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  1. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  2. NATO or Neutrality : Decisions by Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Kevin A. Chaney September 2017 Thesis Advisor: David S. Yost Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO OR NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN 5. FUNDING...Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Although Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are ethnically and

  3. Russia’s Security Relations with Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    trade relations as a means of “enticement” or “punishment,” and seeks to establish and deepen the energy dependence of neighboring states on gas and...International Energy Agency noted that in 2015 Finland was 100 percent dependent on imports of gas and oil, with 83 percent of oil and 100 percent of gas...Finland, Norway, Russia, Soviet Union, Sweden, United States, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, European Union, Article 5, collective defense

  4. MBL1 genotypes in wild boar populations from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, I.-M.; Sandholm, K.; Ekdahl, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan were determined in regard to five previously described SNPs in MBL1. The T allele of G949T was present among the BC 2 animals. MBL-A serum concentration in the BC 2 animals showed a bimodal distribution, with one-third of the animals at levels between...

  5. Parliamentary participation in EU affairs in Austria, Finland and Sweden: Newcomers with different approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Neuhold

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The national parliaments in Austria, Finland, and Sweden faced similar challenges as regards to parliamentary participation in EU affairs when their countries became EU members in 1995. They chose different institutional frameworks, where in Austria the respective legal provisions were comparatively rather strong. However, the Austrian parliament rarely makes use of its extensive formal powers but finds it difficult to select the relevant EU issues to exercise its controlling powers. Finland and Sweden, on the other hand, did not provide for such extensive room of manoeuvre for their parliaments but have been more successful in selecting important EU matters to exercise parliamentary control. Especially the Finnish solution, where the parliament focuses on issues that should have been decided by the parliament if Finland had not been a member of the EU, has proven to be particularly successful.

  6. Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    This background note for Norway by the U.S. State Department describes the geography, people, history, government, politics, and foreign relations of this newly oil-rich Scandinavian nation. Norwegians number 4.1 million, growing only at 0.3% per year, of Germanic origin, with 20,000 Laplanders. Infant mortality is 9/1000; life expectancy is 73 and 80 years. The government is a constitutional monarchy, with socialized medicine, education through university and social security. Norway became independent of Sweden in 1905, was a non-belligerent in both world wars, but was occupied by Nazi Germany. Subsequently Norway has required military service and is a member of NATO. Norway is a wealthy developed nation, with a positive foreign trade balance, a per capita income of $14,000, resources of oil, fish, timber, hydroelectric power, ores, and an industrial economy. Norway sends out about $471 million in foreign aid.

  7. Death, Dying and Bereavement in Norway and Sweden in Recent Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Gustavsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of my research projects examines pictorial symbols and epitaphs on gravestones in Norway and Sweden. The focus has been on the 1990s and the 2000s. The choice of this period is motivated by the fact that new national burial laws were adopted in both countries in the early 1990s. These laws provided the next of kin with the possibility of choosing memorial symbols and inscriptions more freely than had previously been the case. To judge from the data under study, individual symbols have gained popularity, especially in Sweden, while Norway has been more faithful to earlier traditions of a collective character; moreover, secular motifs are more manifest on the gravestones in Sweden than in Norway. Another research project analyses memorial websites on the Internet related to persons who have died in recent years. The all-inclusive issue in these studies concerns mourners’ expressions of their emotions and beliefs regarding the deceased person’s afterlife, that is, beliefs in after-death existence. Belief in the deceased being somewhere in heaven is common. Belief in angels is also a popular concept in memorial websites. Moreover, in Sweden, this includes deceased pets as well. The previously strictly observed distinction between humans and pets has become indiscernible in Sweden. Norwegian practice, however, remains critical towards this type of “humanlike characterization”. In Norway, memorial websites for the deceased are generally associated with more traditional Christian concepts than are similar sites in Sweden. By contrast, in Sweden, one observes a kind of diffuse religiosity reminiscent of New Age ways of thinking, according to which the individual plays the central role, and glorification of afterlife existence prevails. Secularization, that is, a decline in the influence of traditional forms of religious experience, is conspicuously more prominent in Sweden. Within the project on memorial websites, I have performed a special

  8. Norovirus outbreaks linked to oyster consumption in the United Kingdom, Norway, France, Sweden and Denmark, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrell, T; Dusch, V; Ethelberg, S; Harris, J; Hjertqvist, M; Jourdan-da Silva, N; Koller, A; Lenglet, A; Lisby, M; Vold, L

    2010-03-25

    This paper reports on several simultaneous outbreaks of norovirus infection linked to the consumption of raw oysters. Since January 2010, 334 cases in 65 clusters were reported from five European countries: the United Kingdom, Norway, France, Sweden and Denmark. The article describes the available epidemiological and microbiological evidence of these outbreaks.

  9. Use of prescribed opioids by children and adolescents: Differences between Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahic, M; Fredheim, O M; Borchgrevink, P C; Skurtveit, S

    2015-09-01

    There are few studies on the use of opioids among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the 1-year prevalence of prescribed opioid dispensing in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to compare gender and age differences in the use of weak and strong opioids between the three countries. Data on the dispensing of opioids were collected from the websites of the complete national prescription databases in the three countries. All individuals aged 0-19 with at least one prescription of opioids during the study period were included. The 1-year prevalence of opioid use among young individuals aged 0-19 years increased during the study period (2006-2012) in Denmark from 2.5 to 3.4 per thousand, in Norway from 10.7 to 13.4 per thousand and in Sweden from 5.9 to 7.1 per thousand. In all three countries, more boys than girls used opioids between the ages of 0 and 10, whereas girls were the major users in the age range 11-19. Use of opioids in all three countries was dominated by weak opioids, codeine being the most dominant in Norway and Sweden and tramadol in Denmark. The 1-year prevalence of prescribed opioid use among children and adolescents in Norway was far higher than in Denmark and Sweden. During the study period, an increasing use of opioids among children and adolescents was observed in all three countries. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  10. Integrating climate change adaptation into civil protection: comparative lessons from Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groven, K.; Aall, C.; van den Berg, Maya Marieke; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating policy on climate change adaptation into civil protection is explored through studies of extreme weather management at the national level in Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands, and through local case studies of the three coastal cities of Bergen, Malmö and Rotterdam. The research issues

  11. "Gender Utopias?": U.S. Student Reflections on Studying Abroad in Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Kristjane; Teig, Trisha; Bedera, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study abroad experience in Norway and Sweden that was designed to explore gender equality in two of the world's most gender-progressive countries. Course readings explored the work of feminist sociologists and asked students to think critically about gender equality from a cross-cultural perspective. Students met with…

  12. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winde Lee D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6% responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5% responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The

  13. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6%) responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5%) responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The study confirms that many GPs

  14. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Haavik, Svein; Ekedahl, Anders

    Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient. Objective The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1) by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2) by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3) by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers. Methods Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4) and Sweden (n=7) and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9). Results Pharmacists’'in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45%) and Sweden (0.38%). Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%), printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1%) in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9%) in Sweden. More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (pprescription types and perrors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified. Conclusions Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact with prescriber before dispensing, irrespective of the type of

  15. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  16. GPs opinions and perceptions of chiropractic in Sweden and Norway: a descriptive survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sweden, chiropractic is not included in mainstream health care. In Norway chiropractic is a recognized health care profession. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of chiropractic among Swedish and Norwegian General Practitioners (GPs). Methods Eight hundred surveys in each country were distributed randomly by post to Swedish and Norwegian GPs offices. The survey contained two main sections: Experiences and opinions about chiropractic and referral patterns. The data were then described and compared between the countries. Results In Sweden the response rate was 44.8% and in Norway 45.3%. More than half of the Swedish GPs participating in this study stated that they had poor knowledge about chiropractic, while just a tenth of Norwegian GPs stated the same. Nearly all Norwegian GPs had some experience of chiropractic treatment whilst a fairly large number of the Swedish GPs said that they had no experience at all of chiropractic. It was twice as common for GPs in Norway to refer patients to a chiropractor as compared to Sweden. However, Swedish and Norwegian GPs agreed that chiropractors were competent to treat musculo-skeletal conditions with an adequate education to be part of mainstream medicine. Conclusions Swedish and Norwegian GPs agree that chiropractors are competent to treat musculoskeletal conditions. However, there are many differences in GPs perceptions of chiropractic between the two countries and the overall picture indicates that chiropractic is more accepted and recognised as a health care profession in Norway. PMID:24128386

  17. Out of home care in Norway and Sweden - similar and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Backe-Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the current situation in the out-of-home care in Norway and Sweden is presented in this article; also the development in later years is described and discussed. Socially, politically and culturallythere are few differences between Norway and Sweden. Child protection and out-of-home placement of children and young people are integrated parts in the welfare state that are shared by the Nordic countries. It is a model that builds on principles of universalism and decommodification of social rights. The welfare model presupposes high public legitimacy for a high level of social expenditure. However the idea of marketization and privatization has also affected the welfare model in Sweden and Norway. Although there are more similarities than differences between the two countries' child protection systems, the article discusses some differences, for example the after care services, new groups of children and young people in the out-of-home care, like young unaccompanied asylum seekers. There are also some differences when it comes to privatization, the introduction of evidence-based methods in the child protection system and the tension between general and residual services for children and young people in the child protection system.

  18. Regional Lake Surveys in The Barents region of Finland - Norway - Sweden and Russian Kola 1995 - Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Arne; Mannio, Jaakko; Wilander, Anders; Moiseenko, Tatyana; Traaen, Tor S.; Skjelkvaale, Brit Lisa; Fjeld, Eirik; Vuorenmaa, Jussi

    1997-12-31

    Because of the special interests in the local resources in the Barents area, a project has been done to evaluate the chemical properties of the lakes within this area of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. This report discusses the results. In general, the lakes in the Norwegian, Swedish and Finish parts are less acid than the lakes in these countries as a whole. The most acid lakes are found in Russian Kola, where the organic carbon content is also greatest. The nitrate concentrations are generally lower in the Barents region than in the countries as a whole, which agrees well with the low nitrogen depositions in the Barents region. The critical loads of acidity in the region are highest in Norway and much higher than for the whole country. For Finland and Sweden the opposite is the case. The critical loads are exceeded in the Barents region, the highest percentages are found in Russian Kola (14%) and in Norway (12%) while Sweden has the lowest percentage (3%). It is found that the lakes in the are respond rapidly to reduced sulphur deposition. The planned reconstruction of the ``Pechenganikel`` smelter will significantly reduce the emissions of sulphur and heavy metals and so reduce the adverse effects on the ecosystems in the area. It is important to continue environmental research and monitoring in the border area in order to study the reversibility of acidification and to what extent actions will be sufficient. 23 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. A comparative study of educational inequality in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-01-01

    in Finland was relatively stable. Conclusions There were persisting educational inequalities in stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the 1980s and 1990s. Inequalities were stable or decreasing except in Sweden, where an increase in inequality was observed. This increase was not solely......Background The stillbirth rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are among the lowest in the world, but socioeconomic disparities in stillbirth still exist. This study examined the educational patterns in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. Methods...... socioeconomic factors from various national registers. Linear and logistic regression were used to calculate RR and risk differences for stillbirth according to maternal educational attainment. Results The risk of stillbirth was lowest in Finland and highest in Denmark. The risk decreased over time in Denmark...

  20. A comparative study of educational inequality in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden 1981-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Ane L; Mortensen, Laust H; Cnattingius, Sven; Arntzen, Annett; Gissler, Mika; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-03-01

    The stillbirth rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are among the lowest in the world, but socioeconomic disparities in stillbirth still exist. This study examined the educational patterns in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. From the national birth registries, all singleton live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 28 weeks were selected in Denmark (n=1 182 888), Finland (n=419 729), Norway (n=1 006 767) and Sweden (n=1 974 101). The births were linked with individual data on parental socioeconomic factors from various national registers. Linear and logistic regression were used to calculate RR and risk differences for stillbirth according to maternal educational attainment. The risk of stillbirth was lowest in Finland and highest in Denmark. The risk decreased over time in Denmark, Norway and Finland, but remained stable in Sweden. Educational gradients were found in all countries in all time periods under study. In Denmark, the gradient remained stable over time. In Norway the gradient decreased slightly during the 1990s, whereas the gradient increased in Sweden. The gradient in Finland was relatively stable. There were persisting educational inequalities in stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the 1980s and 1990s. Inequalities were stable or decreasing except in Sweden, where an increase in inequality was observed. This increase was not solely attributable to a decreasing absolute risk of stillbirth as both the relative and absolute measures of inequality increased.

  1. Growth response to a changing environment-Impacts of tropospheric ozone dose on photosynthesis of Norway spruce forests in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Pietsch, Stephan; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is an important air pollutant, although plants have active defense strategies (e.g. antioxidants), the cumulative ozone dose may lead to chronic damages to plant tissues. Ozone enters into plants through stomata and reacts with other chemicals to create toxic compounds. This affects plant photosynthesis and may reduce CO2 fixation, and consequently growth. Open top cambers (OTC) are usually used to study the effects of elevated ozone levels on photosynthesis; whereas field studies with on site occurring ozone levels are rare. A recent modelling study on Norway spruce stands in Austria exhibited trends in model errors indicating that an increase in ozone dose leads to a reduction in volume increment. This study aims to explore how different ozone doses affect photosynthesis under field conditions and may translate into growth response for 12 stands of Norway spruce, distributed along an ozone concentration gradient across Austria. A LI-6400xt photosynthesis system was utilized to collect physiological parameters including net photosynthesis, stomata conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration, etc. Chlorophyll fluorescence data was collected by using a PEA chlorophyll fluorescence meter, and chlorophyll content was measured. Morphological characteristics and soil samples were also analyzed. Ozone dose to leaf tissue was calculated from external ozone concentration, the conductance of the stomata to ozone, the leaf area index and the time span of the day when ozone uptake takes place. Our results confirm that increasing cumulative ozone dose reduces maximum assimilation rate and carboxylation efficiency under field conditions. Our final goal is to quantify how far this ozone induced reduction in assimilation power ultimately translates into a growth reduction of Norway spruce in Austria.

  2. The governance of hydro power in Norway and Sweden: How to manage the European current?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Audun; Jacobsen, Gerd; Knudsen, Joergen; Nilsson, Maans; Rudberg, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Objectives of the paper: The proposed paper will be based on studies of renewable electricity production within two different national contexts. Experiences clearly demonstrate that variations in political settings provide energy companies with disparate opportunities, constraints and motivations (Lafferty et Ruud, 2008). This is also the case with two countries as similar as Norway and Sweden. Both countries are, however, committed by EU-based legislation, not least former and current Directives on renewable electricity and energy as well as the Water Framework Management Directive. By comparing current governance of hydropower and how environmental concerns are taken into account, the paper aims at discussing differences in regulatory practice, and thereby assess to what extent EU legislation modify and/or reinforce the existing regulatory framework in Norway and Sweden. Organisation and methodology: The paper is related to the ongoing research project Governance for Renewable Electricity Production (GOVREP), which is part of the Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy (CEDREN) one of the eight newly established Centres for Environment-friendly Energy research. GOVREP aims at contributing to a better integration of environmental- and energy policy concerns in renewable electricity production. The authors of the proposed paper are working within the project. The proposed paper will present a comparative case study of specific hydro power projects. The research method is based on document analysis as well as interviews with relevant stakeholders. The primary data to be presented in the paper will thus represent original findings. The research will employ analytical approaches related to policy analysis and europeanization of national policies. Outline of results: The paper will assess the importance of national differences in regulatory practice vis-a-vis specific hydropower projects. Furthermore, the paper will provide an assessment as to what extent

  3. Positive and negative reasons for sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan

    2014-02-12

    This article investigates various reasons for sickness presenteeism (SP), that is, going to work despite illness. The research questions asked is: What are the main reported reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden? Cross-sectional survey in Norway and Sweden. Use of binomial logistic regression analysis. A random sample of people aged between 20 and 60 years was obtained from complete and updated databases of the Norwegian and Swedish populations. A postal questionnaire was sent to the selected individuals, with response rate 33% (n=2843). 2533 workers responded to questions about SP during the last 12 months. The article informs about the distribution of reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden, selected by the respondents from a closed list. The article also examines which factors influence the most often reported reasons for SP. 56% of the Norwegian and Swedish respondents experienced SP in the previous year. The most frequently reported reasons for SP include not burden colleagues (43%), enjoy work (37%) and feeling indispensable (35%). A lower proportion of Norwegians state that they cannot afford taking sick leave adjusted OR (aOR 0.16 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.22)), while a higher proportion of Norwegians refer to that they enjoy their work (aOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.09)). Women and young workers more often report that they do not want to burden their colleagues. Managers (aOR=2.19 (95% CI 1.67 to 2.86)), highly educated persons and the self-employed more often report that they are indispensable. Positive and negative reasons for SP are reported, and there are significant differences between respondents from the two countries. The response rate is low and results must be interpreted with caution. Cross-sectional study.

  4. Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastaugh, Chris S.; Potzelsberger, Elisabeth; Hasenaueur, Hubert

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the climate change has had an apparent impact in Austrian forests. This research has been conducted on Norway spruce forests as this is the predominant species in Austria. Growth data between regions which have different temperature and precipitation trendsw was then compared, with results showing increased productivity in all regions thus implying that growth of the forest is driven by other factors than climate. This conclusion is consistent with previous studies supporting that forest growth is mainly driven by increasing nitrogen deposition.

  5. A 'civic turn' in Scandinavian family migration policies? Comparing Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Emily Cochran; Borevi, Karin; Mouritsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners' possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration policies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden range widely - from more minimal support and age requirements to high expectations of language skills, work records and even income levels. While in Denmark and increasingly in Norway growing sets of requirements have been justified on the need to protect the welfare state and a Nordic liberal way of life, in Sweden more minimal requirements have been introduced in the name of spurring immigrants' labor market integration even as rights-based reasoning has continued to dominate. In all three countries, new restrictions have been introduced in the wake of the refugee crisis. These cases show how prioritizations of the right to family life vis-à-vis welfare-state sustainability have produced different rules for family entry, and how family migration policies are used to different extents to push civic integration of both new and already settled immigrants.

  6. An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, T; Sørensen, G; Forshell, L P; Jensen, T; Nygard, K; Kapperud, G; Lindstedt, B A; Berglund, T; Wingstrand, A; Petersen, R F; Müller, L; Kjelsø, C; Ivarsson, S; Hjertqvist, M; Löfdahl, S; Ethelberg, S

    2009-03-12

    In November-December 2008, Norway and Denmark independently identified outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infections characterised in the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) by a distinct profile. Outbreak investigations were initiated independently in the two countries. In Denmark, a total of 37 cases were identified, and multiple findings of the outbreak strain in pork and pigs within the same supply chain led to the identification of pork in various forms as the source. In Norway, ten cases were identified, and the outbreak investigation quickly indicated meat bought in Sweden as the probable source and the Swedish authorities were alerted. Investigations in Sweden identified four human cases and two isolates from minced meat with the distinct profile. Subsequent trace-back of the meat showed that it most likely originated from Denmark. Through international alert from Norway on 19 December, it became clear that the Danish and Norwegian outbreak strains were identical and, later on, that the source of the outbreaks in all three countries could be traced back to Danish pork. MLVA was instrumental in linking the outbreaks in the different countries and tracing the source. This outbreak illustrates that good international communication channels, early alerting mechanisms, inter-sectoral collaboration between public health and food safety authorities and harmonised molecular typing tools are important for effective identification and management of cross-border outbreaks. Differences in legal requirements for food safety in neighbouring countries may be a challenge in terms of communication with consumers in areas where cross-border shopping is common.

  7. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  8. Useful Citizens, Useful Citizenship: Cultural Contexts of Sámi Education in Early Twentieth-Century Norway, Sweden, and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortekangas, Otso

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates Sámi elementary education in early twentieth-century Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The main focus lies on cultural contexts that frame and limit language use. The key analytical concepts are "useful citizen" and "useful citizenship". Through these concepts the article probes the ways in which…

  9. Usage of veterinary therapeutic antimicrobials in Denmark, Norway and Sweden following termination of antimicrobial growth promoter use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grave, K.; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Odensvik, K.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were phased out in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 1998-1999, 1995 and 1986, respectively. The annual usage of therapeutic antimicrobials in animals in Denmark almost doubled during the period when AGPs were phased out (1988-1999) and in the subsequent 2 years....

  10. Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between…

  11. From Role Models to Nations in Need of Advice: Norway and Sweden under the OECD's Magnifying Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Daniel; Prøitz, Tine Sophie; Forsberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    By analysing five separate OECD reviews of evaluation and assessment practices with Norway and Sweden as cases, our study illustrates different ways in which a specific international educational reasoning is blended into more context-based national education policies and, as such, works in parallel with internal reforms and agendas. It is evident…

  12. School effectiveness in science in Sweden and Norway viewed from a TIMSS perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Wiberg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Declining achievement in various core subjects has led to a debate on strategies to enhance student achievement. Identifying factors in the school environment that affect student performance in science, are therefore, of vital importance. The aim of this study is to identify school-level factors that are associated with eighth-grade students’ achievement in science based on results from TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 and 2007. Because the TIMSS data includes school-level factors at two different time points, we expected to find factors that influence science performance by Swedish and Norwegian students. Multilevel analysis was used, and this framework allowed us to account for the influence of the students’ home backgrounds. After controlling for student background, our results show that there are only a few school-level factors that are associated with student achievement in science, and the influence of these factors differ between Sweden and Norway.

  13. A Scandinavian Public Transport Model? Reform Changes in Denmark, Sweden and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza; Næss, Petter

    2017-01-01

    model of public transport. The findings are based on public documents, reform evaluations, and statistics. This is the first paper focusing on Scandinavian public transport systems and their governing models per se, taking into account the considerable reforms of the 2000s. The results provide......Scandinavian public transport, especially aspects of how the Scandinavian countries (i.e., Sweden, Denmark, and Norway) have created governing structures for a cohesive public transport system, is often cited positively in international research. Scandinavia is often treated as a homogeneous unit...... in public transport research, which sometimes refers to the “Scandinavian model of public transport”. It is not uncommon for conclusions regarding Scandinavian countries to be based on analyses of just one country. Is there actually such a thing as a Scandinavian model of public transport? All around Europe...

  14. Scientific Dishonesty: A Survey of Doctoral Students at the Major Medical Faculties in Sweden and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Helgesson, Gert; Juth, Niklas; Holm, Søren

    2015-10-01

    As we need knowledge about the prevalence of scientific dishonesty, this study investigates the knowledge of, experiences with, and attitudes toward various forms of scientific dishonesty among PhD students at the main medical faculties in Sweden and Norway. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to all post-graduate research students attending basic PhD courses at the medical faculties in Stockholm and Oslo during the fall 2014. The responding doctoral students reported to know about various forms of scientific dishonesty from the literature, in their department, and for some also through their own experience. Some forms of scientific misconduct were considered to be acceptable by a significant minority. There was a high level of willingness to report misconduct but little awareness of relevant policies for scientific conduct. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Stable Isotope Analysis of Reindeer Diet in Northern Sweden and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Hobbie, E. A.; Steele, K.; Lucas, R. W.; Varner, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    Shrub expansion in the Scandinavian Arctic has been recorded through ground observations and remote sensing techniques; however its effect on local mammalian ecology has yet to be fully understood. Warming in these subarctic ecosystems has been correlated with this increase in vascular plant production, which in turn has been correlated with a decline in lichen biomass. Our study examined δ13C and δ15N values in reindeer tissue to determine whether such biomass changes in northern Norway and Sweden have been substantial enough to affect the summer forage composition of reindeer. Hair and antler samples dating from 1909 to present day were collected from members of the Sámi community, museums, grazing areas near Abisko National Park, and Norwegian slaughterhouses. δ13C and δ15N values of hair and antler samples were compared to previously reported δ13C and δ15N values of potential reindeer forage species. This allowed for the prediction of the proportion of lichen versus graminoids, forbs, fungi and shrubs each reindeer consumed the summer before the sample was collected. Recent reindeer samples would be expected have lower δ13C and δ15N values, as compared to older specimens, if observed biomass changes had led to a decrease in reindeer summer lichen consumption in exchange for an increase in vascular plant consumption. After correcting δ13C data for the ongoing depletion of δ13C in the atmosphere due to combustion of fossil fuels (the Suess effect), no significant change of δ13C values in relation to age of sample was found. There was also no correlation between the age of the reindeer sample and δ15N values. These results indicate that summer diet composition of reindeer in northern Sweden and Norway has not notably changed since the early 1900s, regardless of potential vegetation changes. Further studies are needed to determine the extent to which reindeer will be able to selectively feed rather than change diet composition, where vascular plants

  16. Social inequality in fetal growth: a comparative study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the period 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Diderichsen, F; Arntzen, A

    2008-01-01

    ,077,584; Finland n = 400,442; Norway n = 929,458; Sweden n = 1,761,562). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Slope index of inequality (SII) and mean differences in birthweight for gestational age, SII and risk differences in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. RESULTS: In all countries......, gradients in fetal growth by parental education existed. Low parental education was associated with lower birthweight, increased risk of SGA and decreased risk of LGA. Mother's education exerted the strongest influence on outcomes, whereas father's education had a weaker effect. The educational gradients...... as measured by the SII were generally steepest in Denmark, followed by Norway, Sweden, and Finland. From 1981 to 2000, the educational gradients in birthweight decreased in all countries, except Denmark where it increased. All countries experienced small decreases in the educational gradient in SGA over time...

  17. Critical factors for bioenergy technology implementation. Five case studies of bioenergy markets in the United States, Sweden and Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Anders [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest-Industry-Market Studies

    1998-07-01

    This report analyses the driving forces of, and barriers to, biomass energy technology implementation with the objective of defining the most important factors behind the growth of bioenergy markets and suggesting strategies for policy makers and investors. The approach is to describe the important factors for the development of real bioenergy markets at two levels: (1) Institutional, primarily policy, and (2) market structure. Concepts from economic theory, primarily transaction cost theory and industrial organisation, are used in a qualitative way. The report is based on literature studies and field studies of bioenergy markets in three countries: the United States of America, Austria, and Sweden. It is divided into five sections. After the introduction in section one, literature with relevance for this study is reviewed in section two. In section three the energy policy and energy sectors of each country are described. The descriptions include an overview of the biomass energy sectors. Five cases of developed bioenergy markets in the three countries are presented in section four. The cases are residential heating with wood pellets in New Hampshire, United States, biomass power production in Maine, residential heating with pellets in Sweden, biomass district heating in Sweden, and biomass district heating in Austria. All markets are described in terms of the historical development, technical issues, economics, market structure and local policy influences. In the discussion in section five a number of key factors behind the success or failure of bioenergy are presented. Six factors are most important: (1) Complementaries between the bioenergy operations and another activity (for instance when the bioenergy production uses biomass waste products from another industry); (2) economics of scale within the bioenergy business through larger production series, standards, specialization etc.; (3) a competitive bioenergy market (Many sellers and buyers operate in the

  18. Physicians' attitudes towards eprescribing: a comparative web survey in Austria and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Steinschaden

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion We found that the major potential success factors for the implementation of eprescribing in Sweden were saving of time for the physician, improved safety and better service for patients. The mainly positive attitudes of the Austrian physicians may enable implementation of eprescribing in due course.

  19. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to morphine. Relation to the high and low incidences of NMBA anaphylaxis in Norway and Sweden, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florvaag, E; Johansson, S G O; Oman, H; Venemalm, L; Degerbeck, F; Dybendal, T; Lundberg, M

    2005-04-01

    Anaphylactic reactions to a neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) is more than six times as common in Norway as in Sweden, probably due to differences in preoperative sensitization. The prevalence of IgE-sensitization to morphine (MOR) and suxamethonium (SUX) in comparable populations in Bergen, Norway, and Stockholm, Sweden, was studied and related to possible sensitizing agents. Three hundred sera of 'allergics' and 500 blood donors in Bergen and Stockholm were tested for IgE antibodies to MOR and SUX using Pharmacia Diagnostics ImmunoCAP(Uppsala, Sweden) assay and the results compared to those of 65 patients from Bergen with documented anaphylaxis to NMBA. In addition, 84 different household chemicals were tested, by IgE antibody inhibition, for SUX and MOR. In Norway 0.4% of blood donors, 3.7% of allergics and 38.5% of anaphylactics were IgE-sensitized to SUX, and 5.0, 10.0 and 66.7%, respectively, to MOR. No serum from Sweden was positive. The majority of those sensitized (69%) were women. Several household chemicals contained SUX and/or MOR activity, but the only difference between Norway and Sweden was cough mixtures containing pholcodine (PHO). IgE antibodies to PHO were present in 6.0% of blood donors from Norway and in no serum from Sweden. Of the anaphylactics, 65-68% were sensitized to MOR or PHO but only 39% to SUX. IgE-sensitization to SUX, MOR and PHO was detected in Norway but not in Sweden. One possible explanation is the unrestricted use of cough mixtures containing MOR derivatives in Norway.

  20. Recovery from acidification of lakes in Finland, Norway and Sweden 1990–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Skjelkvåle

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate deposition has decreased by about 60% in the Nordic countries since the early 1980s. Nitrogen deposition has been roughly constant during the past 20 years, with only a minor decrease in the late 1990s. The resulting changes in the chemistry of small lakes have been followed by national monitoring programmes initiated in the 1980s in Finland (163 lakes, Norway (100 lakes and Sweden (81 lakes. These lakes are partly a subset from the survey of 5690 lakes in the Northern European lake survey of 1995. Trend analyses on data for the period 1990-1999 show that the non-marine sulphate concentrations in lakes have decreased significantly in 69% of the monitored lakes. Changes were largest in lakes with the highest mean concentrations. Nitrate concentrations, on the other hand, were generally low and showed no systematic changes. Concentrations of non-marine base cations decreased in 26% of the lakes, most probably an ionic-strength effect due to the lower concentrations of mobile strong-acid anions. Acid neutralising capacity increased in 32% of the lakes. Trends in recovery were in part masked by large year-to-year variations in sea-salt inputs and by increases in total organic carbon concentrations. These changes were most probably the result of climatic variations. Nordic lakes, therefore, show clear signs of recovery from acidification. Recovery began in the 1980s and accelerated in the 1990s. Reductions in sulphur deposition are the major "driving force" in the process of recovery from acidification. Further recovery can be expected in the next 10 years if the Gothenburg protocol on emissions of acidifying pollutants is implemented. Keywords: Nordic countries, sulphur deposition, lakes, recovery

  1. Caries-preventive methods used for children and adolescents in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källestål, C; Wang, N J; Petersen, P E; Arnadottir, I B

    1999-04-01

    Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have all had a similar decline in dental caries during the last 20 years, although the decline has come later in Iceland. The purpose of this study was to compare the caries-preventive methods used for children and adolescents in these four countries. Questionnaires were sent to random samples of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental nurses working with children during 1995 and 1996. The results showed that the use of preventive methods was generally consistent between the countries. Nevertheless there were differences between the countries concerning the choice of preventive strategy for risk patients and also in how prevention was implemented. Danish dental care providers chose oral hygiene education as the priority, which they put into practice. Apart from fluoride varnish for some patients, most of them did not use or recommend fluoride except fluoride toothpaste. The Norwegian and Icelandic dental care providers chose both oral hygiene education and the use of fluoride as priorities, while most Swedish dental care providers preferred to provide dietary advice and oral hygiene education, and additional fluoride for risk patients. The differences could not be explained by other variables than nationality, implying that there are differences between the dental cultures in the four countries. The informational basis of decisions on preventive strategies varied between the different dental professionals in each country as well as between the countries, indicating that national professional cultures are being shaped differently. Despite the differences in choice of preventive methods, the dental health of children varies little across the frontiers. This raises the question of the significance of the choice of preventive methods to the decline of dental caries and points towards an urgent need to develop evidence-based preventive strategies.

  2. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Oke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. Objective: To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15–65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. Results: The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%, and highest in Finland (28%. 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. “Low household income” and “sickness presenteeism” were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Conclusion: Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  3. Being a nurse leader in bedside nursing in hospital and community care contexts in Norway and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Athlin, Elsy; Hov, Reidun; Petzäll, Kerstin; Hedelin, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    This is an open access article. You can find it online by following this link: http://www.sciedu.ca/journal/index.php/jnep/article/view/3418 The article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ Background: The changes of health care that have been going on the latest decades have affected nurse leaders’ role in bedside nursing in hospitals and community care in Norway and Sweden as in many other countries. Aim: ...

  4. Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Norway with a territory of 386,000 sq. km or 150,000 sq. miles is slightly larger than New Mexico. In 1991 the population was estimated at 4.3 million with an annual growth rate of .5% and a literacy rate of 100%. The infant mortality rate is 7/1000 live births, and lie expectancy is 73 years for men and 80 years for women. Norway's government is a hereditary constitutional monarchy since independence n 1905. Ethnically, Norwegians are predominantly Germanic, but there are indigenous communities of Sami (Lapps) in the north, and in recent years almost 150,000 immigrants, foreign workers, and asylum-seekers have settled there. Norway's health system includes free hospital care, physicians compensation, cash benefits during illness and pregnancy, and other medical and dental plans. Until the 1981 election, Norway has been governed by Labor Party governments since 1935, except for 3 periods (1963, 1965-71, and 1972-73). Gro Harlem Brundtland is again the prime minister after forming her 3rd government in 10 years. Norway holds national elections in September 1993. Norway's large shipping fleet is modern; metals, pulp and paper products, chemicals, shipbuilding, and fishing are traditional industries, and major oil and gas discoveries in the mid-1970s transformed the economy. High oil prices in the 1983-85 period raised consumer spending, wages, and inflation. Norway is aspiring to restructure its nonoil economy in favor of efficient, nontraditional industry. The prime minister has indicated that Norway may apply for European Community (EC) membership before the end of 1992. Its main trading partners are the EC countries and its Scandinavian neighbors with the US in 5th place.

  5. Exploring similarities and differences in hospital adverse event rates between Norway and Sweden using Global Trigger Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deilkås, Ellen Tveter; Risberg, Madeleine Borgstedt; Haugen, Marion; Lindstrøm, Jonas Christoffer; Nylén, Urban; Rutberg, Hans; Michael, Soop

    2017-03-20

    In this paper, we explore similarities and differences in hospital adverse event (AE) rates between Norway and Sweden by reviewing medical records with the Global Trigger Tool (GTT). All acute care hospitals in both countries performed medical record reviews, except one in Norway. Records were randomly selected from all eligible admissions in 2013. Eligible admissions were patients 18 years of age or older, undergoing care with an in-hospital stay of at least 24 hours, excluding psychiatric and care and rehabilitation. Reviews were done according to GTT methodology. Similar contexts for healthcare and similar socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have inspired the Nordic countries to exchange experiences from measuring and monitoring quality and patient safety in healthcare. The co-operation has promoted the use of GTT to monitor national and local rates of AEs in hospital care. 10 986 medical records were reviewed in Norway and 19 141 medical records in Sweden. No significant difference between overall AE rates was found between the two countries. The rate was 13.0% (95% CI 11.7% to 14.3%) in Norway and 14.4% (95% CI 12.6% to 16.3%) in Sweden. There were significantly higher AE rates of surgical complications in Norwegian hospitals compared with Swedish hospitals. Swedish hospitals had significantly higher rates of pressure ulcers, falls and 'other' AEs. Among more severe AEs, Norwegian hospitals had significantly higher rates of surgical complications than Swedish hospitals. Swedish hospitals had significantly higher rates of postpartum AEs. The level of patient safety in acute care hospitals, as assessed by GTT, was essentially the same in both countries. The differences between the countries in the rates of several types of AEs provide new incentives for Norwegian and Swedish governing bodies to address patient safety issues. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  6. Characteristics of nursing studies in diabetes research published over three decades in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Graue, Marit; Leksell, Janeth

    2015-01-01

    research literature originating in four Nordic countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland. Our aims were (i) to catalogue and characterise trends in research designs and research areas of these studies published over time and (ii) to describe how research involving nurses in Nordic countries has......Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing...... nurse researchers have contributed to the development of new knowledge in self-management of diabetes in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and to some extent also in the treatment and care of diabetes foot ulcers. Future research may benefit from (i) larger nurse-led research programmes organised...

  7. Vocational Didactics: Core Assumptions and Approaches from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Spain and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Michael; Moreno Herrera, Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    The design of vocational didactics has to meet special requirements. Six core assumptions are identified: outcome orientation, cultural-historical embedding, horizontal structure, vertical structure, temporal structure, and the changing nature of work. Different approaches and discussions from school-based systems (Spain and Sweden) and dual…

  8. An Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, T; Sørensen, Gitte; Forshell, L P

    2009-01-01

    In November-December 2008, Norway and Denmark independently identified outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infections characterised in the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) by a distinct profile. Outbreak investigations were initiated independently in the two countr......-border outbreaks. Differences in legal requirements for food safety in neighbouring countries may be a challenge in terms of communication with consumers in areas where cross-border shopping is common....

  9. Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, Chris S; Pötzelsberger, Elisabeth; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine whether a detectable impact of climate change is apparent in Austrian forests. In regions of complex terrain such as most of Austria, climatic trends over the past 50 years show marked geographic variability. As climate is one of the key drivers of forest growth, a comparison of growth characteristics between regions with different trends in temperature and precipitation can give insights into the impact of climatic change on forests. This study uses data from several hundred climate recording stations, interpolated to measurement sites of the Austrian National Forest Inventory (NFI). Austria as a whole shows a warming trend over the past 50 years and little overall change in precipitation. The warming trends, however, vary considerably across certain regions and regional precipitation trends vary widely in both directions, which cancel out on the national scale These differences allow the delineation of 'climatic change zones' with internally consistent climatic trends that differ from other zones. This study applies the species-specific adaptation of the biogeochemical model BIOME-BGC to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) across a range of Austrian climatic change zones, using input data from a number of national databases. The relative influence of extant climate change on forest growth is quantified, and compared with the far greater impact of non-climatic factors. At the national scale, climate change is found to have negligible effect on Norway spruce productivity, due in part to opposing effects at the regional level. The magnitudes of the modeled non-climatic influences on aboveground woody biomass increment increases are consistent with previously reported values of 20-40 kg of added stem carbon sequestration per kilogram of additional nitrogen deposition, while climate responses are of a magnitude difficult to detect in NFI data.

  10. Use of SSRI and SNRI Antidepressants during Pregnancy: A Population-Based Study from Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoega, Helga; Kieler, Helle; Nørgaard, Mette; Furu, Kari; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Brandt, Lena; Haglund, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to describe utilization of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), including trends in prevalence, characteristics of users, drug switching and changes in prescribed doses in a large group of pregnant women across four Nordic countries. A drug utilization study based on linked individual-level data from the nationwide prescription- and medical birth registers in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The study population comprised all pregnancies in these countries, resulting in a live birth or stillbirth after gestational week 22 from January 1st 2008 to December 31st 2012 (N = 1 162 470). In addition to the main study drugs SSRIs and SNRIs, we included (concurrent) use of other antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics and hypnotics. A total of 38 219 (3.3%) pregnancies were exposed to SSRIs and 5 634 (0.5%) to SNRIs. Prevalence of SSRI and SNRI use varied by country (1.8% in Norway to 7.0% in Iceland). Use and prescribed dosages decreased with each passing trimester of pregnancy; prevalence was 2.7% at conception, and 2.1%, 1.7% and 1.3% respectively in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester. In 0.6% of pregnancies women filled a prescription before pregnancy and in every trimester. In one third of exposed pregnancies, women were also dispensed anxiolytics, hypnotics or sedatives. Use of SSRI and SNRI use during pregnancy varied between the Nordic countries, but the overall prevalence remained low and relatively stable from 2008 to 2012. The low prevalence of use and high proportion of women who discontinue treatment in pregnancy raise questions about adequate treatment of depression in pregnant women.

  11. Water storage in the lichen genus Usnea in Sweden and Norway : Can morphological and water storage traits explain the distribution and ecology of epiphytic species?

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are poikilohydric and cannot control water uptake and loss, water relations could therefore impact their distribution. This study examines if morphological, anatomical, and water storage traits could explain distribution of epiphytic species in the lichen genus Usnea. Seven species from oceanic (Norway) and continental areas (Sweden) were studied. Total, internal, and external water holding capacity (WHC, mg H2O cm-2) along with relative water content (WC) were recorded by spraying th...

  12. The cost of installing central heating. Comparison of Norway and Sweden. Final version; Kostnader ved installasjon av vannbaaren varme. Sammenlikning av Norge og Sverige. Endelig versjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarberg, Karl Johan; Elnan, Kaare; Essen, Jan von; Hovden, Agnete; Ekvall, Thomas; Melbaeck, Johan

    2010-10-22

    The objective of the cost study is to examine costs and cost differences associated with the installation of various technical solutions for water heating in various buildings in Norway and Sweden - regionally and nationally. In addition, the cost study intended to point out any barriers to the increased prevalence of central heating, as well as proposals for measures to remove such. Finally, the cost study in general and in particular barriers placed in a larger environment and climate perspective. (AG)

  13. Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    In 1985, Sweden's population stood at 8.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 0.2%. The infant mortality rate was 6.4/1000, and life expectancy was 76 years for men and 82 years for women. The gross domestic product was US$100.2 billion, with a per capita income of $11,989. Of the work force of 4.34 million, 4.9% are in agriculture, 29.8% work in industry, 21.3% are employed in the commerce and finance sector, and 43.9% are engaged in services. Among the social problems Sweden faces are the increasingly large proportion of the population over age 65 years and the challenge of integrating immigrants into social and political life while preserving national languages and customs. Development during the 1970s was less favorable than in most comparable countries; however, industrial recovery during the 1980s has restored the competitiveness of Swedish exports. There is general agreement that investment in new plants and machinery must be increased and wages and consumption must be moderated if Sweden is to expand its industrial sector.

  14. Long-term changes in acidification and recovery at nine calibrated catchments in Norway, Sweden and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moldan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available International agreements to reduce the emissions of acidifying pollutants have resulted in major changes in deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in southern Scandinavia over the past 25 years. Long-term monitoring of deposition and run-off chemistry over the past 12-25 years at nine small calibrated catchments in Finland, Norway and Sweden provide the basis for analysis of trends with special attention to recovery in response to decreased sulphur and nitrogen deposition in the 1980s and 1990s. During the 1980s and 1990s sulphate deposition in the region decreased by 30 to 60%, whereas inorganic nitrogen deposition showed very little change until the mid-1990s. Deposition of non-marine base cations (especially calcium declined in the 1990s most markedly in southern Finland. Run-off response to these changes in deposition has been rapid and clear at the nine catchments. Sulphate and base cations (mostly calcium concentrations declined and acid neutralising capacity increased. Occasional years with unusually high inputs of sea-salt confound the general trends. Trends at all the catchments show the same general picture as that from small lakes in Scandinavia and in acid-sensitive waters elsewhere in Europe. Keywords: acidification, recovery, Scandinavia, catchment, trend analysis

  15. Combining information from surveys of several species to estimate the probability of freedom from Echinococcus multilocularis in Sweden, Finland and mainland Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjertqvist Marika

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis has foxes and other canids as definitive host and rodents as intermediate hosts. However, most mammals can be accidental intermediate hosts and the larval stage may cause serious disease in humans. The parasite has never been detected in Sweden, Finland and mainland Norway. All three countries require currently an anthelminthic treatment for dogs and cats prior to entry in order to prevent introduction of the parasite. Documentation of freedom from E. multilocularis is necessary for justification of the present import requirements. Methods The probability that Sweden, Finland and mainland Norway were free from E. multilocularis and the sensitivity of the surveillance systems were estimated using scenario trees. Surveillance data from five animal species were included in the study: red fox (Vulpes vulpes, raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, domestic pig, wild boar (Sus scrofa and voles and lemmings (Arvicolinae. Results The cumulative probability of freedom from EM in December 2009 was high in all three countries, 0.98 (95% CI 0.96-0.99 in Finland and 0.99 (0.97-0.995 in Sweden and 0.98 (0.95-0.99 in Norway. Conclusions Results from the model confirm that there is a high probability that in 2009 the countries were free from E. multilocularis. The sensitivity analyses showed that the choice of the design prevalences in different infected populations was influential. Therefore more knowledge on expected prevalences for E. multilocularis in infected populations of different species is desirable to reduce residual uncertainty of the results.

  16. Reaching out to people struggling with their lives: a discourse analysis of answers from Internet-based services in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen AJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anders Johan W Andersen,1 Tommy Svensson21Department of Psychosocial Health, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 2Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, SwedenAbstract: The Internet has enlarged the scope of human communication, opening new avenues for connecting with people who are struggling with their lives. This article presents a discourse analysis of 101 responses to 98 questions that were posted on 14 different Internet-based mental health services in Norway and Sweden. We aimed to examine and describe the dominant understandings and favored recommendations in the services’ answers, and we reflected upon the social consequences of those answers. The services generally understood life struggles as an abnormal state of mind, life rhythms, or self-reinforcing loops. Internet-based mental health services primarily counsel service users to seek help, talk to health care professionals face-to-face, and discuss their life struggles openly and honestly. They also urge service users to take better care of themselves and socialize with other people. However, such answers might enhance the individualization of life problems, masking social origin and construction. Consequently, the services are challenged to include social explanations in their answers and strengthen their responsibility to amplify peoples’ messages at a societal level. Potentially, such answers could strengthen democratic structures and put pressure on social equity.Keywords: depression, e-mental health, health psychology, Internet, public health

  17. Is Support for International Climate Action Conditional on Perceptions of Reciprocity? Evidence from Survey Experiments in Canada, the us, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvinnereim, Endre; Lachapelle, Erick; Borick, Christopher

    The challenges of collective action are presented by leaders in many industrialized countries as a major obstacle to effective action on climate change. Notably, the argument goes, a fair international solution must appropriately constrain large greenhouse gas emitters like China. This paper asks whether citizen support for multilateral climate policies also depends on whether other countries are seen to reciprocate. We analyze results from population-based survey experiments in the US, Canada, Norway, and Sweden, asking subjects whether they think their country should commit internationally to emission reductions. Randomly assigned sub-samples were presented with statements suggesting that China may or may not choose to cooperate, or alternatively making no mention of China. We find that reciprocity is important to respondents in the smaller Scandinavian countries but not in North America. These findings suggest that country size is more important than national traditions of multilateral cooperation in predicting support for unilateral climate action.

  18. Socioeconomic Status and Net Fertility during the Fertility Decline: A Comparative Analysis of Canada, Iceland, Sweden, Norway and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Hacker, J. David; Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Most previous work on the historical fertility transition has been macro-oriented, using aggregate data to examine economic correlates of demographic behaviour at regional or national levels, while much less has been done using micro data, and specifically looking at behavioural differentials among social groups. In this paper we study at the impact of socioeconomic status on net fertility during the fertility transition in five Northern American and European Countries (Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the USA). We use micro-level census data in 1900, containing information on number of children by age, occupation of the mother and father, place of residence and household context. The results show highly similar patterns across countries, with the elite and upper middle classes having considerably lower net fertility early in the transition. These patterns remain also after controlling for a range of individual and community-level fertility determinants and geographical unobserved heterogeneity. PMID:24684711

  19. Shape of the association between income and mortality: a cohort study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1995 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Rehnberg, Johan; Dahl, Espen; Diderichsen, Finn; Elstad, Jon Ivar; Martikainen, Pekka; Rehkopf, David; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Fritzell, Johan

    2016-12-23

    Prior work has examined the shape of the income-mortality association, but work has not compared gradients between countries. In this study, we focus on changes over time in the shape of income-mortality gradients for 4 Nordic countries during a period of rising income inequality. Context and time differentials in shape imply that the relationship between income and mortality is not fixed. Population-based cohort study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. We collected data on individuals aged 25 or more in 1995 (n=12.98 million individuals, 0.84 million deaths) and 2003 (n=13.08 million individuals, 0.90 million deaths). We then examined the household size equivalised disposable income at the baseline year in relation to the rate of mortality in the following 5 years. A steep income gradient in mortality in men and women across all age groups except the oldest old in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. From the 1990s to 2000s mortality dropped, but generally more so in the upper part of the income distribution than in the lower part. As a consequence, the shape of the income gradient in mortality changed. The shift in the shape of the association was similar in all 4 countries. A non-linear gradient exists between income and mortality in most cases and because of a more rapid mortality decline among those with high income the income gradient has become steeper over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Completeness of the disease recording systems for dairy cows in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with special reference to clinical mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, the majority of dairy herds are covered by disease recording systems, in general based on veterinary registration of diagnoses and treatments. Disease data are submitted to the national cattle databases where they are combined with, e.g., production data at cow level, and used for breeding programmes, advisory work and herd health management. Previous studies have raised questions about the quality of the disease data. The main aim of this study was to examine the country-specific completeness of the disease data, regarding clinical mastitis (CM) diagnosis, in each of the national cattle databases. A second aim was to estimate country-specific CM incidence rates (IRs). Results Over 4 months in 2008, farmers in the four Nordic countries recorded clinical diseases in their dairy cows. Their registrations were matched to registrations in the central cattle databases. The country-specific completeness of disease registrations was calculated as the proportion of farmer-recorded cases that could be found in the central database. The completeness (95% confidence interval) for veterinary-supervised cases of CM was 0.94 (0.92, 0.97), 0.56 (0.48, 0.64), 0.82 (0.75, 0.90) and 0.78 (0.70, 0.85) in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, respectively. The completeness of registration of all CM cases, which includes all cases noted by farmers, regardless of whether the cows were seen or treated by a veterinarian or not, was 0.90 (0.87, 0.93), 0.51 (0.43, 0.59), 0.75 (0.67, 0.83) and 0.67 (0.60, 0.75), respectively, in the same countries. The IRs, estimated by Poisson regression in cases per 100 cow-years, based on the farmers’ recordings, were 46.9 (41.7, 52.7), 38.6 (34.2, 43.5), 31.3 (27.2, 35.9) and 26.2 (23.2, 26.9), respectively, which was between 20% (DK) and 100% (FI) higher than the IRs based on recordings in the central cattle databases. Conclusions The completeness for veterinary-supervised cases of

  1. Prevalence of hip dislocation among children with cerebral palsy in regions with and without a surveillance programme: a cross sectional study in Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkamil Areej I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation is a serious complication among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of hip dislocation among children with CP in an area providing regular care with an area providing hip surveillance services. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in seven Norwegian counties providing regular care and one Swedish healthcare region where a hip surveillance programme was introduced in 1994. Data were provided by the Norwegian Cerebral Palsy Register and the CP Register in Southern Sweden. Children born 1996 - 2003 with moderate to severe CP, defined as Gross Motor Classification System (GMFCS levels III - V, were included. In all, 119 Norwegian and 136 Swedish children fulfilled the criteria. In Norway, data on hip operations and radiographs of the hips were collected from medical records, while these data are collected routinely in the Swedish register. The hip migration percentage was measured on the recent radiographs. Hip dislocation was defined as a migration percent of 100%. Results The proportion of children at GMFCS levels III - V was 34% in the Norwegian and 38% in the Swedish population. In the Norwegian population, hip dislocation was diagnosed in 18 children (15.1%; CI: 9.8 - 22.6 compared with only one child (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.01 - 4.0 in Southern Sweden (p = Conclusions The surveillance programme reduced the number of hip dislocations and the proportion of children undergoing hip surgery was lower. However, with the surveillance programme the first operation was performed at a younger age. Our results strongly support the effectiveness of a specifically designed follow-up programme for the prevention of hip dislocation in children with CP.

  2. Characteristics of nursing studies in diabetes research published over three decades in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Graue, Marit; Leksell, Janeth; Smide, Bibbi; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sigurdardottir, Arun K

    2016-06-01

    Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing research literature originating in four Nordic countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland. Our aims were (i) to catalogue and characterise trends in research designs and research areas of these studies published over time and (ii) to describe how research involving nurses in Nordic countries has contributed to diabetes research overall. The larger goal of our analyses was to produce a comprehensive picture of this research in order to guide future studies in the field. We conducted a narrative literature review by systematically searching Medline, Medline in process, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. These searches were limited to studies published between 1979 and 2009 that had an abstract available in English or a Nordic language. Two researchers independently selected studies for analysis, leading to the inclusion of 164 relevant publications for analysis. In summary, Nordic nurse researchers have contributed to the development of new knowledge in self-management of diabetes in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and to some extent also in the treatment and care of diabetes foot ulcers. Future research may benefit from (i) larger nurse-led research programmes organised in networks in order to share knowledge and expertise across national groups and borders, (ii) more multidisciplinary collaborations in order to promote patient-centred care and (iii) further research directed towards improving the dissemination and implementation of research findings. Using complex intervention designs and a mix of research methods will enrich the research. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Effects of liming and wood ash application on root biomass, root distribution and soil chemistry in a Norway spruce stand in southwest Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebke, C.G.

    2001-07-01

    Effects of liming (CaPK) and wood ash application (A) on soil chemistry, root (< 2 mm and 2-5 mm in diameter) biomass and distribution, root length density (RLD, cm/cm{sup 3} ) and specific root length (SRL, m/g) were investigated in a 60 year old Norway spruce stand in SW Sweden. Soil cores were taken from the litter fermented humus (LFH) and mineral soil layers to a depth of 30 cm, eight years after treatments. The pH values of the LM layer increased significantly (p< 0.05) in the lime and ash treatments compared to the control, while in the top 5 cm of the mineral soil, pH was increased only in the A treatment compared to CaPK. The P, K, Ca and Mg concentrations increased in the CaPK treatment in the LM layer, while K and Ca decreased significantly at 5-10 cm depth in CaPK treated plots compared to the control and A. The highest amounts of ammonium and nitrate were found in A treatment in all soil layers. The A treatment increased fine root (< 2 mm in diameter) biomass in the LFH layer compared to the control but decreased it in the top 10 cm of the mineral soil compared to CaPK. A shallower fine root system was found in the A treated plots compared to the control and CaPK. The coarser root (2-5 mm in diameter) biomass was higher in the mineral soil in the A treatment compared to the control and CaPK but the differences were not significant. RLD increased in both CaPK and A in the upper soil layers. SRL increased in almost all layers in the CaPK and A treatments compared to the control. The number of root tips were also higher in the treated plots compared to the control, except in the 10-20 cm layer. It was concluded that CaPK and A treatments resulted in improved root vitality with a higher capacity for nutrient uptake.

  4. Recueil des legislations linguistiques dans le monde. Tome V: l'Algerie, l'Autriche, la Chine, le Danemark, la Finlande, la Hongrie, l'ile de Malte, le Maroc, la Norvege, la Nouvelle-Zelande, les Pays-Bas, le Royaume-Uni, la Tunisie, la Turquie, l'ex-URSS (Record of World Language-Related Legislation. Volume V: Algeria, Austria, China, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Malta, Morocco, Norway, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Tunisia, Turkey, the former USSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jacques, Ed.; Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    The volume is one of a series of six listing language-related legislation around the world. It contains the texts, in French, of laws of Algeria, Austria, China, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Malta, Morocco, Norway, New Zealand, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Tunisia, Turkey, and the former Soviet Union. The laws concern official languages,…

  5. Association between population prevalence of smoking and incidence of meningococcal disease in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009: a population-based time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, Gunnstein; Sadarangani, Manish; Omar, Omar; Yu, Ly-Mee; Mølbak, Kåre; Howitz, Michael; Olcén, Per; Haglund, Margaretha; van der Ende, Arie; Pollard, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the prevalence of smoking in the population and incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) among children under 5 years of age. Design Retrospective, longitudinal, observational study. Poisson regression controlled for confounding factors. Setting Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009. Population Total population of approximately 35 million people in these four countries. Data sources Data were collected from the Ministries of Health, National Statistics Bureaus and other relevant national institutes. Results In Norway, there was a significant positive relationship between the annual prevalence of daily smokers among individuals aged 25–49 years and the incidence of IMD in children under 5 years of age, unadjusted (RR=1.04–1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, p<0.001) and after adjustment for time of year (quarter), incidence of influenza-like illness and household crowding (RR=1.05–1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.09, p<0.001). Depending on age group, the risk of IMD increased by 5.2–6.9% per 1% increase in smoking prevalence among individuals aged 25–49 years in adjusted analyses. Using limited datasets from the three other countries, unadjusted analysis showed positive associations between IMD in children related to older smokers in Sweden and the Netherlands and negative associations related to younger smokers in Sweden. However, there were no demonstrable associations between incidence of IMD and prevalence of smoking, after adjustment for the same confounding variables. Conclusions The reduced incidence of IMD in Norway between 1975 and 2009 may partly be explained by the reduced prevalence of smoking during this period. High-quality surveillance data are required to confirm this in other countries. Strong efforts to reduce smoking in the whole population including targeted campaigns to reduce smoking among adults may have a role to play in the prevention of IMD in children

  6. Green Certificates: A Norwegian perspective regarding a proposed common mandatory electricity certificate market between Norway and Sweden; Groenne sertifikater: Et norsk perspektiv paa saken om et pliktig elsertifikatmarked mellom Sverige og Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbeinstveit, Atle

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a study in a Norwegian perspective of the political proposal for a common mandatory electricity certificate market between Norway and Sweden. The proposal was withdrawn in February 2006. The study examines whether Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg's second government assessed green certificates as the cause of an unpopular hike in electricity prices, a hypothesis that found some support in this work. Next, it examines the role of the government bureaucracy. A hypothesis is set forth that the government decision followed from standard operational procedures in the bureaucracy. Importantly, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the most significant bureaucratic agents in our case, made their recommendations based on economic principles, which had become a standard operating procedure for them in Norwegian energy and environmental policies. (Author)

  7. Research News from Norway, Sweden, and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Norge: 1 Forskningsavd ved Reindriftsadministrasjonen. 2 Avd. for arktisk biologi, Univ. i Tromsø 3 Viltforskningen ved DN, Trondheim 4 Institutt for biologi og geologi, Univ. i Tromsø 5 Institutt for husdyrnæring, Norges landbrukshøgskole 6 Institutt for zoologi, Norges landbrukshøgskole 7 Stipendiat Norges landbruksvit. forskningsråd 8 Statens veterinære laboratorium i Nord-Norge Sverige: 1 Renförsöksavdelningen, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet 2 Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt 3 Statens naturvårdsverk Finland: 1 Vilt- och fiskeriforskningsinstitutet, Renforskning 2 Kaamanen försöksstation, Renägareföreningen 3 Veterinärmedicinska högskolan 4 Helsingfors universitets husdjursvetenskapliga institut 5 Kuopios och Uleåborgs universiteter 6 Helsingfors universitets geologiska institut 7 Jyväskyläs universitet 8 Lantbrukets forskningscentral

  8. Gifted Education in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyringer, Sieglinde

    2013-01-01

    In Austria, gifted education and the education of highly gifted and talented children have been receiving an increasing public awareness and social acceptance over the past decade. The article highlights the existing ideas of giftedness in Austria, and it presents several initiatives having triggered and influenced this positive development. The…

  9. Whither Nordic Public Libraries? Towards a Cross-country Research Initiative on the Historical Heritage, Role, Selfperception, and Challenges of Public Libraries in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden Whither Nordic Public Libraries? Towards a Cross-country Research Initiative on the Historical Heritage, Role, Selfperception, and Challenges of Public Libraries in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Kajberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In these years, the role and mission of the mainstream Western world public library are increasingly being questioned and challenged. Current discussion as it has unfolded during the last few years within the public library community, and among educators and researchers in the field, more and more point to the fact that public libraries are facing a need for reorientation and reconsideration of their role along with the services they provide to their users. Public library use, primarily the number of library loans, seems to be shrinking, but the function of the library as an informal meeting place and a social space in the local community seems to attract an increasing amount of interest professionally and academically. As a by-product of this interest, various scenarios for the development of the public library have been presented. The nature of challenges confronting public libraries - including those emerging from the web, from the dispersion of social software and changes in users' habits, tastes, preferences, etc. - are examined. Moreover, commoditisation of human life, a manifest phenomenon in the age of late modernity, has gradually led to a shift in emphasis from enlightenment to a short-term and customer-centred perspective. The discussion of emerging identities and roles for the public library can be seen as the starting point for a joint research initiative initiated by Library and Information Science (LIS schools in the Nordic countries. Detailed treatment is given to the efforts to get this research initiative, which aims to reflect strategically on the role of the public library in democracy and welfare state in Scandinavia, off the ground. In defining the contents and direction of the research initiative, a public library researchers' seminar was held in Uppsala, Sweden in May 2007. Finally, some critical observations are presented on the way in which current professional policy- making, LIS scholarship and theory building as

  10. Clinical and analytical evaluation of the new Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay, with data on M. genitalium prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unemo, M.; Salado-Rasmussen, K.; Hansen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes urethritis and cervicitis, potentially causing reproductive complications. Resistance in MG to first-line (azithromycin) and second-line (moxifloxacin) treatment has increased. We examined the clinical and analytical performance of the new Conformité...... Européene (CE)/. in vitro diagnostics (IVD) Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay (CE/IVD AMG; Hologic); the prevalence of MG, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG); and MG resistance to azithromycin and moxifloxacin in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016. Methods: From February 2016......). The sensitivity of the CE/IVD AMG, MG Alt TMA-1 and mgpB qPCR ranged 99.13-100%, 99.13-100% and 73.24-81.60%, respectively, in the countries. The specificity ranged 99.57-99.96%, 100% and 99.69-100%, respectively. The prevalence of resistance-associated mutations for azithromycin and moxifloxacin was 41.4% (120...

  11. 'Framework Conditions for Development of Renewable Energy in Norway, Sweden and Scotland: Comparison of Factors that Motivate and Moderate Investments; Rammebetingelser for utbygging av fornybar energi i Norge, Sverige og Skottland: Sammenligning av faktorer som motiverer og modererer investeringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buan, Inga Fritzen; Eikeland, Per Ove; Inderberg, Tor Haakon

    2010-02-15

    The report compares the national regulatory framework for investors in renewable energy (hydropower, wind power and biomass-based energy production) in Norway, Sweden and Scotland. Factors investigated include national support systems for renewable energy, aspects of the consents process, aspects of national area planning and conditions for access to the grid for producers of renewable electricity. The report observes differences in investment rates in renewable energy between the countries and discusses how the different factors in combination could explain why investment rates have turned out differently. The report observes variation in all factors between the countries and concludes that variation in national support systems, causing variation in profitability of investments, appears with the most significant effect on investment rates. When profitable investment exist, the report discusses how cumbersome consents processes, lack of set-aside areas for renewable energy investments in local planning and uncertainties concerning grid access can add risks and moderate the rate of investments. (Author)

  12. Estimating prevalence of problem drug use at national level in countries of the European Union and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Ludwig; Augustin, Rita; Frischer, Martin; Kümmler, Petra; Uhl, Alfred; Wiessing, Lucas

    2003-04-01

    This paper will present the most recent estimates for problematic drug use in European Member States and explore the problems of comparability. Estimates of problematic drug use, derived according to agreed guidelines, were collected from all EU countries and Norway. Methods included multipliers based on treatment, police, mortality or AIDS/HIV data, the capture-recapture method and the multivariate indicator method. Prevalence estimates were transformed into rates per 1000 population aged 15-64 years. Target populations varied according to data selection. Estimates for six partially overlapping types of drug use could be identified: 'problem opiate use', 'problem opiate or cocaine use', 'problem amphetamine or opiate use', 'problem drug use', '(current) injecting' and 'life-time injecting'. Rates of injectors ranged from 2.6 in Germany to 4.8 in Luxembourg; rates in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Portugal and the United Kingdom fell within this range. For problem opiate use, a group of high prevalence countries were found with average rates exceeding six cases (Italy, Luxembourg, Spain and the United Kingdom) and a group with lower prevalence with average rates close to three cases (Austria, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands). Rates obtained for France (problem opiate or cocaine use), Finland and Sweden (problem amphetamine or opiate use) are not directly comparable and fall between these rates. Cross-national comparisons should be made with care and estimated target populations may vary greatly between countries. For estimating various forms of problem drug use at national level, a multi-method approach is recommended.

  13. Female Professors in Sweden and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Anett

    2003-01-01

    The Research Training Network “Women in European Universities” focuses on career opportunities of women in higher education in seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). Within the frame of this network different aspects of career perspectives of women – and also men – are investigated. In a first working step a context analysis was conducted in order to give an understanding of the different systems of higher education, their changes an...

  14. Education Policy Outlook: Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Diana Toledo; Golden, Gillian; Giovinazzo, Manon; Peterka, Judith; Ullmann, Marie

    2017-01-01

    This policy profile on education in Austria is part of the "Education Policy Outlook" series, which presents comparative analysis of education policies and reforms across OECD countries. Building on the OECD's substantial comparative and sectoral knowledge base, the series offers a comparative outlook on education policy by providing…

  15. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  16. The English and northern (Sweden and Norway) systems regarding the questions posed by the white book; Les systemes anglais et nordiques (Suede et Norvege) au regard des questions posees dans le livre blanc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie [ed.] [Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie, Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Paris (France)

    1999-06-15

    This report issued at request of Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry - State Secretariat for Industry, presents an analysis of the way the European countries have liberalized their markets, which will be used to answer the questions posed by the white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the French electricity sector'. In the United Kingdom the reform, initiated on 1 April 1990, occurred as a genuine revolution, with the blow-up of CEGB, the equivalent of EDF in France. In Swede and Norway the evolution was progressive; the electric industry was actually not nationalized and the local collectivities, often owners of the production means, have remained the prominent actors. Other characteristic of these countries is the abundance of natural energetic resources, especially for United Kingdom and Norway where the objective of the power policy is of turning profitable the existent potential and not as in France, where the problem is to cope with the consequences of the lack of natural resources. This report contains two parts. The first part presents the main characteristics of the liberalized systems. Indeed while in an integrated system the logic is 'top - down', in a liberalized system the logic is 'bottom - up' i.e., the coordination is based on the market in a decentralized way. The instrument of this coordination is a contract by which the risks are shared among the actors (producers, bankers, distributors, customers). The central actor of the liberalized system is the network authority, so-called 'independent' with rather large autonomy, nominated by the Minister in charge with the energy policy. The network authority has essentially two functions: control and surveillance. In United Kingdom this agency has among his duties the promotion of competition, particularly in production sector, considered as still having monopole capabilities. In Swede and Norway this authority contents itself of only issuing

  17. Ips typographus and Ophiostoma polonicum versus Norway spruce: joint attack and host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik Christiansen

    1991-01-01

    During the years 1971 to 1982, major epidemics of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus L., occurred in southeastern Norway and adjoining parts of Sweden. The outbreaks were triggered by large-scale wind-felling and long-lasting drought (Worrell 1983). This "epidemic of the century," hitting our important timber tree, Norway spruce,

  18. Development and test of selective sorting grids used in the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Frandsen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Norway, Denmark and Sweden. Grids are very selective, but they can lead to loss of landable Norway lobster and valuable fish species. To improve retention of these species, we developed three new grids using made by polyurethane to make them flexible: One grid had horizontal bars, one had vertical bars...

  19. Comparing Effects of School Inspections in Sweden and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemethofer, David; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Altrichter, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, school inspections have been newly introduced or adapted to the evidence-based governance logic in many European countries. So far, empirical research on the impact of school inspections has produced inconclusive results. Methodologically, it has mainly focussed on analysis of a national inspection model and used cross-sectional…

  20. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Hård af Segerstad, Carl; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Ingemar Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway a...

  1. Hirayama disease in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Löscher, Wolfgang; Wanschitz, Julia; Baumann, Matthias; Quasthoff, Stefan; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Hirayama disease (HD) is a segmental cervical myelopathy which affects the C7-D1 myotomes and presents with unilateral or asymmetric upper limb weakness/wasting. The study aimed at systematically collecting cases of HD in Austria and at describing and discussing their presentation on clinical and instrumental investigations and at comparing them with cases reported from other countries. Neurological Departments of secondary and tertiary centers and colleagues in outpatient units involved in the management of neuromuscular disorders in Austria were contacted and asked to provide standardised data about their HD cases. Altogether, nine unrelated cases were included. Mean age at onset was 18.3 years (range: 12.5-27 years). The female-to-male ratio was 0.29. Mean disease duration was 18.8 years. All patients presented with weakness or wasting of the distal upper limb muscles. A single arm (right: n=2, left: n=3) was affected in five cases and both arms in four. Six patients presented with tremor, two with fasciculations. EMG showed chronic neurogenic changes in all patients. Conventional cervical MRI was normal (n=1), showed focal atrophy (n=3), an intramedullary lesion (n=3), or abnormal straightening of the cervical spine (n=1). Dynamic MRI in a single patient showed anterior displacement of the dorsal dura, prominent epidural space, compressed cord over the posterior surface of vertebra C5-6, and a prominent crescent-shaped mass. Two patients received physiotherapy with beneficial effect in one. HD rarely also occurs in Austria, predominantly males are affected, and clinical presentation, course and outcome are not at variance from cases in other European or non-European countries. Copyright © 2012 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of acid precipitation on freshwater ecosystems on Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Wright; Torstein Dale; Egil T. Gjessing; George R. Hendrey; Arne Henriksen; Merete Johannessen; Ivar P. Muniz

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies of precipitation chemistry during the last 20 years have clearly shown that highly polluted precipitation falls over large areas of Scandinavia, and that this pollution is increasing in severity and geographical extent. Precipitation in southern Norway, Sweden, and Finland contains large amounts of H+, SO4...

  3. School accidents in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalamon, Johannes; Eberl, Robert; Ainoedhofer, Herwig; Singer, Georg; Spitzer, Peter; Mayr, Johannes; Schober, Peter H; Hoellwarth, Michael E

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanisms and types of injuries in school in Austria. Children between 0 and 18 years of age presenting with injuries at the trauma outpatient in the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz and six participating hospitals in Austria were evaluated over a 2-year prospective survey. A total of 28,983 pediatric trauma cases were registered. Personal data, site of the accident, circumstances and mechanisms of accident and the related diagnosis were evaluated. At the Department of Pediatric Surgery in Graz 21,582 questionnaires were completed, out of which 2,148 children had school accidents (10%). The remaining 7,401 questionnaires from peripheral hospitals included 890 school accidents (12%). The male/female ratio was 3:2. In general, sport injuries were a predominant cause of severe trauma (42% severe injuries), compared with other activities in and outside of the school building (26% severe injuries). Injuries during ball-sports contributed to 44% of severe injuries. The upper extremity was most frequently injured (34%), followed by lower extremity (32%), head and neck area (26%) and injuries to thorax and abdomen (8%). Half of all school related injuries occur in children between 10 and 13 years of age. There are typical gender related mechanisms of accident: Boys get frequently injured during soccer, violence, and collisions in and outside of the school building and during craft work. Girls have the highest risk of injuries at ball sports other than soccer.

  4. Puente en Melk, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1974-05-01

    Full Text Available This interesting bridge across the Danube links the central forest zone with the highway Ceste and contributes greatly to facilitate the intense traffic of this region. It has a total length of 818 m, distributed in nine spans: the two central ones over the river are 190 m each with box girders. A great many problems have bean solved successfully regarding the various foundations, slender beams, processes of concreting, the temperature of concrete, and the most adequate design and realisation all of which makes this work one of the most important ones that have been constructed in Austria during recent years.Este interesante puente sobre el Danubio enlaza la zona boscosa central con la autopista Oeste y contribuye grandemente a aligerar el denso tráfico de esta zona. Tiene una longitud total de 818 m, distribuidos en nueve tramos; los dos centrales, sobre el río, alcanzan los 190 m cada uno, con vigas de cajón. Se han resuelto acertadamente numerosos problemas, relacionados con las variadas cimentaciones adoptadas, esbeltez de canto en las vigas, procesos de hormigonado, temperatura del hormigón y el cálculo y ejecución más adecuados; todo lo cual hace de esta obra una de las más importantes que se han realizado en Austria durante los últimos años.

  5. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

  6. Whither Nordic Public Libraries? Towards a Cross-country Research Initiative on the Histo rical Heritage, Role, Self- perception, and Challenges of Public Libraries in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Kajberg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In these years, the role and mission of the mainstream Western world public library are increasingly being questioned and challenged. Current discussion as it has unfolded during the last few years within the public library community, and among educators and researchers in the field, more and more point to the fact that public libraries are facing a need for reorientation and reconsideration of their role along with the services they provide to their users. Public library use, primarily the number of library loans, seems to be shrinking, but the function of the library as an informal meetingplace and a social space in the local commu­nity seems to attract an increasing amount of interest professionally and aca- demically. As a by-product of this interest, various scenarios for the development of the public library have been presented. The nature of challenges confronting public libraries - including those emerging from the web, from the dispersion of social software and changes in users' habits, tastes, preferences, etc. - are exa- mined. Moreover, commoditisation of human life, a manifest phenomenon in the age of late modernity, has gradually led to a shift in emphasis from enlightenment to a short-term and customer-centred perspective. The discussion of emerging identities and roles for the public library can be seen as the starting point for a joint research initiative initiated by Library & Information Science (LIS schools in the Nordic countries. Detailed treatment is given to the efforts to get this research initiative, which aims to reflect strategically on the role of the public library in democracy and welfare state in Scandinavia, off the ground. In defining the contents and direction of the research initiative, a public library researchers' seminar was held in Uppsala, Sweden in May 2007. Finally, some critical observations are presented on the way in which current professional po- licy-making, LIS scholarship and theory building as

  7. Go, surf Norway

    OpenAIRE

    L'orange, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    How can a digital service encourage surfers in Norway to catch more Norwegian waves? Through a design ethnographic approach I have explored the surf community and daily life of surfers in Norway. Long travel distances, few surf friends and unpredictable surf conditions are amongst the challenges many surfers face. By applying these insights I have designed a solution that aims to lower the threshold to go surfing in Norway. The design proposal, Bølgen is a digital service provided by the Norw...

  8. Historical earthquake research in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa

    2017-12-01

    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  9. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  10. National transport planning in Norway and Sweden : a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    This report seeks to identify those differences in planning processes and planning systems that nevertheless exist and aims at analysing how such differences have influenced the process and the output. The report is based on two previous reports on t...

  11. Nursing Education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birte Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim.  This paper is a discussion of the similarities and differences in baccalaureate nursing education programme structures, content and pathways to postbaccalaureate education in the Scandinavian countries. Background.  For the last three decades nursing education internationally......, as well as in the Scandinavian countries, has experienced ongoing reforms. The driving forces behind these reforms have been efforts for professional development within nursing and to harmonize higher education in several European countries. Data sources.  The data were collected by a critical review...... of the guiding principles, national directives and educational structures and content of Bachelor’s degree programmes from 1990 to 2008 and of further educational levels in the four Scandinavian countries. Discussion.  There are similarities as well as substantial differences in the educational structures...

  12. Equalisation and Local Taxation in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Werner; Anwar Shah

    2005-01-01

    Education is one of the most important services provided by public governments in almost every country worldwide. However, the most important cross-country observations about education ? like the PISA report by the OECD or the TIMSS by the IEA ? focus only on international benchmarks to compare the knowledge capacity of pupils. This paper provides a general overview of the different forms to finance education in the framework of intergovernmental transfers as well as educational providers in ...

  13. Utility Distribution Systems in Sweden, Finland, Norway and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    Valleys Aqueduct in Tunnell", Tunnels & Tunnelling Sept 1974 P 441-445 London. 5) Cuthbert and Wood 1962 "The Thames-Lee Tunnel Water Main", Proceeding...Plastic, unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (UPVC) and high density po jethylene (HDPE) are finding a very large market in sewage collection lines as...the-individual depository chute fr-omt opening during the collection phase so that there is no pos - sibility of unwanted material being sucked into

  14. Austria; Recent Developments and Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This report describes recent developments and issues in Austria. The report discusses the structural features of the Austrian labor market. Two features—the relative importance of foreign labor supply, and the comparatively low labor force participation of certain groups—are analyzed in detail. The historical structure of the Austrian balance of payments is discussed, and the developments in 1994 are analyzed. The report also examines the Austrian tourism industry and its underlying problems....

  15. [Epidemiology of obesity in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Thomas E

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to compile all existing data regarding the prevalence of obesity in Austria in all age groups, and to perform additional analyses. Prevalence of obesity in the adult Austrian population varies between 8.3 and 19.9% in men, and 9.0 and 19.8% in women with increasing trends over time. Prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents in Austria varies between 3.1 and 9.0% in boys and between 2.2 and 7.3% in girls. Factors associated with obesity include higher age, lower educational level, profession, migration background, living in eastern parts of Austria, lack of social support, and psycho-social pressure. In women, socio-economic parameters are stronger associated with obesity compared to men. Obesity is associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, and low back pain, and deteriorated quality of live, in both sexes, and in men additionally with a history of heart attack, and in women additionally with anxiety/depression.

  16. Ilves urges closer ties while in Austria / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ametlik visiit Austria Vabariiki 22.11.2010 - 24.11.2010. Eesti riigipea pidas kõne Austria Majanduskojas Eesti-Austria majandusfoorumil, kohtus Alam-Austria Liidumaa parlamendi presidendi Hanz Penz'i ning Austria presidendi Heinz Fischeriga. Presidentide kohtumisel räägiti EL-i laienemispoliitikast, energiajulgeoleku probleemidest, Euroopa naabruspoliitikast ja idapartnerlusest

  17. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  18. Malthus on norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M

    1966-11-01

    Abstract Malthus visited Norway in 1799 and his impression of the country's demographic experience was important in determining the character of the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population. He relied for the most part on non-statistical sources. This led him to exaggerate, e.g. the size of households, the number of unmarried farm servants and to miss important features, e.g. differences in marital age patterns, regional variations in fertility and nuptiality. The bias of his itinerary and of his main informants is also apparent. Statistical material not available to Malthus indicates that he was right to stress the late age at marriage in Norway but wrong to ignore the operation of the positive check. Mortality was frequently high in late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Norway, much higher than Malthus ever realized. This destroys the symmetry, as well as the morality, of Malthus's exposition.

  19. Republic of Austria. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L C

    1985-07-01

    A summary description of Austria's demographic situation, economic conditions, labor force characteristics, housing conditions, household characteristics, and marriage patterns is provided. Austria, the former center of the Hapsburg Empire, covers 32,375 square miles and is divided into 9 provinces, including Vienna, the federal capital. Austria's population increased from 6.9 million in 1950 to 7.6 million in 1980. Since 1980 it declined slightly and in 1985 it was estimated to be 7,487,000. Between 1961-81, the industrial, western region of the country grew more rapidly than the predominantly rural eastern section of the country. Vienna, the largest city in the country, experienced a decline in population size from 1.9 million to 1.5 million since 1923. Part of the decline was due to the annihilation of the city's Jewish population in 1938. Austria has a lower urban population (56%) than most other industrialized countries. This low rate reflects the availability of tourist related jobs in the rural areas. 98% of the population is Austrian, the official language is German, and most of the inhabitants are Roman Catholic. Due to the homogeneity of the population, the country has few religious and racial problems; however, a recent study indicated that about 1/2 of the population has anti-Semetic attitudes. Life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Austria's population is aging. Currently, 18% of the population is under 15 years of age, and 14% is 65 years of age or older. Births are expected to increase slightly until the end of the 1900s and then decline slightly. Austrians place a high value on children and family life. Between 1978-82 the marriage rate increased from 4.5/1000 to 4.8/1000, and the median age at marriage increased from 22.4-23.0 years for women and from 25.6-25.8 years for men. The number of divorces/year increased from 11,168-14.298 between 1976-82. Currently, there are 2,767,000 households, and the average household size is 2

  20. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  1. Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Denmark and Sweden have some of the largest public sectors in Europe. They are also characterized by predominantly voluntaristic labor market models where collective bargaining and employee involvement play a relatively strong role in public sector employment relations (ER). In this chapter, we...... more profound in Sweden than in Denmark, but they took place before the 2008 crisis. In Sweden, an economic crisis in the 1990s was a much more important driver than the post- 2008 crisis. The 1990s crisis contributed to an earlier implementation of NPM and to a higher degree of decentralization...

  2. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina; Azavedo, Edward; Baarslag, Henk J; Balleyguier, Corinne; Baltzer, Pascal A; Beslagic, Vanesa; Bick, Ulrich; Bogdanovic-Stojanovic, Dragana; Briediene, Ruta; Brkljacic, Boris; Camps Herrero, Julia; Colin, Catherine; Cornford, Eleanor; Danes, Jan; de Geer, Gérard; Esen, Gul; Evans, Andrew; Fuchsjaeger, Michael H; Gilbert, Fiona J; Graf, Oswald; Hargaden, Gormlaith; Helbich, Thomas H; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Ivanov, Valentin; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Kuhl, Christiane K; Lisencu, Eugenia C; Luczynska, Elzbieta; Mann, Ritse M; Marques, Jose C; Martincich, Laura; Mortier, Margarete; Müller-Schimpfle, Markus; Ormandi, Katalin; Panizza, Pietro; Pediconi, Federica; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Pinker, Katja; Rissanen, Tarja; Rotaru, Natalia; Saguatti, Gianni; Sella, Tamar; Slobodníková, Jana; Talk, Maret; Taourel, Patrice; Trimboli, Rubina M; Vejborg, Ilse; Vourtsis, Athina; Forrai, Gabor

    2017-07-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years taking up the invitation while the probability of false-positive needle biopsy is <1 % per round and overdiagnosis is only 1-10 % for a 20-year screening. Mortality reduction was also observed for the age groups 40-49 years and 70-74 years, although with "limited evidence". Thus, we firstly recommend biennial screening mammography for average-risk women aged 50-69 years; extension up to 73 or 75 years, biennially, is a second priority, from 40-45 to 49 years, annually, a third priority. Screening with thermography or other optical tools as alternatives to mammography is discouraged. Preference should be given to population screening programmes on a territorial basis, with double reading. Adoption of digital mammography (not film-screen or phosphor-plate computer radiography) is a priority, which also improves sensitivity in dense breasts. Radiologists qualified as screening readers should be involved in programmes. Digital breast tomosynthesis is also set to become "routine mammography" in the screening setting in the next future. Dedicated pathways for high-risk women offering breast MRI according to national or international guidelines and recommendations are encouraged. • EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support screening mammography. • A first priority is double-reading biennial mammography for women aged 50-69 years. • Extension to 73-75 and from 40-45 to 49 years is also encouraged. • Digital mammography (not film-screen or computer radiography) should be used. • DBT is set to become "routine mammography" in the screening setting in the next future.

  3. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardanelli, F.; Aase, H.S.; Alvarez, M.; Azavedo, E.; Baarslag, H.J.; Balleyguier, C.; Baltzer, P.A.; Beslagic, V.; Bick, U.; Bogdanovic-Stojanovic, D.; Briediene, R.; Brkljacic, B.; Herrero, J.; Colin, C.; Cornford, E.; Danes, J.; Geer, G. de; Esen, G.; Evans, A.; Fuchsjaeger, M.H.; Gilbert, F.J.; Graf, O.; Hargaden, G.; Helbich, T.H.; Heywang-Kobrunner, S.H.; Ivanov, V.; Jonsson, A.; Kuhl, C.K.; Lisencu, E.C.; Luczynska, E.; Mann, R.M.; Marques, J.C.; Martincich, L.; Mortier, M.; Muller-Schimpfle, M.; Ormandi, K.; Panizza, P.; Pediconi, F.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Pinker, K.; Rissanen, T.; Rotaru, N.; Saguatti, G.; Sella, T.; Slobodnikova, J.; Talk, M.; Taourel, P.; Trimboli, R.M.; Vejborg, I.; Vourtsis, A.; Forrai, G.

    2017-01-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years

  4. La autopista de Viena Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1979-10-01

    Full Text Available The elevated stretch of the motorway crossing the city of Vienna in a North-South direction is the largest bridge in Austria. The bridge consists of a central span, the corresponding access ramps at the ends and a junction with a district highway having six separate roadways. The design and construction of the bridge was based on the principle of using the maximum amount of prefabricated parts in order to, on the one hand, achieve a higher constructive rationalization, and on the other, minimize erection time. Owing to its being inside the city, the bridge has been fitted with adequate lighting and runoff water disposal systems.

    El tramo volado de la autopista, que cruza Viena de norte a sur, constituye el puente más grande de toda Austria. Dicho puente consta de un tramo central, las correspondientes rampas de acceso en los extremos, y un nudo de enlace con la carretera comarcal compuesto por seis calzadas distintas. En su diseño y realización se procuró utilizar el mayor número posible de elementos prefabricados para, por una parte, permitir una construcción más racionalizada y, por otra, minimizar los tiempos de ejecución. Se ha dotado a toda la obra, por estar dentro de la ciudad, de unos adecuados sistemas de iluminación y evacuación de las aguas superficiales.

  5. Higher Education in Sweden -Between "Rolling Reforms" and Stable Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Anett

    2001-01-01

    Both gender equality and education policy are important priorities on the political agenda in Europe. The Research and Training Network ”Women in European Universities” focuses on higher education and women’s career-perspectives in systems of higher education of seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The main focus of the project is to explore the ”glass-ceiling” that women meet when they chose a career in academia and strive for top...

  6. Kabbalah in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karlsson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history of Kabbalah in Sweden. The reader is presented with an overall view to Kabbalah in Sweden: first, the Johannes Bureus and the Nordic Kabbalah, Kabbalah after Bureus, Kabbalistic literature, and last, Kabbalah in Sweden today. When the Kabbalah reached Sweden it was mainly the non-Jewish Kabbalah that gained influence, even if its Jewish roots were acknowledged. Johannes Bureus unites, in a similar fashion as do the Christian Kabbalists in continental Europe, Christian motifs with the symbolic world of the Kabbalah. Bureus, however, adds runes, ancient Norse gods and Gothic ideas in his own unique manner. The Kabbalah invites speculation and the search for correspondences which has caused the Kabbalah in Sweden to be united with a number of other traditions. Bureus combined the Kabbalah with runes and Gothicism; in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries we can find the Kabbalah in Freemasonry and Esoteric societies, while the Kabbalah in the twentieth century and onwards has been associated with New Age, Parapsychology and Indian Mysticism. Apart from Bureus, most Kabbalists in Sweden have followed the trends that flourished in the rest of the world. Bureus was the first to create a specifically Swedish interpretation of the Kabbalah.

  7. Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leixnering, Stephan; Schikowitz, Andrea; Meyer, Renate E.

    2016-01-01

    The Austrian COCOPS findings confirm the ongoing relevance of the traditional legalistic public sector norms and values. However, this traditional administrative culture is today supplemented with managerialistic and network-oriented ideas and orientations. Combining a focus on results with proce...

  8. National independence, women's political participation, and life expectancy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women's political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measuring the actual length of time lived by Norwegian birth cohorts spanning a 61 year period surrounding the political emancipation of Norway from Sweden in 1905 and the establishment of a Norwegian monarchy in 1906. The use of a discrete, historical event improves our ability to interpret the population health effects of national independence and women's political participation as causal. We find a large and significant positive effect on the lifespan of Norwegian females born in the 1906 cohort. Interestingly, the effect does not extend to all living females during the Norwegian drive toward sovereignty. We conclude that the beneficial effects were likely conferred through intrauterine biological transfers and/or neonatal investments specific to the first year of life. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bovine Eimeria species in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W

    2012-05-01

    Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from

  10. Energy in Sweden 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Swedish Energy Agency's main duty is to assist the evolution of Sweden's energy system into a reliable, ecologically and economically sustainable system. The Agency is also responsible for the collection, processing and publication of official statistics in the energy field. The annual Energy in Sweden report, and its sister publication, Energy in Sweden - Facts and Figures (download able from the Agency's web site), are intended to provide decision makers, journalists, businesses, teachers and the public with co herent and easily accessible information on developments in the energy sector. The report also provides an overview of Sweden's current energy and climate policy, policy measures, the use and supply of energy, energy prices and energy markets, together with information on the effects of the energy system on the environment. Starting with Energy in Sweden 2012, the structure and layout of the report has been revised, to produce a shorter report than in previous years. It is the intention that this shorter format should be published in alternate years, alternating with a longer version. The new structure means that the division into chapters has been changed. The presentation of energy use is now divided up into chapters in the respective sections for the three sectors of residential and services, industry and transport. The presentation of energy supply is divided into two chapters: Primary Energy Carriers and Secondary Energy Carriers. The statistics which provide the foundation for the publication are based mainly on official statistics up to and including 2010, complemented where possible by input reflecting current events and decisions up to the summer of 2011. The Agency's annual publication, Energy Indicators, complements this Energy in Sweden report with details of a number of indicators for monitoring the progress towards energy policy objects.

  11. Porphyrias in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykletun, Mira; Aarsand, Aasne Karine; Støle, Egil; Villanger, Jørild Haugen; Tollånes, Mette Christophersen; Baravelli, Carl; Sandberg, Sverre

    2014-04-29

    Porphyria is an umbrella term for a group of largely hereditary diseases that are due to defective haem synthesis. The diseases have a varied and partly overlapping range of symptoms and presentations. The commonest forms of porphyria are porphyria cutanea tarda, acute intermittent porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the prevalence and pathological manifestations of porphyrias in Norway. Information on all patients registered with the Norwegian Porphyria Centre (NAPOS) up to 2012 was used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of porphyrias in Norway. Figures on symptoms, precipitating factors and follow-up routines were obtained from the Norwegian Porphyria Registry, which includes 70% of Norwegians registered with NAPOS as having porphyria. The prevalence of porphyria cutanea tarda was approximately 10 : 100,000 and that of acute intermittent porphyria approximately 4 : 100,000. The total incidence of all porphyrias was approximately 0.5-1 : 100,000 per year. Diagnostic delay, i.e. the time passing between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis, varied from 1-17 years depending on the type of porphyria. There was wide variation in the frequency with which patients with the various types of porphyria went for medical check-ups. The prevalence of acute intermittent porphyria and porphyria cutanea tarda appears to be higher in Norway than in most other countries. Data from the Norwegian Porphyria Registry makes it possible to demonstrate differences in treatment and follow-up of porphyria patients and may be used to initiate necessary measures.

  12. Sweden to host a new neutron source

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The first European neutron source, currently under development, should commence operations by the end of this decade. Its aim: to produce beams of neutrons that can penetrate into the heart of matter without damaging it and reveal its secrets.   An artist's impression of what the ESS should look like in 2019. At the southern end of Sweden, a town called Lund is preparing for the arrival of the world's most powerful neutron source: the European Spallation Source (ESS). Construction is scheduled to start at the beginning of next year, and the facility is expected to become operational by 2019, when it will produce its first neutron beams. “The ESS is the result of an idea that began 20 years ago!” underlines Mats Lindroos, in charge of the ESS Accelerator Division. “Today, 17 European countries support the project, including Sweden, Denmark and Norway, who together account for 50% of the construction funding.” The ESS, whose design is al...

  13. Ragweed (Ambrosia) pollen source inventory for Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, G; Skjøth, C A; Šikoparija, B; Smith, M; Berger, U; Essl, F

    2015-08-01

    This study improves the spatial coverage of top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories for Europe by expanding the methodology to Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and the distribution of ragweed plants. The inventory combines annual ragweed pollen counts from 19 pollen-monitoring stations in Austria (2004-2013), 657 geographical observations of Ambrosia plants, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), local knowledge of ragweed ecology and CORINE land cover information from the source area. The highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were generally recorded in the East of Austria where the highest densities of possible growth habitats for Ambrosia were situated. Approximately 99% of all observations of Ambrosia populations were below 745m. The European infection level varies from 0.1% at Freistadt in Northern Austria to 12.8% at Rosalia in Eastern Austria. More top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories are required for other parts of Europe. A method for constructing top-down pollen source inventories for invasive ragweed plants in Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and ragweed distribution. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  15. Austria 1986. Impresiones del periodismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Rust

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La revista se centra en el rol que desempeñan los medios en las campañas electorales,se publica la función política de éstos en Escandinavia,(1983La campaña electoral en una transición política en Argentina, (1986Una democracia amenazada en Costa Rica, (1985 Rescate de la memoria colectiva desde el Perú, (1983 Impacto de la crisis económica en Venezuela,(1986 Impresiones del periodismo político en Austria. Propaganda electoral en la prensa de Quito, (1984 Estados Unidos. Estrategia de Comunicación:la elección presidencial. En la sección NUEVAS TECNOLOGÍAS se habla de los flujos de datos transfrontera (FDT y cuestiones afines. En DOCUMENTOS se publica sobre Innovación tecnológica en Educación, el Informe de proyectos 1985, la Primera reunión de Jamaica.

  16. Gout in immigrant groups: a cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C; Li, Xinjun; Gasevic, Danijela; Ärnlöv, Johan; Holzmann, Martin J; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    Our aim was to study the association between country of birth and incidence of gout in different immigrant groups in Sweden. The study population included the whole population of Sweden. Gout was defined as having at least one registered diagnosis in the National Patient Register. The association between incidence of gout and country of birth was assessed by Cox regression, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), using Swedish-born individuals as referents. All models were conducted in both men and women, and the full model was adjusted for age, place of residence in Sweden, educational level, marital status, neighbourhood socio-economic status and co-morbidities. The risk of gout varied by country of origin, with highest estimates, compared to Swedish born, in fully adjusted models among men from Iraq (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.54-2.16), and Russia (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.26-2.27), and also high among men from Austria, Poland, Africa and Asian countries outside the Middle East; and among women from Africa (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.50-3.31), Hungary (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.45-2.71), Iraq (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.13-2.74) and Austria (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.07-2.70), and also high among women from Poland. The risk of gout was lower among men from Greece, Spain, Nordic countries (except Finland) and Latin America and among women from Southern Europe, compared to their Swedish counterparts. The increased risk of gout among several immigrant groups is likely explained by a high cardio-metabolic risk factor pattern needing attention.

  17. Speed enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    the game-theoretic model empirically. Testing the model rigorously is difficult, mainly because some of the relevant variables are not reliably measured and are endogenous. Two models were developed: one to identify sources of changes in the rate of violations, one to identify sources of changes......This paper probes the relationship between changes in the risk of apprehension for speeding in Norway and changes in the amount of speeding. The paper is based on a game-theoretic model of how the rate of violations and the amount of enforcement is determined by the interaction between drivers...... and the police. This model makes predictions both about how drivers will adapt to changes in the amount of enforcement (the more enforcement, the less violations) as well as how the police will adapt to changes in the rate of violations (the less violations, the less enforcement). The paper attempts to test...

  18. The debate about a green certificate market in Norway : arguments, issues and concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, Stina Maria

    2011-01-01

    Norway and Sweden have agreed on a joint green certificate market applicable from January 1st 2012. This has caused debate. Scientists, politicians, environmentalists and others have expressed their concerns and issues related to the market regulation, where arguments have been inconsistent and conflicting. This study aims to make it clearer what these presented arguments, issues and concerns are, what they are based on and whether they can be supported by economic theory. The study has analy...

  19. Characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease in hospitalized children in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Kundi, Michael; Schmidle-Loss, Birgit; Zwazl, Ines; Laaber, Brigitte; Lakovits, Karin; Vecsei, Andreas; Wiedermann, Ursula; Burgmann, Heinz

    2014-04-01

    In a prospective surveillance study covering all pediatric wards in Austria, 308 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) were reported in hospitalized children Austria, no change in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease was observed yet.

  20. A preboreal Elk (Alces alces L., 1758 antler from south-eastern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Audun Grøndahl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In 1895 a shed elk antler was found in a mire on a farm near Fluberg, in Søndre Land municipality in south-eastern Norway. The antler was first radiocarbon dated in 2008 and yielded the age 9,100 ± 50 BP (8,340 – 8,250 BC, which is the oldest dated elk remain from Norway. Elk (Alces alces L., 1758 are a pioneer colonising species; they were already established south of the ice front in Denmark and southern Sweden in the Late Glacial period. This antler shows that the species had arrived in south-eastern Norway in the late Preboreal period. This could tie in with the earliest arrival of elk once the colonizing routes from southern Sweden were established 9,300-9,200 BP. The antler is clearly of the palmate morph, and strongly resembles elk antlers found in Denmark and southern Sweden from the Late Glacial and Early Holocene periods. This find also reveals that the vegetation at the end of the Preboreal period suited large herbivores such as elk.

  1. NORWAY: a nuclear demonstration project?

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "Egil Lillestøl is a man with a rather unusual mission: he wants his homeland of Norway to take the lead in developement of of a new form of nuclear power. Norway is Europe's largest petroleum exporter, from its North Sea oil and gas fields, and Lillestøl, a physicist at the University of Bergen, believes the country needs to do something about its carbon emissions.

  2. 78 FR 43226 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Austria of xanthan gum provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... notification of preliminary determinations by Commerce that ] imports of xanthan gum from Austria and China...

  3. 77 FR 43857 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Austria and China of xanthan gum, provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule... materially injured or threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV ] imports of xanthan gum from Austria...

  4. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  5. Energy in Sweden 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  6. Energy in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  7. Sweden's largest Facebook study

    OpenAIRE

    Denti, Leif; Barbopoulus, Isak; Nilsson, Ida; Holmberg, Linda; Thulin, Magdalena; Wendeblad, Malin; Andén, Lisa; Davidsson, Emelie

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet has made it easier for people to socially interact than ever before. Today, the most popular channel is Facebook with over 845 million users world wide. In Sweden, the number of users amount to approximately half of the population. We had two aims with this study. First, we investigate which areas of Facebook usage that Swedish Facebook users consider more important vis-a-vis less important. We were also interested in how users convey their persona through t... m...

  8. Slow upper mantle beneath Southern Norway from surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidle, C.; Maupin, V.

    2009-04-01

    A recent regional surface wave tomography for Northern Europe revealed unprecedented images of the upper mantle beneath the (Tertiary) North Atlantic and the bordering Fennoscandian craton of Archean-Proterozoic age. With respect to the circum-Atlantic regions of uplift, no common mantle pattern supporting the uplift of these regions is observed. The western boundary of the thick cratonic lithosphere follows the trend of the continental margin offshore northern Norway (i.e. the northern Scandes are underlain by thick lithosphere) whereas further south the boundary of the craton is located further east beneath southwestern Sweden. SV shear wave velocities beneath southern Norway are 10% slower than ak135 (at 70-115 km depth) and these low-velocities are clearly connected to the North Atlantic low-velocity regime through a ~ 400 km wide "channel". The low-velocity anomaly beneath Southern Norway coincides in geometry roughly with the dome-like high topography of the southern Scandes and may thus have a non-negligible contribution to the isostatic balance of the region. The amplitude and depth-distribution of this anomaly are due to be further constrained by new data that were acquired during the MAGNUS experiment in 2006-2008. The temporary seismic network, consisting of 40 broadband seismometers covers to a large extent the location of the anomaly as imaged by the regional tomography. This enables us to get unique control on the tomographic model at improved lateral and vertical resolution. Preliminary analysis of surface wave phase velocities yields an average 1-D shear wave velocity profile for southern Norway as a first step to constrain the presence and depth extent of this low-velocity anomaly.

  9. Migrations in Norway and in Other Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Olav Ǿstrem

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of migration movements in Norway and other Scandinavian countries. The overview most of all focuses on history, but gives also comments on the present situation. The quantitative dimension of Norwegian and Scandinavian emigration in different periods is dealt with, but the article also discusses cultural circumstances in connection with emigration from and immigration to this north European region. Emigration started earlier in Norway than in the other Scandinavian or Nordic countries. Of the Scandinavian countries, “it was only from Norway that emigration to America took place on a larger scale during the 1850s”. Sweden and Denmark “during the 1860s … entered a stage of massive emigration which culminated during the 1880s”. Emigration from Iceland started later, but the country experienced “a veritable flood during the 1880s”, at the same time as Eastern and Western Europe. Finland did not reach “great numbers until the initial decades of the 20th century.” The reasons for emigration from the Scandinavian countries have in traditional migration studies been linked to economic and social factors. In this article, based on the author’s thesis on emigration from the local parish Skjold in Rogaland county, Norway, from 1837 to 1914, the focus is on the cultural factor when discussing underlying causes of Nordic mass emigration. By using the term emigrant culture – a personification of the migrants – a way to employ the individual psychological or motive factor is attempted. Considering migration a process of two sides also strengthens the cultural or psychological individual factor.

  10. Radical prostatectomies in Austria, 1997–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatzl Georg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of PSA testing in Austria led to a steep increase of the incidence of prostate cancer. We want to present the course of the number of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer in Austria since 1997, and set these numbers in relation to the total of radical prostatectomies (with resection of lymph nodes in the same time period. All numbers were retrieved from health statistics of Statistics Austria. The report period of cancer cases and of RPE comprises the years 1997–2004. All calculations were performed for totals as well as for 5-year age groups (40–89 years of age. Findings The number of prostate cancer cases rose from 1997 to 2004 by 35%, while the number of RPE rose by 94% in the same time period. The proportion of RPE in relation to new cases rose from 41% in 1997 to 59% in 2004. Conclusion A slight decrease of prostate cancer mortality can already be observed in Austria, but the question of over-treatment still awaits analysis.

  11. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  12. Genetic Variation of Bordetella pertussis in Austria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, B.; Melzer, H.; Freymuller, G.; Stumvoll, S.; Rendi-Wagner, P.; Paulke-Korinek, M.; Repa, A.; Mooi, F.R.; Kollaritsch, H.; Mittermayer, H.; Kessler, H.H.; Stanek, G.; Steinborn, R.; Duchene, M.; Wiedermann, U.

    2015-01-01

    In Austria, vaccination coverage against Bordetella pertussis infections during infancy is estimated at around 90%. Within the last years, however, the number of pertussis cases has increased steadily, not only in children but also in adolescents and adults, indicating both insufficient herd

  13. Oligoarthritis caused by Borrelia bavariensis, Austria, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Ladstatter, Stefan; Schotta, Anna M; Reiter, Michael; Pomberger, Gerhard; Stanek, Gerold

    2015-06-01

    A case of Lyme oligoarthritis occurred in an 11-year-old boy in Vienna, Austria. DNA of Borrelia bavariensis was detected by PCR in 2 aspirates obtained from different joints. Complete recovery was achieved after a 4-week course with amoxicillin. Lyme arthritis must be considered in patients from Europe who have persisting joint effusions.

  14. Early Childhood Intervention and Inclusion in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretis, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the situation of preschool children in Austria facing the need to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. Eligibility criteria for preventive preschool services and the necessary labeling of children as "disabled" or "at risk" are assessed as inhibiting factors within…

  15. [Occasional smoking in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Marianne

    2014-01-28

    In recent decades, daily smoking has become less common, while occasional smoking has stayed at the same level. The purpose of the study is to describe occasional smokers on the basis of their smoking behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics. Data from Statistics Norway's quarterly surveys of tobacco use in 2010 and 2011 were used. Information on smoking habits, smoking-related behaviour and the respondents' attitudes to their own smoking was collected in telephone interviews. Of the 8,700 men and women aged 16-74 (response rate 57%) who were included, altogether 1,583 were daily smokers and 907 occasional smokers. The occasional smokers were younger, more frequently lived in large cities and had a higher level of education and income than the daily smokers. Twenty-nine of 174 (17%) occasional smokers used snus on a daily basis, compared to 10 of 394 (3%) of the daily smokers. The occasional smokers had great confidence in their ability to quit: 95% responded that they would be smoke-free in five years, compared to 55% of the daily smokers (n = 2,158). Fifty-five (35%) of the occasional smokers lit up several times weekly (16 cigarettes per week on average), while the remaining (65%) smoked only once per week as a maximum (five cigarettes per week on average). Those who smoked several times each week had attitudes to their own smoking and usage pattern for tobacco that were similar to those of the daily smokers. Nearly half of the occasional smokers defined themselves as non-smokers. Norwegian occasional smokers are a heterogeneous group in terms of their smoking pattern and frequency, and many define themselves as non-smokers.

  16. Porphyria in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunell, S; Floderus, Y; Henrichson, A; Harper, P

    2006-01-01

    In a brief survey the work of Swedish porphyrinologists through time is presented, from the organic chemist Jakob Berzelius 1840 to the molecular biologists of today. The building up in Stockholm of a Swedish national competence centre for porphyria is touched upon and the emergence of a computerized national register on the porphyria gene carriers in the country described. Figures for the prevalences of the seven different forms of porphyria diagnosed in Sweden are given. The geographical distribution of gene mutation spectra is shown for the most frequent form, acute intermittent porphyria. The organisation at Porphyria Centre Sweden of its diagnostic and consultative services is described, as is the decentralized model for porphyria care applied in the form of a clinical network covering the long and sparsely populated country. The ideas and activities of the Swedish Porphyria Patients' Association are presented. Its focus on protection-by-information of the porphyria gene carrier against maltreatment in health service contacts, and against other exposures to environmental threats to his or her health, is discussed. The combined efforts of the national porphyria centre and the patients' association have resulted in early and accurate diagnosis of most of the porphyria gene carriers in the country. The information to the carriers and to the health service regarding the mechanisms of the diseases and the importance of avoiding exposure to disease triggering environmental factors have greatly reduced porphyric morbidity. In the case of the acute porphyrias, by this programme and after the introduction of heme arginate in the therapy, mortality in the acute phase has become extremely rare in Sweden. In contrast, probably due to greater awareness of the high risk for liver cancer in acute porphyrias the number of hepatoma cases diagnosed has increased. The current research activities at the Porphyria Centre which aim at finding ways to substitute the mutated gene in

  17. Is the introduction of anonymous delivery associated with a reduction of high neonaticide rates in Austria? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klier, C M; Grylli, C; Amon, S; Fiala, C; Weizmann-Henelius, G; Pruitt, S L; Putkonen, H

    2013-03-01

    To assess rates of neonaticide after the implementation of a preventative 'anonymous delivery' law in mid-2001 in Austria. Women are allowed to access antenatal care and give birth in a hospital anonymously, without showing any ID and free of charge. Retrospective study. A complete census of police-reported neonaticides was obtained from the police statistics of Austria, Sweden and Finland. All neonaticides reported to the police, 1991-2009. Neonaticide rates before (1991-2001) and after (2002-2009) the introduction of anonymous delivery legislation per 100 000 births. The Mann-Whitney U-test for two independent samples was used to compare neonaticide rates in the period before the new law was introduced with the rates observed after the implementation of the new law for each country. On average the rate of police-reported neonaticides was 7.2 per 100 000 births (SD 3.5, median 7.1) in Austria prior to the new law being passed, and 3.1 per 100 000 births (SD 2.1, median 2.6) after the law was passed. A significant decrease in neonaticide was observed in Austria after the implementation of anonymous delivery (Mann-Whitney U-test P = 0.017). Whereas the Finnish and Swedish rates were lower than the Austrian rates before and after the implementation of the Austrian law, they remained unchanged over the study period. Our data demonstrate a significant decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides in Austria after the implementation of anonymous delivery. Even though underlying factors associated with neonaticide are complex, the findings could indicate an effect of anonymous delivery in the prevention of this crime. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  18. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  19. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  20. Sweden health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders; Glenngård, Anna H; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Life expectancy in Sweden is high and the country performs well in comparisons related to disease-oriented indicators of health service outcomes and quality of care. The Swedish health system is committed to ensuring the health of all citizens and abides by the principles of human dignity, need and solidarity, and cost-effectiveness. The state is responsible for overall health policy, while the funding and provision of services lies largely with the county councils and regions. The municipalities are responsible for the care of older and disabled people. The majority of primary care centres and almost all hospitals are owned by the county councils. Health care expenditure is mainly tax funded (80%) and is equivalent to 9.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) (2009). Only about 4% of the population has voluntary health insurance (VHI). User charges fund about 17% of health expenditure and are levied on visits to professionals, hospitalization and medicines. The number of acute care hospital beds is below the European Union (EU) average and Sweden allocates more human resources to the health sector than most OECD countries. In the past, the Achilles heel of Swedish health care included long waiting times for diagnosis and treatment and, more recently, divergence in quality of care between regions and socioeconomic groups. Addressing long waiting times remains a key policy objective along with improving access to providers. Recent principal health reforms over the past decade relate to: concentrating hospital services; regionalizing health care services, including mergers; improving coordinated care; increasing choice, competition and privatization in primary care; privatization and competition in the pharmacy sector; changing co-payments; and increasing attention to public comparison of quality and efficiency indicators, the value of investments in health care and responsiveness to patients needs. Reforms are often introduced on the local level, thus the pattern of

  1. PEP725: real time monitoring of phenological events in Austria, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungersboeck, Markus; Bolmgren, Kjell; Huebner, Thomas; Kaspar, Frank; Langvall, Ola; Paul, Anita; Pietragalla, Barbara; Scheifinger, Helfried; Koch, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of PEP725 (Pan European Phenological database; http://www.pep725.eu/) is to promote and facilitate phenological research by delivering a pan European phenological database with an open, unrestricted data access for science, research and education. The first datasets in PEP725 date back to 1868; however, there are only a few observations available until 1950. From 1951 onwards, the phenological networks all over Europe developed rapidly. So far more than 11 923 489 of observations of 121 different plants are now available in the PEP725 database. Approximately 40 % of all data are flowering records, 10 % are fruit ripeness observations and also 10 % are leaf unfolding observations. The PEP725 database is updated annually. But since recently Deutscher Wetterdienst and MeteoSwiss offer their observers to upload their observations via web in real time mode, ZAMG introduced this web-based feature already in 2007 (phenowatch.at) and the observers of SWE-NPN (the Swedish National Phenology Network) can submit their observations through the web application naturenskalender.se since the start in 2008. Since spring 2016 one you can find a real time animated monitoring tool showing how the "green wave" in spring is moving from 46° northern latitude up to the Arctic Circle and the "brown wave" in autumn in the opposite direction. In 2015 the "green wave" speeds up from app. 4.4 days/degree latitude for hazel flowering to 2.9 days/ degree latitude for willow flowering and 2.25 days/degree latitude for birch leaf unfolding. There are other European countries as for instance Italy, The Netherlands, UK that have been doing visualizations of ground phenology in real time for some years, but these efforts always end at the national borders. PEP725 is funded by ZAMG, the Austrian ministry of science, research and economy and EUMETNET, the network of European meteorological services. So far 21 European meteorological services and 7 partners from different phenological network operators have joined PEP725.

  2. Tendencies in Spatial Planning in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hladká

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Austria there is a federal system, where the power is shared between national (Bund and regional (Land governments, with each having autonomy in some spheres, and able to pass laws. Power resides with the national government, although certain responsibilities may be delegated to regional governments. In Austria the national government has no competence in spatial planning, but planning at the national level is undertaken through a joint forum which has advisory powers, and in which the national government and the Länder Austrian are equal partners. At regional level the Austrian Länder play the primary role in spatial planning. The Austrian national government has only limited responsibilities.

  3. [Food borne infectious outbreaks, Austria 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much, Peter; Pichler, Juliane; Allerberger, Franz

    2007-01-01

    In Austria, a total of 606 food borne outbreaks, affecting 1,910 people altogether (including 368 hospitalized patients and 1 fatal outcome) were documented in 2005. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. accounted for 99% of all reported outbreaks. Fortysix (8%) of the 606 outbreaks were acquired abroad. Bacteria caused all but one of the 560 domestically acquired food borne outbreaks: 427 (76%) were due to Salmonella spp., 128 (23%) due to Campylobacter spp. and two outbreaks each due to enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica. Norovirus caused an outbreak affecting 22 persons. The respective hospitalization rate for domestically acquired Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. infections was 20% and 16%. Of those outbreaks where information as to the source was provided, eggs were implicated in 57%, meat products (especially poultry) in 30% and milk or dairy products (especially raw milk) in 4%. The ratio between family outbreaks and general outbreaks was 89% to 11%. For general outbreaks the following locations of exposure were given: commercial food suppliers (incl. restaurants, cafeterias) 34 x, family celebrations 14 x, nursery schools 4 x, festivities (e.g. fairs) 3 x, nursing homes twice and once a mixed outbreak involving commercial food suppliers plus homes (Austria-wide S. Enteritidis PT19 outbreak). In our opinion, the relatively high number of family outbreaks merely reflects the still insufficient quality of epidemiological outbreak investigation in Austria, i.e. lack of consolidating individual clusters into larger food borne outbreaks which exceed district or provincial borders.

  4. False-color composite of Oetztal, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetztal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Inssbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43890.

  5. Sex Education in Multicultural Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Scandinavia has long been admired by American liberals and sex education advocates who cite comparable rates of adolescent sexuality, yet lower rates of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion in Scandinavia. The United States has, however, two variables with which Scandinavia in general, and Norway in particular, has not…

  6. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  7. Governance of electrotechnical standardisation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report provides recommendations about the governance of electrotechnical standardisation in Europe to seven independent National Committees: DKE (Germany), Electrosuisse (Switzerland), OVE (Austria), NEC (the Netherlands), NEK (Norway), SEK (Sweden), and SESKO

  8. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  9. [Primary Health Care in Austria - Tu Felix Austria nube - Concept for networking in the primary care of Upper Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Johannes; Rebhandl, Erwin; Hockl, Wolfgang; Stöbich, Anna-Maria

    2017-10-01

    The primary health care in rural areas in Austria is currently determined by challenges such as ageing of the population, the shift towards chronic and age-related illnesses, the specialist medical and hospital-related education and training of physicians' as well growing widespread difficulty of staffing doctor's office. The objective is to realize a general practitioner centered and team-oriented primary health care (PHC) approach by establishing networked primary health care in rural areas of Austria. Using literature research, online survey, expert interviews and expert workshops, we identified different challenges in terms of primary health care in rural areas. Further, current resources and capacities of primary health care in rural areas were identified using the example of the district of Rohrbach. Twelve design dimensions and 51 relevant measurement indicators of a PHC network were delineated and described. Based on this, 12 design approaches of PHC concept for the GP-centered and team-oriented primary health care in rural areas have been developed.

  10. Centro escolar federal en Bludenz/Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehrer, Manfred

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Este centro escolar, considerado como uno de los más interesantes de Austria, se compone de cuatro cuerpos en los que se distribuyen, respectivamente, las escuelas, el gimnasio, la vivienda del conserje y el local de transformadores. En su construcción hay que destacar su adecuada flexibilidad, que permite dar cabida a las distintas funciones que en él se desarrollan, y la correcta adaptación del gran volumen edificado a las especiales características urbanas y arquitectónicas del ámbito circundante.

  11. Real-time Shakemap implementation in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weginger, Stefan; Jia, Yan; Papi Isaba, Maria; Horn, Nikolaus

    2017-04-01

    ShakeMaps provide near-real-time maps of ground motion and shaking intensity following significant earthquakes. They are automatically generated within a few minutes after occurrence of an earthquake. We tested and included the USGS ShakeMap 4.0 (experimental code) based on python in the Antelope real-time system with local modified GMPE and Site Effects based on the conditions in Austria. The ShakeMaps are provided in terms of Intensity, PGA, PGV and PSA. Future presentation of ShakeMap contour lines and Ground Motion Parameter with interactive maps and data exchange over Web-Services are shown.

  12. Reimbursement of hormonal contraceptives and the frequency of induced abortion among teenagers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydsjö, Adam; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Josefsson, Ann

    2014-05-29

    Reduction in costs of hormonal contraceptives is often proposed to reduce rates of induced abortion among young women. This study investigates the relationship between rates of induced abortion and reimbursement of dispensed hormonal contraceptives among young women in Sweden. Comparisons are made with the Nordic countries Finland, Norway and Denmark. Official statistics on induced abortion and numbers of prescribed and dispensed hormonal contraceptives presented as "Defined Daily Dose/thousand women" (DDD/T) aged 15-19 years were compiled and related to levels of reimbursement in all Swedish counties by using public official data. The Swedish numbers of induced abortion were compared to those of Finland, Norway and Denmark. The main outcome measure was rates of induced abortion and DDD/T. No correlation was observed between rates of abortion and reimbursement among Swedish counties. Nor was any correlation found between sales of hormonal contraceptives and the rates of abortion. In a Nordic perspective, Finland and Denmark, which have no reimbursement at all, and Norway all have lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden. Reimbursement does not seem to be enough in order to reduce rates of induced abortion. Evidently, other factors such as attitudes, education, religion, tradition or cultural differences in each of Swedish counties as well as in the Nordic countries may be of importance. A more innovative approach is needed in order to facilitate safe sex and to protect young women from unwanted pregnancies.

  13. Reimbursement of hormonal contraceptives and the frequency of induced abortion among teenagers in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduction in costs of hormonal contraceptives is often proposed to reduce rates of induced abortion among young women. This study investigates the relationship between rates of induced abortion and reimbursement of dispensed hormonal contraceptives among young women in Sweden. Comparisons are made with the Nordic countries Finland, Norway and Denmark. Methods Official statistics on induced abortion and numbers of prescribed and dispensed hormonal contraceptives presented as “Defined Daily Dose/thousand women” (DDD/T) aged 15-19 years were compiled and related to levels of reimbursement in all Swedish counties by using public official data. The Swedish numbers of induced abortion were compared to those of Finland, Norway and Denmark. The main outcome measure was rates of induced abortion and DDD/T. Results No correlation was observed between rates of abortion and reimbursement among Swedish counties. Nor was any correlation found between sales of hormonal contraceptives and the rates of abortion. In a Nordic perspective, Finland and Denmark, which have no reimbursement at all, and Norway all have lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden. Conclusions Reimbursement does not seem to be enough in order to reduce rates of induced abortion. Evidently, other factors such as attitudes, education, religion, tradition or cultural differences in each of Swedish counties as well as in the Nordic countries may be of importance. A more innovative approach is needed in order to facilitate safe sex and to protect young women from unwanted pregnancies. PMID:24884539

  14. The history of diplomatic relations between Romania and Norway during the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Despa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at reconstructing based on diplomatic archives’ records the history of diplomatic and consular relations between the two countries during the interwar period. The diplomatic bonds between the two countries date back already before Norway had obtained its sovereignty by dissolving the United Kingdom of Sweden and Norway in 1905. Eventually, Romania recognized the Norwegian independence and conducted diplomatic relations with Norway through its legation in Berlin. The first official legation in Norway was established in 1917 by Grigore Bilciurescu’s appointment as chargé d’affaires in Christiania (Oslo. On the other hand, the first Norwegian diplomat who resided in Bucharest was Terje Knudtzon in 1935. During most of the interwar period the diplomatic relations between the two countries were conducted through envoys residing in other European capitals. The article fits into the category of historical evidence works and since it has adopted a chronological approach, it does not raise, more than is necessary, the prospect of a theoretical interpretation of these relations.

  15. National independence, women’s political participation, and life expectancy in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Brown, Ryan; Catalano, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the role of national independence and women’s political participation on population health using historical lifespan data from Norway. We use time-series methods to analyze data measuring the actual length of time lived by Norwegian birth cohorts spanning a 61 year period surrounding the political emancipation of Norway from Sweden in 1905 and the establishment of a Norwegian monarchy in 1906. The use of a discrete, historical event improves our ability to interpret the population health effects of national independence and women’s political participation as causal. We find a large and significant positive effect on the lifespan of Norwegian females born in the 1906 cohort. Interestingly, the effect does not extend to all living females during the Norwegian drive toward sovereignty. We conclude that the beneficial effects were likely conferred through intrauterine biological transfers and/or neonatal investments specific to the first year of life. PMID:20172639

  16. Statistics about torrents in Lower Austria, status from May 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfried Lepuschitz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data presents analyzed data exports of Austrian torrent and avalanche cadaster (TAC in May 2015. The TAC is developed by Austrian Service for Torrent and Avalanche Control. Data are viewed from different aspects and combinations geographically in the area of Lower Austria, a province of Austria.

  17. Why community compulsion became the solution - Reforming mental health law in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Stefan; Zetterberg, Liv; Markström, Urban

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to understand how compulsory community care (CCC) has become a solution in mental health policy in so many different legal and social contexts during the last 20 years. The recent introduction of CCC in Sweden is used as a case in point, which is then contrasted against the processes in Norway, England/Wales and New York State. In Sweden, the issue of CCC was initiated following high-profile acts of violence. Contrary to several other states, there was agreement about the (lack of) evidence about its effectiveness. Rather than focusing on dangerousness, the government proposal about CCC was framed within an ideology of integrating the disabled. The new legislation allowed for a broad range of measures to control patients at the same time as it was presented as a means to protect positive rights for patients. Compared to previous legislation in Sweden, the scope of social control has remained largely the same, although the rationale has changed - from medical treatment via community treatment and rehabilitation, to reducing the risk of violence, and then shifting back to rehabilitation in the community. The Swedish approach to CCC is similar to Norway, while New York and England/Wales have followed different routes. Differences in ideology, social control and rights orientations can be understood with reference to the general welfare and care regimes that characterize the four states. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Walter; Brazinova, Alexandra; Majdan, Marek; Leitgeb, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of preventable deaths. The goal of this study was to provide data on epidemiology of TBI in Austria. Data on all hospital discharges, outpatients, and extra- as well as in-hospital deaths due to TBI were collected from various sources for the years 2009-2011. Population data (number of male/female people per age-group, population of Austrian cities, towns, and villages) for 2009-2011 were collected from the national statistical office. Incidence, case fatality rate(s) (CFR), and mortality rate(s) (MR) were calculated for the whole population and for age groups. Incidence (303/100,000/year), CFR (3.6 %), and MR (11/100,000/year) of TBI in Austria are comparable with those from other European countries. We found a high rate of geriatric TBI. The ratio between male and female cases was 1.4:1 for all cases, and was 2.2:1 for fatal cases. The most common mechanism was falls; traffic accidents accounted for only 7 % of the cases. Males died more frequently from traffic accidents and suicides, and females died more frequently from falls. CFRs and MRs increased with increasing age. CFRs were higher in patients from less populated areas, and MRs were lower in cases who lived closer to hospitals that admitted TBI. The high rate of geriatric TBI warrants better prevention of falls in this age group.

  19. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  20. Social media and journalism study 2013 - Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Pole, K.; Gulyás, A

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of the wider 2013 social journalism study and reports specifically on Sweden. It suggests that journalists in Sweden are a moderately high user of social media, using it regularly for their work particularly for sourcing stories. Using cluster analysis the largest group is the Architects suggesting that journalism in Sweden is dominated by active social media users.

  1. Health care technology in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, E.; Banta, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    Health care in Sweden is a public sector responsibility and equity in access to care is quite important. The Swedish system is organized into several levels, with the Federation of County Councils at the top, and with regional, county, and local levels. In theory, the four hospital tiers developed

  2. Cartography (and Geoinformation in Education in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjanka Lechthaler

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The basic task of cartography lies in efficient and impeccable transfer of spatial information via cartographic models of geospace. Wired and wireless communication networks serve this purpose. They offer new media possibilities of saving and transferring cartographic information and cartographic models, and therefore their use. This is related to the emphasis of research work and education, which is equally oriented toward theoretical issues and those concerning applied cartography. The paper features a review of cartographic education and accomplished qualifications at universities and professional schools (Fachhochschule in Austria and a review of newly introduced study programs of Bachelor and Master studies according to guidelines of the Bologna Declaration. The education plan for the instruction of cartography for both studies at the Vienna University of Technology is presented in detail.

  3. Space Radar Image of Oetzal, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of Oetzal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Innsbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Oetztal is a SIR-C/X-SAR hydrology supersite. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The summits of the main peaks reach elevations between 3,500 and 3,768 meters (11,500 and 12,362 feet) above sea level. The tongues of the glaciers are descending from elevated plateaus down into narrow valleys which were formed during the last ice age. This color image was produced in C-band using multi-polarization information (red=CHV, green=CVV,blue=CVV/CHV). The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. There is 30 to 50 centimeters (12 to 20 inches) of dry, fresh snow on the glaciers, and about 10 centimeters (4 inches) in the valley at the city of Vent, Austria (center). At these data were taken, the weather was cold, with snow and thick fog. The entire area would appear white to an optical sensor because it is all covered under a winter snowpack. Researchers are interested in Oetztal because knowing how glaciers shrink and grow over time is an important indication of climatic change. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). The radars illuminate Earth with

  4. Alternative Education and Home Schooling in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christian W.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the issue of balance between community rules and personal freedom as it relates to who should control the education of children in Norway. Reviews the historical development of alternative education in Norway, including the growth of private schools and home schooling. Comments on future educational needs and the provision of good…

  5. INOPS Survey data report for Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Holt, Steffen

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Norway. The statistics relies on data collected in the period from April 2015 to October 2015 through an online...... survey send to managers in all 428 municipalities in Norway....

  6. Evaluation of groundwater droughts in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Droughts are abnormally dry periods that affect various aspects of human life on earth, ranging from negative impacts on agriculture or industry, to being the cause for conflict and loss of human life. The changing climate reinforces the importance of investigations into this phenomenon. Various methods to analyze and classify droughts have been developed. These include drought indices such as the Standard Precipitation Index SPI, the Palmer Drought Severity Index PDSI or the Crop Moisture Index CMI. These and other indices consider meteorological parameters and/or their effects on soil moisture. A depletion of soil moisture triggered by low precipitation and high evapotranspiration may also cause reduced groundwater recharge and thus decreasing groundwater levels and reduced groundwater flow to springs, streams, and wetlands. However, the existing indices were generally not designed to address such drought effects on groundwater. Thus, a Standardized Groundwater level Index has recently been proposed by Bloomfied and Marchant (2013). Yet, to our knowledge, this approach has only been applied to consolidated aquifers in the UK. This work analyzes time series of groundwater levels from various, mostly unconsolidated aquifers in Austria in order to characterize the effects of droughts on aquifers in different hydrogeologic and climatic settings as well as under different usage scenarios. In particular, comparisons are made between the water rich Alpine parts of Austria, and the dryer parts situated in the East. The time series of groundwater levels are compared to other data, such as meteorological time series and written weather records about generally accepted phenomena, such as the 2003 European drought and heat wave. Thus, valuable insight is gained into the propagation of meteorological droughts through the soil and the aquifer in different types of hydrogeologic and climatic settings, which provides a prerequisite for the assessment of the aquifers' drought

  7. HPV prevalence in vulvar cancer in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pils, Sophie; Gensthaler, Lisa; Alemany, Laia; Horvat, Reinhard; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Joura, Elmar A

    2017-11-01

    Even if vulvar cancer is not common, over one hundred women are affected in Austria per year. There is strong evidence that basaloid and warty variants are associated with types of human papillomavirus (HPV). The aim of this study is to analyze the types of HPV in vulvar cancer in Austria. This cross-sectional period-prevalence international collaborative study on archival specimens was performed in cooperation with the Institut Catalan di Oncologia in Barcelona, Spain. A total of 177 consecutive samples of Austrian women were analyzed to detect the presence of various HPV types using the SPF10 PCR/DEIA/LiPA25 system. Furthermore, the expression of the tumor suppressor protein p16(INK4a) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (CINtec histology kit, ROCHE). A tumor was considered HPV-driven if an overexpression of p16(INK4a) was detected. In all, 41 cases of vulvar cancer tested positive for HPV DNA (23%) and 32 (18%) were p16 positive. Patients with warty and basaloid squamous cell cancer were significantly younger than those with keratinizing squamous cell cancer (63.3 years vs. 71.0 years, p = 0.021). In addition, 77.4% of all cases suffering from warty or basaloid squamous cell cancer tested positive for HPV, compared to 9.5% of the keratinizing squamous cell cancer cases (p HPV strain was type 16, followed by 31 and 33. Infection with HPV type 16 appears to be strongly correlated to the development of warty or basaloid squamous cell cancer. Vaccination against HPV can be expected to prevent this type of vulvar cancer.

  8. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  9. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mørch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.

  10. Austria announces new money for research infrastructure and social sciences

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Austria's Minister for Science and Research, Johannes Hahn, has announced funding for research infrastructures and the social sciences, amounting to EUR 6.9 million in total. The largest chunk of the money will go to a new data processing centre for the analysis of data from the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The idea is that the new centre will provide Austria with access to the key technology for solving highly complex scientific and technological problems, while strengthening Austria's domestic research infrastructure in the field of 'advanced communication networks'.

  11. Extent and application of patient diaries in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heindl, Patrik; Bachlechner, Adelbert; Nydahl, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diaries written for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are offered in many European countries. In Austria, ICU diaries have been relatively unknown, but since 2012, they have started to emerge. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the extent and application of ICU diaries...... in Austria in 2015. Method: The study had a prospective multiple methods design of survey and interviews. All ICUs in Austria were surveyed in 2015 to identify which ICUs used diaries. ICUs using diaries were selected for semi-structured key-informant telephone interviews on the application of ICU diaries...

  12. White Paper on opioid usage improves legislation in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beubler, Eckhard

    2007-01-01

    The White Paper on Opioids and Pain: A Pan-European Challenge, which was presented to the European Parliament, has led to legislation in Austria to improve opioid usage. Process and outcomes of this work are summarized.

  13. Pervasive growth reduction in Norway spruce forests following wind disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert Seidl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades the frequency and severity of natural disturbances by e.g., strong winds and insect outbreaks has increased considerably in many forest ecosystems around the world. Future climate change is expected to further intensify disturbance regimes, which makes addressing disturbances in ecosystem management a top priority. As a prerequisite a broader understanding of disturbance impacts and ecosystem responses is needed. With regard to the effects of strong winds--the most detrimental disturbance agent in Europe--monitoring and management has focused on structural damage, i.e., tree mortality from uprooting and stem breakage. Effects on the functioning of trees surviving the storm (e.g., their productivity and allocation have been rarely accounted for to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that growth reduction was significant and pervasive in a 6.79 million hectare forest landscape in southern Sweden following the storm Gudrun (January 2005. Wind-related growth reduction in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. forests surviving the storm exceeded 10% in the worst hit regions, and was closely related to maximum gust wind speed (R(2 = 0.849 and structural wind damage (R(2 = 0.782. At the landscape scale, wind-related growth reduction amounted to 3.0 million m(3 in the three years following Gudrun. It thus exceeds secondary damage from bark beetles after Gudrun as well as the long-term average storm damage from uprooting and stem breakage in Sweden. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the impact of strong winds on forest ecosystems is not limited to the immediately visible area of structural damage, and call for a broader consideration of disturbance effects on ecosystem structure and functioning in the context of forest management and climate change mitigation.

  14. Usutu virus, Austria and Hungary, 2010–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Erdélyi, Károly; Brunthaler, René; Dán, Ádám; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Usutu virus (USUV, Flaviviridae) was first reported in Europe in Austria in 2001, where it caused wild bird (mainly blackbird) mortality until 2005. Since 2006 no further USUV cases were diagnosed in the country. However, the virus emerged in other European countries (Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Germany and the Czech Republic) between 2005 and 2011. In 2016, widespread USUV-associated wild bird mortality was observed in Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. In this study, we report the results of passive monitoring for USUV in Austria and Hungary between 2010 and 2016. In Hungary, USUV caused sporadic cases of wild bird mortality between 2010 and 2015 (altogether 18 diagnosed cases), whereas in summer and autumn 2016 the number of cases considerably increased to 12 (ten blackbirds, one Eurasian jay and one starling). In Austria, USUV was identified in two blackbirds in 2016. Phylogenetic analyses of coding-complete genomes and partial regions of the NS5 protein gene revealed that USUVs from Hungary between 2010 and 2015 are closely related to the virus that emerged in Austria in 2001 and in Hungary in 2005, while one Hungarian sequence from 2015 and all sequences from Hungary and Austria from 2016 clustered together with USUV sequences reported from Italy between 2009 and 2010. The results of the study indicate continuous USUV circulation in the region and exchange of USUV strains between Italy, Austria and Hungary. PMID:29018253

  15. Usutu virus, Austria and Hungary, 2010-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Erdélyi, Károly; Brunthaler, René; Dán, Ádám; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2017-10-11

    Usutu virus (USUV, Flaviviridae) was first reported in Europe in Austria in 2001, where it caused wild bird (mainly blackbird) mortality until 2005. Since 2006 no further USUV cases were diagnosed in the country. However, the virus emerged in other European countries (Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Germany and the Czech Republic) between 2005 and 2011. In 2016, widespread USUV-associated wild bird mortality was observed in Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands. In this study, we report the results of passive monitoring for USUV in Austria and Hungary between 2010 and 2016. In Hungary, USUV caused sporadic cases of wild bird mortality between 2010 and 2015 (altogether 18 diagnosed cases), whereas in summer and autumn 2016 the number of cases considerably increased to 12 (ten blackbirds, one Eurasian jay and one starling). In Austria, USUV was identified in two blackbirds in 2016. Phylogenetic analyses of coding-complete genomes and partial regions of the NS5 protein gene revealed that USUVs from Hungary between 2010 and 2015 are closely related to the virus that emerged in Austria in 2001 and in Hungary in 2005, while one Hungarian sequence from 2015 and all sequences from Hungary and Austria from 2016 clustered together with USUV sequences reported from Italy between 2009 and 2010. The results of the study indicate continuous USUV circulation in the region and exchange of USUV strains between Italy, Austria and Hungary.Emerging Microbes &Infections (2017) 6, e85; doi:10.1038/emi.2017.72; published online 11 October 2017.

  16. Assessing primary care in Austria: room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, Florian L; Starfield, Barbara; Sprenger, Martin; Salzer, Helmut J F; Campbell, Stephen M

    2013-04-01

    There is emerging evidence that strong primary care achieves better health at lower costs. Although primary care can be measured, in many countries, including Austria, there is little understanding of primary care development. Assessing the primary care development in Austria. A primary care assessment tool developed by Barbara Starfield in 1998 was implemented in Austria. This tool defines 15 primary care characteristics and distinguishes between system and practice characteristics. Each characteristic was evaluated by six Austrian primary care experts and rated as 2 (high), 1 (intermediate) or 0 (low) points, respectively, to their primary care strength (maximum score: n = 30). Austria received 7 out of 30 points; no characteristic was rated as '2' but 8 were rated as '0'. Compared with the 13 previously assessed countries, Austria ranks 10th of 14 countries and is classified as a 'low primary care' country. This study provides the first evidence concerning primary care in Austria, benchmarking it as weak and in need of development. The practicable application of an existing assessment tool can be encouraging for other countries to generate evidence about their primary care system as well.

  17. Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine; Kessler, Harald H; Haas, Bernhard; Stelzl, Evelyn; Weninger, Karin; Little, Susan J; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2016-01-01

    To gain deeper insight into the epidemiology of HIV-1 transmission in South-East Austria we performed a retrospective analysis of 259 HIV-1 partial pol sequences obtained from unique individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection in South-East Austria from 2008 through 2014. After quality filtering, putative transmission linkages were inferred when two sequences were ≤1.5% genetically different. Multiple linkages were resolved into putative transmission clusters. Further phylogenetic analyses were performed using BEAST v1.8.1. Finally, we investigated putative links between the 259 sequences from South-East Austria and all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV sequence database. We found that 45.6% (118/259) of the sampled sequences were genetically linked with at least one other sequence from South-East Austria forming putative transmission clusters. Clustering individuals were more likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM; pAustria had at least one putative inferred linkage with sequences from a total of 69 other countries. In conclusion, analysis of HIV-1 sequences from newly diagnosed individuals residing in South-East Austria revealed a high degree of national and international clustering mainly within MSM. Interestingly, we found that a high number of heterosexual males clustered within MSM networks, suggesting either linkage between risk groups or misrepresentation of sexual risk behaviors by subjects.

  18. [Government earnings from cigarette smoking of adolescents in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Pock, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Smoking prevalence in minors has increased considerably since 1986. In comparison to other European countries, smoking rates in 15-year-old students are the highest in Austria. Goal of our study was the estimation of government earnings from tobacco consumption of minors in Austria. Tobacco tax paid by adolescents aged 11 to 17 years was estimated from smoking prevalences and taxation of cigarettes. In 2006 state revenues from cigarette consumption of minors in Austria amounted to 60.5 million Euro. Up to now the fight against business interest of the tobacco industry in Austria has been mainly left to volunteers. Therefore we suggest the funding a professional agency, independent from state budget and interest groups, by a tobacco prevention fund which is financed by the revenues from cigarettes smoked by youth. The mission of this fund should be to lower smoking incidence and smoking prevalence among minors. The WHO framework convention on tobacco control, ratified by Austria in 2005, should be considered in the next amendments of the tobacco law. The efforts of the European Union to reduce tobacco consumption should be supported also by Austria. For this purpose the tobacco prevention fund - similar to the regulation in Switzerland - would give the financial background.

  19. Evaluation of Research in Engineering Science in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Brussel, Hendrik Van Brussel; Lindberg, Bengt; Cederwall, Klas

    This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway .......This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway ....

  20. EU Floods Directive implementation in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhold Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Floods have the potential to cause fatalities, displacement of people and damage to the environment, to severely compromise economic development and to undermine the economic activities of the Community. The EU Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks [2007/60/EC] was adopted on 23 October 2007. Its aim is to reduce and manage the risks that floods pose to human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity. The paper reflects on how the requirements of the FD had been achieved in Austria and how the nationwide comparability and transferability of results as well as the international coordination had been obtained. Austria as a federal state has its competences structured in different departments as well as administrational levels. Besides administrational characteristics there is also a high diversity in topographical boundary conditions from Alpine areas to lowland areas emphasising different approaches and foci of flood risk management. To harmonise the related interests a discussion and decision committee had been established. The resolutions of this committee then defined the basis for a national coordination procedure where the Federal Ministry provided a “federal blueprint” to the federal provinces. The federal provinces then incorporated their regional and local information and data. Based on this response the coordinated and nationwide comparable FRMP had been set up and had been forwarded to public information and consultation. Complementary stakeholder involvement has been ensured by information and discussion workshops throughout the entire process. The administrational and topographical characteristics to be considered in the frame of FD implementation strengthened the coordination and harmonisation across all sectors and stakeholders related to flood risk management. The FD implementation, therefore, is a holistic attempt to outline the needs for action for all sectors related to risk

  1. "Second Chance" Routes into Higher Education: Sweden, Norway and Germany Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Dominic; Hovdhaugen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Widening access to higher education is clearly part of the European policy agenda. Higher education ministers in the Bologna countries, as well as the European Commission, have all expressed a wish to make higher education more representative of national populations. This policy objective has been echoed at national level. One approach to widening…

  2. Lung cancer survival and stage at diagnosis in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walters, Sarah; Maringe, Camille; Coleman, Michel P

    2013-01-01

    The authors consider whether differences in stage at diagnosis could explain the variation in lung cancer survival between six developed countries in 2004-2007.......The authors consider whether differences in stage at diagnosis could explain the variation in lung cancer survival between six developed countries in 2004-2007....

  3. A twin study of autism in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenburg, S; Gillberg, C; Hellgren, L; Andersson, L; Gillberg, I C; Jakobsson, G; Bohman, M

    1989-05-01

    The Nordic countries were screened for the occurrence of cases of autism with a same-sexed twin under age 25 years. Twenty-one pairs (11 monozygotic and 10 dizygotic) of twins and one set of identical triplets were found and extensively examined. The concordance for autism by pair was 91% in the monoygotic and 0% in the dizygotic pairs. The corresponding concordances for cognitive disorder were 91% and 30%, respectively. In most of the pairs discordant for autism, the autistic twin had more perinatal stress. The results lend support for the notion that autism sometimes has a hereditary component and that perinatal stress is involved in some cases.

  4. Dental care for aging populations in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, United kingdom, and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Vigild, Merete; Nitschke, Ina

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews access to and financing of dental care for aging populations in selected nations in Europe. Old age per se does not seem to be a major factor in determining the use of dental services. Dentition status, on the other hand, is a major determinant of dental attendance. In additi...

  5. Nordic Moral Climates. Value Continuities and Discontinuities in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondeson, Ulla V.

    Morality, Crime and Punishment, Legal Sociology, Legal Philosophy, Politology, Scandinavia, Comparatilve Studies, Criminology......Morality, Crime and Punishment, Legal Sociology, Legal Philosophy, Politology, Scandinavia, Comparatilve Studies, Criminology...

  6. Utilization of cardiovascular medicines and cardiovascular mortality in Lithuania, Sweden and Norway in 2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Lisauskienė

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: We confirmed the strong negative correlation between CV medicine utilization and CV mortality in all countries. The strong correlation was found between CV-SDR and nine factors, also between the use of CV medicines and nine factors. The impact of factors on the medicines induced decrease in CV-SDR showed the stronger influence in case of lower unemployment, higher alcohol consumption and higher number of beds for hospitalization.

  7. Climate Benefits of Material Recycling: Inventory of Average Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillman, Karl; Damgaard, Anders; Eriksson, Ola

    The purpose of this project is to compare emissions of greenhouse gases from material recycling with those from virgin material production, both from a material supply perspective and from a recycling system perspective. The method for estimating emissions and climate benefits is based on a review...

  8. Creating an Educational Testing Profession in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, 1910-1960

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian; Ludvigsen, Kari; Lundahl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    and educational climates were shaped by new experts and knowledge. It is argued that the testing communities were able to gain authority in the national educational fields through the creation and maintenance of organisations, knowledge, and practices, as well as in the forming of alliances with politicians......, universities, and teachers’ unions in a joint endeavour that promoted educational psychology and testing in the three Scandinavian educational fields....

  9. Chronic urticaria in the real-life clinical practice setting in Sweden, Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Pritzier, E C; Anderson, C D

    2017-01-01

    (19.6%), allergic rhinitis (16.5%) and food allergies (8.2%). Overall, 60.1% of patients reported using treatments for CU including non-sedative H1-antihistamines (40.5%), corticosteroids (19%), montelukast (14.6%) and omalizumab (8.2%). Pharmacological treatment rates increased to 96.2% during...

  10. Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri. Two latent colonizers of Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtijaervi, A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    Among the endophytic microfungi colonizing Norway spruce, the non-pathogenic species Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri are ubiquitous. Most Norway spruce in Sweden are colonized by these fungi. L. piceae colonizes healthy needles of various ages, while T pinastri colonizes the bark of branches. New shoots become infected around the time of their emergence. Fruit bodies are formed after the needles and branches die. It was found that L. piceae colonized needles during the summer and early autumn, about six weeks after a prolonged period of intensive rain. The number of individual fungal mycelia per needle increased linearly with needle age. In experiments with trees, irrigation resulted in lower total colonization and delayed colonization of the current-year needles, regardless of whether fertilizer had been added. Colonization by L. piceae was lowest in the ammonium sulfate treatment, which simulated the deposition of air pollutants. Colonization was highest in the control and drought treatments, which did not differ significantly from each other. Only a few pathogenic fungi can damage Norway spruce needles. Needles damaged by the rust fungus Chrysomyxa abietis were investigated to study interactions between fungi. The frequency and intensity of L. piceae colonization were found to be similar for C. abietis infected and healthy needles. However, in needles partially infected with rust, L. piceae seemed to establish itself easier in the rust-infected part than in the green part. The genetic structures of populations of T. pinastri in southern Sweden and Finland were investigated using DNA markers produced by means of arbitrarily primed PCR. Single spore isolates from apothecia were used in the analysis. A considerable amount of variation was detected. No geographical differentiation was found among the populations studied

  11. [The scale of border trade, tax-free import and tobacco smuggling to Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karl Erik

    2004-01-08

    There are no studies of the relative significance in Norway of registered sales, tax-free import, border trade or smuggling of tobacco. The estimated registered sales of tobacco are based on data from the Norwegian customs and excise authorities. The border trade and tax-free import estimates were based on nation-wide, representative surveys of daily smokers aged 16-74 carried out by Statistics Norway for the years 1990-1993 and 1997-2001. There are no detailed data on the scale of smuggling other than confiscation statistics compiled by the customs and excise authorities. It is assumed that confiscations amount to about a tenth of the total amount smuggled into the country. The unregistered consumption of cigarettes and tobacco has been on the rise since the early 1990s; in the years 1997-2001 it accounted for about a quarter of total consumption. Broken down, the figures are as follows: 11% was purchased in Sweden, 5% in Denmark, 9% in other foreign countries; 1% was smuggled into the country. The rise in unregistered tobacco consumption is putting further pressure on the high Norwegian taxes on tobacco. But if taxes were cut, domestic demand would rise, and hence have little or even negative impact on revenue flowing to the government from the legal tobacco market and probably little impact on the levels of imported tobacco through tax-free arrangements or cross-border trade. Hence, although the price gap between Norway and neighbouring countries narrows, we must assume that the motivation to acquire tobacco will remain unaffected while Norwegians continue to travel to Sweden to stock up on inexpensive meat produce.

  12. [Psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieringer, Walter; Schüssler, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    In present-day Austria, psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy enjoy significantly more sociopolitical and cultural recognition perhaps as a heritage from the days of the Austrian monarchy -- than is reflected in their real presence. This development can be traced back to prewar times and the repudiation of the destructive national socialistic ideology. There is an immanent conflict between specialization in psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy as an independent field of medicine and the integration of a psychosomatic basic approach into the general fields of medicine. The organization of psychotherapy is doubly anchored in the laws governing medical practice (PSY diploma) and the statutes governing the practice of psychotherapy; this, however, has not resolved the sensitive and only partially creative tension between the two. Austrian medical health politics are currently characterized by renewed efforts to organize the field of psychosomatic medicine. Should medical psychology and psychotherapy, internal medicine, psychiatry or general medicine provide the foundations for this new organization? This conflict is crucial since it will influence the further development of the entire medical field.

  13. Dry spells in the Alpine country Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobilis, Franz

    1986-11-01

    This paper gives a short survey of the most important results of investigations from a comprehensive book written by the author in German (Nobilis, 1985). Different kinds of distributions were tested to fit the sequences of dry days and to explain the persistence. The considerations are supplemented by Markov chain models up to order four. The graphical presentation of conditional probabilities for the territory of Austria (83,849 km 2) provides valuable aid for understanding the phenomenon of "dry spell" in an Alpine country. The analysis of the average number of sequences of dry days for the main river basins applying harmonic analysis and the presentation of nor-malized harmonic dials show the hydroclimatological differences between various river basins. The statistical considerations of the extreme dry spells for the entire year and for the vegetation period (April-October) give useful hints for a more objective estimation of extreme dry spells in the past. Finally, spectral analysis is used to investigate possible periodicities of extreme dry spells. In this connection, the question of relevant trends is discussed too.

  14. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different

  15. Two rare coprophilous ascomycetes from Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelen, van J.; Kristiansen, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two uncommon coprophilous ascomycetes, Ascobolus cervinus and Caccobius minusculus, only recorded once, each from two different continents, are reported for the first time from Norway. Both are provided with new descriptions and compared with authentic material.

  16. Emergence of sandflies (Phlebotominae) in Austria, a Central European country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Weiler, Martin; Burgmann, Heinz; Mooseder, Gerhard; Lorentz, Susanne; Rauchenwald, Friedrich; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia; Naucke, Torsten J

    2013-12-01

    The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Austria using battery-operated CDC miniature light traps. Sites were chosen on the basis of their climate profile in the federal states Styria, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Sandfly specimens found were transferred to 70% ethanol for conservation. Identification was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae, respectively. Altogether, 24 specimens, 22 females and 2 males, all identified as Phlebotomus (Transphlebotomus) mascittii Grassi, 1908, were found at six different sampling sites in all three federal states investigated. The highest number of catches was made on a farm in Lower Austria. Altogether, the period of sandfly activity in Austria was shown to be much longer than presumed, the earliest capture was made on July 3rd and the latest on August 28th. Sandflies have been autochthonous in Austria in small foci probably for long, but in the course of global warming, further spreading may be expected. Although P. mascittii is only an assumed vector of Leishmania spp.-data on its experimental transmission capacity are still lacking-the wide distribution of sandflies in Austria, a country thought to be free of sandflies, further supports a potential emergence of sandflies in Central Europe. This is of medical relevance, not only with respect to the transmission of Leishmania spp. for which a reservoir is given in dogs, but also with respect to the phleboviruses.

  17. Rising prevalence of back pain in Austria: considering regional disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großschädl, Franziska; Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is the most common form of musculoskeletal conditions and leads to high health care costs. Information about geographic variations in highly prevalent diseases/disorders represents important implications for public health planning to face structural challenges. The present study aims to investigate regional trends in the prevalence of back pain and the role of obesity and social inequalities among Austrian adults. A secondary data analysis based on five nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1973-2007) was carried out (N = 178,818). Back pain was measured as self-reported presence. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) was adjusted for self-report bias. For the regional analyses, Austria was divided into Western, Central and Eastern Austria. A relative index of inequality (RII) was computed to quantify the extent of social inequality. A continuous rise in back pain prevalence was observed in the three regions and among all investigated subgroups. In 2007 the age-standardised prevalence was similar in Central (36.9 %), Western (35.2 %) and Eastern Austria (34.3 %). The absolute change in back pain prevalence was highest among obese subjects in Central Austria (women: + 29.8 %, men: + 32.5 %). RIIs were unstable during the study period and in 2007 highest in Eastern Austria. Variation and trends in back pain are not attributable to geographic variation in Austria: an assumed East-West gradient in Austria has not been confirmed. Nevertheless our study confirms that back pain dramatically increased in all Austrian regions and investigated subgroups. This worrying trend should be further monitored and public health interventions should be implemented increasingly, especially among obese women and men.

  18. Governance of public health: Norway in a Nordic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Marit K

    2014-11-01

    The two pillars of public health are health promotion and disease prevention. Based on a notion of governance in the state -local relation as changing from hierarchical via New Public Management (NPM) to New Public Governance (NPG), the governance of public health in Norway is contrasted to governance of public health in the other Nordic states: Denmark, Finland and Sweden. The article aims to present and discuss the governance of public health as it is played out in the state-local relationship. The method is to study central state documents in the four countries, as well as articles, research reports and papers on public health. The article shows that the governance modes (hierarchy, NPM and NPG) exist in parallel, but that their mechanisms actually vary in use. Legal, economic and informational mechanisms are, to a varying degree, in use. In Finnish and Swedish public health policies, health promotion is at the forefront; while Danish and Norwegian public health policies spur the local governments to carry out interventions to prevent disease and hospital admissions. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  19. Adaptation of Forest Management Regimes in Southern Sweden to Increased Risks Associated with Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Subramanian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the growth rates of most tree species in Sweden is expected to increase in the near future as a result of climate change, increased risks of damage by storms and various pests and pathogens, notably root rot and bark beetles, may also occur. Thus, forest management practices such as changes to thinning regimes, reductions in rotation lengths, and switching to other species (native or exotic may represent adaptive management strategies to increase the resistance and resilience of Swedish forests to climate change. Clearly, thorough analyses examining the effects of anticipated climatic changes on damage levels, and the potentially relieving effects of possible management adaptations are needed before implementing such changes. In this study, damage caused by storms, root rot and bark beetles (single and in various combinations under selected climate and management scenarios were simulated in Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst stands. The results indicate that reductions in thinning intensity and rotation lengths could improve both volume production and profitability in southern Sweden. In addition, cultivation of rapidly growing species, such as hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii Coaz. and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx., could be as profitable as Norway spruce cultivation, or even more profitable. However, slow-growing species, such as Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth, Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh. and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. indicated low economic output in terms of Land Expectation Value.

  20. The History of Tuberculosis Management in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Wallstedt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB.

  1. The history of tuberculosis management in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstedt, Helen; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Child Health Systems in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Björn; Blennow, Margareta; Hjern, Anders; Söder, Olle; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2016-10-01

    On a national level, several factors are responsible for Sweden's leading position in achieving the excellent health of children because Sweden has experienced a long history of peace and success in establishing a parliamentary democracy throughout the 20th century. Among the different sectors of society, Sweden has been able to focus on prevention and health promotion. The Swedish health care system is publicly financed based on local taxation. Pediatricians working in secondary and tertiary care are employed by the public sector, whereas family physicians are employed by both the private and public sectors. The pediatric departments at county and university levels provide a high quality of inpatient care for neonates and children. The county hospital pediatric departments typically include one neonatal ward and one ward for older children. Subspecialization exists even at the county level, and there is close cooperation between the county level and subspecialist units at the university level. Within the primary care sector, most children receive care from family physicians. The majority of family physicians have completed 3 months of pediatrics in their basic training program. In the more densely populated areas there are also pediatric ambulatory care centers working mostly with referrals from the family physicians. Preventive care is carried out at midwife-led maternity health centers, nurse-led Child Health Centers, and nurse-led school health care settings and reach almost everyone (99%). All health care for children and adolescents is free of charge up to 18 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  4. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States... on carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden. SUMMARY: The Commission... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  5. Arts@CERN | ACCELERATE Austria | 19 May | IdeaSquare

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    ​Arts@CERN welcomes you to a talk by architects Sandra Manninger and Matias Del Campo, at IdeaSquare (Point 1) on May 19 at 6:00 p.m.   Sensible Bodies - architecture, data, and desire. Sandra and Matias are the winning architects for ACCELERATE Austria. Focusing on the notion of geometry, they are at CERN during the month of May, as artists in residence. Their research highlights how to go beyond beautiful data to discover something that could be defined voluptuous data. This coagulation of numbers, algorithms, procedures and programs uses the forces of thriving nature and, passing through the calculation of a multi-core processor, knits them with human desire. Read more. ACCELERATE Austria is supported by The Department of Arts of the Federal Chancellery of Austria. Thursday, May 19 at 6:00 p.m. at IdeaSquare.  See event on Indico. 

  6. Orchidopexy patterns in Austria from 1993 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Alexander; Subramaniam, Ramnath; Krall, Christoph; Fülöp, Gerhard

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate orchidopexy patterns in Austria. All boys with cryptorchidism who underwent orchidopexy (n = 19.998) in Austria between 1993 and 2009 were analyzed using the database Austrian Health Information System at the Austrian Federal Research and Planning Institute for Health Care. Regression models were constructed to examine associations between the probability of orchidopexy before 24 months of life and the following parameters: year of birth, federal state of residence, character of area of living (rural/urban) and hospital type. Average age at operation dropped from 6 to 4.3 years (mean 5.2 years, SD 3.8 years). Total incidence of orchidopexy was continuously rising throughout the study period (p Austria the total incidence of orchidopexy is significantly rising. Moreover, the incidence of orchidopexies performed before 24 months of life is constantly rising with significant geographic differences. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. S.H. and others v. Austria and circumvention tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn Cohen, I

    2012-12-01

    This commentary discusses the decision in S.H. and Others v. Austria from a political theoretical and bioethical perspective. I focus on the opinion's discussion of what I call 'circumvention tourism', travelling abroad for the purpose of circumventing domestic prohibitions, especially as to medical services. The majority opinion in the case touts Austria's allowance of circumvention tourism for reproductive technology services that are illegal on Austrian soil as a reason to find as lawful Austria's prohibition on using those services on Austrian soil. To the contrary, I show that, in many ways, permitting circumvention tourism for these services while prohibiting them domestically is deeply problematic. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. INOPS Survey data report for Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Severin, Majbritt Christine

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Sweden. The statistics rely on data collected in the period from May 2015 to June 2015 through an online survey...... send to managers in all 290 municipalities in Sweden....

  9. Human Capital, Values, and Attitudes of Persons Seeking Refuge in Austria in 2015

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buber-Ennser, Isabella; Kohlenberger, Judith; Rengs, Bernhard; Al Zalak, Zakarya; Goujon, Anne; Striessnig, Erich; Potančoková, Michaela; Gisser, Richard; Testa, Maria Rita; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    ... (Displaced Persons in Austria Survey) aims to uncover the socio-demographic characteristics of the persons seeking refuge who arrived in Austria in 2015, mainly originating from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan...

  10. Tšetšeenid, Leivo ja Austria / Priit Hõbemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hõbemägi, Priit, 1957-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti, Läti, Leedu ja Austria siseministrid esitasid ühise idee rajada Ukrainasse tšetšeeni põgenikele pagulaslaager. Autor selgitab, mis huvid võisid olla Eesti ja Austria siseministritel sellise idee esitamisel

  11. Strategy for the reduction of radon exposure in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Elevated indoor radon concentrations are a more extensive problem in Norway than in many other countries. It has been estimated that indoor radon causes approximately 300 deaths from lung cancer each year in Norway. On average, avoiding lung cancer increases life expectancy by 14 to 18 years. Radon is a radioactive noble gas formed continually is a decay product from uranium. Uranium is a natural constituent existing in varying concentrations in bedrock, minerals and soils. For this reason, both the soil air and groundwater contain radon. Radon in buildings normally originates from the soil air in the underlying ground. Indoor air pressure is often low, so that radon-containing air from the surrounding ground gets sucked in through cracks in the building foundations. Elevated indoor radon concentrations can be due to household water drawn from groundwater wells, and radon gas can also be emitted from building materials such as certain types of stone or concrete containing high levels of natural radioactivity. Norway, Sweden and Finland are among the the countries in the world with the highest average indoor radon concentrations. Geological conditions and the cool climate pose a big challenge, but the radon problem can be solved in a cost-effective way. Radon is the most common cause of lung cancer after active smoking. At a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m3, which is not far from the estimated average for Norwegian housing, the risks of dying of radon-induced lung cancer before the age of 75 are 0.1 % for non-smokers and 2 % for smokers, respectively. Many buildings in Norway have radon levels that exceed this. The most important health impact of radon exposure is the increased risk of lung cancer. This increase in risk is assumed to be linear in relation to radon concentration (i.e., the risk is 10 times higher at 1000 Bq/m3 compared to 100 Bq/m3). The risk also increases linearly with exposure time, i.e. there is a tenfold greater risk of contracting lung cancer

  12. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindorfer, H; Krebs, M; Kautzky-Willer, A; Bancher-Todesca, D; Sager, M; Gessl, A

    2015-03-01

    In Austria, iodine deficiency has been considered to be eliminated owing to table salt fortification with iodine, but whether this also applies to pregnant women is unclear. Even mild iodine deficiency during gestation may lead to neurocognitive sequelae in the offspring. This is a cross-sectional investigation of urinary iodine excretion in 246 pregnant women (first trimester n=2, second trimester n=53, third trimester n=191, gestational diabetes mellitus n=115, no gestational diabetes mellitus n=131). The iodine content of morning spot urine samples was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Pregnant women in the Vienna area had a median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of 87 μg/l. Only 13.8% of the cohort were in the recommended range of 150-249 μg/l, whereas 21.5% had a UIC of 0-49 μg/l, 40.2% had a UIC of 50-99 μg/l and 19.5% had a UIC of 100-149 μg/l. In all, 4.9% had a UIC over 250 μg/l. A total of 137 women of foreign origin had a significantly higher iodine excretion compared with Austrian-born women. Maternal or gestational age had no influence on UIC. Although 79 women on iodine supplementation had a significantly higher iodine concentration compared with women without iodine supplementation (97.3 vs 80.1 μg/l, P=0,006), their UIC was below the recommended range, indicating that doses of 100-150 μg per day are not sufficient to normalize iodine excretion. Sodium and iodine concentrations in the urine were tightly correlated (R=0.539, n=61), suggesting that low intake of iodized salt might contribute to insufficient iodine supply. This study shows that pregnant women in the Vienna area have a potentially clinically significant iodine deficiency and that currently recommended doses of iodine supplementation may not be sufficient.

  13. Energy use in Sweden: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Johnson, F.; Howarth, R.; Price, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Andersson, B.; Andersson, B.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Handelshoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-01

    This report analyzes the evolution of energy use in Sweden since the early 1970s. The purpose of the study, which is sponsored by NUTEK, Department of Energy Efficiency, the Swedish Agency for Technical and Industrial Development, is to shed light on the future path of energy use in Sweden by quantifying and understanding changes in past energy use. Energy efficiency has been identified by Swedish authorities in countless official studies as a key element in Sweden`s efforts to restrain oil imports, reduce reliance on nuclear power, reduce environmental impacts of energy use, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. To understand the role or performance of energy efficiency in the 1970s and 1980s in Sweden, and what this performance means about the future, the authors seek answers to three broad questions: (1) How has the structure and efficiency of energy use in Sweden evolved since the early 1970s, and where data permit, since even earlier? What caused these changes? (2) How does the structure of energy use in Sweden differ from that of other countries, and how has the evolution of energy use in Sweden differed from developments in other countries? (3) How much energy has Sweden saved, and why? Are these savings permanent? To what extent were they offset by changes in the structure of energy use? And to what extent is the magnitude of these savings dependent upon the way we measure energy use? The report reviews the long-term evolution of Swedish energy use, focusing on developments in five sectors of the economy: residential, service, industrial (manufacturing and {open_quotes}other industry{close_quotes} defined as mining, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and construction), travel, and freight. The authors then examine Swedish energy use in a broader perspective, drawing detailed comparisons to other nations. Finally, they discuss a series of issues that hover over the future of energy demand in Sweden.

  14. 77 FR 65361 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... International Trade Administration Xanthan Gum From Austria and the People's Republic of China: Postponement of...: Karine Gziryan (Austria) or Brandon Farlander (People's Republic of China), AD/CVD Operations, Office 4... xanthan gum from Austria and the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ The notice of initiation stated that the...

  15. 78 FR 33354 - Xanthan Gum From Austria: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Xanthan Gum From Austria: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair... final determination in the antidumping (``AD'') investigation of xanthan gum from Austria.\\1\\ On March 4... the Preliminary Determination. The Department has determined that xanthan gum from Austria is being...

  16. Language Policy and Corporate Law in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper explores the relationship between national language policies and corporate law in Norwegian business. By adopting a legal perspective on the national language policy of Norway as it has been stipulated by the Norwegian Ministry of Church and Culture (2008) and The Language Council...... of Norway (2005) the paper investigates how the 500 largest companies in Norway comply with the language requirement of the Norwegian Accounting Act for the financial year of 2015. The results show that 44.9 % of the companies presented their financial statements in one or more foreign language in addition...... to the Norwegian language version, 36.2 % of the companies presented their financial statements in Norwegian only, while 18.9 % of the companies had been granted dispensation from the Norwegian Directorate of Taxes to deviate from the language requirement of the Accounting Act and presented their financial...

  17. American Studies in Norway: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole O. Moen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian “studies” of America started really more than a thousand years ago, when Leif Ericsson landed in Vinland, his name for that part of New Foundland where his party made quarters around the year A.D. 1000. However, it was not until 1825 that modern mass emigration from Norway to America started in earnest, when a small sailing vessel, the sloop Restaurationen, left the little village of Tysvær on the west coast of Norway, near Stavanger, for New York, carrying a load of 52 Quaker emigr...

  18. Tidal power in Norway; Maanekraft fra dypet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The world's first tidal power station is scheduled for stat-up in the spring of 2003. It is located in Kvalsundet, off Hammerfest, Norway. This is a pilot installation of a 300 kW tidal turbine at a depth of 50 metres. When fully developed in 2007, the tidal power plant will deliver 32 GWh per year. Hammerfest Stroem has patented the energy and the company hopes to be able to install similar power stations both in Norway and abroad. The potential worldwide is claimed to be more than 450 TWh per year.

  19. An outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae in Sweden, May-June 2009, with sugar snaps as the suspected source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfdahl, M; Ivarsson, S; Andersson, S; Långmark, J; Plym-Forshell, L

    2009-07-16

    We report an outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae type 2 infections during May-June 2009 in Sweden, involving 47 suspected cases of whom 35 were laboratory-confirmed. The epidemiological investigation based on interviews with the patients pointed at sugar snaps from Kenya as the source. Shigella was not detected in samples of sugar snaps. However, Escherichia coli was confirmed in three of four samples indicating contamination by faecal material. During April to May 2009 outbreaks with Shigella connected to sugar snaps from Kenya were reported from Norway and Denmark. In the three countries trace back of the indicated sugar snaps revealed a complex system with several involved import companies and distributers. In Sweden one wholesale company was identified and connections were seen to the Danish trace back. These three outbreaks question whether the existing international certification and quality standards that are in place to prevent products from contamination by faecal pathogens are strict enough.

  20. Civic Education in Authoritarian Austria, 1934-38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esden-Tempska, Carla

    1990-01-01

    Shows how clerico-fascist regime, which came to power in Austria in 1933-34, placed emphasis on character formation as a primary aspect of schooling. Maintains that the goal was to educate youth by using public education for indoctrination, following methods of Italian Fascists and German National Socialists. Analyzes how they reorganized the…

  1. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2014-01-01

    .... After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions...

  2. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-01-01

    .... After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions...

  3. Tobacco policies in Austria during the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachinger, E; McKee, M

    2007-09-01

    The anti-smoking stance taken by Adolf Hitler, coupled with Nazi support for research on smoking and lung cancer and campaigns to discourage smoking, have encouraged pro-smoking groups to equate tobacco control activities with totalitarianism. Previous work has described the situation in Germany. To examine the situation in Austria, also part of the Reich after 1938. Iterative analysis of documents and reports about the situation in Austria in the 1930s and 1940s, supplemented by a review of Reich legal ordinances, party newspapers, health behaviour guidelines issued by Nazi party organisations and interviews with expert informants. In contrast to the situation in Germany where, albeit to a much lesser degree than is commonly believed, some anti-smoking policies were adopted, the Nazi authorities in Austria made almost no attempt to discourage smoking and the Austrian tobacco company worked closely with the Nazi authorities to ensure that supplies were maintained. Especially when looked at in the Austrian context, the much-cited link between anti-smoking policies and Nazism is a gross over-simplification. This purported link should not be used to justify the continued failure to act effectively against smoking in Germany and Austria.

  4. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  5. Austria: Persistent low fertility since the mid-1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Engelhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter offers an in-depth analysis of fertility in Austria, a country which has experienced a low and relatively stable fertility level and a gradual postponement of childbearing since the mid-1980s. We begin by summarising Austrian population trends in the post-World War II period and highlighting recent relatively high migration levels. We outline the long history of sub-replacement fertility and high childlessness in Austria and look in detail at recent parity-specific developments, trends in family size, delayed childbearing and persistent fertility differences by education level, country of origin and religious affiliation. The chapter then summarises main trends in family-related behaviour, including the changing patterns of leaving parental home, the rise in cohabitation, the decline in marriage and the rise of divorce and the diversity in non-marital childbearing, which has a long tradition in many parts of the country. We discuss the development of family policies in Austria and their relationship to fertility during the past decades. Social policies in Austria provide only a limited support for a reconciliation of childrearing and employment among mothers with children below the age of three. A combination of one of the highest family spending rates among the OECD countries and the low fertility rates indicate that structural constraints (such as the availability of childcare constitute part of the explanation of low fertility.

  6. New Moho map of southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans; Faleide, J.-I.

    2009-01-01

    A recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are close to average for continental crust with elevations of ~1 km. Evidence from new seismic da...

  7. Accreditation of occupational health services in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Bjørnstad, O

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, an accreditation system for occupational health services (OHS) in Norway was implemented. To examine OHS experiences of the accreditation system in Norway 4 years after its implementation. A web-based questionnaire was sent to all accredited OHS asking about their experiences with the accreditation system. Responses were compared with a similar survey conducted in 2011. The response rate was 76% (173/228). OHS reported that the most common changes they had had to make to achieve accreditation were: improvement of their quality assurance system (53%), a plan for competence development (44%) and increased staffing in occupational hygiene (36%) and occupational medicine (28%). The OHS attributed improved quality in their own OHS (56%) and in OHS in Norway (47%), to the accreditation process. The accreditation system was well accepted by OHS, who reported that it had improved the quality of their OHS and of OHS in Norway. The results are similar to the findings of a 2011 survey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  8. The Bamble Sector, South Norway: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Harlov, D.E.; Andersen, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Proterozoic Bamble Sector, South Norway, is one of the world’s classic amphibolite- to granulitefacies transition zones. It is characterized by a well-developed isograd sequence, with isolated ‘granulite-facies islands’ in the amphibolite-facies portion of the transition zone. The area is

  9. Improved predictions of atmospheric icing in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Bjørg Jenny; Nygaard, Bjørn Egil; Thompson, Gregory; Bengtsson, Lisa; Berntsen, Terje

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric icing of ground structures is a problem in cold climate locations such as Norway. During the 2013/2014 winter season two major power lines in southern Norway suffered severe damage due to ice loads exceeding their design values by two to three times. Better methods are needed to estimate the ice loads that affect various infrastructure, and better models are needed to improve the prediction of severe icing events. The Wind, Ice and Snow loads Impact on Infrastructure and the Natural Environment (WISLINE) project, was initiated to address this problem and to explore how a changing climate may affect the ice loads in Norway. Creating better forecasts of icing requires a proper simulation of supercooled liquid water (SLW). Preliminary results show that the operational numerical weather prediction model (HARMONIE-AROME) at MET-Norway generates considerably lower values of SLW as compared with the WRF model when run with the Thompson microphysics scheme. Therefore, we are piecewise implementing specific processes found in the Thompson scheme into the AROME model and testing the resulting impacts to prediction of SLW and structural icing. Both idealized and real icing cases are carried out to test the newly modified AROME microphysics scheme. Besides conventional observations, a unique set of specialized instrumentation for icing measurements are used for validation. Initial results of this investigation will be presented at the conference.

  10. New records of Marine Turbellaria from Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der G.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During an excursion to Norway organized by the Department of Systematic Zoology of the Rijksuniversiteit of Leiden in August 1973, I had the opportunity to make some observations on Turbellarians of salt-marshes and rocky shores of the Trondheimsfjord (63o 37' N 9° 43' Ε) and the

  11. Measurement of acid precipitation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arne Semb

    1976-01-01

    Since January 1972, chemical analysis of daily precipitation samples from about 20 background stations in Norway has been carried out on a routine basis. Air monitoring is carried out at six stations. The chemical analysis programme is: sulphate, pH and acidity in precipitation, sulphates and sulphur dioxide in air. In addition, more detailed chemical analysis of...

  12. Geographical distribution of Phytophthora ramorum in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    María- Luz Herrero; Brita Toppe; Trond Rafoss

    2008-01-01

    In November 2002, Phytophthora ramorum was detected for the first time in Norway. It was isolated from Rhododendron catawbiense imported earlier the same year. After the first detection, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority has carried out surveys from 2003 to 2006. The surveys were first directed to nurseries and garden centres....

  13. Wild boars from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic and Japan possess intact mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Ingrid-Maria; OkumuRA, N; Uenishi, H

    2015-01-01

    The two-nucleotide deletion recently detected in the mannose-binding lectin 2 gene in purebred and crossbred domestic pigs was not found among 68 wild boars representing 4 populations from Europe and Asia. This suggests that the deletion is a result of breeding and/or genetic drift/bottle necks....

  14. Public Procurement of Innovation in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Ågren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sweden is often thought of as a country with a strong tradition for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Early on, Sweden recognized and developed procedures for using public procurement as a technologydevelopment tool. After a period where emphasis was put on this aspect...... of public procurement Sweden dropped many policy initiatives within this field. This was in part due to neo-liberal movements during the 1980s which in interaction with a distributed institutional setup led to the removal of incentives for a procuring authority to engage in public procurement of innovation....... Another contributing cause was poor policy guidance from the academia upon Sweden’s accession into the EU, which spread apprehension among procuring authorities. It is not until the last few years that Sweden has started to reengage in public procurement for innovation policy, by using predominantly...

  15. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  17. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Bernhardt; Livia Sz. Oláh

    2008-01-01

    Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been e...

  18. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Frances Goldscheider; Eva Bernhardt; Maria Brandén

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in th...

  19. Yoshio Nakajima. A Japanese Artist from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden.......Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden....

  20. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej Elkamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. Methods We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. Results A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 4–5 years and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA. All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. Conclusions We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits.

  1. Soil development in the Nordic countries - Identification and quantification of factors and processes, and prerequisites for biological primary production. Extended abstracts from a Nordic Workshop 6-9 September 1994, Asa, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Mats [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from research presentations during a Nordic workshop at Asa in Sweden, September 6-9th 1994. The main goal with the workshop was to give insight in ongoing pedological research in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Further aims were to form a basis for co-ordinated research that takes advantage of the amplitude in soils and climate, and scientific competence in the Nordic countries. The intention was also to initiate a Nordic soil data-bank to be used in research and teaching. Focus was placed on podzolised soils. Separate inputs have been made for all the 14 abstracts

  2. Incidence and antibiotic treatment of erythema migrans in Norway 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, Knut Eirik; Berild, Dag; Reiso, Harald; Grude, Nils; Christophersen, Karen Sofie; Finckenhagen, Cecilie; Lindbæk, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The first stage of Lyme borreliosis (LB) is mainly the typical skin lesion, erythema migrans (EM), which is estimated to comprise 80-90% of all LB cases. However, the reporting of, and the actual incidence of LB varies throughout Europe. Studies from Sweden and Holland have found EM incidences varying from 53 to 464 EM/100,000 inhabitants/year. Under-reporting of LB is common and a coefficient of three to reach a realistic estimate is suggested. In Norway, it is mandatory to report only the second and third LB stages to the National Institute of Public Health. To find the Norwegian incidence of EM, we extracted data from the electronic medical records of regular general practitioners and out-of-hours services in the four counties with the highest rates of registered LB in the 5 years from 2005 to 2009. We found an EM incidence of 448 EM/100,000 inhabitants/year in these counties, which yields a national incidence of 148 EM/100,000 inhabitants/year. Our findings show that solitary EMs comprised almost 96% of the total LB incidence in Norway. Older females have the highest rates of EM. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is the most commonly used drug to treat EM in Norway, which complies with the national guidelines for antibiotic use. Antibody tests are performed in 15% of cases. Less than 1% of patients are referred to secondary care. The study also shows a high number of patients seeking care for tick bites without signs of infection and there is an overuse of antibiotics in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. [Vaccination recommendations for health care workers in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Ursula; Rendi-Wagner, Pamela; Aigner, Gerhard; Bechter, Elmar; Druml, Christiane; Falb, Petra; Holzmann, Heidemarie; Karbus, Gabriele; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Kundi, Michael; Presterl, Elisabeth; Szymanski, Eva-Elisabeth; Tucek, Barbara; Zenz, Werner; Zwiauer, Karl

    2014-04-01

    In Austria the vaccination coverage among health care workers (HCW) - particularly among hospital personnel - is not sufficient. This is of specific concern, because not only the individual protection but also the prevention of disease transmission of vaccine preventable diseases between HCW and patients needs to be guaranteed. Particularly immunosuppressed patients, who are at higher risk for morbidity and mortality due to certain infections, but cannot be vaccination themselves, must be able to rely on herd protection, i.e. not being infected by surrounding/caring persons. The following publication provides for the first time detailed guidelines for vaccination programs for HCWs in Austria, including personnel within hospitals, medical institutions and laboratories, as well as Medical Universities including students. Moreover, these guidelines are also recommended to medical personnel in outpatient clinics, social service institutions and medical practices. Additionally to the vaccination schedules this publication also includes a chapter on ethical as well as legal background underlying these recommendations.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in western Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Kofler, H; Brezinka, C; Guggenbichler, J P; Dierich, M P

    1993-01-01

    From January to October 1992 24 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical specimens were collected at the Federal Public Health Laboratory in Innsbruck (Austria) and screened for resistance to penicillin G, erythromycin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacine, and silver nitrate. Patients originated from the Austrian provinces Salzburg, Tirol, and Vorarlberg, and presented with manifest gonorrhoea. Two of 24 isolates were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae. Both strains were isolated from men who had just returned from Thailand or Kenya. The isolate from Africa was also resistant to tetracycline. Five of 24 infections were acquired abroad, sex tourism being involved in four cases. The antimicrobial resistance pattern found in gonococci in western Austria revealed that topical silver nitrate and erythromycin are equally acceptable for use in prophylaxis of neonatal ophthalmia. Penicillin is still the drug of choice in the treatment of endemic infections. If gonorrhoea has been acquired abroad, especially in Asia or Africa, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin or ciprofloxazine are recommended for therapy.

  5. Development and Current Practice in Using R at Statistics Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Templ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of R is increasing in national statistical offices not only for simulation tasks. Nowadays R is also used in the production process. A lot of new features for various tasks in official statistics have been developed over the last years and these features are freely available in the form of add-on package. In this contribution we first give an outline of the use of R at Statistics Austria. Discussed is the necessary infrastructure according to the R-installation, the teaching of employees and the support provided to the staff who use R in their daily work. In the second part, the R developments from the methods unit at Statistics Austria are summarised. The developed packages include methods for data pre-processing (e.g imputation up to packages for the final dissemination of data including packages for statistical disclosure control, estimation of indicators and the visualisation of results.

  6. Professional Training of Foreign Languages Teachers in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Byndas Olena

    2014-01-01

    The features of the Austrian education system, namely different types of schools of compulsory and optional levels and the necessity of qualified teachers needed for teaching in such schools, features of foreign languages teachers’ professional training and their practical availability for service in school, have been observed. The problem of hybridization of vocational training and higher education in Austria, which is the result of close cooperation between academic and vocational training,...

  7. Is climate change causing increased rockfall frequency in Austria?

    OpenAIRE

    Sass, O.; Oberlechner, M.

    2012-01-01

    Potentially, increasing rockfall hazards triggered by climate change are a major concern expressed both in scientific and non-scientific media. An existing rockfall inventory for Austria including 252 events from ca. 1900 to 2010, mainly from non-permafrost areas, was analysed. The correlation of events with temperatures is very weak and no increase of rockfall frequency during warmer periods was observed. The peak of rockfall activity is in spring, whereas in recent decades a secondary summe...

  8. Emergence of sandflies (Phlebotominae) in Austria, a Central European country

    OpenAIRE

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Obwaller, Adelheid G.; Weiler, Martin; Burgmann, Heinz; Mooseder, Gerhard; Lorentz, Susanne; Rauchenwald, Friedrich; Aspöck, Horst; Walochnik, Julia; Naucke, Torsten J

    2013-01-01

    The possible existence of autochthonous sandfly populations in Central Europe north of the Alps has long been excluded. However, in the past years, sandflies have been documented in Germany, Belgium, and recently, also in Austria, close to the Slovenian border. Moreover, autochthonous human Leishmania and Phlebovirus infections have been reported in Central Europe, particularly in Germany. From 2010 to 2012, sandfly trapping (740 trap nights) was performed at 53 different capture sites in Aus...

  9. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  10. Efficiency, ownership, and financing of hospitals: the case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czypionka, Thomas; Kraus, Markus; Mayer, Susanne; Röhrling, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    While standard economic theory posits that privately owned hospitals are more efficient than their public counterparts, no clear conclusion can yet be drawn for Austria in this regard. As previous Austrian efficiency studies rely on data from the 1990s only and are based on small hospital samples, the generalizability of these results is questionable. To examine the impact of ownership type on efficiency, we apply a Data Envelopment Analysis which extends the existing literature in two respects: first, it evaluates the efficiency of the Austrian acute care sector, using data on 128 public and private non-profit hospitals from the year 2010; second, it additionally focusses on the inpatient sector alone, thus increasing the comparability between hospitals. Overall, the results show that in Austria, private non-profit hospitals outperform public hospitals in terms of technical efficiency. A multiple regression analysis confirms the significant association between efficiency and ownership type. This conclusive result contrasts some international evidence and can most likely be attributed to differences in financial incentives for public and private non-profit hospitals in Austria. Therefore, by drawing on the example of the Austrian acute care hospital sector and existing literature on the German acute care hospital sector, we also discuss the impact of hospital financing systems and their incentives on efficiency. This paper thus also aims at providing a proof of principle, pointing out the importance of the respective market conditions when internationally comparing hospital efficiency by ownership type.

  11. The Europeanisation of Austria: Misfit, Adaptation and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Falkner

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the multiple dimensions of Austria’s Europeanisation and the high degree of both misfit and conflict involved therein. Austria’s path to EU membership was characterised by fundamental doubts due to the country’s status of neutrality, and by a basic reinterpretation of this concept. After accession, need for institutional adaptation to the EU’s decision-making patterns was significant since major tenets of the Austrian political system are special. Furthermore, policy misfit between the domestic and the EU level was considerable in several fields, among them highly symbolic ones. Austria’s EU-related diplomacy recently witnessed a major crisis with the other 14 member states ‘sanctioning’ the new centre-right government in a controversial way. Against this background of strong and multi-dimensional misfit, Austrian performance in implementing EU law is still surprisingly good. By contrast, public appreciation of EU membership has declined even further, and a majority of Austrians oppose enlargement while the Freedom Party advocates a referendum on that issue. Therefore, the conclusions argue that improved communication processes and mutual learning across the multiple levels of the EU system are crucial.

  12. The Europeanisation of Austria: Misfit, Adaptation and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Falkner

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the multiple dimensions of Austrias Europeanisation and the high degree of both misfit and conflict involved therein. Austrias path to EU membership was characterised by fundamental doubts due to the countrys status of neutrality, and by a basic reinterpretation of this concept. After accession, need for institutional adaptation to the EUs decision-making patterns was significant since major tenets of the Austrian political system are special. Furthermore, policy misfit between the domestic and the EU level was considerable in several fields, among them highly symbolic ones. Austrias EU-related diplomacy recently witnessed a major crisis with the other 14 member states sanctioning the new centre-right government in a controversial way. Against this background of strong and multi-dimensional misfit, Austrian performance in implementing EU law is still surprisingly good. By contrast, public appreciation of EU membership has declined even further, and a majority of Austrians oppose enlargement while the Freedom Party advocates a referendum on that issue. Therefore, the conclusions argue that improved communication processes and mutual learning across the multiple levels of the EU system are crucial.

  13. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2003-06-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Indicators for Energy Efficiency Monitoring and Target setting (ODYSSEE)''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2000 (2001 for overall energy use). Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.9% pr year in the period 1990 to 2001. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.6% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 11 TWh from 1990 to 2000. (author)

  14. Happiness in Serbia and Norway:  

    OpenAIRE

    Jevtic, Tijana

    2010-01-01

    Happiness here is investigated by means of 12 young people from Serbia and Norway. The main instrument was interview with a short questionnaire. Happiness is in line with other studies found to be a complex human quality with a variety of meanings and numerous influences. These meanings can be divided into actual happiness (predominant positive feelings and satisfaction of life), ideal happiness (complete and lasting one), good fortune or luck, the pursuit of happiness, creation of happiness ...

  15. Moods of Norway: NY market entry

    OpenAIRE

    Haugom, Mats Klevengen; Throne, Sindre Raaen; Myrseth, Sebastian; Løvoll, Linda-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this document is to identify the key strategic and supplementary measures the Moods of Norway(MoN) management must take under consideration, to successfully penetrate the New York marketplace, more importantly stay there. Methodology In order to identify those areas of importance stated in the purpose, we looked at the several areas of importance such as the company´s history of expansion, identified business objectives for the New York launch, anal...

  16. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Epidemiology of lysosomal storage diseases in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Malin; Darin, Niklas; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Månsson, Jan-Eric

    2014-12-01

    There are more than 50 inherited lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), and this study examined the incidence of clinically diagnosed LSDs in Sweden. The number of patients diagnosed during 1980-2009 was compiled from the registries of the two Swedish diagnostic laboratories that cover the whole country. We identified 433 patients during the 30-year period, with a total incidence of one in every 6100 births and identified fairly constant annual diagnoses during the last 20 years. Krabbe disease was the most common (one in 39 000) followed by Gaucher disease (one in 47 000), metachromatic leukodystrophy and Salla disease. Gaucher disease was more frequent in Sweden than other European countries, due to a founder effect of the mutation (p.L444P) in northern Sweden. Metachromatic leukodystrophy was one of the most common LSDs, in common with other countries. Salla disease, which is very rare elsewhere, was the fourth most common, stemming from a founder mutation in the Salla region of northern Finland brought to Sweden by immigration. The collective incidence of LSDs in Sweden was essentially equal to other European countries, but with a somewhat different disease pattern. Our findings have implications for diagnostic algorithms and treatment strategies. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. What's 'left' in the 'Garden of Sweden'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gregg M

    2013-01-01

    Liberalization, restructuring, and retrenchment have been underway in Sweden for more than two decades and have rapidly accelerated under the current non-socialist coalition government. It is uncertain how much of the Swedish social policy model is "left" now, in terms of both what remains of it and its political character. A cross-temporal look at developments within Sweden reveals striking and continual rollbacks and marketization since the 1990s. However, this view must be qualified, both because Sweden's undisputed descent is from a comparatively lofty position and because there have been some noteworthy, but often ignored, gains even amidst marked decline over the past few decades. A cross-national examination indicates that, despite rapidly rising rates of income and wealth inequality, Sweden remains an egalitarian leader in several respects. This view must be qualified, too, because, while it continues to routinely out-perform Anglo nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Sweden is less often, and less notably, distinct from several of its continental counterparts in Europe now. Moreover, the foundation of the model, labor strength, has been significantly undermined.

  19. [Water-borne disease outbreaks in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Karin; Gondrosen, Bjørn; Lund, Vidar

    2003-12-04

    The drinking water in Norway has traditionally been considered being of good quality. However, outbreaks related to drinking water are reported every year. We review waterborne outbreaks in Norway over the last 15 years, and describe the aetiology of and contributory factors in these outbreaks. We compiled data on waterborne outbreaks reported to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Norwegian Food Control Authority during 1988-2002. We included all events in which two or more people fell ill and water was the suspected source of infection. Over the 15-year period. 72 outbreaks were reported, affecting a total of 10 616 persons. Campylobacter was the cause in 26% (19/72) of the outbreaks, norovirus in 18% (13/72). The causative organism was unknown in 46% (33/72). The water came from public waterworks in 32 of the 54 outbreaks for which this information was available (59%); from a private supply in the remaining 22. For 62% (16/26) of the outbreaks related to waterworks, the water was not disinfected before distribution. None of the private water supplies were disinfected. Over the last five years, there were more outbreaks related to private supplies. The most important contributory factor to waterborne outbreaks in Norway is contamination of the raw water combined with missing or faulty disinfecting procedures. To prevent future outbreaks, a continuous upgrading of small and private water supplies is needed. Reporting of outbreaks is important for the implementation of targeted and effective preventive measures.

  20. Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography of Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The noise cross-correlation technique is especially useful in regions like southern Norway since local seismicity is rare and teleseismic records are not able to resolve the upper crust. Within the TopoScandiaDeep project, which aims to investigate the relation between surface topography and lithosphere-asthenosphere structure, we process seismic broadband data from the temporary MAGNUS network in Southern Norway. The receivers were recording 20 months of continuous data between September 2006 and June 2008. Additionally, permanent stations of the National Norwegian Seismic Network, NORSAR and GSN stations in the region are used. After usual preprocessing steps (filtering, prewhitening, temporal normalization), we compute 820 cross-correlation functions from 41 receivers for three month time windows. Evaluation of the azimuthal and temporal variation of signal to noise ratios and f-k analysis of NORSAR array data shows that the dominant propagation direction of seismic noise is south-west to north, corresponding well to the Norwegian coast line. During summer months, the signal to noise ratios decrease and the azimuthal distribution becomes smoother. Time-frequency analysis is applied to measure Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves between each station pair for each three-month correlation stack. The mean and variance of all dispersion curves is computed for each path. After rejection of low-quality data using a signal to noise ratio, minimum wavelength and velocity variance criterion, we obtain a large number of reliable velocity estimates (about 600) for periods between 2 and 15 seconds, which we invert for group velocity maps at respective periods. At all inverted periods, we find positive and negative velocity anomalies for Rayleigh and Love waves that correlate very well with local surface geology. While higher velocities (+5%) can be associated with the Caledonian nappes in the central part of southern Norway, the Oslo Graben is reflected

  1. West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in a blood donor from Vienna, Austria, August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R

    2015-03-01

    Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Susceptibility versus resilience to mountain hazards in Austria - paradigms of vulnerability revisited

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fuchs, S

    2009-01-01

    .... Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability are discussed with respect to mountain hazards in Austria...

  3. Introducing Micro-finance in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    The case describes the first year of efforts to introduce microfinance as a tool to work with vulnerable groups in Sweden, more particularly ex-convicts, former drug-addicts and longterm unemployed women of immigrant background. The teaching objective is to discuss whether micro-finance can be seen...... as a tool to catalyze social change in developed welfare states such as Sweden, or if it rather reinforces the very power structures it aims to subvert. The author uses the case to analyse the efforts to introduce a new concept to wellestablished economic and social actors, as well as to understand...

  4. Health and social inequities in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1990-01-01

    Sweden is one of Europe's most egalitarian countries. The social inequities in living conditions have been gradually reduced to a level that is more equal than in most countries in Europe. Even if general health development has been positive during recent years, data reviewed here indicate...... that there may be adverse effects for some groups which may increase inequities. This article presents results on inequities in health from the Public Health Report of Sweden 1987 and discusses causal mechanisms and implications for health policy....

  5. Assessing the resilience of Norway spruce forests through a model-based reanalysis of thinning trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Rupert; Vigl, Friedrich; Rössler, Günter; Neumann, Markus; Rammer, Werner

    2017-03-15

    As a result of a rapidly changing climate the resilience of forests is an increasingly important property for ecosystem management. Recent efforts have improved the theoretical understanding of resilience, yet its operational quantification remains challenging. Furthermore, there is growing awareness that resilience is not only a means to addressing the consequences of climate change but is also affected by it, necessitating a better understanding of the climate sensitivity of resilience. Quantifying current and future resilience is thus an important step towards mainstreaming resilience thinking into ecosystem management. Here, we present a novel approach for quantifying forest resilience from thinning trials, and assess the climate sensitivity of resilience using process-based ecosystem modeling. We reinterpret the wide range of removal intensities and frequencies in thinning trials as an experimental gradient of perturbation, and estimate resilience as the recovery rate after perturbation. Our specific objectives were (i) to determine how resilience varies with stand and site conditions, (ii) to assess the climate sensitivity of resilience across a range of potential future climate scenarios, and (iii) to evaluate the robustness of resilience estimates to different focal indicators and assessment methodologies. We analyzed three long-term thinning trials in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests across an elevation gradient in Austria, evaluating and applying the individual-based process model iLand. The resilience of Norway spruce was highest at the montane site, and decreased at lower elevations. Resilience also decreased with increasing stand age and basal area. The effects of climate change were strongly context-dependent: At the montane site, where precipitation levels were ample even under climate change, warming increased resilience in all scenarios. At lower elevations, however, rising temperatures decreased resilience, particularly at

  6. Mobility of Knowledge as a Recognition Challenge: Experiences from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the tensions between mobility, knowledge and recognition, and what the impact of migration could be on lifelong education and society. This is discussed with the case of Sweden as the starting point. The main issue in Sweden concerning migration is the admission of refugees. Sweden has had a relatively open policy…

  7. Fern rhizomes as fodder in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2016-09-06

    Although ferns are often known under collective names in Norway, e.g. blom, a substantial number of vernacular names for individual fern species are known, in particular for useful or poisonous taxa. In the past, the rhizomes (Norwegian: moldfôr) of selected species were collected for fodder. Only scattered records of such use are available from southern Norway, and the tradition's core area is found in the two North Norwegian counties of Nordland and Troms, in accordance with the longer winters encountered in the north, frequently leading to fodder shortage in early spring. The tradition extends northeastwards into Finnmark, but is less well documented there. Although numerous sources mention the use of fern rhizomes for fodder, the fern species hiding behind the tradition are incompletely known. This paper aims at reviewing available data in terms of identifyng the species used for fodder, the history and geographical distribution of such use, and other relevant traditions, e.g. the timing and mode of collection, and the way the rhizomes were used. The study is based on data extracted from a variety of archival and literature sources; the latter retrived from my database of more than 7500 publications providing information on plant names and plant uses in Norway. More than 200 individual records mention the use of fern rhizomes for fodder in Norway. Only a fraction of these, typically made by botanist recording data on plant uses, provides information on the identity of the species used. Based on these, Dryopteris filix-mas and Matteuccia struthiopteris stand out as the most important species serving as sources of fern rhizomes for fodder. Locally, Dryopteris expansa was the preferred species, and this taxon may to some extent be overlooked in the records so far available. With a few exceptions, Norwegian folk tradition singles out Athyrium filix-femina as a harmful and poisonous species, causing livestock to go blind and lame, but whether this is true or not

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries: Austria - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Since the last review in 2002, Austrian energy policy has seen many positive developments. Today, Austria counts among the IEA member countries with the highest share of renewable energy supply, thus increasing energy security and reducing CO2 emissions. Great progress has also been made in the utilisation of biomass for heat and electricity production. Nevertheless, many challenges remain. The climate strategy revision in 2007 is commendably realistic, but uncertainty remains whether it will be sufficient, and whether renewables and energy efficiency are well-balanced within it. While Austria is strongly promoting an increase of renewables production by adopting challenging targets, it is less ambitious in the area of energy efficiency. To achieve the renewables target, their supply will have to double, leading to significant increases in costs. In energy efficiency, while Austria is leading in developing efficient building solutions, there are concerns about implementation, especially about the lack of ambition and divergence in building codes. Overall, energy intensity has increased in recent years, and the government will have to put a strong focus on reversing this development. Despite the early opening of the energy markets, effective competition has failed to emerge. This is partially due to systemic weaknesses such as dominant incumbents, lack of transparency in price formulation and a weak regulatory system with the potential for conflicts of interest. This review thoroughly analyses Austrian energy policy and identifies the key challenges that need to be addressed. With recommendations for improvements, it is an important guide for Austrian policy makers toward a safer and cleaner energy future.

  9. Short Rotation Coppice in Austria - Management and Producticivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochbichler, E.; Hofmann, H.; Bellos, N.; Zeitlinger, C.; Liebhard, P.

    2012-04-01

    In Austria energy wood production in short rotation coppice systems (SRC) becomes increasingly important to meet the demands of the growing bio-energy sector. In order to successfully develop the SRC market, the achievement of high and constant yields in SRC management is just as important as a reliable harvesting technology, which facilitates the production of high quality wood chips. Yield models and site-specific knowledge about productivity are needed with respect to clones, site factors and management alternatives. Therefore in the years 2007 and 2008 experimental plots (Marchfeld; 16 poplar clones and 19 willow clones) and a network of demonstration plots (different regions in Lower Austria; 7 poplar clones, 4 willow clones) were established. Single shoot surveys and biomass functions in combination with stand inventories form the general basis for estimating yield and productivity. They also help to optimize yield and rotation length by taking the maximum harvestable tree diameter into account, which is determined by harvesting techniques. For optimizing the yield estimation of SRC stands, preliminary clone specific yield functions for poplar and willow clones were developed. These specific yield functions were based on common yield estimation functions with respect to the newly used clones (e.g. faster growth, lower wood density), using a regression analytical approach. Standard stand surveys were carried out in autumn 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010. We were able to show a high variety in biomass production of poplar and willow clones on the specific site. For the first and second rotation cycle the mean productivity of poplar clones was within a range of 4 - 12 t/y/ha and for willow clones within a range of 3 - 17 t/y/ha. These results were compared with the productivity of older experimental plots in Austria. Based on the preliminary results of productivity of poplar and willow clones for various site factors and management alternatives (planting design

  10. Stroke in young adults in northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Bo Traberg

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. To study different aspects of cerebral venous and arterial occlusive disease including cerebrospinalfluid hydrodynamics, epidemiology, aetiology, genetics, metabolic and haemostatic disorders, andcognitive function in young adults in Northern Sweden. Methods. Cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics were investigated with a constant pressure infusion methodin patients with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Ten patients were studied with serial examinations, upto 15 years after the onse...

  11. Aeolian dunes of south-central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardson, Martin; Alexanderson, Helena

    2017-04-01

    South-central Sweden is home to a number of small, inactive inland dune fields formed on former glaciofluvial deltas. A characteristic of these dune fields is the generally transverse shape of the dunes, in stark contrast to the rest of Sweden where parabolic dunes are the most common type. One of these dune fields is Bonäsheden in the county of Dalarna. It is the largest continuous dune field in Sweden and covers an area of approximately 15.5 km2. The dune field has the last few years been the target of thorough investigations utilising LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) based remote sensing, ground-penetrating radar, luminescence dating and sedimentological field investigations. The results show that the dunes of Bonäsheden and the adjacent dune field of Skattungheden formed mainly by north-westerly winds shortly after the deglaciation of this part of Sweden (10.5 ka), and subsequent events of dune formation were uncommon. Some later episodes of sand drift did occur, but only as minor coversand deposition. The dune field has had a more complex formation than previously thought; a shift in the wind pattern around 10 ka seems to have caused subsequent dunes to have formed by more westerly winds. The reason for this is still not determined, but the increased distance to the Scandinavian Ice Sheet would lessen the capacity of katabatic winds to influence the dune field.

  12. Toy Libraries in Sweden in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marianne; And Others

    Public and private organizations have developed toy libraries in Sweden for children with disabilities and children in need of special support for their development. Toy libraries have become places where parents can acquire advice with regard to play, meet a pedagogue with experience with children with handicaps, and meet other parents with the…

  13. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  14. Reconsidering School Politics: Educational Controversies in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredholm, Axel

    2017-01-01

    School politics in Sweden has recently moved in a conservative direction, emphasising the importance of conventional school subjects, stronger teacher authority and more discipline in the classroom. At the same time, consensus on the utility of such measures is lacking in the school debate. The conservative approach is often criticised as…

  15. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  16. Educational Careers for Gifted Students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    1998-01-01

    A study of the 10% most able students in Sweden (n=744) found entrance into higher education was influenced by the choice of program in upper secondary school, the marks received, the students' attitudes to school, and satisfaction with their performance. Parental and teacher support had an influence on males. (CR)

  17. Inversion Tectonics in the Alpine Foreland, Eastern Alps (Austria)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Granado, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    [eng] In this thesis, the 3D structure and kinematics of the locally and mildly inverted Lower Austria Mesozoic Basin beneath the Alpine-Carpathian fold-and-thrust belt is described. This study has been carried out by the integrative interpretation of 2D and 3D seismic surveys, well and geophysical logs data and gravity maps. A basin-scale, 3D structural model has been carried out, focused on the sub-thrust and foreland zones. The Late Eocene to Early Miocene Alpine–Carpathian fold-and-thrus...

  18. Energy-efficient Renovation of a Real Estate in AUSTRIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjenic, Azra; Vašková, Anna

    2015-11-01

    An action have cities worldwide, due to urbanization. More than 70 percent of people in Europe live in cities, where 70 percent of the energy consumed. Without adequate measures, a rapidly growing city is at risk in by overloading the infrastructure, threats to water, energy, pollution, logistical bottlenecks and lack of housing. This paper describes an energy-efficient renovation or expansion planning a real estate in Vorarlberg, Austria. The settlement was analysed in more detail here, it involves the city Dornbirn- part Shor. The study investigated how to extend this settlement energy efficient and what feed for factors in the assessment.

  19. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-01-01

    K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the ...

  20. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  1. ENOR - An Energy-Model for Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ek

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy model for Norway, ENOR, is a dynamic, multisectoral economic stimulation model to be used for long term energy analyses. Energy sectors and energy carriers are in principle treated in the same way as other sectors and economic commodities and integrated in the same general framework. The model has a two-level structure - a central coordination module ensures economic consistency, while the behaviour of each production and consumption sector is modelled in separate sector models. The model framework is thus capable of handling both engineering and economic knowledge.

  2. Wind power in Norway; Vindkraft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Lower limb amputations in Trondheim, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Wits?, Eivind; Lium, Arne; Lydersen, Stian

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose In the city of Trondheim, Norway, diabetic lower-limb amputations accounted for one-third of all lower-limb amputations (LLAs). In an attempt to reduce this rate, a diabetic foot team was established in 1996. We present the incidence of LLA in Trondheim as measured 10 years later. Patients and methods In 2004?07, we registered all LLAs performed in Trondheim and then compared the data with previously published data from 1994?1997. From 1996 through 2006, we registered t...

  4. China renewable energy in Africa and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development.(auth)

  5. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland, western Norway, with a survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Godske Bjørklund

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Bjørklund BG. 2009. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland western Norway with a u survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway. Fauna Norvegica29: 11-54. A total of 156 species (or subspecies o rotifers, mostly non-planktonic, have been identified from freshwater or slightly brackish-water localities in the county of Hordaland; 83 are new to Norway and 24 others are new to the county. One hundred of the species were collected from the two valleys of Eksingedalen and Teigdalen in spring and summer 1967. Samples were taken on the shallow shores of lake-like parts of the rivers, and in pools, tarns and small lakes. Forty more or less euryhaline fresh­water rotifers were also collected during studies of slightly brackish-water localities around Bergen in 1963-1969. A number of freshwater rotifers were collected at several localities in and around Bergen in 1968-1970, and on the western part of Hardangervidda. Of those so far identified ,23 are new to Norway and 8 more are new to the county. They are therefore included in the species list. A few additional ones are referred to in the taxonomical notes. All the species are listed with localities and habitat categories, or, in the case of the last-mentioned ones, just the district where they were collected. The paper includes notes, measurements and ,in most cases, figures regarding 44 little known, variable or taxonomically problematical species, especially in the genera Cephalodella and Trichocerca. Comments are given on the distribution , abundance and diversity of the species. The paper presents asurvey of previous investigations on rotifers in Norway, listing 200 previously recorded freshwater (a few euryhaline rotifers, giving other names, the authors who recorded the finds and, in most cases, the counties where the species were collected. 

  6. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  7. Composition ranges and exsolution pairs for the members of the bismuthinite-aikinite series from Felbertal, Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Makovicky, Emil; Paar, Werner H.

    2002-01-01

    geology, bismuthinite-aikinite derivatives, composition ranges, exsolution, replacement, miscibility gaps, scheelite deposit, Felbertal, Austria......geology, bismuthinite-aikinite derivatives, composition ranges, exsolution, replacement, miscibility gaps, scheelite deposit, Felbertal, Austria...

  8. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414; Swenner, Rudy

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a

  9. National Testing of Pupils in Europe: Objectives, Organisation and Use of Results. Austria 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurydice, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to many other European countries, national testing is a relatively new phenomenon in Austria's education system. Educational standards tests, aimed at providing a basis for monitoring and evaluating schools and the education system, were created in addition to the traditional system of continuous assessment. In Austria, pupils at ISCED…

  10. Holocaust Education in Austria: A (Hi)story of Complexity and Ambivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastel, Heribert; Matzka, Christian; Miklas, Helene

    2010-01-01

    In Austria, activities for teaching about and remembering the Holocaust have concentrated mainly on National Socialism and its atrocities. Austria's history of political anti-Semitism goes back to the 19th century, however, and has been widely and publicly acknowledged. It has always been linked to nationalistic tendencies that are still present…

  11. 77 FR 34997 - Xanthan Gum From Austria and China; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Xanthan Gum From Austria and China; Institution of Antidumping Duty Investigations and Scheduling... from Austria and/or China of xanthan gum, provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the Harmonized...

  12. King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Norway's King Harald V and Queen Sonja take a tour of the ATLAS detector with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar in April 2006. During their visit the royal party met with members of CERN's Norwegian community. A group of about 40 students greeted the royal motorcade with a belting rendition of 'The King's Song', Norway's royal anthem.

  13. Young Christians in Norway, national socialism, and the German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The German occupation of Norway during the Second World War caused unprecedented problems for the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway and other Christian denominations. The subordination of the church to the de facto Nazi state eventually led its bishops and most of its pastors to sever their ties to the ...

  14. Environmental legislation and the regulation of waste management in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This study examines the regulatory aspects of waste management in Sweden, with a particular emphasis on regulating organic compounds produced by waste-to-energy facilities. Since the early 1960s, waste-to-energy has played a significant role in managing waste in Sweden. In 1993, more than 50% of the municipal solid waste available for treatment or disposal following source separation efforts was processed in one of the 21 waste-to-energy facilities operating in Sweden. This report examines Sweden`s regulatory environment, its history of setting emission limits on waste management facilities, and the current status of regulations.

  15. Coordinating health care: lessons from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Tjerbo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: What influences the coordination of care between general practitioners and hospitals? In this paper, general practitioner satisfaction with hospital—GP interaction is revealed, and related to several background variables. Method: A questionnaire was sent to all general practitioners in Norway (3388, asking their opinion on the interaction and coordination of health care in their district. A second questionnaire was sent to all the somatic hospitals in Norway (59 regarding formal routines and structures. The results were analysed using ordinary least squares regression. Results: General practitioners tend to be less satisfied with the coordination of care when their primary hospital is large and cost-effective with a high share of elderly patients. Together with the degree to which the general practitioner is involved in arenas where hospital physicians and general practitioners interact, these factors turned out to be good predictors of general practitioner satisfaction. Implication: To improve coordination between general practitioners and specialists, one should focus upon the structural traits within the hospitals in different regions as well as creating common arenas where the physicians can interact.

  16. [Medical publishing in Norway 1905-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Larsen, Øivind

    2005-06-02

    The nation-building process in Norway took mainly place before the Norwegian-Swedish union came to a close in 1905. This was not a dramatic change, though the end of the union did bring a lift to Norwegian national consciousness. In 1905 there were three general medical journals in Norway and approximately 1200 doctors. German was the most important language of international science, but most scientific publishing was done in Norwegian. After the Second World War, English became the dominating language of scientific communication. Twentieth-century medicine and medical publishing was an era of specialisation and internationalisation. Norwegian medicine has to a large extent been internationalised through Nordic cooperation, with the Nordic specialist journals being of particular importance. With increasing professionalism in research, international English-language journals have become the major channels of communication, though several Norwegian-language journals (on paper or on the internet) have been established and are of crucial importance to a national identity within medical specialties. In 2005 there is only one general medical journal in Norwegian, in a country with approximately 20,000 doctors. A national identity related to medical publishing is not given much attention, though national medicine is still closely tied in with national culture. Good clinical practice should be based on a firm knowledge of local society and local tradition. This is a challenge in contemporary medical publishing.

  17. Results of workplace drug testing in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Marie Erøy Lund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace drug testing is less common in Norway than in many other countries. During the period from 2000-2006, 13469 urine or blood samples from employees in the offshore industry, shipping companies and aviation industry were submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for drug testing. The samples were analysed for benzodiazepines, illicit drugs, muscle relaxants with sedating properties, opioids and z-hypnotics. In total, 2.9% of the samples were positive for one or more substances. During the study period the prevalence decreased for morphine (from 1.9% to 1.1% and increased for amphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, clonazepam (from 0% to 0.1%, methamphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, nitrazepam (from 0% to 0.4% and oxazepam (from 0.5% to 1.3% (p<0.05. There was no significant change in prevalence for the other substances included in the analytical programme. Illicit drugs were significantly associated with lower age (OR: 0.93, p<0.05. This study found low prevalence of drugs among employees in companies with workplace drug testing programmes in Norway.

  18. Playing with LISEM: Experiences from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greipsland, Inga; Krzeminska, Dominika

    2017-04-01

    Reducing soil loss from agricultural land is an important environmental challenge that is of relevance for both the European Soil Thematic Strategy (EC 2002) and the Water Framework Directive (EC 2000). Agricultural land in Norway is scarce, covering only around 3% of the total land area (The World Bank, 2015), which puts stress on preserving soil quality for food production. Additionally, reducing sediment loss is a national priority because of associated transport of pollutants such as phosphorous, which can cause eutrophication in nearby waterbodies. It is necessary to find tools that can estimate the effect of different scenarios on erosion processes on agricultural areas. We would like to present the challenges experienced and the results obtained by using LISEM (Limburg Soil Erosion Model) on the plot- subcatchment- and catchment scale in southeastern Norway. The agricultural catchment has been the subject of long-term monitoring of water quality. Challenges included spatial upscaling of local calibration, calibration on areas with very low soil loss rates and equifinality. In this poster, we want to facilitate a discussion about the possibilities of and limitations to the model for predicting hydrological and soil erosion processes at different scales.

  19. Economic growth and the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Alfred; Winker, Robert; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Sögner, Leopold

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the impact of economic growth measured by real gross domestic product (GDP) on the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria. The relationship between GDP and the occupational injury rate of the wage-earning population between 1955 and 2004 was analyzed using an error correction model. The sample size increased from 1.568,371 persons in 1955 to 2.656,952 in 2004. Occupational injuries were divided into fatal and non-fatal injuries. Occupational injuries (fatal and non-fatal) decreased from 8.59% to 4.08%: non-fatal injuries decreased from 8.56% to 4.07%; fatal injuries decreased from 0.03% to 0.01%. Austrian GDP increased from EUR 37.7 billion to EUR 202.8 billion (base year 1995). Statistical analysis clearly shows that a growing economy is associated with declining injury rates (fatal and non-fatal). Two mechanisms are discussed. Firstly, rising GDP is accompanied by greater investment in safer technologies and occupational safety measures. Secondly, booming economies are associated with a reduced risk of unemployment, which is already known to be a risk factor for occupational injuries. Economic development appears to have an impact on the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria. Health policy should emphasize the necessity for safety at work particularly in phases of economic slowdown.

  20. Sede central de Miele en Wals-Salzburg – Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, W.

    1979-02-01

    Full Text Available A new central office has been built in Salzburg on account of the continuous development of Miele in Austria. This main office building consists of a one storey central machinery warehouse and a three-storey building for spare parts warehouse, technical services and administrative offices. In order to better integrate the building into its surroundings, basements have been arranged underlying the entire construction so more than half of the total storage space is underground.

    Debido al constante desarrollo de Miele en Austria se ha realizado una nueva sede central, en Salzburgo, para esta firma. Esta sede tiene un edificio de una sola planta para el almacén central de maquinaria, y un edificio de tres plantas para el almacén central de piezas de repuesto, el servicio técnico y la administración. Para su mejor integración en el entorno se han hecho sótanos por todo el edificio, con lo que más de la mitad del almacenamiento se encuentra bajo tierra.

  1. Regional density of private dentists: empirical evidence from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Martin; Schwazer, Peter; Theurl, Engelbert; Winner, Hannes

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the determinants of disparities in the regional density of private dentists in Austria. Specifically, we focused on the relationship between the density of private dentists and their public counterparts, thereby controlling for other possible covariates of dentist density. Dentist density was measured at the district level. We used panel data of dentist density from 121 Austrian districts over the years 2001-2008. We applied a Hausman-Taylor framework to cope with possible endogeneity and to control for cross-district effects in the dentist density. A significant negative relationship was found between the density of private and public dentists, indicating a substitution effect between the two dentist groups. A significant positive spatial relationship also existed for private and public dentists in the neighboring regions. Dental capacities in public and private hospitals and dental laboratories run by the public health insurance system did not have a significant effect on private dentist density. Although a strong negative relationship existed between private and public dentists within the districts, one should not draw the conclusion that private dentists in Austria are close substitutes for public dentists. Such a conclusion would require further empirical analysis on the utilization patterns of dental services and their relationships with financing mechanisms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. 78 FR 13379 - Xanthan Gum from Austria and China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of an Antidumping Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Xanthan Gum from Austria and China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of an Antidumping Investigation... imports from Austria and/or China of xanthan gum, provided for in subheading 3913.90.20 of the Harmonized... preliminary determinations by the Department of Commerce that imports of xanthan gum from Austria and China...

  3. 78 FR 2251 - Xanthan Gum From Austria: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... International Trade Administration Xanthan Gum From Austria: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than... determines that xanthan gum from Austria is being, or is likely to be, sold in the United States at less than... Investigation: Xanthan Gum from Austria,'' (``Preliminary Decision Memorandum'') from Christian Marsh, Deputy...

  4. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.

    2015-12-01

    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c836-rapport.pdf Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  5. [Serious silicosis still exits in Sweden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, Bengt; Svartengren, Magnus

    2015-12-01

    Many measures have been taken in Sweden to eliminate the occurrence of serious silicosis. However, between 1997 and 2013 there were 111 deaths with silicosis as underlying cause, 110 men and 1 woman. In most cases the deceased was rather old; only fourteen persons were below 74 years of age. We have studied the exposure between 2007 and 2012 in the 71 persons who died of silicosis as underlying or contributing cause through medical records. We could find information regarding 48 of them. Ten persons worked in mines, 10 in stone industry, 14 with crushing or blasting of rock, 4 in foundries, 3 were concrete workers and 7 suffered exposure in other industries.  The study shows that the measures taken in Sweden have not been sufficient to totally eliminate serious silicosis.

  6. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  7. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenström, Jonas; Lindberg, Peter; Helander, Björn; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Herrmann, Björn; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  8. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Kerry A. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, J. Steve [Savannah River National Laboratory; Chandler, Greg T. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Iyer, Natraj C. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Hackney, B. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Leduc, Dan R. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  9. Travel Behaviour of Online Shoppers in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hiselius Lena Winslott; Rosqvist Lena Smidfelt; Adell Emeli

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping opportunities are transforming travel behaviour for shopping and could potentially reduce the overall travel demand. Despite numerous studies on online shopping, only a few have taken an approach that includes trips for all travel purposes. Based on a web–survey, this paper provides results on travel behaviour for physical shopping for frequent, regular, and infrequent online shoppers in Sweden. The results indicate that frequent online shoppers make as many car trips (for bot...

  10. Sweden picks site for waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear power-plant operators in Sweden have selected a site where they can permanently store the country's spent nuclear fuel. The repository would be located 500 m below ground at Forsmark, roughly 200km north of Stockholm, which is already home to a nuclear power plant. The decision was taken after two decades of study by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), which is owned by the country's nuclear firms.

  11. Pregnancy outcome in Norway after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irgens, L.M.; Lie, R.T.; Ulstein, M.; Skeie Jensen, T.; Skjaerven, R.; Sivertsen, F.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, F.; Strand, T. (Bergen Univ. (NO)); Egil Skjeldestad, F. (Trondheim, Univ. (NO))

    1991-01-01

    Pregnancy outcome has been studied in terms of legal abortions, early spontaneous abortions and total number of pregnancies (in an ad hoc study covering 6 counties) as well as various perinatal health problems (on the basis of routinely recorded data for epidemiological surveillance from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway). Apparently, no effects were observed in terms of an increased occurrence of legal abortions, while spontaneous abortions increased from 2.4% of all pregnancies during the last 12 months before the accident to 3% after the accident. At the same time, the total number of pregnancies somewhat decreased. Based on monthly measurements in each municipality of external and internal (food-based) doses, dose-response associations were assessed for a number of perinatal health problems. No associations were observed.

  12. Bio energy in Norway; Bioenergi i Noreg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-07-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  13. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  14. THE STATUS OF SYNTAXONOMY IN NORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FREMSTAD

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In Norway syntaxonomical work started approximately at the same time in Central Europe. Nordhagen was the pioneer, making the basis for the classification of especially alpine communities, followed by Dahl and Gjaerevoll, also focusing on alpine vegetation. During the 1970-80’s a large number of syntaxonomical studies were made on a diversity of topics; most of these studies were never published. The rather species-poor flora and the difficulties of applying the concept of character species have caused Norwegian botanists to develop a classification system of their own, as a summary of present knowledge. The next step should be to rework a large number of relevès with numerical methods to form the basis of a national vegetation survey.

  15. Diabetes: cost of illness in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Trond

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus places a considerable burden on patients in terms of morbidity and mortality and on society in terms of costs. Costs related to diabetes are expected to increase due to increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate the health care costs attributable to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Norway in 2005. Methods Data on inpatient hospital services, outpatient clinic visits, physician services, drugs, medical equipment, nutrition guidance, physiotherapy, acupuncture, foot therapy and indirect costs were collected from national registers and responses to a survey of 584 patients with diabetes. The study was performed with a prevalence approach. Uncertainty was explored by means of bootstrapping. Results When hospital stays with diabetes as a secondary diagnosis were excluded, the total costs were €293 million, which represents about 1.4% of the total health care expenditure. Pharmaceuticals accounted for €95 million (32%, disability pensions €48 million (16%, medical devices €40 million (14% and hospital admissions €21 million (7%. Patient expenditures for acupuncture, physiotherapy and foot therapy were many times higher than expenditure for nutritional guidance. Indirect costs (lost production from job absenteeism accounted for €70.1 million (24% of the €293 million and included sick leave (€16.7 million, disability support and disability pensions (€48.2 million and other indirect costs (€5.3 million. If all diabetes related hospital stays are included (primary- and secondary diagnosis total costs amounts to €535 million, about 2.6% of the total health care expenditure in Norway. Conclusions Diabetes represents a considerable burden to society in terms of health care costs and productivity losses.

  16. CAS Accelerators for Medical Applications in Vösendorf, Austria

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and MedAustron jointly organised a course on Accelerators for Medical Applications in Vösendorf, Austria between 26 May and 5 June 2015. The course was held at the Eventhotel Pyramide on the outskirts of Vienna, and was attended by 76 participants from 29 countries, coming from as far away as Canada, China, Lithuania, Thailand, Ukraine and Russia.       The intensive programme comprised 37 lectures. The emphasis was on using charged particle beams for cancer therapy and the programme began by covering the way in which particles interact with biological material, how this translates into the dose needed for treatment and how this dose is best delivered. The different accelerator options for providing the particles needed were then presented in some detail. The production of radioisotopes and how these are used for diagnostics and therapy was also covered, together with a look at novel acceleration techniques that may play a role i...

  17. Migrantinnen in Österreich Female Migrants in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Birck

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch ist die Dokumentation einer Tagung, die im September 2002 in Wien stattfand. Es enthält eine Sammlung von Materialien, die die rechtliche Situation von Migrantinnen in Österreich beschreiben. Themen wie Aufenthaltssituation, Arbeitsmarkt, soziale und gesundheitliche Versorgung, Frauenhandel u. a. werden anhand von gesetzlichen Bestimmungen und anschaulichen Fallbeispielen besprochen. Strukturelle Bedingungen, die eine Form von Gewalt gegen Migrantinnen darstellen, werden sichtbar.The essays collected in this volume arise from a conference held in Vienna in 2002, and outline various aspects of the legal situation of female migrants in Austria. Issues such as the residence situation, labour market, access to social support and the health system, or trafficking in women are described from a female perspective. In its vivid case documentation, the volume illustrates forms of structural violence that underlie the Austrian legislation targeting female migrants.

  18. [The history of the institutionalization of medical psychology in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnsperger, Hans; Mundschütz, Reinhard; Sonneck, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Beginning with Freudian psychoanalysis and the Zürich school of psychiatry, which in the early 20th century were the first to call for studies in medical psychology at universities, the article traces the path to the institutionalization of medical psychology in Austria especially in Vienna. Particular attention is devoted to the Academic Society for Medical Psychology (Akademischer Verein für Medizinische Psychologie) which held lectures and courses at the University of Vienna from 1926 to 1938. The Society can thus be viewed as a predecessor of the foundation of the institutes for medical psychology and psychotherapeutic clinics, starting in the late 1960s and continuing into the early 1980s.

  19. Tourism in Austria: biodiversity, environmental sustainability, and growth issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Asad Saleem; Shah, Syed Asim; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the long-run and causal relationships between international tourism, biodiversity loss, environmental sustainability, and specific growth factors under the premises of sustainable tourism in Austria, by using a consistent time series data from 1975 to 2015. The results reveal that inbound tourism, per capita income, and population density affected the potential habitat area while population density largely affected the food production in a country. Inbound tourism and population density both deteriorate the environmental quality in a form of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fossil fuel energy consumption while per capita income reduces the fossil fuel energy consumption. Food exports increase per capita income, while food imports and population density both decrease economic growth. Inbound tourism and economic growth advance population density while forest area and food exports decrease the population density. The study supports growth-led tourism and growth-led food production in a country.

  20. Is climate change causing increased rockfall frequency in Austria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, O.; Oberlechner, M.

    2012-11-01

    Potentially, increasing rockfall hazards triggered by climate change are a major concern expressed both in scientific and non-scientific media. An existing rockfall inventory for Austria including 252 events from ca. 1900 to 2010, mainly from non-permafrost areas, was analysed. The correlation of events with temperatures is very weak and no increase of rockfall frequency during warmer periods was observed. The peak of rockfall activity is in spring, whereas in recent decades a secondary summer maximum appeared in the records. A possible reason for this shift is reduced rockfall activity in spring due to warmer winters. We conclude that a premature warning of increasing rockfall hazard, especially below the permafrost limit, is not supported by the existing data.

  1. Changing attitudes towards euthanasia among medical students in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronegger, Willibald J; Schmölzer, Christin; Rásky, Eva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    In most European countries the attitudes regarding the acceptability of active euthanasia have clearly changed in the population since World War II. Therefore, it is interesting to know which trends in attitudes prevail among the physicians of the future. The present study analyses trends in the attitudes towards active euthanasia in medical students at the Medical University of Graz, Austria. The survey was conducted over a period of 9 years, enabling us to investigate trends regarding both attitudes and underlying motives. Acceptance of active euthanasia increased from 16.3% to 29.1% to 49.5% in the periods from 2001 to 2003/04 to 2008/09. The survey period from 2001 to 2009 reveals a massive change in medical students' attitudes towards active euthanasia under medical supervision. Ethical convictions of medical doctors seem to fall back behind a higher valuation of the autonomy of the patient.

  2. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure of southern Norway: results from surface wave analysis of ambient seismic noise and earthquake data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valérie

    2012-12-01

    We use ambient seismic noise and earthquake recordings on a temporary regional network in southern Norway to produce Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity maps from 3 to 67 s period. Local dispersion curves are then jointly inverted for a 3-D shear wave velocity model of the region. We perform a two-step inversion approach. First, a direct search, Monte Carlo algorithm is applied to find best fitting isotropic velocity depth profiles. Those profiles are then used as initial models for a linearised inversion which takes into account radial anisotropy in the shear wave structure. Results reveal crustal as well as uppermost mantle structures in the studied region. Velocity anomalies in the upper crust are rather small in amplitude and can in most parts be related to surface geology in terms of rock densities. Old tectonic units like the Oslo Graben (300-240 Ma) and the Caledonian nappes (440-410 Ma) are clearly imaged. Furthermore, we find clear indications for localized crustal anisotropy of about 3 per cent. Despite generally poor resolution of interface depths in surface wave inversion, we find lateral variation of crustal thickness in agreement with previous studies. We are able to confirm and locate the transition from a slow lithospheric upper mantle underneath southern Norway to a fast shield-like mantle towards Sweden.

  3. Predicting future glacial lakes in Austria using different modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Jan-Christoph; Helfricht, Kay; Prasicek, Günther; Buckel, Johannes; Keuschnig, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Glacier retreat is one of the most apparent consequences of temperature rise in the 20th and 21th centuries in the European Alps. In Austria, more than 240 new lakes have formed in glacier forefields since the Little Ice Age. A similar signal is reported from many mountain areas worldwide. Glacial lakes can constitute important environmental and socio-economic impacts on high mountain systems including water resource management, sediment delivery, natural hazards, energy production and tourism. Their development significantly modifies the landscape configuration and visual appearance of high mountain areas. Knowledge on the location, number and extent of these future lakes can be used to assess potential impacts on high mountain geo-ecosystems and upland-lowland interactions. Information on new lakes is critical to appraise emerging threads and potentials for society. The recent development of regional ice thickness models and their combination with high resolution glacier surface data allows predicting the topography below current glaciers by subtracting ice thickness from glacier surface. Analyzing these modelled glacier bed surfaces reveals overdeepenings that represent potential locations for future lakes. In order to predict the location of future glacial lakes below recent glaciers in the Austrian Alps we apply different ice thickness models using high resolution terrain data and glacier outlines. The results are compared and validated with ice thickness data from geophysical surveys. Additionally, we run the models on three different glacier extents provided by the Austrian Glacier Inventories from 1969, 1998 and 2006. Results of this historical glacier extent modelling are compared to existing glacier lakes and discussed focusing on geomorphological impacts on lake evolution. We discuss model performance and observed differences in the results in order to assess the approach for a realistic prediction of future lake locations. The presentation delivers

  4. Public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jȩdrzejewski, Mariusz; Thallinger, Christiane; Mrozik, Magda; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph; Jassem, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    We compared the public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria. Both countries are members of the European Union (EU) but reflect two extremes in health-related per capita spending. Recently, the EUROCARE-5 study reported on very discrepant cancer outcomes between the two countries. A one-time survey was conducted to compare the public perception of cancer treatment in Poland and Austria. In total, 3,649 subjects, representing the general population, cancer patients, and cancer patients' family members, were surveyed. In both countries, cancer was considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care was indicated as the most important issue influencing political election decisions. Polish compared with Austrian cancer patients gave a significantly lower positive assessment of overall cancer treatment efficacy and detection methods. Cancer cure rates estimated by Polish and Austrian citizens were 29% and 44%, respectively. The majority of all citizens interviewed thought that cancer patients should have access to all available registered cancer drugs. However, only 18% of Poles versus 62% of Austrians agreed with the notion that the available cancer treatment in their countries is of a standard comparable to that of other EU countries. Consequently, 24% of Poles and 7% of Austrians identified financial status, age, gender, and residence as factors influencing the availability of cancer treatments. In both countries, cancer is considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care issues may strongly influence decisions for political elections. Vast differences in the two populations' perceptions of cancer care reflect actual cancer outcomes and the national per capita spending on health-related issues. ©AlphaMed Press.

  5. Incidence and mortality trends for biliary tract cancers in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Matthias; Hucke, Florian; Zielonke, Nadine; Waldhör, Thomas; Trauner, Michael; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Sieghart, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    The epidemiology of biliary tract cancers (BTC) varies between geographical regions and has changed over time globally. We investigated the incidence and mortality trends of patients diagnosed with BTC over a 20-year period in Austria. Patients diagnosed with intrahepatic (iCCC)/extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (eCCC), ampullary carcinoma, gall bladder carcinoma (GBC), overlapping lesions or unspecified carcinomas of the biliary tract and liver were included. Data on age-adjusted incidence were obtained from the Austrian National Cancer Registry which compiles data on all newly diagnosed cancers. Data on age-adjusted mortality were obtained from the national death registry (Statistics Austria). Between 1990 and 2009, 15201 patients were diagnosed with BTC (m/f=42/58%; mean age, 73 years). The median survival of all patients with BTC was 4.8 months with a 1-/5-year survival rate of 31%/10%. In iCCC, the incidence and mortality rates increased from 1990 to 2009 in both men and women while in eCCC, the incidence and mortality rates decreased over time in both sexes. In ampullary carcinoma, the incidence slightly decreased in men and remained stable in women. The mortality rate remained stable in both sexes. In GBC, the age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates dramatically decreased in both sexes. GBC and iCCC were the most common entities amongst BTC. While incidence and mortality rates of iCCC increased in men and women over time, incidence and mortality rates of eCCC and GBC decreased in both sexes. Other carcinomas of the biliary tract i.e. ampullary carcinoma were rarely diagnosed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  7. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  8. On-demand vs. prophylactic treatment for severe haemophilia in Norway and Sweden: differences in treatment characteristics and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen Carlsson, K; Höjgård, S; Glomstein, A; Lethagen, S; Schulman, S; Tengborn, L; Lindgren, A; Berntorp, E; Lindgren, B

    2003-09-01

    Using an 11-year panel of 156 Norwegian and Swedish patients with severe haemophilia, and including retrospective case-book data from birth, we compared the differences in the haemophilia-related resource use between on-demand and prophylactic treatment. Patients treated on-demand had more surgery (arthrodeses, prostheses implantations and synovectomies) and more days lost from work. Median annual factor-concentrate consumption among adults (18+) was 211,000 IU [interquartile range (IQR) 154,000-268,000] or 3,024 IU kg-1 year(-1) for patients on prophylactic treatment and 55,000 IU (IQR 28,000-91,000) for on-demand patients (780 IU kg(-1) year(-1)). This was partly explained by the fact that the median dose per kg body weight was twice as great 28, (IQR 24-32) for prophylaxis compared with 14 (IQR 12-16) for on-demand. Prescribed dose per kg body weight was found to be an important factor explaining the variation in total annual factor-concentrate consumption per patient for both types of treatment. Other variables included in the panel-data regression analysis were the number of weeks on secondary prophylaxis for on-demand patients and age, body weight and type of haemophilia for children (0-17 years) on prophylaxis. Differences were consistently substantial and will affect both costs and benefits of the two treatment strategies.

  9. Bisphenol A alternatives in thermal paper from the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Norway. Screening and potential toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björnsdotter, Maria K.; Jonker, Willem; Legradi, Jessica; Kool, Jeroen; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic additives, such as bisphenol A (BPA), as a common color developer. Because of its known endocrine disrupting effects, structural analogues to BPA, such as bisphenol S (BPS), D-8 and Pergafast 201, have been used as alternatives, but little is known about the

  10. Payment for Care, Impact on the Economic Situation of the Pensioner in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Great Britain and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Charlotte; Willumsen, Marie; Hansen, Hans

    Micro simulation is used to graph the economic situation of single pensioners receiving public old-age pensions in six European countries when the former earnings vary from a low to a relatively high level. The economic situation is measured by the income concept called ‘Family Purse’, i.e. dispo......Micro simulation is used to graph the economic situation of single pensioners receiving public old-age pensions in six European countries when the former earnings vary from a low to a relatively high level. The economic situation is measured by the income concept called ‘Family Purse’, i.......e. disposable income after net housing costs. Two alternative ways of calculating gross housing costs are included, one is 20 percent of former earnings, another is 20 percent of gross pension income. In two of the countries, Denmark and Germany, there is no direct payment for care provided by professionals...... in the home of the pensioner, but the four other countries have pay schemes for care. The impact from payment on the economic situation of the pensioner is studied in two cases, one with care for one hour a week and another with care for one hour a day. The relative impact from payment on the ‘Family Purse...

  11. National Reading Tests in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden: A Comparison of Construct Definitions, Cognitive Targets, and Response Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reading comprehension tests are often assumed to measure the same, or at least similar, constructs. Yet, reading is not a single but a multidimensional form of processing, which means that variations in terms of reading material and item design may emphasize one aspect of the construct at the cost of another. The educational systems in Denmark,…

  12. Destructuration or continuity? The daily rhythm of eating in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1997 and 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Gronow, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    specific and clearly identifiable in 1997 and 2012, and only small changes were found to have occurred over the period studied. Subsequent examination of within-country differences in daily eating rhythms identified a specific sub-population with very similar features in all countries. The sub......: with the establishment of a family, and old age, people tend to synchronize their eating habits with collective activities in society. Coupling this with the relatively modest growth of the unsynchronized pattern, and bearing in mind that it is a minority phenomenon, encompassing approximately one quarter......There is a widely shared belief that contemporary eating culture is undergoing a process of ‘destructuration’ in which collective norms guiding temporal, social, and spatial aspects of eating as well as cuisine will decline or disappear. From another theoretical perspective one could argue...

  13. Freedom to divorce or protection of marriage? The divorce laws in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in the early twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bouteillec, Nathalie; Bersbo, Zara; Festy, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In the period 1909-1927, new laws concerning divorce and marriage were enacted by the Scandinavian countries. Both at the time and more recently, these laws were considered as "liberal" as they promoted greater freedom to divorce based on individuality and gender equality. In this article, the authors first analyze the changes in these Family laws in the early twentieth century. Then, the authors study the effect of these laws on divorce and marriage patterns. As these laws did not modify the trend in divorce rates, the authors ask why this was the case. The authors' conclusions are that the laws were more concerned with preserving the sanctity of marriage and maintaining social order than with promoting individual freedom and gender equality.

  14. Differences in prevalence and treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis centres in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per Kristian; Olesen, Hanne V; Hoiby, Niels

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection causes increased morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aimed to answer the following questions: Does the prevalence of chronic infection with PA differ between the CF centres in Scandinavia? Which differences exist......) (p=0.037). The pulmonary function was similar. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to maintain a very low prevalence of chronic PA infection in CF patients

  15. Mobility in different generations of older persons The development of daily travel in different cohorts in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthol, R.J.; Levin, L.; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2010-01-01

    with a clear increase during the past 20 years. This is especially true for women. The increase in the number of driver's licence-holders and car availability is reflected in travel mode choice among older people: both men and women maintain their car-use habits at old age. Another clear finding is that older...

  16. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Ekengren, Fredrik; Zagal Mach Wolfe, Ulla Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River....... Although in many ways unsuccessful and short-lived (the colony collapsed in 1656), New Sweden became a home for generations of colonists. This chapter focuses on the different aspects of their daily life: their longing and desperation, practices of homemaking and domesticating the landscape...

  17. Filicide in Austria and Finland--a register-based study on all filicide cases in Austria and Finland 1995-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkonen, Hanna; Amon, Sabine; Almiron, Maria P; Cederwall, Jenny Yourstone; Eronen, Markku; Klier, Claudia; Kjelsberg, Ellen; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2009-11-21

    Filicide is the tragic crime of murdering one's own child. Previous research has found that the offending parents are commonly depressed and that suicide is often associated as an actual act or an intention. Yet, filicide is an underreported crime and previous studies have been strained with methodological problems. No comprehensive international studies on filicide have been presented in the literature until now. This was a descriptive, comprehensive, register-based study of all filicides in Austria and Finland during 1995-2005. Filicide-suicide cases were also included. Most of the perpetrators were the biological mothers; in Austria 72%, in Finland 52%. Suicide followed filicide either as an attempt or a fulfilled act in 32% and 54% of the cases in Austria and Finland, respectively. Psychotic mood disorders were diagnosed for 10% of the living perpetrators in Austria, and 12% in Finland. Non-psychotic depression was diagnosed in 9% of surviving perpetrators in Austria, 35% in Finland. The data from the two countries demonstrated that filicide is such a multifaceted and rare phenomenon that national data from individual countries seldom offer sufficient scope for its thorough study. Further analyses are needed to produce a complete picture of filicide.

  18. Filicide in Austria and Finland - A register-based study on all filicide cases in Austria and Finland 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klier Claudia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filicide is the tragic crime of murdering one's own child. Previous research has found that the offending parents are commonly depressed and that suicide is often associated as an actual act or an intention. Yet, filicide is an underreported crime and previous studies have been strained with methodological problems. No comprehensive international studies on filicide have been presented in the literature until now. Methods This was a descriptive, comprehensive, register-based study of all filicides in Austria and Finland during 1995-2005. Filicide-suicide cases were also included. Results Most of the perpetrators were the biological mothers; in Austria 72%, in Finland 52%. Suicide followed filicide either as an attempt or a fulfilled act in 32% and 54% of the cases in Austria and Finland, respectively. Psychotic mood disorders were diagnosed for 10% of the living perpetrators in Austria, and 12% in Finland. Non-psychotic depression was diagnosed in 9% of surviving perpetrators in Austria, 35% in Finland. Conclusion The data from the two countries demonstrated that filicide is such a multifaceted and rare phenomenon that national data from individual countries seldom offer sufficient scope for its thorough study. Further analyses are needed to produce a complete picture of filicide.

  19. Filicide in Austria and Finland - A register-based study on all filicide cases in Austria and Finland 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Filicide is the tragic crime of murdering one's own child. Previous research has found that the offending parents are commonly depressed and that suicide is often associated as an actual act or an intention. Yet, filicide is an underreported crime and previous studies have been strained with methodological problems. No comprehensive international studies on filicide have been presented in the literature until now. Methods This was a descriptive, comprehensive, register-based study of all filicides in Austria and Finland during 1995-2005. Filicide-suicide cases were also included. Results Most of the perpetrators were the biological mothers; in Austria 72%, in Finland 52%. Suicide followed filicide either as an attempt or a fulfilled act in 32% and 54% of the cases in Austria and Finland, respectively. Psychotic mood disorders were diagnosed for 10% of the living perpetrators in Austria, and 12% in Finland. Non-psychotic depression was diagnosed in 9% of surviving perpetrators in Austria, 35% in Finland. Conclusion The data from the two countries demonstrated that filicide is such a multifaceted and rare phenomenon that national data from individual countries seldom offer sufficient scope for its thorough study. Further analyses are needed to produce a complete picture of filicide. PMID:19930581

  20. Functions for biomass estimation of young Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula spp. from stands in northern Sweden with high stand densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claesson, Svante; Sahlen, Kenneth; Lundmark, Tomas [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Vindeln (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture, Vindeln Experimental Forests

    2001-07-01

    New silvicultural regimes with high within-stand competition require new functions for estimation of standing stock and growth of biomass components, since the allometry of trees is changed by light competition. This paper presents functions for estimation of the above-ground biomass dry weights for stem wood, stem bark, branches and leaves of young (diameter at breast height < 10 cm) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and birch (Betula pendula Roth. and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) trees growing in dense mixed stands. The functions were derived from a sample consisting of 84 Scots pine, 43 Norway spruce and 66 birch trees from six stands in northern Sweden with high stand densities ( > 10 000 st ha{sup -1}). The logarithmically transformed power function displayed a good ability to stabilize the variance of dry weights and showed a good fit to the material (0.37 < R{sup 2} < 0.99). A comparison with the most commonly used biomass functions in Sweden today showed that they overestimated the weight of stem wood and branches, while the weight of foliage was underestimated. The nature of these discrepancies suggested that the precision of biomass estimations might also be improved for young trees at wider spacing.

  1. Unchanging Incidence of Hip Fracture in Southeastern Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polesie, Sam; Sigurdsen, Ulf; Bjørgul, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain trends in the incidence of hip fracture in southeastern Norway by comparing the hip fracture incidence for the years 2008 to 2010 to that of a study from 1998...

  2. Rock glaciers from Norway and Svalbard, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A complete inventory of rock glaciers on mainland Norway and Svalbard has only been carried out in connection with coarse geomorphological mapping. The data...

  3. Exposure to organic solvents among car painters in Bergen, Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moen, B E; Hollund, B E

    2000-01-01

    .... This study evaluated some of the effects of these regulations, by measuring the levels of exposure to organic solvents in six car-painting garages and relating them to the limit values in Norway...

  4. Direct maternal deaths in Norway 1976-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersgaard, Alice Beate; Langhoff-Roos, J.; Oian, P.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To report direct maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Norway between 1976 and 1995 including a description of the underlying complications in pregnancy, the causes of death and assessment of standard of care. METHODS: The maternal deaths were identified through the Cause of Death Registry......, Statistics Norway, and Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We requested copies of the hospital case records and the maternal death autopsies. The direct maternal deaths were classified on the basis underlying causes and assessed for substandard care according to the guidelines at the time of death...... and preventability provided optimal conditions and up to date guidelines. RESULTS: In the period 1976-1995 we identified 61 direct maternal deaths in Norway. The direct MMR was 5.5/100,000 births. Sufficient information was available for analysis in 51 of these cases. Six deaths occurred in early pregnancy. Among...

  5. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Small Hydro Power Plants in a given region in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Masoliver Verdaguer, Anna Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the hydropower development in Norway is more or less restricted to small scale installations without reservoirs as they are regarded as an environmentally solution. This thesis provides an overview of the hydropower potential of nine rivers in Sør-Trøndelag, a county in Norway. This feasibility study includes technical, economical and environmental considerations. There is a combination of theoretical, experimental and programming work. First of all, the hydropower pl...

  7. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) new for the fauna of Norway, Part 5

    OpenAIRE

    RIEDEL, Matthias; Hansen, Lars Ove

    2012-01-01

    The family Ichneumonidae represents a very species-rich family of parasitoid Hymenoptera. In Norway, 1583 different Ichneumonid species have been reported so far. The present survey gives distributional records for 98 additional species of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) previously not known from Norway. 21 of them have hitherto not been reported from Scandinavia, including the first Palaearctic record of Syrphophilus tricinctus (Ashmead, 1902). Posted here with permission from the...

  8. Adaptive Evolution and Demographic History of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)

    OpenAIRE

    Källman, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to determine the genetic basis of adaptive variation. In Norway spruce (Picea abies) the timing of bud set shows a very strong latitudinal cline despite a very low genetic differentiation between populations. The timing of bud set in Norway spruce is under strong genetic control and triggered by changes in photoperiod, but no genes controlling this response have so far been described. In this thesis we used a combination of functional stu...

  9. Evaluation of IRS-1C LISS-3 satellite data for Norway spruce defoliation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstroem, H.

    1999-02-01

    Satellite based remote sensing supported by air photo and field surveys, provide a means to area covering forest health assessment on a regional scale. Landsat TM data has been extensively used in studies of spruce and fir defoliation in Europe and North America. The temporal coverage of Landsat TM in combination with cloudiness however restrict the availability of data. In this study the LISS-3 sensor onboard the Indian Resource Satellite, IRS-1C, was evaluated for defoliation assessments in Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the central part of Sweden. The near infrared wavelength band proved to be best correlated with mean stand defoliation. After normalisation of satellite data for topographic conditions, the correlation coefficient increased from -0,19 to -0,83. Normalising satellite data for species composition did not improve the results though. The correction coefficients involved in the procedure were originally developed for Landsat TM, and proved to be inadequate for the LISS-3 data set. A thorough examination of the effects of species composition on LISS-3 data is needed to yield better results. The correlation between observed defoliation in the verification stands and predicted (based on the inverse regression function between corrected NIR values and defoliation in reference stands) was 0,70, despite a very limited range of defoliation in the verification set. IRS-1C LISS-3 is fully comparable to Landsat TM for spruce defoliation studies, although the results would probably not be significantly improved 49 refs, 7 figs, 10 tabs

  10. Analysis of Tourism and Agrotourism Management in the Czech Republic and Austria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ŠŠimková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    .... After theoretical description of a system approach to rural tourism development, the author continues by a practical part where she compares tourism and agrotourism management in the Czech Republic and Austria...

  11. Turkish migrants and their descendants in Austria Patterns of exclusion and individual and political responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiebke Sievers; Ilker Ataç; Philipp Schnell

    2014-01-01

    .... Since its beginnings in the 1960s, immigration from Turkey to Austria has included minority groups such as Kurds and Alevi, who have used the new opportunities in the diaspora to mobilize against...

  12. Situation of deep geothermal heat in Austria; Zur Situation der Tiefen Geothermie in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldbrunner, J. [Geothermie und Umwelt Ges.m.b.H., Gleisdorf (Germany). Geoteam Technisches Buero fuer Hydrogeologie

    2005-10-01

    Promising geothermal regions in Austria are located in the large sediment basins at the foot of the Alps, i.e. in Styria, Upper Austria, and near Vienna. The main activities so far were focused on the Upper Austrian molasse basin, where six geothermal plants were constructed between 1980 and 2001. The total installed capacity in Austria was 62 MW in 2005. Two power generation systems are in operation at Altheim and Bad Blumau. So far, hardly any exploration was done in the Vienna basin and in the molasse zone of Lower Austria. The Vienna basin is well explored as more than 3500 boreholes were sunk since the thirties of last century in the course of hydrocarbon deposit exploration. Since the mid-nineties, thermal wells were also explored in the eastern Alps, but for spa purposes only. (orig.)

  13. Tühjusest endasse tõmbavast : Austria eestlase vaimusilmas / Jaan Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Jaan, 1958-

    1997-01-01

    Teksti algvariant 'Über die erfüllte Leere: Österreich aus der Sicht eines Esten' on ette loetud 8.-10. sept. Krakovis toimunud keskeuroopa-alasel sümpoosionil. Austria kirjanduse retseptsioonist Eestis

  14. Kreenholm nõuab Austria tv-kanalilt hüvitist / Erik Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Erik, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik 27. nov., lk. 1; Severnoje Poberezhje 27. nov., lk. 1. Kreenholmi Valduse AS on kaevanud kohtusse Austria telekanali ORF 3 SAT, kuna telekanal süüdistab ettevõtet ümbrikupalkade maksmises

  15. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health.

  16. Lead poisoning in woodpeckers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörner, T; Petersson, L

    1999-10-01

    Lead poisoning was demonstrated in two gray-headed woodpeckers (Picus canus) and one white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopus leucotos) in Sweden; they had liver lead levels between 9.4 and 26.2 mg(-1) wet weight. At necropsy one gray-headed woodpecker showed signs of emaciation and the other one had severe traumatic injuries, caused by a cat. The white-backed woodpecker died in the transportation box during a translocation program. The source of the lead could not be determined, but it was suspected that it may have originated from lead pellets shot into trees and picked out by the woodpeckers during food search.

  17. Green light for nonstop fermentation. [Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-19

    It is reported that Alfa-Laval (Tumba) is to build a $10 million demonstration plant at Skaraborg, Sweden that will produce ethanol from grain in a continuous fermentation process. The facility, funded by the Swedish government will be able to make 20,000 L/d of 99.5% ethanol, plus 30.5 metric tons/d of cattle fodder from the liftover sludge, using the so-called Biostil technique. A similar unit has been run in Sarenia, Queensland using molasses as a feedstock. The facility has been highly successful since its startup in April and has had no downtime.

  18. PRE-HOSPITAL EMERGENCY CARE IN SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf BJÖRNSTIG

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden (9 million inhabitants, a sparsely populated country with sometimes long transportation distances to the nearest trauma hospital, 800 ambulances, 7 ambulance helicopters and 3–5 fixed wing ambulance aircraft are the available transport resources. In case of a mass casualty or disaster situation, inside or outside the country, a governmental project (Swedish National Medevac aims to convert a passenger aircraft from Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS to a qualified medical resource for long distance transport, with capacity to nurse six intensive care patients and an additional 6–20 lieing or seated patients during transport.

  19. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  20. Family and gender policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlung, Liera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  1. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies at a dry distribution limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter eOberhuber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria. Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW, maximum daily shrinkage (MDS and radial growth (RG were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7 and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6 during 2014. ΔW, MDS and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA. Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests.

  2. e-Government Readiness, Strategy and Two Different User Groups - in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Noella; Hoechtl, Johann; Parycek, Peter

    This paper offers a description of the e-Government Strategy in Austria and its e-Government readiness, and looks at how two different user groups are experiencing e-Government in Austria. Studies conducted show that adolescent citizens are more optimistic and enthusiastic about the possibilities offered whilst the municipalities are more skeptical. The Austrian e-Government strategy, the decisionmakers and IT solution providers must understand the needs of all stakeholders and provide viable solutions accordingly.

  3. Austria otsib EL-i põhiseaduslepingu jaoks soodsat kliimat / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Viinis toimunud Austria valitsuse ja Euroopa Komisjoni ühisistungi järgsest Austria kantsleri Wolfgang Schüsseli ja Euroopa Komisjoni presidendi Manuel Barroso esinemisest, kus nad käsitlesid Euroopa põhiseaduse temaatikat. M. Barroso sõnul ei vaja Euroopa kodanikud praegu kõige rohkem mitte niivõrd konstitutsiooni, kuivõrd majanduskasvu ja töökohti

  4. Austria soovib Lääne-Balkani euroliidule lähemale tuua / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. dets., lk. 8 (lühendatud). Austria suursaadik Eestis dr Jakub Forst-Battaglia sõnul pingutab 2006. aasta jaanuaris Suurbritannialt järgmiseks pooleks aastaks Euroopa Liidu juhtimise üle võttev Austria pingutab EL-i laienemise nimel, läbirääkimised on alustatud Türgi ja Horvaatiaga

  5. First record of Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis (Rondani, 1872) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittra, Carina; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Wimmer, Victoria; Berer, Dominik; Eigner, Barbara; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-06-01

    During a three-year mosquito monitoring from 2014 to 2016, the strictly ornithophilic, originally Mediterranean species Orthopodomyia pulcripalpis (Rondani, 1872) was collected as single specimen for the first time in Austria in the district of Penzing in Vienna. Morphological species determination was confirmed by analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. We thus not only confirm the existence of another mosquito species in Austria, but also add a new genus to the Austrian Culicidae taxa list.

  6. The burden of malignant melanoma--lessons to be learned from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshi, Babak; Vujic, Marin; Kivaranovic, Danijel; Sesti, Alma; Oberaigner, Willi; Vujic, Igor; Ortiz-Urda, Susana; Posch, Christian; Feichtinger, Hans; Hackl, Monika; Rappersberger, Klemens

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of melanoma, generated by cancer registries (CRs), are susceptible to reporting inconsistencies due to increasing decentralisation of diagnosis. We therefore independently assessed the burden of melanoma in Austria. We collected histopathological reports on melanoma of all patients diagnosed in Austria in 2011. Demographic and clinical characteristics, histopathological tumour stages were assessed. Their regional distributions and incidence rates were analysed and compared with data of national and international CRs. A total of 5246 patients were diagnosed with 1951 in-situ and 3295 invasive melanomas in Austria in 2011 (population 8.4 million). Age, sex and anatomic distribution corresponded to findings in other European countries, however, the incidence of 25/100,000 (world age-standardised rate) for invasive melanomas was two-fold higher than published by the Austrian CR (12/100,000). Varying frequencies in diagnosing thin melanomas (≤1 mm; n = 4415) accounted exclusively for significant regional disparities, while advanced tumours (>1 mm; n = 761) were evenly distributed. Western Austria showed the highest rates (36/100,000). Patients from eastern Austria whose melanomas were diagnosed in laboratories in western Austria (n = 76) showed significantly higher proportions of in-situ lesions (n = 43; 57%) compared to those whose tumours were diagnosed in eastern Austria (n = 4014; in-situ = 1369; 34%) (p Austria, the melanoma burden and its potential socio-economic implications are significantly underestimated. Similarities of incidences indicate this could affect other European countries with well-established CRs and compromise international comparability of data. Austrian regional disparities suggest overdiagnosis of thin melanomas due to the variability of pathologists' thresholds for the diagnosis of early stage tumours. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural shifts in the employment of foreign workers in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffl, G

    1985-03-01

    The full economic importance of immigration becomes clear only when one examines the concentration of immigrant workers in certain industries and occupations, and this is done in the case of Austria to show the degree of segmentation of the labor market between indigenous and foreign labor. In the course of the 1960s the employment of foreign labor gained importance in Austria. As a consequence, bilateral agreements with the major recruiting countries were made, e.g., with Spain in 1962 and 1969, with Turkey in 1964, and with Yugoslavia in 1966. The reason for the increasing demand for foreign labor was the short supply of indigenous labor due to increasing participation rates and strong economic growth. The demand-pull for foreign labor gained momentum with the onset of the economic boom in 1970, so that by the end of 1973 the number of foreign workers had doubled in comparison to 1970. The 226,800 foreign workers accounted for 8.7% of total employment. The 1974-75 recession and the weak economic development ever since resulted in a decreasing demand for labor. At the same time, the supply of indigenous labor increased as a consequence of a demographic effect and because of increasing participation rates of women. From 1981 to the present, foreign employment decreased again due to the unusually long period of economic stagnation. During 1983, 145,300 foreign workers were engaged, i.e., 5.3% of total employment. The structure for foreign employment now differs greatly from that in the 1960s. The share of women in foreign employment has increased steadily from some 20% in the early 1960s to 31% in 1973 and 40% in 1983 -- a value comparable to the Austrian female share in employment. The reduction of foreign employment since 1973 affected, above all, Yugoslav men. the share of Yugoslavs in foreign employment decreased from 196,300 or 79% in 1973 to 92,200 or 61.7% in 1983. With the duration of foreign employment rising, the disribution of foreign labor over economic

  8. [Direct and indirect costs of fractures due to osteoporosis in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimai, H-P; Redlich, K; Schneider, H; Siebert, U; Viernstein, H; Mahlich, J

    2012-10-01

    We examined the financial burden of osteoporosis in Austria. We took both direct and indirect costs into consideration. Direct costs encompass medical costs such as expenses for pharmaceuticals, inpatient and outpatient medical care costs, as well as other medical services (e.g., occupational therapies). Non-medical direct costs include transportation costs and medical devices (e.g., wheel chairs or crutches). Indirect costs refer to costs of productivity losses due to absence of work. Moreover, we included costs for early retirement and opportunity costs of informal care provided by family members. While there exist similar studies for other countries, this is the first comprehensive study for Austria. For our analysis, we combined data of official statistics, expert estimates as well as unique patient surveys that are currently conducted in the course of an international osteoporotic fracture study in Austria. Our estimation of the total annual costs in the year 2008 imposed by osteoporosis in Austria is 707.4 million €. The largest fraction of this amount is incurred by acute hospital treatment. Another significant figure, accounting for 29% of total costs, is the opportunity cost of informal care. The financial burden of osteoporosis in Austria is substantial. Economic evaluations of preventive and therapeutic interventions for the specific context of Austria are needed to inform health policy decision makers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would...

  10. 75 FR 61700 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden... purified carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from, inter alia, Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden, pursuant to... (120-day) sunset reviews of the Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden antidumping duty orders pursuant...

  11. Atmospheric rivers and extreme precipitation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whan, Kirien; Haarsma, Rein; Sillmann, Jana

    2017-04-01

    'Atmospheric rivers' are long, narrow regions of high water vapour content that are responsible for the horizontal transport of moisture to higher latitudes. They are associated with the majority of extreme precipitation events in Norway throughout the observational record. These extreme precipitation events can be associated with flooding that has large impacts on society, such as the October 2014 event in Flåm. We examined changes in extreme precipitation between the current and future climates in the coupled global climate model, EC-EARTH, using high-resolution simulations ( 25 km) that can resolve extratropical storms and atmospheric rivers. We use the r-largest method (r=3) to fit stationary (no covariates) and non-stationary (with an index of atmospheric rivers as a covariate) generalised extreme value distributions to the block maxima of annual precipitation. The value of a regional 'index flood' type approach is explored and future changes in the largest precipitation events of the year that are associated with atmospheric rivers are presented.

  12. The Bamble Sector, South Norway: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo G. Nijland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Proterozoic Bamble Sector, South Norway, is one of the world's classic amphibolite- to granulite-facies transition zones. It is characterized by a well-developed isograd sequence, with isolated ‘granulite-facies islands’ in the amphibolite-facies portion of the transition zone. The area is notable for the discovery of CO2-dominated fluid inclusions in the granulite-facies rocks by Jacques Touret in the late 1960's, which triggered discussion of the role of carbonic fluids during granulite genesis. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of the Bamble Sector, with an emphasis on the Arendal-Froland-Nelaug-Tvedestrand area and off shore islands (most prominantly Tromøy and Hisøy where the transition zone is best developed. After a brief overview of the history of geological research and mining in the area, aspects of sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic petrology of the Bamble Sector are discussed, including the role of fluids. Issues relevant to current geotectonic models for SW Scandinavia, directly related to the Bamble Sector, are discussed at the end of the review.

  13. Spatiotemporal characteristics of climatic drought periods in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroisleitner, Christine; Haslinger, Klaus; Schöner, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    We characterized climatic drought periods in Austria, in order to detect drought-causing atmospheric patterns. Drought indices were calculated for the period 1801 to 2008 using the HISTALP data set. SPI and SPEI were calculated for 1, 3 and 6 and 12 months accumulation periods. To learn about the temporal dynamics of Drought events in Austria, temporal, spatial and intensity indicators of Drought indices were investigated. The length of Periods, which are defined by a sequence of month showing negative values, when at least one value was lower than -1 for SPI and SPEI and -3 for scPDSI. Additionally, the affected area of a Drought event was evaluated to gain information about the spatial dimension of a drought. The indicators further were assigned to the season (summer/winter) of their occurrence. The number of drought periods shows a different behaviour for the summer and winter season, especially during the 19th century, where the most intense drought occurs in winter, showing two peaks around the years1856 and 1890. While the number of drought periods exceeds the number of summer drought month in this period, the 20th century drought events are similar distributed among seasons. A Principal component analysis was applied on the drought index time series for summer and winter. In both seasons the first 3 components show the influence of the division of the alpine main ridge, the division between east and west and the influence of the alpine area. However, depending on the season their order varies. While in winter months the 1. PC shows mainly the influence of the alpine main ridge division, in summer the 1. PC divides East from West. The patterns in every month described by the principal components were linked to the affected area, drought intensity and drought period length. Around 60 distinct drought periods were found so far, whereas temperature and precipitation anomalies using the HISTALP data set and sea level pressure anomalies using Lutherbacher et al

  14. Assessing reference evapotranspiration in a subhumid climate in NE Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Eitzinger, Josef; Cepuder, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Computing reference evapotranspiration and multiplying it with a specific crop coefficient as recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is the most widely accepted approach to estimate plant water requirements. The standardized form of the well-known FAO Penman-Monteith equation, published by the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE-EWRI), is recommended as a standard procedure for calculating reference evapotranspiration. Applied and validated under different climatic conditions it generally achieved good results compared to other methods. However, several studies documented deviations between measured and calculated reference evapotranspiration depending on local environmental conditions. Consequently, it seems advisable to evaluate the model under local environmental conditions. Evapotranspiration was determined at a subhumid site in Austria (48°12'N, 16°34'E; 157 m asl) using a large weighing lysimeter operated at (limited) reference conditions and compared with calculations according to ASCE-EWRI. The lysimeter had an inner diameter of 1.9 m and a hemispherical bottom with a maximum depth of 2.5 m. Seepage water was measured at a free draining outlet using a tipping bucket. Lysimeter mass changes were sensed by a weighing facility with an accuracy of ±0.1 mm. Both rainfall and evapotranspiration were determined directly from lysimeter data using a simple water balance equation. Meteorological data for the ASCE-EWRI model were obtained from a weather station of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Austria (ZAMG). The study period was from 2005 to 2010, analyses were based upon daily time steps. Daily calculated reference evapotranspiration was generally overestimated at small values, whereas it was rather underestimated when evapotranspiration was large, which is supported also by other studies. In the given case, advection of sensible heat proved

  15. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  16. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  17. Space education in Kiruna, Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sandahl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The town of Kiruna in the north of Sweden has a concentration of space activities and space research with, for example, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Esrange, the ESA Salmijärvi satellite station, and EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Radar Scientific Association. The Department of Space Science is a joint department between the two most northern universities in Sweden, Luleå University of Technology and Umeå University in collaboration with the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. It offers a range of education programmes in the space field. There are bachelor and master programmes in space engineering, and a bridging programme for students without a science background from secondary school. The Department also contributes to courses for teachers, Ph.D. courses and secondary school level courses. One master´s program and a three week summer course are given entirely in English and welcome international students. Thanks to good cooperation with Esrange students can build and fly experiments on high altitude balloons and sounding rockets and also take a large responsibility for the management of the projects. Close interaction with research and industry is an important part of the education.

  18. Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvemark, A S

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden. Neo-Malthusianism arrived in Sweden at the beginning of the 1880s when Knut Wicksell gave a public lecture at a youth meeting of a temperance society in Uppsala. The lecture resulted in public scandal and made neo-Malthusian ideas known overnight in Sweden. Wicksell maintained that poverty was the primary cause of most evils in society, and it was caused by the pressure from population increase on the means of subsistence. In his lecture he referred to Malthus explicitly and gave a summary of the Malthusian principle of population on which he based his reasoning. At the time he only knew of Malthus' ideas indirectly by reading George Drysdale's book, "The Elements of Social Science." The questions that arise are whether Malthus' ideas were only indirectly studied and whether neo-Malthusiansim was just seen as an equivalent of birth control and contraceptives, the very means of preventive checks for population growth that Malthus condemned for moral reasons. Wicksell focused on the causes and consequences of emigration in a lecture in 1881. He again saw rapid population growth as the cause of poverty, which in turn caused emigration. The rapid rise in Swedish emigration in the 1880s created considerable interest. Generally, the common view at the time was that Sweden suffered from a certain population pressure and corresponding underemployment. Johan Leffler, a young economist, had a different opinion. He saw the problem in an outspoken Malthusian way, suggesting that under the prevailing overpopulation in Sweden emigration could not be harmful. At the turn of the centruy Gustav Sundbarg was among those describing emigration as a deadly threat to Swedish society. Sundbarg not only turned against Malthus, but he also condemned neo-Malthusianism for moral reasons. Sundbarg maintained that demographic and economic development over the 19th century did not verify Malthus' assumption that population

  19. Examining Trends in Parent-Child Communication in Europe over 12 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Granado Alcon, Maria del Carmen; Orkenyi, Agota; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Aasvee, Katrin; Moreno, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze changes in communication with parents about matters of concern to 11- and 13-year olds. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys conducted in Austria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, and…

  20. Pension Reforms Widespread in Industrialized Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusberg, Charlotte

    1986-01-01

    Some of the major steps taken in selected market economies of Western Europe, North America, and Asia to strengthen their pension systems are presented. Countries that are examined include Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Norway, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. (CT)

  1. Big data - modelling of midges in Europa using machine learning techniques and satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuellar, Ana Carolina; Kjær, Lene Jung; Skovgaard, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    -absence and monthly abundance data of Culicoides from 1005 sites across 9 countries (Spain, France, Denmark, Poland, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Sweden, Norway) collected between the years 2007 and 2013. The dataset included information on the vector species abundance (number of specimens caught per night), GPS...

  2. Reading Instruction: An International Forum. Proceedings of the First World Congress on Reading Held at UNESCO House, Paris, France, August 8-9, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Marion D., Ed.

    Participants in this conference represented France, Canada, the United States, Denmark, Japan, the United Kingdom, Austria, Norway, Germany, Sweden, Australia, Egypt, India, Israel, Ireland, and Brazil. Each of the 33 articles is printed in the language in which it was delivered (English except for two articles), and each is preceded by short…

  3. Data systems and requirements. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefan, C. Dietze, M. Marchesini, P. Louise, W. & Candappa, N.L.

    2014-01-01

    “ERA-NET ROAD — Coordination and Implementation of Road Research in Europe” was a Coordination Action funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the EC. The partners in ERA-NET ROAD (ENR) were United Kingdom, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Norway, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Slovenia and

  4. Occupational doses and ALARA - recent developments in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godas, T.; Viktorsson, C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Sweden has traditionally experienced very slow doses to workers in the nuclear industry. However, this trend has since last year been broken mainly due to significant maintenance and repair work. This paper will describe occupational dose trends in Sweden and discuss actions that are being implemented to control this new situation.

  5. New Investment Models for Broadband in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse whether the developmental policy model applied for fibre roll-out in Sweden can be used as inspiration for the Danish telecom policy. This is done through a comparison of the two very different policy approaches applied in Denmark and Sweden. A case study...

  6. Home-School Collaboration in Sweden and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersson, Margaretha; Gu, Limin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a working paper presenting a network building cooperative project between Umea University in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. The project focuses on parents' involvement and home-school collaboration in Sweden and China and has an ambition to entail a set of empirical objectives: (1) to map and compare the systems,…

  7. NORADAPT. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Norway; NORADAPT. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Norway. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oort, Bob van; Hovelsrud, Grete K.; Dannevig, Halvor; Bybraaten, Stine

    2012-10-15

    In NORADAPT, researchers from CICERO Center for Climate Research, Western Norway Research Institute, Eastern Norway Research Institute and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute worked in close cooperation with 8 selected municipalities, with the aim to help municipalities assess their vulnerability to climate change and develop adaptation strategies in collaboration with the research group. This report presents climate scenarios for all project municipalities and interprets the expected changes from the figures produced for each municipality. The report refers to socioeconomic scenarios which were developed as part of the project, describes progress throughout the project period and summarizes the main findings of the project through a summary of the final conference at Losby Gods 24-25 October 2011. The project has shown that municipalities are able to put climate change on the agenda, utilize scientific knowledge and implement adaptation measures, but that this depends on several factors, such as capacity, knowledge and involvement in local government, access to relevant knowledge and policy measures, and clear guidance and supervision from regional and national authorities. (Author)

  8. Professional Training of Foreign Languages Teachers in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byndas Olena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The features of the Austrian education system, namely different types of schools of compulsory and optional levels and the necessity of qualified teachers needed for teaching in such schools, features of foreign languages teachers’ professional training and their practical availability for service in school, have been observed. The problem of hybridization of vocational training and higher education in Austria, which is the result of close cooperation between academic and vocational training, has been researched. The requirements for knowledge, abilities and skills of applicants to teacher training colleges and universities have been determined. The curriculum of teacher education for students, depending on the chosen type of school, has been analyzed. The features of the two-level training for teachers of foreign languages (German and English have been analyzed. The importance of pre-vocational work carried out to validate students’ choice of teaching profession has been proved. Requirements for professional practical training in school, for production practical training that future teachers of foreign languages have in manufacturing, processing, service, trade; and for speech practical training abroad have been considered. It is important that a high level of knowledge and successfully completed practical trainings allow graduates of teacher training colleges and universities to qualify not only as a teacher of foreign languages, but also a translator or a guide-interpreter in different areas of service. The analysis has highlighted the promising first-hand ideas of the Austrian system of teacher training, its achievements and aspirations

  9. [Attitudes towards assisted living inAustria-A qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Lechner, Cornelia

    2015-08-01

    Surveys in German speaking countries identified motives for choosing assisted living, but their importance in the context of decision making remains unclear. This study aimed to identify types of attitudes towards assisted living among older persons in Austria that result from the interplay of single motives. A comparative qualitative study with semi-structured interviews was conduCted in the land Salzburg among residents of assisted living facilities and home dwelling older adults. Data were analysed by using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring and subsequent construction of types. Among residents types of attitudes were "proactive users" who expected more safety or comfort and persons who "moved m due to external circumstances" like taking the opportunity of available place or feeling forced by functional/imitations or be ing influenced by significant others. Types of attitudes among home dwelling older persons were "conditional acceptance';"rejection" and ;'indecisiveness':Vague ideas about assisted living often prevented an informed decision. Choice of assisted living only depends to some extent on specific expectations. Better information,advice by significant others and availability of a place may favour a decision to move in.

  10. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

  11. Nursing Homes and their Spatial Contexts – Findings from Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tatjana

    2017-10-01

    Against the background of aging and the increasing number of persons in need of care on one hand and the decreasing potential of family support on the other hand, in-patient facilities both in rural areas as well as urban areas of Austria receive importance as final residence. The decision on a facility is challenging. That is why the Austrian Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection edits a brochure in three volumes that provides interested persons with information on each residential and nursing home for elderly people. Basing on data from the year 2014, this contribution aims at analysing relevant spatial related information on 885 residential and nursing homes in urban and rural contexts in order to demonstrate how spatial related aspects are considered in the facilities’ presentations and how they illustrate the level of community integration of these in-patient offers, to understand facility-specific future plans as well as to reveal important questions and define urgent research demand and to stimulate the interdisciplinary and cross-cutting dialogue.

  12. Health promotion among older adults in Austria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Meinhart, Christoph Matthias

    2017-04-01

    To determine the types of attitudes to health promotion among older Austrians. Health promotion in old age becomes increasingly important in the current period of demographic transition. Interventions are likely to be successful if they take the attitude of older persons into consideration. There may be several types of attitudes to health promotion among older adults. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a purposive sample consisting of 36 home-dwelling older persons from local communities in the federal province of Salzburg, Austria. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring and subsequent construction of types. There are three main types of attitudes to health promotion. 'Health promoters through everyday activities' considered domestic work and walks to be sufficient in keeping up their health. Fitness-oriented persons practised sports of some type. Users of complementary methods practised such methods to some degree. These types of attitudes could be further differentiated according to their outcome expectations. In addition to benefits for health, socialising was also an important outcome. Physical decline may reduce a fitness-oriented attitude, whereas encouragement by others may trigger it. Older adults have various attitudes to health promotion, but these are not immutable. Health promotion programmes that are not restricted to a narrow focus on health but provide the opportunity to socialise may support older adults in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Multiresistant Bacteria Isolated from Chicken Meat in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Zarfel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR bacteria, such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE, pose a challenge to the human health care system. In recent years, these MDR bacteria have been detected increasingly outside the hospital environment. Also the contamination of food with MDR bacteria, particularly of meat and meat products, is a concern. The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of MDR bacteria in chicken meat on the Austrian market. For this study, 50 chicken meat samples were analysed. All samples originated from chickens slaughtered in Austrian slaughterhouses and were marked as produced in Austria. Samples were analysed for the presence of ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococci and VRE. Resistance genes of the isolated bacteria were characterised by PCR and sequencing. In the present study 26 ESBL producing E. coli, five mecA gene harbouring Staphylococci (but no MRSA, and four VRE were detected in chicken meat samples of Austrian origin. In 24 (48% of the samples no ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, MRSA, methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS or VRE could be detected. None of the samples contained all three types of investigated multiresistant bacteria. In concordance to previous studies, CTX-M-1 and SHV-12 were the dominant ESBL genes.

  14. Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brencic, M.; Poltnig, W.

    2009-04-01

    Large part of the border region between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria is represented by high east west extended mountainous ridge of Karavanke/Karawanken. It is a range extending along the Slovenian-Austrian border for almost 150 km. Its terrain consists of long and prominent ridges, whose slopes steeply fall to the northern and southern side. Ridges are interrupted by long, deep and narrow valleys. The highest peaks reach over 2000 m above sea level. In the entire range prominent ridges with mountain meadows and forests prevail. The area is scarcely populated, the main economic activities are grazing and forestry, in some places tourism is also developing, especially winter sports centres. Karavanke/Karawanken lies on the contact between two continental plates, the large European plate in the north and the smaller Adriatic plate in the south. When the Adriatic plate was thrusted over the European one towards the north, the collision resulted in the folding of sediments previously deposited in the space between the plates. The contact of both plates caused large lateral displacements, causing the rocks of both plates to fold and fault and then extend along the contact. This is the area of Periadriatic lineament, dividing Karavanke/Karawanken range into their north and south part. Periadriatic lineament is large stripe slip tectonic structure along which on the northern side rocks were extruded to the east and on the southern side to the west. Along the lineament metamorphic (e.g. biotitic and feldsparic para-gneis, amfibolites) and magmatic (e.g. diabaz, granite and tonalite) rocks of various ages are present. Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks cover large part of the mountain ridge. The oldest are Silurian and Ordovician limestone on the northern border followed by Devonian ridge limestones. They are covered by molasse sedimentation in Carbon and shallow marine and river predominantly clastic sedimentation in Perm. The most abundant and with numerous

  15. [Current treatment concepts for olecranon and prepatellar bursitis in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, S F; Michel, M; Wyen, H; Buschmann, C T; Kdolsky, R; Kanz, K-G

    2013-04-01

    The limited evidence available on the diagnosis and treatment of olecranon and prepatellar bursitis indicates nationally varying treatment approaches. Therefore the aim of this study was to survey the current treatment concepts of olecranon and prepatellar bursitis in Austria. An online questionnaire comprising of demographic data, questions regarding diagnostics and differentiation between septic bursitis (SB) and non-septic bursitis (NSB) as well as two case reports for therapy appraisal were sent to members of the Austrian Society of Orthopaedics and Orthopaedic Surgery (ÖGO) and the Austrian Society of Traumatology (ÖGU). The overall response rates were 46 % (ÖGU)/12 % (ÖGO). Differentiation between SB and NSB was predominantly based on medical history/clinical presentation (ÖGU: 100 %/ÖGO: 84 %) and blood sampling (ÖGU: 82 %/ÖGO: 77 %). 64/36 % of surveyed members of ÖGO/OGU performed a bursal aspiration. 95/55 % of Austrian ÖGU opinion leaders favoured a surgical treatment approach in cases of SB/NSB. Conversely, ÖGO members rather favoured a conservative treatment approach (28/27 %). Significant differences were found between ÖGO and ÖGU, with the latter favouring a surgical treatment approach in cases of SB and NSB. However, the international literature argues for a conservative treatment approach. Further high quality research is needed to establish an evidence-based treatment approach. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Spatial analysis of Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R; Pfeifer, C; Ulmer, H; Mühlberger, V; Pfeiffer, K P

    1999-05-01

    To investigate the geographical distribution of Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) and morbidity for coronary heart disease, angina pectoris and myocardial infarction by spatial analysis of the standardized morbidity rates (SMR) on district level. To identify clusters by Moran's I Statistic and the Regional Spatial Autocorrelation Coefficient (RSAC) of Munasinghe and Morris. To investigate demand factor morbidity and supply factor health care infrastructure on the district level as reasons for geographical disparity. To describe characteristics of the cluster population and intervention centres. Retrospective record linkage study. All hospitals and cardiological centres in Austria (n = 150) which performed the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS). All Austrian residents who were diagnosed for myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease or angina pectoris in 1995 (n = 87,174). One 'positive' PTCA cluster (all SMRs > or =0.96) and one 'negative' PTCA cluster (all SMRs thesis of 'inverse care law'. Austrianwide no significant correlation was found between the SMR of PTCA-application and both demand factor and supply factors. Nevertheless, differences between the clusters concerning number and capacity of intervention centres and density of specialists pointed to supply factors as reasons for geographical disparity. The ongoing trend of steady expansion of existing intervention centres and establishment of new ones will reduce the extent of geographical variation in future.

  17. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... infants (0.00195 and 0.00145) and intrapartum deaths of non-malformed infants (0.00042 and 0.00019) was significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. CONCLUSION: Application of the Nordic-Baltic Perinatal Death Classification on perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden in 1991 raises the questions...... as to why the rate of perinatal death of malformed infants is higher in Denmark than in Sweden and whether intrapartum care in Denmark could be improved....

  18. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G.W. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs.

  19. Delayed HIV diagnosis common in Sweden, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widgren, Katarina; Skar, Helena; Berglund, Torsten; Kling, Anna-Maria; Tegnell, Anders; Albert, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Early diagnosis of HIV is important for the prognosis of individual patients, because antiretroviral treatment can be started at the appropriate time, and for public health, because transmission can be prevented. Data were collected from 767 HIV patients who were diagnosed in Sweden during 2003-2010 and were infected in Sweden or born in Sweden and infected abroad. A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) was applied to BED-EIA test results (OD-n Sweden or abroad). Early diagnosis was observed in 271 patients (35%). There was no statistically significant time trend in the yearly percentage of patients with early diagnosis in the entire study group (p = 0.836) or in subgroups. Early diagnosis was significantly more common in men who have sex men (MSM) (45%) than in heterosexuals (21%) and injecting drug users (27%) (p Sweden, which does not appear to diminish.

  20. Modelling Regional Climate Change Effects On Potential Natural Ecosystems in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, D.; Smith, B.; Sykes, M.T. [Centre for GeoBiosphere Science, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, Soelvegatan 12, S-223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    This study aims to demonstrate the potential of a process-based regional ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, driven by climate scenarios generated by a regional climate model system (RCM) to generate predictions useful for assessing effects of climatic and CO2 change on the key ecosystem services of carbon uptake and storage. Scenarios compatible with the A2 and B2 greenhouse gas emission scenarios of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) and with boundary conditions from two general circulation models (GCMs) - HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3 - were used in simulations to explore changes in tree species distributions, vegetation structure, productivity and ecosystem carbon stocks for the late 21st Century, thus accommodating a proportion of the GCM-based and emissions-based uncertainty in future climate development. The simulations represented in this study were of the potential natural vegetation ignoring direct anthropogenic effects. Results suggest that shifts in climatic zones may lead to changes in species distribution and community composition among seven major tree species of natural Swedish forests. All four climate scenarios were associated with an extension of the boreal forest treeline with respect to altitude and latitude. In the boreal and boreo-nemoral zones, the dominance of Norway spruce and to a lesser extent Scots pine was reduced in favour of deciduous broadleaved tree species. The model also predicted substantial increases in vegetation net primary productivity (NPP), especially in central Sweden. Expansion of forest cover and increased local biomass enhanced the net carbon sink over central and northern Sweden, despite increased carbon release through decomposition processes in the soil. In southern Sweden, reduced growing season soil moisture levels counterbalanced the positive effects of a longer growing season and increased carbon supply on NPP, with the result that many areas were converted from a sink to a source of carbon by the late 21st

  1. Lower limb amputations in Trondheim, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose In the city of Trondheim, Norway, diabetic lower-limb amputations accounted for one-third of all lower-limb amputations (LLAs). In an attempt to reduce this rate, a diabetic foot team was established in 1996. We present the incidence of LLA in Trondheim as measured 10 years later. Patients and methods In 2004–07, we registered all LLAs performed in Trondheim and then compared the data with previously published data from 1994–1997. From 1996 through 2006, we registered the activity of the diabetic foot team and we also registered the number of vascular procedures performed on citizens of Trondheim from 1998 through 2006. Results Comparing the two 3-year periods 1994–97 and 2004–07, we observed a decrease in all non-traumatic LLAs. The incidence of diabetic major LLAs per 103 diabetics per year decreased from 4.0 to 2.4, and in patients with peripheral vascular disease we observed a decrease in LLAs from 18 to 12 per 105 inhabitants per year. 5,915 consultations on diabetic subjects were conducted by the diabetic foot team during the period 1996–2006. From 1998 to 2006, the rate of vascular procedures decreased in the non-diabetic population, and was unchanged in diabetic subjects. Interpretation In the population of Trondheim city there appears to have been a reduction in the rate of vascular obstructive lower-limb disease between the two 3-year periods 1994–97 and 2004–07. In our judgment, the decline in diabetic LLA also reflects better care of the diabetic foot. PMID:20860446

  2. NPP Boreal Forest: Flakaliden, Sweden, 1986-1996, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three files (.txt format) for an established 8.25 ha boreal forest dominated by Norway spruce, Picea abies, at Flakaliden (64.12 N 19.45 E) in...

  3. [Publication performances of university clinics for anesthesiology: Germany, Austria and Switzerland from 2001 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, G; Ausserer, J; Wenzel, V; Pehböck, D; Widmann, T; Lindner, K; Hamm, P; Paal, P

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the publication performance of university departments of anesthesiology in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The number of publications, original articles, impact factors and citations were evaluated. A search was performed in PubMed to identify publications related to anesthesiology from 2001 to 2010. All articles from anesthesiology journals listed in the fields of anesthesia/pain therapy, critical care and emergency medicine by the "journal citation report 2013" in Thomson Reuters ISI web of knowledge were included. Articles from non-anaesthesiology journals, where the stem of the word anesthesia (anes*, anaes*, anäst*, anast*) appears in the affiliation field of PubMed, were included as well. The time periods 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared. Articles were allocated to university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland via the affiliation field. A total of 45 university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland and 125,979 publications from 2,863 journals (65 anesthesiology journals, 2,798 non-anesthesiology journals) were analyzed. Of the publications 23 % could not be allocated to a given university department of anesthesiology. In the observation period the university department of anesthesiology in Berlin achieved most publications (n = 479) and impact points (1,384), whereas Vienna accumulated most original articles (n = 156). Austria had the most publications per million inhabitants in 2006-2010 (n=50) followed by Switzerland (n=49) and Germany (n=35). The number of publications during the observation period decreased in Germany (0.5 %), Austria (7 %) and Switzerland (8 %). Tables 2 and 4-8 of this article are available at Springer Link under Supplemental. The research performance varied among the university departments of anesthesiology in Germany, Austria and Switzerland whereby larger university departments, such as Berlin or Vienna published most. Publication output in Germany, Austria and

  4. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  5. Media use in distance education in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman F. Davies

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of distance language teaching which developed rapidly in Sweden after the Second World War. It argues that so far little use has been made of technical aids and that the computer as such is still a stranger both to the language teacher and the student. The writer concludes that perhaps the time has come for a technical revolution amongst Arts students. Met hierdie artikel word 'n oorsig gegee oor afstandsonderrig-spesifiek wat tale betref-soos dit in Swede ontwikkel het na die Tweede Wereldoorlog. Daar word op gewys dat tot dusver min gebruik gemaak is van tegniese hulpmiddels en dat vera! die rekenaar onderbenut is. Die skrywer sluit met die gedagte dat die tyd moontlik ryp is vir 'n tegnologiese rewolusie"in die geledere van die Lettere en Wysbegeerte.

  6. Time trends in human fecundability in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H; Rylander, Lars; Carstensen, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    increased with age, except that for women in their late 1930s, an apparent decrease was observed, particularly among the early cohorts. CONCLUSION: We found decreasing subfertility over time. We speculate that these patterns might be related to a Sweden-specific decrease over time in sexually transmitted...... diseases, to changes in sexual behavior induced by socioeconomic conditions, or to broader biologic or educational trends.......,000 primiparous women 20 years of age and older in the nationwide Swedish Medical Birth Registry from 1983 through 2002. This age restriction led to an exclusion of 10% of primiparous pregnancies. Subfertility (TTP > or =1 year) was analyzed as a function of maternal age, calendar time at initiation of attempt...

  7. Travel Behaviour of Online Shoppers in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiselius Lena Winslott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping opportunities are transforming travel behaviour for shopping and could potentially reduce the overall travel demand. Despite numerous studies on online shopping, only a few have taken an approach that includes trips for all travel purposes. Based on a web–survey, this paper provides results on travel behaviour for physical shopping for frequent, regular, and infrequent online shoppers in Sweden. The results indicate that frequent online shoppers make as many car trips (for both shopping and other errands as others. Also, frequent online shoppers in total make as many trips to a physical store as infrequent online shoppers – although by more sustainable modes of transport – and that the time saved from online shopping is spent on both additional shopping trips and trips for other errands. The conclusion is that online shopping might facilitate changing travel behaviour but does not in itself represent a good stand–alone measure for reducing vehicle mileage.

  8. Control of Salmonella enteritidis in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierup, M; Engström, B; Engvall, A; Wahlström, H

    1995-05-01

    The Swedish control of Salmonella, with special reference to Salmonella enteritidis, in poultry is described. The control is directed at all serotypes of Salmonella and imported grandparent chickens are controlled, which is considered to be the main reason why Sweden so far is not found to be involved in the worldwide spread of different phagetypes of S. enteritidis. However, this spread has initiated a more stringent control of Salmonella in layers as earlier existed in broilers. Since 1990, 90% of the layer flocks are voluntarily tested for Salmonella before slaughter by bacteriological examination of pooled faecal samples. If S. enteritidis is isolated the flock is destroyed. This test, and in addition two similar tests during the production are mandatory as of January 1st, 1994. The voluntary Salmonella control programme has also been extended to all of the layer parents and hatcheries since 1991. Only heat-treated feed is given to all layer chickens during the rearing period and its use is becoming gradually more common also during the production period. Since 1987, four layer flocks have been found to be infected by S. enteritidis phagetype 4 and one flock with phagetype 6. During 1970-1984, 90% of all flocks of broilers were voluntarily tested bacteriologically for Salmonella before slaughter, and since 1984 such a control is mandatory to all flocks. As a result of this and other controls, S. enteritidis has not been isolated from broilers since 1972. Based on a governmental regulation from 1961, introduced as a result of a large Salmonella epidemic in 1953, Sweden runs an active, official control of Salmonella (Wierup et al., 1992).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. The burden of chickenpox disease in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Widgren

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickenpox vaccine is not included in the routine childhood vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to estimate the baseline of national chickenpox disease burden, as comprehensive studies, required for an assessment regarding vaccine introduction, are lacking. Methods We used available health care registers and databases; the death register, hospitalisations register, communicable disease notifications database, Stockholm County registers on consultations in specialist and primary care, temporary parental benefit to care for a sick child, and searches on the health care system’s website. From each data source, records regarding chickenpox were identified and extracted, either using relevant diagnosis codes (ICD-10 or key words. A descriptive analysis with regards to number of cases and incidence, severity, and seasonality, was carried out covering the time period 2007 to 2013. Results There were on average 333 patients hospitalised annually due to chickenpox, yielding a hospitalisation rate of 3.56/100,000 person-years. We found a slight male predominance in hospitalised cases. The highest hospitalisation rate was seen in 1 year-olds, whereas the peak in primary care consultations was in 2 year-olds. Nearly a quarter of children had parents who reported absence from work to care for them when sick with chickenpox. The average yearly death rate from chickenpox was 0.034/100,000 person-years. The duration of hospital stay increased with age. The seasonality in number of searches on the health care website corresponded well with hospitalisations and primary care consultations with peaks in spring. Conclusions This study shows chickenpox death and hospitalisation rates in range with other European countries without routine vaccination. Swedish children fall ill with chickenpox at a very young age. The study provides essential input for future discussions on the introduction of routine chickenpox

  10. Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodushkin, Ilia [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: ilia.rodushkin@alsglobal.com; Engstroem, Emma [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Soerlin, Dieke; Ponter, Christer; Baxter, Douglas C. [ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Lulea, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic {sup 187}Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) {<=} spruce needles {<=} mushrooms {<=} tree leaves {<=} pine needles < mosses << lichens. The concentrations found in three different species of plant were used to provide the first estimates of gaseous osmium tetroxide (OsO{sub 4}) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO{sub 4} concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only

  11. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  12. Sparse district-heating in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Stefan Forsaeus [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Building Technology and Mechanics, P.O. Box 24036, SE-400 22 Goeteborg (Sweden); Reidhav, Charlotte [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Lygnerud, Kristina [Goeteborg University, School of Business, Economics and Law, Department of Business Administration, P.O. Box 610, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-07-15

    This paper presents a review of the sparse district-heating research programme undertaken in Sweden between 2002 and 2006. The goal of the programme was to increase the future competitiveness for district heat in low heat density areas, e.g., suburban single-family houses and small villages. Such areas are unfavourable, since revenues from heat sold are low compared with the investment cost for the local distribution network. In Sweden, district heat has a dominant position in the heat market for residential and service-sector buildings. In order for the business to grow, it is necessary to increase the rate of expansion in the detached-house segment. This is why the programme was initiated. The extent of the programme was set at EUR 3.6 million with equal financing from the Swedish District-Heating Association and the Swedish Energy-Agency. The research was carried out in three phases: a state of the art survey; a development phase focused on productivity gains where new research on both technology and customer interaction was performed; and finally a demonstration phase where new methods were tested in full-scale field operation. The programme has shown that the Swedish district-heating industry needs to adjust in order to reach a higher profitability for sparse district-heating investments. Tradition from large-scale high-density district heating is hard to scale to fit sparse district-heating systems. For example, the construction becomes very labour intensive and the industry is weak when it comes to market-oriented business logic, sales and private customer interaction. Innovation seems to be a way forward and active management of innovations is a way to create increased value of the investments. Other keys to improving the profitability of sparse district-heating investments are more efficient working routines (resulting in higher productivity) and revised ways of customer communications. These seem more important than increasing efficiency in district

  13. Puente sobre el río Enns, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polensky & Zöllner, Constructora

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available A road bridge has been recently opened over the Enns river at Steyr (Austria. The purpose is to improve traffic and avoid the bottlenecks that often took place. The bridge is supplemented by three other works of lesser importance, namely two bridges and a tunnel for pedestrians. The bridge structure supporting the decks is cellular, box type. It has three compartments, and four vertical partitions, whose thickness varies from 6 m over the intermediate piles to 2.30 m at the crown. There are three spans, of 47, 101 and 70 m length. The bridge intrados forms a smooth curve. Two overhangs extend from the central structure, and provide sidewalks for pedestrians: the deck itself having a width of 17 m. The structure was made in successive overhangs, in 3.50 m sections. Longitudinal prestressing, by means of PZ-A-100 type cables, was done by applying an initial loading of 120 t. The cables run in tubes. After the concrete had reached a suitable strength, the cables were stretched. The tubes were then filled with cement mortar, and in this operation air suction equipment was utilised to make sure that no air cavities were left.Se ha construido y puesto en servicio un puente para carretera sobre el río Enns en Steyr (Austria, con objeto de mejorar la circulación de vehículos y evitar las congestiones que se producían frecuentemente. Complementan al puente otras tres obras de menor importancia, constituidas por dos puentes y un túnel para el paso de peatones. La estructura que soporta el tablero es celular, tipo cajón, de tres células y cuatro almas y tabiques verticales, con canto variable desde 6 m sobre las pilas intermedias a 2,30 m en la clave. El puente se subdivide en tres tramos de 47, 101 y 70 m de luz, respectivamente. El intradós sigue el perfil de una curva suave. Del cuerpo de la estructura salen dos ménsulas que soportan los dos andenes para peatones, quedando el tablero con una anchura total de 17 metros. La estructura se construy

  14. Characterization of patients at high risk of melanoma in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C; Wendt, J; Rauscher, S; Burgstaller-Muehlbacher, S; Sunder-Plassmann, R; Scheurecker, C; Richtig, E; Fae, I; Fischer, G; Pehamberger, H; Okamoto, I

    2016-06-01

    Risk of melanoma is determined by genetic and exogenous factors. Only a few studies have included both characteristics in a comprehensive multivariable analysis. To find determinants of patients at high risk of melanoma in Austria, including phenotype, genotype and lifestyle characteristics in comprehensive analyses. In total, 1668 patients with melanoma from the M3 case-control study were studied. Overall, 567 participants were sequenced for CDKN2A, 232 for CDK4, 123 for MITF encoding the variant E318K and 964 for MC1R. Patients with melanoma with a positive family history (n = 190, 11·6%), multiple primary melanomas (n = 261, 15·7%) and younger age (risk. All other patients with melanoma were defined as the reference group. We found significant differences between those two groups and between the high-risk subgroups (positive family history, multiple primary melanomas and younger age). Pigmentation phenotype was associated with the high-risk group in general (childhood freckling, odds ratio 1·46, P = 0·007; blond/reddish hair colour, odds ratio 1·43, P = 0·011). Patients with a positive family history and patients with early-onset disease were similar regarding both their phenotypic characteristics and external factors. Established high-risk mutations in CDKN2A were found in cases with a positive family history (n = 12) or multiple melanomas (n = 2). Moreover, we found three patients carrying the MITF p.E318K variant, two with a CDK4 variant and seven with nonsynonymous MC1R variants with undescribed biological significance, of which four were predicted as damaging. Austrian patients could represent a reservoir for novel genetic variants. Further investigation of populations in Central and Eastern Europe might reveal more novel and disease-relevant variants. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Determination of regional Euler pole parameters for Eastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert; Schartner, Matthias; Brueckl, Ewald

    2017-04-01

    The horizontal motion of lithospheric plates can be described as rotations around a rotation axes through the Earth's center. The two possible points where this axes intersects the surface of the Earth are called Euler poles. The rotation is expressed by the Euler parameters in terms of angular velocities together with the latitude and longitude of the Euler pole. Euler parameters were calculated from GPS data for a study area in Eastern Austria. The observation network is located along the Mur-Mürz Valley and the Vienna Basin. This zone is part of the Vienna Transfer Fault, which is the major fault system between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. The project ALPAACT (seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) investigated intra plate tectonic movements within the Austrian part in order to estimate the seismic hazard. Precise site coordinate time series established from processing 5 years of GPS observations are available for the regional network spanning the years from 2010.0 to 2015.0. Station velocities with respect to the global reference frame ITRF2008 have been computed for 23 sites. The common Euler vector was estimated on base of a subset of reliable site velocities, for stations directly located within the area of interest. In a further step a geokinematic interpretation shall be carried out. Therefore site motions with respect to the Eurasian Plate are requested. To obtain this motion field different variants are conceivable. In a simple approach the mean ITRF2008 velocity of IGS site GRAZ can be adopted as Eurasian rotational velocity. An improved alternative is to calculate site-specific velocity differences between the Euler rotation and the individual site velocities. In this poster presentation the Euler parameters, the residual motion field as well as first geokinematic interpretation results are presented.

  16. PSA testing in Austria: induced morbidity and saved mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutuc, Christian; Waldhoer, Thomas; Lunglmayr, Gerhard; Hoeltl, Wolfgang; Haidinger, Gerald

    2009-09-01

    Opportunistic screening of healthy men by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing led to a steep increase of prostate cancer incidence in Austria. The objective of this study was to quantify how many additional men are diagnosed with prostate cancer by PSA testing, to save one man from prostate cancer death. Regression models for incidence and mortality for the time periods 1983-1991 and 1992-2003 by age groups 50-59 and 60-69 years were estimated. For 1992-2003, expected numbers of incidence and mortality were calculated. The first estimates for the years 1992-2003 were calculated using the regression model including the years 1983-1991. The second estimates were also calculated using the regression model, but including only the years 1992-2003. The difference between estimates was then summed up for 1992-2003. The corresponding sums of incidence and mortality were compared to provide estimates for the effect of the introduction of PSA screening on incidence/mortality ratio. According to our calculation for the time period 1992-2003, in age group 50-69 years, a total of 512 expected prostate cancer deaths were prevented because of opportunistic PSA screening, whereas PSA testing identified a total of 9648 additional men with asymptomatic prostate cancer. In conclusion, to save one man in the age group 50-69 years in the time period 1992-2003 from prostate cancer death by PSA testing, a total of 18.8 men with asymptomatic prostate cancer had to be identified. Although this study probably underestimates the benefit (reduced mortality) and overestimates excess incidence of prostate cancer, it is far from sure that in all of these additionally identified men prostate cancer would ever have surfaced as a clinical disease, if not screened for.

  17. First investigations of an ice core from Eisriesenwelt cave (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. May

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the genesis and dynamical properties of cave ice are essential for assessing the climate significance of these underground glaciers. We drilled an ice core through a 7.1 m-thick ice body filling a large cavern of the dynamic ice cave Eisenriesenwelt (Austria. In addition to visual core inspections, quasi-continuous measurements at 2 cm resolution comprised particulate matter, stable water isotope (δ18O, δD and electrolytic conductivity profiles supplemented by specifically selected samples analyzed for tritium and radiocarbon. We found that recent ablation led to an almost complete loss of bomb-derived tritium removing any ice accumulated since, at least, the early fifties leaving the actual ice surface even below the natural tritium level. The small particulate organic masses rendered radiocarbon dating inconclusive, though a crude estimate gave a basal ice age in the order of several thousand years. The visual stratigraphy and all investigated parameters showed a clear dichotomy between the upper 2 m and the bottom 3 m of the core, which points to a substantial change in the ice formation process. Main features of the core comprise the changing appearance and composition of distinct cryocalcite layers, extremely low total ion content and a surprisingly high variability of the isotope signature. Co-isotope evaluation (δD versus δ18O of the core in comparison with data from precipitation and karst spring water clearly indicate that ice formation is governed by (slow freezing of dripping water.

  18. Clinical implementation of musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duftner, Christina; Schüller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Mandl, Peter; Nothnagl, Thomas; Schirmer, Michael; Kainberger, Franz; Machold, Klaus; Dejaco, Christian

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the clinical implementation of musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) in rheumatology in Austria. A survey was conducted among Austrian rheumatologists and physicians of other specialties with a focus on rheumatology. The questionnaire was designed by the members of the Austrian Radiology-Rheumatology Initiative for Musculoskeletal UltraSound including the following items: demographics, access to MSUS and MSUS training, application of MSUS to support diagnosis, monitoring and treatment decisions, and obstacles for the routine performance of MSUS. Eighty-eight (21.9 %) out of the 402 surveyed physicians responded. No access to MSUS and/or inadequate training in the technique was more commonly reported by senior (>50 years; 64.3 and 67.7 %, respectively) than by younger physicians (16.7 %, p = 0.01 and 18.5 %, p < 0.001, respectively). The lowest availability of sonography was found among senior rheumatologists (25.0 %, p = 0.001 compared to the total group). MSUS is routinely used for diagnosis and/or monitoring purposes by 12.5 % of physicians and 20.5 % perform sonography in clinically unclear cases. A limited number of physicians apply the method to support treatment decisions and/or to evaluate treatment success. The most important obstacles for routine application of MSUS in rheumatology are limited access to ultrasound machines, lack of training/education in the technique, and time constraints in daily routine. Low access to high-end ultrasound devices, lack of training, and time constraints may explain the low appreciation of MSUS among Austrian physicians evaluating patients with rheumatic diseases.

  19. Radiation protection education of executive authorities in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timal, Guenter [Federal Ministry of the Interior, Department for Civil Protection, Civil Protection School, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-05-01

    Legal basis and the self-protection of the own action forces are the reasons, why the executive authorities (Federal Police and Federal Gendarmerie) in Austria are engaged with radiation protection. The main task of education and training is delegated to the Civil Protection School, which belongs to the Department for Civil Protection in the Federal Ministry of the Interior. The possible missions range from control of transports with dangerous goods, accidents with radioactive materials, measurements after accidents in nuclear power plants, preventing illicit trafficking up to satellite crashes. The education is split in three sections, one week each, with two examinations. For preserving the standard of education and readiness for duty a regular further education and obligatory advanced training is a basic premise. The aim of the education is to educate autonomous and self dependent action-forces, which are under compliance of self-protection in a position, to detect radioactive sources or contamination, to measure them and to secure the dangerous zone. The programs of the education and training include theoretical instructions and practical exercises. The programs are currently evaluated and updated according to the latest standards to pedagogics, didactics and technology. This radiation protection education is offered in a modified form also to other action forces and authorities who were entrusted with tasks in radiation protection (e.g. fire brigade, red cross, telecommunications, customs, citizens of municipalities, provinces and ministries) to guarantee a most preferable basic training. The programs are supplemented by special courses, as for example radiation detection with helicopters supported with a GPS-airborne monitoring system or special instruction courses in connection with border protection monitors to prevent the illicit trafficking of radioactive sources or nuclear material. (author)

  20. Late Pleistocene oscillations of the Drau Glacier (southern Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnitschar, Christina; Reitner, Jürgen; Draganits, Erich

    2016-04-01

    The Drau Glacier was the largest Pleistocene glacier in the southeastern part of the Alps and significantly shaped the landscape in this region. The study area is located at the termination of the Drau Glacier in the southern part of Austria (Carinthia). The investigation aims to decipher glacial dynamics during the Late Pleistocene glacial advance, stabilisation and final recession of this glacier based on geological/geomorphological mapping, interpretation of airborne laser scan (ALS) topographic data and lithostratigraphic investigations of glacial and periglacial sediments. Special emphasis is laid on the reconstruction of the maximum extent of the glaciation (LGM). Based on previous mapping by Bobek (1959) and Ucik (1996-1998) more details have been gained for the paleogeographic reconstruction based on glacial and non-glacial erosion and accumulation features. These include traces of pre-Upper Pleistocene glaciation, drumlins, terminal moraines and kettle holes. Paleogeographic reconstruction was done with correlation of different outcrops based on lithostratigraphy and ALS topography. Sequences of gravel related to glacial advance covered by till, followed by periglacial sediments allowed detailed reconstruction of the glacial sequence in this area and the complex succession of various extents of the Drau Glacier. References Bobek, Hans. 1959: Der Eisrückgang im östlichen Klagenfurter Becken. In: Mitteilungen der österreichischen geographischen Gesellschaft, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1996: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 340, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1997: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 141, S. 325-326, Wien. Ucik, Friedrich Hans. 1998: Bericht über geologische Aufnahmen im Quartär auf Blatt 204 Völkermarkt, Jb. Geol. B.-A., 142, S. 333-334, Wien.

  1. Geomorphometric analysis of shallow landslides in the Walgau valley (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützenburg, Gregor; Schmaltz, Elmar; Glade, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Hydrologically triggered shallow landslides are a frequent natural hazard in the Eastern Alps and can cause severe damages to agriculturally used land, houses and infrastructure. Geomorphometric indices allow to estimate the spatial dynamics of shallow landslides based on recurrent landslide inventories. Previous studies found that the morphology of a landslip is closely related to its dominant genetic process. In this study, we focus on the calculation of established geomorphometric indices of the prevailing shallow landslides to assess the spatial landslide distribution in the Walgau valley in Vorarlberg (Austria). Therefore, we compiled a multi-temporal landslide inventory based on eight orthophoto series from 1950 to 2015 and two digital terrain models derived from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data of 2004 and 2011. The 123 mapped landslides and adjacent areas were further distinguished in distinct geomorphic features, such as parent slope, landslide scarp, concave (surface of rupture) and convex (mass material) segments. Lithological settings and anthropogenic impacts such as land use change were also considered in the analysis. A geomorphometric assessment of the mapped landslides, in combination with land cover information yields insights on the spatial dimension of the shallow landslides and the potential fluidity of the materials involved. The geomorphometric analyses revealed that 96 landslides were classified as fluid-flows, 17 landslides were classified as viscous-flows, 8 landslides were classified as slide-flows and 2 landslides were classified as planar slides. Our findings indicate that most of the shallow landslides display a flow-like movement with a rather low material plasticity. This leads to the assumption that the observed landslides in the investigated area might be of low kinetic energy despite their relatively long travel distances. Spatial disparities within the study area were not observable. We conclude that geomorphometric indices are

  2. Population dynamics of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in kelpforests and barren grounds in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerli, Camilla W.; Gran Stadniczeñko, Sandra; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2015-01-01

    A northward trend of declining abundance of sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and increasing kelp recovery along the coast of Norway has provided an opportunity to explore whether the decline of sea urchins can be explained by systematic variations in demographic or fitness......-related traits. The population density of sea urchins in mid-Norway (65°70′N) close to the boundary between barren grounds and recently recovered kelp forests was only 26 % of that on barren grounds in northern Norway (70°70′N). Populations were dominated by young (2–4 years) individuals and age-specific numbers...... in mid-Norway were 50 % higher than in northern Norway. We suggest that increasing predation pressure on sea urchins partly explains the higher mortality in mid-Norway. Recent studies have shown that recruitment of sea urchins is significantly lower in mid-Norway than in northern Norway. The lower mean...

  3. R&D statistics 2015 for the higher education sector in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Kaja

    2017-01-01

    Newsletter presenting main results from the R&D statistics of the higher education sector in Norway. Newsletter presenting main results from the R&D statistics of the higher education sector in Norway.

  4. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  5. The Fate of Hydrocarbon Pollution in Kebnekaise, Arctic Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosqvist, G. N.; Jarjso, J.; Clason, C.; Jansson, P.; Karlin, T.

    2013-12-01

    A C-130J-30 Super Hercules plane crashed into the west-facing wall of the Kebnekaise mountain (2103 m), Arctic Sweden, on March 15th 2012. When starting from Evenes, Narvik, Norway, the aircraft had 14100 l fuel, 50 l hydraulic oil and 170 l motor oil onboard. Best estimates are that at least 12 000 l of fuel was sprayed over the mountain most of which was buried together with the wreck in a huge snow avalanche that was triggered by the impact in a NW facing cirque on Rabots glacier between ca 1600 and 2000 m. Fuel decontamination was not possible because of the extreme impact site conditions. The Hercules airplane was fueled with JET A-1 which is a hydrocarbon product in the Kerosene/Jet Fuel category consisting of sweetened kerosene and hydrotreated light distillates. The major components of all 'kerosene's' are branched- and straight-chain paraffins and naphthenes (cycloparaffins or cycloalkanes), which normally account for 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons, such as alkyl benzenes (single ring) and alkylnaphthalenes (double ring) do not exceed 25 % by volume of kerosene. The fuel also contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), but in very small volumes compared to the major components. The physical and chemical properties of each component (or block) of the hydrocarbon mixture influence its migration rate and fate. Some components of the fuel will volatilize, some are soluble in water but the vast majority are non-soluble. Although the solubility of these so called Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) in water is small they are highly toxic. We need to consider transport of the soluble components of the LNAPL in the melt-water, and transport of the non-soluble components with the melt-water system. Transport and storage can occur through and in snow (or firn), crevasses, and cavities on, in or under the glacier. Storage in, and contamination of, basal sediments, located below the glacier, or pro-glacial sediments, in front of the glacier are also

  6. Monitoring of Agricultural Landscape in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, H. G.; Engan, G.

    2012-07-01

    An overall societal aim is to ensure a sustainable use and management of agricultural landscapes. This requires continuous delivery of reliable and up-to-date information to decision-makers. To be able to deliver this information, a monitoring program for agricultural landscapes was initiated in Norway 13 years ago. The program documents and reports on land use / land cover changes from data captured through interpretation of true colour aerial photos using stereo instruments. The monitoring programme is based on a sample of 1000 squares of 1 × 1 km and the entire sample of squares is photographed over a five-year period. Each square is then mapped repeatedly every fifth year to record changes. Aerial photo interpretation is based on a custom classification system which is built up hierarchically, with three levels. The first level comprises seven land type classes: Agricultural land, Bare ground, Semi-natural open vegetation, Unforested wetland vegetation, Forest, Urban areas and Water. These land classes are further divided into 24 land types at level two, and approximately 100 land types at level 3. In addition to land type units we map both line elements like stone fences and point elements like buildings and solitary threes. By use of indicators that describe status and change focusing on themes of particular policy interest, we can report on whether policy aims are being fulfilled or not. Four indicator themes have been in focus hitherto: landscape spatial structure, biological diversity, cultural heritage and accessibility. Our data is stored in databases and most of the data quality check/structure process and analyses are now being made in open source software like PostGIS and PostSQL. To assess the accuracy of the photo-interpretation, ground truthing is carried out on 10 % of the squares. The results of this operation document the benefits of having access to photos of the same area from two different years. The program is designed first and foremost to

  7. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  8. Spring photosynthetic recovery of boreal Norway spruce under conditions of elevated [CO(2)] and air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Göran; Hall, Marianne; Slaney, Michelle; Räntfors, Mats; Medhurst, Jane; Linder, Sune

    2013-11-01

    Accumulated carbon uptake, apparent quantum yield (AQY) and light-saturated net CO2 assimilation (Asat) were used to assess the responses of photosynthesis to environmental conditions during spring for three consecutive years. Whole-tree chambers were used to expose 40-year-old field-grown Norway spruce trees in northern Sweden to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], of 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) (CE) and an air temperature (T) between 2.8 and 5.6 °C above ambient T (TE), during summer and winter. Net shoot CO2 exchange (Anet) was measured continuously on 1-year-old shoots and was used to calculate the accumulated carbon uptake and daily Asat and AQY. The accumulated carbon uptake, from 1 March to 30 June, was stimulated by 33, 44 and 61% when trees were exposed to CE, TE, and CE and TE combined, respectively. Air temperature strongly influenced the timing and extent of photosynthetic recovery expressed as AQY and Asat during the spring. Under elevated T (TE), the recovery of AQY and Asat commenced ∼10 days earlier and the activity of these parameters was significantly higher throughout the recovery period. In the absence of frost events, the photosynthetic recovery period was less than a week. However, frost events during spring slowed recovery so that full recovery could take up to 60 days to complete. Elevated [CO2] stimulated AQY and Asat on average by ∼10 and ∼50%, respectively, throughout the recovery period, but had minimal or no effect on the onset and length of the photosynthetic recovery period during the spring. However, AQY, Asat and Anet all recovered at significantly higher T (average +2.2 °C) in TE than in TA, possibly caused by acclimation or by shorter days and lower light levels during the early part of the recovery in TE compared with TA. The results suggest that predicted future climate changes will cause prominent stimulation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in boreal Norway spruce forest during spring, mainly caused by elevated T

  9. Empirical models of monthly and annual surface albedo in managed boreal forests of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Astrup, Rasmus; Strømman, Anders H.

    2013-04-01

    As forest management activities play an increasingly important role in climate change mitigation strategies of Nordic regions such as Norway, Sweden, and Finland -- the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the types and magnitude of biogeophysical climate effects and their various tradeoffs with the global carbon cycle becomes essential to avoid implementation of sub-optimal policy. Forest harvest in these regions reduces the albedo "masking effect" and impacts Earth's radiation budget in opposing ways to that of concomitant carbon cycle perturbations; thus, policies based solely on biogeochemical considerations in these regions risk being counterproductive. There is therefore a need to better understand how human disturbances (i.e., forest management activities) affect important biophysical factors like surface albedo. An 11-year remotely sensed surface albedo dataset coupled with stand-level forest management data for a variety of stands in Norway's most productive logging region are used to develop regression models describing temporal changes in monthly and annual forest albedo following clear-cut harvest disturbance events. Datasets are grouped by dominant tree species and site indices (productivity), and two alternate multiple regression models are developed and tested following a potential plus modifier approach. This resulted in an annual albedo model with statistically significant parameters that explains a large proportion of the observed variation, requiring as few as two predictor variables: i) average stand age - a canopy modifier predictor of albedo, and ii) stand elevation - a local climate predictor of a forest's potential albedo. The same model structure is used to derive monthly albedo models, with models for winter months generally found superior to summer models, and conifer models generally outperforming deciduous. We demonstrate how these statistical models can be applied to routine forest inventory data to predict the albedo

  10. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  11. The Impact of Divorce on Suicide in Norway, 1951-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Examined divorce and suicide data in Norway. Found that, in spite of Norway's institutional and cultural protection against suicide, a 1 percent increase in divorce was associated with 0.46 percent increase in suicide. Found no links between unemployment and suicide in Norway. Effects of divorce on suicide were independent of religiosity, and the…

  12. Dynamics of Timber Market Integration in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Chandr Jaunky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the performance of the timber markets (Scots pine, Pinus silvestris L. and Norway spruce, Picea abies (L. Karst. by evaluating the order of market integration in three Swedish regions (Central, Northern, and Southern. Quarterly data of delivery prices are employed over the period 1999Q1–2012Q4. Various unit root and cointegration tests have been computed. The results indicate that the variables are integrated of first order and co-integrated, especially after controlling for structural breaks. This supports the law-of-one-price hypothesis (LOP. However, the effects of structural shocks on forestry are arguably significant and these are controlled for while performing a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM-based Granger-causality test. Bi-directional causality between the Northern and central markets is uncovered in the short-run. In the long-run, a similar causal effect is detected between Northern and Southern markets while the central market emerges as the price leader. Further investigation is carried out using variance decompositions and impulse response functions and these approaches also tend to confirm the existence of a single market well, as price interdependence between markets.

  13. ICT supporting nurses and physicians in hospitals: results of a comparative survey in Austria and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Ursula; Schaubmayr, Christine; Flemming, Daniel; Sellemann, Björn; Aehlen, Christiane; Ammenwerth, Elske

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the use of clinical information systems, particularly for nursing, in Austria and Germany. In 2007, all acute care hospitals in both countries received questionnaires with identical questions. 12.4% in Germany and 34.6% in Austria responded. The surveys revealed a consistent higher usage of clinical IT in Austrian than in German hospitals. It also included a significant difference in the percentage of electronic nursing records in use. These findings correspond with a significantly higher number of PC workstations on the wards. Despite these differences, Austrian and German hospitals reported a nearly identical IT budget. Factors which might have influenced the wider use of clinical IT are a re-focus on clinical matters after rigorous organisational changes, legal constraints and a general IT-friendly climate in Austria.

  14. The Austria-Czech Republic co-operation in the field of radiation-emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouza, Z; Drabova, D; Moltasova, J; Hohenberg, J-K; Hofer, P

    2004-01-01

    An overview on the long-term information exchange and co-operation between Austria and the Czech Republic in the field of radiation emergency preparedness and evaluation of radiological consequences of NPP accidents is provided. Initiated by the 'Melk Protocol' between the Czech and Austrian governments in December 2000 and its follow-up activities, the information exchange and co-operation between the Czech Republic and Austria in the field of radiation-emergency preparedness have been extended. Among others, a Working Group to compare radiological consequences of Beyond Design Basis Accident with a detailed inter-comparison program concerning atmospheric dispersion models, dose assessment methods and counter- measures was established. Based on this experience, an area for future co-operation in the field of emergency preparedness and information exchange between the Czech Republic and Austria is discussed. Copyright 2004 Oxford University Press

  15. The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons From Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Sweden faced a banking and exchange rate crisis that led it to rescue banks that had experienced large losses on their balance sheets and that threatened a collapse of the banking system...

  16. Majority versus Minority: 'Governmentality' and Muslims in Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anne Sofie Roald

    2013-01-01

      This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority-minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim...

  17. Current State of Laparoscopic Colonic Surgery in Austria: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugsberger, Bettina; Haas, Dietmar; Oppelt, Peter; Neuner, Ludwig; Shamiyeh, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that laparoscopic colonic resection has significant benefits in comparison with open approaches in patients with benign and malignant disease. The proportion of colonic and rectal resections conducted laparoscopically in Austria is not currently known; the aim of this study was to evaluate the current status of laparoscopic colonic surgery in Austria. A questionnaire was distributed to all general surgical departments in Austria. In collaboration with IMAS, an Austrian market research institute, an online survey was used to identify laparoscopic and open colorectal resections performed in 2013. The results were compared with data from the National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD), in which administrative in-patient data were also collected from all general surgical departments in Austria in 2013. Fifty-three of 99 surgical departments in Austria responded (53.5%); 4335 colonic and rectal resections were carried out in the participating departments, representing 50.5% of all NHMD-recorded colorectal resections (n = 8576) in Austria in 2013. Of these 4335 colonic and rectal resections, 2597 (59.9%) were carried out using an open approach, 1674 (38.6%) were laparoscopic, and an exact classification was not available for 64 (1.5%). Among the NHMD-recorded colonic and rectal resections, 6342 (73.9%) were carried out with an open approach, and 2234 (26.1%) were laparoscopic. The proportion of colorectal resections that are carried out laparoscopically is low (26.1%). Technical challenges and a learning curve with a significant number of cases may be reasons for the slow adoption of laparoscopic colonic surgery.

  18. Socio-Economic Aspects of National Communication Systems. I. Radio Broadcasting in Austria. Communication and Society, 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signitzer, Benno; Luger, Kurt

    The first in a series that examines the role of radio broadcasting in the process of socioeconomic and cultural change in three countries with different types of broadcasting organization--Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Venezuela--this volume focuses on Austria. It deals with the cultural implications of broadcasting structures and their ownership…

  19. Geoconservation mapping using digital geomorphological maps in Vorarlberg, Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijmonsbergen, A. C.; De Jong, M. G. G.; de Graaff, L. W. S.; Anders, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological inventories are being made in the State of Vorarlberg (Austria) since the mid-1950s by the University of Amsterdam. Starting as an academic training fieldwork for undergraduate geomorphology students, PhD students and staff members soon recognized the research potential of the unique alpine landscape. In particular, landforms and deposits of the ice-marginal environment and pollen records preserved in peat provide valuable proxies for climate reconstruction and give detailed insight in the former growth and decay of the Rhine glacier network and of local glaciers, and assist in reconstructing landscape development in general. A project was started in 2007 to prepare community wide inventory maps of potential geoconservation areas, based on digital geomorphological mapping in a Geographical Information System (GIS). A stepwise protocol was designed for the identification of potential geoconservation areas in the landscape, comprising: 1. Preparing digital geomorphological maps, using a morphogenetic classification scheme 2. Assigning values for selected geoconservation assessment criteria to types of geomorphological features 3. Ranking the criteria assessment values into three categories of potential geoconservation value, and 4. Storing, visualizing and describing the geoconservation data. Four major traits are used in the weighting and ranking protocol (steps 2 and 3): scientific relevance, frequency of occurrence, disturbance, and environmental vulnerability. The process of assigning values and of ranking the landforms and deposits has been automated in GIS. For the evaluation of disturbance we use digital infrastructure layers in GIS which can be intersected with the potential geoconservation areas to determine the level of disturbance. The proposed method is demonstrated for the municipality of Lech, a well-known winter skiing resort. To illustrate the loss of high-rank potential geoconservation areas due to human influence over the last 50

  20. Epidemiology and socioeconomic impact of seasonal affective disorder in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjrek, E; Baldinger-Melich, P; Spies, M; Papageorgiou, K; Kasper, S; Winkler, D

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subtype of recurrent depressive or bipolar disorder that is characterized by regular onset and remission of affective episodes at the same time of the year. The aim of the present study was to provide epidemiological data and data on the socioeconomic impact of SAD in the general population of Austria. We conducted a computer-assisted telephone interview in 910 randomly selected subjects (577 females and 333 males) using the Seasonal Health Questionnaire (SHQ), the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Telephone numbers were randomly drawn from all Austrian telephone books and transformed using the random last digits method. The last birthday method was employed to choose the target person for the interviews. Out of our subjects, 2.5% fulfilled criteria for the seasonal pattern specifier according to DSM-5 and 2.4% (95% CI=1.4-3.5%) were diagnosed with SAD. When applying the ICD-10 criteria 1.9% (95% CI=0.9-2.8%) fulfilled SAD diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of fall-winter depression according to the Kasper-Rosenthal criteria was determined to be 3.5%. The criteria was fulfilled by 15.1% for subsyndromal SAD (s-SAD). We did not find any statistically significant gender differences in prevalence rates. When using the DSM-5 as a gold standard for the diagnosis of SAD, diagnosis derived from the SPAQ yielded a sensitivity of 31.8% and a specificity of 97.2%. Subjects with SAD had significantly higher scores on the SDS and higher rates of sick leave and days with reduced productivity than healthy subjects. Prevalence estimates for SAD with the SHQ are lower than with the SPAQ. Our data are indicative of the substantial burden of disease and the socioeconomic impact of SAD. This epidemiological data shows a lack of gender differences in SAD prevalence. The higher rates of females in clinical SAD samples might, at least in part, be explained by lower help seeking behaviour in

  1. Privatizing education: free school policy in Sweden and England

    OpenAIRE

    Wiborg, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden has bypassed England by far in outsourcing schools to private providers. The comparative argument promulgated in this article is that the combination ...

  2. Energy policies of IEA countries: Sweden - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    Sweden is one of the leading IEA countries in the use of renewable energy and has a long tradition of ambitious and successful policies to improve energy efficiency. Compared to the other IEA countries, Sweden's CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP are low, partly owing to efficient and low-carbon space heating, and virtually carbon-free electricity generation. The country also remains a forerunner in electricity market liberalisation. Still, even if Sweden has continued to make progress in most areas of its energy policy since the IEA last conducted an in-depth review in 2004, there is room for improvement. As Sweden plans to further increase the use of renewable energy, it is crucial that these supplies are produced and used in the most sustainable manner for the environment and the economy as a whole. With regard to CO2 emissions, more can be done in all sectors, but as transport is the largest polluter and its emissions are increasing, it is the logical focus for Sweden's efforts to reduce emissions further. This is a significant challenge. Nuclear provides almost half of the electricity in Sweden, at a low cost and without CO2 emissions. But the future of nuclear power in the national power mix is still uncertain. To provide clear guidance to the electricity sector, Sweden will need to resolve the ambiguity about the future of nuclear power in the country. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Sweden and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to provide input to Swedish energy policy makers to help them identify a path towards a more sustainable energy future.

  3. Setting the Holocene clock using varved lake sediments in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Zillén, Lovisa

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study annually laminated (varved) Holocene lake sediment in Sweden, their formation and their potential as chronological and palaeoecological archives. Five lakes with continuous Holocene varved lake sediment sequences in northern (Västerbotten) and west central Sweden (Värmland) were investigated. Three of these sequences were discovered during this study, which identified the climatic and environmental prerequisites for the formation of varves and, therefore, p...

  4. From micromorphology to palaeoenvironment: The MIS 10 to MIS 5 record in Paudorf (Lower Austria)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprafke, Tobias; Thiel, Christine; Terhorst, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    The loess-palaeosol sequence (LPS) in Paudorf, Lower Austria is characterised by varying dust sedimentation rates, re-deposition with admixture of local rock fragments, erosion and pedogenic overprinting. Detailed semi-quantitative micromorphological analyses reveal the complex genesis of the pal......The loess-palaeosol sequence (LPS) in Paudorf, Lower Austria is characterised by varying dust sedimentation rates, re-deposition with admixture of local rock fragments, erosion and pedogenic overprinting. Detailed semi-quantitative micromorphological analyses reveal the complex genesis...

  5. Library Automation in Norway--Some Main Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solvberg, Ingeborg

    1983-01-01

    Description of how aspects of library automation are dealt with in Norway highlights main centers for library automation (Norsk Senter for Informatik, two universities); Bibsys--integrated library automation system (bibliographic subsystem, circulation subsystem); and Bibnett project (project studying system-to-system communication between…

  6. Carbon sources in vertical profile of Norway spruce stand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Urban, Otmar; Acosta, Manuel; Pokorný, Radek; Havránková, Kateřina; Formanek, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 30 (2003), s. 199-206 ISSN 1336-5266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A141; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : Carbon stock * respiration * Norway spruce Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanSelm, K; Sam, DL; Van Oudenhoven, JP

    In this study the relative influence of age, gender, locus of control, preferred acculturation strategy, perceived majority members' attitude, and social support on life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees was examined. Hundred and six Bosnians living temporarily in Norway completed a

  8. The Bookshelf: Digitisation and Access to Copyright Items in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstein, Vigdis Moe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges faced in digitising copyright-protected books and other materials within the National Library of Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of Bokhylla, or The Bookshelf, the paper outlines the strategies adopted within the National Library of Norway…

  9. An Attempt to Simulate Historic Front Variations of Nigardsbreen, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1986-01-01

    Nigardsbreen (Norway) is one of the very few highlatitude glaciers from which a long record of front positions is known (starting in the beginning of the 18th century). In this paper a dynamic glacier model is used to investigate the possible causes of the observed front variations. These

  10. Accelerating warming and degradation of permafrost in northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzelmuller, Bernd; Isaksen, Ketil; Westermann, Sebastian; Hauck, Christian; Hilbich, Christin

    2017-04-01

    Permafrost is sensitive to climate change, modulating geomorphological process rates and ultimately landscape development. In Norway, since the 1980ies many studies have been carried out to evaluate the permafrost distribution, its changing state and its relation especially to climate and snow conditions. This knowledge has flown into numerical models, calculating ground temperatures in space and time. At present Norway has an unique data set obtained from bore holes where we measure temperatures along both altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. In addition at all sites geophysical surveys are available using refraction seismic and electrical resistivity tomography, partly multi-temporal. Finally, daily gridded data sets of meteorological parameters such as air temperature, precipitation and associated snow cover are available back to 1957, allowing the evaluation of climate-ground thermal regime relations along regional gradients. This presentation summarises a c. 10 year record of ground thermal measurements and geophysical surveys from three main sites in northern Norway, along with new evaluations of changes in palsa distribution and size. For the first time we demonstrate the development of talliks in mountain permafrost in northern Norway, and relate and discuss the development of these talliks to changing atmospheric and snow conditions. The observations are also related to long-term change detection observations of palsa mires in the vicinity of the bore holes, highlighting accelerating thaw and degradation of permafrost during the last two decades.

  11. Reproduction of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luksenburg, JA; Pedersen, T; Falk-Petersen, IB

    The reproduction and life history events of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius were studied in an unexploited high latitude population in Tromso, northern Norway. Shorthorn sculpins were sampled from November 1998 to March 1999 to determine sex ratio, spawning period, oogenesis, fecundity,

  12. Topographical mineralogy of the Bamble sector, south Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Zwaan, J.C.; Touret, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Bamble sector of southern Norway is a classic high grade metamorphic gneiss region, which provided specimens to many mineralogical collections all over the world. The topographical mineralogy of this area is described and reviewed. All minerals known to occur in the area are listed according to

  13. Mountain Norway spruce forests: Needle supply and its nutrient content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Marcela; Vacek, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2003), s. 327-332 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Šumava Mts. * Mountain Norway spruce forest * needle mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  14. Aligning Participation with Authorship: Independent Transmedia Documentary Production in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsen, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe main contribution of this article is to describe how the concept of non-fiction transmedia has challenged the independent documentary film community in Norway. How the new possibilities afforded by web- and mobile media, with the potential of reconfiguring the current relation

  15. Alternative Sport Programmes and Social Inclusion in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skille, Eivind Asrum; Waddington, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the "alternative" sport and physical activities provided by the Sports City Programme (SCP) in Norway, which are designed to attract more young people (especially inactive young people) to take part in physical activities. In particular, it examines whether these "alternative" sports have been more…

  16. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to Southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In northern Europe, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the European subtype is usually transmitted to humans by the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The aims of the present study are (i) to obtain up-to-date information on the TBEV prevalence in host-seeking I. ricinus in southern and central Sweden; (ii) to compile and review all relevant published records on the prevalence of TBEV in ticks in northern Europe; and (iii) to analyse and try to explain how the TBE virus can be maintained in natural foci despite an apparently low TBEV infection prevalence in the vector population. Methods To estimate the mean minimum infection rate (MIR) of TBEV in I. ricinus in northern Europe (i.e. Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland) we reviewed all published TBEV prevalence data for host-seeking I. ricinus collected during 1958–2011. Moreover, we collected 2,074 nymphs and 906 adults of I. ricinus from 29 localities in Sweden during 2008. These ticks were screened for TBEV by RT-PCR. Results The MIR for TBEV in nymphal and adult I. ricinus was 0.28% for northern Europe and 0.23% for southern Sweden. The infection prevalence of TBEV was significantly lower in nymphs (0.10%) than in adult ticks (0.55%). At a well-known TBEV-endemic locality, Torö island south-east of Stockholm, the TBEV prevalence (MIR) was 0.51% in nymphs and 4.48% in adults of I. ricinus. Conclusions If the ratio of nymphs to adult ticks in the TBEV-analysed sample differs from that in the I. ricinus population in the field, the MIR obtained will not necessarily reflect the TBEV prevalence in the field. The relatively low TBEV prevalence in the potential vector population recorded in most studies may partly be due to: (i) inclusion of uninfected ticks from the ‘uninfected areas’ surrounding the TBEV endemic foci; (ii) inclusion of an unrepresentative, too large proportion of immature ticks, compared to adult ticks, in the analysed tick pools; and (iii) shortcomings in the laboratory

  17. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to Southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, John H-O; Golovljova, Irina; Vene, Sirkka; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2014-03-11

    In northern Europe, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the European subtype is usually transmitted to humans by the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The aims of the present study are (i) to obtain up-to-date information on the TBEV prevalence in host-seeking I. ricinus in southern and central Sweden; (ii) to compile and review all relevant published records on the prevalence of TBEV in ticks in northern Europe; and (iii) to analyse and try to explain how the TBE virus can be maintained in natural foci despite an apparently low TBEV infection prevalence in the vector population. To estimate the mean minimum infection rate (MIR) of TBEV in I. ricinus in northern Europe (i.e. Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland) we reviewed all published TBEV prevalence data for host-seeking I. ricinus collected during 1958-2011. Moreover, we collected 2,074 nymphs and 906 adults of I. ricinus from 29 localities in Sweden during 2008. These ticks were screened for TBEV by RT-PCR. The MIR for TBEV in nymphal and adult I. ricinus was 0.28% for northern Europe and 0.23% for southern Sweden. The infection prevalence of TBEV was significantly lower in nymphs (0.10%) than in adult ticks (0.55%). At a well-known TBEV-endemic locality, Torö island south-east of Stockholm, the TBEV prevalence (MIR) was 0.51% in nymphs and 4.48% in adults of I. ricinus. If the ratio of nymphs to adult ticks in the TBEV-analysed sample differs from that in the I. ricinus population in the field, the MIR obtained will not necessarily reflect the TBEV prevalence in the field. The relatively low TBEV prevalence in the potential vector population recorded in most studies may partly be due to: (i) inclusion of uninfected ticks from the 'uninfected areas' surrounding the TBEV endemic foci; (ii) inclusion of an unrepresentative, too large proportion of immature ticks, compared to adult ticks, in the analysed tick pools; and (iii) shortcomings in the laboratory techniques used to detect the virus that may be

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors differ between rural and urban Sweden: the 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, Martin; Lundqvist, Robert; Lilja, Mikael; Eliasson, Mats

    2014-08-09

    Rural communities have a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors than urban communities. In Sweden, socioeconomic transition and urbanization have led to decreased populations in rural areas and changing characteristics of the remaining inhabitants. We investigated the risk factors in urban and rural populations in Northern Sweden. The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA Study invited a random sample of 2,500 people, 25 to 74 years and 69.2% participated. Community size was classified as rural = 15,000. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender and education. The rural population was older and the proportion of men was higher than in the urban areas. Having only primary education was more common in rural areas than in urban areas (26.2% vs. 12.3%). Waist and hip circumference, body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol levels were higher in rural areas than in urban areas, even after adjusting for differences in age and gender. The largest differences between rural and urban dwellers were seen in waist circumference of women (4.8 cm), BMI of women (1.8 units) and cholesterol of men (0.37 mmol/l). Blood pressure was higher in rural areas, but not after adjusting for age and gender.Participants in rural areas were more often treated for hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, hospitalized for myocardial infarction and diagnosed with diabetes. However, after adjusting for age and gender, there were no differences. The odds ratio for being physically active comparing rural areas to urban areas was 0.73 (95% CI 0.53; 1.01). Smoking, snuff use and the prevalence of pathological glucose tolerance did not differ between community sizes. Middle-sized communities often had values in between those found in rural and urban communities, but overall they were more similar to the rural population. Further adjustment for education did not change the results for any variable. In 2009 the rural population in northern Sweden was older, with less education, higher BMI, more sedentary

  19. Tardigrades of Sweden; an updated check-list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2015-07-07

    Tardigrades occur worldwide and in a variety of ecosystems and habitats representing an important component of the micrometazoan biodiversity. Several studies documenting the occurrence of tardigrades in Sweden have been published since the first reports in early 1900, but no comprehensive summary of these studies have been published. We compiled the available information on recorded tardigrades from Sweden, using material from published studies and museum and university collections. In total, our review document 101 species of tardigrades that have been recorded from Sweden (an updated checklist of tardigrades from Sweden will be available online), of which 14 species are new records for the country. The highest number of species was recorded in the northernmost province of Lappland and the more southern provinces of Uppland and Skåne, while much lower species numbers are reported from the middle part of Sweden. This pattern probably represents biased sampling activities of biologists rather than real differences in biodiversity of tardigrades. In view of the few studies that have been made on tardigrade biodiversity in Sweden, the relatively high number of tardigrade species recorded, representing almost a tenth of the species recorded worldwide, indicates that many more species remain to be found. In this respect, more studies of the marine ecosystems along the Swedish west coast and the long Baltic Sea coastline would be of particular interest.

  20. Policymaking through healthcare registries in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örnerheim, Mattias

    2016-09-04

    Healthcare registries, otherwise known in Sweden as national quality registries (NQRs), have progressed from being a patient-focused system supporting medical results to become the basis of a health policy steering instrument called regional comparisons (RCs). This article seeks to explain RCs as an unintended consequence of the NQR development, by utilizing the concepts of policy entrepreneurs and streams of impact: the problem stream (problem perceived), the policy stream (what is valid), and the political stream (governmental objectives). The empirical contribution lies in insights on how the RCs have developed as an unintended consequence of entrepreneurial deliberate action in the process of creating NQRs. These findings are based on documents, interviews, and previous research in the social sciences. The article also argues for a critical understanding of public knowledge management (PKM) related to experiences in the development of NQRs regarding how to use knowledge in healthcare government. This article highlights how knowledge generated in quality systems based on registries could imply a stronger role for authorities in exerting control over the medical profession. It also discusses the potential use of research evidence on NQRs as a base for more efficient policymaking. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Couple childbearing plans and births in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E; Hoem, J M

    1998-08-01

    We use data from a nationally representative sample of Swedish couples to estimate effects of partners' childbearing plans on the rate of subsequent childbearing. Only 11% of the couples in this sample expressed plans in opposite directions (plan to have a child versus not to have a child), but 24% had differing levels of certainty about their plans. Of the couples in which both partners said they definitely planned to have another child, 44% had a child within two years. If neither partner planned to have another child, less than 2% of couples had a birth. The figure was 6% if the partners had opposing childbearing plans. Thus, both men and women exerted veto power over further childbearing. Disagreements were equally likely to be resolved in favor of the woman as of the man, and effects of partners' plans on the birth hazard did not depend on the couple's gender arrangements, family ideologies, or marital status. We discuss these results in the context of Sweden's public support for gender equality and for childrearing, its pervasive contraceptive regime, and its high rates of cohabitation. We also argue for the collection of data from partners in future family and fertility surveys.

  2. Reindeer pastoralism in Sweden 1550-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Lundmark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 16th century we get the first opportunity to a more detailed knowledge of reindeerpastoralism in Sweden. At that time the Sami lived in a hunter-gatherer economy. A family had in average about 10-20 domesticated reindeer, mainly used for transport. They could also be milked and used as decoys when hunting wild reindeer. During late 16th century the Swedish state and merchants bought large amounts of fur from the Sami. The common payment was butter and flour. This created a new prosperity, which lead to a considerable increase in population in Swedish Lapland. The population became too large for a hunter-gatherer economy. A crisis in early 17th century was the starting point for the transition to a large-scale nomadic reindeer pastoralism. Up to the middle of the 18th century intensive reindeer pastoralism was successful. But the pastoralism became gradually too intensive and diseases started to spread when the herds were kept too densely crowded for milking in summertime. During the first decades of the 19th century reindeer pastoralism in Sweden went through a major crisis. The number of reindeer herding mountain-Sami decreased considerably, mainly because they went to live permanently along the Norwegian coastline. Intensive reindeer pastoralism started to give way for extensive herding towards the end of the 19th century. In the north of Sweden influences from the Kautokeino Sami were an important factor, in the south extensive reindeer herding started to expand when the market for meat came closer to the Sami. During the 1920s the milking of reindeer ceased in Sweden, except in a few families. At that time Sami families from the north had been removed southwards. They further demonstrated the superiority of extensive herding to the Sami in mid- and southern Lapland. Reindeer pastoralism is basically a system of interaction between man and animal, but it has been heavily influenced by market forces and state intervention

  3. A historical review of gravimetric observations in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnvald Pettersen, Bjørn

    2016-10-01

    The first gravity determinations in Norway were made by Edward Sabine in 1823 with a pendulum instrument by Henry Kater. Seventy years later a Sterneck pendulum was acquired by the Norwegian Commission for the International Arc Measurements. It improved the precision and eventually reduced the bias of the absolute calibration from 85 to 15 mGal. The last pendulum observations in Norway were made in 1955 with an instrument from Cambridge University. At a precision of ±1 mGal, the purpose was to calibrate a section of the gravity line from Rome, Italy, to Hammerfest, Norway. Relative spring gravimeters were introduced in Norway in 1946 and were used to densify and expand the national gravity network. These data were used to produce regional geoids for Norway and adjacent ocean areas. Improved instrument precision allowed them to connect Norwegian and foreign fundamental stations as well. Extensive geophysical prospecting was made, as in other countries. The introduction of absolute gravimeters based on free-fall methods, especially after 2004, improved the calibration by 3 orders of magnitude and immediately revealed the secular changes of the gravity field in Norway. This was later confirmed by satellite gravimetry, which provides homogeneous data sets for global and regional gravity models. The first-ever determinations of gravity at sea were made by pendulum observations onboard the Norwegian polar vessel Fram during frozen-in conditions in the Arctic Ocean in 1893-1896. Simultaneously, an indirect method was developed at the University of Oslo for deducing gravity at sea with a hypsometer. The precision of both methods was greatly superseded by relative spring gravimeters 50 years later. They were employed extensively both at sea and on land. When GPS allowed precise positioning, relative gravimeters were mounted in airplanes to cover large areas of ocean faster than before. Gravimetry is currently being applied to study geodynamical phenomena relevant to

  4. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-15

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  5. Access to renewable energy in Norway. A contribution to Climate Cure 2020; Tilgangen til fornybar energi i Norge. Et innspill til Klimakur 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Nybakke, Karen; Skau, Seming

    2010-03-15

    Union's conditions are not completed. Energy Ministers in Sweden and Norway acquired in September 2009 agreement to collaborate on a joint market for electricity certificates, a support scheme for renewable electricity production. This market is scheduled to start in 2012 and will be a means to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources. (AG)

  6. Forecast of useful energy for the TIMES-Norway model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-25

    A regional forecast of useful energy demand in seven Norwegian regions is calculated based on an earlier work with a national forecast. This forecast will be input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway and analyses will result in forecasts of energy use of different energy carriers with varying external conditions (not included in this report). The forecast presented here describes the methodology used and the resulting forecast of useful energy. lt is based on information of the long-term development of the economy by the Ministry of Finance, projections of population growths from Statistics Norway and several other studies. The definition of a forecast of useful energy demand is not absolute, but depends on the purpose. One has to be careful not to include parts that are a part of the energy system model, such as energy efficiency measures. In the forecast presented here the influence of new building regulations and the prohibition of production of incandescent light bulbs in EU etc. are included. Other energy efficiency measures such as energy management, heat pumps, tightening of leaks etc. are modelled as technologies to invest in and are included in the TIMES-Norway model. The elasticity between different energy carriers are handled by the TIMES-Norway model and some elasticity is also included as the possibility to invest in energy efficiency measures. The forecast results in an increase of the total useful energy from 2006 to 2050 by 18 o/o. The growth is expected to be highest in the regions South and East. The industry remains at a constant level in the base case and increased or reduced energy demand is analysed as different scenarios with the TIMES-Norway model. The most important driver is the population growth. Together with the assumptions made it results in increased useful energy demand in the household and service sectors of 25 o/o and 57 % respectively.(au)

  7. Ethnic differences in the incidence of cancer in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerkind, Kirsti V; Qureshi, Samera A; Møller, Bjørn; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Deapen, Dennis; Kumar, Bernadette; Ursin, Giske

    2017-04-15

    Traditionally there have been differences in cancer incidence across geographic regions. When immigrants have moved from low-income to high-income countries, their incidence have changed as they have adapted to the lifestyle in the new host country. Given worldwide changes in lifestyle factors over time, we decided to examine cancer incidence in immigrant groups in Norway, a country with a recent immigration history, complete cancer registration and universal public health care. We linked immigration history for the complete population to information on cancer diagnosis from the Cancer Registry of Norway for the period 1990-2012. Age-standardized (world) overall and site-specific cancer incidence were estimated for different immigrant groups and compared to incidence among individuals born in Norway. Among 850,008 immigrants, 9,158 men and 10,334 women developed cancer, and among 5,508,429 Norwegian-born, 263,316 men and 235,020 women developed cancer. While incidence of breast and colorectal cancer were highest among individuals born in Norway and other high-income countries, other cancer types were higher in immigrants from low-income countries. Lung cancer incidence was highest in Eastern European men, and men and women from Eastern Europe had high incidence of stomach cancer. Incidence of liver cancer was substantially higher in immigrants from low-income countries than in individuals born in Norway and other high-income countries. Our results mirror known cancer challenges across the world. Although cancer incidence overall is lower in immigrants from low-income countries, certain cancers, such as lung, liver and stomach cancer, represent major challenges in specific immigrant groups. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Income distribution and mortality in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lindholm

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The hypothesis that a high income inequality on a societal level is associated with poor health outcomes has been both rejected and accepted in empirical studies. Whether the influence of economic circumstances on health operates at the individual level or societal level has important implications on policy and intervention alternatives. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between income inequality and mortality in Swedish municipalities and if the relationship varies depending on the mean income or on the time-lag between income inequality and mortality.

    Methods: The study was based on register data on mean income and income inequality (Gini coefficients from Statistics Sweden 1982 and 1998, aggregated on the municipality level. Data on age-standardised death rates per 100,000 persons were obtained for 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2002. The analysis on 1998 was a test of the robustness of the results.

    Results: The relationship between high income inequality in 1982 and mortality in 1983 was negative with a similar relationship in 1998. Using latency periods, the results show a decreasing trend of mortality in relation to higher Gini coefficients. A positive relationship between Gini and mean income implies that municipalities with larger income distribution also had a higher mean income and vice versa.

    Conclusions: High income inequality does not have a negative effect on mortality in Swedish municipalities. The municipalities with high income inequality have also high mean income as opposed to many other countries. The income level seems to be more substantial for mortality than the income inequality.

  9. Pestivirus Exposure in Free-living and Captive Deer in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krametter, Reinhild; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Loitsch, Angelika

    2004-01-01

    During the hunting season of 2001–02, blood and spleen samples from 59 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 77 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), four fallow deer (Dama dama), and five chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) were collected from nine hunting districts (n=133) and one deer farm (n=12) in southern Austria...

  10. Local responses to global technological change – Contrasting restructuring practices in two rural communities in Austria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.; Lang, R..; Harms, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate into local economic restructuring in rural areas that are affected by disruptive technologies. Drawing on an institutionalist framework we apply systematic theory-informed case study analysis of two rural communities in Austria and identify practices that are crucial

  11. Repressive autonomy Discourses on and surveillance of marriage migration from Turkey to Austria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabine Strasser

    2014-01-01

    .... My findings show that transnational marriages in Austria are often conflated with forced and fictitious marriages and consequently rejected as fraudulent or "violence in the name of tradition". Furthermore, legal provisions against problematic marriages do not liberate women but repress their autonomy.

  12. Austria kohtute korralduse, halduse ja kontrolli õiguslikud alused / Wolfgang Fellner ; tlk. Pille Vinkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fellner, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Austria kohtute süsteem: Ülemkohtupalat, kohtukolleegiumid, ülemliidumaakohtud, liidumaakohtud ja erikohtud; monokraatliku justiitshalduse organid, kohtute koosseisuliste kohtade määramine, teenistujate töölevõtt ja väljaõpe, kantseleitöö, justiitstöötajate palk ja teenistusjärelevalve

  13. Asian longhorned beetle in Austria: critical comments on phytosanitary measures and regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannes Krehan

    2003-01-01

    The ALB is indigenous to East Asia (China, Korea, Taiwan, but not actually present in Japan). It has been introduced twice into North America: New York City, N.Y (1996) and Chicago, Illinois (1998). The first record for Europe was in August 2001 in Braunau, Austria where it was likely introduced through wood packing material (i.g. pallets, crates, dunnage etc.) from...

  14. Two new dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera) from the Miocene of Carinthia (Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädel, Mario; Lechner, Thomas S

    2017-03-13

    Two new species of fossil dragonflies from the Middle Miocene fossil site Schaßbach (Carinthia, Austria) are described. The presence of Gomphaeschna carinthiae sp. nov. and Ictinogomphus hassleri sp. nov. in the fossil record of Central Europe confirms the scenario of a more widespread distribution of the represented genera in the Miocene in contrast to their Recent distribution.

  15. Ida-Euroopa ja soorollid Austrias näitusel / Kati Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Kati, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Näitus "Soorollid - naiselikkus ja mehelikkus Ida-Euroopa kunstis" ("Gender Check. Feminity and Masculinity in Eastern European Art") Austria moodsa kunsti muuseumis 14. veebruarini 2010. Ekspositsioon algab 1960. aastatega. Kuraator Bojana Pejic. Eestit esindab 11 kunstnikku-rühmitust. Eesti valikust

  16. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Pasterze (Eastern Alps, Carinthia, Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2015-12-17

    The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Pasterze yielded 35 lichen species. Placidiopsis oreades Breuss (Verrucariales) is new to Austria. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition within the forefield and with four other glacier forefields of the Eastern Alps.

  17. Taastuvenergeetika võimalusi regionaalarengus (Austria näitel) / Maria Habicht, Andres Annuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habicht, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Güssingi piirkond Austrias sattus eelmise sajandi kaheksakümnendate aastate lõpus majandusraskustesse majanduse orienteerituse tõttu ainult põllumajandusele. Olukorrast väljapääs leiti taastuvenergeetikas. Oma metsaressursse ja põllumaid kasutades on jõutud praeguseks varustada oma piirkond nii soojus- kui ka elektrienergiaga

  18. CAMx simulations with different resolutions in flatland and complex terrain for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Krüger, Bernd C.

    2010-05-01

    The regional weather forecast model ALADIN-Austria of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) is used in combination with the chemical transport model CAMx (www.camx.com) to conduct forecasts of gaseous and particulate air pollutants over Austria. The forecasts "which are done in cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU)" are supported by the regional governments since 2005. In the operational model version, the Air Quality model for Austria (AQA), uses the operational meteorological forecasts conducted with ALADIN which has a horizontal resolution of 9.7 km. Since 2008 the higher resolved ALARO is also available at the ZAMG. It has a horizontal resolution of 4.9 km and models the PBL with more vertical layers than ALADIN. ALARO also uses more complex algorithms to calculate precipitation, radiation and TKE. Another advantage of ALARO concerning the chemical modeling with CAMx is that additionally to the higher resolved meteorological forecasts it is possible to use finer emission inventories which are available for Austria. From 2006 to 2007 a SODAR-RASS of the ZAMG was operated in the north-eastern Austrian flat lands (Kittsee) which provides a comprehensive data set to compare vertical profiles of wind and temperature with the model predictions. Both models are used as meteorological driver for the chemical dispersion model CAMx. The results of predicted PM10 concentrations are compared to air quality measurements in Kittsee and also to observations in complex terrain for a selected episode.

  19. INTEREST-RATE DIFFERENTIALS AND EXCHANGE-RATE POLICIES IN AUSTRIA, THE NETHERLANDS, AND BELGIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KNOT, K; DEHAAN, J

    In this paper, the small, but persistent interest rate differentials via-a-vis Germany which have existed in Austria, the Netherlands, and Belgium are analysed. These interest differentials may be thought of to consist of three parts: expected exchange rate movements within the band, expected

  20. More than a Culture Capsule: Teaching Switzerland and Austria in the German Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabisch, Peter Karl

    2012-01-01

    This essay offers some direction for greater integration of Austria and Switzerland into every level of the German language and culture curriculum. By excavating a number of now nearly forgotten intercultural connections between these alpine countries and the U.S., it is possible to present a more complete and complex picture of German-speaking…

  1. Forming Social Partnership Policy in Vocational Training of Service Sector Specialists in Germany and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredenets, Nadiya

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of forming social partnership policy in vocational training of service sector specialists in Germany and Austria. The foreign and domestic pedagogical experience in establishing an effective system of social partnership in vocational education has been analyzed. The author has considered main factors of social…

  2. Brachiopod biogeochemistry and isotope stratigraphy from the Rhaetian Eiberg section in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korte, Christoph; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    2017-01-01

    -Triassic extinction, a total of 675 and 108 carbonate δ13C and δ18O values have been measured from bulk rock carbonate and articulate brachiopod samples from the Rhaetian Eiberg quarry succession (Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria) respectively. Both brachiopod and bulk rock oxygen isotope trends are compatible...

  3. Teaching Practices and Beliefs about Inclusion of General and Special Needs Teachers in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Susanne; Holzinger, Andrea; Krammer, Mathias; Gebhardt, Markus; Hessels, Marco G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Self-reports of primary and secondary school teachers who teach in general and special education classrooms in Austria were examined in terms of their engagement in teamwork (between special and general education teachers), instructional methods that they use, factors that positively influence inclusive education, and their needs for training. The…

  4. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from Human Patients, Upper Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Gercek, Sigrid; Mittermayer, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal type ST398 is usually associated with animals. We examined 1,098 confirmed MRSA samples from human patients and found that 21 were MRSA ST398. Most (16) patients were farmers. Increasing prevalence from 1.3% (2006) to 2.5% (2008) shows emergence of MRSA ST398 in humans in Austria. PMID:19402964

  5. The Rise of Work-Based Academic Education in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Austria, Germany and Switzerland are renowned for their extensive systems of collective vocational skill formation, which, however, have developed largely in separation from higher education. This divide has become increasingly contested as a result of a variety of socioeconomic factors that have led to an increasing demand for higher level…

  6. Research on Language Teaching and Learning in Austria (2004-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Puffer, Christiane; Faistauer, Renate; Vetter, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This overview of six years of research on language learning and teaching in Austria covers a period of dynamic development in the field. While all the studies reviewed here illustrate research driven by a combination of local and global concerns and theoretical frameworks, some specific clusters of research interest emerge. The first of these…

  7. Informal Assessment of Competences in the Context of Science Standards in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffl, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Science standards have been a topic in educational research in Austria for about ten years now. Starting in 2005, competency structure models have been developed for junior and senior classes of different school types. After evaluating these models, prototypic tasks were created to point out the meaning of the models to teachers. At the moment,…

  8. Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

  9. Skilled Voices?: Reflections on Political Participation and Education in Austria. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Florian; Rosenberger, Sieglinde

    2007-01-01

    This study, part of OECD/CERI's project on Measuring the Social Outcomes of Learning, investigates the relationship between educational attainment and political participation in Austria. First, a model based on various theoretical considerations is introduced. This incorporates direct educational effects as well as indirect effects that occur…

  10. West Nile Virus positive blood donation and subsequent entomological investigation, Austria, 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolodziejek, J.; Seidel, B.; Jungbauer, C.; Dimmel, K.; Kolodziejek, M.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Allerberger, F.; Nowotny, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2015), e0126381 E-ISSN 1932-6203 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  11. The Relationships between Paranormal Belief, Creationism, Intelligent Design and Evolution at Secondary Schools in Vienna (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Erich; Turic, Katharina; Milasowszky, Norbert; Van Adzin, Katherine; Hergovich, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the relationships between a multiple set of paranormal beliefs and the acceptance of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design, respectively, in Europe. Using a questionnaire, 2,129 students at secondary schools in Vienna (Austria) answered the 26 statements of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale…

  12. Topography and geology site effects from the intensity prediction model (ShakeMap) for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The seismicity in Austria can be categorized as moderated. Despite the fact that the hazard seems to be rather low, earthquakes can cause great damage and losses, specially in densely populated and industrialized areas. It is well known, that equations which predict intensity as a function of magnitude and distance, among other parameters, are useful tool for hazard and risk assessment. Therefore, this study aims to determine an empirical model of the ground shaking intensities (ShakeMap) of a series of earthquakes occurred in Austria between 1000 and 2014. Furthermore, the obtained empirical model will lead to further interpretation of both, contemporary and historical earthquakes. A total of 285 events, which epicenters were located in Austria, and a sum of 22.739 reported macreoseismic data points from Austria and adjoining countries, were used. These events are enclosed in the period 1000-2014 and characterized by having a local magnitude greater than 3. In the first state of the model development, the data was careful selected, e.g. solely intensities equal or greater than III were used. In a second state the data was adjusted to the selected empirical model. Finally, geology and topography corrections were obtained by means of the model residuals in order to derive intensity-based site amplification effects.

  13. BETWEEN EUROPEANIZATION, UNITARISM AND AUTONOMY. REMARKS ON THE CURRENT SITUATION OF FEDERALISM IN AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bußjäger

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The following article describes current challenges of Austrian federalism. On ground of the Federal Constitution from 1920 Austria is a federation with nine autonomous Länder. Federalism is one of the basic principles of the constitution. Nevertheless the Länder are faced with centralizing drive due to Europeanization and unitarism. On the other hand the Länder have a strong regional identity. The Länder are emotionally deeply rooted in theAustrian population. The Länder also participate well in the decision making process on European level.Nevertheless the division of competencies both in legislation and administration between Federation and Länder is complicated and needs to be modernised. In the past various reform projects on federal level had failed while various reforms in the Land constitutions have led to more innovation on Land level. Despite these facts paradigms of reform debates on Austria´s federal system have changed: Until the early nineties of 20th century constitutionalreforms aimed to strengthen the role of the Länder. Since Austria´saccession to the EU reform projects the efficiency of the federal structures of Austria are doubted. Economical and financial crisis probably will increase the pressure for structural reforms.

  14. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  15. [Methods in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS): results of a nationwide survey in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchinger, S; Sapetschnig, I; Danda, M; Sommer, C; Resch, B; Urlesberger, B; Raith, W

    2015-08-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) occurs in neonates whose mothers have taken addictive drugs or were under substitution therapy during pregnancy. Incidence numbers of NAS are on the rise globally, even in Austria NAS is not rare anymore. The aim of our survey was to reveal the status quo of dealing with NAS in Austria. A questionnaire was sent to 20 neonatology departments all over Austria, items included questions on scoring, therapy, breast-feeding and follow-up procedures. The response rate was 95%, of which 94.7% had written guidelines concerning NAS. The median number of children being treated per year for NAS was 4. Finnegan scoring system is used in 100% of the responding departments. Morphine is being used most often, in opiate abuse (100%) as well as in multiple substance abuse (44.4%). The most frequent forms of morphine preparation are morphine and diluted tincture of opium. Frequency as well as dosage of medication vary broadly. 61.1% of the departments supported breast-feeding, regulations concerned participation in a substitution programme and general contraindications (HIV, HCV, HBV). Our results revealed that there is a big west-east gradient in patients being treated per year. NAS is not a rare entity anymore in Austria (up to 50 cases per year in Vienna). Our survey showed that most neonatology departments in Austria treat their patients following written guidelines. Although all of them base these guidelines on international recommendations there is no national consensus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Gambling in Sweden: the cultural and socio-political context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2014-02-01

    To provide an overview, with respect to Sweden, of the cultural history of gambling, the commercialization of gambling, problem gambling research, the prevalence of problem gambling and its prevention and treatment. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Sweden; involvement in gambling research and regulation. Gambling has long been part of Swedish culture. Since about 1980 the gambling market, although still largely monopolistic, has been commercialized. At the same time, problem gambling has emerged as a concept in the public health paradigm. Debate regarding whether or not Sweden's national restrictions on the gambling market are compliant with European Community legislation has helped to put problem gambling on the political agenda. Despite expanded gambling services, the extent of problem gambling on the population level has not changed significantly over the past decade. The stability of problem gambling in Sweden at the population level suggests a homeostatic system involving the gambling market, regulation, prevention and treatment and adaption to risk and harm by gamblers. We have relatively good knowledge of the extent and characteristics of problem gambling in Sweden and of how to treat it, but little is known of how to prevent it effectively. Knowledge is needed of the effectiveness of regulatory actions and approaches, and of responsible gambling measures implemented by gambling companies. © 2013 The Author, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978-2014-From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Fuehrer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis, ocular (D. repens, and subcutaneous (D. repens dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria.Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens-six ocular and 24 subcutaneous and dogs (approximately 50 cases-both D. immitis and D. repens were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs. The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future.The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present.

  18. Benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway using foraminiferal metabarcoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Jan; Esling, Philippe; Lejzerowicz, Franck

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the salmon industry necessitates the development of fast and accurate tools to assess its environmental impact. Macrobenthic monitoring is commonly used to measure the impact of organic enrichment associated with salmon farm activities. However, classical benthic monitoring can...... of macrofauna-based benthic monitoring. Here, we tested the application of foraminiferal metabarcoding to benthic monitoring of salmon farms in Norway. We analysed 140 samples of eDNA and environmental RNA (eRNA) extracted from surface sediment samples collected at 4 salmon farming sites in Norway. We sequenced...... appears to be a promising alternative to classical benthic monitoring, providing a solution to the morpho-taxonomic bottleneck of macrofaunal surveys....

  19. The Alta schist, North Norway: unique rock with unique history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Tom; Aasly, Kari; Meyer, Gurli

    2015-04-01

    Near the small town of Alta, northernmost Norway, are more than thousand small and large schist quarries, some of them dating back to the 1850's. It was the need for roofing material on a local church and a hospital that triggered the production. Since then, the Alta schist has been widely applied in Norway and abroad, known for its quality for roofing material and hard floor covering. The quality lies in the processes behind the formation of the schist. Emplacement of thrust nappes during the Caledonian mountain chain formation in the Silurian caused deformation and metamorphism of the rocks. The Alta schist is situated in one such nappe sheet, where arkosic sandstone where flattened and transformed into mylonite. This made fine mica layers along which the rock can be split, rythmically spaced and separated by quartz-dominated bands. The production of the Alta schist is still characterized by old craft traditions, reflecting a rich history and culture around the schist production.

  20. Transnational spaces of care: migrant nurses in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that international nurse recruitment from Latvia to Norway is not a win–win situation. The gains and losses of nurse migration are unevenly distributed between sender and receiver countries. On the basis of empirical research and interviews with Latvian nurses and families they left behind, this article argues that nurse migration transforms families and communities and that national health services now become global workplaces. Some decades ago feminist research pointed to the fact that the welfare state was based on a male breadwinner family and women’s unpaid production of care work at home. Today this production of unpaid care is “outsourced” from richer to poorer countries and is related to an emergence of transnational spaces of care. International nurse recruitment and global nurse care chains in Norway increasingly provide the labor that prevents the new adult worker model and gender equality politics from being disrupted in times where families are overloaded with elder care loads.