the 1-month survival rate was 9.4%. There are approximately 5000 OHCA cases annually in which CPR is started and 30-day survival is achieved in up to 500 patients yearly (6 per 100 000 inhabitants). Based on findings on survival in relation to the time to calling for the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and the start of CPR and defibrillation, it was estimated that, if the delay from collapse to (i) calling EMS, (ii) the start of CPR, and (iii) the time to defibrillation were reduced to <2 min, <2 min, and <8 min, respectively, 300-400 additional lives could be saved. Based on findings relating to the delay to calling for the EMS and the start of CPR and defibrillation, we speculate that 300-400 additional OHCA patients yearly (4 per 100 000 inhabitants) could be saved in Sweden. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  4. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M; Gissler, M; Nordentoft, M; Hällgren, J; Arffman, M; Ösby, U

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Method A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Results Life expectancy was 24–28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (−0.8 years) and Sweden (−1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0–5.2), all diseases and medical conditions (2.3–4.8), and suicide (9.3–35.9). Conclusion People hospitalized with alcohol use disorder have an average life expectancy of 47–53 years (men) and 50–58 years (women) and die 24–28 years earlier than people in the general population. PMID:25243359

  5. Marriage and divorce of immigrants and descendants of immigrants in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immigrants and their second-generation descendants make up more than a quarter of the current Swedish population. Their nuptiality patterns can be viewed as crucial indicators of their integration into Swedish society. Objective: This study provides data on levels of and patterns in marriage formation, divorce, and re-marriage of people in Sweden, by country of origin. Methods: The study is based on analyses of longitudinal register data that cover all residents born in 1951 and later who ever lived in Sweden during 1983−2007. Kaplan-Meier survivor functions demonstrate levels in nuptiality; multivariate event-history analyses demonstrate relative risks of marriage formation and divorce, by country group of origin. Results: We find evidence of variation among immigrant groups and between migrants and Swedish-born people in marriage and divorce patterns. A few groups of migrants have relatively high churning rates in family dynamics, with high levels of marriage formation, divorce, and re-marriage. Conclusions: Many factors relate to the nuptiality behavior of immigrants in Sweden. Differences in family systems seem to have some influence on behavior in the contemporary Swedish context. Other factors relate to the migration process itself and to the selectivity of migrants to Sweden.

  6. Uptake of Active Surveillance for Very-Low-Risk Prostate Cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Curnyn, Caitlin; Robinson, David; Bratt, Ola; Stattin, Pär

    2017-10-01

    Active surveillance is an important option to reduce prostate cancer overtreatment, but it remains underutilized in many countries. Models from the United States show that greater use of active surveillance is important for prostate cancer screening to be cost-effective. To perform an up-to-date, nationwide, population-based study on use of active surveillance for localized prostate cancer in Sweden. Cross-sectional study in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden from 2009 through 2014. The NPCR has data on 98% of prostate cancers diagnosed in Sweden and has comprehensive linkages to other nationwide databases. Overall, 32 518 men with a median age of 67 years were diagnosed with favorable-risk prostate cancer, including 4693, 15 403, and 17 115 men with very-low-risk (subset of the low-risk group) (clinical stage, T1c; Gleason score, ≤6; prostate-specific antigen [PSA], Sweden, with the highest rates yet reported and almost complete uptake for very-low-risk cancer. These data should serve as a benchmark to compare the use of active surveillance for favorable-risk disease around the world.

  7. Understanding Rasch and item response theory models: applications to the estimation and validation of interval latent trait measures from responses to rating scale questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massof, Robert W

    2011-02-01

    Modern psychometric theory is now routinely used in clinical vision research, as well as other areas of health research, to measure latent health states on continuous interval scales from responses to self-report rating scale questionnaires. Two competing theories are commonly employed: Rasch theory and item response theory. Because the field is currently in transition from using traditional scoring algorithms based on classical test theory to using the more modern approaches, this article offers a tutorial review of Rasch theory and item response theory and of the analytical methods employed by the two theories to estimate and validate measures.

  8. Clinical experience with Thera DR rate-drop response pacing algorithm in carotid sinus syndrome and vasovagal syncope. The International Rate-Drop Investigators Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benditt, D G; Sutton, R; Gammage, M D; Markowitz, T; Gorski, J; Nygaard, G A; Fetter, J

    1997-03-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of cardiac pacing using the Thera DR rate-drop response algorithm for prevention of recurrent symptoms in patients with carotid sinus syndrome (CSS) or vasovagal syncope. The algorithm comprises both diagnostic and treatment elements. The diagnostic element consists of a programmable "window" used to identify heart rate changes compatible with an evolving neurally mediated syncopal episode. The treatment arm consists of pacing at a selectable rate and for a programmable duration. Forty-three patients (mean age 53 +/- 20.4 years) with CSS alone (n = 8), CSS in conjunction with vasovagal syncope (n = 4), or vasovagal syncope alone (n = 31) were included. Thirty-nine had recurrent syncope, while the remaining four reported multiple presyncopal events. Prior to pacing, 40 +/- 152 syncopal episodes (range from 1 to approximately 1,000 syncopal events) over the preceding 56 +/- 84.5 months. Postpacing follow-up duration was 204 +/- 172 days. Three patients have been lost to follow-up and in one patient the algorithm was disabled. Among the remaining 39 individuals, 31 (80%) indicated absence or diminished frequency of symptoms, or less severe symptoms. Twenty-three patients (23/29, or 59%) were asymptomatic with respect to syncope or presyncope. Sixteen patients had symptom recurrences. Of these, seven experienced syncope (7/39, or 18%) and 9 (29%) had presyncope: the majority of patients with recurrences (6/7 syncope and 7/9 presyncope) were individuals with a history of vasovagal syncope. Consequently, although symptoms were observed during postpacing follow-up, they appeared to be of reduced frequency and severity. Thus, our findings suggest that a transient period of high rate pacing triggered by the Thera DR rate-drop response algorithm was beneficial in a large proportion of highly symptomatic patients with CSS or vasovagal syncope.

  9. ARM VS. COMBINED LEG AND ARM EXERCISE: BLOOD PRESSURE RESPONSES AND RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION AT THE SAME INDIRECTLY DETERMINED HEART RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Blasio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-participation screening is very important for prescribing and practising exercise safely. The aim of this study was to investigate both ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and blood pressure responses in two different types of exercises with matching duration and indirectly determined working heart rate (HR. Participants were 23 male students, who were generally healthy but sedentary. The time course of their RPE and blood pressure during a 50- minute work-out session on an arm crank ergometer and a cross trainer were compared. RM-ANOVA showed both a higher RPE (p < 0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (DBP (p < 0.001 response to the arm exercise that were shown significantly correlated (r = 0.883; p = 0.008. Linear regression analysis (p = 0.001 confirmed the ability to predict the time course of DBP by knowing the RPE on the arm crank ergometer. Even if people use the recommended relative intensity, the HR method is not always safe for health without pre-participation screening because exercise characteristics can negatively influence physiological responses. The HR method could be substituted by the RPE method.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Strain Rate and Temperature Dependent Response of an Epoxy Resin Undergoing Large Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrakar, Sandeep; Ganesh, Raja; Sockalingam, Subramani; Haque, Bazle Z.; Gillespie, John W.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental investigation of the effect of strain rate and temperature on large inelastic deformation of an epoxy resin is presented. Uniaxial compression tests were conducted on DER 353 epoxy resin at strain rates ranging from 0.001 to 12,000/s. Experimental results showed significant rate sensitivity in yield stress, which increased from 85 MPa at 0.001/s to 220 MPa at 12,000/s strain rate. Thermal softening became more prominent as the strain rate was increased, resulting in complete absence of strain hardening at high strain rates. Rise in temperature under high strain rate, due to adiabatic heating, was estimated to increase above glass transition temperature (T g ). A series of compression tests carried out at temperatures ranging from ambient to T g + 80 °C showed yield stress vanishing at T g . Above T g , the epoxy became completely rubbery elastic at quasi-static loading rate. Epoxy became less sensitive to strain rate as the temperature was increased further above T g . The strain rate and temperature dependent yield behavior of the epoxy resin is predicted using Ree-Eyring model.

  11. HPA and SAM axis responses as correlates of self- vs parental ratings of anxiety in boys with an Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Sweeney, John A; McFarlane, James R

    2014-03-29

    Anxiety and Autistic Disorder (AD) are both neurological conditions and both disorders share some features that make it difficult to precisely allocate specific symptoms to each disorder. HPA and SAM axis activities have been conclusively associated with anxiety, and may provide a method of validating anxiety rating scale assessments given by parents and their children with AD about those children. Data from HPA axis (salivary cortisol) and SAM axis (salivary alpha amylase) responses were collected from a sample of 32 high-functioning boys (M age=11yr) with an Autistic Disorder (AD) and were compared with the boys' and their mothers' ratings of the boys' anxiety. There was a significant difference between the self-ratings given by the boys and ratings given about them by their mothers. Further, only the boys' self-ratings of their anxiety significantly predicted the HPA axis responses and neither were significantly related to SAM axis responses. Some boys showed cortisol responses which were similar to that previously reported in children who had suffered chronic and severe anxiety arising from stressful social interactions. As well as suggesting that some boys with an AD can provide valid self-assessments of their anxiety, these data also point to the presence of very high levels of chronic HPA-axis arousal and consequent chronic anxiety in these boys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Variations in influenza vaccination coverage among the high-risk population in Sweden in 2003/4 and 2004/5: a population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Essen Gerrit A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sweden, the vaccination campaign is the individual responsibility of the counties, which results in different arrangements. The aim of this study was to find out whether influenza vaccination coverage rates (VCRs had increased between 2003/4 and 2004/5 among population at high risk and to find out the influence of personal preferences, demographic characteristics and health care system characteristics on VCRs. Methods An average sample of 2500 persons was interviewed each season (2003/4 and 2004/5. The respondents were asked whether they had had an influenza vaccination, whether they suffered from chronic conditions and the reasons of non-vaccination. For every county the relevant health care system characteristics were collected via a questionnaire sent to the medical officers of communicable diseases. Results No difference in VCR was found between the two seasons. Personal invitations strongly increased the chance of having had a vaccination. For the elderly, the number of different health care professionals in a region involved in administering vaccines decreased this chance. Conclusion Sweden remained below the WHO-recommendations for population at high risk due to disease. To meet the 2010 WHO-recommendation further action may be necessary to increase vaccine uptake. Increasing the number of personal invitations and restricting the number of different administrators responsible for vaccination may be effective in increasing VCRs among the elderly.

  13. Concordance between clinician and patient ratings as predictors of response, remission, and recurrence in major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Boadie W.; Li, Thomas; Kornstein, Susan G.; Friedman, Edward S.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Pedersen, Ron; Ninan, Philip; Keller, Martin; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression With Venlafaxine Extended Release (ER) for Two Years (PREVENT) trial to evaluate whether discrepancies between clinician and patient ratings of depression severity were predictive of response, remission, and recurrence during treatment for a depressive episode. Patients who self-rated depression severity in concordance with the clinician (“concordant patients”) were defined as having a standardized patient-rated Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self Report (IDS-SR30) score minus standardized clinician-rated Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) score SR30 during acute and continuation therapy and time to recurrence during maintenance therapy. During acute treatment female patients were more likely to overrate their depression severity compared to the clinician; older age predicted overrating during continuation treatment. Overrating patients had a slower onset of response on the HAM-D17 during acute treatment (P = 0.004). There were no differences between cohorts for remission or response on the HAM-D17 or CGI-S. Overrating patients at week 10 had lower remission and response rates on the IDS-SR30 during continuation therapy (32% and 50%, respectively; P ≤ 0.001) compared with underrating patients (76%, 77%) or concordant patients (64%, 78%). Patient concordance at the end of continuation therapy did not predict recurrence during maintenance therapy, indicating that patient rating scales may be useful in tracking recurrence during maintenance therapy. Poor agreement between patient- and clinician-ratings of depression severity is primarily a state phenomenon, although it is trait-like for some patients. PMID:20537348

  14. Concordance between clinician and patient ratings as predictors of response, remission, and recurrence in major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlop, Boadie W.; Li, Thomas; Kornstein, Susan G.; Friedman, Edward S.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Pedersen, Ron; Ninan, Philip; Keller, Martin; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression With Venlafaxine Extended Release (ER) for Two Years (PREVENT) trial to evaluate whether discrepancies between clinician and patient ratings of depression severity were predictive of response, remission, and recurrence during treatment for a depressive episode. Patients who self-rated depression severity in concordance with the clinician (“concordant patients”) were defined as having a standardiz...

  15. Response-rate differences in variable-interval and variable-ratio schedules: An old problem revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    In Experiment 1, a variable-ratio 10 schedule became, successively, a variable-interval schedule with only the minimum interreinforcement intervals yoked to the variable ratio, or a variable-interval schedule with both interreinforcement intervals and reinforced interresponse times yoked to the variable ratio. Response rates in the variable-interval schedule with both interreinforcement interval and reinforced interresponse time yoking fell between the higher rates maintained by the variable-...

  16. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health.

  17. Lead poisoning in woodpeckers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörner, T; Petersson, L

    1999-10-01

    Lead poisoning was demonstrated in two gray-headed woodpeckers (Picus canus) and one white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopus leucotos) in Sweden; they had liver lead levels between 9.4 and 26.2 mg(-1) wet weight. At necropsy one gray-headed woodpecker showed signs of emaciation and the other one had severe traumatic injuries, caused by a cat. The white-backed woodpecker died in the transportation box during a translocation program. The source of the lead could not be determined, but it was suspected that it may have originated from lead pellets shot into trees and picked out by the woodpeckers during food search.

  18. Green light for nonstop fermentation. [Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-19

    It is reported that Alfa-Laval (Tumba) is to build a $10 million demonstration plant at Skaraborg, Sweden that will produce ethanol from grain in a continuous fermentation process. The facility, funded by the Swedish government will be able to make 20,000 L/d of 99.5% ethanol, plus 30.5 metric tons/d of cattle fodder from the liftover sludge, using the so-called Biostil technique. A similar unit has been run in Sarenia, Queensland using molasses as a feedstock. The facility has been highly successful since its startup in April and has had no downtime.

  19. PRE-HOSPITAL EMERGENCY CARE IN SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf BJÖRNSTIG

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden (9 million inhabitants, a sparsely populated country with sometimes long transportation distances to the nearest trauma hospital, 800 ambulances, 7 ambulance helicopters and 3–5 fixed wing ambulance aircraft are the available transport resources. In case of a mass casualty or disaster situation, inside or outside the country, a governmental project (Swedish National Medevac aims to convert a passenger aircraft from Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS to a qualified medical resource for long distance transport, with capacity to nurse six intensive care patients and an additional 6–20 lieing or seated patients during transport.

  20. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    of ticks had increased markedly in LB- and TBE-endemic areas in South (Götaland) and Central Sweden. Conclusions The results suggest that I. ricinus has expanded its range in North Sweden and has become distinctly more abundant in Central and South Sweden during the last three decades. However, in the northern mountain region I. ricinus is still absent. The increased abundance of the tick can be explained by two main factors: First, the high availability of large numbers of important tick maintenance hosts, i.e., cervids, particularly roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during the last three decades. Second, a warmer climate with milder winters and a prolonged growing season that permits greater survival and proliferation over a larger geographical area of both the tick itself and deer. High reproductive potential of roe deer, high tick infestation rate and the tendency of roe deer to disperse great distances may explain the range expansion of I. ricinus and particularly the appearance of new TBEV foci far away from old TBEV-endemic localities. The geographical presence of LB in Sweden corresponds to the distribution of I. ricinus. Thus, LB is now an emerging disease risk in many parts of North Sweden. Unless countermeasures are undertaken to keep the deer populations, particularly C. capreolus and Dama dama, at the relatively low levels that prevailed before the late 1970s - especially in and around urban areas where human population density is high - by e.g. reduced hunting of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and lynx (Lynx lynx), the incidences of human LB and TBE are expected to continue to be high or even to increase in Sweden in coming decades. PMID:22233771

  1. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenson Thomas GT

    2012-01-01

    respondents, the abundance of ticks had increased markedly in LB- and TBE-endemic areas in South (Götaland and Central Sweden. Conclusions The results suggest that I. ricinus has expanded its range in North Sweden and has become distinctly more abundant in Central and South Sweden during the last three decades. However, in the northern mountain region I. ricinus is still absent. The increased abundance of the tick can be explained by two main factors: First, the high availability of large numbers of important tick maintenance hosts, i.e., cervids, particularly roe deer (Capreolus capreolus during the last three decades. Second, a warmer climate with milder winters and a prolonged growing season that permits greater survival and proliferation over a larger geographical area of both the tick itself and deer. High reproductive potential of roe deer, high tick infestation rate and the tendency of roe deer to disperse great distances may explain the range expansion of I. ricinus and particularly the appearance of new TBEV foci far away from old TBEV-endemic localities. The geographical presence of LB in Sweden corresponds to the distribution of I. ricinus. Thus, LB is now an emerging disease risk in many parts of North Sweden. Unless countermeasures are undertaken to keep the deer populations, particularly C. capreolus and Dama dama, at the relatively low levels that prevailed before the late 1970s - especially in and around urban areas where human population density is high - by e.g. reduced hunting of red fox (Vulpes vulpes and lynx (Lynx lynx, the incidences of human LB and TBE are expected to continue to be high or even to increase in Sweden in coming decades.

  2. Heart Rate Responses to Unaided Orion Side Hatch Egress in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Hwang Emma Y.; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Kelly, Cody; Walker, Thomas; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion capsule as a vehicle for transporting crewmembers to and from the International Space Station (ISS) and for future human space exploration missions. Orion and other commercial vehicles are designed to splash down in the ocean where nominally support personnel will assist crewmembers in egressing the vehicle. However, off-nominal scenarios will require crewmembers to egress the vehicle unaided, deploy survival equipment, and ingress a life raft. PURPOSE: To determine the heart rate (HR) responses to unaided Orion side hatch egress and raft ingress as a part of the NASA Crew Survival Engineering Team's evaluation of the PORT Orion mockup in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL). METHODS: Nineteen test subjects, including four astronauts (N=19, 14 males/5 females, 38.6+/-8.4 y, 174.4+/-9.6 cm, 75.7+/-13.1 kg), completed a graded maximal test on a cycle ergometer to determine VO2peak and HRpeak and were divided into five crews of four members each; one subject served on two crews. Each crew was required to deploy a life raft, egress the Orion vehicle from the side hatch, and ingress the life raft with two 8 kg emergency packs per crew. Each crew performed this activity one to three times; a total of ten full egresses were completed. Subjects wore a suit that was similar in form, mass, and function to the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) including helmet, gloves, boots, supplemental O2 bottles, and a CO2-inflated life preserver (approx.18 kg); subjects began each trial seated supine in the PORT Orion mockup with seat belts and mockup O2 and communication connections and ended each trial with all four crewmembers inside the life raft. RESULTS: VO2peak was 40.8+/-6.8 mL/kg/min (3.1+/-0.7 L/min); HRpeak was 181+/-10 bpm. Total egress time across trials was 5.0+/-1.6 min (range: 2.8-8.0 min); all subjects were able to successfully complete all trials. Average maximum HR at activity start, at the hatch opening, in the water, and in the

  3. Factors influencing patient safety in Sweden: perceptions of patient safety officers in the county councils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nygren Mikaela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National, regional and local activities to improve patient safety in Sweden have increased over the last decade. There are high ambitions for improved patient safety in Sweden. This study surveyed health care professionals who held key positions in their county council’s patient safety work to investigate their perceptions of the conditions for this work, factors they believe have been most important in reaching the current level of patient safety and factors they believe would be most important for achieving improved patient safety in the future. Methods The study population consisted of 218 health care professionals holding strategic positions in patient safety work in Swedish county councils. Using a questionnaire, the following topics were analysed in this study: profession/occupation; number of years involved in a designated task on patient safety issues; knowledge/overview of the county council’s patient safety work; ability to influence this work; conditions for this work; and the importance of various factors for current and future levels of patient safety. Results The response rate to the questionnaire was 79%. The conditions that had the highest number of responses in complete agreement were “patients’ involvement is important for patient safety” and “patient safety work has good support from the county council’s management”. Factors that were considered most important for achieving the current level of patient safety were root cause and risk analyses, incident reporting and the Swedish Patient Safety Law. An organizational culture that encourages reporting and avoids blame was considered most important for improved patient safety in the future, closely followed by improved communication between health care practitioners and patients. Conclusion Health care professionals with important positions in the Swedish county councils’ patient safety work believe that conditions for this work are somewhat

  4. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Rivaroxaban in the Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Najida; Stephens, Stephanie; Schoeman, Olaf; Fraschke, Anina; Kirsch, Bodo; Briere, Jean-Baptiste; Verheugt, Freek W A; van Hout, Ben A

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide, coronary heart disease accounts for 7 million deaths each year. In Sweden, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of hospitalization and is responsible for 1 in 4 deaths. The aim of this analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily (BID) in combination with standard antiplatelet therapy (ST-APT) versus ST-APT alone, for the secondary prevention of ACS in adult patients with elevated cardiac biomarkers without a prior history of stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), from a Swedish societal perspective, based on clinical data from the global ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 trial, literature-based quality of life data and costs sourced from Swedish national databases. A Markov model was developed to capture rates of single and multiple myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major, minor, and "requiring medical attention" bleeds, revascularization events, and associated costs and utilities in patients who were stabilized after an initial ACS event. Efficacy and safety data for the first 2 years came from the ATLAS ACS 2-TIMI 51 trial. Long-term probabilities were extrapolated using safety and effectiveness of acetylsalicylic acid data, which was estimated from published literature, assuming constant rates in time. Future cost and effects were discounted at 3.0%. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. In the base case, the use of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg BID was associated with improvements in survival and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), yielding an incremental cost per QALY of 71,246 Swedish Krona (SEK) (€8045). The outcomes were robust to changes in inputs. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated rivaroxaban 2.5 mg BID to be cost-effective in >99.9% of cases, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of SEK 500,000 (€56,458). Compared with ST-APT alone, the use of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg BID in combination with ST

  5. Dynamic Mechanical Response of Biomedical 316L Stainless Steel as Function of Strain Rate and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woei-Shyan; Chen, Tao-Hsing; Lin, Chi-Feng; Luo, Wen-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    A split Hopkinson pressure bar is used to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of biomedical 316L stainless steel under strain rates ranging from 1 × 10(3) s(-1) to 5 × 10(3) s(-1) and temperatures between 25°C and 800°C. The results indicate that the flow stress, work-hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and thermal activation energy are all significantly dependent on the strain, strain rate, and temperature. For a constant temperature, the flow stress, work-hardening rate, and strain rate sensitivity increase with increasing strain rate, while the thermal activation energy decreases. Catastrophic failure occurs only for the specimens deformed at a strain rate of 5 × 10(3) s(-1) and temperatures of 25°C or 200°C. Scanning electron microscopy observations show that the specimens fracture in a ductile shear mode. Optical microscopy analyses reveal that the number of slip bands within the grains increases with an increasing strain rate. Moreover, a dynamic recrystallisation of the deformed microstructure is observed in the specimens tested at the highest temperature of 800°C.

  6. Do incentives, reminders or reduced burden improve healthcare professional response rates in postal questionnaires? two randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glidewell Liz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare professional response rates to postal questionnaires are declining and this may threaten the validity and generalisability of their findings. Methods to improve response rates do incur costs (resources and increase the cost of research projects. The aim of these randomised controlled trials (RCTs was to assess whether 1 incentives, 2 type of reminder and/or 3 reduced response burden improve response rates; and to assess the cost implications of such additional effective interventions. Methods Two RCTs were conducted. In RCT A general dental practitioners (dentists in Scotland were randomised to receive either an incentive; an abridged questionnaire or a full length questionnaire. In RCT B non-responders to a postal questionnaire sent to general medical practitioners (GPs in the UK were firstly randomised to receive a second full length questionnaire as a reminder or a postcard reminder. Continued non-responders from RCT B were then randomised within their first randomisation to receive a third full length or an abridged questionnaire reminder. The cost-effectiveness of interventions that effectively increased response rates was assessed as a secondary outcome. Results There was no evidence that an incentive (52% versus 43%, Risk Difference (RD -8.8 (95%CI −22.5, 4.8; or abridged questionnaire (46% versus 43%, RD −2.9 (95%CI −16.5, 10.7; statistically significantly improved dentist response rates compared to a full length questionnaire in RCT A. In RCT B there was no evidence that a full questionnaire reminder statistically significantly improved response rates compared to a postcard reminder (10.4% versus 7.3%, RD 3 (95%CI −0.1, 6.8. At a second reminder stage, GPs sent the abridged questionnaire responded more often (14.8% versus 7.2%, RD −7.7 (95%CI −12.8, -2.6. GPs who received a postcard reminder followed by an abridged questionnaire were most likely to respond (19.8% versus 6.3%, RD 8.1%, and 9

  7. Heart rate and heart rate variability in panic, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and generalized anxiety disorders at baseline and in response to relaxation and hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittig, Andre; Arch, Joanna J; Lam, Chi W R; Craske, Michelle G

    2013-01-01

    It remains unclear if diminished high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) can be found across anxiety disorders. HF-HRV and heart rate (HR) were examined in panic (PD), generalized anxiety (GAD), social anxiety (SAD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) relative to healthy controls at baseline and during anxiety stressors. All disorders evidenced diminished baseline HF-HRV relative to controls. Baseline HRV differences were maintained throughout relaxation. For hyperventilation, PD and GAD demonstrated greater HR than controls. Psychotropic medication did not account for HF-HRV differences except in OCD. Age and sex evidenced multiple main effects. Findings suggest that low baseline HF-HRV represents a common index for inhibitory deficits across PD, GAD, and SAD, which is consistent with the notion of autonomic inflexibility in anxiety disorders. Elevated HR responses to hyperventilation, however, are specific to PD and GAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vagal activity and oxygen saturation response to hypoxia: Effects of aerobic fitness and rating of hypoxia tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Macoun; Michal Botek; Jakub Krejčí; McKune, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A reduction in the inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) induces a decline in arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and changes of heart rate variability (HRV). It has been shown that SpO2 and HRV responses to similar levels of acute normobaric hypoxia are inter-individual variable. Variable response may be influenced by normoxia reached maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) value. Objective: The primary aim was to assess HRV and the SpO2 response to hypoxia, and examine the association with normo...

  9. Rate and timing of cortical responses driven by separate sensory channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Hannes P; Harvey, Michael A; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-12-09

    The sense of touch comprises multiple sensory channels that each conveys characteristic signals during interactions with objects. These neural signals must then be integrated in such a way that behaviorally relevant information about the objects is preserved. To understand the process of integration, we implement a simple computational model that describes how the responses of neurons in somatosensory cortex-recorded from awake, behaving monkeys-are shaped by the peripheral input, reconstructed using simulations of neuronal populations that reproduce natural spiking responses in the nerve with millisecond precision. First, we find that the strength of cortical responses is driven by one population of nerve fibers (rapidly adapting) whereas the timing of cortical responses is shaped by the other (Pacinian). Second, we show that input from these sensory channels is integrated in an optimal fashion that exploits the disparate response behaviors of different fiber types.

  10. Inducing rat brain CYP2D with nicotine increases the rate of codeine tolerance; predicting the rate of tolerance from acute analgesic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Douglas M; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2017-12-01

    Repeated opioid administration produces analgesic tolerance, which may lead to dose escalation. Brain CYP2D metabolizes codeine to morphine, a bioactivation step required for codeine analgesia. Higher brain, but not liver, CYP2D is found in smokers and nicotine induces rat brain, but not liver, CYP2D expression and activity. Nicotine induction of rat brain CYP2D increases acute codeine conversion to morphine, and analgesia, however the role of brain CYP2D on the effects of repeated codeine exposure and tolerance is unknown. Rats were pretreated with nicotine (brain CYP2D inducer; 1mg/kg subcutaneously) or vehicle (saline; 1ml/kg subcutaneously). Codeine (40-60mg/kg oral-gavage) or morphine (20-30mg/kg oral-gavage) was administered daily and analgesia was assessed daily using the tail-flick reflex assay. Nicotine (versus saline) pretreatment increased acute codeine analgesia (1.32-fold change in AUC0-60min; pcodeine administration (time to negligible analgesia). Inducing brain CYP2D with nicotine did not alter acute morphine analgesia (1.03-fold; p>0.8), or the rate of morphine tolerance (8.1%/day versus 7.6%; p>0.9). The rate of both codeine and morphine tolerance (loss in peak analgesia from day 1 to day 4) correlated with initial analgesic response on day 1 (R=0.97, p<001). Increasing brain CYP2D altered initial analgesia and subsequent rate of tolerance. Variation in an individual's initial response to analgesic (e.g. high initial dose, smoking) may affect the rate of tolerance, and thereby the risk for dose escalation and/or opioid dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A rate equation model of stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit and drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanahan ST

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stomata respond to vapour pressure deficit (D – when D increases, stomata begin to close. Closure is the result of a decline in guard cell turgor, but the link between D and turgor is poorly understood. We describe a model for stomatal responses to increasing D based upon cellular water relations. The model also incorporates impacts of increasing levels of water stress upon stomatal responses to increasing D. Results The model successfully mimics the three phases of stomatal responses to D and also reproduces the impact of increasing plant water deficit upon stomatal responses to increasing D. As water stress developed, stomata regulated transpiration at ever decreasing values of D. Thus, stomatal sensitivity to D increased with increasing water stress. Predictions from the model concerning the impact of changes in cuticular transpiration upon stomatal responses to increasing D are shown to conform to experimental data. Sensitivity analyses of stomatal responses to various parameters of the model show that leaf thickness, the fraction of leaf volume that is air-space, and the fraction of mesophyll cell wall in contact with air have little impact upon behaviour of the model. In contrast, changes in cuticular conductance and membrane hydraulic conductivity have significant impacts upon model behaviour. Conclusion Cuticular transpiration is an important feature of stomatal responses to D and is the cause of the 3 phase response to D. Feed-forward behaviour of stomata does not explain stomatal responses to D as feedback, involving water loss from guard cells, can explain these responses.

  12. Effect of Response Rate on Results of a Follow-up Employment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    The influence of survey return rate and sources of information other than the survey on the teaching employment rate (as calculated) in the year following completion of a teacher preparation program were studied. A second objective was to investigate the tendency to respond for these individuals. A total of 291 individuals formed the target…

  13. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads

    2013-01-01

    -extensor training and 2 weeks of deconditioning of the other leg (leg cast). Hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotides were determined during exercise with the (1) deconditioned leg, (2) trained leg, and (3) trained leg with atrial pacing to the heart rate obtained with the deconditioned leg. Heart rate...

  14. Autonomic heart-rate control in response to standing in toxemic and normotensive primigravid pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WJ Jaspers; PA de Jong; PJ Kurver; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    1984-01-01

    Heart-rate changes after transition from a supine to a standing posture were measured in 12 hypertensive and 12 normotensive primigravid women, in their last trimester of gestation. The subjects beat-to-beat heart-rate (HR) changes were recorded on both an ordinary cardiotocograph and on magnetic

  15. Tillering of Tifton 85 bermudagrass in response to nitrogen rates and time of application after cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premazzi Linda Monica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is determinant for pasture productivity, as it results in increasing forage yield and is associated with the growth physiology of forage plants. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates and times of application after cutting on Tifton 85 Bermuda grass (Cynodon spp. tillering. Plants were grown in a Typic Quartzipsamment soil and nitrogen rates were 0, 80, 160 and 240 mg kg-1 of soil; times of application were immediately after and seven days after cutting. A 4 x 2 factorial experiment was set in a completely randomized block design (n= 4. Plants were evaluated in two sequential growth periods - 39 and 41 days. Nitrogen rates affected tiller density, considering the initial number of tillers in the second growth and the emerged and final number of tillers at the end of the growth periods. Tiller weight increased up to the nitrogen rate of 201 and 185 mg kg-1 of soil in the first and second growth periods, and the correlation coefficients between the final number of tillers and dry matter yields in the top part of the plant for these periods were 0.92 and 0.94, respectively. The rate of tiller development, evaluated in each of the seven-day periods, was affected by nitrogen rates and time of application. There was an effect of rates and time of application in the first and a significant interaction between rates and time in the second growth period.

  16. Response to different rates of nitrogen by five varieties of swamp rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Ini Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria; mainly to determine the optimum nitrogen fertilizer rate for the area as well as select the rice varieties that responded optimally. A split plot design was used with five N rates (0, 50, 100, 150and 200kg/ha) as the ...

  17. Affective resonance in response to others' emotional faces varies with affective ratings and psychopathic traits in amygdala and anterior insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Sebastian, Catherine L; Viding, Essi; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research on the neural basis of empathic responses for pain and disgust, there is limited data about the brain regions that underpin affective response to other people's emotional facial expressions. Here, we addressed this question using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses to emotional faces, combined with online ratings of subjective state. When instructed to rate their own affective response to others' faces, participants recruited anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus, and amygdala, regions consistently implicated in studies investigating empathy for disgust and pain, as well as emotional saliency. Importantly, responses in anterior insula and amygdala were modulated by trial-by-trial variations in subjective affective responses to the emotional facial stimuli. Furthermore, overall task-elicited activations in these regions were negatively associated with psychopathic personality traits, which are characterized by low affective empathy. Our findings suggest that anterior insula and amygdala play important roles in the generation of affective internal states in response to others' emotional cues and that attenuated function in these regions may underlie reduced empathy in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits.

  18. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would...

  19. 75 FR 61700 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden... purified carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from, inter alia, Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden, pursuant to... (120-day) sunset reviews of the Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden antidumping duty orders pursuant...

  20. Cobalt-chromium alloys in fixed prosthodontics in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassapidou, Maria; Franke Stenport, Victoria; Hjalmarsson, Lars; Johansson, Carina B

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compile the usage of Co-Cr alloys in fixed prosthodontics (FP) among dental laboratories in Sweden. Methods: From March to October 2015, questionnaires were sent to 542 registered dental laboratories in Sweden. The questionnaires were divided in two parts, one for fixed dental-supported prosthodontics (FDP) and one for fixed implant-supported prosthodontics (FIP). Reminders were sent three times. Results: In total of 542 dental laboratories, 55% answered the questionnaires. Most dental laboratories use Co-Cr in FP, 134 (74%) in FDP and 89(66%) in FIP. The laboratories used Co-Cr alloys of various compositions in the prostheses, 35 for FDP and 30 for FIP. The most commonly used Co-Cr alloys for tooth-supported FDPs were (a) Wirobond® 280, (b) Cara SLM and (c) Wirobond® C. For implant-supported frameworks the frequently used alloys were: (a) Cara SLM, (b) Cara Milled and (c) Wirobond® 280. Except for the difference in composition of these alloys, they were also manufactured with various techniques. In tooth-supported prostheses the dominating technique was the cast technique while newer techniques as laser-sintering and milling were more commonly reported for implant-supported constructions. A fourth technique; the 'pre-state' milling was reported in FDP. Conclusion: More than 30 different Co-Cr alloys were reported as being used in FP. Thus, there is a need for studies exploring the mechanical and physical behavior and the biological response to the most commonly used Co-Cr alloys.

  1. Prognostic value of heart rate response during regadenoson stress myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with end stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJaroudi, Wael; Campagnoli, Tania; Fughhi, Ibtihaj; Wassouf, Marwan; Ali, Amjad; Doukky, Rami

    2016-06-01

    Blunted heart rate response (HRR) to vasodilator stress agents is associated with worse outcomes. There are limited data assessing the effect of impaired HRR to regadenoson among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We prospectively followed patients with ESRD enrolled in the ASSUAGE and ASSUAGE-CKD trials. HRR was defined as 100*(peak stress heart rate-resting heart rate)/resting heart rate. Study cohort was dichotomized to blunted and normal HRR groups according to an established median HRR value 90 days) coronary revascularization. There were 303 patients followed for 35 ± 10 months. In the entire cohort, there was a stepwise increase in the rates of death and all secondary endpoints with worsening HRR (P values ≤.001). Blunted HRR (regadenoson is a strong and independent predictor of death and cardiovascular events in patients with ESRD and adds incremental prognostic value.

  2. Diminished criminal responsibility ofalcohol intoxicated homicide offenders according ofdemographic factors, family rate and alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sieradzka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol intoxication is commonly considered as a risk factor of a criminal offence. This study is an attempt to assess selected demographic data, family situation, and alcohol dependence in homicide offenders or a severe body injury in relation to a judgment of diminished criminal responsibility. The examined group consisted of 90 suspects in the pub‑ lic prosecutor’s investigation. The subjects underwent a six-week forensic psychiatry observation during 2004–2008 at the Forensic Psychiatry Unit in High Security Prison No in Łódź. Analysed retrospectively was the medical documentation collected during the forensic psychiatry observation, including available medical documentation and categorical forensic psychiatry observation opinions issued by two expert psychiatrists. According to the collected materials, it was established that in the performed study none of the offenders who during ethanol intoxication committed a homicide or a severe body injury was acknowledged to be criminally responsible. A greatly diminished criminal responsibility was significantly more frequently evaluated in the case of divorced subjects who were not witnesses to aggression in their families and were not punished with a court verdict. Among the subjects with a greatly diminished criminal responsibility the alcohol dependence was diagnosed much less frequently. Besides, the offenders with a great‑ ly diminished criminal responsibility were older than those with a slightly diminished responsibility and evaluated as criminally responsible.

  3. Sweden to host a new neutron source

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The first European neutron source, currently under development, should commence operations by the end of this decade. Its aim: to produce beams of neutrons that can penetrate into the heart of matter without damaging it and reveal its secrets.   An artist's impression of what the ESS should look like in 2019. At the southern end of Sweden, a town called Lund is preparing for the arrival of the world's most powerful neutron source: the European Spallation Source (ESS). Construction is scheduled to start at the beginning of next year, and the facility is expected to become operational by 2019, when it will produce its first neutron beams. “The ESS is the result of an idea that began 20 years ago!” underlines Mats Lindroos, in charge of the ESS Accelerator Division. “Today, 17 European countries support the project, including Sweden, Denmark and Norway, who together account for 50% of the construction funding.” The ESS, whose design is al...

  4. How can family policies reconcile fertility and women's employment? Comparisons between South Korea and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Duvander, Ann-Zofie; Zarit, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women's employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women's employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and Sweden. Thereafter, we discuss the importance of providing stronger support for dual-earner rather than single-earner families to reconcile the two objectives of increasing fertility and women's workforce participation. Specifically, it is critical to: (a) enhance the quantity and quality of childcare services for very young children, (b) achieve gender equality in parental leave policies, and (c) reduce gaps in the accessibility and utilization of family benefits by working parents from different social classes.

  5. Diffusion of Innovation Theory and Xbox Live: Examining Minority Gamers' Responses and Rate of Adoption to Changes in Xbox Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kishonna L.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the response of minority gamers as they adopt new innovations in Xbox Live. Using diffusion of innovation theory, specific attention is given to gamers' rate of adoption of the new Xbox Live environment, which was a recent update to the Xbox Live interface. By employing virtual ethnography, observations, and interviews reveal…

  6. Event-rate manipulation and its effect on arousal modulation and response inhibition in adults with high functioning autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymaekers, R; van der Meere, J; Roeyers, H

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate arousal modulation and response inhibition in adults with high functioning autism (HFA). Using a go/no-go paradigm with varying presentation rate, it was found that performance efficiency (Mean RT, Standard Deviation of RT and Errors of Commission) in

  7. Lidocaine response rate in aEEG-confirmed neonatal seizures : Retrospective study of 413 full-term and preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeke, Lauren C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413986446; Toet, Mona C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/28827024X; Van Rooij, Linda G M; Groenendaal, Floris|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073282596; Boylan, Geraldine B.; Pressler, Ronit M.; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Van Den Broek, Marcel P H; De Vries, Linda S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072995408

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the seizure response rate to lidocaine in a large cohort of infants who received lidocaine as second- or third-line antiepileptic drug (AED) for neonatal seizures. METHODS: Full-term (n = 319) and preterm (n = 94) infants, who received lidocaine for neonatal seizures

  8. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  9. Pre-notification did not increase response rate in addition to follow-up: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammink, A.B.; Giesen, P.H.J.; Wensing, M.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although there is growing evidence on the effectiveness of pre-notification and follow-up on response rates in patient surveys, no studies report the effectiveness of pre-notification in addition to follow-up. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a pre-notification by mail

  10. Multi-scale Modeling of the Impact Response of a Strain Rate Sensitive High-Manganese Austenitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orkun eÖnal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A multi-scale modeling approach was applied to predict the impact response of a strain rate sensitive high-manganese austenitic steel. The roles of texture, geometry and strain rate sensitivity were successfully taken into account all at once by coupling crystal plasticity and finite element (FE analysis. Specifically, crystal plasticity was utilized to obtain the multi-axial flow rule at different strain rates based on the experimental deformation response under uniaxial tensile loading. The equivalent stress – equivalent strain response was then incorporated into the FE model for the sake of a more representative hardening rule under impact loading. The current results demonstrate that reliable predictions can be obtained by proper coupling of crystal plasticity and FE analysis even if the experimental flow rule of the material is acquired under uniaxial loading and at moderate strain rates that are significantly slower than those attained during impact loading. Furthermore, the current findings also demonstrate the need for an experiment-based multi-scale modeling approach for the sake of reliable predictions of the impact response.

  11. Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at near-zero growth rates : transcriptome analysis of anaerobic retentostat cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, Leonie G. M.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; de Hulster, Erik A. F.; Almering, Marinka J. H.; van der Klei, Ida J.; Veenhuis, Marten; de Winde, Johannes H.; Pronk, Jack T.; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Extremely low specific growth rates (below 0.01 h(-1)) represent a largely unexplored area of microbial physiology. In this study, anaerobic, glucose-limited retentostats were used to analyse physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cultivation at

  12. "We Thought It Might Encourage Participation." Using Lottery Incentives to Improve LibQUAL+[TM] Response Rates among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stefanie; Nutefall, Jennifer E.; Bridges, Laurie M.

    2012-01-01

    Libraries deploying the LibQUAL+[TM] survey can offer a lottery incentive and many do so in the hope of increasing response rates. Other libraries may be prohibited from offering one because of Institutional Review Board restrictions, as is the case at Oregon State University. We wanted to discover why libraries offer lottery incentives, what…

  13. Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at near-zero growth rates : Transcriptome analysis of anaerobic retentostat cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boender, L.G.M.; Van Maris, A.J.A.; De Hulster, E.A.F.; Almering, M.J.H.; Van der Klei, I.J.; Veenhuis, M.; De Winde, J.H.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Extremely low specific growth rates (below 0.01 h?1) represent a largely unexplored area of microbial physiology. In this study, anaerobic, glucose-limited retentostats were used to analyse physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cultivation at

  14. Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Child Anxiety: Signal Detection Analysis Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Piacentini, John; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; March, John; Walkup, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine optimal Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) percent reduction and raw score cut-offs for predicting treatment response and remission among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Method: Data were from a subset of youth (N = 438; 7-17 years of age) who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study…

  15. Regional changes over time in initial virological response rates to combination antiretroviral therapy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannister, W; Kirk, O; Gatell, J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Changes in virologic response to initial combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) over calendar time may indicate improvements in cART or emergence of primary resistance. Regional variations may identify differences in available antiretroviral drugs or patient management. METHODS......: Virologic response (viral load Virologic.......026) and time (P virologic response after adjustment for confounders. Stratified by period, regional differences were less evident (early cART, P = 0.967; mid cART, P = 0.291; late cART, P = 0.163). Stratified by region, temporal changes were observed (south, P = 0.061; central west, P

  16. Response of fish to different simulated rates of water temperature increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1992-08-01

    We initiated this study to define the limits of effluent-temperature rate increases during reactor restart, which will help minimize fish kills. We constructed an apparatus for exposing fish to various temperature-increase regimens and conducted two experiments based on information from system tests and scoping runs. In the rate experiment, we acclimated the fish to 20{degree}C, and then raised the temperature to 40{degree}C at varying rates. Because scoping runs and literature suggested that acclimation temperature may affect temperature-related mortality, we conducted an acclimation experiment. We acclimated the fish to various temperatures, then raised the temperatures to 39--40{degree}C at a rate of 2{degree}C every 12 hours. Based on the analysis of the data, we recommend temperature-increase rates during reactor restart of 2.5{degree}C every nine hours if ambient water temperatures are over 20{degree}C. If water temperatures are at or below 20{degree}C, we recommend temperature-increase rates of 2.5{degree}C every 12 hours. No regulation of temperature is required after effluent temperatures reach 40{degree}C. We recommend further studies, including expanded testing with the simulation system and behavioral and bioenergetic investigations that may further refine acceptable rates of effluent-temperature increases.

  17. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winde Lee D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6% responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5% responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The

  18. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6%) responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5%) responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The study confirms that many GPs

  19. Mosquito-borne Inkoo virus in northern Sweden - isolation and whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Bucht, Göran; Ahlm, Clas; Ahlm, Kristoffer; Näslund, Jonas; Evander, Magnus

    2017-03-23

    Inkoo virus (INKV) is a less known mosquito-borne virus belonging to Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, California serogroup. Studies indicate that INKV infection is mainly asymptomatic, but can cause mild encephalitis in humans. In northern Europe, the sero-prevalence against INKV is high, 41% in Sweden and 51% in Finland. Previously, INKV RNA has been detected in adult Aedes (Ae.) communis, Ae. hexodontus and Ae. punctor mosquitoes and Ae. communis larvae, but there are still gaps of knowledge regarding mosquito vectors and genetic diversity. Therefore, we aimed to determine the occurrence of INKV in its mosquito vector and characterize the isolates. About 125,000 mosquitoes were collected during a mosquito-borne virus surveillance in northern Sweden during the summer period of 2015. Of these, 10,000 mosquitoes were processed for virus isolation and detection using cell culture and RT-PCR. Virus isolates were further characterized by whole genome sequencing. Genetic typing of mosquito species was conducted by cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene amplification and sequencing (genetic barcoding). Several Ae. communis mosquitoes were found positive for INKV RNA and two isolates were obtained. The first complete sequences of the small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments of INKV in Sweden were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the INKV genome was most closely related to other INKV isolates from Sweden and Finland. Of the three INKV genome segments, the INKV M segment had the highest frequency of non-synonymous mutations. The overall G/C-content of INKV genes was low for the N/NSs genes (43.8-45.5%), polyprotein (Gn/Gc/NSm) gene (35.6%) and the RNA polymerase gene (33.8%) This may be due to the fact that INKV in most instances utilized A or T in the third codon position. INKV is frequently circulating in northern Sweden and Ae. communis is the key vector. The high mutation rate of the INKV M segment may have consequences on virulence.

  20. Response properties underlying selectivity for the rate of frequency modulated sweeps in the auditory cortex of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Michael; Carrasco, Maria Magdalena; Razak, Khaleel

    2013-04-01

    This study focused on the response properties underlying selectivity for the rate of frequency modulated (FM) sweeps in the auditory cortex of anesthetized C57bl/6 (C57) mice. Linear downward FM sweeps with rates between 0.08 and 20 kHz/ms were tested. We show that at least two different response properties predict FM rate selectivity: sideband inhibition and duration tuning. Sideband inhibition was determined using the two-tone inhibition paradigm in which excitatory and inhibitory tones were presented with different delays. Sideband inhibition was present in the majority (88%, n = 53) of neurons. The spectrotemporal properties of sideband inhibition predicted rate selectivity and exclusion of the sideband from the sweep reduced/eliminated rate tuning. The second property predictive of sweep rate selectivity was duration tuning for tones. Theoretically, if a neuron is selective for the duration that a sweep spends in the excitatory frequency tuning curve, then rate selectivity will ensue. Duration tuning for excitatory tones was present and predicted rate selectivity in ∼34% of neurons (n = 97). Both sideband inhibition and duration tuning predicted rate selectivity equally well, but sideband inhibition was present in a larger percentage of neurons suggesting that it is the dominant mechanism in the C57 mouse auditory cortex. Similar mechanisms shape sweep rate selectivity in the auditory system of bats and mice and movement-velocity selectivity in the visual system, suggesting similar solutions to analogous problems across sensory systems. This study provides baseline data on basic spectrotemporal processing in the C57 strain for elucidation of changes that occur in presbycusis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative study of educational inequality in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden 1981-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Ane L; Mortensen, Laust H; Cnattingius, Sven; Arntzen, Annett; Gissler, Mika; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-03-01

    The stillbirth rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are among the lowest in the world, but socioeconomic disparities in stillbirth still exist. This study examined the educational patterns in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. From the national birth registries, all singleton live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 28 weeks were selected in Denmark (n=1 182 888), Finland (n=419 729), Norway (n=1 006 767) and Sweden (n=1 974 101). The births were linked with individual data on parental socioeconomic factors from various national registers. Linear and logistic regression were used to calculate RR and risk differences for stillbirth according to maternal educational attainment. The risk of stillbirth was lowest in Finland and highest in Denmark. The risk decreased over time in Denmark, Norway and Finland, but remained stable in Sweden. Educational gradients were found in all countries in all time periods under study. In Denmark, the gradient remained stable over time. In Norway the gradient decreased slightly during the 1990s, whereas the gradient increased in Sweden. The gradient in Finland was relatively stable. There were persisting educational inequalities in stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the 1980s and 1990s. Inequalities were stable or decreasing except in Sweden, where an increase in inequality was observed. This increase was not solely attributable to a decreasing absolute risk of stillbirth as both the relative and absolute measures of inequality increased.

  2. Internal structure and significance of ice-marginal moraine in the Kebnekaise Mountains, northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, TN; Midgley, NG; Graham, DJ; Labadz, JC

    2017-01-01

    Despite a long history of glaciological research, the palaeo-environmental significance of moraine systems in the Kebnekaise Mountains, Sweden, has remained uncertain. These landforms offer the potential to elucidate glacier response prior to the period of direct monitoring and provide an insight into the ice-marginal processes operating at polythermal valley glaciers. This study set out to test existing interpretations of Scandinavian ice-marginal moraines, which invoke ice stagnation, pushi...

  3. Is a White Christmas becoming rarer in southern parts of Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Jesper

    2015-07-01

    The notion of White Christmas, for instance snow conditions at Christmas Day, is occasionally discussed among people in certain countries in the northern hemisphere. In this paper, the state of snow occurrence at Christmas Day at locations in Sweden are primarily considered binary events and methodology for statistical analysis of time series with binary responses is employed to investigate trend over time. None of the six locations studied showed a significant change over time.

  4. Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at near-zero growth rates: transcriptome analysis of anaerobic retentostat cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boender, Léonie G M; van Maris, Antonius J A; de Hulster, Erik A F; Almering, Marinka J H; van der Klei, Ida J; Veenhuis, Marten; de Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2011-12-01

    Extremely low specific growth rates (below 0.01 h(-1) ) represent a largely unexplored area of microbial physiology. In this study, anaerobic, glucose-limited retentostats were used to analyse physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cultivation at near-zero specific growth rates. While quiescence is typically investigated as a result of carbon starvation, cells in retentostat are fed by small, but continuous carbon and energy supply. Yeast cells cultivated near-zero specific growth rates, while metabolically active, exhibited characteristics previously associated with quiescence, including accumulation of storage polymers and an increased expression of genes involved in exit from the cell cycle into G(0) . Unexpectedly, analysis of transcriptome data from retentostat and chemostat cultures showed, as specific growth rate was decreased, that quiescence-related transcriptional responses were already set in at specific growth rates above 0.025 h(-1) . These observations stress the need for systematic dissection of physiological responses to slow growth, quiescence, ageing and starvation and indicate that controlled cultivation systems such as retentostats can contribute to this goal. Furthermore, cells in retentostat do not (or hardly) divide while remaining metabolically active, which emulates the physiological status of metazoan post-mitotic cells. We propose retentostat as a powerful cultivation tool to investigate chronological ageing-related processes. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occupational doses and ALARA - recent developments in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godas, T.; Viktorsson, C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Sweden has traditionally experienced very slow doses to workers in the nuclear industry. However, this trend has since last year been broken mainly due to significant maintenance and repair work. This paper will describe occupational dose trends in Sweden and discuss actions that are being implemented to control this new situation.

  6. New Investment Models for Broadband in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse whether the developmental policy model applied for fibre roll-out in Sweden can be used as inspiration for the Danish telecom policy. This is done through a comparison of the two very different policy approaches applied in Denmark and Sweden. A case study...

  7. Home-School Collaboration in Sweden and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersson, Margaretha; Gu, Limin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a working paper presenting a network building cooperative project between Umea University in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. The project focuses on parents' involvement and home-school collaboration in Sweden and China and has an ambition to entail a set of empirical objectives: (1) to map and compare the systems,…

  8. Does the Breast Cancer Age at Diagnosis Differ by Ethnicity? A Study on Immigrants to Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hemminki, Kari; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sundquist, Jan; Brandt, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Age-specific incidence rates for breast cancer in low-risk and high-risk ethnic populations differ by age at which the incidence maximum is reached. The results show that in many immigrant groups the diagnostic age is earlier than that in natives of Sweden, suggesting that true biological factors underlie the differences. These factors may explain much of the international variation in breast cancer incidence. Identifying these factors should advance understanding of breast cancer etiology an...

  9. ARE FOREIGN WORKERS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE INCREASING UNEMPLOYMENT RATE IN TAIWAN?

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao-chuan Chang

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the current important issue in Taiwan that the impact of foreign workers on the rising unemployment by a dynamic intertemporal general equilibrium model. The results show that the introduction of foreign workers plays a complementary role and reduces unemployment rate at the early stage, defined as the first period after the shock. However, over time, the importation of foreign workers robs jobs from local unskilled labor and lifts the unemployment rate. In contrast to...

  10. Enhancing the response rate of strand displacement-based electrochemical aptamer sensors using bivalent binding aptamer-cDNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziping; Tao, Cancan; Yin, Jungang; Wang, Yunhui; Li, Yanshen

    2018-04-30

    Electrochemical aptamer (EA) sensors based on aptamer-cDNA duplex probes (cDNA: complementary DNA) and target induced strand displacement (TISD) recognition are sensitive, selective and capable of detecting a wide variety of target analytes. While substantial research efforts have focused on engineering of new signaling mechanisms for the improvement of sensor sensitivity, little attention was paid to the enhancement of sensor response rate. Typically, the previous TISD based EA sensors exhibited relatively long response times larger than 30min, which mainly resulted from the suboptimal aptamer-cDNA probe structure in which most of aptamer bases were paired to the cDNA bases. In an effort to improve the response rate of this type of sensors, we report here the rational engineering of a quickly responsive and sensitive aptamer-cDNA probe by employing the conception of bivalent interaction in supramolecular chemistry. We design a bivalent cDNA strand through linking two short monovalent cDNA sequences, and it is simultaneously hybridized to two electrode-immobilized aptamer probes to form a bivalent binding (BB) aptamer-cDNA probe. This class of BB probe possesses the advantages of less aptamer bases paired to the cDNA bases for quick response rate and good structural stability for high sensor sensitivity. By use of the rationally designed BB aptamer-cDNA probe, a TISD based EA sensor against ATP with significantly enhanced response rate (with a displacement equilibrium time of 4min) and high sensitivity was successfully constructed. We believe that our BB probe conception will help guide future designs and applications of TISD based EA sensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G.W. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs.

  12. Delayed HIV diagnosis common in Sweden, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widgren, Katarina; Skar, Helena; Berglund, Torsten; Kling, Anna-Maria; Tegnell, Anders; Albert, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Early diagnosis of HIV is important for the prognosis of individual patients, because antiretroviral treatment can be started at the appropriate time, and for public health, because transmission can be prevented. Data were collected from 767 HIV patients who were diagnosed in Sweden during 2003-2010 and were infected in Sweden or born in Sweden and infected abroad. A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) was applied to BED-EIA test results (OD-n Sweden or abroad). Early diagnosis was observed in 271 patients (35%). There was no statistically significant time trend in the yearly percentage of patients with early diagnosis in the entire study group (p = 0.836) or in subgroups. Early diagnosis was significantly more common in men who have sex men (MSM) (45%) than in heterosexuals (21%) and injecting drug users (27%) (p Sweden, which does not appear to diminish.

  13. Caffeine Consumption and Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Response to Regadenoson.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bitar

    Full Text Available Current guidelines recommend that caffeinated products should be avoided for at least 12 hours prior to regadenoson administration. We intended to examine the effect of caffeine consumption and of timing of last dose on hemodynamic effects after regadenoson administration for cardiac stress testing.332 subjects undergoing regadenoson stress testing were enrolled. Baseline characteristics, habits of coffee/caffeine exposure, baseline vital signs and change in heart rate, blood pressure, percent of maximal predicted heart rate, and percent change in heart rate were prospectively collected.Non-coffee drinkers (group 1 (73 subjects and subjects who last drank coffee >24 hours (group 3 (139 subjects prior to regadenoson did not demonstrate any difference in systolic blood pressure, heart rate change, maximal predicted heart rate and percent change in heart rate. Systolic blood pressure change (15.2±17.1 vs. 7.2±10.2 mmHg, p = 0.001, heart rate change (32.2±14 vs. 27.3±9.6 bpm, p = 0.038 and maximal predicted heart rate (65.5±15.6 vs. 60.7±8.6%, p = 0.038 were significantly higher in non-coffee drinkers (group 1 compared to those who drank coffee 12-24 hours prior (group 2 (108 subjects. Subjects who drank coffee >24 hours prior (group 3 exhibited higher systolic blood pressure change (13±15.8 vs. 7±10.2, p = 0.007, and heart rate change (32.1±15.3 vs. 27.3±9.6, p = 0.017 as compared to those who drank coffee 12-24 hours prior to testing (group 2.Caffeine exposure 12-24 hours prior to regadenoson administration attenuates the vasoactive effects of regadenoson, as evidenced by a blunted rise in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that caffeine exposure within 24 hours may reduce the effects of regadenoson administered for vasodilatory cardiac stress testing.

  14. Caffeine Consumption and Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Response to Regadenoson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Abbas; Mastouri, Ronald; Kreutz, Rolf P

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend that caffeinated products should be avoided for at least 12 hours prior to regadenoson administration. We intended to examine the effect of caffeine consumption and of timing of last dose on hemodynamic effects after regadenoson administration for cardiac stress testing. 332 subjects undergoing regadenoson stress testing were enrolled. Baseline characteristics, habits of coffee/caffeine exposure, baseline vital signs and change in heart rate, blood pressure, percent of maximal predicted heart rate, and percent change in heart rate were prospectively collected. Non-coffee drinkers (group 1) (73 subjects) and subjects who last drank coffee >24 hours (group 3) (139 subjects) prior to regadenoson did not demonstrate any difference in systolic blood pressure, heart rate change, maximal predicted heart rate and percent change in heart rate. Systolic blood pressure change (15.2±17.1 vs. 7.2±10.2 mmHg, p = 0.001), heart rate change (32.2±14 vs. 27.3±9.6 bpm, p = 0.038) and maximal predicted heart rate (65.5±15.6 vs. 60.7±8.6%, p = 0.038) were significantly higher in non-coffee drinkers (group 1) compared to those who drank coffee 12-24 hours prior (group 2) (108 subjects). Subjects who drank coffee >24 hours prior (group 3) exhibited higher systolic blood pressure change (13±15.8 vs. 7±10.2, p = 0.007), and heart rate change (32.1±15.3 vs. 27.3±9.6, p = 0.017) as compared to those who drank coffee 12-24 hours prior to testing (group 2). Caffeine exposure 12-24 hours prior to regadenoson administration attenuates the vasoactive effects of regadenoson, as evidenced by a blunted rise in heart rate and systolic blood pressure. These results suggest that caffeine exposure within 24 hours may reduce the effects of regadenoson administered for vasodilatory cardiac stress testing.

  15. Spontaneous Eye-Blink Rate as an Index of Reward Responsivity: Validation and Links to Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Andrew D.; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research supports the role of striatal dopamine in pursuing and responding to reward, and that eye-blink rate is a valid indicator of striatal dopamine. This study tested whether phasic changes in blink rate could provide an index of reward pursuit. This hypothesis was tested in people with bipolar I disorder (BD; a population with aberrations in reward responsivity), and in those without BD. Thirty-one adults with BD and 28 control participants completed a laboratory task involving effort towards monetary reward. Blink rate was recorded using eye-tracking at baseline, reward anticipation, and post-reward. Those in the BD group completed self-report measures relating to reward and ambition. Results showed that across all participants, blink rates increased from reward anticipation to post-reward. In the BD group, reward-relevant measures were strongly correlated with variation in blink rate. These findings provide validation for phasic changes in blink rate as an index of reward response. PMID:27274949

  16. The nitrogen mineral fertilizer tax in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    Sweden’s tax on mineral fertilizers had been in place for 25 years when it was suddenly revoked in 2009 in response to the financial crisis. Initially it targeted both nitrogen and phosphorus, but cadmium present in phosphorus replaced the latter taxation base after the first ten years. The tax...... rate for nitrogen set at SEK 1.80 (EUR 0.18) per kg N was relatively modest, while the tax rate for cadmium at SEK 30 (EUR 3) per gram was more significant. Two recent analyses have b