WorldWideScience

Sample records for sweden ieo spain

  1. Oceanography Information System of Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Olvido; Gómez, María; González, Sonsoles

    2016-04-01

    Since 1914, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) performs multidisciplinary studies of the marine environment. In same case are systematic studies and in others are specific studies for special requirements (El Hierro submarine volcanic episode, spill Prestige, others.). Different methodologies and data acquisition techniques are used depending on studies aims. The acquired data are stored and presented in different formats. The information is organized into different databases according to the subject and the variables represented (geology, fisheries, aquaculture, pollution, habitats, etc.). Related to physical and chemical oceanography data, in 1964 was created the DATA CENTER of IEO (CEDO), in order to organize the data about physical and chemical variables, to standardize this information and to serve the international data network SeaDataNet. www.seadatanet.org. This database integrates data about temperature, salinity, nutrients, and tidal data. CEDO allows consult and download the data. http://indamar.ieo.es On the other hand, related to data about marine species in 1999 was developed SIRENO DATABASE. All data about species collected in oceanographic surveys carried out by researches of IEO, and data from observers on fishing vessels are incorporated in SIRENO database. In this database is stored catch data, biomass, abundance, etc. This system is based on architecture ORACLE. Due to the large amount of information collected over the 100 years of IEO history, there is a clear need to organize, standardize, integrate and relate the different databases and information, and to provide interoperability and access to the information. Consequently, in 2000 it emerged the first initiative to organize the IEO spatial information in an Oceanography Information System, based on a Geographical Information System (GIS). The GIS was consolidated as IEO institutional GIS and was created the Spatial Data Infrastructure of IEO (IDEO) following trend of INSPIRE. All

  2. Learnings from wind energy policy in EU, with focus on Denmark, Sweden and Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    The paper describes the learnings from different policies for promotion of wind power and compares the Danish development to that in Sweden and Spain. It is concluded that liberalization has created a number of problems for the promotion of wind power and for the establishment of a sustainable...

  3. Learning from Wind Energy Policy in the EU: Lessons from Denmark, Sweden and Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2007-01-01

    In order to deduce the most efficient policies for promoting wind power, this paper compares the different national energy policies adopted by Denmark, Sweden and Spain, and relates them to wind energy outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the importance of long-range national energy policies...

  4. Vocational Didactics: Core Assumptions and Approaches from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Spain and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Michael; Moreno Herrera, Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    The design of vocational didactics has to meet special requirements. Six core assumptions are identified: outcome orientation, cultural-historical embedding, horizontal structure, vertical structure, temporal structure, and the changing nature of work. Different approaches and discussions from school-based systems (Spain and Sweden) and dual…

  5. Eurosites insights; image, implementation, interpretation and integration of Natura 2000 in European perspective; United Kingdom, Sweden, Spain, France and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neven, M.G.G.; Kistenkas, F.H.; Apeldoorn, van R.C.

    2005-01-01

    This comparative study analyses Natura 2000 nature conservation (EU Birds- and Habitats Directives) alongside the key issues of image, implementation, interpretation and integration. Having quickscanned the EU25, five member states have been selected for further investigation: UK, Sweden, Spain,

  6. Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    In 1985, Sweden's population stood at 8.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 0.2%. The infant mortality rate was 6.4/1000, and life expectancy was 76 years for men and 82 years for women. The gross domestic product was US$100.2 billion, with a per capita income of $11,989. Of the work force of 4.34 million, 4.9% are in agriculture, 29.8% work in industry, 21.3% are employed in the commerce and finance sector, and 43.9% are engaged in services. Among the social problems Sweden faces are the increasingly large proportion of the population over age 65 years and the challenge of integrating immigrants into social and political life while preserving national languages and customs. Development during the 1970s was less favorable than in most comparable countries; however, industrial recovery during the 1980s has restored the competitiveness of Swedish exports. There is general agreement that investment in new plants and machinery must be increased and wages and consumption must be moderated if Sweden is to expand its industrial sector.

  7. Characterization of new users of cilostazol in the UK, Spain, Sweden, and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsague, Jordi; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Calingaert, Brian; Bui, Christine; Varas-Lorenzo, Cristina; Arana, Alejandro; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Rubio, Francisca; Giner-Soriano, Maria; Roso-Llorach, Albert; Linder, Marie; Citarella, Anna; Scholle, Oliver; Blenk, Tilo; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2017-06-01

    To describe the characteristics of new users of cilostazol in Europe with the aim to support the evaluation of its benefit/risk as used in regular clinical practice before the implementation of labeling changes recommended by the European Medicines Agency. New users of cilostazol were identified in populations enrolled in five European health automated databases in the UK (The Health Improvement Network [THIN]), Spain (EpiChron cohort and Information System for the Improvement of Research in Primary Care [SIDIAP]), Sweden (National Registers), and Germany (German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database [GePaRD]) between 2002 and 2012. New users were characterized according to the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities, concurrent use of interacting medications, new contraindications, duration of use, and potential off-label prescribing. We identified 22 593 new users of cilostazol. The median age was between 68.0 (THIN) and 73.7 (Sweden) years. More than 78% of users had concomitant cardiovascular disease, and between 78.8% (GePaRD) and 91.6% (THIN) were treated with interacting medications. Prevalence of new cardiovascular contraindications ranged from 1.5% (THIN) to 11.6% (GePaRD), and concurrent use of two or more antiplatelet drugs ranged from 6.3% (SIDIAP) to 13.5% (EpiChron cohort). Between 39.4% (Sweden) and 52.9% (THIN) of users discontinued cilostazol in the first 3 months. Between 41.0% (SIDIAP) and 93.4% (THIN) were considered to have received cilostazol according to the European Medicines Agency labeling. In this collaborative European study, most cilostazol users were elderly patients with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other comorbidity and concurrent use of interacting drugs, indicating that this is a vulnerable population at high risk of complications, especially cardiovascular events. © 2017 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors

  8. Quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from birds of prey in Portugal are genetically distinct from those isolated from water environments and gulls in Portugal, Spain and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredenburg, Jana; Varela, Ana Rita; Hasan, Badrul; Bertilsson, Stefan; Olsen, Björn; Narciso-da-Rocha, Carlos; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Stedt, Johan; Da Costa, Paulo Martins; Manaia, Célia M

    2014-04-01

    The influence of geographic distribution and type of habitat on the molecular epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli was investigated. Ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli from wastewater, urban water with faecal contamination and faeces of gulls, pigeons and birds of prey, from Portugal, Spain and Sweden were compared based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and quinolone resistance genetic determinants. Multi-locus sequence typing allowed the differentiation of E. coli lineages associated with birds of prey from those inhabiting gulls and waters. E. coli lineages of clinical relevance, such as the complex ST131, were detected in wastewater, streams and gulls in Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Quinolone resistance was due to gyrA and parC mutations, although distinct mutations were detected in birds of prey and in wastewater, streams and gulls isolates. These differences were correlated with specific MLST lineages, suggesting resistance inheritance. Among the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, only aac(6')-ib-cr and qnrS were detected in wastewater, streams and gulls isolates, but not in birds of prey. The horizontal transfer of the gene aac(6')-ib-cr could be inferred from its occurrence in different MLST lineages. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  10. Cost-effectiveness of tiotropium versus glycopyrronium in moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Canada, Spain, Sweden, and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eklund O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oskar Eklund,1 Faraz Afzal,2 Fredrik Borgström,1 Jason Flavin,3 Andrew Ternouth,4 Maria Eugenia Ojanguren,5 Carlos Crespo,5 Mike Baldwin6 1Quantify Research AB, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Boehringer Ingelheim, Asker, Norway; 3Boehringer Ingelheim, Burlington, ON, Canada; 4Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell, Berkshire, UK; 5Boehringer Ingelheim, Sant Cugat del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain; 6Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim, Germany Objectives: Tiotropium (TIO, Spiriva® Handihaler®, is a well-established bronchodilator, LAMA (long acting muscarinic antagonist, for the treatment of moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Clinical evidence from the SPARK trial suggests that TIO is superior to glycopyrronium (GLY, Seebri® Breezhaler®, in terms of severe exacerbations. This modeling study assessed the cost-effectiveness of TIO versus GLY for Canada (CAN, Spain (ESP, Sweden (SWE, and the UK, making use of this new clinical evidence.Methods: A Markov cohort model, with moderate to very severe (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease II–IV COPD patients, was populated with efficacy data from the Understanding Potential Long-term Impacts on Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT and SPARK trials as well as costs, utilities, and epidemiological data relevant for each country. Treatment efficacy was modeled as improvements in lung function, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, and as a lowering of the risk of exacerbations (rate of exacerbations. Risks of exacerbations differed between cohorts based on data from SPARK. Health and cost outcomes were simulated over an approximate lifetime horizon, starting from the age of 65 years. Robustness of results was validated in deterministic sensitivity analyses.Results: Over the lifetime horizon, patients treated with TIO accumulated −623 (CAN, 1,066 (ESP, 1,137 (SWE, and −169 (UK, respectively, in incremental costs (€2014. TIO generated better health outcomes compared to GLY in

  11. Clinical and laboratory studies on herds affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in Denmark, France, Spain, and Sweden: Disease progression and a proposal for herd case definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Baekbo, P.; Rose, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To propose and evaluate a protocol to establish a diagnosis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) at herd level. Materials and methods: The data used included both laboratory data from previous epidemiological studies carried out in Italy, Denmark, and Spain and origina...

  12. Probes to the Inferior Planets - A New Dawn for NEO and IEO Detection Technology Demonstration from Heliocentric Orbits Interior to the Earth's?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, J. T.; Mottola, S.; Drentschew, M.; Drobczyk, M.; Kahle, R.; Maiwald, V.; Quantius, D.; Zabel, P.; Van Zoest, T.

    2011-11-01

    With the launch of MESSENGER and VENUS EXPRESS, a new wave of exploration of the inner solar system has begun. Noting the growing number of probes to the inner solar system, it is proposed to connect the expertise of the respective spacecraft teams and the NEO and IEO survey community to best utilize the extended cruise phases and to provide additional data return in support of pure science as well as planetary defence. Several missions to Venus and Mercury are planned to follow in this decade. Increased interest in the inferior planets is accompanied by several missions designed to study the Sun and the interplanetary medium (IPM) from a position near or in Earth orbit, such as the STEREO probes and SDO. These augment established solar observation capabilities at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrangian point such as the SOHO spacecraft. Thus, three distinct classes of spacecraft operate or observe interior to Earth's orbit. All these spacecraft carry powerful multispectral cameras optimized for their respective primary targets. MESSENGER is scheduled to end its six-year interplanetary cruise in March 2011 to enter Mercury orbit, but a similarly extended cruise with several gravity-assists awaits the European Mercury mission BEPICOLOMBO. Unfortunately, the automatic abort of the orbit insertion manoeuvre has also left AKATSUKI (a.k.a. Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO), Planet-C) stranded in heliocentric orbit. After an unintended fly-by, the probe will catch up with Venus in approximately six years. Meanwhile, it stays mostly interior to Venus in a planet-leading orbit. In addition to the study of comets and their interaction with the IPM, observations of small bodies akin to those carried out by outer solar system probes are occasionally attempted with the equipment available. The study of structures in the interplanetary dust (IPD) cloud has been a science objective during the cruise phase of the Japanese Venus probe AKATSUKI from Earth to Venus. IPD observations in the

  13. Female Professors in Sweden and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Anett

    2003-01-01

    The Research Training Network “Women in European Universities” focuses on career opportunities of women in higher education in seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). Within the frame of this network different aspects of career perspectives of women – and also men – are investigated. In a first working step a context analysis was conducted in order to give an understanding of the different systems of higher education, their changes an...

  14. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  15. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  16. Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Denmark and Sweden have some of the largest public sectors in Europe. They are also characterized by predominantly voluntaristic labor market models where collective bargaining and employee involvement play a relatively strong role in public sector employment relations (ER). In this chapter, we...... more profound in Sweden than in Denmark, but they took place before the 2008 crisis. In Sweden, an economic crisis in the 1990s was a much more important driver than the post- 2008 crisis. The 1990s crisis contributed to an earlier implementation of NPM and to a higher degree of decentralization...

  17. Columbus's Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Jose Manuel Nieto

    1991-01-01

    Describes fifteenth-century Spain's tendencies that proved central to the Columbian enterprise: experience as a conquering and colonizing kingdom, interest in Atlantic expansion, and missionary inclination. Argues that Columbus's arrival in Spain came at the perfect time in Spanish history. Stresses Spain's long history of religious war, conquest,…

  18. Kabbalah in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karlsson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history of Kabbalah in Sweden. The reader is presented with an overall view to Kabbalah in Sweden: first, the Johannes Bureus and the Nordic Kabbalah, Kabbalah after Bureus, Kabbalistic literature, and last, Kabbalah in Sweden today. When the Kabbalah reached Sweden it was mainly the non-Jewish Kabbalah that gained influence, even if its Jewish roots were acknowledged. Johannes Bureus unites, in a similar fashion as do the Christian Kabbalists in continental Europe, Christian motifs with the symbolic world of the Kabbalah. Bureus, however, adds runes, ancient Norse gods and Gothic ideas in his own unique manner. The Kabbalah invites speculation and the search for correspondences which has caused the Kabbalah in Sweden to be united with a number of other traditions. Bureus combined the Kabbalah with runes and Gothicism; in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries we can find the Kabbalah in Freemasonry and Esoteric societies, while the Kabbalah in the twentieth century and onwards has been associated with New Age, Parapsychology and Indian Mysticism. Apart from Bureus, most Kabbalists in Sweden have followed the trends that flourished in the rest of the world. Bureus was the first to create a specifically Swedish interpretation of the Kabbalah.

  19. Energy in Sweden 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Swedish Energy Agency's main duty is to assist the evolution of Sweden's energy system into a reliable, ecologically and economically sustainable system. The Agency is also responsible for the collection, processing and publication of official statistics in the energy field. The annual Energy in Sweden report, and its sister publication, Energy in Sweden - Facts and Figures (download able from the Agency's web site), are intended to provide decision makers, journalists, businesses, teachers and the public with co herent and easily accessible information on developments in the energy sector. The report also provides an overview of Sweden's current energy and climate policy, policy measures, the use and supply of energy, energy prices and energy markets, together with information on the effects of the energy system on the environment. Starting with Energy in Sweden 2012, the structure and layout of the report has been revised, to produce a shorter report than in previous years. It is the intention that this shorter format should be published in alternate years, alternating with a longer version. The new structure means that the division into chapters has been changed. The presentation of energy use is now divided up into chapters in the respective sections for the three sectors of residential and services, industry and transport. The presentation of energy supply is divided into two chapters: Primary Energy Carriers and Secondary Energy Carriers. The statistics which provide the foundation for the publication are based mainly on official statistics up to and including 2010, complemented where possible by input reflecting current events and decisions up to the summer of 2011. The Agency's annual publication, Energy Indicators, complements this Energy in Sweden report with details of a number of indicators for monitoring the progress towards energy policy objects.

  20. Energy in Sweden 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  1. Energy in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  2. Sweden's largest Facebook study

    OpenAIRE

    Denti, Leif; Barbopoulus, Isak; Nilsson, Ida; Holmberg, Linda; Thulin, Magdalena; Wendeblad, Malin; Andén, Lisa; Davidsson, Emelie

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet has made it easier for people to socially interact than ever before. Today, the most popular channel is Facebook with over 845 million users world wide. In Sweden, the number of users amount to approximately half of the population. We had two aims with this study. First, we investigate which areas of Facebook usage that Swedish Facebook users consider more important vis-a-vis less important. We were also interested in how users convey their persona through t... m...

  3. Porphyria in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunell, S; Floderus, Y; Henrichson, A; Harper, P

    2006-01-01

    In a brief survey the work of Swedish porphyrinologists through time is presented, from the organic chemist Jakob Berzelius 1840 to the molecular biologists of today. The building up in Stockholm of a Swedish national competence centre for porphyria is touched upon and the emergence of a computerized national register on the porphyria gene carriers in the country described. Figures for the prevalences of the seven different forms of porphyria diagnosed in Sweden are given. The geographical distribution of gene mutation spectra is shown for the most frequent form, acute intermittent porphyria. The organisation at Porphyria Centre Sweden of its diagnostic and consultative services is described, as is the decentralized model for porphyria care applied in the form of a clinical network covering the long and sparsely populated country. The ideas and activities of the Swedish Porphyria Patients' Association are presented. Its focus on protection-by-information of the porphyria gene carrier against maltreatment in health service contacts, and against other exposures to environmental threats to his or her health, is discussed. The combined efforts of the national porphyria centre and the patients' association have resulted in early and accurate diagnosis of most of the porphyria gene carriers in the country. The information to the carriers and to the health service regarding the mechanisms of the diseases and the importance of avoiding exposure to disease triggering environmental factors have greatly reduced porphyric morbidity. In the case of the acute porphyrias, by this programme and after the introduction of heme arginate in the therapy, mortality in the acute phase has become extremely rare in Sweden. In contrast, probably due to greater awareness of the high risk for liver cancer in acute porphyrias the number of hepatoma cases diagnosed has increased. The current research activities at the Porphyria Centre which aim at finding ways to substitute the mutated gene in

  4. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  5. Sweden health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders; Glenngård, Anna H; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Life expectancy in Sweden is high and the country performs well in comparisons related to disease-oriented indicators of health service outcomes and quality of care. The Swedish health system is committed to ensuring the health of all citizens and abides by the principles of human dignity, need and solidarity, and cost-effectiveness. The state is responsible for overall health policy, while the funding and provision of services lies largely with the county councils and regions. The municipalities are responsible for the care of older and disabled people. The majority of primary care centres and almost all hospitals are owned by the county councils. Health care expenditure is mainly tax funded (80%) and is equivalent to 9.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) (2009). Only about 4% of the population has voluntary health insurance (VHI). User charges fund about 17% of health expenditure and are levied on visits to professionals, hospitalization and medicines. The number of acute care hospital beds is below the European Union (EU) average and Sweden allocates more human resources to the health sector than most OECD countries. In the past, the Achilles heel of Swedish health care included long waiting times for diagnosis and treatment and, more recently, divergence in quality of care between regions and socioeconomic groups. Addressing long waiting times remains a key policy objective along with improving access to providers. Recent principal health reforms over the past decade relate to: concentrating hospital services; regionalizing health care services, including mergers; improving coordinated care; increasing choice, competition and privatization in primary care; privatization and competition in the pharmacy sector; changing co-payments; and increasing attention to public comparison of quality and efficiency indicators, the value of investments in health care and responsiveness to patients needs. Reforms are often introduced on the local level, thus the pattern of

  6. Higher Education in Sweden -Between "Rolling Reforms" and Stable Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Anett

    2001-01-01

    Both gender equality and education policy are important priorities on the political agenda in Europe. The Research and Training Network ”Women in European Universities” focuses on higher education and women’s career-perspectives in systems of higher education of seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The main focus of the project is to explore the ”glass-ceiling” that women meet when they chose a career in academia and strive for top...

  7. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  8. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  9. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  10. Social media and journalism study 2013 - Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Pole, K.; Gulyás, A

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of the wider 2013 social journalism study and reports specifically on Sweden. It suggests that journalists in Sweden are a moderately high user of social media, using it regularly for their work particularly for sourcing stories. Using cluster analysis the largest group is the Architects suggesting that journalism in Sweden is dominated by active social media users.

  11. Health care technology in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, E.; Banta, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    Health care in Sweden is a public sector responsibility and equity in access to care is quite important. The Swedish system is organized into several levels, with the Federation of County Councils at the top, and with regional, county, and local levels. In theory, the four hospital tiers developed

  12. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different

  13. Gout in immigrant groups: a cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C; Li, Xinjun; Gasevic, Danijela; Ärnlöv, Johan; Holzmann, Martin J; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    Our aim was to study the association between country of birth and incidence of gout in different immigrant groups in Sweden. The study population included the whole population of Sweden. Gout was defined as having at least one registered diagnosis in the National Patient Register. The association between incidence of gout and country of birth was assessed by Cox regression, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), using Swedish-born individuals as referents. All models were conducted in both men and women, and the full model was adjusted for age, place of residence in Sweden, educational level, marital status, neighbourhood socio-economic status and co-morbidities. The risk of gout varied by country of origin, with highest estimates, compared to Swedish born, in fully adjusted models among men from Iraq (HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.54-2.16), and Russia (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.26-2.27), and also high among men from Austria, Poland, Africa and Asian countries outside the Middle East; and among women from Africa (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.50-3.31), Hungary (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.45-2.71), Iraq (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.13-2.74) and Austria (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.07-2.70), and also high among women from Poland. The risk of gout was lower among men from Greece, Spain, Nordic countries (except Finland) and Latin America and among women from Southern Europe, compared to their Swedish counterparts. The increased risk of gout among several immigrant groups is likely explained by a high cardio-metabolic risk factor pattern needing attention.

  14. The History of Tuberculosis Management in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Wallstedt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB.

  15. The history of tuberculosis management in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstedt, Helen; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Child Health Systems in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Björn; Blennow, Margareta; Hjern, Anders; Söder, Olle; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2016-10-01

    On a national level, several factors are responsible for Sweden's leading position in achieving the excellent health of children because Sweden has experienced a long history of peace and success in establishing a parliamentary democracy throughout the 20th century. Among the different sectors of society, Sweden has been able to focus on prevention and health promotion. The Swedish health care system is publicly financed based on local taxation. Pediatricians working in secondary and tertiary care are employed by the public sector, whereas family physicians are employed by both the private and public sectors. The pediatric departments at county and university levels provide a high quality of inpatient care for neonates and children. The county hospital pediatric departments typically include one neonatal ward and one ward for older children. Subspecialization exists even at the county level, and there is close cooperation between the county level and subspecialist units at the university level. Within the primary care sector, most children receive care from family physicians. The majority of family physicians have completed 3 months of pediatrics in their basic training program. In the more densely populated areas there are also pediatric ambulatory care centers working mostly with referrals from the family physicians. Preventive care is carried out at midwife-led maternity health centers, nurse-led Child Health Centers, and nurse-led school health care settings and reach almost everyone (99%). All health care for children and adolescents is free of charge up to 18 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  18. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States... on carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden. SUMMARY: The Commission... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  19. World Support Base: Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Organization and Structure The company has one manufacturing faci 11ty located in Vitoria , Spain. The company has over 12,000 square meters of... Vitoria and Burgos located in north central Spain. There are five manufacturing sites, three in the Vitoria and two in Burgos, with a total of 1,524,000...Galdacano (Viscaya),Spain. PLANT NAME/SITE MANUFACTURING ACTIVITY o Forja Y Extrusiones ( Vitoria ) Metal parts for bombs o Explosive’s AI

  20. INOPS Survey data report for Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Severin, Majbritt Christine

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Sweden. The statistics rely on data collected in the period from May 2015 to June 2015 through an online survey...... send to managers in all 290 municipalities in Sweden....

  1. Energy use in Sweden: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Johnson, F.; Howarth, R.; Price, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Andersson, B.; Andersson, B.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Handelshoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-01

    This report analyzes the evolution of energy use in Sweden since the early 1970s. The purpose of the study, which is sponsored by NUTEK, Department of Energy Efficiency, the Swedish Agency for Technical and Industrial Development, is to shed light on the future path of energy use in Sweden by quantifying and understanding changes in past energy use. Energy efficiency has been identified by Swedish authorities in countless official studies as a key element in Sweden`s efforts to restrain oil imports, reduce reliance on nuclear power, reduce environmental impacts of energy use, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. To understand the role or performance of energy efficiency in the 1970s and 1980s in Sweden, and what this performance means about the future, the authors seek answers to three broad questions: (1) How has the structure and efficiency of energy use in Sweden evolved since the early 1970s, and where data permit, since even earlier? What caused these changes? (2) How does the structure of energy use in Sweden differ from that of other countries, and how has the evolution of energy use in Sweden differed from developments in other countries? (3) How much energy has Sweden saved, and why? Are these savings permanent? To what extent were they offset by changes in the structure of energy use? And to what extent is the magnitude of these savings dependent upon the way we measure energy use? The report reviews the long-term evolution of Swedish energy use, focusing on developments in five sectors of the economy: residential, service, industrial (manufacturing and {open_quotes}other industry{close_quotes} defined as mining, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and construction), travel, and freight. The authors then examine Swedish energy use in a broader perspective, drawing detailed comparisons to other nations. Finally, they discuss a series of issues that hover over the future of energy demand in Sweden.

  2. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  3. Public Procurement of Innovation in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Ågren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sweden is often thought of as a country with a strong tradition for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Early on, Sweden recognized and developed procedures for using public procurement as a technologydevelopment tool. After a period where emphasis was put on this aspect...... of public procurement Sweden dropped many policy initiatives within this field. This was in part due to neo-liberal movements during the 1980s which in interaction with a distributed institutional setup led to the removal of incentives for a procuring authority to engage in public procurement of innovation....... Another contributing cause was poor policy guidance from the academia upon Sweden’s accession into the EU, which spread apprehension among procuring authorities. It is not until the last few years that Sweden has started to reengage in public procurement for innovation policy, by using predominantly...

  4. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Bernhardt; Livia Sz. Oláh

    2008-01-01

    Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been e...

  6. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Frances Goldscheider; Eva Bernhardt; Maria Brandén

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in th...

  7. Yoshio Nakajima. A Japanese Artist from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden.......Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden....

  8. The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Anders; Pereira, Lola; Lundqvist, Thomas; Cooper, Barry

    2014-05-01

    The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden Anders Wikström (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Lola Pereira (University of Salamanca, Spain) Thomas Lundqvist (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Barry Cooper (University of South Australia) The commercial stone industry in Älvdalen, about 350 km northwest of Stockholm, commenced in the second half of the 18th century, as a consequence of social need. The region had been plagued by severe famine and there was an urgent need for additional wealth-generating industry. At that time it was already known that the porphyry in the area was similar to the "porfido rosso antico" from Egypt which had played an important role in the Roman culture. Many ups and downs followed. During one period in the 19th century, the Swedish Royal family owned the industry. At the same time, several "porphyry" objects were presented to different courts around Europe (e.g. a 4 metre tall vase to the Russian czar, although of a more granitic variety). Otherwise most products have been smaller objects like urns, vases, candelabras, etc. The very hard stone (with variable red or black colours) can be highly polished. Many of the porphyry varieties were sourced from glacial boulders. These had been "mechanically tested" by nature and were free from joints which otherwise was a problem in the associated quarries. Comagmatic granites also occur. The porphyries and granites have an age around 1700 Ma, and the former are amazingly well preserved with magnificent volcanic textures. The porphyries and granites occupy a vast area and are in part covered with red, continental sandstones (which are quarried to-day). In the middle of the 20th century, the ignimbritic character of the porphyry was discovered. Previously, the flattened "fiamme" (collapsed pumice) had been interpreted as some kind of flow structure in a lava. The porphyry manufacturing plants in Älvdalen are a part of the Swedish industrial history. Over a significant

  9. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Epidemiology of lysosomal storage diseases in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Malin; Darin, Niklas; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Månsson, Jan-Eric

    2014-12-01

    There are more than 50 inherited lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), and this study examined the incidence of clinically diagnosed LSDs in Sweden. The number of patients diagnosed during 1980-2009 was compiled from the registries of the two Swedish diagnostic laboratories that cover the whole country. We identified 433 patients during the 30-year period, with a total incidence of one in every 6100 births and identified fairly constant annual diagnoses during the last 20 years. Krabbe disease was the most common (one in 39 000) followed by Gaucher disease (one in 47 000), metachromatic leukodystrophy and Salla disease. Gaucher disease was more frequent in Sweden than other European countries, due to a founder effect of the mutation (p.L444P) in northern Sweden. Metachromatic leukodystrophy was one of the most common LSDs, in common with other countries. Salla disease, which is very rare elsewhere, was the fourth most common, stemming from a founder mutation in the Salla region of northern Finland brought to Sweden by immigration. The collective incidence of LSDs in Sweden was essentially equal to other European countries, but with a somewhat different disease pattern. Our findings have implications for diagnostic algorithms and treatment strategies. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. What's 'left' in the 'Garden of Sweden'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gregg M

    2013-01-01

    Liberalization, restructuring, and retrenchment have been underway in Sweden for more than two decades and have rapidly accelerated under the current non-socialist coalition government. It is uncertain how much of the Swedish social policy model is "left" now, in terms of both what remains of it and its political character. A cross-temporal look at developments within Sweden reveals striking and continual rollbacks and marketization since the 1990s. However, this view must be qualified, both because Sweden's undisputed descent is from a comparatively lofty position and because there have been some noteworthy, but often ignored, gains even amidst marked decline over the past few decades. A cross-national examination indicates that, despite rapidly rising rates of income and wealth inequality, Sweden remains an egalitarian leader in several respects. This view must be qualified, too, because, while it continues to routinely out-perform Anglo nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Sweden is less often, and less notably, distinct from several of its continental counterparts in Europe now. Moreover, the foundation of the model, labor strength, has been significantly undermined.

  12. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

  13. Introducing Micro-finance in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    The case describes the first year of efforts to introduce microfinance as a tool to work with vulnerable groups in Sweden, more particularly ex-convicts, former drug-addicts and longterm unemployed women of immigrant background. The teaching objective is to discuss whether micro-finance can be seen...... as a tool to catalyze social change in developed welfare states such as Sweden, or if it rather reinforces the very power structures it aims to subvert. The author uses the case to analyse the efforts to introduce a new concept to wellestablished economic and social actors, as well as to understand...

  14. Health and social inequities in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1990-01-01

    Sweden is one of Europe's most egalitarian countries. The social inequities in living conditions have been gradually reduced to a level that is more equal than in most countries in Europe. Even if general health development has been positive during recent years, data reviewed here indicate...... that there may be adverse effects for some groups which may increase inequities. This article presents results on inequities in health from the Public Health Report of Sweden 1987 and discusses causal mechanisms and implications for health policy....

  15. Spain to Join ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  16. Mobility of Knowledge as a Recognition Challenge: Experiences from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the tensions between mobility, knowledge and recognition, and what the impact of migration could be on lifelong education and society. This is discussed with the case of Sweden as the starting point. The main issue in Sweden concerning migration is the admission of refugees. Sweden has had a relatively open policy…

  17. Stroke in young adults in northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Bo Traberg

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. To study different aspects of cerebral venous and arterial occlusive disease including cerebrospinalfluid hydrodynamics, epidemiology, aetiology, genetics, metabolic and haemostatic disorders, andcognitive function in young adults in Northern Sweden. Methods. Cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics were investigated with a constant pressure infusion methodin patients with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Ten patients were studied with serial examinations, upto 15 years after the onse...

  18. Aeolian dunes of south-central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardson, Martin; Alexanderson, Helena

    2017-04-01

    South-central Sweden is home to a number of small, inactive inland dune fields formed on former glaciofluvial deltas. A characteristic of these dune fields is the generally transverse shape of the dunes, in stark contrast to the rest of Sweden where parabolic dunes are the most common type. One of these dune fields is Bonäsheden in the county of Dalarna. It is the largest continuous dune field in Sweden and covers an area of approximately 15.5 km2. The dune field has the last few years been the target of thorough investigations utilising LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) based remote sensing, ground-penetrating radar, luminescence dating and sedimentological field investigations. The results show that the dunes of Bonäsheden and the adjacent dune field of Skattungheden formed mainly by north-westerly winds shortly after the deglaciation of this part of Sweden (10.5 ka), and subsequent events of dune formation were uncommon. Some later episodes of sand drift did occur, but only as minor coversand deposition. The dune field has had a more complex formation than previously thought; a shift in the wind pattern around 10 ka seems to have caused subsequent dunes to have formed by more westerly winds. The reason for this is still not determined, but the increased distance to the Scandinavian Ice Sheet would lessen the capacity of katabatic winds to influence the dune field.

  19. Toy Libraries in Sweden in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marianne; And Others

    Public and private organizations have developed toy libraries in Sweden for children with disabilities and children in need of special support for their development. Toy libraries have become places where parents can acquire advice with regard to play, meet a pedagogue with experience with children with handicaps, and meet other parents with the…

  20. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  1. Reconsidering School Politics: Educational Controversies in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredholm, Axel

    2017-01-01

    School politics in Sweden has recently moved in a conservative direction, emphasising the importance of conventional school subjects, stronger teacher authority and more discipline in the classroom. At the same time, consensus on the utility of such measures is lacking in the school debate. The conservative approach is often criticised as…

  2. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  3. Educational Careers for Gifted Students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    1998-01-01

    A study of the 10% most able students in Sweden (n=744) found entrance into higher education was influenced by the choice of program in upper secondary school, the marks received, the students' attitudes to school, and satisfaction with their performance. Parental and teacher support had an influence on males. (CR)

  4. Coal in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Includes estimates of coal reserves in the following regions of Spain - Asturias, El Bierzo, Villablino, North of Leon, Guardo/Barruelo, Suroccidental, Teruel, Pyrenees and the Balearics. Four types of estimate are given per region - very probably, probable, possible and hypothetical.

  5. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy....

  6. Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilgado, José D.; Enghoff, Henrik; Tinaut, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Millipedes (Diplopoda), with a few notable exceptions, are poor dispersers, showing a very high degree of endemicity, not the least in mountains. The first samplings of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of the higher altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Baetic System, Southern Spain) have...

  7. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  8. Environmental legislation and the regulation of waste management in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This study examines the regulatory aspects of waste management in Sweden, with a particular emphasis on regulating organic compounds produced by waste-to-energy facilities. Since the early 1960s, waste-to-energy has played a significant role in managing waste in Sweden. In 1993, more than 50% of the municipal solid waste available for treatment or disposal following source separation efforts was processed in one of the 21 waste-to-energy facilities operating in Sweden. This report examines Sweden`s regulatory environment, its history of setting emission limits on waste management facilities, and the current status of regulations.

  9. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.

    2015-12-01

    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c836-rapport.pdf Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  10. Transitional Justice in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Payero López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate Spanish transitional justice policy. The aspects of transitional justice put forward by L. Joinet –truth, justice and reparation– will frame this analysis. Firstly, the main deficiencies of this policy will be pointed out. Secondly, some measures to be adopted in Spain will be suggested. Their implementation would mean that international standards on the protection of human rights, as agreed within the specialized literature, would be met.

  11. [Serious silicosis still exits in Sweden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, Bengt; Svartengren, Magnus

    2015-12-01

    Many measures have been taken in Sweden to eliminate the occurrence of serious silicosis. However, between 1997 and 2013 there were 111 deaths with silicosis as underlying cause, 110 men and 1 woman. In most cases the deceased was rather old; only fourteen persons were below 74 years of age. We have studied the exposure between 2007 and 2012 in the 71 persons who died of silicosis as underlying or contributing cause through medical records. We could find information regarding 48 of them. Ten persons worked in mines, 10 in stone industry, 14 with crushing or blasting of rock, 4 in foundries, 3 were concrete workers and 7 suffered exposure in other industries.  The study shows that the measures taken in Sweden have not been sufficient to totally eliminate serious silicosis.

  12. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  13. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenström, Jonas; Lindberg, Peter; Helander, Björn; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Herrmann, Björn; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  14. Pyrenees Mtns., Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image, acquired on August 1, 2000, covers an area of 57 by 29 km and covers part of the central Pyrenees in Spain. The Pyrenees in southwestern Europe extend for about 435 kilometers (about 270 miles) from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea, separating the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe. The Pyrenees form most of the boundary between France and Spain, and encompass the tiny principality of Andorra. Approximately two-thirds of the mountains lie in Spain. The central Pyrenees extend to the Collines du Perche and contain the highest peaks of the system, including Pico de Aneto, the highest at 3,404 meters (11,168 feet). ASTER bands 4, 3 and 2 were displayed in red, green and blue. In this combination, snow is blue, vegetation is green, bare rocks are pink and dark blue, and clouds are white. The image is located at 42.6 degrees north latitude and 0.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Hård af Segerstad, Carl; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Ingemar Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway a...

  16. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Kerry A. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, J. Steve [Savannah River National Laboratory; Chandler, Greg T. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Iyer, Natraj C. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Hackney, B. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Leduc, Dan R. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  17. Travel Behaviour of Online Shoppers in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hiselius Lena Winslott; Rosqvist Lena Smidfelt; Adell Emeli

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping opportunities are transforming travel behaviour for shopping and could potentially reduce the overall travel demand. Despite numerous studies on online shopping, only a few have taken an approach that includes trips for all travel purposes. Based on a web–survey, this paper provides results on travel behaviour for physical shopping for frequent, regular, and infrequent online shoppers in Sweden. The results indicate that frequent online shoppers make as many car trips (for bot...

  18. Sweden picks site for waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear power-plant operators in Sweden have selected a site where they can permanently store the country's spent nuclear fuel. The repository would be located 500 m below ground at Forsmark, roughly 200km north of Stockholm, which is already home to a nuclear power plant. The decision was taken after two decades of study by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), which is owned by the country's nuclear firms.

  19. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Ekengren, Fredrik; Zagal Mach Wolfe, Ulla Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River....... Although in many ways unsuccessful and short-lived (the colony collapsed in 1656), New Sweden became a home for generations of colonists. This chapter focuses on the different aspects of their daily life: their longing and desperation, practices of homemaking and domesticating the landscape...

  20. Music Education at Hospital Schools in Spain and Sweden: Paths between Governing and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Guillermo; García Álvarez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on some debates regarding music education within hospital schooling, an educational track that has developed in the course of the 20th century within Western education systems. Analysis and proposals are made with respect to the music education curriculum content in primary education, within hospital education tracks, in Spain…

  1. NATO or Neutrality : Decisions by Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Kevin A. Chaney September 2017 Thesis Advisor: David S. Yost Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO OR NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN 5. FUNDING...Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Although Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are ethnically and

  2. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  4. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health.

  5. Lead poisoning in woodpeckers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörner, T; Petersson, L

    1999-10-01

    Lead poisoning was demonstrated in two gray-headed woodpeckers (Picus canus) and one white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopus leucotos) in Sweden; they had liver lead levels between 9.4 and 26.2 mg(-1) wet weight. At necropsy one gray-headed woodpecker showed signs of emaciation and the other one had severe traumatic injuries, caused by a cat. The white-backed woodpecker died in the transportation box during a translocation program. The source of the lead could not be determined, but it was suspected that it may have originated from lead pellets shot into trees and picked out by the woodpeckers during food search.

  6. Green light for nonstop fermentation. [Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-19

    It is reported that Alfa-Laval (Tumba) is to build a $10 million demonstration plant at Skaraborg, Sweden that will produce ethanol from grain in a continuous fermentation process. The facility, funded by the Swedish government will be able to make 20,000 L/d of 99.5% ethanol, plus 30.5 metric tons/d of cattle fodder from the liftover sludge, using the so-called Biostil technique. A similar unit has been run in Sarenia, Queensland using molasses as a feedstock. The facility has been highly successful since its startup in April and has had no downtime.

  7. PRE-HOSPITAL EMERGENCY CARE IN SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf BJÖRNSTIG

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden (9 million inhabitants, a sparsely populated country with sometimes long transportation distances to the nearest trauma hospital, 800 ambulances, 7 ambulance helicopters and 3–5 fixed wing ambulance aircraft are the available transport resources. In case of a mass casualty or disaster situation, inside or outside the country, a governmental project (Swedish National Medevac aims to convert a passenger aircraft from Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS to a qualified medical resource for long distance transport, with capacity to nurse six intensive care patients and an additional 6–20 lieing or seated patients during transport.

  8. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would...

  9. 75 FR 61700 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden... purified carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from, inter alia, Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden, pursuant to... (120-day) sunset reviews of the Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden antidumping duty orders pursuant...

  10. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  11. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  12. Sweden to host a new neutron source

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The first European neutron source, currently under development, should commence operations by the end of this decade. Its aim: to produce beams of neutrons that can penetrate into the heart of matter without damaging it and reveal its secrets.   An artist's impression of what the ESS should look like in 2019. At the southern end of Sweden, a town called Lund is preparing for the arrival of the world's most powerful neutron source: the European Spallation Source (ESS). Construction is scheduled to start at the beginning of next year, and the facility is expected to become operational by 2019, when it will produce its first neutron beams. “The ESS is the result of an idea that began 20 years ago!” underlines Mats Lindroos, in charge of the ESS Accelerator Division. “Today, 17 European countries support the project, including Sweden, Denmark and Norway, who together account for 50% of the construction funding.” The ESS, whose design is al...

  13. Space education in Kiruna, Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sandahl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The town of Kiruna in the north of Sweden has a concentration of space activities and space research with, for example, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Esrange, the ESA Salmijärvi satellite station, and EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Radar Scientific Association. The Department of Space Science is a joint department between the two most northern universities in Sweden, Luleå University of Technology and Umeå University in collaboration with the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. It offers a range of education programmes in the space field. There are bachelor and master programmes in space engineering, and a bridging programme for students without a science background from secondary school. The Department also contributes to courses for teachers, Ph.D. courses and secondary school level courses. One master´s program and a three week summer course are given entirely in English and welcome international students. Thanks to good cooperation with Esrange students can build and fly experiments on high altitude balloons and sounding rockets and also take a large responsibility for the management of the projects. Close interaction with research and industry is an important part of the education.

  14. Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvemark, A S

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden. Neo-Malthusianism arrived in Sweden at the beginning of the 1880s when Knut Wicksell gave a public lecture at a youth meeting of a temperance society in Uppsala. The lecture resulted in public scandal and made neo-Malthusian ideas known overnight in Sweden. Wicksell maintained that poverty was the primary cause of most evils in society, and it was caused by the pressure from population increase on the means of subsistence. In his lecture he referred to Malthus explicitly and gave a summary of the Malthusian principle of population on which he based his reasoning. At the time he only knew of Malthus' ideas indirectly by reading George Drysdale's book, "The Elements of Social Science." The questions that arise are whether Malthus' ideas were only indirectly studied and whether neo-Malthusiansim was just seen as an equivalent of birth control and contraceptives, the very means of preventive checks for population growth that Malthus condemned for moral reasons. Wicksell focused on the causes and consequences of emigration in a lecture in 1881. He again saw rapid population growth as the cause of poverty, which in turn caused emigration. The rapid rise in Swedish emigration in the 1880s created considerable interest. Generally, the common view at the time was that Sweden suffered from a certain population pressure and corresponding underemployment. Johan Leffler, a young economist, had a different opinion. He saw the problem in an outspoken Malthusian way, suggesting that under the prevailing overpopulation in Sweden emigration could not be harmful. At the turn of the centruy Gustav Sundbarg was among those describing emigration as a deadly threat to Swedish society. Sundbarg not only turned against Malthus, but he also condemned neo-Malthusianism for moral reasons. Sundbarg maintained that demographic and economic development over the 19th century did not verify Malthus' assumption that population

  15. Occupational doses and ALARA - recent developments in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godas, T.; Viktorsson, C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Sweden has traditionally experienced very slow doses to workers in the nuclear industry. However, this trend has since last year been broken mainly due to significant maintenance and repair work. This paper will describe occupational dose trends in Sweden and discuss actions that are being implemented to control this new situation.

  16. New Investment Models for Broadband in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse whether the developmental policy model applied for fibre roll-out in Sweden can be used as inspiration for the Danish telecom policy. This is done through a comparison of the two very different policy approaches applied in Denmark and Sweden. A case study...

  17. Home-School Collaboration in Sweden and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersson, Margaretha; Gu, Limin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a working paper presenting a network building cooperative project between Umea University in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. The project focuses on parents' involvement and home-school collaboration in Sweden and China and has an ambition to entail a set of empirical objectives: (1) to map and compare the systems,…

  18. Heart of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente

    1991-01-01

    Heart of Spain no es sólo el título de un film sobre la guerra civil española; es también una constante apelación y una retórica. Una metáfora biológica que se muda en sentimental y a la que se refiere repetidamente el cine de la posguerra. Coloquemos junto a esta metáfora otra que le suele acompañar, también física: la herida. Es así como toma cuerpo el universo al que remiten los films de la posguerra: por una parte, apelando a la grandeza ampulosa del corazón español, corazó...

  19. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... infants (0.00195 and 0.00145) and intrapartum deaths of non-malformed infants (0.00042 and 0.00019) was significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. CONCLUSION: Application of the Nordic-Baltic Perinatal Death Classification on perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden in 1991 raises the questions...... as to why the rate of perinatal death of malformed infants is higher in Denmark than in Sweden and whether intrapartum care in Denmark could be improved....

  20. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G.W. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs.

  1. Delayed HIV diagnosis common in Sweden, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widgren, Katarina; Skar, Helena; Berglund, Torsten; Kling, Anna-Maria; Tegnell, Anders; Albert, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Early diagnosis of HIV is important for the prognosis of individual patients, because antiretroviral treatment can be started at the appropriate time, and for public health, because transmission can be prevented. Data were collected from 767 HIV patients who were diagnosed in Sweden during 2003-2010 and were infected in Sweden or born in Sweden and infected abroad. A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) was applied to BED-EIA test results (OD-n Sweden or abroad). Early diagnosis was observed in 271 patients (35%). There was no statistically significant time trend in the yearly percentage of patients with early diagnosis in the entire study group (p = 0.836) or in subgroups. Early diagnosis was significantly more common in men who have sex men (MSM) (45%) than in heterosexuals (21%) and injecting drug users (27%) (p Sweden, which does not appear to diminish.

  2. First Results on the Concentration of 137Cs in Seaweed at the South of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjon, G.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    First results on 137Cs in seaweed samples collected along the coast of the South of Spain during 1988 and 1989 are presented in this work. 137Cs was determined by direct HPGe γ-spectrometry. Typical 137Cs levels between 0.6 and 3.1 mBq/g dry weight have been found in a wide variety of seaweed species (Fucus, Ulva, Halopteris, Codium, Corallina, etc.). Such results are in close agreement with activities obtained by another researchers at the coasts of Galicia (NW of Spain). They ranged from 0.7 to 1.7 mBq/g dry weight in Fucus species, and were attributed essentially to fallout. On the other hand, the comparison of our data with others shows that they are, respectively, 10 and 100 times lower than activities found at Sweden after the Chernobyl event, and in the vicinity of Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant…

  3. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-07-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  4. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  5. Media use in distance education in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman F. Davies

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of distance language teaching which developed rapidly in Sweden after the Second World War. It argues that so far little use has been made of technical aids and that the computer as such is still a stranger both to the language teacher and the student. The writer concludes that perhaps the time has come for a technical revolution amongst Arts students. Met hierdie artikel word 'n oorsig gegee oor afstandsonderrig-spesifiek wat tale betref-soos dit in Swede ontwikkel het na die Tweede Wereldoorlog. Daar word op gewys dat tot dusver min gebruik gemaak is van tegniese hulpmiddels en dat vera! die rekenaar onderbenut is. Die skrywer sluit met die gedagte dat die tyd moontlik ryp is vir 'n tegnologiese rewolusie"in die geledere van die Lettere en Wysbegeerte.

  6. Time trends in human fecundability in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H; Rylander, Lars; Carstensen, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    increased with age, except that for women in their late 1930s, an apparent decrease was observed, particularly among the early cohorts. CONCLUSION: We found decreasing subfertility over time. We speculate that these patterns might be related to a Sweden-specific decrease over time in sexually transmitted...... diseases, to changes in sexual behavior induced by socioeconomic conditions, or to broader biologic or educational trends.......,000 primiparous women 20 years of age and older in the nationwide Swedish Medical Birth Registry from 1983 through 2002. This age restriction led to an exclusion of 10% of primiparous pregnancies. Subfertility (TTP > or =1 year) was analyzed as a function of maternal age, calendar time at initiation of attempt...

  7. Travel Behaviour of Online Shoppers in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiselius Lena Winslott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping opportunities are transforming travel behaviour for shopping and could potentially reduce the overall travel demand. Despite numerous studies on online shopping, only a few have taken an approach that includes trips for all travel purposes. Based on a web–survey, this paper provides results on travel behaviour for physical shopping for frequent, regular, and infrequent online shoppers in Sweden. The results indicate that frequent online shoppers make as many car trips (for both shopping and other errands as others. Also, frequent online shoppers in total make as many trips to a physical store as infrequent online shoppers – although by more sustainable modes of transport – and that the time saved from online shopping is spent on both additional shopping trips and trips for other errands. The conclusion is that online shopping might facilitate changing travel behaviour but does not in itself represent a good stand–alone measure for reducing vehicle mileage.

  8. Control of Salmonella enteritidis in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierup, M; Engström, B; Engvall, A; Wahlström, H

    1995-05-01

    The Swedish control of Salmonella, with special reference to Salmonella enteritidis, in poultry is described. The control is directed at all serotypes of Salmonella and imported grandparent chickens are controlled, which is considered to be the main reason why Sweden so far is not found to be involved in the worldwide spread of different phagetypes of S. enteritidis. However, this spread has initiated a more stringent control of Salmonella in layers as earlier existed in broilers. Since 1990, 90% of the layer flocks are voluntarily tested for Salmonella before slaughter by bacteriological examination of pooled faecal samples. If S. enteritidis is isolated the flock is destroyed. This test, and in addition two similar tests during the production are mandatory as of January 1st, 1994. The voluntary Salmonella control programme has also been extended to all of the layer parents and hatcheries since 1991. Only heat-treated feed is given to all layer chickens during the rearing period and its use is becoming gradually more common also during the production period. Since 1987, four layer flocks have been found to be infected by S. enteritidis phagetype 4 and one flock with phagetype 6. During 1970-1984, 90% of all flocks of broilers were voluntarily tested bacteriologically for Salmonella before slaughter, and since 1984 such a control is mandatory to all flocks. As a result of this and other controls, S. enteritidis has not been isolated from broilers since 1972. Based on a governmental regulation from 1961, introduced as a result of a large Salmonella epidemic in 1953, Sweden runs an active, official control of Salmonella (Wierup et al., 1992).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. The burden of chickenpox disease in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Widgren

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickenpox vaccine is not included in the routine childhood vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to estimate the baseline of national chickenpox disease burden, as comprehensive studies, required for an assessment regarding vaccine introduction, are lacking. Methods We used available health care registers and databases; the death register, hospitalisations register, communicable disease notifications database, Stockholm County registers on consultations in specialist and primary care, temporary parental benefit to care for a sick child, and searches on the health care system’s website. From each data source, records regarding chickenpox were identified and extracted, either using relevant diagnosis codes (ICD-10 or key words. A descriptive analysis with regards to number of cases and incidence, severity, and seasonality, was carried out covering the time period 2007 to 2013. Results There were on average 333 patients hospitalised annually due to chickenpox, yielding a hospitalisation rate of 3.56/100,000 person-years. We found a slight male predominance in hospitalised cases. The highest hospitalisation rate was seen in 1 year-olds, whereas the peak in primary care consultations was in 2 year-olds. Nearly a quarter of children had parents who reported absence from work to care for them when sick with chickenpox. The average yearly death rate from chickenpox was 0.034/100,000 person-years. The duration of hospital stay increased with age. The seasonality in number of searches on the health care website corresponded well with hospitalisations and primary care consultations with peaks in spring. Conclusions This study shows chickenpox death and hospitalisation rates in range with other European countries without routine vaccination. Swedish children fall ill with chickenpox at a very young age. The study provides essential input for future discussions on the introduction of routine chickenpox

  10. Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodushkin, Ilia [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: ilia.rodushkin@alsglobal.com; Engstroem, Emma [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Soerlin, Dieke; Ponter, Christer; Baxter, Douglas C. [ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Lulea, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic {sup 187}Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) {<=} spruce needles {<=} mushrooms {<=} tree leaves {<=} pine needles < mosses << lichens. The concentrations found in three different species of plant were used to provide the first estimates of gaseous osmium tetroxide (OsO{sub 4}) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO{sub 4} concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only

  11. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  12. Sparse district-heating in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Stefan Forsaeus [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Building Technology and Mechanics, P.O. Box 24036, SE-400 22 Goeteborg (Sweden); Reidhav, Charlotte [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Lygnerud, Kristina [Goeteborg University, School of Business, Economics and Law, Department of Business Administration, P.O. Box 610, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-07-15

    This paper presents a review of the sparse district-heating research programme undertaken in Sweden between 2002 and 2006. The goal of the programme was to increase the future competitiveness for district heat in low heat density areas, e.g., suburban single-family houses and small villages. Such areas are unfavourable, since revenues from heat sold are low compared with the investment cost for the local distribution network. In Sweden, district heat has a dominant position in the heat market for residential and service-sector buildings. In order for the business to grow, it is necessary to increase the rate of expansion in the detached-house segment. This is why the programme was initiated. The extent of the programme was set at EUR 3.6 million with equal financing from the Swedish District-Heating Association and the Swedish Energy-Agency. The research was carried out in three phases: a state of the art survey; a development phase focused on productivity gains where new research on both technology and customer interaction was performed; and finally a demonstration phase where new methods were tested in full-scale field operation. The programme has shown that the Swedish district-heating industry needs to adjust in order to reach a higher profitability for sparse district-heating investments. Tradition from large-scale high-density district heating is hard to scale to fit sparse district-heating systems. For example, the construction becomes very labour intensive and the industry is weak when it comes to market-oriented business logic, sales and private customer interaction. Innovation seems to be a way forward and active management of innovations is a way to create increased value of the investments. Other keys to improving the profitability of sparse district-heating investments are more efficient working routines (resulting in higher productivity) and revised ways of customer communications. These seem more important than increasing efficiency in district

  13. The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons From Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Sweden faced a banking and exchange rate crisis that led it to rescue banks that had experienced large losses on their balance sheets and that threatened a collapse of the banking system...

  14. Majority versus Minority: 'Governmentality' and Muslims in Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anne Sofie Roald

    2013-01-01

      This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority-minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim...

  15. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  16. Privatizing education: free school policy in Sweden and England

    OpenAIRE

    Wiborg, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden has bypassed England by far in outsourcing schools to private providers. The comparative argument promulgated in this article is that the combination ...

  17. Energy policies of IEA countries: Sweden - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    Sweden is one of the leading IEA countries in the use of renewable energy and has a long tradition of ambitious and successful policies to improve energy efficiency. Compared to the other IEA countries, Sweden's CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP are low, partly owing to efficient and low-carbon space heating, and virtually carbon-free electricity generation. The country also remains a forerunner in electricity market liberalisation. Still, even if Sweden has continued to make progress in most areas of its energy policy since the IEA last conducted an in-depth review in 2004, there is room for improvement. As Sweden plans to further increase the use of renewable energy, it is crucial that these supplies are produced and used in the most sustainable manner for the environment and the economy as a whole. With regard to CO2 emissions, more can be done in all sectors, but as transport is the largest polluter and its emissions are increasing, it is the logical focus for Sweden's efforts to reduce emissions further. This is a significant challenge. Nuclear provides almost half of the electricity in Sweden, at a low cost and without CO2 emissions. But the future of nuclear power in the national power mix is still uncertain. To provide clear guidance to the electricity sector, Sweden will need to resolve the ambiguity about the future of nuclear power in the country. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Sweden and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to provide input to Swedish energy policy makers to help them identify a path towards a more sustainable energy future.

  18. Setting the Holocene clock using varved lake sediments in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Zillén, Lovisa

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study annually laminated (varved) Holocene lake sediment in Sweden, their formation and their potential as chronological and palaeoecological archives. Five lakes with continuous Holocene varved lake sediment sequences in northern (Västerbotten) and west central Sweden (Värmland) were investigated. Three of these sequences were discovered during this study, which identified the climatic and environmental prerequisites for the formation of varves and, therefore, p...

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors differ between rural and urban Sweden: the 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, Martin; Lundqvist, Robert; Lilja, Mikael; Eliasson, Mats

    2014-08-09

    Rural communities have a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors than urban communities. In Sweden, socioeconomic transition and urbanization have led to decreased populations in rural areas and changing characteristics of the remaining inhabitants. We investigated the risk factors in urban and rural populations in Northern Sweden. The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA Study invited a random sample of 2,500 people, 25 to 74 years and 69.2% participated. Community size was classified as rural = 15,000. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender and education. The rural population was older and the proportion of men was higher than in the urban areas. Having only primary education was more common in rural areas than in urban areas (26.2% vs. 12.3%). Waist and hip circumference, body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol levels were higher in rural areas than in urban areas, even after adjusting for differences in age and gender. The largest differences between rural and urban dwellers were seen in waist circumference of women (4.8 cm), BMI of women (1.8 units) and cholesterol of men (0.37 mmol/l). Blood pressure was higher in rural areas, but not after adjusting for age and gender.Participants in rural areas were more often treated for hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, hospitalized for myocardial infarction and diagnosed with diabetes. However, after adjusting for age and gender, there were no differences. The odds ratio for being physically active comparing rural areas to urban areas was 0.73 (95% CI 0.53; 1.01). Smoking, snuff use and the prevalence of pathological glucose tolerance did not differ between community sizes. Middle-sized communities often had values in between those found in rural and urban communities, but overall they were more similar to the rural population. Further adjustment for education did not change the results for any variable. In 2009 the rural population in northern Sweden was older, with less education, higher BMI, more sedentary

  20. Tardigrades of Sweden; an updated check-list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2015-07-07

    Tardigrades occur worldwide and in a variety of ecosystems and habitats representing an important component of the micrometazoan biodiversity. Several studies documenting the occurrence of tardigrades in Sweden have been published since the first reports in early 1900, but no comprehensive summary of these studies have been published. We compiled the available information on recorded tardigrades from Sweden, using material from published studies and museum and university collections. In total, our review document 101 species of tardigrades that have been recorded from Sweden (an updated checklist of tardigrades from Sweden will be available online), of which 14 species are new records for the country. The highest number of species was recorded in the northernmost province of Lappland and the more southern provinces of Uppland and Skåne, while much lower species numbers are reported from the middle part of Sweden. This pattern probably represents biased sampling activities of biologists rather than real differences in biodiversity of tardigrades. In view of the few studies that have been made on tardigrade biodiversity in Sweden, the relatively high number of tardigrade species recorded, representing almost a tenth of the species recorded worldwide, indicates that many more species remain to be found. In this respect, more studies of the marine ecosystems along the Swedish west coast and the long Baltic Sea coastline would be of particular interest.

  1. Policymaking through healthcare registries in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örnerheim, Mattias

    2016-09-04

    Healthcare registries, otherwise known in Sweden as national quality registries (NQRs), have progressed from being a patient-focused system supporting medical results to become the basis of a health policy steering instrument called regional comparisons (RCs). This article seeks to explain RCs as an unintended consequence of the NQR development, by utilizing the concepts of policy entrepreneurs and streams of impact: the problem stream (problem perceived), the policy stream (what is valid), and the political stream (governmental objectives). The empirical contribution lies in insights on how the RCs have developed as an unintended consequence of entrepreneurial deliberate action in the process of creating NQRs. These findings are based on documents, interviews, and previous research in the social sciences. The article also argues for a critical understanding of public knowledge management (PKM) related to experiences in the development of NQRs regarding how to use knowledge in healthcare government. This article highlights how knowledge generated in quality systems based on registries could imply a stronger role for authorities in exerting control over the medical profession. It also discusses the potential use of research evidence on NQRs as a base for more efficient policymaking. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Couple childbearing plans and births in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E; Hoem, J M

    1998-08-01

    We use data from a nationally representative sample of Swedish couples to estimate effects of partners' childbearing plans on the rate of subsequent childbearing. Only 11% of the couples in this sample expressed plans in opposite directions (plan to have a child versus not to have a child), but 24% had differing levels of certainty about their plans. Of the couples in which both partners said they definitely planned to have another child, 44% had a child within two years. If neither partner planned to have another child, less than 2% of couples had a birth. The figure was 6% if the partners had opposing childbearing plans. Thus, both men and women exerted veto power over further childbearing. Disagreements were equally likely to be resolved in favor of the woman as of the man, and effects of partners' plans on the birth hazard did not depend on the couple's gender arrangements, family ideologies, or marital status. We discuss these results in the context of Sweden's public support for gender equality and for childrearing, its pervasive contraceptive regime, and its high rates of cohabitation. We also argue for the collection of data from partners in future family and fertility surveys.

  3. Reindeer pastoralism in Sweden 1550-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Lundmark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 16th century we get the first opportunity to a more detailed knowledge of reindeerpastoralism in Sweden. At that time the Sami lived in a hunter-gatherer economy. A family had in average about 10-20 domesticated reindeer, mainly used for transport. They could also be milked and used as decoys when hunting wild reindeer. During late 16th century the Swedish state and merchants bought large amounts of fur from the Sami. The common payment was butter and flour. This created a new prosperity, which lead to a considerable increase in population in Swedish Lapland. The population became too large for a hunter-gatherer economy. A crisis in early 17th century was the starting point for the transition to a large-scale nomadic reindeer pastoralism. Up to the middle of the 18th century intensive reindeer pastoralism was successful. But the pastoralism became gradually too intensive and diseases started to spread when the herds were kept too densely crowded for milking in summertime. During the first decades of the 19th century reindeer pastoralism in Sweden went through a major crisis. The number of reindeer herding mountain-Sami decreased considerably, mainly because they went to live permanently along the Norwegian coastline. Intensive reindeer pastoralism started to give way for extensive herding towards the end of the 19th century. In the north of Sweden influences from the Kautokeino Sami were an important factor, in the south extensive reindeer herding started to expand when the market for meat came closer to the Sami. During the 1920s the milking of reindeer ceased in Sweden, except in a few families. At that time Sami families from the north had been removed southwards. They further demonstrated the superiority of extensive herding to the Sami in mid- and southern Lapland. Reindeer pastoralism is basically a system of interaction between man and animal, but it has been heavily influenced by market forces and state intervention

  4. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-15

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  5. Spain: Democracy and the Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    four maritime zones, the Bay of Biscay, Straits of Gibraltar, Mediterranean, and Canary Islands , and the Commander of the Fleet. The fleet is divided...tasks of the other three Air Force commands in the Canary Islands zone. [77] Spain’s para-military forces number 64,000 in the Guardia Civil and 40,000 in...the surprise winner in the Galicia regional election this Fall. Fraga’s formula for a stable Spain is a "grand right" based on his own small but

  6. Implementing universal vaccination programmes: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, J; Esteban, R

    1995-01-01

    Until 1990, the immunization policy against hepatitis B in Spain was selective high-risk vaccination. That policy failed to reduce the incidence of hepatitis B and the prevalence rates of chronic carriers. In 1991, Catalonia began a universal immunization programme targeted at 12-year-olds. Six other regions (Castilla-León, Valencia, Extramadura, Navarra, the Balearic Islands and Rioja) introduced vaccination programmes in 1992. In 1993, three more regions (Galicia, Castilla-La-Mancha and Pais Vasco) began immunizing young adolescents. This means that 12-year-olds in Spain are now included in vaccination programmes against hepatitis B.

  7. Groundwater crustaceans of Spain, 13 (Copepoda Calanoida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Two calanoid copepods were collected from groundwaters in Spain by the University of Amsterdam Expeditions in 1983—84 and 1985. Copidodiaptomus numidicus was found in southwestern Spain, in provincias Huelva and Sevilla. Mixodiaptomus laciniatus, previously known in Spain only from the Pyrenees, was

  8. Income distribution and mortality in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lindholm

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The hypothesis that a high income inequality on a societal level is associated with poor health outcomes has been both rejected and accepted in empirical studies. Whether the influence of economic circumstances on health operates at the individual level or societal level has important implications on policy and intervention alternatives. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between income inequality and mortality in Swedish municipalities and if the relationship varies depending on the mean income or on the time-lag between income inequality and mortality.

    Methods: The study was based on register data on mean income and income inequality (Gini coefficients from Statistics Sweden 1982 and 1998, aggregated on the municipality level. Data on age-standardised death rates per 100,000 persons were obtained for 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998 and 2002. The analysis on 1998 was a test of the robustness of the results.

    Results: The relationship between high income inequality in 1982 and mortality in 1983 was negative with a similar relationship in 1998. Using latency periods, the results show a decreasing trend of mortality in relation to higher Gini coefficients. A positive relationship between Gini and mean income implies that municipalities with larger income distribution also had a higher mean income and vice versa.

    Conclusions: High income inequality does not have a negative effect on mortality in Swedish municipalities. The municipalities with high income inequality have also high mean income as opposed to many other countries. The income level seems to be more substantial for mortality than the income inequality.

  9. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  10. In Spain, Inbreeding Threatens Academe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    With 25 years of teaching experience at Spain's top-ranked veterinary school, 58 articles in prestigious international journals, and numerous patents to her name, Victoria Lopez Rodas would be a strong candidate for any academic job in her field. So when she took a national qualifying examination for a full professorship in animal science last…

  11. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  12. LNG As an Alternative Energy Supply in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens (Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    As well as summarising the possible alternatives, environmental aspects and uses of LNG, this study aims to investigate the cost involved in the import of LNG to Sweden, from well to user. In Sweden, Natural Gas is used to cover 2 % of the total energy input. The pipeline network stretches from Malmoe to Stenungsund and Gnosjoe, which means some of the most densely populated areas are covered, but there is still 1200 km of the country left, including larger cities such as Stockholm, Uppsala and Linkoeping as well as areas that host some of the most energy demanding industries, e.g. Sundsvall, Umeaa, Luleaa and Kiruna. The absence of Natural Gas typically causes these regions to rely on fuel oil, coke or coal. If these sources of energy could be replaced by Natural Gas, great environmental benefits could be achieved. Research shows that the use of Natural Gas adds 20 % less CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere than oil and also mean lower emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particles, making it the better alternative from both local and global perspectives. LNG is potentially a fire and an explosion hazard, but in the last 45 years of usage, no major accidents have occurred. Major exporters of LNG are Indonesia, Quatar, Australia and Algeria. Some of the largest importers are Japan, USA, France and Spain. Japan imports nearly 100 % of their Natural Gas as LNG. The available LNG liquefaction capacity increased by 60 % between 2002 and 2007. The total import cost for LNG includes the purchase cost from the producer, the transport cost, be it sea, railroad or road transport, and the cost for the terminal which receives and stores LNG. The study of different routes, volumes and means of transport creates a picture of how the total cost varies in proportion to these parameters. In the calculation of these costs, sources from the industry or estimations of purchase prices, transport costs and terminal costs are used. The uncertainties in this study are especially high when it

  13. Gambling in Sweden: the cultural and socio-political context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2014-02-01

    To provide an overview, with respect to Sweden, of the cultural history of gambling, the commercialization of gambling, problem gambling research, the prevalence of problem gambling and its prevention and treatment. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Sweden; involvement in gambling research and regulation. Gambling has long been part of Swedish culture. Since about 1980 the gambling market, although still largely monopolistic, has been commercialized. At the same time, problem gambling has emerged as a concept in the public health paradigm. Debate regarding whether or not Sweden's national restrictions on the gambling market are compliant with European Community legislation has helped to put problem gambling on the political agenda. Despite expanded gambling services, the extent of problem gambling on the population level has not changed significantly over the past decade. The stability of problem gambling in Sweden at the population level suggests a homeostatic system involving the gambling market, regulation, prevention and treatment and adaption to risk and harm by gamblers. We have relatively good knowledge of the extent and characteristics of problem gambling in Sweden and of how to treat it, but little is known of how to prevent it effectively. Knowledge is needed of the effectiveness of regulatory actions and approaches, and of responsible gambling measures implemented by gambling companies. © 2013 The Author, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Queen Mariana of Austria's Journey to Spain: political divergences and protocol tensions within the house of Habsburg (1648-1649

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Tercero Casado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spain’s isolation at the end of the Thirty Year’s War due to the Empire’s separate signature with France and Sweden in the Peace of Westphalia unleashed brief but intense political turmoil between the two Habsburg branches. Although Philip IV and Mariana of Austria’s marriage was ensured, the new Queen’s journey to Spain brought attention to the failure of another engagement between her brother and Emperor’s son, the King of Hungary Ferdinand, and the Infanta Maria Theresa. Given such context, the trip undoubtedly emphasized the tensions between both European powers.

  15. Quality of renewable energy utilization in transport in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy utilization in transportation (RES-T) is a long way behind its utilization in power (RES-E) and heat (RES-H) sectors. International and national environmental policies have recently given a lot of emphasis on this problem. For that reason information is sought on how to implement solutions both politically and technologically. As Sweden is a global leader in this area, it can provide valuable examples. In 2012 Sweden became the first country to reach the binding requirement of the European Union for at least 10 % share for renewable energy in transport energy consumption. But qualitative development has been even stronger than quantitative. Among the success stories behind qualitative progress, most noteworthy are those created by innovative municipal policies. By 2030 Sweden aims to achieve fossil fuel independent road transport system and by 2050 completely carbon neutral transport system in all modes of transport.

  16. TRENDS IN UNEMPLOYMENT DURING THE LAST ECONOMIC RECESSION IN SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Potrykus-Czapp

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, state debt is one of the lowest in the European Union, inflation is low, the banking system operates soundly and the Swedish economy is diverse, highly competitive and successful. The standard of living is high in the entire country. The present social and economic success in Sweden was built on the conclusions drawn from the world financial crisis in the ‘90s and the global financial crisis between 2007-2008. The first effects of the global economic crisis in the form of rising unemployment appeared in Europe when we could observe a sharp increase in joblessness. This article discusses the problem of and methods of dealing with unemployment in Sweden during the recent economic recession.

  17. Sweden's Leadership in a Climate Constrained World. An analysis for Sweden of the Greenhouse Development Rights framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartha, Sivan; Baer, Paul; Athanasiou, Tom; Kemp-Benedict, Eric

    2008-10-15

    This report presents an analysis of the Greenhouse Development Rights framework applied to the case of Sweden. Its objective is to provide useful quantitative guidance on Sweden's role as a leader in our climate constrained world. It presents guidance that is rigorous from the standpoint of climate science and framed in the context of a right to development for the world's poor. This analysis fully accounts for Sweden's true responsibility, by looking beyond territorial emissions alone, and reckoning emissions in terms of Sweden's net 'carbon footprint.' Accounting for carbon embedded in imports, exports and international transport reveals that Sweden's responsibility is 17% larger than would be inferred by considering Sweden's territorial emissions alone. Sweden will naturally have significant obligations under any burden-sharing regime that is based on capacity and responsibility, and only more so under a regime that honors a right to development. Under the GDR framework, our indicative quantification suggests that Sweden's share of responsibility and capacity, and hence its obligation under a politically viable climate regime, will be approximately 0.51% of the global total in 2010. This can be compared to the US's 33%, the EU's 26%, Japan's 7.8%, China's 5.5%, and India's 0.5%. Sweden's 0.51% share of the global total is thus not large in absolute terms, though it is rather large relative to Sweden's small size (0.14% of the global population). These national shares shift over time, as countries' relative proportion of income and emissions change. In light of the emergence of rapidly growing developing country economies, Sweden's share of the global total obligation is projected to decline to 0.43% by 2020, and to 0.35% by 2030. This quantification of Sweden's obligation is useful in two complementary ways. First, if the total global costs of an emergency climate

  18. Attitudes toward reintroduction of European bison (Bison bonasus) to Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsten, Axel

    2014-01-01

    The European bison (Bison bonasus) is no longer present in the wild fauna of Sweden. Reintroduction, an attempt to reestablish a viable population of a species in an area to which it is native, has been discussed. To make such an operation successful it is essential to know the attitudes of the stakeholders involved. This study has sensed the attitudes toward reintroducing E. bison to Sweden. It was done through a survey sent to the Wildlife Management Boards (Boards) and to landowners/farmer...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its designated...

  20. Sulphur emission control areas and transport strategies -the case of Sweden and the forest industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergqvist, Rickard; Turesson, Marcus; Weddmark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    .... The seas around Sweden are included in the ECA and achieving the new sulphur directive requires shipowners to take actions that will increase the cost of transporting goods by ship from Sweden...

  1. 78 FR 61981 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Anders Zorn: Sweden's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Anders Zorn: Sweden's Master Painter... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Anders Zorn: Sweden's Master Painter...

  2. 76 FR 23321 - New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, New Sweden Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the New Sweden...

  3. 76 FR 27663 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ..., Netherlands and Sweden Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... purified carboxymethylcellulose from Mexico and Sweden would not be likely to lead to continuation or... subject imports from Finland, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Sweden would not be likely to lead to...

  4. The Role of the School Library: Reflections from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Libraries are critical learning spaces and may play a significant role in intercultural education initiatives, particularly in Sweden where the national curriculum ascribes central functions to libraries for learning activities. Unfortunately, the ways in which teachers and librarians may collaborate to leverage mutual resources is not fully…

  5. Sweden's Engagement with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Magnus; Bae, Jinsun

    2015-01-01

    on semistructured interviews of individuals who have taken part in Swedish engagement programs. Findings: - Besides having its embassy in Pyongyang and serving as a protecting power for the U.S., Sweden has provided capacity building programs for North Korean government officials and scholars and has taken part...

  6. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  7. Individualized Mathematics Teaching. Results from the IMU Project in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Inger

    The Individual Mathematics Teaching Project (IMU) has been under development in the upper level (grades 7-9) of the comprehensive school in Sweden since 1964. Its goals are (1) to construct and test self-instruction study material in mathematics, (2) to find suitable teaching methods and work forms for the use of this material, (3) to try out…

  8. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  9. The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique…

  10. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1999; Energilaeget i siffror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This supplement contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1999, STEM-ET-82-1999). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English.

  11. Lise Meitner in Sweden 1938-1960: Exile from physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1994-08-01

    Lise Meitner fled Germany for Sweden in 1938. Her professional difficulties in Stockholm coupled with her exclusion from the discovery of fission diminished her ability to work, damaged her reputation and, in the opinion of many of her contemporaries, kept her from a Nobel prize.

  12. Salmonella-associated Deaths, Sweden, 1997–2003

    OpenAIRE

    Ternhag, Anders; Törner, Anna; Ekdahl, Karl; Giesecke, Johan

    2006-01-01

    We examined excess deaths after infection with Salmonella in a registry-based matched cohort study of 25,060 persons infected abroad and 5,139 infected within Sweden. The domestically infected have an increased standardized mortality ratio, whereas those who acquired Salmonella infection abroad had no excess risk of death.

  13. Schooling of Immigrant Children in West Germany, Sweden, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, I.

    1975-01-01

    The focus of this article is on children of migrant workers and immigrants in the schools of West Germany, Sweden and England. One central problem, that of language, is considered both as it is dealt with in policy, i. e., in curricula, and as it is actually implemented in some programs, which are typical for the actions in these countries.…

  14. Intra- and Extrafamilial Child Homicide in Sweden, 1971-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somander, Lis K. H.; Rammer, Lennart M.

    1991-01-01

    Over a 10-year period, 96 children (age 0-14) were victims of homicide in Sweden, an average annual rate of 0.6 per 100,000 children. Most homicides were intrafamilial in nature. Cases of child abuse by a parent and cases of sexual abuse among the homicide victims were infrequent. (Author/JDD)

  15. The Ultimate in Flexitime: From Sweden, by Way of Volvo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul

    1988-01-01

    In the Volvo component plant on Koping, Sweden, an innovative system of multiple shifts and flexible working hours is offered to employees. The system meets the needs of those who are available for work at certain times and helps curtail turnover and absenteeism. (JOW)

  16. Parental Divorce and Union Disruption among Young Adults in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…

  17. The Metal Hoard from Pile in Scania, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandkilde, Helle

    The metal hoard from Pile has branded the onset of the rich Nordic Bronze Age since its discovery in 1864 at the coast of Scania in southwestern Sweden. Yet, this book provides the first detailed documentation, scientific examination and historical interpretation. Indeed, Pile emerges as the earl...

  18. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1998; Energilaeget i siffror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This supplement contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1998, STEM-ET--26-98). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English

  19. Energy in Sweden. Facts and figures 1997; Energilaeget i siffror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Facts and figures 1997 contains the tabular data of most of the diagrams in the main publication (Energy in Sweden 1997). The figures are based on preliminary statistics, and there may be minor differences between similar data in different sections or tables etc. All table headings and notes are given in both Swedish and English

  20. Johanna and Tommy: Two Preschoolers in Sweden with Brittle Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millde, Kristina; Brodin, Jane

    Information is presented for caregivers of Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) and their families. Approximately five children with brittle bones are born in Sweden annually. Two main types of brittle bone disease have been identified: congenita and tarda. Typical symptoms include numerous and unexpected fractures, bluish…

  1. Biology and outbreaks of Microdiprion pallipes (Hymenoptera; Diprionidae) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, E. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology)

    1994-01-01

    During outbreaks, Microdiprion pallipes (Fall.) is the most destructive of the pine sawflies in Sweden. Its distribution includes most provinces, but damaging outbreaks have until recently occurred only in two inland areas in northern Sweden. These areas are characterised by high elevation, a harsh climate, and slow tree growth. The four recorded outbreak periods showed a 10 year periodicity. Outside these areas, a lesser outbreak occurred in 1988 to 1990, on the east coast (province of Uppland). Outbreak patterns, life history variation, and mortality factors were studied. Factors that may explain the distribution of outbreaks and the population patterns were identified.Experimental and observational evidence on the potential of various factors to influence fecundity, dispersal, and survival was evaluated. In the outbreak areas, there were few major population factors. Parasitism by Rhorus substitutor (Thunb.) was the largest cause of larval mortality and the only important density-dependent mortality factor. The different diapause strategies of M. pallipes and R. substitutor may contribute to stabilize this system. Different flight periods of the host and the parasitoid may explain a possible correlation between weather and outbreaks. Elsewhere in Sweden, where low population densities prevail, there may be similarities in population processes between M. pallipes and the other widely distributed diprionids with solitary larvae, which never have attained outbreak densities in Sweden. Interactions with other diprionids through shared natural enemies may be an important population process and may influence the distribution of outbreaks. 37 refs, 4 figs, 11 tabs

  2. Privatizing Education: Free School Policy in Sweden and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…

  3. Students' Perspectives on Raising Achievement through Inclusion in Essunga, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Persson, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A Swedish municipality that has transformed its position at the bottom of the national school league tables to top within three years--through inclusive education--has attracted much attention both in Sweden and internationally. This article offers the students' perspectives on the transformation and how they have experienced success. A social…

  4. Are Teacher Assessments Biased?--Evidence from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Erica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates if the probability of being graded up in the school leaving certificates increases if the teacher is of the same gender as the student or if the teacher and the student both have a foreign background. The analysis is based on data on grade 9 students in Mathematics from Sweden. I find that female students and non-native…

  5. A novel stroke locus identified in a northern Sweden pedigree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janunger, T.; Nilsson-Ardnor, S.; Wiklund, P.-G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The population of northern Sweden is characterized by reduced genetic diversity and a high incidence of stroke. We sought to reduce genetic variation further, using genealogic analysis in a set of nuclear families affected by stroke, and we subsequently performed a genome-wide scan...

  6. Coordination between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wadmann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insights into effective policy strategies for improved coordination of care is needed. In this study we describe and compare the policy strategies chosen in Denmark and Sweden, and discuss them in relation to interorganisational network theory. Policy practice: The policy initiatives to improve collaboration between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden include legislation and agreements aiming at clarifying areas of responsibility and defining requirements, creation of links across organisational boarders. In Denmark many initiatives have been centrally induced, while development of local solutions is more prominent in Sweden. Many Danish initiatives target the administrative level, while in Sweden initiatives are also directed at the operational level. In both countries economic incentives for collaboration are weak or lacking, and use of sanctions as a regulatory mean is limited. Discussion and conclusion: Despite a variety of policy initiatives, lacking or poorly developed structures to support implementation function as barriers for coordination. The two cases illustrate that even in two relatively coherent health systems, with regional management of both the hospital and general practice sector, there are issues to resolve in regard to administrative and operational coordination. The interorganisational network literature can provide useful tools and concepts for interpreting such issues.

  7. Local School Governance in Sweden: Boards, Parents, and Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Mikael; Johansson, Olof; Nihlfors, Elisabet; Skott, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Sweden has recently seen three major political attempts to empower parents through national regulations--the transferal of authority from the state to district school boards, the heavy promotion of independent schools, and the introduction of local school boards at municipality schools. This article provides an overview of these developments by…

  8. Struggles for Legitimacy in Mother Tongue Instruction in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganuza, Natalia; Hedman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the pedagogical beliefs, practices and ideological assumptions of 15 teachers who work with mother tongue instruction in Sweden. Despite support through provisions in Swedish laws, mother tongue instruction is clearly a marginalized subject, not least due to its non-mandatory status, the limited time allocated for it and…

  9. Teaching for democracy in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Isabel Cárdenas; Sanchez, Concepción Martin

    1995-05-01

    As part of the process of re-establishing democracy, Spain is reforming its educational system to promote democratic values. This article describes an experiment in education for democracy that was carried out among 86 pupils, between 12 and 14 years old, in the Spanish region of Murcia. A teaching programme was developed, in which students were encouraged to study how power is exercised in the home, the school, the community, the nation and the world. Results have been generally positive in arousing pupils' interest in democracy and helping them to understand democratic processes.

  10. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  11. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  12. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  13. Bisphenol A alternatives in thermal paper from the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Norway. Screening and potential toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björnsdotter, Maria K.; Jonker, Willem; Legradi, Jessica; Kool, Jeroen; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic additives, such as bisphenol A (BPA), as a common color developer. Because of its known endocrine disrupting effects, structural analogues to BPA, such as bisphenol S (BPS), D-8 and Pergafast 201, have been used as alternatives, but little is known about the

  14. Kinderet: Developing Training for Early Childhood Educators in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) In Bulgaria, England, Portugal, Spain and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saude, S.; Carioca, V.; Siraj-Blatchford, J.; Sheridan, S.; Genov, K.; Nuez, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the European context the continuing training of early childhood educators in terms of information and communications technology (ICT) remains limited and is in need of development. The KINDERET project has been funded through the European Commission's "Leonardo da Vinci" programme aimed to identify and understand the theoretical and…

  15. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odlind, V. (Uppsala Univ. (SE)); Ericson, A. (National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm (SE))

    1991-01-01

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden.

  16. Reception and dissemination of American amateur telescope making in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnfelt, Johan

    2017-04-01

    This paper discusses the appropriation of the American Amateur Telescope Making (ATM) movement in Sweden in the 1940s and 1950s. A key player was the Swedish Astronomical Society, which in 1943, and inspired by the American example, launched a campaign to raise interest in ATM and disseminate the necessary knowledge amongst potential amateur astronomers. The campaign was successful and in just a few years it quadrupled the number of amateurs with access to telescopes. Swedish amateurs kept on building telescopes through the 1950s, but the activities then stalled with the introduction of cheap mass-market telescopes. The appropriation of ATM in Sweden is an important example of how technical innovations have shaped the course of amateur astronomy.

  17. Public perceptions and acceptance of intensive forestry in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemström, Kerstin; Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-03-01

    The use of intensive forestry on part of the forested area in Sweden increases the production of forest biomass and enables an increased use of such biomass to mitigate climate change. However, with increasing conflicting interests in forests and forestry, the success of such a strategy depends on the public acceptance. In this paper, the results of a mail survey show that although a majority of the general public in Sweden supports measures to increase forest growth, they oppose the use of intensive forestry practices such as the cultivation of exotic tree species, clones, and forest fertilization. The acceptance of such practices is mainly influenced by the perceptions of their environmental consequences. Public acceptance was highest for forest fertilization, whereas clone cultivation was the least accepted practice.

  18. The Road to Parenthood: Income and First Births in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Ernesto Germán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of income on the risk of having the first births in Sweden from 1968 to 2009. Variations by gender are given particular atention. The study follows men and women from the moment they turn 18 until they enter parenthood and it is based on register-based data covering the entire population of Sweden. Complementary log-log models show that there is a positive association between income and the risk of childbearing. The association gets stronger over time and the differences between men and women diminish. Gender differences appear when the income effect is related to the demand for work in the economy. An income above the median does not increase the risk of childbearing for women when the demand for work is relatively high.

  19. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... to some extent could reflect differences in the quality of care, indicated by the numbers of perinatal deaths in categories of potentially avoidable deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 97% of all perinatal deaths in 1991 in the two countries were analyzed. A new classification focusing...... on potential avoidability from a health services perspective was elaborated at a Nordic-Baltic workshop, using the variables: time of death in relation to admission and delivery, fetal malformation, gestational age, growth-retardation and Apgar score at 5 min. RESULTS: Rates of perinatal deaths of malformed...

  20. Source attribution of human Salmonella cases in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, H.; Andersson, Y.; Plym-Forshell, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the sources of sporadic domestic Salmonella cases in Sweden and to evaluate the usefulness of a source-attribution model in a country in which food animals are virtually free from Salmonella. The model allocates human sporadic domestic Salmonella cases...... to different sources according to distribution of Salmonella subtypes in the different sources. Sporadic domestic human Salmonella cases (n=1086) reported between July 2004 and June 2006 were attributed to nine food-animal and wildlife sources. Of all Salmonella cases, 82% were acquired abroad and 2.9% were...... associated with outbreaks. We estimated that 6.4% were associated with imported food, 0.5% with food-producing animals, and 0.6% with wildlife. Overall, 7.7% could not be attributed to any source. We concluded that domestic food-producing animals are not an important source for Salmonella in humans in Sweden...

  1. Epidemiology and Ecology of Tularemia in Sweden, 1984–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvars, Amélie; Furberg, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Vidman, Linda; Sjöstedt, Anders; Rydén, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The zoonotic disease tularemia is endemic in large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but research is lacking on patterns of spatial distribution and connections with ecologic factors. To describe the spatial epidemiology of and identify ecologic risk factors for tularemia incidence in Sweden, we analyzed surveillance data collected over 29 years (1984–2012). A total of 4,830 cases were notified, of which 3,524 met all study inclusion criteria. From the first to the second half of the study period, mean incidence increased 10-fold, from 0.26/100,000 persons during 1984–1998 to 2.47/100,000 persons during 1999–2012 (pSweden and illustrate that incidence is higher in locations near lakes and rivers. PMID:25529978

  2. Socioeconomic differences in the burden of disease in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljung, Rickard; Peterson, Stefan; Hallqvist, Johan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyse how much of the total burden of disease in Sweden, measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), is a result of inequalities in health between socioeconomic groups. We also sought to determine how this unequal burden is distributed across different disease...... of disease were analysed using attributable fractions and the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality. FINDINGS: About 30% of the burden of disease among women and 37% of the burden among men is a differential burden resulting from socioeconomic inequalities in health. A large part....... CONCLUSION: This is the first study to use socioeconomic differences, measured by socioeconomic position, to assess the burden of disease using DALYs. We found that in Sweden one-third of the burden of the diseases we studied is unequally distributed. Studies of socioeconomic inequalities in the burden...

  3. Decomposing the Differences in Cancer Mortality between Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron Boucher, Marie-Pier; Wensink, Maarten Jan; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    mortality. Preliminary results suggest that diagnosis at a later stage could be the only reason why Danes suffer higher mortality from breast cancer. Later stage diagnosis explains 37% of the difference in mortality from lung cancer. Higher mortality from lung cancer is observed at each stage in Denmark......Cancer survival tends to be lower in Denmark than in comparable countries like Sweden. It has been suggested that this difference can be partly explained by higher tobacco use by Danes than Swedes and a more adverse stage at diagnosis distribution. In this paper, we aim to decompose the difference...... in cancer mortality between Denmark and Sweden by their differences in 1) age composition at diagnosis, 2) stage composition at diagnosis and 3) the force of mortality by age and stage. This procedure allows quantification of the contribution of each of these factors to the overall difference in cancer...

  4. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian Sundström; Helene Wahlström; Sofie Ivarsson; Susanna Sternberg Lewerin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae), for differences in the control programmes and for changes i...

  5. Nursing Students? Views on Promoting Successful Breastfeeding in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Pajalic, Zada

    2014-01-01

    Promoting breastfeeding is important work for health-care personnel in the Swedish context. This promotion is multifaceted and demands the ongoing development of knowledge and competence among both health-care personnel and patients. The aim of the present study was to describe the nursing students’ perspectives on breastfeeding in Sweden. Data were obtained in the form of written reflections from nursing students (n=65) and examined using manifest content analysis. The results...

  6. The Properties of Survey-Based Inflation Expectations in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Thomas; Österholm, Pär

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the properties of survey-based inflation expectations in Sweden. The survey is conducted by Prospera once every quarter and consists of respondents from businesses and labour-market organisa-tions. The paper shows that inflation expectations measured in this sur-vey tend to be biased and inefficient forecasts of future inflation. Results also indicate that long-run inflation expectations are overly adaptive with respect to actual inflation. Finally, evaluations of forecast...

  7. The sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Norin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For a high-latitude country like Sweden snowfall is an important contributor to the regional water cycle. Furthermore, snowfall impacts surface properties, affects atmospheric thermodynamics, has implications for traffic and logistics management, disaster preparedness, and also impacts climate through changes in surface albedo and turbulent heat fluxes. For Sweden it has been shown that large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, or weather states, are important for precipitation variability. Although the link between atmospheric circulation patterns and precipitation has been investigated for rainfall there are no studies focused on the sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden.In this work we investigate the response of snowfall to eight selected weather states. These weather states consist of four dominant wind directions together with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns and enhanced positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The presented analysis is based on multiple data sources, such as ground-based radar measurements, satellite observations, spatially interpolated in situ observations, and reanalysis data. The data from these sources converge to underline the sensitivity of falling snow over Sweden to the different weather states.In this paper we examine both average snowfall intensities and snowfall accumulations associated with the different weather states. It is shown that, even though the heaviest snowfall intensities occur during conditions with winds from the south-west, the largest contribution to snowfall accumulation arrives with winds from the south-east. Large differences in snowfall due to variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are shown as well as a strong effect of cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns. Satellite observations are used to reveal the vertical structures of snowfall during the different weather states.

  8. Effects of climate change on tularemia disease activity in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Patrik; Sjostedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Tularaemia is a vector-borne infectious disease. A large majority of cases transmitted to humans by bloodfeeding arthropods occur during the summer season and is linked to increased temperatures. Therefore, the effect of climate change is likely to have an effect on tularaemia transmission patterns in highly endemic areas of Sweden. In this report, we use simulated climate change scenario data and empirical data of temperatures critical to tularaemia transmission to forecast tularaemia outbre...

  9. Effects of climate change on tularaemia disease activity in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Patrik; Sjöstedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders

    2009-11-11

    Tularaemia is a vector-borne infectious disease. A large majority of cases transmitted to humans by blood-feeding arthropods occur during the summer season and is linked to increased temperatures. Therefore, the effect of climate change is likely to have an effect on tularaemia transmission patterns in highly endemic areas of Sweden. In this report, we use simulated climate change scenario data and empirical data of temperatures critical to tularaemia transmission to forecast tularaemia outbreak activity. The five high-endemic counties: Dalarna, Gävleborg, Norrbotten, Värmland and Orebro represent only 14.6% of the total population of Sweden, but have recorded 40.1-81.1% of the number of annual human tularaemia in Sweden from 1997 until 2008. We project here earlier starts and a later termination of future tularaemia outbreaks for the time period 2010-2100. For five localised outbreak areas; Gagnef (Dalarna), Ljusdal (Gävleborg), Harads (Norrbotten), Karlstad (Värmland) and Orebro municipality (Orebro), the climate scenario suggests an approximately 2 degrees C increase in monthly average summer temperatures leading to increases in outbreak durations ranging from 3.5 weeks (Harads) to 6.6 weeks (Karlstad) between 2010 and 2100. In contrast, an analysis of precipitation scenarios indicates fairly stable projected levels of precipitation during the summer months. Thus, there should not be an increased abundance of late summer mosquitoes that are believed to be main vectors for transmission to humans in these areas. In conclusion, the results indicate that the future climate changes will lead to an increased burden of tularaemia in high-endemic areas of Sweden during the coming decades.

  10. The sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, Lars; Devasthale, Abhay; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2017-09-01

    For a high-latitude country like Sweden snowfall is an important contributor to the regional water cycle. Furthermore, snowfall impacts surface properties, affects atmospheric thermodynamics, has implications for traffic and logistics management, disaster preparedness, and also impacts climate through changes in surface albedo and turbulent heat fluxes. For Sweden it has been shown that large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, or weather states, are important for precipitation variability. Although the link between atmospheric circulation patterns and precipitation has been investigated for rainfall there are no studies focused on the sensitivity of snowfall to weather states over Sweden.In this work we investigate the response of snowfall to eight selected weather states. These weather states consist of four dominant wind directions together with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns and enhanced positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The presented analysis is based on multiple data sources, such as ground-based radar measurements, satellite observations, spatially interpolated in situ observations, and reanalysis data. The data from these sources converge to underline the sensitivity of falling snow over Sweden to the different weather states.In this paper we examine both average snowfall intensities and snowfall accumulations associated with the different weather states. It is shown that, even though the heaviest snowfall intensities occur during conditions with winds from the south-west, the largest contribution to snowfall accumulation arrives with winds from the south-east. Large differences in snowfall due to variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are shown as well as a strong effect of cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation patterns. Satellite observations are used to reveal the vertical structures of snowfall during the different weather states.

  11. Majority versus Minority: ‘Governmentality’ and Muslims in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sofie Roald

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority–minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim minority communities and how majority society’s approach to Muslims and Islam influences both the relationship Muslims have with non-Muslims and the understandings that Muslims have of Islam.

  12. Russia’s Security Relations with Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    trade relations as a means of “enticement” or “punishment,” and seeks to establish and deepen the energy dependence of neighboring states on gas and...International Energy Agency noted that in 2015 Finland was 100 percent dependent on imports of gas and oil, with 83 percent of oil and 100 percent of gas...Finland, Norway, Russia, Soviet Union, Sweden, United States, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, European Union, Article 5, collective defense

  13. Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in Southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landén, R; Bryne, M; Abdel-Hameed, A

    1994-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis strains were found to be naturally present in the soils of southern Sweden, being isolated from nine out of 12 sites examined. Forest soil samples were more rich in B. thuringiensis strains than soil samples collected from cultivated areas. A wide diversity of B. thuringiensis strains, representing different biochemical groups, was isolated; samples from Aspö and Fogdö regions showed the highest degree of diversity.

  14. Increased occurrence of lightning flashes in Sweden during 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, S.; Schütte, T.; Pisler, E.; Lundquist, S.

    1987-09-01

    As a result of the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, USSR, a considerable increase in radioactive background radiation was noted in some regions of Sweden. In areas with high radioactive fallout an increase in the amount of lightning flashes was observed during the 1986 thunderstorm season. A statistical test shows that there is a risk of less than 1% that the observed difference has occurred by mere chance.

  15. Specialist paediatric dentistry in Sweden 2008 - a 25-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Gunilla; Andersson-Wenckert, Ingrid; Grindefjord, Margaret; Lundin, Sven-Ake; Ridell, Karin; Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Ullbro, Christer

    2010-09-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010; 20: 313-321 Background. Paediatric dentistry in Sweden has been surveyed four times over the past 25 years. During this period postgraduate training, dental health, and the organization of child dental care have changed considerably. Aim. To investigate services provided by specialists in paediatric dentistry in Sweden in 2008, and to compare with data from previous surveys. Design. The same questionnaire was sent to all 30 specialist paediatric dental clinics in Sweden that had been used in previous surveys. Comparisons were made with data from 1983, 1989, 1996 and 2003. Results. Despite an unchanged number of specialists (N = 81 in 2008), the number of referrals had increased by 16% since 2003 and by almost 50% since 1983. There was greater variation in reasons for referrals. The main reason was still dental anxiety/behaviour management problems in combination with dental treatment needs (27%), followed by medical conditions/disability (18%), and high caries activity (15%). The use of different techniques for conscious sedation as well as general anaesthesia had also increased. Conclusions. The referrals to paediatric dentistry continue to increase, leading to a heavy work load for the same number of specialists. Thus, the need for more paediatric dentists remains.

  16. The sacred foodscapes of Thai Buddhist temples in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Plank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai Buddhist communities are by far the fastest-growing Buddhist establishments in Sweden, and – contrary to other Buddhist congregations that are mainly clustered in the cities – Thai Buddhist temples can be found in sparsely-populated areas and rural parts of Sweden. This article aims to document and analyse the ‘foodscape’ of diasporic Thai Buddhism in Sweden. In particular the article identifies and discusses five different strategies used by local communities- in order to support their temples in urban as well as rural areas: 1 local support, 2 pre-cooking and freezing, 3 pre-organised almsgiving in nearby cities, 4 change of food gifts, 5 change of the nikaya. A temple’s location in a rural area can drive forward a reinterpretation and adaptation of the monk’s rules, and contribute to a changing composition of food gifts. Food performs several functions. In addition to the religious functions that are associated with almsgiving, food can also serve as a means of generating bonding and bridging civic social capital, and providing economic income to temples.

  17. Epidemiology of Chronic Pain in Denmark and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Harker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Estimates on the epidemiology of chronic pain vary widely throughout Europe. It is unclear whether this variation reflects true differences between populations or methodological factors. Information on the epidemiology of chronic pain can support decision makers in allocating adequate health care resources. Methods. In order to obtain epidemiological data on chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden, we conducted a literature review of epidemiological data primarily on chronic noncancer pain, prioritising studies of highest quality, recency, and validity by conducting a systematic search for relevant studies. Following quality assessment, data were summarised and assigned to the research questions. Results. The prevalence of moderate to severe noncancer pain was estimated at 16% in Denmark and 18% in Sweden. Chronic pain impacts negatively on perceived health status, quality of life and is associated with increased cost. Despite using pain medications, a large proportion of chronic pain sufferers have inadequate pain control. There was a lack of high-quality and low-bias studies with clear inclusion criteria. Conclusions. In both Denmark and Sweden, chronic pain is a common health problem which is potentially undertreated and warrants attention of health care workers, policy makers and researchers. Future research should utilise clear reporting guidelines to assist decision and policy makers, in this important area.

  18. Drought Management Strategies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Paneque

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate on water policies in Spain is characterised by a traditional paradigm, dominated by the intervention on hydrological systems through the construction and management of infrastructure, which is progressively being abandoned but is currently still strong while the emergence of new management approaches. Climate change and the Water Framework Directive (WFD are, in addition, the background to increasing challenges to traditional perspectives on drought, and important steps have been taken towards their replacement. This work analyzes the evolution of the normative structure and management models to identify recent shifts. The analysis is based on a fundamental conceptual change that places drought in the framework of risk, rather than that of crisis. I argue for the need to advance new prevention policies that can finally overcome productivist inertia and undertake essential tasks such as reallocating water flows, revising and controlling the water-concession system, and reinforcing and guaranteeing public participation.

  19. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Sweden 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Oil and natural gas represented respectively 27% and 3% of Sweden’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2010. With coal representing 5% of TPES, Sweden has the lowest share of fossil fuels in the energy supply mix among IEA member countries. This is a significant difference from the mid-1970s, when fossil fuels made up three-quarters of Sweden’s energy supply, and is the result of a concerted effort to move away from the use of oil through the development of nuclear and renewable energy sources. Sweden’s energy policy seeks to further increase the share of renewable energy sources, including having them provide half of all energy, and 10% of all transport needs, by 2020. The share of fossil fuel is also to be further reduced, through plans to fully eliminate their use for heating purposes by 2020 and having a vehicle stock in Sweden that is ''independent'' of fossil fuels by 2030. Under this policy, demand for both oil and natural gas is anticipated to decline from current levels. Oil demand in Sweden was nearly 330 thousand barrels per day (kb/d) in 2011. While fully dependent on imports to meet domestic oil demand, Sweden is a net exporter of refined oil products. Overall oil demand will likely decline in the coming decade, however demand for oil in the transport sector is expected to grow. At the same time, oil demand will be ever more concentrated on transport diesel, with demand for the fuel reaching over 110 kb/d by 2020 compared to just under 80 kb/d in 2011. Concerning natural gas, consumption in Sweden totalled 1.3 billion cubic metres (bcm) in 2011, all of which was supplied via a single interconnector with Denmark. While natural gas plays only a minor role in Sweden’s TPES, its role in the energy supply of southern and western Sweden is much more substantial, accounting for around 20% of the area’s total energy use. Around 30 large consumers, including CHP plants, account for roughly 80% of total gas demand in the country

  20. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N.; Lechon, Y.; Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Rua, C. de la; Saez, R.; Varela, M.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  1. Sweden and the Jacobite movement (1715-1718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costel Coroban

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available During the second decade of the century of the Enlightenment, a short interesting episode occurred between the Kingdoms of Britain, Sweden and the Russian Empire. In the context of Sweden’s downfall as an imperial power, Charles XII, after the return from his stay in the Ottoman Empire, instructed his minister, Görtz, to surreptitiously journey to the Netherlands in search of finances. The purpose was to revitalize what was left of Sweden’s maritime power. The only ones interested in funding Charles XII’s fleet were the Jacobites. They were those English, Scots, Irish and Welsh who were still loyal to the dynasty of James II Stuart of England, exiled during the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689. James II having died in 1701, they now gathered around his son, Francis Edward Stuart (the Old Pretender. In 1715-1716, the Pretender attempted to invade Britain in order to prevent the succession of George I of Hanover, but failed. Through the Swedish envoys in London and Paris (Gyllenborg and Sparre, respectively, Görtz tried to obtain an agreement from the Jacobites that money would be secretly loaned to Charles XII in exchange for Sweden helping a new Jacobite invasion. British counterintelligence was well aware of these negotiations. Eventually the government of George I arrested Gyllenborg, furthermore publishing his documents. This was done in the hope of internationally isolating Sweden, as the British Hanoverian monarch feared a Russian-Swedish-Jacobite alliance. The topic cannot be fully understood without taking in consideration the position of the Russian Empire, so a section of the article is also dedicated to the role played by Russia in this affair.

  2. An analysis of present dental professions in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordell, Sven; Unell, Lennart; Söderfeldt, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Dentistry in Sweden is predicted to have a shortage of dentists in the future and the division of labour within dentistry will be a more debated question. In order to forecast the effects of such a shortage the professional status of the involved groups must be made clearer. The objective of this paper is to analyse the emergence and present professional status of clinical dental professions in Sweden. The study was conducted on the basis of theories on professions, and their roles in organizations was analysed. The results were applied on the historical emergence, establishment and consolidation of clinical dental professions in Sweden. The results show that a large sector of salaried dentists has not diminished the professional status of the Swedish dentists. Professional ambitions such as many clinical subspecialties and a strong element of research have not been restrained by the public health ambitions in the Public Dental Health Service (PDHS). Presently, other dental professions are dental hygienists, dental technicians and dental nurses. Of these the only other licensed group, the dental hygienists, are an emerging profession. They have an uphill struggle to obtain a full professional status, mainly because their knowledge domains are neither specific nor exclusive to their group. Development of a common core curriculum on a clearly academic level would enhance their professional status. Dental technicians and nurses are lacking fundamental traits as professions. There appears to be little need for additional groups of clinical professions besides dentists and dental hygienists in Swedish dentistry. In conclusion,this analysis provided better understanding of the present status of the Swedish dental professions, to prepare for future restructuring of the dental care system. Further work will be needed to understand the impact of professional traits on the management of groups of professionals.

  3. Longitudinal study of mortality among refugees in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Anna-Clara; Bruce, Daniel; Ekberg, Jan; Burström, Bo; Borrell, Carme; Ekblad, Solvig

    2012-08-01

    Refugee immigrants have poorer health than other immigrant groups but little is known about their mortality. A comparison of mortality among refugees and non-refugee immigrants is liable to exaggerate the former if the latter includes labour migrants, whose mortality risk may be lower than that of the general population. To avoid bias, labour migrants are not included in this study. The aim was to investigate mortality risks among refugees compared with non-labour non-refugee immigrants in Sweden. Population-based cohort design, starting 1 January 1998 and ending with death or censoring 31 December 2006. Persons included in the study were those aged 18-64 years, had received a residence permit in Sweden 1992-98 and were defined by the Swedish Board of Migration as either a refugee or a non-labour non-refugee immigrant. The outcomes were all-cause and cause-specific mortalities and the main exposure was being a refugee. Cox-regression models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality. The study population totalled 86,395 persons, 49.3% women, 24.2 % refugees. Adjusted for age and origin, refugee men had an over-risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.08-2.33). With socio-economic factors added to the model, refugee men still had an over-risk mortality in cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04-2.24) and external causes (HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.01-2.50). Refugee men in Sweden have a higher mortality risk in cardiovascular and external causes compared with male non-labour non-refugee immigrants. This study suggests that the refugee experience resembles other stressors in terms of the association with cardiovascular mortality.

  4. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Great Britain, Sweden, and Malmö, Sweden: the impact of differences in case ascertainment on observed incidence trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Ramón; Turesson, Ingemar; Landgren, Ola; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Cuzick, Jack

    2016-01-21

    The increased incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) across China and East Asia stimulated us to examine the current rates in Great Britain, where rates increased dramatically in the second half of the 20th century. However, rates have been stable and high during this period in Malmö, Sweden, where there is a keen interest in MM. We thus assessed recent changes in MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden, and examined how these changes might explain recent reports of increased MM incidence across Asia. Estimation of MM incidence for Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. MM incidence data for Great Britain (1975-2009) were obtained from Cancer Research UK and for Sweden (1970-2009) from the Swedish Cancer Registry. MM incidence data from Malmö, Sweden, were available from 1950 to 2012. Age-specific incidence of MM in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö increased progressively with age, even among the oldest group. The MM age-adjusted incidence (European standard population) increased by 69% from 1975-1979 to 2005-2009 in Great Britain, from 3.2/100,000 to 5.4/100,000. The largest increases occurred among those 70-79 years of age, for whom rates increased from 17.9/100,000 to 33.6/100,000; reflecting an increase of 69%. During this same period, the age-adjusted incidence (European stand population) in Sweden overall remained stable, at approximately 4.7/100,000. MM age-specific incidence is now similar in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö. We believe this is a result of improvements in case ascertainment in Great Britain, particularly among the elderly. Similar changes can be predicted to occur across Asia as improved access to healthcare contributes to better diagnosis of MM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. A review of biomass gasification technologies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    This report provides an overview of existing technologies and projects in Denmark and Sweden with a focus on the Öresund region. Furthermore it presents the research and development of biomass gasification in the region and these two countries. The list of existing gasification plants from...... laboratory scale projects to big scale plants is given. The report ends with an overview of future gasification projects as well as potential experience exchanges that could occur between the countries. We regard biomass gasification as one of the key technologies in future renewable energy systems....

  6. Forecast of icing events at a wind farm in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for identifying icing events using a physical icing model, driven by atmospheric data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and applies it to a wind park in Sweden. Observed wind park icing events were identified by deviation from an idealized power...... was found to be very important for forecasting the correct icing period. One concern with the iceBlade approach was the relatively high false alarm rates at the end of icing events due to the ice not being removed rapidly enough. © 2014 American Meteorological Society....

  7. Nuclear safety culture in Finland and Sweden - Developments and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Pietikaeinen, E. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland)); Kahlbom, U. (RiskPilot AB (Sweden)); Rollenhagen, C. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    The project aimed at studying the concept of nuclear safety culture and the Nordic nuclear branch safety culture. The project also aimed at looking how the power companies and the regulators view the current responsibilities and role of subcontractors in the Nordic nuclear safety culture as well as to inspect the special demands for safety culture in subcontracting chains. Interview data was collected in Sweden (n = 14) and Finland (n = 16) during 2009. Interviewees represented the major actors in the nuclear field (regulators, power companies, expert organizations, waste management organizations). Results gave insight into the nature and evaluation of safety culture in the nuclear industry. Results illustrated that there is a wide variety of views on matters that are considered important for nuclear safety within the Nordic nuclear community. However, the interviewees considered quite uniformly such psychological states as motivation, mindfulness, sense of control, understanding of hazards and sense of responsibility as important for nuclear safety. Results also gave insight into the characteristics of Nordic nuclear culture. Various differences in safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were uncovered. In addition to the differences, historical reasons for the development of the nuclear safety cultures in Finland and Sweden were pointed out. Finally, results gave implications that on the one hand subcontractors can bring new ideas and improvements to the plants' practices, but on the other hand the assurance of necessary safety attitudes and competence of the subcontracting companies and their employees is considered as a challenge. The report concludes that a good safety culture requires a deep and wide understanding of nuclear safety including the various accident mechanisms of the power plants as well as a willingness to continuously develop one's competence and understanding. An effective and resilient nuclear safety culture has to foster a constant

  8. Qualification paths of adult educators in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Per; Köpsén, Susanne; Larson, Anne

    2013-01-01

    fields of education and training. In this study, we analyse the qualification paths, or learning trajectories, of prospective adult educators in Sweden and Denmark. The analysis is based on narrative interviews with 29 students in training to become adult educators. The career paths of adult educators...... and the relation to the learners is part of the professional development. Finally, we argue that both academic studies and hands-on work in the adult education community are crucial parts of the adult educator’s qualification path....

  9. Biting Midges (Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) Recorded from Farms in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. A.; Nielsen, B.O.; Chirico, J.

    2009-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in Northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in and around several Swedish livestock farms (surveillance in 2007 and 2008). The position of the sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55° N to about 68° N. Thirty-three Culicoides s...... species were recorded, of which 30 were new to Sweden. The species recorded, and their relative abundance and spatial distribution on sites are detailed. Species incriminated as vectors of bluetongue virus were predominant. (Texte intégral)...

  10. NSFR Seminar 2014 – National Report for Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleist David

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to give an overview of the rules concerning taxation of companies in Sweden and of trends in the taxation of companies that have been evident in the last few years. It focuses in particular on issues that are connected with the so-called BEPS discussion, for instance interest deduction limitations, CFC rules, general anti-avoidance rules and other rules intended to protect the national tax base. It also sets out to describe other important features of the Swedish tax legislation in regard to companies, such as the rules on taxation of inbound and outbound dividends, interest and royalty.

  11. Aichi virus infection in elderly people in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Nina; Wahlström, Kristin; Svensson, Lennart; Serrander, Lena; Lindberg, A Michael

    2012-07-01

    Aichi virus (AiV), genus Kobuvirus, family Picornaviridae, is associated with gastroenteritis in humans. Previous studies have shown high seroprevalence but low incidence (0.9-4.1%) in clinical samples. We report here the first detection of AiV in Sweden. Two hundred twenty-one specimens from hospitalized patients with diarrhea, who were negative for other enteric viruses, were included in the study. AiV were detected in three specimens, all from elderly patients. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three Swedish isolates belonged to genotype A and were genetically closest to European and Asian strains of AiV.

  12. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2002-01-01

    4. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden CHARLOTTE MOSHØJ1,2 1University of Copenhagen Department of Population Ecology, Zoological Institute Universitetsparken 15 DK-2100 Copenhagen Denmark cmmoshoj@zi.ku.dk 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Department of Conservation Biology...... behavior and hunting success. Securing knowledge on lynx predation and impact on prey populations may aid in balancing conflicting concerns in management strategies for viable lynx populations and desired level of prey densities, in the multi-use semi-natural forest habitats of Scandinavia....

  13. Optimal localisation of next generation Biofuel production in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterlund, Elisabeth [Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden); Pettersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mossberg, Johanna [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)] [and others

    2013-09-01

    With a high availability of lignocellulosic biomass and various types of cellulosic by-products, as well as a large number of industries, Sweden is a country of great interest for future large scale production of sustainable, next generation biofuels. This is most likely also a necessity as Sweden has the ambition to be independent of fossil fuels in the transport sector by the year 2030 and completely fossil free by 2050. In order to reach competitive biofuel production costs, plants with large production capacities are likely to be required. Feedstock intake capacities in the range of about 1-2 million tonnes per year, corresponding to a biomass feed of 300-600 MW, can be expected, which may lead to major logistical challenges. To enable expansion of biofuel production in such large plants, as well as provide for associated distribution requirements, it is clear that substantial infrastructure planning will be needed. The geographical location of the production plant facilities is therefore of crucial importance and must be strategic to minimise the transports of raw material as well as of final product. Competition for the available feedstock, from for example forest industries and CHP plants (combined heat and power) further complicates the localisation problem. Since the potential for an increased biomass utilisation is limited, high overall resource efficiency is of great importance. Integration of biofuel production processes in existing industries or in district heating systems may be beneficial from several aspects, such as opportunities for efficient heat integration, feedstock and equipment integration, as well as access to existing experience and know-how. This report describes the development of Be Where Sweden, a geographically explicit optimisation model for localisation of next generation biofuel production plants in Sweden. The main objective of developing such a model is to be able to assess production plant locations that are robust to varying

  14. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  15. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Kristian; Wahlström, Helene; Ivarsson, Sofie; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae), for differences in the control programmes and for changes in cattle morbidity. The net effects (benefits minus costs) were negative in all scenarios (€ -5 to -105 million), implying that it would not be cost-effective to introduce alternative control strategies in Sweden. This result was mainly due to an expected increase in the incidence of Salmonella in humans (6035-57108 reported and unreported new cases/year), with expected additional costs of € 5-55 million. Other increased costs were due to expected higher incidences of sequelae (€ 3-49 million) and a higher cattle morbidity (€ 4-8 million). Benefits in terms of lower control costs amounted to € 4-7 million.

  16. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Sundström

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae, for differences in the control programmes and for changes in cattle morbidity. The net effects (benefits minus costs were negative in all scenarios (€ -5 to -105 million, implying that it would not be cost-effective to introduce alternative control strategies in Sweden. This result was mainly due to an expected increase in the incidence of Salmonella in humans (6035-57108 reported and unreported new cases/year, with expected additional costs of € 5-55 million. Other increased costs were due to expected higher incidences of sequelae (€ 3-49 million and a higher cattle morbidity (€ 4-8 million. Benefits in terms of lower control costs amounted to € 4-7 million.

  17. Optimal location of lignocellulosic ethanol refineries with polygeneration in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, S. [International Institute for Applied System Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Division of Energy Engineering, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleaa (Sweden); Starfelt, F.; Dotzauer, E. [School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Maelardalen University, SE-72123 Vaesteraas (Sweden); Kindermann, G.; McCallum, I.; Obersteiner, M. [International Institute for Applied System Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg (Austria); Lundgren, J. [Division of Energy Engineering, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    The integration of ethanol production with combined heat and power plants is considered in this paper. An energy balance process model has been used to generate data for the production of ethanol, electricity, heat and biogas. The geographical position of such plants becomes of importance when using local biomass and delivering transportation fuel and heat. An optimization model has thus been used to determine the optimal locations for such plants in Sweden. The entire energy supply and demand chain from biomass outtake to gas stations filling is included in the optimization. Input parameters have been studied for their influence on both the final ethanol cost and the optimal locations of the plants. The results show that the biomass cost, biomass availability and district heating price are crucial for the positioning of the plant and the ethanol to be competitive against imported ethanol. The optimal location to set up polygeneration plants is demonstrated to be in areas where the biomass cost is competitive and in the vicinity of small to medium size cities. Carbon tax does not influence the ethanol cost, but solicits the production of ethanol in Sweden, and changes thus the geography of the plant locations. (author)

  18. SWEDEN--RECENT CHANGES IN WELFARE STATE ARRANGEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish welfare state, once developed to create a new society based on social equality and universal rights, has taken on a partly new direction. Extensive choice reforms have been implemented in social services and an increasing proportion of tax-funded social services, including child day care, primary and secondary schools, health care, and care of the elderly, is provided by private entrepreneurs, although funded by taxes. Private equity firms have gained considerable profits from the welfare services. The changes have taken place over a 20-year period, but at an accelerated pace in the last decade. Sweden previously had very generous sickness and unemployment insurance, in terms of both duration and benefit levels, but is falling behind in terms of generosity, as indicated by increasing levels of relative poverty among those who depend on benefits and transfers. Increasing income inequality over the past 20 years further adds to increasing the gaps between population groups. In some respects, Sweden is becoming similar to other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The article describes some of the changes that have occurred. However, there is still widespread popular support for the publicly provided welfare state services.

  19. National-scale precision medicine for psychiatric disorders in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Sarah E; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2017-07-07

    Since psychiatric disorders have genetic architectures dominated by common variants of small effects, successful elucidation in psychiatric genetics necessitates large sample sizes. Collaboration and unconventional ascertainment methods are required to fulfill this need. Electronic health records have been increasingly seen as holding great potential for research, although they often pose substantial technical, legal and ethical challenges. Universal health care and national-scale registers with comprehensive medical, developmental, demographic, and geographic information make the Nordic countries ideal for psychiatric genetic epidemiology. The Genomic Aggregation Project in Sweden is gathering genetic data from subjects with and without complex genetic diseases in a single location for standardized processing and use in a wide variety of scientific investigations. Thirty groups with >160 K genotyped samples have joined GAPS. Although GAPS is general across medicine, many psychiatric disorders are represented within GAPS, and initial studies will focus on major depressive disorder. Through in-depth genetic investigations, the genes and pathways that will be identified can be leveraged for predictive and drug-development purposes. Sweden offers exceptional possibilities for psychiatric genetics, and GAPS aims to harness the wealth of available information for research to improve human health. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Educational Reform and Class Cleavages in Social Democratic Regimes: The Case of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Andrei S.

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the relationship between the educational system of Sweden and its social class structure. The first section provides background information on Sweden's social democratic system which exhibits a strong tendency towards pragmatism, practicality, rationality, efficiency, competence, and educational planning.…

  1. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  2. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in Sweden 1987-2002 : regional incidence and case fatality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffijberg, H.; Buskens, E.; Granath, F.; Adami, J.; Ekbom, A.; Rinkel, G. J. E.; Blomqvist, P.

    Background: Incidence estimates of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in Sweden vary, which may be caused by regional variations. Reliable estimates of age-specific case fatality rates are lacking. We analysed regional incidence rates and case fatality rates of SAH in Sweden. Methods: The Swedish

  3. Magmatic origin of giant 'Kiruna-type' apatite-iron-oxide ores in central Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonsson, Erik; Troll, Valentin R; Högdahl, Karin; Harris, Chris; Weis, Franz; Nilsson, Katarina P; Skelton, Alasdair

    2013-01-01

    Iron is the most important metal for modern industry and Sweden is by far the largest iron-producer in Europe, yet the genesis of Sweden's main iron-source, the 'Kiruna-type' apatite-iron-oxide ores, remains enigmatic...

  4. Children's Rights and Children's Voices in Contested Custody and Visitation Cases in Sweden and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranzo, Diane

    2013-01-01

    These research notes look at the differing ways in which the basis for including a criterion regarding children's opinions in disputed custody and visitation processes, in the US as compared with Sweden, impacts on the role and place that children's opinions and wishes will have on the process. Sweden's rationale for including children's…

  5. Bridging the Divide: Examining Professional Unity and the Extended Teacher Union Role in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Sweden has experienced increasing educational inequity levels within its highly decentralized school system. With a reduced capacity to bargain collectively, the two Swedish teacher trade unions, the Swedish Teachers' Union (Lärarförbundet) and the National Union of Teachers in Sweden (Lärarnas Riksförbund), have sought to extend their role in…

  6. Discourses about School-Based Mathematics Teacher Education in Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryve, Andreas; Hemmi, Kirsti; Borjesson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    In this cross-case study we focus on school-based teacher education in Sweden and Finland. Through the use of focus-group interviews with mathematics teacher educators in Finland and Sweden, the study shows that there are substantial differences in how school-based teacher education is introduced and portrayed in the discourse about teacher…

  7. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  8. Social anxiety in 17-year-olds in Stockholm, Sweden - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Social anxiety among adolescents in Sweden has not been studied. This pilot study assessed the occurrence of social anxiety in 17-year-olds in Stockholm, Sweden. Method: Two hundred and thirty seven students attending the first year of Swedish upper secondary school responded to a questionnaire designed ...

  9. Nursing Education in Spain--Past, Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnoz, Adelaida Zabalegui

    2002-01-01

    In Spain, the nursing diploma is inadequate for current health care needs. To meet the demand, Spain is developing baccalaureate, master's, and doctoral programs using European Union guidelines to ensure the preparation of a professional nursing work force. (SK)

  10. Mathematics education and learning disabilities in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Castellar, Rosa García

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this article, we describe the basic objectives of the math curriculum in Spain as well as the basic contents, teacher resources, and obstacles perceived in mathematics instruction. Second, we briefly describe the concept of learning disabilities (LD) as they are currently defined in Spain. As stated in the recent educational reform, a student with LD is any student with special educational needs. The emphasis is placed on the educational resources that these students need in order to achieve the curricular objectives that correspond to their age group or grade. Third, we comment specifically on the educational services model and the evaluation and instructional procedures for students with math learning disabilities. Finally, we describe some lines of research that have appeared in the last few years in Spain that have led to the development of new evaluation and intervention procedures for students with LD in computation and problem solving.

  11. University Teacher’s Evaluation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tejedor Tejedor

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to make a brief overview about the performance evaluation for university teachers in democratic Spain. It contents: a considerations about teaching evaluation, in order to delimit the authors’ position in this matter, due to the fact that this position obviously conditions any revision; b a brief summary of the history of university teachers evaluation in Spain during the last years, since the Spanish Constitution of 1978 approval; c a typology of the evaluation plans, in order to define a map of the planning lines for evaluations applied in Spain; d the technical guidelines for teachers´ evaluation and presentation of the current model, exampled by its application in the university of Salamanca; and e as a conclusion, some considerations about the consequences of evaluation and its entailment with the professionalization of university teachers.

  12. [Incidence study of listeriosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Fernando Parrilla; Rafart, Josep Vaqué

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive retrospective study of cases of listeriosis occurring in Spain from 2001 to 2007 to determine the burden and trend of this disease in our setting. Several sources of information were used. Epidemiological information was collected from 1.242 cases of listeriosis, representing a mean incidence rate of 0,56 cases per 100.000 inhabitants per year, which was extrapolated as an overall estimate for Spain. The annual incidence showed a statistically significant increasing trend (p <0,001) over the study period. This figure was higher than that reported in Spain (0,16) by the Microbiological Information System, which is voluntary, showing that underreporting exists. The inclusion of listeriosis in the Mandatory Notification System would allow determination of the distribution and characteristics of this infection in humans, as well as promotion of effective prevention and control. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  14. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Lo Tommy; Björk, H Thony

    2006-06-01

    To describe the organization and delivery of community pharmacy and medical care, as well as pharmaceutical care practice and research, in Sweden. The Swedish retail pharmacy system of 800 community pharmacies and nearly 80 hospital pharmacies is unique in that it is organized into one single, government-owned chain, known as Apoteket AB. The pharmacy staff consists of pharmacists, prescriptionists, and pharmacy technicians. Some activities related to pharmaceutical care have been directed toward specific patient groups during annual theme campaigns. In the past few years, there has been a growing emphasis on the identification, resolution, and documentation of drug-related problems (DRPs) in Swedish pharmacy practice. A classification system for documenting DRPs and pharmacy interventions was developed in 1995 and incorporated into the software of all community pharmacies in 2001. A national DRP database (SWE-DRP) was established in 2004 to collect and analyze DRPs and interventions on a nationwide basis. Recently, a new counseling technique composed of key questions to facilitate the detection of DRPs has been tested successfully. Patient medication profiles are kept in 160 pharmacies, and a new national register of drugs dispensed to patients became available in 2006. Most pharmaceutical care studies in Sweden have focused on DRPs and resulting pharmacy interventions. Swedish community pharmacy DRP work is in the international forefront but there is a potential for further developing cognitive services, given the beneficial organization of the country's pharmacies into one single pharmacy chain. The introduction of patient medication profiles has been both late and slow and has only had a marginal effect on pharmaceutical care practice so far. The universities do not appear to have any desire to influence the practice of pharmacy and could potentially take on a more active role in preparing pharmacy students for patient-oriented services. Current threats to

  15. Survival after lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilljam, Marita; Nyström, Ulla; Dellgren, Göran; Skog, Ingrid; Hansson, Lennart

    2017-03-01

    In Sweden, lung transplantation has been performed in patients with end-stage lung disease since 1990. We assessed survival after lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis (CF) with focus on early mortality and outcome for patients infected with certain multiresistant bacteria, considered a relative contraindication for lung transplantation. Review of CF and transplant databases and patient charts. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for survival analysis and group comparison. From November 1991 to December 2014, 115 transplantations were performed in 106 CF patients (9 retransplantations): 3 heart-lung, 106 double lung-, 1 double lobar- and 5 single lung transplantations, constituting 13% (115/909) of all lung-transplant procedures performed in Sweden. The mean age at surgery was 31 (SD 10, range 10-61) years and there were 48% females. Overall 1-year survival after lung transplantation for CF was 86.4%, 5-year survival was 73.7% and 10-year survival was 62.4%. The mean and median survival after transplantation were 13.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 11-15.3) and 14.6 (95% CI: 9.3-19.8) years, respectively, and there was no significant difference for gender or transplant centre. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was used as a bridge to transplantation in 11 cases and five patients received reconditioned lungs. Vascular and infectious complications contributed to eight deaths within the first three postoperative months. The mean survival for 14 patients infected pretransplant with Mycobacterium abscessus or Burkholderia cepacia complex was 8.8 (95% CI: 6.1-11.6) years compared to 13.2 (95% CI: 10.9-15.8) years for patients negative for these bacteria. Nineteen patients (14% of all listed), of whom three were listed for retransplantation, died while waiting a median time of 94 days (range 4 days-2.5 years) after listing. Survival after lung transplantation in Sweden is good, also for patients with pretransplant infection with M. abscessus or B

  16. How improved access to healthcare was successfully spread across Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strindhall, Margareta; Henriks, Göran

    2007-01-01

    Swedish healthcare has an internationally high standard, but is often criticized from a patient perspective owing to access problems to primary and specialist care. The waiting time to get in touch or get an appointment with a doctor, nurse, or physiotherapist is often too long. Access problems also create stress for employees when there are too few appointments to offer. In addition, too much time gets spent on the administration of long waiting lists, which adds no value to patients. Jönköping County Council was not satisfied with this situation and decided to make an attempt to improve access in the whole system. To describe how access was improved in Jönköping County council and how the concept was spread nationally. A conceptual model for improved access and reduced queues in Jönköping County called Bra Mottagning (BM) ("Good Clinic" in Swedish) was developed in 1999. It was built on logistic principles and collaborative learning. The program consisted of 4 learning sessions over a period of 8 to 9 months. The process of learning, team development, leadership, and spread of a change concept for improved access in Sweden has evolved through repeated improvement cycles, from small tests to larger pilots and finally to a standardized concept. Since 1999, 2 new BM collaboratives have been started every year. The first 11 teams from the county council of Jönköping, which participated in BM1 to BM3, reduced their median waiting time from 90 to 7 days in 8 months, an improvement of 93% (83 days). The results have been sustainable over the last 7 years. In the county council as a system, advanced access was achieved in 40% of the 179 units in 2006. Since the national spread started, 2200 employees in 316 professional teams from 16 county councils in Sweden have participated in BM collaboratives. Of these, 80% improved access for their patients and 32% reached advanced access in 8 months. The described development and spread of a concept for improved access in

  17. 78 FR 73562 - Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan..., Sweden, and Taiwan of non-oriented electrical steel, provided for in subheadings 7225.19.00 and 7226.19... Taiwan and LTFV imports of non-oriented electrical steel from China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and...

  18. 75 FR 23303 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be likely...

  19. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling... from China and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  20. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor represents that the...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31 Peppers from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only...

  2. Social Enterprise, Social Innovation and Social Entrepreneurship in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, H. Thomas R.; Hafen, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    becomes for the mainstream labour market in the best of times. This has resulted in suggestions of a need of a two-tier labour market. Like in many other countries, also in Sweden, entrepreneurship is generally recognized and emphasised as a means for economic growth and prosperity and a catchphrase...... for economic stimulus. Even though stimulation of entrepreneurship is an important policy in most countries, the posi-tive societal outcomes are normally seen as indirect (i.e. generating jobs and more tax-income for the government) rather than direct societal effects stemming from the specific activities....... However, it is apparent that a diversity of entrepreneurship is required to overcome various societal, economic and environmental challenges facing societies. Many of the existing problems as well as societal solutions are legacies from the industrialisation, when boundaries between different sectors...

  3. Zooplankton from Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden 1960-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almquist, Elisabeth

    1970-11-15

    The investigation of the zooplankton of Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden, was carried out over a period of three years. The aim of the investigation was to illustrate the qualitative and quantitative composition of the zooplankton before the release of waste water from the Aagesta Heat and Power Station began. Vertical sampling series were collected once a month at three different stations in the lake. The highest volumes of zooplankton were obtained in the summer. The ciliates predominated when the conditions were unfavourable for other zooplankton, as in winter just below the ice. The rotifers dominated during and immediately after the spring circulation. With one exception the crustaceans reached their peak volume values in August or September. The composition of the zooplankton indicates that Lake Magelungen is highly eutrophic

  4. Boundary Stories. Constructing the validation centre in West Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Diedrich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The role of stories in organizing has traditionally been examined within the context of specific organizations, communities of practice, or social worlds. The study reported here describes the establishment in West Sweden of a centre for developing methods that allow for the recognition of prior learning in people seeking employment. In the report, we highlight the role of stories and storytelling in coordination and organizing between and among organizations, but also between and among social worlds. We refer to such stories as boundary stories, and argue that they are not only the means for creating a shared understanding and facilitating joint actions among a number of public and private organizations, but that they also help to hide potential conflicts, paradoxes, and contradictions among actors.

  5. The Rise of the Professional Field of Medicine in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Carlhed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of conditions enabling the rise of the professional field of medicine in Sweden. The analysis is based mainly on second- ary data, while the use of primary data is restricted to official statistics. Primarily, it aims to study the conditions promoting professionalization in medicine. Important exogenous conditions were derived from early emerging nation state administration structures concerning policy and governance of public health, as well as a delegated supervision of professional health activities to the medical profession and the organization of a public national health care system. Professionalization strategies such as social organization of the medical profession and their use of a variety of legitimizing resources as tools for jurisdictional claims are considered as endogenous conditions. Broadly, the analysis shows a close relationship between the growth of professionalization in the field of medicine and the development of state prosperity in the Swedish welfare state. 

  6. Fish Consumption and Ischemic stroke in Southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennberg Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between fish intake and stroke incidence has been inconsistent in previous Swedish studies. Here, we report the risk of stroke and fish intake in a cohort from southern Sweden. Findings Data were obtained from an already available population based case-control study where the cases were defined as incident first-time ischemic stroke patients. Complete data on all relevant variables were obtained for 2722 controls and 2469 cases. The data were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. Stroke risk decreased with fat fish intake ([greater than or equal to] 1/week versus Conclusions The results suggest fat fish intake to decrease ischemic stroke risk and lean fish intake to increase women's stroke risk. The inconsistent relationship between fish intake and stroke risk reported in previous studies is further stressed by the results of this study.

  7. Otodectic otoacariasis in free-ranging Eurasian lynx in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgis, M P; Segerstad, C H; Christensson, B; Mörner, T

    2001-07-01

    An infestation with Otodectes cynotis, the ear mite of cats and dogs, was observed in three free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden. The ear canals were obstructed by waxy secretions and exfoliated epithelium. Histologically, there were hyperkeratosis and acanthosis, and the epithelial surface was overlained by hyperkeratotic and parakeratotic crusts with mites, mite detritus and cerumen. In the subcutis there was a slight to moderate infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages. The ceruminous glands were bypertrophic and hyperplastic, and there was also an hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands. The lesions seemed to correlate with the degree of infestation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of otoacariasis in free-ranging lynx.

  8. Migrations of the Creative Class: Evidence from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Niedomysl, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    for other groups. The results, moreover, show that most migration activities for the creative class take place just after finishing university and that the creative class people move for jobs rather than place. The presented empirical findings of the article do not support central theoretical arguments...... competitive. This article focuses on the migration of the creative class in Sweden. Three questions, central to recent theoretical claims but until now overlooked, are addressed: (i) Do members of the creative class move more often compared to other migrant groups? (ii) Are they more selective...... in their destination choices, favouring regions with a favourable ‘people climate’? (iii) Do their reasons for migration differ from those of other migrant groups? Employing unique Swedish survey and register data, the results show that the migration rates of the creative class are only marginally higher than...

  9. BMPs in urban stormwater management in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Viklander, M.; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Best Management Practices (BMPs) for control of stormwater runoff include structural elemts (structural BMPs) that can be applied on the local scale (e.g. infiltration), the drainage catchment scale (e.g. ponds and treatment, or wetlands) and the receiving water scale (e.g. retrofitting of river....... A review of recent experiences with selected stormwater BMPs in Denmark and Sweden is presented and discussed with respect to the current issues related to legislation and the forces driving future development in stormwater management....... reaches), and non-structural BMPs, such as controls of chemicals or building materials, and street sweeping. The available knowledge of stormwater BMPs performance in pollution control is inconsistent and the effect of various BMPs on receiving water quality is either poorly understood, or not known...

  10. Nursing students' views on promoting successful breastfeeding in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajalic, Zada

    2014-05-09

    Promoting breastfeeding is important work for health-care personnel in the Swedish context. This promotion is multifaceted and demands the ongoing development of knowledge and competence among both health-care personnel and patients. The aim of the present study was to describe the nursing students' perspectives on breastfeeding in Sweden. Data were obtained in the form of written reflections from nursing students (n=65) and examined using manifest content analysis. The results show that the factors of importance in promoting successful breastfeeding are information about breastfeeding's benefits, traditions and cultural acceptance of the practice, and by government prohibition of infant formula. We conclude that knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding needs to be prioritized continuously during education.

  11. Scientific dishonesty--questionnaire to doctoral students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilstun, Tore; Löfmark, Rurik; Lundqvist, Anita

    2010-05-01

    'Scientific dishonesty' implies the fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research or in reporting research results. A questionnaire was given to postgraduate students at the medical faculties in Sweden who attended a course in research ethics during the academic year 2008/2009 and 58% answered (range 29%-100%). Less than one-third of the respondents wrote that they had heard about scientific dishonesty in the previous 12 months. Pressure, concerning in what order the author should be mentioned, was reported by about 1 in 10 students. We suggest that all departments conducting research should have a written policy about acceptable research behaviour and that all doctoral students should be informed of the content of this policy. Participants in the research groups concerned should also be required to analyse published articles about scientific dishonesty and critically discuss what could be done about unethical conduct.

  12. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden - Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne REATH WARREN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT which has developed in Sweden since the 1970’s offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its syllabus outside of its Nordic context. This article examines the syllabus for MTT from two perspectives; firstly using the framework of Constructive Alignment, secondly from the perspective of what is hidden. The intended syllabus is revealed as well-aligned, but the hidden curriculum impedes successful enactment in many contexts. Examples from case studies in a larger on-going research project offer an alternate approach to syllabus implementation when the negative effects of the hidden curriculum are challenged. While highly context-specific, this model may represent a step in the right direction for implementation of the syllabus.

  13. Mother tongue tuition in Sweden - Curriculum analysis and classroom experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Reath Warren

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT which has developed in Sweden since the 1970’s offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrantreceiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its syllabus outside of its Nordic context. This article examines the syllabus for MTT from two perspectives; firstly using the framework of Constructive Alignment, secondly from the perspective of what is hidden. The intended syllabus is revealed as well-aligned, but the hidden curriculum impedes successful enactment in many contexts. Examples from case studies in a larger on-going research project offer an alternate approach to syllabus implementation when the negative effects of the hidden curriculum are challenged. While highly context-specific, this model may represent a step in the right direction for implementation of the syllabus.

  14. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-15

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  15. Nursing Students’ Views on Promoting Successful Breastfeeding in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajalic, Zada

    2014-01-01

    Promoting breastfeeding is important work for health-care personnel in the Swedish context. This promotion is multifaceted and demands the ongoing development of knowledge and competence among both health-care personnel and patients. The aim of the present study was to describe the nursing students’ perspectives on breastfeeding in Sweden. Data were obtained in the form of written reflections from nursing students (n=65) and examined using manifest content analysis. The results show that the factors of importance in promoting successful breastfeeding are information about breastfeeding’s benefits, traditions and cultural acceptance of the practice, and by government prohibition of infant formula. We conclude that knowledge about the benefits of breastfeeding needs to be prioritized continuously during education. PMID:25169002

  16. Cobalt-chromium alloys in fixed prosthodontics in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassapidou, Maria; Franke Stenport, Victoria; Hjalmarsson, Lars; Johansson, Carina B

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compile the usage of Co-Cr alloys in fixed prosthodontics (FP) among dental laboratories in Sweden. Methods: From March to October 2015, questionnaires were sent to 542 registered dental laboratories in Sweden. The questionnaires were divided in two parts, one for fixed dental-supported prosthodontics (FDP) and one for fixed implant-supported prosthodontics (FIP). Reminders were sent three times. Results: In total of 542 dental laboratories, 55% answered the questionnaires. Most dental laboratories use Co-Cr in FP, 134 (74%) in FDP and 89(66%) in FIP. The laboratories used Co-Cr alloys of various compositions in the prostheses, 35 for FDP and 30 for FIP. The most commonly used Co-Cr alloys for tooth-supported FDPs were (a) Wirobond® 280, (b) Cara SLM and (c) Wirobond® C. For implant-supported frameworks the frequently used alloys were: (a) Cara SLM, (b) Cara Milled and (c) Wirobond® 280. Except for the difference in composition of these alloys, they were also manufactured with various techniques. In tooth-supported prostheses the dominating technique was the cast technique while newer techniques as laser-sintering and milling were more commonly reported for implant-supported constructions. A fourth technique; the 'pre-state' milling was reported in FDP. Conclusion: More than 30 different Co-Cr alloys were reported as being used in FP. Thus, there is a need for studies exploring the mechanical and physical behavior and the biological response to the most commonly used Co-Cr alloys.

  17. Nutrient trends through time in Sweden's Baltic Drainage Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, I.; Destouni, G.; Prieto, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in climate and land-use have and will continue to modify regional hydrology, in turn impacting environmental health, agricultural productivity and water resource quality and availability. The Baltic region is an area of interest as the coast spans nine countries- serving over 100 million people. The Baltic Sea contains one of the largest human caused hypoxic dead zones due to eutrophication driven by anthropogenic excess loading of nutrients. Policies to reduce these loads include also international directives and agreements, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, adopted in 2000 to protect and improve water quality throughout the European Union, and the Baltic Sea Action Plan under the Helsinki Commission aimed specifically at reducing the nutrient loading to and mitigating the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea. In light of these policies and amidst the number of studies on the Baltic Sea we ask, using the accessible nutrient and discharge data what does nutrient loading look like today? Are the most excessive loads going down? Observed nutrient and flow time series across Sweden allow for answering these questions, by spatial and temporal trend analysis of loads from various parts of Sweden to the Baltic Sea. Analyzing these observed time series in conjunction with the ecological health status classifications of the EU Water Framework Directive, allows in particular for answering the question if the loads into the water bodies with the poorest water quality, and from those to the Baltic Sea, are improving, being maintained or deteriorating. Such insight is required to contribute to relevant and efficient water and nutrient load management. Furthermore, empirically calculating nutrient loads, rather than only modeling, reveals that the water body health classification may not reflect what water bodies actually contribute the heaviest loads to the Baltic Sea. This work also underscores the importance of comprehensive analysis of all available data from

  18. Direct and indirect costs for anal fistula in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Adam; Ahlberg, Ida; Hjalte, Frida; Ekelund, Mats

    2016-11-01

    Anal fistula is an abnormal tract with an external and internal opening that cause leakage, discomfort, and occasionally pain. Surgery is standard treatment, but recurrence and anal incontinence is common. The objective of the study was to analyze resource use, costs and sick leave for newly diagnosed patients with anal fistula in Sweden. The study was based on register data from linkages between Swedish population-based registers including patients treated for anal fistula in Västra Götaland County, Sweden. Health care resource use, costs and sick leave were estimated. The sample included 362 patients of which 27% had no surgery, 37% had one surgery and 36% had multiple surgeries. Patients with multiple surgeries underwent over four surgeries on average. Approximately 67% of the contacts occurred during the first year after diagnosis. Estimated mean sick leave was 10.4 full-time equivalent days per patient. Total discounted costs were €5,561 per patient where approximately 80% were direct costs. To our knowledge this is the first study of resource use, costs and sick leave related to anal fistulas. The study indicates that anal fistula is a condition that is costly for society and that the burden of anal fistula in terms of health care resources and sick leave is especially high for patients experiencing multiple surgeries. Anal fistula is a condition that is costly for society and there is an unmet need for the group of patients with multiple surgeries to find appropriate treatment interventions. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Why do young children die in the UK? A comparison with Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Parag; Sammons, Helen M; Choonara, Imti

    2015-10-01

    The UK has a high child mortality rate, whereas Sweden's is lower (under-five mortality rates of five and three, respectively, in 2011).We therefore wished to compare causes of death in young children aged Sweden for the same period were obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare. Causes of death were compared statistically using χ(2) test. There were a total of 14,104 and 1036 deaths aged Sweden, respectively, between 2006 and 2008. The total numbers of live births during the same period were 2,295,964 and 315,884, respectively. The overall mortality rate in the UK was 614 per 100,000 children which was significantly higher than that in Sweden (328; pSweden were 10.1, 88.6 and 34.8, respectively. They were all significantly more frequent in the UK than in Sweden (pSweden (p<0.001). In order to reduce the mortality rate in the UK, we need to try and reduce the causes of prematurity. Additionally, the care of children with treatable infections should be reviewed to understand ways in which to reduce the differences in mortality seen. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Health care systems in Sweden and China: Legal and formal organisational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelm Katarina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharing knowledge and experience internationally can provide valuable information, and comparative research can make an important contribution to knowledge about health care and cost-effective use of resources. Descriptions of the organisation of health care in different countries can be found, but no studies have specifically compared the legal and formal organisational systems in Sweden and China. Aim To describe and compare health care in Sweden and China with regard to legislation, organisation, and finance. Methods Literature reviews were carried out in Sweden and China to identify literature published from 1985 to 2008 using the same keywords. References in recent studies were scrutinized, national legislation and regulations and government reports were searched, and textbooks were searched manually. Results The health care systems in Sweden and China show dissimilarities in legislation, organisation, and finance. In Sweden there is one national law concerning health care while in China the law includes the "Hygienic Common Law" and the "Fundamental Health Law" which is under development. There is a tendency towards market-orientated solutions in both countries. Sweden has a well-developed primary health care system while the primary health care system in China is still under development and relies predominantly on hospital-based care concentrated in cities. Conclusion Despite dissimilarities in health care systems, Sweden and China have similar basic assumptions, i.e. to combine managerial-organisational efficiency with the humanitarian-egalitarian goals of health care, and both strive to provide better care for all.

  1. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  2. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through

  3. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  4. [Tuberculosis and immigration in Spain: scoping review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Rodrigo, Teresa; Camprubí, Esteve; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is a fairly recent phenomenon in Spain and there are still few scientific publications on tuberculosis (TB) and immigration. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the differential characteristics of TB in the immigrant population with respect to natives in Spain. Literature review of original articles written in Spanish or English and published 1998-2012 about TB among immigrant population. The articles with the key words "Tuberculosis", "immigrants" and "Spain" were included. Literature search was performed in Medline and MEDES. A total of 72,087 articles on TB were detected worldwide, 6% of them dealt with the immigration issue. Regarding Spain we found 2,917 articles representing 4% of the papers published worldwide, and in 219 (7.5%) immigration was considered. Of the 219 articles, 48% were published in Spanish journals and the 52% remaining in Anglo-Saxon journals. 93.5% of immigrants with TB were younger than 51, whereas this percentage was 64.9% in natives. Drug resistance can be seen in 7.8% of the immigrant population but in only 3.8% of natives. It was also detected that the unavailability of a health card could be a problem. Immigrants with TB were characterized by being younger and having more drug resistance and coming mostly from Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. It was also detected that the unavailability of a health card could be a problem.

  5. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chinese migration in Spain. General characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Sáiz López

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Chinese presence in Spain is analyzed from a chronological perspective along with the ongoing changes in geographic location and economic activity. The growth in numbers of this community has obliged its members to look for new locations, distancing themselves from their ethnic strongholds, with the aim of bringingtheir migratory plans to fruition.

  7. Health, Financial Incentives and Retirement in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Erdogan-Ciftci (Esen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Lopez-Nicolas (Angel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe estimate the impact of health and financial incentives on the retirement transitions of older workers in Spain. Individual measures of pension wealth, peak and accrual values are constructed using labor market histories and health shocks are derived as changes in a composite health

  8. The 1918 "Spanish flu" in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilla, Antoni; Trilla, Guillem; Daer, Carolyn

    2008-09-01

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic was the most devastating epidemic in modern history. Here, we review epidemiological and historical data about the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic in Spain. On 22 May 1918, the epidemic was a headline in Madrid's ABC newspaper. The infectious disease most likely reached Spain from France, perhaps as the result of the heavy railroad traffic of Spanish and Portuguese migrant workers to and from France. The total numbers of persons who died of influenza in Spain were officially estimated to be 147,114 in 1918, 21,235 in 1919, and 17,825 in 1920. However, it is likely that >260,000 Spaniards died of influenza; 75% of these persons died during the second period of the epidemic, and 45% died during October 1918 alone. The Spanish population growth index was negative for 1918 (net loss, 83,121 persons). Although a great deal of evidence indicates that the 1918 A(H1N1) influenza virus unlikely originated in and spread from Spain, the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic will always be known as the Spanish flu.

  9. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  10. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    a high occurrence. The research was conducted between May and September, which happens to be the most lightning-fire prone period in Spain, for a three year interval starting in 2002 up to 2004. A time-invariant model for lightning-caused fire occurrence was developed for each region at a spatial...

  11. Sweden, Finland and the German energy policy turnaround; Schweden, Finnland und die deutsche Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjaestad, Maja [Royal Institute for Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Hakkarainen, Petri [Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    After the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima Finland and Sweden have chosen completely different paths compared to Germany: both countries plan to build new nuclear power plants. The contribution discusses the historical development of nuclear power in these countries. In Sweden a political polarization exists between those who want to use renewable energies and those who expect increasing greenhouse gas emissions in case of nuclear power phaseout. In Finland no important anti-nuclear movement has been formed. The authors do not expect a change of policy in Sweden and Finland.

  12. Food Marketing to Children in Sweden and Denmark: a Missed Opportunity for Nordic Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    2017-01-01

    This contribution evaluates the rules in Sweden and Denmark on marketing of unhealthy food and non-alcoholic beverages to children in light of the WHO Recommendations. The countries are analysed in tandem as, despite similarities in their core legislation on marketing, they have pursued distinct...... approaches that provide policy makers with interesting insights. In the case of Sweden, one might expect a proactive approach. Sweden is, of course, well-known for its opposition to the commercialisation of childhood – having prohibited television advertising directed at children since the advent...

  13. Educational research in Sweden: Reform strategies and research policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Inger

    1981-06-01

    Educational R & D in Sweden is to a large extent policy-oriented. It has been an integrated part of the Swedish educational reform system and has brought about a dialogue between politicians, administrators and researchers. Several circumstances have contributed to the `Swedish model'. One is the system with government-appointed committees in which researchers often play an active part. Another is that the Swedish educational system is highly centralized, with the National Board of Education (NBE) as the central authority, responsible for primary, secondary and adult education. A third — and a crucial one — is that, since 1962, the NBE has had increasing funds for educational R & D at its disposal. These funds account for the main part of the economic resources for R & D, along with resources allocated to research appointments at research departments of universities. Educational R & D, conducted primarily within the NBE funds, has recently been evaluated by a government-appointed committee. In its evaluations of the impact of educational R & D, the committee distinguished between the effects of R & D and the effect correlates. It concluded that the impact of R & D is more indirect than direct, more long-term than immediate. The effects are also more easily recognized at levels above the actual school situation. This finding could be interpreted as a consequence of the policy-orientation of educational R & D, which at the same time shows the difficulties in reaching the `school level' with research and development results. There are two general trends in Sweden, which will influence both research planning and research use. First, there is a trend towards the decentralization of decision-making and responsibility for the educational system. Secondly, there is a trend towards the `sectionalization' of the R & D system as a whole. This sectionalization will mean that research will to a great extent be planned to meet needs from different parts of society — labour

  14. Enabling Housing Cooperatives: policy lessons from Sweden, India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapati, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries. The analysis reveals that housing cooperatives' relationship with the state and the consequent support structures explain the divergent evolution. Although the relationships between cooperatives and the state evolved over time, they can be characterized as embedded autonomy, overembeddedness and disembeddedness in Sweden, India and the United States respectively. Whereas the consequent support structures for housing cooperatives became well developed in Sweden and India, such structures have been weak in the United States. The article highlights the need for embedded autonomy and the need for supportive structures to enable the growth of housing cooperatives.

  15. Chemical and biological benefits in a stormwater wetland in Kalmar, SE Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrmann, Jan

    2012-01-01

    A manmade stormwater wetland in Kalmar, SE Sweden, sized 1 ha and receiving water from residential and road areas, was monitored over the first years after inundation with respect to chemistry and biology...

  16. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. METHOD: A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. RESULTS: Life expectancy was 24-28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland......, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (-0.8 years) and Sweden (-1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0-5.2), all diseases...

  17. 76 FR 3159 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject reviews. DATES: Effective...

  18. Pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Maria-Reyes; Hernández, Juana; Antoñanzas, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Assisted reproduction is one of the health services currently being considered for possible limitation or exclusion from the public health services portfolio in Spain. One of the main reasons claimed for this is the impact on the budget for pharmaceutical expenditure. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of the pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain. This study focused on medical practice in Spain, and is based on the opinions of experts in assisted reproduction and the results provided by professional societies' publications. The reference year is 2012 and the setting was secondary care. We have included all existing pharmaceutical modalities for assisted reproduction, as well as the most common drug for each modality. We have considered the pharmaceutical cost per cycle for artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF_ICSI), and cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception. In Spain, artificial insemination has a pharmaceutical cost per cycle of between €69.36 and €873.79. This amounts to an average cycle cost of €364.87 for partner's sperm and €327.10 for donor sperm. The pharmaceutical cost of IVF_ICSI ranges between €278.16 and €1,902.66, giving an average cost per cycle of €1,139.65. In the case of cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception, the pharmaceutical cost per cycle is between €22.61 and €58.73, yielding an average cost of €40.67. The budgetary impact of pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction in Spain for the year 2012 was estimated at €98.7 million. In Spain, the total pharmaceutical cost of assisted reproduction is substantial. According to our results, we can say that about 29% of the total pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction techniques is funded by the National Health System and the rest represents 2.4% of the total annual out-of-pocket family expenditure on drugs.

  19. Huawei going Sweden : En studie om etableringshinder i Sverige ur ett kinesiskt perspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Nyvall, Frida; Abrahamsson, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    In the year of 2001, China launched their new international marketing strategy Going Global. As an effect of this, the frequency of Chinese establishments in Sweden has increased heavily in the last ten years. One of the larger Chinese establishments in Sweden happened in 2003, by the telecom company Huawei. This essay illustrates the obstacles that a Chinese company faces when setting up their business on the Swedish market. Previous studies have focused on Swedish establishment abroad. Howe...

  20. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Tysen E; Noll B; Wahlström H; Hamilton C; Nord Bjerselius U; Hansson I; Boqvist S; Engvall A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91), followed by S. Dublin (n = 82). There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates ...

  1. Sexual behaviour among youth clinic visitors in Sweden: knowledge and experiences in an HIV perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, E.; Jarlbro, G

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the knowledge and experience of sexuality, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases among sexually active adolescents in Sweden. SUBJECTS--Youth clinic visitors. SETTING--Seventy-four youth clinics from all over the country of Sweden. METHODS--A questionnaire with 17 multiple choice and nine open questions was distributed to all visitors at participating youth clinics during a 2-month period. RESULTS--A total of 9277 young persons answered the questionnaire. Their m...

  2. Respiratory diphtheria in an asylum seeker from Afghanistan arriving to Finland via Sweden, December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Jussi; Sorvari, Tiina; Widerström, Micael; Kauma, Heikki; Kaukoniemi, Ulla; Tarkka, Eveliina; Puumalainen, Taneli; Kuusi, Markku; Salminen, Mika; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2016-01-01

    In December 2015, an asylum seeker originating from Afghanistan was diagnosed with respiratory diphtheria in Finland. He arrived in Finland from Sweden where he had already been clinically suspected and tested for diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was confirmed in Sweden and shown to be genotypically and phenotypically toxigenic. The event highlights the importance of early case detection, rapid communication within the country and internationally as well as preparedness plans of diphtheria antitoxin availability.

  3. Illuga saga Gríðarfóstra in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavender, Philip Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the intellectual history behind and scholarly preparation towards the first edition of Illuga saga Gríðarfóstra in Sweden in 1695. One of the main questions which the article tries to answer is why an edition of a saga about Danish kings and heroes would end up being produced...... in the middle of the Sweden and Denmark's fiercely competitive nation-building furore....

  4. Regional Variation and Convergence of Height and Living Conditions in Sweden During the Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Öberg; Kristoffer Collin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates regional differences in height in Sweden during the twentieth century using data from universal conscript inspections (for men). We find substantive differences (2-3 cm) in height between the counties. Men in the southern, southeastern and northernmost parts of Sweden were shorter. Men in the Stockholm and Göteborg regions were taller and we find no “urban penalty” in height. The differences in height between counties declined over the course of the twentieth century ...

  5. Talking about integration : Discources, alliances and theories on labour market integration in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Jan-Paul; Borchgrevink, Tordis

    2007-01-01

    In Sweden those born outside the country participate less in the labour market than the majority population. Why is this so? What can be done to better the situation? In this report we take a closer look at how labour market integration is discussed in Sweden. Opinions are strongly divided on the issue of integration. Four discourses on labour market integration are identified. We label them the social liberal discourse, the social democratic discourse, the structural discrimination discourse...

  6. Yield models for commercial willow biomass plantations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola-Yudego, Blas [Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-801 01 Joensuu (Finland); Aronsson, Paer [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7016, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    A yield model for willow plantations for bioenergy production in Sweden was developed based on recorded production of 2082 commercial plantations during the period 1989-2005. The model predicts yield for the first, second and third harvest using oats (avena) production as agro-climatic index. The mean annual yields were 2.6, 4.2 and 4.5 oven dry tonnes (odt) per hectare during the first, second and third cutting cycles, respectively. The yield correlated inversely with the length of the cutting cycle. The results of the study show significant differences between growers, which suggest the importance of proper management in the establishment and tending of the plantations. Model estimates for 25% of the best growers vary from 4.0 to 6.3 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 5-year-rotation plantations during the first cutting cycle, and from 5.4 to 7.1 odt ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in 4-year-rotations for the second cutting cycle. The proposed model can be applied in policy making and for management planning. (author)

  7. Play and learning in early childhood education in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Lohmander M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning through play is a common phrase in early childhood education worldwide. Play is often put forward as the overarching principle for working with young children (Johnson, Christie, & Wardle, 2005. However, if we go beyond the rhetorical level and explore how “learning through play” and a “play-based curriculum” are understood and transformed into practice, we may find differences both within and between countries (Karlsson Lohmander & Pramling Samuelsson, 2014a, 2014b; Pramling Samuelsson & Fleer, 2009. In this article we discuss the relationship between the concepts of play and learning and describe how they are enacted in everyday practice in early childhood education in Sweden. Starting with a brief presentation of the development of early childhood education, we then reflect on the challenges preschool teachers may encounter when trying to implement a new learning-oriented curriculum (National Agency for Education, 2011 and still trying to keep play as a central dimension in children’s everyday life in preschool.

  8. Business as Usual: Nobility and Landed Estates in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Gary

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of European countries which have had an important tradition of manorialism have undergone profound land reforms, redistributing land from large landowners and giving small-scale farmers and the landless legal rights to land ownership, with the exceptions of Sweden and England. This article will outline the particular Swedish case, where large estates have been able to persist largely intact from the Middle Ages through to the current day, and explore possible reasons for Sweden’s failure to develop a substantial land reform. We suggest that while there was not an absolute lack of opportunity for reform, a persistent lack of a critical mass of support has meant a failure of outright revolution, as in the French case, and split incentives from the eighteenth century have prevented successful reform through legislative processes. The barriers to reform have only become stronger with the development of perfect private property rights and of the complexities of European law, and recent Swedish parliamentary outcomes indicate that the case for land reform has expired.

  9. Geohydrological data from the macropermeability experiment at Stripa, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.R.; Long, J.C.S.; Galbraith, R.M.; Karasaki, K.; Endo, H.K.; DuBois, A.O.; McPherson, M.J.; Ramqvist, G.

    1981-03-01

    The Macropermeability Experiment was conducted in a granite body adjacent to a recently abandoned iron ore mine at Stripa, Sweden. This experiment was conducted to measure the permeability of a large volume of low permeability, fractured rock. The experiment was conducted over 11 months in an approximately 4m x 4m x 33m drift at the 335 m level of the mine. Groundwater seepage into the drift was measured as the net moisture pickup of the ventilation system. Water pressure and temperature were monitored at 95 locations in the rock surrounding the drift. The data collection system was designed to provide in-situ averaging of the measured parameters, to ultimately estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the rock as if it were a porous medium. This report is limited to data presentation. It describes the types of data collected, the methods of measurement, and procedures used for data collection, storage, and reduction. Experimental errors are reviewed for all principal types of data. The data presented are sufficient to estimate (1) the rate of seepage of moisture into the drift; (2) the three-dimensional distribution of hydraulic head in the rock mass to a radial distance of 30 m from the drift; and (3) the three-dimensional distribution of temperature in the rock mass, also to a radial distance of 30 m. These data can in turn be used to estimate the intrinsic permeability of the monitored rock mass. Analysis and interpretation of these results will be presented in subsequent reports.

  10. The radiation environment in Sweden; Straalmiljoen i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Paal; Carlsson, Monica; Falk, Rolf; Hubbard, Lynn; Leitz, Wolfram; Mjoenes, Lars; Moere, Hans; Nyblom, Leif; Soederman, Ann-Louise; Yuen Lasson, Katarina; Aakerblom, Gustav; Oehlen, Elisabeth

    2007-01-15

    The report describes, and reports data from, the monitoring of the radiation environment which has been conducted in Sweden since the 1950s. Average doses to the general public as well as to special groups of the public are also reported. Environmental monitoring concerning radiation has to a great extent focused on deposition and occurrence of radioactive elements originating from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. The average dose from {sup 137}Cs is very low, although it is somewhat higher in the group 'reindeer herders'. Surveys of naturally occurring radioactive elements in soil, drinking water and indoor air show that radiation from soil and building materials constitutes, besides medical use of radiation, the main part of the average total dose to the population. The dose from drinking water from drilled wells or from radon in indoor air may dominate the total dose in certain cases. Smoking increases the risk of radon considerably. UV-radiation has increased with 10 percent over the last 22 years at the location of the monitoring station. This is mainly explained by a decreased cloudiness. The exposure for UV is however more dependent on behaviour, and approximately 25 percent of the total exposure takes place abroad. Presently there are no time series concerning electromagnetic fields in the outdoor environment. However, measurements indicate levels well below the reference values.

  11. Effects of compulsory schooling on mortality: evidence from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Martin; Karlsson, Martin; Nilsson, Therese

    2013-08-13

    Theoretically, there are several reasons to expect education to have a positive effect on health. Empirical research suggests that education can be an important health determinant. However, it has not yet been established whether education and health are indeed causally related, and the effects found in previous studies may be partially attributable to methodological weaknesses. Moreover, existing evidence on the education-health relationship generally uses information of fairly recent schooling reforms, implying that health outcomes are observed only over a limited time period. This paper examines the effect of education on mortality using information on a national roll-out of a reform leading to one extra year of compulsory schooling in Sweden. In 1936, the national government made a seventh school year compulsory; however, the implementation was decided at the school district level, and the reform was implemented over 12 years. Taking advantage of the variation in the timing of the implementation across school districts, by using county-level proportions of reformed districts, census data and administrative mortality data, we find that the extra compulsory school year reduced mortality. In fact, the mortality reduction is discernible already before the age of 30 and then grows in magnitude until the age of 55-60.

  12. Mass occurrence of Penicillium corylophilum in crawl spaces, south Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bok, Gunilla; Hallenberg, Nils [University of Gothenburg, Department of Plant and Environmental Science, Box 461, S405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Aaberg, Olle [The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, Box 534, S371 23 Karlskrona (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    Buildings with crawl space foundations are looked upon as high-risk constructions with respect to mould growth, especially on the blind floor. This mould growth can be extensive and cover several square meters of the blind floor with potential health risks as a consequence. Mould occurrence and mould species diversity were investigated in a large small-house area in the south of Sweden, comprising 212 buildings. The crawl spaces were inspected and samples from the blind floor were taken. The relative humidity was measured and reached 80-100% for several consecutive months. Subsets of the samples were cultured and the fungi isolated were further analyzed by sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA). The results were compared with results from other, relevant studies and confirm that Penicillium corylophilum is the completely dominating mould species in crawl spaces. The occurrences could not be explained as accidental since the extensive occurrence in many dwellings had developed over several years. (author)

  13. The current debate on cultural diversity in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamde, Kiflemariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the conceptual context of cultural diversity in Sweden. It describes the background in which the former Social Democratic Government declared 2006 as the Year for Cultural Diversity. A related concern is scrutinizing whether in fact this year would be a starting point for more deeply engaged diversity programs or if such policy definitions remain mere symbolic acts of window dressing. The study is based on analysis of official documents, diversity events and agendas, and interviews with different actors and diversity consultants, and participation in seminars and conferences on the topic of diversity and integration as the main topics. A major concern is whether the current interest on cultural diversity may lead to its institutionalization in the Swedish cultural and social organizations (Hamde, 2002a) and address the virtues of diversity, such as diversity for profitability and competence in workplaces, social justice concerns, and finally, societal cohesion. Alternatively, the paper explores if the debate on diversity merely remains a 'traveling' idea to appear occasionally and then occur in fashion-like manner as many management ideas do, leaving little traces on peoples' lives.

  14. QWIP at Acreo in Sweden: not only a nightvision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschauer, Bernhard; Andersson, Jan Y.; Alverbro, Jorgen; Halldin, Urban; Malm, Hedda; Martijn, Henk H.; Nordahl, Charlotte; Norden, Ulrika

    2003-01-01

    Acreo in Sweden has been invovled in Quantum Well IR Photodetector (QWIP) reserach and development since 1986. During the first years a small group led by Jan Andersson was dedicated to research on QWIP structures and means of coupling radiation into the quantum-well structure. One of the resarech results is a 2D optical grating couler to create an optimal elecgtric field pattern for highest possible absorption and responsivity. Acreo holds a patent for this grating coupler. Since 1988 FLIR Systems, later FMV, Saab Dynamics, Celsius Tech and NUTEK have sponsoered an R and D project with the goal to develop QWIP detectors and start up production. Soon it became clear that an adapted ROIC deisng and the hybridization of the focal plane array are key issues in order to achieve the highest possible performance and operability of the complete detector device for voluem production. Extended measures where taken in 1996. In 1997 the industrial interest increased further, ClesiusTech and Saab Dynamics, merged in 2000, and now a division of FLIR Systems AB started to sponsor the R and D project. Because of its success during the last years it has now been expanded and scheduled until 2003 and beyond. Volume production of QWIP FPAs started in 2000.

  15. SWEDEN AND TURKEY: TWO MODELS OF WELFARE STATE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea - Emanuela Dragoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes two models of economic development: Sweden and Turkey. The main objective of this analysis is to highlight in which way two countries with different development strategies, economic geography, mentality and culture have managed to maintain growth before and during the global economic crisis, becoming gradually genuine models of welfare state. The analysis undertaken in this paper is, consequently, divided into two parts. The first shows the Swedish model of welfare state, that was an inspirational one in the ’70 and ’80, and its specific strengths and vulnerabilities. The second part summarizes Turkey's economic development over the past decade,emphasizing comparative advantages that have made it the 16th largest economy of the world and its strategy in terms of managing the international economic crisis. The final part of our comparative approach aims to respond to the following question: may those two economic models be considered proper economic lessons for the other states that are confronted with economic vulnerabilities?

  16. Geotomography applied at the Stripa Mine in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, J.T.; Laine, E.F.; Lytle, R.J.; Daily,W.D.

    1980-04-07

    LLNL made ultrahigh-frequency (450-MHz) electromagnetic borehole-to-borehole transmissions in the Stripa Mine near Guldsmedshyttan, Sweden, in April 1979. Transmission loss measurements were made between four sets of 76-mm boreholes 30 m long, located at the end of a drift. Distances between the boreholes varied from 2 to 22 m. More than 25,000 data points were taken. A geotomograph was constructed to show the variation of attenuation between boreholes. The observed spatial variation of electromagnetic attenuation may be related to the expected stress relief created by the mine. Transmission loss measurements were also made between two converging boreholes drilled from the surface to points near the mine. Data taken at 21 MHz show a nearly uniform attenuation within this sampled region. These experiments demonstrate that geotomographic data collection/interpretation provides high-resolution images of the underground environment and can provide useful input to those charged with providing the detailed site characterizations needed for both short- and long-term monitoring of underground nuclear waste repositories.

  17. Diabetes and glucose disturbances in patients with psychosis in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Eric; Westman, Jeanette; Sudic Hukic, Dzana; Eriksson, Sven V; Edman, Gunnar; Bodén, Robert; Jedenius, Erik; Reutfors, Johan; Berntsson, Anders; Hilding, Agneta; Schalling, Martin; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Ösby, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, and antidiabetic medication in patients with psychosis compared with control subjects and (2) determine what factors in patients with psychosis were associated with antidiabetic medication. Method We studied 977 patients with psychosis recruited from outpatient clinics in Stockholm County, Sweden, and they were compared with 3908 non-psychotic control subjects for fasting plasma glucose levels; prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, antidiabetic treatment, and tobacco use; and blood pressure, weight, height, and waist circumference. Group differences were evaluated with analysis of variance and χ2 test, and factors associated with antidiabetic treatment were evaluated with logistic regression. Results Diabetes was observed in 94 (10%) patients with psychosis, 2.7 times the prevalence observed in control subjects. Among patients with psychosis, 87 (10%) had prediabetes (fasting glucose, 6.1–6.9 mmol/L) compared with 149 (3.8%) control subjects. Most patients with psychosis (77%) who had prediabetes fulfilled criteria for metabolic syndrome. In patients with psychosis, both lipid-lowering medication and fasting glucose were significantly associated with antidiabetic treatment. There was no significant relation between antidiabetic treatment and lifestyle factors such as smoking or degree of psychiatric illness. Conclusions The high prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and metabolic syndrome in patients with psychosis warrants further clinical research in preventing or delaying the onset of diabetes in these patients by pharmacotherapy and/or lifestyle intervention. PMID:26468398

  18. Gender Equality Policy in Sweden: 1970s–2010s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Nyberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to give an overview of gender equality policy in Sweden from the 1970s until today. A number of political measures and whether these measures individually, as well as combined, have promoted gender equality and the dual-earner/dual-carer model are described and analyzed. The conclusion is that the right to part-time work, publicly financed child care, parental leave, and tax deductions for domestic services make it easier for mothers to reconcile work and family, but do not challenge the distribution of family responsibilities between women and men. However, the individual right for fathers to 2 months of parental leave does challenge the gender order, to a certain extent, and fathers today participate more in care and domestic work than earlier. The dual-earner/dual-carer family is closer at hand when women have a higher education and earnings and thereby greater bargaining power. Employed work is more conditional among women with a lower education level, i.e., they may be employed but under the constraint that they are still responsible for care and domestic work in the family. Another constraint in this group where many work part-time is the lack of available full-time positions in the labor market.

  19. Telephone nursing in Sweden: A narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Elenor; Röing, Marta; Björkman, Annica; Holmström, Inger K

    2017-09-01

    Telephone nursing services are expanding globally. Swedish Healthcare Direct is the largest healthcare provider in Sweden. This paper provides a comprehensive understanding of telephone nursing, as reflected by research on Swedish national telephone nursing, and discusses the findings in relation to international literature. A descriptive, mixed-studies literature review was conducted. Twenty-four articles from January 2003 to April 2015 were identified from PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL, and included. The issues explored in this study are how telephone nursing is perceived by callers, telephone nurses, and managers, and what characterizes such calls. Callers value reassurance, support, respect and satisfaction and involvement in decisions can increase their adherence. The telephone nurses' perspective focused on problems and ethical dilemmas, communication, the decision support tool, and working tasks. The managers' perspective focused on nursing work goals and malpractice claims. Concerning call characteristics, authentic calls, incident reports, and threats to patient safety were considered. Telephone nursing seems safe, but gender can play a role in calls. Future research on caller access, equity, and efficiency, healthcare cost-effectiveness, distribution, and patient safety is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Trends in Child Poverty in Sweden: Parental and Child Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mood, Carina; Jonsson, Jan O

    We use several family-based indicators of household poverty as well as child-reported economic resources and problems to unravel child poverty trends in Sweden. Our results show that absolute (bread-line) household income poverty, as well as economic deprivation, increased with the recession 1991-96, then reduced and has remained largely unchanged since 2006. Relative income poverty has however increased since the mid-1990s. When we measure child poverty by young people's own reports, we find few trends between 2000 and 2011. The material conditions appear to have improved and relative poverty has changed very little if at all, contrasting the development of household relative poverty. This contradictory pattern may be a consequence of poor parents distributing relatively more of the household income to their children in times of economic duress, but future studies should scrutinze potentially delayed negative consequences as poor children are lagging behind their non-poor peers. Our methodological conclusion is that although parental and child reports are partly substitutable, they are also complementary, and the simultaneous reporting of different measures is crucial to get a full understanding of trends in child poverty.

  1. Organisational factors and occupational balance in working parents in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgh, Madeleine; Eek, Frida; Wagman, Petra; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-07-01

    Parents with small children constitute a vulnerable group as they have an increased risk of sick leave due to stress-related disorders compared to adults without children. It has been shown that mothers and fathers to small children together spend more time in paid work than any other group, which could create negative stress and an experience of low occupational balance. The aim of this study was to examine associations between organisational factors and occupational balance among parents with small children in Sweden. Data were collected by a survey including questions about occupational balance, organisational factors and age, sex, employment rate, work position, monthly household income, number of children at home, separation/divorce last five years and overtime. The total number of parents included in this study was 718 (490 mothers and 228 fathers). Logistic regression models were applied to examine the odds ratios for occupational balance in relation to organisational factors. Parents who experienced positive attitudes towards parenthood and parental leave among colleagues and managers were more likely to experience high occupational balance than parents who experienced negative or neutral attitudes. Having a clear structure for handover when absent from work was also strongly associated with high occupational balance. The result of the present study indicates that some organisational factors could be important for the occupational balance of parents with small children.

  2. Paternity leave in Sweden: costs, savings and health gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Winkvist, Anna

    2007-06-01

    The initial objective is to examine the relationship between paternity leave in 1978-1979 and male mortality during 1981-2001, and the second objective is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the 1974 parental insurance reform in Sweden. Based on a population of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (45,801 males), the risk of death for men who took paternity leave, compared with men who did not, was estimated by odds ratios. The cost-effectiveness analysis considered costs for information, administration and production losses, minus savings due to decreased sickness leave and inpatient care, compared to health gains in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). It is demonstrated that fathers who took paternity leave have a statistically significant decreased death risk of 16%. Costs minus savings (discounted values) stretch from a net cost of EUR 19 million to a net saving of EUR 11 million, and the base case cost-effectiveness is EUR 8000 per QALY. The study indicates that that the right to paternity leave is a desirable reform based on commonly stated public health, economic, and feminist goals. The critical issue in future research should be to examine impact from health-related selection.

  3. A Critical Study of Informal New Media Uses in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Mylonas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at a variety of "informal" uses of new media and ICTs. The term informal describes popular uses of digital technologies that often exist outside the norms, laws, and codes that dictate how digital technologies and networks are to be used. Such activities include what is commonly described as "piracy," but also embrace different peer-to-peer practices. Informal activities develop due to the affordances of digital technologies, which allow space for creativity and personalization of use, but are also due to broader sociocultural variables and contextual issues. In general terms, informal activities are those that concern the amateur activities of people using digital programs, tools, and networks. Media scholars see great potential in new media/ICT affordances, as related to the proliferation of grassroots participation, communication, and creativity. Nevertheless, a growing critical literature forces us to examine the actualization of such potential. This paper discusses the aforementioned issues by looking at new media/ICT uses in Sweden; it departs from critical perspectives that take into consideration the political economy of new media, and the cultural-political critiques of late-modern consumer societies.

  4. Health and Vulnerable Men Sweden: From Traditional Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willner, Sam

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the relationship between social transition and health in late eighteenth and nineteenth century Sweden with special regard to gender. The transition of the agrarian society in early 19th century was characterised by declining mortality for children and women, while adult men experienced stagnating or even rising death rates, leading to a substantial male mortality hump. Adult men appear to have been more vulnerable to the negative effects of the structural economic change. Alcohol was an obvious mediator of the socio-economic health effects. Industrialisation in last decades of the 19th century was followed by a narrowing gender gap in mortality. Some important causes of the improvement of health, particularly among adult men, were the emergence of a materially better and more stable society in combination with the new popular movements providing the working class with new ideologies and interpretations of the world. In conclusion, the results suggest that specific gender roles often have tended to make men more vulnerable to changes of working conditions and less stable societies.

  5. Same-gender stalking in Sweden and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Susanne; McEwan, Troy E

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the phenomenon of same-gender stalking and sought to identify differences between same- and opposite-gender stalking cases. Ninety-four same-gender and 160 opposite-gender stalking cases from Sweden and Australia were compared on demographic, offense, clinical, and behavioral characteristics. The groups were largely similar, differing mainly in the nature of the prior relationship between stalker and victim and the stalker's motivation. The most notable distinction was the significantly greater prevalence of ex-intimate partner stalkers in the opposite-gender group (65%) versus the same-gender group (32%), leading to the exclusion of ex-intimates from the subsequent analysis to remove this potentially confounding variable. Amongst non-ex-intimates, same-gender stalkers were significantly more likely to be female and to stalk out of a sense of resentment and grievance. The results showed that the gender of the victim and perpetrator was less important to the course and conduct of a stalking episode than were the stalker's motivation and the nature of the prior relationship to the victim. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  7. Demographic and future supply working in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The demographic situation in Spain is characterised by a very low birth rate: the lowest in Europe, a high life expectancy, the highest in the world and an immigration of foreign workers that was initiated in the 80s and that is increasing lately. The growing old of the population will increase in the future. Neither immigration nor the increase of birth rates will reverse this tendency. Therefore the ratio of dependence will be unavoidable. The creation of employment will be limited in the medium and the long term by a scarcity of employment, due to a foreseeable decrease of the population at a working age. In order to overcome this deficiency Spain cannot count on foreign immigration since this is not guaranteed in the future. Countries of origin are going through their own demographic transition, their population will also grow old in the long term while they attempt to improve their economic situation.

  8. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  10. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades-Lopez, A. [CIEMAT, Centro de Investigacion Energica Medioambiental y Technologia (Spain); Martinez-Arias, R.; Diaz-Hidalgo, M. [Faculty of Psychology, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  11. Area Handbook Series: Spain: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    of Labor (Confederaci6n Nacional del Trabajo -CNT), was able on several occasions to shut down Barcelona. The aim of the anarchists was not to take...Outsiders who still thought of Spain as socially restrained and conservative were surprised to note the public changes in sexual attitudes in the country...government policy for some years remained quite distant from social practice in two important areas related to private sexual behavior, contraception

  12. Sociological Profile of Astronomers in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias de Ussel, Julio; Trinidad, Antonio; Ruiz, Diego; Battaner, Eduardo; Delgado, Antonio J.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, José M.; Salvador-Solé, Eduard; Torrelles, José M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of Astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish Astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of Astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines Astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of Astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  13. National registry of hemoglobinopathies in Spain (REPHem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Elena; Bellón, José M; de la Cruz, María; Beléndez, Cristina; Berrueco, Rubén; Ruiz, Anna; Elorza, Izaskun; Díaz de Heredia, Cristina; Cervera, Aurea; Vallés, Griselda; Salinas, J Antonio; Coll, M Teresa; Bermúdez, Mar; Prudencio, Marta; Argilés, Bienvenida; Vecilla, Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Although highly prevalent throughout the world, the accurate prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain is unknown. This study presents data on the national registry of hemoglobinopathies of patients with thalassemia major (TM), thalassemia intermedia (TI), and sickle cell disease (SCD) in Spain created in 2014. Fifty centers reported cases retrospectively. Data were registered from neonatal screening or from the first contact at diagnosis until last follow-up or death. Data of the 715 eligible patients were collected: 615 SCD (497 SS, 64 SC, 54 SBeta phenotypes), 73 thalassemia, 9 CC phenotype, and 18 other variants. Most of the SCD patients were born in Spain (65%), and 51% of these were diagnosed at newborn screening. Median age at the first diagnosis was 0.4 years for thalassemia and 1.0 years for SCD. The estimated incidence was 0.002 thalassemia cases and 0.03 SCD cases/1,000 live births. Median age was 8.9 years (0.2-33.7) for thalassemia and 8.1 years (0.2-32.8) for SCD patients. Stroke was registered in 16 SCD cases. Transplantation was performed in 43 TM and 23 SCD patients at a median age of 5.2 and 7.8 years, respectively. Twenty-one patients died (3 TM, 17 SCD, 1 CC) and 200 were lost to follow-up. Causes of death were related to transplantation in three patients with TM and three patients with SCD. Death did not seem to be associated with SCD in six patients, but nine patients died secondary to disease complications. Overall survival was 95% at 15 years of age. The registry provides data about the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain and will permit future cohort studies and the possibility of comparison with other registries. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  15. Food-related life style in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert,Klaus G.; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    1996-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European food consumers, however, they are also very conservative, both in their choice and use of food. 3. Spanish food consumers can be divided into five segments, which differ both in the way they use food ...

  16. Traces of Arab lnfluence in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, E.; Yusuf ALEMDAR

    2006-01-01

    In this article, a famous orientalist Mr. E. Rosenthal is tatking about histaricalheritage that belongs to the Andalus Umayyads which ruled in Spain between 756-1031. Even though article's headline is entitled like " ... Arab ... ", in this article, Mr.Rosenthal, like many orientalists, takes every lslamic heritage, because of the itsorigin, to back to the Arabs. However, we are in agreement with Mr. Rosenthal in thisarticle's headline because of this presumption: First of...

  17. Genetic epidemiology of familial amyloid polyneuropathy in the Balearic Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munar-Qués, Miguel; Saraiva, Maria J M; Viader-Farré, Carlos; Zabay-Becerril, José María; Mulet-Ferrer, Juana

    2005-03-01

    Between 1976 and 2003, we diagnosed 144 patients with familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Analysis of genetic epidemiological data from 102 confirmed patients showed 62% were men. Parental transmission was paternal in 38, maternal in 25, and unknown in 39. No family history of FAP was found in 32 patients. TTRVal30Met associated with haplotype I was present in the individuals studied. Mean age-at-onset was 45.7 years which lies between that of Sweden and those of Portugal, Japan and Brazil. Duration of FAP was of 9.7 years. Age-at-onset, age-at-death, duration and fertility were similar between sexes. Twenty-nine intergeneration familial pairs of patients were ascertained. Raw anticipation was positive in twenty-four pairs, zero in one, and negative in four. Differences greater than 9 years between age-at-onset of the first and second member were considered relevant; positive relevant anticipation was found in 76% of the whole pairs. The frequency of positive anticipation of parent-child pairs was not significantly different than those described in the Swedish and Portuguese series. Significant positive correlation in age-at-onset was confirmed in twenty-seven types of pairs supporting the hypothesis that a genetic factor may modulate age-at-onset. The Balearic focus of FAP is expanding and constitutes a public health problem.

  18. Phytoplankton from Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden 1960-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willen, Torbjoern [Inst. of Limnology, Univ of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1966-03-15

    The investigation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton in Lake Magelungen, Central Sweden, was carried out over a period of three years to illustrate the conditions before the release of waste water from the Aagesta Heat and Power Station began. Vertical sampling series were taken about once a month and samples from three different stations (named MA, MOB and MH) in the lake were analysed and compared. Most importance was laid on the quantitative composition and the differences in total volumes between the different stations. Highest volume values were always recorded in late spring and in summer. Two algal groups predominated every year, viz. chlorophytes and cyanophytes. After a moderate spring outburst caused by diatoms (Stephanodiscus, Synedra and Asterionella) peak volume values of chlorophytes were recorded in June and July. Predominating genera were Scenedesmus, Coelastrum and Pediastrum. The chlorophyte maximum was always followed by an immense development of cyanophytes (Anabaena, Aphanizomenon and Microcystis). The diatoms were well developed only during short periods, the chrysophyceans were of little significance as were all other algal groups. A marked difference existed between the Station MOB compared with the two other stations. The water at Station MOB was more polluted and several algal genera indicating the pollution were recorded. Both chlorophytes and cyanophytes were often developed in very great quantities at this station. The total volumes of phytoplankton in Lake Magelungen already are very high and the lake is to be considered as highly eutrophic. It is very possible that changes as to further additions of nutritional elements or/and changes in the thermal balance will increase the algal populations and accelerate the normal development of the lake.

  19. An environmentally sustainable transport system in Sweden. A scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokking, P.; Emmelin, L.; Engstroem, M-G.; Nilsson, Jan-Evert; Eriksson, Gunnar; Wikberg, O.

    1997-02-01

    This is a short version of a scenario study concerning the possibilities to reach an Environmentally Sustainable Transport system in Sweden in a perspective of 30 years. The aim of the scenario study has been to describe one of several possible paths from today`s transport system to an environmentally adopted one. However, this does not imply that the task is to predict how such a transformation can be accomplished. The aim is rather to illustrate what such transformation require in the form of political decisions. The transformation of the transport system in to an environmentally adopted one, is primarily treated as a political problem, and a political perspective has accordingly been chosen for the study. In this English version of the scenario, the carbon dioxide problem is used to illuminate the many conflicts in goals and other problem that will attend an environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, and to highlight the analytical points of departure for the scenario study. The analysis shows that it is possible to reach the national environmental goals that characterise, with given definitions, an environmentally sustainable transport system. However, this implies many severe political decisions over a long period of time, which in turn, implies a long term national consensus about the importance to reach the overall goal. Other results the scenario points out, is the risk that a policy focused on one sector leads to `solving` a problem by moving it outside systems limitations, and the limitations on a national environmental policy: Being able to count on assistance from other countries through an environmental adoption of the transport system in the European Union or globally, would drastically facilitate the environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, through, among other things, a more rapid technological development. This indicates the necessity of promoting issues involving transportation and the environment in international

  20. Temporal variations of Cs-137 in Sots Pine; Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylen, T.; Plamboeck, A.H.; Boson, J.

    2008-07-01

    In this study the temporal changes in 137Cs distribution in a Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) stand was studied during 1986 to 2006 in Northern Sweden. The Chernobyl fallout provided an excellent possibility to study the uptake and retention in conifer trees of 137Cs, since the deposition lasted for only a few days. The average deposition of 137Cs in the region that originates from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 was 20 +-9 kBq M-2 . Also 137Cs from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests was present in the area and was only 3 +-2 kBq m-2. Studies show that the redistribution of radioactive caesium still contribute to high activity concentrations in some compartments of the ecosystem. It has been known that certain fungi continue to produce fruit bodies with high amounts of 137Cs. The current study adds another aspect to consider: The high activity concentration in branches and current needles during 2006 indicates an uptake of 137Cs from the soil which could lead to concentrations in Scots Pine that has to be considered in forestry and other kind of utilization of forest products. There are for instance a few game birds such as the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) that feed on pine shoots. Another possible effect is on the use of pine branches in the bio fuel industry. Given an activity concentration of 1200 Bq/kg (d.w.) and a concentration factor of 10 during combustion the concentration in ashes would be 12000 bq/kg. According to the recommendations from SSI (the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority) ashes that have concentrations higher than 10 kBq/kg must be stored in special deposits. It would be of interest to investigate the uptake in stands of different ages since the pine stand that was studied was about 30 years old in 1986 and do not represent neither a mature nor a newly established stand (tk)

  1. Pornography and sexual experiences among high school students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2014-04-01

    The study investigated the differences between high school boys and girls in: (1) the use of pornography, (2) sexual experiences, (3) experience of sexual abuse, and (4) perceptions of sexuality and pornography. It also examined the possible predictors of experiencing sexual activities, such as sex, sociodemographic factors (high school program, household, and ethnic background), pornography consumption, experience of sexual abuse, perception of sexuality, and perception of pornography. A population-based classroom survey of 16-year-old boys (n = 477) and girls (n = 400) from 53 randomly selected high school classes in 2 towns in mid-Sweden. Almost all boys (96%, n = 453) and 54% of the girls (n = 213) had watched pornography. Regardless of sex, pornography consumers had a positive perception of pornography. There were no differences between pornography-consuming boys and girls regarding fantasies, and they had attempted sexual acts inspired by pornography. A higher proportion of girls (15%) than boys (6%) had experienced sexual abuse. Predictors for being sexually experienced (oral sex, intercourse, and anal sex) included: being a girl, attending a vocational high school program, living with separated parents, having experience of sexual abuse, stating that boys and girls are equally interested in sex, and having a positive perception of pornography (Adj. R = 0.166). Boys had more experience of and a more positive perception of pornography, but there were only a few differences between boys and girls in the pornography-consumer group. Girls were more sexually experienced than boys. A positive perception of pornography predicted being sexually experienced.

  2. Does social capital protect mental health among migrants in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerof, Susanne Sundell; Stafström, Martin; Westerling, Ragnar; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2016-09-01

    Poor mental health is common among migrants. This has been explained by migration-related and socio-economic factors. Weak social capital has also been related to poor mental health. Few studies have explored factors that protect mental health of migrants in the post-migration phase. Such knowledge could be useful for health promotion purposes. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse associations between financial difficulties, housing problems and experience of discrimination and poor mental health; and to detect possible effect modification by social capital, among recently settled Iraqi migrants in Sweden. A postal questionnaire in Arabic was sent to recently settled Iraqi citizens. The response rate was 51% (n = 617). Mental health was measured by the GHQ-12 instrument and social capital was defined as social participation and trust in others. Data were analysed by means of logistic regression. Poor mental health was associated with experience of discrimination (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.73-4.79), housing problems (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.84-4.22), and financial difficulties (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.44-3.19), after adjustments. Trust in others seemed to have a protective effect for mental health when exposed to these factors. Social participation had a protective effect when exposed to experience of discrimination. Social determinants and social capital in the host country play important roles in the mental health of migrants. Social capital modifies the effect of risk factors and might be a fruitful way to promote resilience to factors harmful to mental health among migrants, but must be combined with policy efforts to reduce social inequities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Genberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A one-year study was performed at the Vavihill background station in southern Sweden to estimate the anthropogenic contribution to the carbonaceous aerosol. Weekly samples of the particulate matter PM10 were collected on quartz filters, and the amounts of organic carbon, elemental carbon, radiocarbon (14C and levoglucosan were measured. This approach enabled source apportionment of the total carbon in the PM10 fraction using the concentration ratios of the sources. The sources considered in this study were emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, as well as biogenic sources. During the summer, the carbonaceous aerosol mass was dominated by compounds of biogenic origin (80%, which are associated with biogenic primary and secondary organic aerosols. During the winter months, biomass combustion (32% and fossil fuel combustion (28% were the main contributors to the carbonaceous aerosol. Elemental carbon concentrations in winter were about twice as large as during summer, and can be attributed to biomass combustion, probably from domestic wood burning. The contribution of fossil fuels to elemental carbon was stable throughout the year, although the fossil contribution to organic carbon increased during the winter. Thus, the organic aerosol originated mainly from natural sources during the summer and from anthropogenic sources during the winter. The result of this source apportionment was compared with results from the EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model. The model and measurements were generally consistent for total atmospheric organic carbon, however, the contribution of the sources varied substantially. E.g. the biomass burning contributions of OC were underestimated by the model by a factor of 2.2 compared to the measurements.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gösta Bluhm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A. Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several experimental and epidemiological studies have been performed or are ongoing. Most of the studies on cardiovascular outcomes have been related to noise from road or aircraft traffic. Few studies have included railway noise. The outcomes under study include morning saliva cortisol, treatment for hypertension, self-reported hypertension, and myocardial infarction. The Swedish studies on road traffic noise support the hypothesis of an association between long-term noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. However, the magnitude of effect varies between the studies and has been shown to depend on factors such as sex, number of years at residence, and noise annoyance. Two national studies have been performed on the cardiovascular effects of aircraft noise exposure. The first one, a cross-sectional study assessing self-reported hypertension, has shown a 30% risk increase per 5 dB(A noise increase. The second one, which to our knowledge is the first longitudinal study assessing the cumulative incidence of hypertension, found a relative risk (RR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.19 per 5 dB(A noise increase. No associations have been found between railway noise and cardiovascular diseases. The findings regarding noise-related health effects and their economic consequences should be taken into account in future noise abatement policies and community planning.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations in glacier hydrology on Storglaciaeren, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Naeslund, Jens-Ove (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    The aim of the current research project was to provide a framework of real conditions within which to interpret theory and extrapolate likely conditions beneath a future ice sheet over Fennoscandia. The purpose of this report is to summarize the experimental work on glacier hydrology and basal hydraulic conditions performed on Storglaciaeren, northern Sweden, during the years 1990-2006. Surface fed subglacial hydrological systems are extremely dynamic because the input rates of rain and temperature-controlled surface melt fluctuate, and the geometry of flow paths is constantly changing due to ice deformation which tends to open and close the flow paths. The hydrological system of a glacier is quite unusual because since liquid water flows through conduits made of its solid phase (ice). Understanding the expected dynamic range of a glacier's hydrological system is best studied by in situ measurements. The processes studied on Storglaciaeren can be expected to apply to ice sheet scale, albeit on different spatial scales. Since Storglaciaeren is a polythermal glacier with a large fraction of ice below freezing and at the melting point and with a surface-fed hydrological system of conduits and tunnels, results apply to the lower elevation regions where the surface is composed of ice (ablation zone) rather than composed of snow (accumulation zone) found at higher elevations of the glaciers and ice sheets, Therefore, our results apply to the ablation zone of the past Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. In this report we discuss the measurements made to assess the subglacial conditions that provide a potential analogue for conditions under the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. For this purpose field work was performed on from 2003 to 2006 yielding subglacial water pressure measurements. We have included a large quantity of unpublished data from Storglaciaeren from different research projects conducted since 1990. Together these data provide a picture of the temporal and spatial water

  6. Evaluation of a tobacco prevention programme among teenagers in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Linnéa; Andersson, Martin; Stridsman, Caroline; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers, to evaluate a tobacco prevention programme and to study factors related to participation in the prevention programme. Design and setting Population-based prospective cohort study. Method Within the Obstructive Lung disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a cohort study about asthma in schoolchildren started in 2006. All children aged 7–8 years in three municipalities were invited to a questionnaire survey and 2585 (96%) participated. The cohort was followed up at age 11–12 years (n=2612, 95% of invited) and 14–15 years (n=2345, 88% of invited). In 2010, some of the children in the OLIN cohort (n=447) were invited to a local tobacco prevention programme and 224 (50%) chose to participate. Results At the age of 14–15 years, the prevalence of daily smoking was 3.5%. Factors related to smoking were female sex, having a smoking mother, participation in sports and lower parental socioeconomic status (SES). The prevalence of using snus was 3.3% and risk factors were male sex, having a smoking mother, having a snus-using father and non-participation in the prevention programme. In the prevention programme, the prevalence of tobacco use was significantly lower among the participants compared with the controls in the cohort. Factors related to non-participation were male sex, having a smoking mother, lower parental SES and participation in sports. Conclusions The prevalence of tobacco use was lower among the participants in the tobacco prevention programme compared with the non-participants as well as with the controls in the cohort. However, the observed benefit of the intervention may be overestimated as participation was biased by selection. PMID:25976765

  7. Traffic noise and cardiovascular health in Sweden: The roadside study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Eriksson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to traffic noise has been suggested to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. However, few studies have been performed in the general population and on railway noise. This study aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effects of living near noisy roads and railways. This cross-sectional study comprised 25,851 men and women, aged 18-80 years, who had resided in Sweden for at least 5 years. All subjects participated in a National Environmental Health Survey, performed in 2007, in which they reported on health, annoyance reactions and environmental factors. Questionnaire data on self-reported doctor′s diagnosis of hypertension and/or CVD were used as outcomes. Exposure was assessed as Traffic Load (millions of vehicle kilometres per year within 500 m around each participant′s residential address. For a sub-population (n = 2498, we also assessed road traffic and railway noise in L den at the dwelling façade. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess Prevalence Odds Ratios (POR and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. No statistically significant associations were found between Traffic Load and self-reported hypertension or CVD. In the sub-population, there was no association between road traffic noise and the outcomes; however, an increased risk of CVD was suggested among subjects exposed to railway noise ≥50 dB(A; POR 1.55 (95% CI 1.00-2.40. Neither Traffic Load nor road traffic noise was, in this study, associated with self-reported cardiovascular outcomes. However, there was a borderline-significant association between railway noise and CVD. The lack of association for road traffic may be due to methodological limitations.

  8. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  9. Economic burden of stroke in a large county in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Josefine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke remains to be a major burden of disease, often causing death or physical impairment or disability. This paper estimates the economic burden of stroke in a large county of 1.5 million inhabitants in western Sweden. Methods The economic burden of stroke was estimated from a societal perspective with an incidence approach. Data were collected from clinical registries and 3,074 patients were included. In the cost calculations, both direct and indirect costs were estimated and were based on costs for 12 months after a first-ever stroke. Results The total excess costs in the first 12 months after the first-ever stroke for a population of 1.5 million was 629 million SEK (€69 million. Men consumed more acute care in hospitals, whereas women consumed more rehabilitation and long-term care provided by the municipalities. Younger patients brought a significantly higher burden on society compared with older patients due to the loss of productivity and the increased use of resources in health care. Conclusions The results of this cost-of-illness study were based on an improved calculation process in a number of fields and are consistent with previous studies. In essence, 50% of costs for stroke care fall on acute care hospital, 40% on rehabilitation and long-time care and informal care and productivity loss explains 10% of total cost for the stroke disease. The result of this study can be used for further development of the methods for economic analyses as well as for analysis of improvements and investments in health care.

  10. Death, Dying and Bereavement in Norway and Sweden in Recent Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Gustavsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of my research projects examines pictorial symbols and epitaphs on gravestones in Norway and Sweden. The focus has been on the 1990s and the 2000s. The choice of this period is motivated by the fact that new national burial laws were adopted in both countries in the early 1990s. These laws provided the next of kin with the possibility of choosing memorial symbols and inscriptions more freely than had previously been the case. To judge from the data under study, individual symbols have gained popularity, especially in Sweden, while Norway has been more faithful to earlier traditions of a collective character; moreover, secular motifs are more manifest on the gravestones in Sweden than in Norway. Another research project analyses memorial websites on the Internet related to persons who have died in recent years. The all-inclusive issue in these studies concerns mourners’ expressions of their emotions and beliefs regarding the deceased person’s afterlife, that is, beliefs in after-death existence. Belief in the deceased being somewhere in heaven is common. Belief in angels is also a popular concept in memorial websites. Moreover, in Sweden, this includes deceased pets as well. The previously strictly observed distinction between humans and pets has become indiscernible in Sweden. Norwegian practice, however, remains critical towards this type of “humanlike characterization”. In Norway, memorial websites for the deceased are generally associated with more traditional Christian concepts than are similar sites in Sweden. By contrast, in Sweden, one observes a kind of diffuse religiosity reminiscent of New Age ways of thinking, according to which the individual plays the central role, and glorification of afterlife existence prevails. Secularization, that is, a decline in the influence of traditional forms of religious experience, is conspicuously more prominent in Sweden. Within the project on memorial websites, I have performed a special

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains potentially involved in the TB epidemic in Sweden a century ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Groenheit

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: A hundred years ago the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB in Sweden was one of the highest in the world. In this study we conducted a population-based search for distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated from patients born in Sweden before 1945. Many of these isolates represent the M. tuberculosis complex population that fueled the TB epidemic in Sweden during the first half of the 20(th century. METHODS: Genetic relationships between strains that caused the epidemic and present day strains were studied by spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: The majority of the isolates from the elderly population were evolutionary recent Principal Genetic Group (PGG2/3 strains (363/409 or 88.8%, and only a low proportion were ancient PGG1 strains (24/409 or 5.9%. Twenty-two were undefined. The isolates demonstrated a population where the Euro-American superlineage dominated; in particular with Haarlem (41.1% and T (37.7% spoligotypes and only 21.2% belonged to other spoligotype families. Isolates from the elderly population clustered much less frequently than did isolates from a young control group population. CONCLUSIONS: A closely knit pool of PGG2/3 strains restricted to Sweden and its immediate neighbours appears to have played a role in the epidemic, while PGG1 strains are usually linked to migrants in todaýs Sweden. Further studies of these outbreak strains may give indications of why the epidemic waned.

  12. Expansion of spatial and host range of Puumala virus in Sweden: an increasing threat for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, O; Wille, M; Kjellander, P; Bergvall, U A; Lindgren, P-E; Chirico, J; Lundkvist, Å

    2017-06-01

    Hantaviruses are globally distributed and cause severe human disease. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is the most common species in Northern Europe, and the only hantavirus confirmed to circulate in Sweden, restricted to the northern regions of the country. In this study, we aimed to further add to the natural ecology of PUUV in Sweden by investigating prevalence, and spatial and host species infection patterns. Specifically, we wanted to ascertain whether PUUV was present in the natural reservoir, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) further south than Dalälven river, in south-central Sweden, and whether PUUV can be detected in other rodent species in addition to the natural reservoir. In total, 559 animals were collected at Grimsö (59°43'N; 15°28'E), Sala (59°55'N; 16°36'E) and Bogesund (59°24'N; 18°14'E) in south-central Sweden between May 2013 and November 2014. PUUV ELISA-reactive antibodies were found both in 2013 (22/295) and in 2014 (18/264), and nine samples were confirmed as PUUV-specific by focus reduction neutralization test. Most of the PUUV-specific samples were from the natural host, the bank vole, but also from other rodent hosts, indicating viral spill-over. Finally, we showed that PUUV is present in more highly populated central Sweden.

  13. Recommodification, Unemployment, and Health Inequalities: Trends in England and Sweden 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrants, Kristin; Bambra, Clare; Nylen, Lotta; Kasim, Adetayo; Burstrom, Bo; Hunter, David

    2016-01-01

    Recommodification, the withdrawal of social welfare, has been going on for some decades in both Sweden and England. Recommodification disproportionately affects the unemployed because of their weak market position. We investigated the impact recommodification has had on health inequalities between the employed and unemployed in Sweden and England. Using national surveys, odds ratios for the likelihood of reporting less than good health between the employed and unemployed were computed annually between 1991 and 2011. The correlation between these odds ratios and net replacement rates was then examined. Health inequalities between the employed and unemployed were greater in 2011 than in 1991 in both countries. Sweden began with smaller health inequalities, but by 2011, they were in line with those in England. Sweden experienced more recommodification than England during this period, although it started from a much less commodified position. Correspondingly, correlation between unemployment benefit generosity and health inequalities was stronger in Sweden than in England. Recommodification is linked to ill health among the unemployed and to the health gap between the employed and unemployed. We propose that further recommodification will be associated with increased health inequalities between the employed and unemployed. © IMechE 2016.

  14. Non-heart-beating donation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-de-Antonio, David; Varela, Andres

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe our protocol of non-heart-beating-donor (NHBD) lung transplantation and discuss data regarding the situation of NHBD and lung transplantation in Spain. Experimental work regarding NHBD led our National Organization of Transplants to develop several working groups with the objective of investigating the possibility of using uncontrolled NHBD in our country. This turned into a flexible and useful legal mechanism that allowed immediate judicial permission to preserve-and harvest-those organs. Several harvesting programs for mainly abdominal organs (kidney and liver) started in Spain during the late 1980s, with good mid-term results. The collaboration between two hospitals in Madrid-Hospital Clinico San Carlos and Hospital Puerta de Hierro as transplantation hospital-led to the development of a successful NHBD lung program for uncontrolled donors that is a pioneer in the world. In Spain, donation after cardiac arrest represents 6.7% of all transplants, mainly from types I (dead on arrival) and II (unsuccessful resuscitation) donors. NHBD for lung transplantation is concentrated in Madrid, with approximately 60 potential NHBDs per year. With this additional source of organs we have so far been able to perform 32 lung transplantations, which represents an increase of 13% of our annual transplantation rates. NHBD is no longer just a promising source of organs for lung transplantations, it is a real one. We hope that in the near future many other units will develop similar protocols to improve the use of these grafts and decrease the mortality rate among those on the waiting lists.

  15. Uneven chances of breastfeeding in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Río Isabel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No large scale studies on breastfeeding onset patterns have been carried out in Spain. This work aims to explore the prevalence and the risk factors for not initiating breastfeeding in hospitals from Catalonia (CAT and Valencia (V, two regions accounting approximately for 30% of the annual births in Spain. Methods The prevalence of not initiating breastfeeding was calculated by maternal/neonatal characteristics and type of hospital, and logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted risks of not breastfeeding in each region. Results Prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 81.7% and 82.5% in Catalonia and Valencia, respectively. We identified conspicuous regional differences in the adjusted-risk of not breastfeeding, especially for multiple [CAT = 3.12 (95% CI: 2.93, 3.31, V = 2.44 (95% CI: 2.23, 2.67] and preterm and low birth weight deliveries [very preterm and very low birth weight: CAT = 7.61 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.92, V = 4.03 (95% CI: 3.13, 5.19; moderate preterm and moderate low birth weight: CAT = 4.28 (95% CI: 4.01, 4.57, V = 2.55 (95% CI:2.34, 2.79]. Conclusions Our results suggest the existence of regional variations in breastfeeding initiation in Spain. Taking into account the known short and long-term benefits of breastfeeding it is recommended that further research should explore these differences in order to prevent potential inequities in neonatal, child and adult health.

  16. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  17. Infant botulism in Andalusia (Southern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Laso, Eduardo; Roncero-Sánchez-Cano, Inés; Arce-Portillo, Elena; Ley-Martos, Myriam; Aguirre-Rodríguez, Javier; García-Ron, Adrián; Mora-Navarro, David; Méndez-García, Mario; Camino-León, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    Infant botulism (IB) is caused by the intestinal colonization by Clostridium botulinum in the first year of life and its subsequent production of neurotoxins. Traditionally, IB has been associated to honey consumption. IB cases tend to cluster in geographic regions. In Europe, IB is a rare disorder. From 1976 through 2006, 65 cases were identified in 13 European countries. In Spain, in the last 15 years, most of the cases have been reported in one region, Andalusia (Southern Spain). A specific treatment for IB type A and type B (BabyBIG) is available outside of the United States since 2005. and aims: We performed a retrospective review of IB cases detected in Andalusia since 1997 and compare them with the cases of IB reported in Europe. We identified 11 confirmed cases of IB in Andalusia since 1997, and 14 cases in Spain. Nine out of 11 cases were detected since 2007; none of these infants had been exposed to honey consumption. One case in 1997 and another in 2000 were associated to honey. Two cases were treated with BabyBIG in 2007. In the period 2006-2012 the cases of IB reported in Europe were 54. We identified a considerable increase in the incidence of IB since 2006. A tendency to a reduction in the number of cases of IB linked to honey consumption has also been identified. An increase in the exposure to these bacteria from the environment could be presumed. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this treatable disorder. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  19. Radon in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A Martín; Pérez, J de la Torre; Sánchez, A B Ruano; Correa, F L Naranjo

    2012-05-01

    Indoor radon measurements are usually associated with housing. However, a typical person spends about one-third of the day at their workplace. A survey was made of radon levels in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain). More than 200 measurements were performed in some 130 firms and organizations of different sectors (urban wellness centres, spas, caves, mines, water management facilities, underground carparks, wine cellars, museums, etc.). Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. The results indicated the importance of performing this type of measurement because the exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Databases on disability and employment in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Rodríguez Álvarez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the different databases that allow us to obtain information about disability and employment in Spain. In general, each of them uses different variables to measure disability, giving rise to different rates of prevalence. From their different definitions, the strengths and weaknesses of each of them are shown to study the involvement of people with disabilities in the labour market. Furthermore, it is also suggested to use the Working Lives Longitudinal Sample as a source of information, since it allows examining various aspects of the employment of people with disabilities, especially those related to working conditions and career paths.

  1. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Everyday classroom assessment practices in science classrooms in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, María del Carmen; Jakobsson, Anders

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this study is to examine to what extent and in what ways science teachers practice assessment during classroom interactions in everyday activities in an upper-secondary school in Sweden. We are science teachers working now with a larger research project on assessment in science education that seeks to examine teachers' assessment practices in the upper-secondary school. Framing questions include: are teachers performing an integrated assessment of students' skills as the national curriculum mandates? If so, what do the instructional discourses look like in those situations and what are students' experiences regarding their agency on learning and assessment? We emphasize the social, cultural and historic character of assessment and sustain a situated character of learning instead of the notion that learning is "stored inside the head". Teacher led lessons in three science classrooms were video-recorded and analyzed by combining ethnographic and discourse methods of analysis. Both methods are appropriate to the theoretical foundation of our approach on learning and can give some answers to questions about how individuals interact socially, how their experience is passed on to next generations through language and how language use may reveal cultural changes in the studied context. Making the study of action in a classroom the focal point of sociocultural analysis supports the examination of assessment processes and identification of the social roles in which teachers and students are immersed. Such an approach requires observations of how teachers act in authentic teaching situations when they interact with their students in classroom making possible to observe negotiation processes, agencies when both teachers and students are involved in every-day activities. Our study showed that teachers mostly ignored students' questions and that students solved their own problems by helping each other. Teachers did not provide opportunities for students to discuss

  3. Preglacial surface remnants and Quaternary glacial regimes in northwestern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleman, Johan; Stroeven, Arjen P.

    1997-05-01

    We present a detailed map of the distribution of preglacial surface remnants in the Kebnekaise region of northwestern Sweden. In this mountain area we discern four important large-scale geomorphological units, each representing a specific set of erosional agents and formative conditions. These are: (i) intact preglacial surface remnants, characterized by gentle slopes, round summits, wide shallow valleys, and an absence of rock basins; (ii) preglacial surface remnants showing signs of minor glacial erosion and deposition; (iii) glacially scoured surfaces, including glacial troughs; (iv) deep fluvial valleys cut into the preglacial surface. The pattern of glacial erosion is explained as the result of three specific modes of glaciation known to have existed during the last 120,000 years, and inferred to have repeatedly prevailed during the last 2.75 million years: cirque glaciation, mountain ice sheets, and Fennoscandian ice sheets. A deep-ocean oxygen-isotope record of foraminifera from the North Atlantic (DSDP 607) was used to infer the temporal extent of these modes of glaciation during the last 2.75 million years. We interpret the preglacial landscape preservation and the pattern of glacial erosion in terms of the configuration, the basal thermal regime, and the duration of such glaciation events. The average subglacial thermal regime of both ice sheet types was frozen on the uplands and melting in the main valleys, where outlet glaciers and ice-streams formed. The pre-glacial landscape is best preserved at intermediate elevations, low enough not to have been covered by cirque glaciers, and apparently high enough not to have experienced melted-bed conditions and subglacial erosion during ice sheet overriding events. In a narrow high-relief zone along the elevation axis, interglacial fluvial erosion was morphologically important. The absence of glacial erosion on uplands in this zone allowed fluvial erosion to commence on the same locations during each ice

  4. {sup 137}Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: klas.rosen@mv.slu.se; Vinichuk, M. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Cherniakhovsky Str., 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Johanson, K.J. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    The vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs activity in peat soil profiles and {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m{sup -2}. In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of {sup 137}Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site {sup 137}Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr{sup -1} at the open bog site and the migration centre of {sup 137}Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr{sup -1} and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq{sup -1} DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. {sup 137}Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} DM at the low pine site.

  5. 78 FR 6222 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... released for entry into the United States. (f) NPPO of Spain inspection. Following any post-harvest... safeguarding and identification of the fruit; Inspection by the NPPO of Spain for Medfly; and ] Cold treatment... facilitate exports. The systems approach may require APHIS personnel to monitor treatments if they are...

  6. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  7. Autochthonous Nocardia cerradoensis Infection in Humans, Spain, 2011 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercibengoa, Maria; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia cerradoensis was first isolated in 2003 in the El Cerrado region of Brazil; since then, only 2 human infections, in France and Spain, have been reported. We describe 3 autochthonous cases in residents of Spain during 2011 and 2014. Together these cases support the idea of an emerging global pathogenic microorganism. PMID:26691545

  8. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  9. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  10. Source identification of autochthonous-introduced Plasmodium vivax Malaria, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrado, Laura; Ezpeleta, Carmen; Rubio, José Miguel; Martín, Carmen; Azcona, José Manuel; Arteaga, Miren; Beristain, Xabier; Navascués, Ana; Ongay, Eva; Castilla, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    In 2014, an autochthonous case of introduced malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax was identified in Spain. The strain that infected this patient was identical to that of a prior imported case from Pakistan. This is the first case where the source of infection could be identified since elimination in Spain.

  11. Education and Social Services for Disabled Persons in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermak, Gail D.

    1990-01-01

    Information about education and social services for Spain's disabled children and adults, with emphasis on the hearing-impaired population, is provided. An overview of Spain's demographic and historical background is followed by a broad discussion of policy, legislation, and health and welfare services. (Author/JDD)

  12. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  13. Jasmine and Lagarto: Pearse Hutchinson s Poetry of Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    ...; at the heart of this work is his poetry of Spain. From his first visit there in 1950 to today Hutchinson has been inspired by the landscapes, people and languages of Spain, translating from Catalan, Castilian and Galician and writing memorable poems...

  14. Best in class: Public finances in Sweden during the financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Michael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies why public finances in Sweden have remained very strong during the current financial crisis. Unlike almost all other European countries, Sweden has had budget surpluses and a government debt ratio around 40 percent of GDP during the recent crisis. We attribute this to two important factors. First, Sweden entered the crisis with strong public finances and second that unemployment did not rise as much as normally during recessions. The Swedish fiscal framework that was introduced after the banking crisis in the early 1990s with expenditure ceilings, a top-down budget process, balanced budget requirement for local governments has played an important role. We show that the behavior of budget deficits has changed significantly recently, from a deficit bias to a surplus bias. Aggregate demand remained strong during the crisis even though exports fell sharply. As unemployment in the manufacturing sector increased, it was to a large extent offset by increased employment in the service sector.

  15. Eugenics and racial biology in Sweden and the USSR: contacts across the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudling, Per Anders

    2014-01-01

    The 1920s saw a significant exchange between eugenicists in Sweden and the young Soviet state. Sweden did not take part in World War I, and during the years following immediately upon the Versailles peace treaty, Swedish scholars came to serve as an intermediary link between, on the one hand, Soviet Russia and Weimar Germany, and, on the other hand, Western powers. Swedish eugenicists organized conferences, lecture tours, visits, scholarly exchanges, and transfers and translation of eugenic research. Herman Lundborg, the director of the world's first State Institute of Racial Biology, was an old-fashioned, deeply conservative, and anti-communist "scientific" racist, who somewhat paradoxically came to serve as something of a Western liaison for Soviet eugenicists. Whereas the contacts were disrupted in 1930, Swedish eugenicists had a lasting impact on Soviet physical anthropologists, who cited their works well into the 1970s, long after they had been discredited in Sweden.

  16. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tysen E

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91, followed by S. Dublin (n = 82. There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97.

  17. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    : More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level......: In 2000, two cross-sectional samples of 8562 public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark were surveyed. The study outcome, self-reported number of sick-leave days the year preceding interview, was dichotomized into 7 days or less, and more than 7 days. Chi square test was used to analyse distribution......AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS...

  18. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boqvist, S; Hansson, I; Nord Bjerselius, U; Hamilton, C; Wahlström, H; Noll, B; Tysen, E; Engvall, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91), followed by S. Dublin (n = 82). There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97. PMID:15074631

  19. Salmonella isolated from animals and feed production in Sweden between 1993 and 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boqvist, S; Hansson, I; Nord Bjerselius, U; Hamilton, C; Wahlström, H; Noll, B; Tysen, E; Engvall, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Ofthose, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91), followed by S. Dublin (n = 82). There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993-97.

  20. The economic and environmental impacts of biofuel taxes on heating plants in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, R.; Kristroem, B.; Sisask, A.

    1998-12-31

    Sweden`s energy policy is currently based on a large-scale introduction of biofuels. Following a 1980 nuclear power referendum, the current plan is to phase out nuclear power, replacing nuclear energy with renewable energy sources. This policy is supported by various tax breaks for biofuels. There is an ongoing discussion about a restructuring of the energy tax system, which will have far-reaching impact on the markets for biofuels. This paper evaluates the impact of changes in current energy taxation by analyzing a panel of approximately 150 district heating plants in Sweden. We estimate plant-specific production functions and derive the economic repercussions of the tax. We also estimate the resulting changes of emissions of sulfur, NOX and particulates and assess the externality costs Arbetsrapport 258. 6 refs, 4 figs, 11 tabs

  1. Sustained yield forestry in Sweden and Russia: how does it correspond to sustainable forest management policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Marine; Andersson, Kjell; Angelstam, Per; Armstrong, Glen W; Axelsson, Robert; Doyon, Frederik; Hermansson, Martin; Jacobsson, Jonas; Pautov, Yurij

    2013-03-01

    This paper analyzes how sustained yield (SY) forestry is defined and implemented in Sweden and Russia, two countries with different forest-industrial regimes. We first compare definitions of SY forestry in national legislation and policies. Then we study forest management planning in two large forest management units with respect to: delivered forest products and values, how the harvest level of timber is defined, where the harvest takes place, and what treatments are used to sustain desired forest products and values. In Sweden SY forestry is maximum yield based on high-input forest management, and in Russia it is forestry based on natural regeneration with minimum investments in silviculture. We conclude that how SY forestry contributes to SFM depends on the context. Finally, we discuss the consequences of SY forestry as performed in Sweden and Russia related to its ability to support diverse forest functions, as envisioned in sustainable forest management policy.

  2. Massive genomic variation and strong selection in Arabidopsis thaliana lines from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Alexander; Zhang, Qingrun; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Korte, Arthur; Nizhynska, Viktoria; Voronin, Viktor; Korte, Pamela; Sedman, Laura; Mandáková, Terezie; Lysak, Martin A; Seren, Ümit; Hellmann, Ines; Nordborg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in sequencing, the goal of obtaining a comprehensive view of genetic variation in populations is still far from reached. We sequenced 180 lines of A. thaliana from Sweden to obtain as complete a picture as possible of variation in a single region. Whereas simple polymorphisms in the unique portion of the genome are readily identified, other polymorphisms are not. The massive variation in genome size identified by flow cytometry seems largely to be due to 45S rDNA copy number variation, with lines from northern Sweden having particularly large numbers of copies. Strong selection is evident in the form of long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD), as well as in LD between nearby compensatory mutations. Many footprints of selective sweeps were found in lines from northern Sweden, and a massive global sweep was shown to have involved a 700-kb transposition. PMID:23793030

  3. Evaluation of Strategies to Control a Potential Outbreak of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Nöremark, Maria; Widgren, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    To minimize the potential consequences of an introduction of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe, European Union (EU) member states are required to present a contingency plan. This study used a simulation model to study potential outbreak scenarios in Sweden and evaluate the best control...... of enforcement of interventions, was assessed. With the estimated currently available resources, an FMD outbreak in Sweden is expected to be controlled (i.e., last infected herd detected) within 3 weeks of detection in any evaluated scenario. The density of farms in the area where the epidemic started would have...... efficacy of the basic control measures evaluated, under the conditions of the Swedish livestock industry, and considering the assumed control resources available. The results indicate that the duration and extent of FMD outbreaks could be kept limited in Sweden using the EU standard control strategy...

  4. Recent hip fracture trends in Sweden and Denmark with age-period-cohort effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengren, B E; Björk, J; Cooper, C

    2017-01-01

    born thereafter however seem to have a higher hip fracture risk, and we expect a reversal of the present decline in rates, with increasing hip fracture rates in both Denmark and Sweden during the upcoming decade. CONCLUSIONS: Time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in SE and DK. This may......This study used nationwide hip fracture data from Denmark and Sweden during 1987-2010 to examine effects of (birth) cohort and period. We found that time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in the two countries. Results also indicated that hip fracture rates may increase in the not so...... far future. INTRODUCTION: The reasons for the downturn in hip fracture rates remain largely unclear but circumstances earlier in life seem important. METHODS: We ascertained hip fractures in the populations ≥50 years in Denmark and Sweden in national discharge registers. Country- and sex-specific age...

  5. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  6. Cancer Mortality by Country of Birth, Sex, and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden, 1961–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth. PMID:24682217

  7. Social stratification in the dissemination of statins after stroke in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölander, Maria; Eriksson, Marie; Glader, Eva-Lotta

    2013-05-01

    Since 2005, statins have been recommended to patients with ischaemic stroke. The objective of this study was to analyse how statin treatment has been disseminated in different patient groups (age, sex, socioeconomic status and country of birth) in Sweden between 2004 and 2009. The Swedish Stroke Register (Riks-Stroke) has been linked to the Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labour Market Studies. Approximately 85 % of stroke patients in Sweden are included in Riks-Stroke. Odds ratios for statin prescribing were calculated using a multivariable logistic regression model including age, sex, socioeconomic status and risk factors. During the study period, 108,950 ischaemic stroke patients were discharged alive from hospital. The proportion with statins at discharge increased from 32.9 % in 2004 to 60.1 % in 2009. Patients with secondary school or university education had slightly higher odds [odds ratio (OR) 1.07, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.11 and OR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.10 respectively] than patients with primary school education. Patients on a high income were prescribed more statins than those on a low income (OR 1.24, 95 % CI 1.19-1.28). Compared with patients born in Sweden, patients born in other countries were prescribed more statins (Nordic countries excepting Sweden: OR 1.07, 95 % CI 1.01-1.14; Europe: OR 1.31, 95 % CI 1.22-1.40; Outside Europe: OR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.08-1.34). Statin prescribing after ischaemic stroke has increased from 2004 to 2009. Our results also show a social stratification in the dissemination of statins, with patients having a higher income and patients with higher education receiving statins more often than those with a lower income and education, and patients born in Sweden receiving statins less often than those born outside of Sweden.

  8. Biology curriculum in twentieth-century Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, Óscar; Zanón, Beatriz; Pérez-Pl, José Francisco

    1999-01-01

    One hundred years of history of Spanish biology curricula are reviewed in this article. The aim of this analysis is focused on the relationship between socially controversial biological issues and the decisionmaking procedures in the construction of the national curricula published under the different regimes that have governed Spain over the last 100 years. The study covers the secondary level of schooling (age 10 up to university), and is based mainly on the data afforded by the official publications of the nine national curricula in twentieth-century Spain, and some of the main textbooks used for this schooling level. Special attention is given to the teaching of evolution, the most sensitive issue in biology education, and some parallelisms are traced and compared with similar phenomena occurring in other countries. The new trends in biology education from the last reform of the Spanish education system are briefly discussed. This study provides a perspective of the pressures affecting socially controversial issues included in education. These pressures have been identified mainly as political, social, and religious beliefs held by powerful and influential social groups, the same kinds of forces that have existed in other countries worldwide. Studies such as this one, about the real forces that have shaped curriculum development in the past, are vital for understanding the present circumstances in biology education and, therefore, unavoidable in order to enhance future standards in biology education.

  9. CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY IN SPAIN: PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of legal psychology, as it is understood in Spain, we can distinguish between the applications of psychology in the different steps of the judicial process: in police stations during criminal investigations, in court when the perpetrators have already been identified and arrested, and in prisons where they are eventually sent after being convicted. This paper argues that when psychology assists the criminal investigation in the first step of the judicial process - the police activities-, we are talking about criminal psychology, at two levels: the operational level (mostly pertaining to criminal psychology and the strategic level (shared with other areas of expertise. After describing its peculiarities and specific areas, in analogy with the support provided by other forensic sciences, we explain that in Spain this specialty is carried out professionally from within our own police forces, with a profile that is very different from the more traditional police psychology, and in close collaboration with the academic environment with regard to the scientific development of techniques and procedures.

  10. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden...... and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems...

  11. Highly Pathogenic Leptospira Found in Urban Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Largest Cities of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tanja M; Löhmus, Mare; Persson Vinnersten, Thomas; Råsbäck, Therese; Sundström, Karin; Bergström, Tomas; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-12-01

    Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis of global concern; however, its contemporary occurrence in Sweden, a European country partly located north of the Arctic Circle, is poorly known. Four out of 30 brown rats, captured within urban districts in Sweden, were found to be positive for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. This serovar causes Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage. Our study is the first finding of this highly pathogenic serovar in Swedish rats since the 1930s.

  12. Different patient-reported outcomes in immigrants and patients born in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupic, Ferid; Garellick, Göran; Gordon, Max; Kärrholm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Some patients have persistent symptoms after total hip arthroplsty (THA). We investigated whether the proportions of inferior clinical results after total hip arthroplasty—according to the 5 dimensions in the EQ-5D form, and pain and satisfaction according to a visual analog scale (VAS)—are the same in immigrants to Sweden as observed in those born in Sweden. Methods Records of total hip arthroplasties performed between 1992 and 2007 were retrieved from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register (SHAR) and cross-matched with data from the National Board of Health and Welfare and also Statistics, Sweden. 18,791 operations (1,451 in immigrants, 7.7%) were eligible for analysis. Logistic and linear regression models including age, sex, diagnosis, type of fixation, comorbidity, surgical approach, marital status, and education level were analyzed. Outcomes were the 5 dimensions in EQ-5D, EQ-VAS, VAS pain, and VAS satisfaction. Preoperative data and data from 1 year postoperatively were studied. Results Preoperatively (and after inclusion of covariates in the regression models), all immigrant groups had more negative interference concerning self-care. Immigrants from the Nordic countries outside Sweden and Europe tended to have more problems with their usual activities and patients from Europe and outside Europe more often reported problems with anxiety/depression. Patients born abroad showed an overall tendency to report more pain on the VAS than patients born in Sweden. After the operation, the immigrant groups reported more problems in all the EQ-5D dimensions. After adjustment for covariates including the preoperative baseline value, most of these differences remained except for pain/discomfort and—concerning immigrants from the Nordic countries—also anxiety/depression. After the operation, pain according to VAS had decreased substantially in all groups. The immigrant groups indicated more pain than those born in Sweden, both before and

  13. Early chilhood education in Sweden : the market curriculum 200-2013?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina O’Dowd

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood education in Sweden has long had an international reputation for being a systemic and integrated approach to children’s needs, a family model of preschool centers and an interest in the holistic development and well-being of children. However, traces of this reputable past are hard to discern today as the neo-liberal agenda for education that is infl uencing education around the world has impacted Sweden. The changes in Sweden, however, have successively occurred since the 1980s, due to the failure of the Swedish economy to provide the necessary surplus to support the extensive social and welfare reforms that previously gave Sweden its international reputation. The effects of the neo-liberal agenda along with the reforms implemented by the Social Democratic government and the Conservative government have had and continue to have an impact on early childhood education in Sweden. As more and more governments are faced with economic problems, the case of Sweden and the measures taken by both the Social Democrats and the Conservative parties over the last few decades make a study of the Swedish reforms of early childhood education relevant and interesting for other countries. In this article early childhood education in Sweden will be presented and discussed from a historical and a conceptual perspective, focusing on its objectives and features and explaining the shifts make by political parties vis-à-vis early childhood education in Sweden.La Educación Infantil en Suecia ha tenido una gran reputación internacional, por tratarse de una aproximación sistémica e integrada a las necesidades de los niños, un modelo familiar de centros prescolares y por su interés en el desarrollo holístico e integral de los niños. Los cambios recientes acaecidos en la educación en Europa y en otros lugares, junto con las reformas emprendidas por el gobierno conservador que ha estado en el poder desde 2006 en Suecia han tenido y contin

  14. Constructing or Rejecting the Notion of the Other in University Management: The Cases of Ireland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Pat; Goransson, Anita

    2015-01-01

    We focus on gender stereotypes in West European university management by comparing two countries: Sweden and Ireland. In secular Sweden there are strong policies that are implemented at all political levels supported by the public discourse; while in Ireland such measures are few and the equality infrastructures and discourse have been weakened by…

  15. How the Girl Choosing Technology Became the Symbol of the Non-Traditional Pupil's Choice in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate how the girl who chooses technology came to be the symbol of the non-traditional pupil's choice in Sweden. In the early 1960s it was hoped that girls would enter workshop training and then commit themselves to engineering mechanics jobs at a time when Sweden was characterised by economic growth which was…

  16. Standardisation and "Quick Languages": The Shape-Shifting of Standardised Measurement of Pupil Achievement in Sweden and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Christian; Waldow, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the entry of standardised measurement into the educational systems of Sweden and Germany and the processes of shape-shifting associated with this process. In the first part of the article, we investigate how standardised measurement challenged existing ways of conceiving education in Sweden and Germany during the first half…

  17. The Fate of Hydrocarbon Pollution in Kebnekaise, Arctic Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosqvist, G. N.; Jarjso, J.; Clason, C.; Jansson, P.; Karlin, T.

    2013-12-01

    A C-130J-30 Super Hercules plane crashed into the west-facing wall of the Kebnekaise mountain (2103 m), Arctic Sweden, on March 15th 2012. When starting from Evenes, Narvik, Norway, the aircraft had 14100 l fuel, 50 l hydraulic oil and 170 l motor oil onboard. Best estimates are that at least 12 000 l of fuel was sprayed over the mountain most of which was buried together with the wreck in a huge snow avalanche that was triggered by the impact in a NW facing cirque on Rabots glacier between ca 1600 and 2000 m. Fuel decontamination was not possible because of the extreme impact site conditions. The Hercules airplane was fueled with JET A-1 which is a hydrocarbon product in the Kerosene/Jet Fuel category consisting of sweetened kerosene and hydrotreated light distillates. The major components of all 'kerosene's' are branched- and straight-chain paraffins and naphthenes (cycloparaffins or cycloalkanes), which normally account for 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons, such as alkyl benzenes (single ring) and alkylnaphthalenes (double ring) do not exceed 25 % by volume of kerosene. The fuel also contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), but in very small volumes compared to the major components. The physical and chemical properties of each component (or block) of the hydrocarbon mixture influence its migration rate and fate. Some components of the fuel will volatilize, some are soluble in water but the vast majority are non-soluble. Although the solubility of these so called Light Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) in water is small they are highly toxic. We need to consider transport of the soluble components of the LNAPL in the melt-water, and transport of the non-soluble components with the melt-water system. Transport and storage can occur through and in snow (or firn), crevasses, and cavities on, in or under the glacier. Storage in, and contamination of, basal sediments, located below the glacier, or pro-glacial sediments, in front of the glacier are also

  18. [Mortality related with alcohol in Spain and the different Autonomous Communities of Spain in 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, I; Ochoa, R; Yáñez, J L; Valderrama, J C; Alvarez, F J

    2008-10-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with great morbidity-mortality rate. The aim of this study is to analyze the mortality that can be attributed to alcohol consumption in Spain and in its different Autonomous Communities during 2004. The records of deaths by cause of death were used, grouped by age, gender and 60 diagnostic categories. The number of deaths attributable to alcohol consumption according to gender and age group in 2004 for Spain and the different Autonomous Communities was calculated by means of the alcohol attributable fractions proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for calculating the mortality rates in the U.S.A. in 2001. The raw and adjusted mortality rates attributable to alcohol per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated with respect to the European population standard. Alcohol-related mortality in Spain was 2.3%; 3.2% for men and 1.2% for women. The Community of Murcia, with a mortality rate of 2.9%, together with those of Andalusia, the Canary Islands, the Basque Country and Asturias, had the highest rates of mortality attributable to alcohol in 2004. The highest adjusted mortality rates attributable to alcohol were found in Asturias, Murcia, Galicia and the Basque Country. In the different Autonomous Communities of Spain, alcohol consumption is an important cause of death. This information is of use for identifying priorities and to evaluate intervention programs. Chronic causes, in general, have a greater weight in mortality rates than acute causes, disease of the digestive system having the highest rate of contribution.

  19. Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak in Murcia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Carmen; Fenoll, Daniel; García, José; González-Diego, Paulino; Jiménez-Buñuales, Teresa; Rodriguez, Miguel; Lopez, Rosa; Pacheco, Francisco; Ruiz, Joaquín; Segovia, Manuel; Baladrón, Beatriz; Pelaz, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    An explosive outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease occurred in Murcia, Spain, in July 2001. More than 800 suspected cases were reported; 449 of these cases were confirmed, which made this the world’s largest outbreak of the disease reported to date. Dates of onset for confirmed cases ranged from June 26 to July 19 , with a case-fatality rate of 1%. The epidemic curve and geographic pattern from the 600 completed epidemiologic questionnaires indicated an outdoor point-source exposure in the northern part of the city. A case-control study matching 85 patients living outside the city of Murcia with two controls each was undertaken to identify the outbreak source; the epidemiologic investigation implicated the cooling towers at a city hospital. An environmental isolate from these towers with an identical molecular pattern as the clinical isolates was subsequently identified and supported that epidemiologic conclusion. PMID:12967487

  20. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Spain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of Granada jointly organised a course called "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" in Granada, Spain, from 28 October to 9 November, 2012.   The course attracted over 200 applicants, of whom 139 were selected to attend. The students were of 25 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, China, Guatemala and India. The intensive programme comprised 38 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the students was very positive, praising the expertise of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. CERN's Director-General, Rolf Heuer, gave a public lecture at the Parque de las Ciencias entitled "The Large Hadron Collider: Unveiling the Universe". In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity to visit the well...

  1. Food-related life style in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    food consumers, however, they are also very conservative, both in their choice and use of food. 3. Spanish food consumers can be divided into five segments, which differ both in the way they use food and in the importance it has for their attainment of central life values. The segments can only...... of importance to the social role of food. 5. The conservative food consumers constitute 26% of the population. Security is an important purchasing motive for these food consumers, which is reflected in the fact that they only buy familiar products, and cook and eat food traditionally. Apart from this......Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European...

  2. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez G.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.

  3. [Imported dengue: an emerging arbovirosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Geldres, T T; García López-Hortelano, M; Baquero-Artigao, F; Montero Vega, D; López Quintana, B; Mellado Peña, M J

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is caused by one of 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Only imported cases have been reported in Spain. The main clinical findings are fever and exanthema, although there may be severe forms, particularly in secondary infections. Five children with a primary, non severe dengue infection are presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical suspicion and epidemiological history, and confirmed by immunochromatography and ELISA tests. The outcome was favourable in all cases. It is important to consider this diagnosis in international travellers that present with fever within the 14 days of returning from an endemic area, in order to get an early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a good prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Media Speech about Youth in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alcoceba

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the media treatment of young people in Spain. Besides, we offer some tools to help media editors and journalists to be more impartial in information about youth. The research held a media content analysis (three months in 2006, for newspapers, radio and TV and a qualitative speech analysis (for a reduce number of news in newspapers, radio and TV. From first analysis, we noticed that most news about youth are related with difficult, problematic and controversial circumstances. The main recommendation of this study is for the responsible of media: to understand young people in diversity, with functions and capabilities to change social life.

  5. SECOND EVALUATION OF TESTS PUBLISHED IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ponsoda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of the second evaluation of psychological tests published in Spain. The Official Association of Psychologists Testing Committee decided that 12 tests, selected mainly because they were innovative and widely used, should be assessed. Each test was evaluated by two experts. As in the first evaluation (Muñiz, Fernández-Hermida, Fonseca-Pedrero, Campillo-Álvarez and Peña-Suárez, 2011, the evaluators’ work was done by responding to the questions on the Questionnaire for Test Evaluation (Prieto and Muñiz, 2000, which adapts the model prepared by the European Federation of Professional Psychologist Associations to the Spanish context. Each test was evaluated for quality of materials and documentation, score reliability, coverage of validation studies, quality of scales, etc. The reviewers also reported on the suitability of the instrument and the evaluation process and made suggestions that might be useful to improve future assessments.

  6. Understanding parental gender preferences in advanced societies: Lessons from Sweden and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Vikat

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Extending recent research on parental gender preferences in the Nordic countries, this study uses unique register data from Finland and Sweden (1971-1999 that provide us with the opportunity to compare childbearing dynamics and possible underlying sex preferences among natives and national minorities, namely Finnish-born immigrants in Sweden and members of the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. Moreover, our Swedish data allow us to investigate regional and educational differences in child-sex specific fertility behavior of two-child mothers in 1981-1999. For Finland, we observe a continuous boy preference among the national majority and the Swedish-speaking minority as reflected in higher third-birth rates of mothers of two girls than of mothers of two boys. Evidence of similar preferences is found for Finnish-born migrants in Sweden, where the native-born population appears to have developed a girl preference, though. In all cases, we also observe clear indications of a preference for having at least one child of each sex. Generally speaking, our findings support an interpretation of parental gender preferences as a longstanding cultural phenomenon, related to country of childhood socialization rather than language group. Our analysis of regional and educational differentials in Sweden reveals no evidence which supports diffusion theories of persistence and change in parents' sex preferences for children.

  7. Voices of Authority in Conflict: The Making of the Expert in a Language Debate in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Tommaso M.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate an aspect of a recent public debate about bilingual education in Sweden. Focusing on the textual exchanges between some of the academics who intervened in the debate in the columns of one of the leading Swedish dailies, "Dagens Nyheter," the paper will draw upon performativity theory to argue that…

  8. Studies on obesity in Chinese children in Beijing and Chinese adults in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Greiner T. Studies on obesity in Chinese children in Beijing and Chinese adults in Sweden. Presentation to international seminar on “Functional evaluation of food and food ingredients.” Chonbok National University Hospital and Clinical Trial Center for Functional Foods. Korea University, Seoul, February 27, 2009.

  9. Intercultural Education in Sweden through the Lenses of the National Minorities and of Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bromssen, Kerstin; Olgac, Christina Rodell

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss two perspectives in relation to intercultural education and diversity in Sweden. One of the perspectives concerns the historical and current situation of the five Swedish national minorities with a special focus on education. The second perspective is related to religious diversity and education, as connected to…

  10. New Mothers' Employment and Public Policy in the UK, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjoh, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between family-friendly policies and women's employment after birth of the first child in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Japan in the 1980s and the 1990s. Our econometric analyses use household panel data from each of the five countries: BHPS, GSOEP,

  11. Youth Athletes, Bodies and Gender: Gender Constructions in Textbooks Used in Coaching Education Programmes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on analyses of ideas about girls and boys in sports as they are presented in textbooks used in coaching education programmes in Sweden. Specifically, it explores gender in relation to descriptions of girls' and boys' bodies and bodily development during puberty. Texts construct gender differences. Masculinity is shaped around…

  12. Neighborhood Social Influence and Welfare Receipt in Sweden: A Panel Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mood, Carina

    2010-01-01

    This article places the choice to claim welfare benefits in a social context by studying how neighborhood welfare receipt affects welfare receipt among couples in Stockholm, Sweden. It is expected that the propensity to claim welfare should increase with welfare use in the neighborhood, primarily through stigma reduction and increasing…

  13. Psst, Have You Ever Cheated? A Study of Academic Dishonesty in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Kari

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that academic dishonesty is a prevalent problem that crosses all disciplines at the university level. But, how prevalent is it in Sweden? Little is published in the literature about lying, cheating, and plagiarism amongst Swedish university students. This paper focuses on the frequency of past specific academically dishonest…

  14. Declining Employment Assimilation of Immigrants in Sweden: Observed or Unobserved Characteristics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevelander, Pieter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    1999-01-01

    Focusing on Nordic and Yugoslavian immigrant males, we study the determinants of employment success of natives and immigrants in Sweden. Furthermore, we investigate the reasons behind the arising gap in employment success between Swedes and immigrants from 1970 to 1990. In a decomposition analysi...

  15. Improvements in logistics could increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömsöe, A; Afzelius, S; Axelsson, C; Södersved Källestedt, M L; Enlund, M; Svensson, L; Herlitz, J

    2013-06-01

    In a review based on estimations and assumptions, to report the estimated number of survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started and to speculate about possible future improvements in Sweden. An observational study. All ambulance organisations in Sweden. Patients included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry who suffered an OHCA between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. Approximately 80% of OHCA cases in Sweden in which CPR was started are included. None In 11 005 patients, the 1-month survival rate was 9.4%. There are approximately 5000 OHCA cases annually in which CPR is started and 30-day survival is achieved in up to 500 patients yearly (6 per 100 000 inhabitants). Based on findings on survival in relation to the time to calling for the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and the start of CPR and defibrillation, it was estimated that, if the delay from collapse to (i) calling EMS, (ii) the start of CPR, and (iii) the time to defibrillation were reduced to <2 min, <2 min, and <8 min, respectively, 300-400 additional lives could be saved. Based on findings relating to the delay to calling for the EMS and the start of CPR and defibrillation, we speculate that 300-400 additional OHCA patients yearly (4 per 100 000 inhabitants) could be saved in Sweden. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  16. The Proterozoic (1.85 Ga) Älvestorp Conglomerate, Bergslagen, Central Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; Beunk, F.F.

    2014-01-01

    The Älvestorp conglomerates, deposited in an alluvial fan setting, form part of the Svecofennian orogenic belt in west Bergslagen, south central Sweden and are estimated to be as old as c. 1.85 Ga. Reaching a thickness of one kilometre, their architecture and form suggest an alluvial origin. Along

  17. Music Education--A Personal Matter? Examining the Current Discourses of Music Education in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgii-Hemming, Eva; Westvall, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The embedding of informal practices in music education in school relates to significant issues concerning students' engagement, participation, inclusion and the role of the teacher. This article addresses these issues by presenting and discussing current music education in compulsory comprehensive schooling in Sweden. It does so by drawing upon…

  18. Organization and overall job satisfaction among publicly employed, salaried dentists in Sweden and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordell, Sven; Söderfeldt, Björn; Hjalmers, Karin; Berthelsen, Hanne; Bergström, Kamilla

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden and Denmark, clinical dentistry is changing and public dentistry is in transition towards more market orientation. Dentists' overall job satisfaction is important for how public dentistry can fulfil the new expectations from patients, the public and politicians. The aim of this study was to investigate what organizational factors were important for publicly employed salaried dentists' overall job satisfaction. A random sample of active, general dental practitioners (private and publicly employed) was selected in Denmark and in Sweden, and they received a postal questionnaire. The number of questionnaires was 1835 and the response rate was 68% (n = 1226). This study analysed only the publicly employed dentists. The sampling frame for the Swedish dentists was 431, response rate 68.9% (n = 297) and for the Danish ones 194, response rate 81.9% (n = 159). Multivariate regression was used with overall job satisfaction as a dependent variable. Common organizational variables were important. The used model explained between 32% (Sweden) and 39% (Denmark) of the variance in overall job satisfaction. The only significant individual factor was less job satisfaction for Swedish dentists born outside Sweden. An organizational climate characterized by a focus on professional values was associated with job satisfaction in both countries. Among the Swedish dentists, number of colleagues and degree of influence were also important and among the Danish ones sufficient time for patients. Organizational factors had an impact on salaried publicly employed dentists' overall job satisfaction in both countries. The findings may have implications for other Human Service Organizations with employed professionals.

  19. Clinical Physiology: A Successful Academic and Clinical Discipline is Threatened in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheden, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    Clinical physiologists in Sweden are physicians (the majority with a PhD degree) with thorough training in system physiology and pathophysiology. They investigate patients in a functional approach and are engaged in basic and applied physiology teaching and research. In 1954, clinical physiology was founded as an independent academic and clinical…

  20. Precarious Care Labor: Contradictory Work Regulations and Practices for Au Pairs in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terese Anving

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the rules and regulations relating to au pair work in Sweden, and how these rules correlate with au pairing practices. The precarious position of au pairs has been highlighted before, but in addition, au pairs coming to Sweden also find themselves in an unclear work situation due to contradictory rules and regulations. While au pairs from outside the EU must apply for a work permit that defines their work as cultural exchange, this regulation does not apply to EU au pairs. As a consequence, we currently see the emergence of an almost completely unregulated— and growing—market for au pairing in Sweden. Drawing on a qualitative study of the private child care market in Sweden, this paper analyzes rules and regulations for au pairing, as well as how au pair working conditions are understood, negotiated, and realized by employing parents, and au pairs themselves. This is analyzed in relation to theoretical elaborations of paid and unpaid work, as well as discussions of care as a practice where ‘work’ and ‘emotion’ is inherently intertwined.

  1. An Analysis of Wood Pellets For Export: A Case Study of Sweden as an Importer

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.B. Aruna; Jan G. Laarman; Philip A. Araman; Frederick Cubbage

    1997-01-01

    North America is a major producer of wood pellets, and the principal market for them is domestic residential wood heating. To date, the export market for wood pellets is small. On the other hand , several developments are occurring that may be increasing the foreign demand for biomass fuels. A few North American companies are considering Sweden as a potential export...

  2. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  3. Prospects for Finland and Sweden to Pursue Closer Defense Cooperation With NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    certain Member States. Commitments and cooperation in this area shall be consistent with commitments under the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation , which...In this attack Web defacements carrying political messages targeted websites of political parties, and government and commercial organisations ...NATO, further research, as well as a domestic consensus among the populations in Finland and Sweden, is warranted prior to membership application

  4. Performativity as Pretence: A Study of Testing Practices in a Compulsory School in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunneblad, Johannes; Carlsson, Maj Asplund

    2012-01-01

    Our aim in this article is to analyse the impact of the standardised test on classroom practices in grade 5 in a compulsory school in western Sweden. In our analysis, the use of the concept of the pedagogical device (Bernstein 1996) provides a framework for understanding how high-stakes, standardised testing regulates classroom discourse and…

  5. Understanding Challenges of Using ICT in Secondary Schools in Sweden from Teachers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Siri; Gao, Shang

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the challenges of using ICT in secondary schools in Sweden from teachers' perspectives. Design/methodology/approach: The research followed a qualitative research approach. First, a conceptual framework was developed based on previous research. Then, four teachers, teaching in six different…

  6. First report of spinose ear tick, Otobius megnini (Acari, Argasidae), in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Anders; Lindström, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    A dog that had travelled to Sweden was inspected by a veterinarian. In one ear canal a tick was found. It was later identified as a spinose ear tick, Otobius megnini. In this case report we also review the previously known reports of O. megnini in Europe and the recent introduction and spread in Turkey.

  7. Late-Holocene human impact and climate change near Umea, Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.; Barke, J.; van Geel, B.

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, peat cores were sampled from sites positioned on a north-south transect through Sweden and northern Germany. Only bogs with a similar species composition were selected. The aim of our research is to compare the changes in regional and local species composition with carbon accumulation over

  8. Struggling for Integration: Universalist and Separatist Discourses within El Sistema Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Åsa; Lindgren, Monica; Saether, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the El Sistema programme, which started up in Sweden in 2010 with the objective to deal with segregation problems typical for Swedish urban areas. The purpose of the article is to examine how promoting integration through music and music education is constructed within El Sistema as a way to help children growing up in…

  9. Report on the individual review of the annual submission of Sweden submitted in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, Mr. Justin; Gytarsky, Mr. Michael; Merkeliene, Ms. Jolanta

    This report covers the review of the 2014 annual submission of Sweden, coordinated by the UNFCCC secretariat, in accordance with the “Guidelines for review under Article 8 of the Kyoto Protocol” (decision 22/CMP.1) (hereinafter referred to as the Article 8 review guidelines). The review took place...

  10. Love, marriage, then the baby carriage? Marriage timing and childbearing in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some scholars claim that marriage is an outmoded institution, decoupled from the childbearing process in Sweden. However, it is likely that the presence of children is still linked to marriage, since most children born to cohabiting couples experience the marriage of their parents. The

  11. Speleothem and biofilm formation in a granite/dolerite cave, Northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sallstedt, T.; Ivarsson, M.; Lundberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    Tjuv-Antes grotta (Tjuv-Ante's Cave) located in northern Sweden is a round-abraded sea cave ('tunnel cave'), about 30 m in length, formed by rock-water abrasion in a dolerite dyke in granite gneiss. Abundant speleothems are restricted to the inner, mafic parts of the cave and absent on granite...

  12. Changing public attitudes towards corporal punishment: the effects of statutory reform in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J V

    2000-08-01

    One justification for a statutory ban on physical punishment is that passage of such legislation changes public attitudes towards the use of this form of parental discipline. The experience in Sweden is often cited as an example of legislation which changed public opinion. The aim of this brief article is to review the public opinion findings in Sweden in order to evaluate in greater detail the impact of changing the law. A search was conducted to generate all published and publicly-available quantitative surveys of the public in Sweden and elsewhere. The results of time-series analysis of the data are clear. The 1979 legal reform in Sweden did not reduce the level of public support for parental use of corporal punishment as a means of disciplining children. Support for physical punishment began declining years before the reform was passed and the decline was in no way accelerated by the law reform. Changes in public opinion may have generated the legal reform, but the reverse is not true. Data from other jurisdictions also support the view that there is no relationship between the status of the law and the nature of public views with regard to corporal punishment. This result is consistent with analyses of the effects of legal reforms in other areas. The Swedish ban on corporal punishment did not affect public attitudes. Changing public views requires other initiatives.

  13. Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and…

  14. Play-Diagnosis and Therapy in Sweden: The Erica-Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolund, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    The Erica Method, a form of play-diagnosis and play-therapy used widely in Sweden, utilizes a standardized material that consists of sandboxes and miniature toys. The method is a very useful tool for better understanding of both developmental, neurological and psychopathological problems of childhood. (Author)

  15. Trends in Care and Services for Elderly Individuals in Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Notes that Denmark and Sweden have achieved reduction in institutionalization of elderly individuals by increasing home care and housing with services and adaptation. Describes innovative model of nursing home care in Denmark--a self-care model that fosters independent living and decision making as long as possible. (Author/NB)

  16. Attitudes toward Older People among Nursing Students and Registered Nurses in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderhamn, Olle; Lindencrona, Catharina; Gustavsson, Siw Merit

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 151 undergraduate nursing students and 41 registered nurses in Sweden found that those who were under 25, male, or had limited prior experience caring for older people had less favorable attitudes toward the elderly. First-year students were more negative than third-year students. No differences among nurses in different practice…

  17. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  18. Report on Third International Intensive Aftercare Conference in Norrköping, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Christina; Bäckman, Carl; Egerod, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The third international conference on intensive care unit (ICU) diaries and intensive aftercare took place in Norrköping, Sweden, on 28 November 2013. The conference was organized by Carl Bäckman and colleagues, Vrinnevi Hospital and NOFI, and represented by Sissell Storli. More than 100 clinicians...

  19. From Vocational Training to Academic Education: The Situation of the Schools of Nursing in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ewa Pilhammar

    1999-01-01

    The success of the change from vocational training to academic education for nurses in Sweden depends on faculty competence. Observations at three Swedish nursing schools and interviews with 59 nurse educators identified strategies educators used to maintain teaching competence: being "real" nurses, being prepared in different subjects,…

  20. Learning Style Differences between Nursing and Teaching Students in Sweden: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Lena; Hallin, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The teaching profession has been continually challenged to provide evidence of the effectiveness of teaching and learning methods. Teacher education, as well as nursing education, is currently undergoing reforms in Sweden. At the university where the research was conducted, teaching and nursing programs are two priority educational programs and…

  1. Norovirus outbreaks linked to oyster consumption in the United Kingdom, Norway, France, Sweden and Denmark, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrell, T; Dusch, V; Ethelberg, S; Harris, J; Hjertqvist, M; Jourdan-da Silva, N; Koller, A; Lenglet, A; Lisby, M; Vold, L

    2010-03-25

    This paper reports on several simultaneous outbreaks of norovirus infection linked to the consumption of raw oysters. Since January 2010, 334 cases in 65 clusters were reported from five European countries: the United Kingdom, Norway, France, Sweden and Denmark. The article describes the available epidemiological and microbiological evidence of these outbreaks.

  2. Patient safety work in Sweden: quantitative and qualitative analysis of annual patient safety reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridelberg, Mikaela; Roback, Kerstin; Nilsen, Per; Carlfjord, Siw

    2016-03-21

    There is widespread recognition of the problem of unsafe care and extensive efforts have been made over the last 15 years to improve patient safety. In Sweden, a new patient safety law obliges the 21 county councils to assemble a yearly patient safety report (PSR). The aim of this study was to describe the patient safety work carried out in Sweden by analysing the PSRs with regard to the structure, process and result elements reported, and to investigate the perceived usefulness of the PSRs as a tool to achieve improved patient safety. The study was based on two sources of data: patient safety reports obtained from county councils in Sweden published in 2014 and a survey of health care practitioners with strategic positions in patient safety work, acting as key informants for their county councils. Answers to open-ended questions were analysed using conventional content analysis. A total of 14 structure elements, 31 process elements and 23 outcome elements were identified. The most frequently reported structure elements were groups devoted to working with antibiotics issues and electronic incident reporting systems. The PSRs were perceived to provide a structure for patient safety work, enhance the focus on patient safety and contribute to learning about patient safety. Patient safety work carried out in Sweden, as described in annual PSRs, features a wide range of structure, process and result elements. According to health care practitioners with strategic positions in the county councils' patient safety work, the PSRs are perceived as useful at various system levels.

  3. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M; Gissler, M; Nordentoft, M; Hällgren, J; Arffman, M; Ösby, U

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Method A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Results Life expectancy was 24–28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (−0.8 years) and Sweden (−1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0–5.2), all diseases and medical conditions (2.3–4.8), and suicide (9.3–35.9). Conclusion People hospitalized with alcohol use disorder have an average life expectancy of 47–53 years (men) and 50–58 years (women) and die 24–28 years earlier than people in the general population. PMID:25243359

  4. Use of prescribed opioids by children and adolescents: Differences between Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahic, M; Fredheim, O M; Borchgrevink, P C; Skurtveit, S

    2015-09-01

    There are few studies on the use of opioids among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the 1-year prevalence of prescribed opioid dispensing in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to compare gender and age differences in the use of weak and strong opioids between the three countries. Data on the dispensing of opioids were collected from the websites of the complete national prescription databases in the three countries. All individuals aged 0-19 with at least one prescription of opioids during the study period were included. The 1-year prevalence of opioid use among young individuals aged 0-19 years increased during the study period (2006-2012) in Denmark from 2.5 to 3.4 per thousand, in Norway from 10.7 to 13.4 per thousand and in Sweden from 5.9 to 7.1 per thousand. In all three countries, more boys than girls used opioids between the ages of 0 and 10, whereas girls were the major users in the age range 11-19. Use of opioids in all three countries was dominated by weak opioids, codeine being the most dominant in Norway and Sweden and tramadol in Denmark. The 1-year prevalence of prescribed opioid use among children and adolescents in Norway was far higher than in Denmark and Sweden. During the study period, an increasing use of opioids among children and adolescents was observed in all three countries. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  5. Preschool Teachers' View on Learning in Preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Sandberg, Anette; Frøkjaer, Thorleif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children's learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is "learning"? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children's learning? What is the role of participation in children's learning? The…

  6. The Nobel Prize Award Ceremony 1984 at the Stockholm Concert Hall, Sweden, 10 December

    CERN Multimedia

    TV1 Fakta, Stockholm

    1984-01-01

    The Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine and Literature as well as the Economics Prize are awarded on 10 December at the Stockholm Concert Hall in Sweden. Organized by the Nobel Foundation, the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony is the highlight of the Nobel Week celebrating the Nobel Laureates and their work.

  7. The Nobel Prize Award Ceremony 1992 at the Stockholm Concert Hall, Sweden, 10 December

    CERN Multimedia

    Eurovision / TF1

    1992-01-01

    The Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine and Literature as well as the Economics Prize are awarded on 10 December at the Stockholm Concert Hall in Sweden. Organized by the Nobel Foundation, the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony is the highlight of the Nobel Week – celebrating the Nobel Laureates and their work.

  8. The Pursuit of Metals and the Ideology of Improvement in Early Modern Sápmi, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The article examines the ideology of improvement in the context of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century mining in northern Sweden in the province of Sápmi. It discusses how the rhetoric of improvement and “civilizing” projects were intertwined with the mining enterprises; how they informed the reg...

  9. Causes of Educational Segregation in Sweden--School Choice or Residential Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Hansen, Kajsa; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the study were to examine changes in school segregation across different types of municipalities between 1998 and 2011 in Sweden, and to explore the extent to which these changes are the consequences of school choice. Multilevel models were applied to register data using a counterfactual approach. The results showed that school…

  10. MBL1 genotypes in wild boar populations from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, I.-M.; Sandholm, K.; Ekdahl, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    from Sweden, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Japan were determined in regard to five previously described SNPs in MBL1. The T allele of G949T was present among the BC 2 animals. MBL-A serum concentration in the BC 2 animals showed a bimodal distribution, with one-third of the animals at levels between...

  11. Family-Friendly Labour Market Policies and Careers in Sweden--and the Lack of Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornqvist, Christer

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the origin and development of family-friendly policies and careers in Sweden. The starting-point for the discussion is that what "family-friendly" is can never be separated from the gendered labour market. Drawing on Lotte Bailyn's analysis of gender "equity", the article argues that the Swedish labour…

  12. Campylobacter coli in Organic and Conventional Pig Production in France and Sweden: Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Kempf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli in conventional and organic pigs from France and Sweden. Fecal or colon samples were collected at farms or at slaughterhouses and cultured for Campylobacter. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and gentamicin were determined by microdilution for a total of 263 French strains from 114 pigs from 50 different farms and 82 Swedish strains from 144 pigs from 54 different farms. Erythromycin resistant isolates were examined for presence of the emerging rRNA methylase erm(B gene. The study showed that within the colon samples obtained in each country there was no significant difference in prevalence of Campylobacter between pigs in organic and conventional productions [France: conventional: 43/58 (74%; organic: 43/56 (77% and Sweden: conventional: 24/36 (67%; organic: 20/36 (56%]. In France, but not in Sweden, significant differences of percentages of resistant isolates were associated with production type (tetracycline, erythromycin and the number of resistances was significantly higher for isolates from conventional pigs. In Sweden, the number of resistances of fecal isolates was significantly higher compared to colon isolates. The erm(B gene was not detected in the 87 erythromycin resistant strains tested.

  13. Marriage and divorce of immigrants and descendants of immigrants in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immigrants and their second-generation descendants make up more than a quarter of the current Swedish population. Their nuptiality patterns can be viewed as crucial indicators of their integration into Swedish society. Objective: This study provides data on levels of and patterns in marriage formation, divorce, and re-marriage of people in Sweden, by country of origin. Methods: The study is based on analyses of longitudinal register data that cover all residents born in 1951 and later who ever lived in Sweden during 1983−2007. Kaplan-Meier survivor functions demonstrate levels in nuptiality; multivariate event-history analyses demonstrate relative risks of marriage formation and divorce, by country group of origin. Results: We find evidence of variation among immigrant groups and between migrants and Swedish-born people in marriage and divorce patterns. A few groups of migrants have relatively high churning rates in family dynamics, with high levels of marriage formation, divorce, and re-marriage. Conclusions: Many factors relate to the nuptiality behavior of immigrants in Sweden. Differences in family systems seem to have some influence on behavior in the contemporary Swedish context. Other factors relate to the migration process itself and to the selectivity of migrants to Sweden.

  14. Integrating climate change adaptation into civil protection: comparative lessons from Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groven, K.; Aall, C.; van den Berg, Maya Marieke; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating policy on climate change adaptation into civil protection is explored through studies of extreme weather management at the national level in Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands, and through local case studies of the three coastal cities of Bergen, Malmö and Rotterdam. The research issues

  15. "Gender Utopias?": U.S. Student Reflections on Studying Abroad in Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Kristjane; Teig, Trisha; Bedera, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study abroad experience in Norway and Sweden that was designed to explore gender equality in two of the world's most gender-progressive countries. Course readings explored the work of feminist sociologists and asked students to think critically about gender equality from a cross-cultural perspective. Students met with…

  16. Teacher Change and Development during Training in Social and Emotional Learning Programs in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Birgitta; Skoog, Therése; Sandell, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a thematic analysis of the process diaries of teachers involved in teacher training in social and emotional learning (SEL) in Sweden. Twenty-nine out of the 122 diaries available were analyzed until saturation was reached. The following themes and sub-themes were extracted: development (professional and…

  17. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those of the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” damage were observed in 70% of commercial fields in southern Sweden in August 2011; all cultivars grown were affected, at about 1 to 45% symptomatic plants pe...

  18. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Sweden 2013: Data From the National Quality Register for ECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanskog, Pia; Hultén, Martin; Landén, Mikael; Lundberg, Johan; von Knorring, Lars; Nordenskjöld, Axel

    2015-12-01

    The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) varies across countries. The aim of this study was to describe and explore the use of ECT in Sweden in 2013. The Swedish mandatory patient register of the National Board of Health and Welfare includes information on diagnoses and treatments, including ECT. All 56 hospitals that provide ECT in Sweden also report to the nonmandatory national quality register for ECT, which contains information on patient and treatment characteristics. In this study, we combined data from both registers. In addition, all hospitals responded to a survey concerning equipment and organization of ECT. We identified 3972 unique patients who received ECT in Sweden in 2013. This translates into 41 ECT-treated individuals per 100,000 inhabitants. Of these patients, 85% opted to participate in the quality register. The median age was 55 years (range, 15-94 years), and 63% were women. The indication was depression in 78% of the treatment series. Of 4 711 hospitalized patients with severe depression, 38% received ECT. The median number of treatments per index series was 7. Unilateral treatment was used in 86% of the series. In Sweden, ECT is used at a relatively high rate as compared with other western countries, and the rate was unchanged from the last survey in 1975. However, there is room for improvement in the specificity of use and availability of ECT for disorders where ECT is considered a first-line treatment.

  19. Perioperative and Anesthesia Guidelines for Children with Autism: A Nationwide Survey from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbler Berglund, Ingalill; Huus, Karina; Enskär, Karin; Faresjö, Maria; Björkman, Berit

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe the current set of guidelines for the preparation and care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the perioperative setting across Sweden and explore the content of these guidelines in detail. An online questionnaire was distributed to the chairpersons of all anesthesia departments (n = 68) and pediatric departments (n = 38) throughout Sweden. Follow-up phone calls were made to those departments that did not return the questionnaire. The presence of guidelines was analyzed through descriptive statistics. These guidelines and comments on routines used in these departments were analyzed inspired by conventional content analysis. Seven of the 68 anesthesia departments and none of the 38 pediatric departments across Sweden have guidelines for preparing and/or administering care to children with ASD within the perioperative setting. From the guidelines and routines used, 3 categories emerge: "lacking the necessary conditions," "no extra considerations needed," and "care with specific consideration for children with ASD." These 3 categories span a continuum in the care. In the first category, the anesthesia induction could result in the child with ASD being physically restrained. In the last category, the entire encounter with the health care service would be adapted to the specific needs of the child. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines specifically designed to meet the needs of children with ASD in the preoperative period in Sweden. Further research is needed to understand if children with ASD would benefit from evidence-based guidelines.

  20. Democratic Purpose and Educational Leadership Policies in Sweden and in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Elizabeth; Törnsén, Monika

    2015-01-01

    In this study we analyze the extent to which policy documents that include standards and expectations for the preparation of school principals (i.e., head teachers) influence democratic practices. This comparative research examines educational policies that influence the work of principals both in Sweden and in the U.S., the state of Texas asking:…

  1. The Preparation of School Psychologists and Specialists in Educational Psychology in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Elinor

    2014-01-01

    School psychologists have a new and stronger position in Sweden's educational system than earlier. For example, as of July 2011, all Swedish students ages 6 through 18 have guaranteed access to school psychology services. The school psychologists' roles are to be active participants and coworkers in the student health service team, working to…

  2. Declining Employment Assimilation of Immigrant Males in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevelander, Pieter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on Nordic and Yugoslavian immigrant males, we study the determinants of employment success of natives and immigrants in Sweden. Furthermore, we investigate the reasons behind the arising gap in employment success between Swedes and immigrants from 1970 to 1990. In a decomposition analysis...

  3. Diabetes Prevalence in Sweden at Present and Projections for Year 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Tomas; Ahlbom, Anders; Carlsson, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Data on the future diabetes burden in Scandinavia is limited. Our aim was to project the future burden of diabetes in Sweden by modelling data on incidence, prevalence, mortality, and demographic factors. To project the future burden of diabetes we used information on the prevalence of diabetes from the national drug prescription registry (adults ≥ 20 years), previously published data on relative mortality in people with diabetes, and population demographics and projections from Statistics Sweden. Alternative scenarios were created based on different assumptions regarding the future incidence of diabetes. Between 2007 and 2013 the prevalence of diabetes rose from 5.8 to 6.8% in Sweden but incidence remained constant at 4.4 per 1000 (2013). With constant incidence and continued improvement in relative survival, prevalence will increase to 10.4% by year 2050 and the number of afflicted individuals will increase to 940 000. Of this rise, 30% is accounted for by changes in the age structure of the population and 14% by improved relative survival in people with diabetes. A hypothesized 1% annual rise in incidence will result in a prevalence of 12.6% and 1 136 000 cases. Even with decreasing incidence at 1% per year, prevalence of diabetes will continue to increase. We can expect diabetes prevalence to rise substantially in Sweden over the next 35 years as a result of demographic changes and improved survival among people with diabetes. A dramatic reduction in incidence is required to prevent this development.

  4. First report of dollar spot disease, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, of Agrostis stolonifera in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar spot is a destructive and widespread disease affecting most grass species grown as turf, but until recently it has been absent from the Scandinavian countries of northern Europe. In the fall of 2014, disease symptoms consistent with dollar spot were observed on a golf course fairway in Sweden...

  5. "We Are Like Orphans": Exploring Narratives of Lao Doctoral Alumni Educated in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfver, Ann-Louise; Berge, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the narratives of 10 doctoral alumni from Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) who underwent graduate training in Sweden. The narratives identify challenges encountered by the alumni but more importantly reveal the agency by which these challenges were overcome. The most important strategy was that of collaborative…

  6. Uptake of Active Surveillance for Very-Low-Risk Prostate Cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Curnyn, Caitlin; Robinson, David; Bratt, Ola; Stattin, Pär

    2017-10-01

    Active surveillance is an important option to reduce prostate cancer overtreatment, but it remains underutilized in many countries. Models from the United States show that greater use of active surveillance is important for prostate cancer screening to be cost-effective. To perform an up-to-date, nationwide, population-based study on use of active surveillance for localized prostate cancer in Sweden. Cross-sectional study in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) of Sweden from 2009 through 2014. The NPCR has data on 98% of prostate cancers diagnosed in Sweden and has comprehensive linkages to other nationwide databases. Overall, 32 518 men with a median age of 67 years were diagnosed with favorable-risk prostate cancer, including 4693, 15 403, and 17 115 men with very-low-risk (subset of the low-risk group) (clinical stage, T1c; Gleason score, ≤6; prostate-specific antigen [PSA], Sweden, with the highest rates yet reported and almost complete uptake for very-low-risk cancer. These data should serve as a benchmark to compare the use of active surveillance for favorable-risk disease around the world.

  7. Short-term and long-term sick-leave in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1995-01-01

    period) in relation to variables representing certain social circumstances and aspects of the work situation. Particular attention was paid to gender differences. The study, which had a cross-sectional design, employed data from the surveys of living conditions (ULF) conducted by Statistics Sweden over...

  8. Development of Plurilingual Competencies through Vocationally Oriented Language Learning in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movchan, Larysa

    2014-01-01

    The article tackles the problem of developing plurilingual competencies through vocationally oriented foreign language in Sweden. The author analyses the pedagogical conditions of realization of plurilingual education at upper-secondary schools, vocational and higher education establishments and the aspects of teacher education for this purpose.…

  9. Infections with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis and Cytokine Responses in 2 Persons Bitten by Ticks, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grankvist, Anna; Sandelin, Lisa Labbé; Andersson, Jennie; Fryland, Linda; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Forsberg, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis infection was determined in 102 persons bitten by ticks in Sweden. Two infected women had erythematous rashes; 1 was co-infected with a Borrelia sp., and the other showed seroconversion for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Both patients had increased levels of Neoehrlichia DNA and serum cytokines for several months. PMID:26197035

  10. Social anxiety in 17-year-olds in Stockholm, Sweden - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-20

    May 20, 2004 ... Stockholm, Sweden -. A questionnaire survey. Method. A questionnaire was designed based on Furmark's social pho- bia screening questionnaire (SPSQ) that was tested in the adult. Swedish population and employs DSM-IV criteria.10. The. SPSQ was shortened and modified to fit in the classroom set-.

  11. Investment in Second-Chance Education for Adults and Income Development in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Madelene; Stehlik, Tom; Strandh, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between the second chance of increase in formal education amongst low-educated adults in Sweden and long-term wage development. Despite the awareness of the role of education for employability and individuals' overall life chances, surprisingly few studies have investigated the wage effects of Second-Chance…

  12. KAMEDO Report No. 76: Floods in Poland in 1997 and in Sweden in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahren, Håkans; Ridez, Louis; Riddez, Louis; Dellgar, Uno

    2005-01-01

    Extensive flooding occurred in Poland in 1997 and in Sweden in 2000. These events and their management are reviewed in this Report. The floods in Poland were more extensive than in Sweden as they covered some 10% of Poland's landmass. An estimated 55 persons died as a direct result of the floods in Poland and none were reported due to the flood in Sweden. No epidemics were encountered in either country, presumably related to the extensive use of bottled water and radio instructions to boil all water before its use. The water supply was interrupted and untreated water was taken into the water distribution systems. Chlorination of the water supplies was added in Sweden. Sewage and refuse management was problematic. The heathcare system was impacted profoundly in Poland both by direct damage to hospitals and/or loss of essential services such as electricity and water supplies. Government responses are described with the needs in Poland being extensive including the need for outside assistance. Some pathways used for obtaining aid were outside of government coordination. Comprehensive conclusions and recommendations derived from the observations are provided.

  13. Physicians' attitudes towards eprescribing: a comparative web survey in Austria and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Steinschaden

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion We found that the major potential success factors for the implementation of eprescribing in Sweden were saving of time for the physician, improved safety and better service for patients. The mainly positive attitudes of the Austrian physicians may enable implementation of eprescribing in due course.

  14. Social Capital and the Educational Achievement of Young People in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtoui, Alireza; Neergaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's conceptualization of social capital (the social stratification perspective), this study examines the impact of social capital on the educational outcomes of young people in Sweden, with a focus on the extra-familial aspect of social capital -- that is, social capital generated by parental networks and active membership in…

  15. Bridging Marketing Theory and Practice for Consumer Behaviour Master's Students: A Case Study from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Malin; Hagberg, Johan

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the planning, implementation and outcome of a graduate-level consumer behaviour course taught in autumn 2008 at the University of Boras in Sweden. The course was jointly developed by marketing academics and business representatives in order to combine research-oriented studies with practical experience in a retail context. The…

  16. An Inevitable Progress? Educational Restructuring in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Lindblad, Sverker; Simola, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how current changes in the system of reasoning about education in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden are characterized by culturally woven patterns in high marketization strategies are introduced as technically effective devices both for educating the best and to increase inclusion. The system of reason presupposes that the neo-liberalist…

  17. Competition for forest resources between the biofuels and the forest industry in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the consequences of the large-scale introduction of wood-based biofuels in the road transport sector. Therefore a model has been developed to project the de-mand for wood in Sweden in the period from 2007 to 2050.

  18. Development of Gender-Specific Technologies. Evidence from China, Poland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Bo; Rolfstam, Max

    2013-01-01

    is the innovation system capable of utilizing experiences from women as well? The article examines two sets of technologies—agricultural equipment for rural application and teleservices—in two transition economies, Poland and China, with Sweden as a point of reference. The empirical data presented here on women...

  19. Emerging Adults in Sweden: Identity Formation in the Light of Love, Work, and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisen, Ann; Wangqvist, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the identity formation of emerging adults in Sweden was investigated in order to discover how identity issues concerning love, work and family are handled. The study group comprised 136 24- to 26-year-olds. The results revealed differences between men and women with regard to their position in the identity formation process. While…

  20. Women’s work interruptions and career prospects in Germany and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evertsson, M.; Grunow, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to focus on two welfare state regimes with differing degrees of de-familialisation strategies, Germany and Sweden, to study whether and how women's career interruptions influence their labour market prospects. By comparing women with continuous careers to those

  1. ICT and Intellectual Disability: A Survey of Organizational Support at the Municipal Level in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsten, Camilla; Marmstål Hammar, Lena; Martin, Lene; Göransson, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young adults today have grown up in a society where information and communication technology (ICT) support empowerment and social participation. Young adults with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability are at risk for marginalization by the digital divide. The aim was to map and describe how municipal organizations in Sweden organize…

  2. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden--Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath Warren, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT) which has developed in Sweden since the 1970's offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its…

  3. Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Rivaroxaban in the Secondary Prevention of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begum, N.; Stephens, S.; Schoeman, O.; Fraschke, A.; Kirsch, B.; Briere, J.B.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Hout, B.A. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, coronary heart disease accounts for 7 million deaths each year. In Sweden, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of hospitalization and is responsible for 1 in 4 deaths. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this analysis was to assess the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg

  4. Child Poverty and Child Rights Meet Active Citizenship: A New Zealand and Sweden Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael; Salonen, Tapio

    2011-01-01

    Children's rights and active citizenship have been significant policy emphases and developments in recent years but the relationship between the two has not been actively explored in relation to the implications for child poverty. Recent policy developments in New Zealand and Sweden are drawn on here to explore this relationship. The article…

  5. Does Parenthood Strengthen a Traditional Household Division of Labor? Evidence from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Stanfors, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Parenthood is often considered a major factor behind gender differences in time allocation, especially between paid work and housework. This article investigates the impact of parenthood on men's and women's daily time use in Sweden and how it changed over the 1990s. The analysis is made using time diary data from the Multinational Time Use Survey…

  6. Thoughts from Sweden: The Blind Child at Nursery School with Sighted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Gunilla; Palmer, Christina

    1989-01-01

    Blind children in Sweden are integrated with sighted children in nursery school from the age of two-three years. This paper describes the child's transition to the nursery school environment, play activities, parents' and teachers' reactions to the blind child's behavior, and use of videorecordings to provide feedback to teachers. (JDD)

  7. Q and A. The future of nuclear energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, The Independent Global Nuclear News Agency, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-11-15

    Nuclear is the primary source of electricity in Spain. Wind is second. In the first quarter of 2017 nuclear's contribution was 25 %, but by the end of the year it will even out to more or less the same level of 2016. Nuclear is still very important for Spain's energy mix. The question is, what will happen with nuclear in the near future? NucNet spoke to Ignacio Araluce, president of Spanish industry group Foro Nuclear, about energy policy, plant shut-downs and how Spain's nuclear industry is successfully diversifying overseas.

  8. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  9. [Intensive care services resources in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M C; León, C; Cuñat, J; del Nogal, F

    2013-10-01

    To identify the resources related to the care of critically ill patients in Spain, which are available in the units dependent of the Services of Intensive Care Medicine (ICM) or other services/specialties, analyzing their distribution according to characteristics of the hospitals and by autonomous communities. Prospective observational study. Spanish hospitals. Heads of the Services of ICM. Number of units and beds for critically ill patients and functional dependence. The total number of registries obtained with at least one Service of ICM was 237, with a total of 100,198 hospital beds. Level iii (43.5%) and level ii (35%) hospitals predominated. A total of 73% were public hospitals and 55.3% were non-university centers. The total number of beds for adult critically ill patients, was 4,738 (10.3/100,000 inhabitants). The services of ICM registered had available 258 intensive are units (ICUs), with 3,363 beds, mainly polyvalent ICUs (81%) and 43 intermediate care units. The number of patients attended in the Services of ICM in 2008 was 174,904, with a percentage of occupation of 79.5% A total of 228 units attending critically ill patients, which are dependent of other services with 2,233 beds, 772 for pediatric patients or neonates, were registered. When these last specialized units are excluded, there was a marked predominance of postsurgical units followed by coronary and cardiac units. Seventy one per cent of beds available in the Critical Care Units in Spain are characterized by attending severe adult patients, are dependent of the services of ICM, and most of them are polyvalent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. [Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  11. Causes of IOL explantation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Buenaga, Roberto; Alio, Jorge L; Muñoz-Negrete, Francisco J; Barraquer Compte, Rafael I; Alio-Del Barrio, Jorge L

    2012-01-01

    To study the reasons and the demography of pseudophakic intraocular lens (IOL) explantation in Spain. In this observational multicenter retrospective study, the cases studied correspond to the 15 centers that constitute the Nodo Calidad Visual y Cirugia Refractiva of the Red Tematica de Investigacion Cooperativa (RETICS) sponsored by the Spanish Ministry of Health. Clinical data from all the patients who underwent explantation were assessed. The different reasons that caused the decision of explantation were analyzed. A total of 257 explanted pseudophakic IOLs have been studied. Patients' mean age when explantation occurred was 67.5 years (SD 13.5 [22-99]) and 135 were female (52.5%). The main causes for explantation were dislocation/decentration in 145 cases (56.3%), incorrect lens power in 33 cases (12.8%), IOL opacification in 29 eyes (11.3%), neuroadaptation failure in 16 cases (6.2%), pseudophakic bullous keratopathy in 6 eyes (2.3%), endophthalmitis in 5 cases (1.9%), and "other causes" in 23 eyes (8.9%). Treatment after explantation was posterior chamber IOL implantation in 149 eyes (58%), anterior chamber IOL implantation in 49 eyes (19.1%), aphakia in 39 eyes (15.2%), and missing information in 20 cases (7.8%). Mean time from implantation to explantation was 3.97 (SD 4.68 [0.005-21.1]) years. Dislocation/decentration (most of the time with lens in the bag) is the main cause for explantation in Spain, followed by incorrect lens power (which decreased greatly over past years) and IOL opacification. Posterior chamber IOL implantation is the most elected treatment after explantation.

  12. Hikikomori in Spain: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón-Amor, Ángeles; Córcoles-Martínez, David; Martín-López, Luis M; Pérez-Solà, Víctor

    2015-08-01

    Social withdrawal behaviour is a major health problem that is becoming increasingly important, being necessary studies that investigate its psychopathology and existence in different cultures. To describe the clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of hikikomori individuals in Spain. Participants were 200 subjects referred to the Crisis Resolution Home Treatment (CRHT) because of social isolation. The definition of hikikomori was the state of avoiding social engagement with generally persistent withdrawal into one's residence for at least 6 months. Socio-demographic and clinical data were analysed, including Severity of Psychiatric Illness (SPI), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and World Health Organization Disability Assessment (WHODAS) scales. A total of 164 cases were evaluated. Hikikomori were predominantly young male, with the mean age at onset of hikikomori of 40 years old and a mean socially withdrawn period of 3 years. Only three people had no symptoms suggestive of mental disorder. Psychotic and anxiety were the most common comorbid disorders. The scales administered describe the presence of serious symptoms and impairment in social functioning, with a high prevalence of poor collaboration with treatment. This study shows the existence of hikikomori in Spain. Its difficult detection and treatment highlights the need for specialized domiciliary teams. The high comorbidity leads us to conclude that it may not be a new diagnosis, but rather a severe syndrome associated with multiple mental illnesses. Primary hikikomori also exist, but less commonly. Future cross-national studies are needed in order to describe its definition and psychopathology. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winde Lee D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6% responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5% responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The

  14. General practitioners' experiences with sickness certification: a comparison of survey data from Sweden and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In most countries with sickness insurance systems, general practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the sickness-absence process. Previous studies have indicated that GPs experience several tasks and situations related to sickness certification consultations as problematic. The fact that the organization of primary health care and social insurance systems differ between countries may influence both GPs' experiences and certification. The aim of the present study was to gain more knowledge of GPs' experiences of sickness certification, by comparing data from Sweden and Norway, regarding frequencies and aspects of sickness certification found to be problematic. Methods Statistical analyses of cross-sectional survey data of sickness certification by GPs in Sweden and Norway. In Sweden, all GPs were included, with 3949 (60.6%) responding. In Norway, a representative sample of GPs was included, with 221 (66.5%) responding. Results Most GPs reported having consultations involving sickness certification at least once a week; 95% of the GPs in Sweden and 99% of the GPs in Norway. A majority found such tasks problematic; 60% of the GPs in Sweden and 53% in Norway. In a logistic regression, having a higher frequency of sickness certification consultations was associated with a higher risk of experiencing them as problematic, in both countries. A higher rate of GPs in Sweden than in Norway reported meeting patients wanting a sickness certification without a medical reason. GPs in Sweden found it more problematic to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sick leave with patients and to issue a prolongation of a sick-leave period initiated by another physician. GPs in Norway more often worried that patients would go to another physician if they did not issue a certificate, and a higher proportion of Norwegian GPs found it problematic to handle situations where they and their patient disagreed on the need for sick leave. Conclusions The study confirms that many GPs

  15. First identification of Echinococcus multilocularis in rodent intermediate hosts in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Miller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis is a zoonotic tapeworm with a sylvatic lifecycle and an expanding range in Europe. Monitoring efforts following its first identification in 2011 in Sweden have focused on the parasite's definitive host, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes. However, identifying rodent intermediate hosts is important to recognize opportunities for parasite transmission. During 2013–2015, livers from a total of 1566 rodents from four regions in Sweden were examined for E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Species identity of suspect parasite lesions was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. E. multilocularis positive lesions >6 mm in diameter were also examined histologically. One Microtus agrestis out of 187 (0.5%, 95%CI: 0–2.9%, 8/439 (1.8%, 95%CI: 0.8–3.6% Arvicola amphibius, 0/655 (0%, 95%CI: 0–0.6% Myodes glareolus, and 0/285 (0%, 95%CI: 0–1.3% Apodemus spp. contained E. multilocularis metacestode lesions. Presence of protoscoleces was confirmed in the infected M. agrestis and in three of eight infected A. amphibius. Six of the nine positive rodents were captured from the same field. This is the first report of E. multilocularis in intermediate hosts in Sweden. The cluster of positive rodents in one field shows that local parasite prevalence can be high in Sweden despite overall low national prevalence in foxes (<0.1%. The presence of protoscoleces in infected M. agrestis and A. amphibius indicate these species can serve as competent intermediate hosts in Sweden. However, their relative importance for E. multilocularis transmission in the Swedish environment is not yet possible to assess. In contrast, the negative findings in all M. glareolus and Apodemus spp. suggest that these species are of no importance.

  16. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Adam; Schey, Carina; Dutton, Richard; Achana, Felix; Antonov, Karolina

    2014-02-13

    The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs.

  17. Estimating the budget impact of orphan drugs in Sweden and France 2013–2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The growth in expenditure on orphan medicinal products (OMP) across Europe has been identified as a concern. Estimates of future expenditure in Europe have suggested that OMPs could account for a significant proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure in some countries, but few of these forecasts have been well validated. This analysis aims to establish a robust forecast of the future budget impact of OMPs on the healthcare systems in Sweden and France. Methods A dynamic forecasting model was created to estimate the budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France between 2013 and 2020. The model used historical data on OMP designation and approval rates to predict the number of new OMPs coming to the market. Average OMP sales were estimated for each year post-launch by regression analysis of historical sales data. Total forecast sales were compared with expected sales of all pharmaceuticals in each country to quantify the relative budget impact. Results The model predicts that by 2020, 152 OMPs will have marketing authorization in Europe. The base case OMP budget impacts are forecast to grow from 2.7% in Sweden and 3.2% in France of total drug expenditure in 2013 to 4.1% in Sweden and 4.9% in France by 2020. The principal driver of expenditure growth is the number of new OMPs obtaining OMP designation. This is tempered by the slowing success rate for new approvals and the loss of intellectual property protection on existing orphan medicines. Given the forward-looking nature of the analysis, uncertainty exists around model parameters and sensitivity analysis found peak year budget impact varying between 2% and 11%. Conclusion The budget impact of OMPs in Sweden and France is likely to remain sustainable over time and a relatively small proportion of total pharmaceutical expenditure. This forecast could be affected by changes in the success rate for OMP approvals, average cost of OMPs, and the type of companies developing OMPs. PMID:24524281

  18. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Haavik, Svein; Ekedahl, Anders

    Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient. Objective The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1) by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2) by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3) by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers. Methods Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4) and Sweden (n=7) and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9). Results Pharmacists’'in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45%) and Sweden (0.38%). Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%), printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1%) in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9%) in Sweden. More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (pprescription types and perrors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified. Conclusions Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact with prescriber before dispensing, irrespective of the type of

  19. Experiences of teenagers and young adults treated for cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Maria; Jarfelt, Marianne; Pergert, Pernilla; Enskär, Karin

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 600 teenagers and young adults, TYAs (ages 15-29), are newly diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year and treated in many different units. The knowledge about TYAs is limited and there might be a need for a new approach in the care for this particular age group. The purpose of this study was to identify requirements TYAs in Sweden acknowledge as important to them. 44 participants aged 15-29 who were treated at either pediatric or adult cancer units in Sweden, participated in focus group interviews. They were interviewed in groups based on whether they were treated in pediatric (14-18 years old) or adult units (18-29). The focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results of the study can be summarized into four categories: personal professional interaction, knowledge and participation, age-appropriate environment, and support. Important TYA care needs vary over time due to individual situations. The time line of the cancer experience can be described as a continuum; at diagnosis, during treatment, and in life-after cancer treatment. TYAs treated in Sweden have special needs that are not being satisfied, whether at pediatric or adult units. Areas that need closer attention are: close relatives' participation in the care, information on sex and fertility, age-appropriate social physical environments during treatment, and psychosocial support after treatment. In Sweden, there is a demand for increased knowledge on the special needs for TYAs in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mosquito-borne Inkoo virus in northern Sweden - isolation and whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Bucht, Göran; Ahlm, Clas; Ahlm, Kristoffer; Näslund, Jonas; Evander, Magnus

    2017-03-23

    Inkoo virus (INKV) is a less known mosquito-borne virus belonging to Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, California serogroup. Studies indicate that INKV infection is mainly asymptomatic, but can cause mild encephalitis in humans. In northern Europe, the sero-prevalence against INKV is high, 41% in Sweden and 51% in Finland. Previously, INKV RNA has been detected in adult Aedes (Ae.) communis, Ae. hexodontus and Ae. punctor mosquitoes and Ae. communis larvae, but there are still gaps of knowledge regarding mosquito vectors and genetic diversity. Therefore, we aimed to determine the occurrence of INKV in its mosquito vector and characterize the isolates. About 125,000 mosquitoes were collected during a mosquito-borne virus surveillance in northern Sweden during the summer period of 2015. Of these, 10,000 mosquitoes were processed for virus isolation and detection using cell culture and RT-PCR. Virus isolates were further characterized by whole genome sequencing. Genetic typing of mosquito species was conducted by cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene amplification and sequencing (genetic barcoding). Several Ae. communis mosquitoes were found positive for INKV RNA and two isolates were obtained. The first complete sequences of the small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments of INKV in Sweden were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the INKV genome was most closely related to other INKV isolates from Sweden and Finland. Of the three INKV genome segments, the INKV M segment had the highest frequency of non-synonymous mutations. The overall G/C-content of INKV genes was low for the N/NSs genes (43.8-45.5%), polyprotein (Gn/Gc/NSm) gene (35.6%) and the RNA polymerase gene (33.8%) This may be due to the fact that INKV in most instances utilized A or T in the third codon position. INKV is frequently circulating in northern Sweden and Ae. communis is the key vector. The high mutation rate of the INKV M segment may have consequences on virulence.

  1. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  2. Multivariate characterisation of environmental conditions for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lundqvist

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastoralism using semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus is a traditional livelihood in northern Fennoscandia. The area used for reindeer herding in Sweden covers as much as half of the country’s area. Variation in the productivity of reindeer husbandry is clearly affected by many biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this investigation was to identify factor combinations which describe the spatial variation in conditions that plausibly determine productivity in reindeer herding. Initially, 37 variables representing geographical location, climate, weather episodes related to ice crust formation and insect harassment, topography, vegetation, forage abundance and qualities, and fragmentation of the ranges were derived, using prior ecological knowledge and spatially explicit data. The variables were mapped in a raster of 1958 squares of 100 km2 each, covering the entire Swedish reindeer herding area. Reductions of variables were performed with multivariate analyses in steps, ultimately retaining 15 variables. The first five principal components (PCs of these variables explained 84% of the total variation. The first component, related to major western mountain/eastern lowland gradients, already accounts for 49% of the variation. The following components explained variation ranging from 10% to 5.4%, and revealed spatial patterns in summer versus winter forage, climatic conditions and ice crust formation, abundance of forests and winter forage, and northward slopes together with valuable forest areas, respectively. A tentative zone division of the Swedish reindeer herding area into seven zones was made, based upon cluster analysis and spatial distribution of component scores. Extending this approach and method seems useful also in the understanding and management of other natural resources and national parks, especially with an ongoing global climate change perspective.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Multivariat karakterisering av grundf

  3. Highlights Eurosites insights; highlights on image, implementation, interpretation and integration of Natura 2000 in European perspective; United Kingdom, Sweden, Spain, France and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neven, M.G.G.; Kistenkas, F.H.

    2005-01-01

    Highlighting the main report Eurosites Insights this comparative study analyses Natura 2000 nature conservation (EU Birds- and Habitats Directives) alongside the key issues of image, implementation, interpretation and integration. Having quick scanned the EU25, five member states have been selected

  4. The risk of type 1 diabetes among offspring of immigrant mothers in relation to the duration of residency in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussen, Hozan Ismael; Moradi, Tahereh; Persson, Martina

    2015-05-01

    The risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increased in the second compared with the first generation of immigrants in Sweden. We investigated the effect of the mother's duration of stay in Sweden on the risk of T1DM in the offspring. Using data from national registries, we identified all subjects with T1DM among 984,798 children born in Sweden (aged 0-18 years) between 1992 and 2009. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CI were estimated using Poisson regression. Offspring of mothers living in Sweden for up to 5 years had a 22% lower risk of T1DM (adjusted IRR 0.78, 95% CI 0.63-0.96) compared with offspring of mothers living in Sweden for 11 years or more. The risk increased with the mother's duration of stay in Sweden. Our findings support the hypothesis that immigration to Sweden is associated with exposure to new environmental factors that contribute to the development of T1DM in genetically susceptible individuals. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Pollution data obtained with a DOAS system in the city of Burgos (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viloria, R.; Tricio, V.

    2003-04-01

    A campaign of air quality measurements in the city of Burgos (Spain) has been carried out during autumn and winter 2002--03; a new installation of two instruments utilizing the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique to measure different pollutants has offered some preliminary results summarized in this report. The DOAS technique averages spectroscopic absorption from various molecular species over a path length in the atmosphere ranging from tens of meters to kilometers; the method has many important advantages, and one of them is the ability to measure trace species simultaneously. The instrument used is a commercial DOAS system (OPSIS AB, Sweden) with two optic paths, one dispersing spectrograph and one data analysis system. In the first path, with a length of 510 m, SO_2, NO_x, O_3 and other gases are measured, and in the second (shorter path with a length of 214 m) NH_3 and NO are evaluated in addition to the above mentioned pollutants. The first results obtained with the DOAS system are presented in this work; comparisons between pollutant data obtained along the two optical paths (and relations between different pollutant concentrations) have been carried out. We have also used the data from the local control pollution network, and ozone data from another conventional in-situ monitoring station installed by our team close to a meteorological tower situated near the city. A simple weather station is also installed with the DOAS system, so the effects of meteorological factors on the measurements are also analyzed in this work.

  6. Thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodríguez Núñez, A; Fonte, M; Faustino, E V S

    2015-01-01

    ...), data on its incidence and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis are lacking. To describe the use of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal, and to compare the results with international data...

  7. [The reception of Vesalius in Spain and England].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the depiction of engravings taken from Vesalius's, Valverde de Hamusco's and Casserio 's treatises in portraits during the 16th and the 17th centuries to understand better the reception of the Fabrica in Spain and England.

  8. Bargaining for Social Rights (BARSORI) project: Country report on Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martin, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Barsori project studied social partners' initiatives contributing to the reduction of precarious employment through collective bargaining and social dialogue. The project compared experiences in seven EU countries: Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and the UK. Trade

  9. Acheulian Occupation Sites at Torralba and Ambrona, Spain: Their Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, K W

    1965-12-24

    The Acheulian occupation sites of Torralba and Ambrona, central Spain, lie within the Torralba Formation, a complex of alluvial and slope deposits dating from a long period of glacial climate before the Holstein (Mindel-Riss) interglacial.

  10. Direct Health Care Costs of Diabetic Patients in Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan Oliva; Félix Lobo; Begoña Molina; Susana Monereo

    2004-01-01

    ... , Begoña Molina , MD 2 3 and Susana Monereo , MD 2 3 1 Department of Economics, University Carlos III de Madrid, Getafe, Madrid, Spain 2 Seminario de Estudios Sociales de la Salud y los Medicamentos (SESAM...

  11. EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IN RURAL AREAS OF EUROPE AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeli Santamaría Luna

    2015-12-01

    In this short article will present data and sources, but above all be evident that the low presence of rural factor in education and that the rural / urban divide still exists. Referencians Europe cited Spain and the start of the indicators of quality of life and early school leaving is estimated in Spain, rural or not, 2020 in relation to the proposed European Territorial Agenda 2020 target of 15%. Besides conclusions and proposals to be referred.

  12. Societal Metabolism of Societies: The bifurcation between Spain and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Fander Falconí; Jesús Ramos Martín

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the Multiple-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal Metabolism to the recent economic history of Ecuador and Spain. Understanding the relationship between the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the throughput of matter and energy over time in modern societies is crucial for understanding the sustainability predicament as it is linked to economic growth. When considering the dynamics of economic development, Spain was able to take a different path than Ecua...

  13. Societal metabolism of societies : the bifurcation between Spain and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Falconí Benítez, Fander

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the Multiple-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal Metabolism to the recent economic history of Ecuador and Spain. Understanding the relationship between the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the throughput of matter and energy over time in modern societies is crucial for understanding the sustainability predicament as it is linked to economic growth. When considering the dynamics of economic development, Spain was able to take a different path than Ecua...

  14. A test of the market potential equation in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Tirado, Daniel; Paluzie, Elisenda; Pons-Novell, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this article we examine the relationship between regional wages in Spain and the market potential of these regions in the period 1955-1995. We demonstrate the existence of a spatial wage structure, in which wages fall with increasing distance from the hisghest income regions. This result strengthens the hypothesis that agglomerative forces were operating in Spain during the second half of the XX century (Tirado, Daniel) (Paluzie, ...

  15. Experiences in setting up the first centralized radiopharmacy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez de Arellano, I; Piera, C; Pavia, J; Setoain, J

    1999-03-01

    The centralized radiopharmacy set up in Spain by the Cetir Medical Group allows optimal use of radiopharmaceuticals and complies with laws (Directive 89/343/EEC and Royal Decree 479/1993/Spain) governing their use. More than 220,000 individual patient doses have been supplied since the unit was established in November 1995. In this paper, we describe the infrastructure of the centralized radiopharmacy, including the operations and procedures involved, and how we believe we have achieved our original objectives.

  16. Gender Equity and Fertility in Italy and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, LP

    2009-01-01

    Gender equity and its effects on fertility vary across socio-political contexts, particularly when comparing less with more developed economies. But do Subtle differences in equity within more similar contexts matter as well? Here we compare Italy and Spain, two countries with low fertility levels and institutional reliance on kinship and family, but with employment equity among women during the 1990s slightly greater in Italy than Spain. The European Community Household Panel is used to expl...

  17. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  18. Surface expression of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden: from LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Mawaheb; Ask, Maria; Bauer, Tobias; Lund, Björn; Smith, Colby; Mikko, Henrik; Munier, Raymond

    2016-04-01

    Large intraplate earthquakes, up to magnitude 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015) are inferred to have occurred in northern Fennoscandia at the end of, or just after the Weichselian deglaciation. More than a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found in the region. The present-day microseismic activity is rather high in north Sweden, and there is a correlation between microseismicity and mapped PGF scarps: 71% of the observed earthquakes north of 66°N locate within 30 km to the southeast and 10 km to the northwest of PGFs (Lindblom et al., 2015). Surface expressions of PGFs in Sweden have mainly been mapped using aerial photogrammetry and trenching (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Their detailed surface geometry may be investigated using the new high-resolution elevation model of Sweden (NNH) that has a vertical- and lateral resolution of 2 m and 0.25 m, respectively. With NNH data, known PGFs have been modified, and a number of new potential PGFs have been identified (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). However, the detailed variation of their surface expression remains to be determined. Our main objective is to constrain the strike and surface offset (i.e., apparent vertical throw because of soil cover overlays the bedrock) across the PGF scarps. We anticipate using the results to constrain direction of fault motion and paleomagnitudes of PGFs, and in numerical analyzes to investigate the nature of PGFs. We have developed a methodology for analyzing PGF-geomorphology from LiDAR data using two main software platforms (Ask et al. 2015): (1) Move2015 by Midland Valley has been used for constructing 3D models of the surface traces of the PGFs to determine apparent vertical throw. The apparent hanging- and footwall cut off lines are digitized, and subsequent computation of coordinates is rather time efficient and provide continuous data of fault and soil geomorphology that can be statistically analyzed; and (2) ArcGIS 10.3 by Esri has mostly been

  19. An instructive comparison of Denmark and Sweden CO{sub 2} emissions; Les emissions de CO{sub 2} du Danemark et de la Suede - une comparaison instructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H

    2007-02-15

    Denmark and Sweden are close neighbors, they have pretty much the same Climate, so that it is interesting to try to understand what makes them so different in their per capita GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from fuel combustion. Indeed, the CO{sub 2} emissions of Denmark and Sweden are practically equal while the population of Sweden is much larger. Thus, the per capita CO{sub 2} emissions of Denmark are 63 % larger than those of Sweden. Denmark resorts heavily to fossil fuels for its production of both its electric power and its industrial heat whereas Sweden resorts to other primary energy sources which are either renewable or do not emit CO{sub 2}. True, Sweden is in a privileged situation for its access to hydro power and to biomass but Denmark could considerably reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions if it were to call on nuclear power as Sweden has been doing. (A.L.B.)

  20. Population-based multicase-control study in common tumors in Spain (MCC-Spain: rationale and study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Castaño-Vinyals

    2015-07-01

    Discussion: This study, conducted within the Spanish Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBERESP, is a unique initiative to evaluate etiological factors for common cancers and will promote cancer research and prevention in Spain.