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Sample records for sweden iceland denmark

  1. The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and Contributions from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath, Ed.; Bergsten, Christer, Ed.; Goodchild, Simon, Ed.; Palsdottir, Gudbjorg, Ed.; Sondergaard, Bettina Dahl, Ed.; Haapasalo, Lenni, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The First Sourcebook on Nordic Research in Mathematics Education: Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland provides the first comprehensive and unified treatment of historical and contemporary research trends in mathematics education in the Nordic world. The book is organized in sections co-ordinated by active researchers in…

  2. Caries-preventive methods used for children and adolescents in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källestål, C; Wang, N J; Petersen, P E; Arnadottir, I B

    1999-04-01

    Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have all had a similar decline in dental caries during the last 20 years, although the decline has come later in Iceland. The purpose of this study was to compare the caries-preventive methods used for children and adolescents in these four countries. Questionnaires were sent to random samples of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental nurses working with children during 1995 and 1996. The results showed that the use of preventive methods was generally consistent between the countries. Nevertheless there were differences between the countries concerning the choice of preventive strategy for risk patients and also in how prevention was implemented. Danish dental care providers chose oral hygiene education as the priority, which they put into practice. Apart from fluoride varnish for some patients, most of them did not use or recommend fluoride except fluoride toothpaste. The Norwegian and Icelandic dental care providers chose both oral hygiene education and the use of fluoride as priorities, while most Swedish dental care providers preferred to provide dietary advice and oral hygiene education, and additional fluoride for risk patients. The differences could not be explained by other variables than nationality, implying that there are differences between the dental cultures in the four countries. The informational basis of decisions on preventive strategies varied between the different dental professionals in each country as well as between the countries, indicating that national professional cultures are being shaped differently. Despite the differences in choice of preventive methods, the dental health of children varies little across the frontiers. This raises the question of the significance of the choice of preventive methods to the decline of dental caries and points towards an urgent need to develop evidence-based preventive strategies.

  3. Characteristics of nursing studies in diabetes research published over three decades in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Graue, Marit; Leksell, Janeth

    2015-01-01

    research literature originating in four Nordic countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland. Our aims were (i) to catalogue and characterise trends in research designs and research areas of these studies published over time and (ii) to describe how research involving nurses in Nordic countries has......Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing...... nurse researchers have contributed to the development of new knowledge in self-management of diabetes in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and to some extent also in the treatment and care of diabetes foot ulcers. Future research may benefit from (i) larger nurse-led research programmes organised...

  4. Use of SSRI and SNRI Antidepressants during Pregnancy: A Population-Based Study from Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoega, Helga; Kieler, Helle; Nørgaard, Mette; Furu, Kari; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Brandt, Lena; Haglund, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to describe utilization of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), including trends in prevalence, characteristics of users, drug switching and changes in prescribed doses in a large group of pregnant women across four Nordic countries. A drug utilization study based on linked individual-level data from the nationwide prescription- and medical birth registers in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The study population comprised all pregnancies in these countries, resulting in a live birth or stillbirth after gestational week 22 from January 1st 2008 to December 31st 2012 (N = 1 162 470). In addition to the main study drugs SSRIs and SNRIs, we included (concurrent) use of other antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics and hypnotics. A total of 38 219 (3.3%) pregnancies were exposed to SSRIs and 5 634 (0.5%) to SNRIs. Prevalence of SSRI and SNRI use varied by country (1.8% in Norway to 7.0% in Iceland). Use and prescribed dosages decreased with each passing trimester of pregnancy; prevalence was 2.7% at conception, and 2.1%, 1.7% and 1.3% respectively in 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester. In 0.6% of pregnancies women filled a prescription before pregnancy and in every trimester. In one third of exposed pregnancies, women were also dispensed anxiolytics, hypnotics or sedatives. Use of SSRI and SNRI use during pregnancy varied between the Nordic countries, but the overall prevalence remained low and relatively stable from 2008 to 2012. The low prevalence of use and high proportion of women who discontinue treatment in pregnancy raise questions about adequate treatment of depression in pregnant women.

  5. Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Denmark and Sweden have some of the largest public sectors in Europe. They are also characterized by predominantly voluntaristic labor market models where collective bargaining and employee involvement play a relatively strong role in public sector employment relations (ER). In this chapter, we...... more profound in Sweden than in Denmark, but they took place before the 2008 crisis. In Sweden, an economic crisis in the 1990s was a much more important driver than the post- 2008 crisis. The 1990s crisis contributed to an earlier implementation of NPM and to a higher degree of decentralization...

  6. Characteristics of nursing studies in diabetes research published over three decades in Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Marjolein M; Graue, Marit; Leksell, Janeth; Smide, Bibbi; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sigurdardottir, Arun K

    2016-06-01

    Similarities and differences across borders of Nordic countries constitute a suitable context for investigating and discussing factors related to the development of diabetes nursing research over the last three decades. The present study reviewed the entire body of contemporary diabetes nursing research literature originating in four Nordic countries: Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland. Our aims were (i) to catalogue and characterise trends in research designs and research areas of these studies published over time and (ii) to describe how research involving nurses in Nordic countries has contributed to diabetes research overall. The larger goal of our analyses was to produce a comprehensive picture of this research in order to guide future studies in the field. We conducted a narrative literature review by systematically searching Medline, Medline in process, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. These searches were limited to studies published between 1979 and 2009 that had an abstract available in English or a Nordic language. Two researchers independently selected studies for analysis, leading to the inclusion of 164 relevant publications for analysis. In summary, Nordic nurse researchers have contributed to the development of new knowledge in self-management of diabetes in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and to some extent also in the treatment and care of diabetes foot ulcers. Future research may benefit from (i) larger nurse-led research programmes organised in networks in order to share knowledge and expertise across national groups and borders, (ii) more multidisciplinary collaborations in order to promote patient-centred care and (iii) further research directed towards improving the dissemination and implementation of research findings. Using complex intervention designs and a mix of research methods will enrich the research. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Building Information Modelling in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Jóhannesson, Elvar Ingi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of building information modelling (BIM) in the Nordic countries of Europe with particular focus on the Danish building industry with the aim of making use of its experience for the Icelandic building industry. Design/methodology......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of building information modelling (BIM) in the Nordic countries of Europe with particular focus on the Danish building industry with the aim of making use of its experience for the Icelandic building industry. Design....../methodology/aptroach – The research is based on two separate analyses. In the first part, the deployment of information and communication technology (ICT) in the Icelandic building industry is investigated and compared with the other Nordic countries. In the second part the experience in Denmark from implementing and working...... with BIM is studied. Based on findings from both parts, ideas and recommendations are put forward for the Icelandic building industry about feasible ways of implementing BIM. Findings – Among the results are that the use of BIM is very limited in the Icelandic companies compared to the other Nordic...

  8. NATO or Neutrality : Decisions by Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Kevin A. Chaney September 2017 Thesis Advisor: David S. Yost Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO OR NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN 5. FUNDING...Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Although Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are ethnically and

  9. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... infants (0.00195 and 0.00145) and intrapartum deaths of non-malformed infants (0.00042 and 0.00019) was significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. CONCLUSION: Application of the Nordic-Baltic Perinatal Death Classification on perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden in 1991 raises the questions...... as to why the rate of perinatal death of malformed infants is higher in Denmark than in Sweden and whether intrapartum care in Denmark could be improved....

  10. New Investment Models for Broadband in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse whether the developmental policy model applied for fibre roll-out in Sweden can be used as inspiration for the Danish telecom policy. This is done through a comparison of the two very different policy approaches applied in Denmark and Sweden. A case study...

  11. The thirteenth-century runic revival in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Tarrin Jon

    2016-01-01

    alphabet. This paper examines a number of runic phenomenon from the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries in Denmark and Iceland to argue that they belong to a cultural revival movement rather than forming part of a continuous runic tradition stretching back into the early Middle Ages. Some...... of these runic texts show some connection with the Danish royal court, and should rather be seen as forming part of the changes in literary culture emanating from continental Europe from the late twelfth century and onwards: they all show a combined interest in Latin learning and vernacular literary forms....

  12. Decomposing the Differences in Cancer Mortality between Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron Boucher, Marie-Pier; Wensink, Maarten Jan; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    mortality. Preliminary results suggest that diagnosis at a later stage could be the only reason why Danes suffer higher mortality from breast cancer. Later stage diagnosis explains 37% of the difference in mortality from lung cancer. Higher mortality from lung cancer is observed at each stage in Denmark......Cancer survival tends to be lower in Denmark than in comparable countries like Sweden. It has been suggested that this difference can be partly explained by higher tobacco use by Danes than Swedes and a more adverse stage at diagnosis distribution. In this paper, we aim to decompose the difference...... in cancer mortality between Denmark and Sweden by their differences in 1) age composition at diagnosis, 2) stage composition at diagnosis and 3) the force of mortality by age and stage. This procedure allows quantification of the contribution of each of these factors to the overall difference in cancer...

  13. Visibly ethnically different families in Denmark & Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    This paper foregounds visibly ethnically different families (Phoenix, 2011) in Denmark. These comprise both.families with parents from two different countries (India and Denmark) and families with transnational adoptees (South Korea). The former are barely scientifically explored due to the domin......This paper foregounds visibly ethnically different families (Phoenix, 2011) in Denmark. These comprise both.families with parents from two different countries (India and Denmark) and families with transnational adoptees (South Korea). The former are barely scientifically explored due...... and poststructuralism in the latter. The results indicate both the possibilities and the limitations involved, highlighting the internal - intersubjective experiences, and the external aspects - the structural factors, other(s) gaze towards the visible differences. Furthermore some parental experiences in transmitting...... racial literacy- identifying racism as a serious problem and preparing children to cope are seen. For the transnational adoptees, inclusion as Danish implies exclusion from categories such as Korean. Also anxiety from the adoptive family regarding exclusion/alienation entails ambivalences and paradoxes...

  14. Coordination between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wadmann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insights into effective policy strategies for improved coordination of care is needed. In this study we describe and compare the policy strategies chosen in Denmark and Sweden, and discuss them in relation to interorganisational network theory. Policy practice: The policy initiatives to improve collaboration between primary and secondary healthcare in Denmark and Sweden include legislation and agreements aiming at clarifying areas of responsibility and defining requirements, creation of links across organisational boarders. In Denmark many initiatives have been centrally induced, while development of local solutions is more prominent in Sweden. Many Danish initiatives target the administrative level, while in Sweden initiatives are also directed at the operational level. In both countries economic incentives for collaboration are weak or lacking, and use of sanctions as a regulatory mean is limited. Discussion and conclusion: Despite a variety of policy initiatives, lacking or poorly developed structures to support implementation function as barriers for coordination. The two cases illustrate that even in two relatively coherent health systems, with regional management of both the hospital and general practice sector, there are issues to resolve in regard to administrative and operational coordination. The interorganisational network literature can provide useful tools and concepts for interpreting such issues.

  15. Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in general practice: Comparison between Denmark and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rún Sigurðardóttir, Nanna; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Munck, Anders; Bjerrum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    To compare the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in two countries with different prevalence of antimicrobial resistance: Denmark and Iceland. A cross-sectional study. General practitioners (GPs) in Denmark (n = 78) and Iceland (n = 21) registered all patients with URTI according to the Audit Project Odense (APO) method during a three-week period in the winter months of 2008 and 2009. Appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in patients with URTI in Denmark and Iceland. A total of 1428 patients were registered (Denmark: n = 1208; Iceland: n = 220). A majority of patients in both countries were prescribed antibiotics, and only a minority of the prescriptions could be classified as appropriate prescribing. In general, Icelandic GPs more often prescribed antibiotics (Iceland = 75.8% vs. Denmark = 59.3%), but Danish GPs had a higher percentage of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for sinusitis, and Icelandic GPs for pharyngotonsillitis. No differences were found for acute otitis media (AOM). The different antibiotic prescribing patterns between Denmark and Iceland could not fully be explained by different symptoms and signs among patients. Icelandic GPs have a higher antibiotic prescribing rate compared with Danish GPs, but the percentage of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is highest in Denmark for sinusitis, and in Iceland for pharyngotonsillitis. Key points Within the Nordic countries there are marked differences in antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic use. Iceland differs from Denmark by a higher antibiotic prescribing rate and a higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. The majority of antibiotics are prescribed in primary care and most often for upper respiratory infections (URTIs). Only a minor amount of antibiotic prescriptions for URTIs can be classified as appropriate; inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is higher in Denmark than in Iceland for sinusitis and the opposite for

  16. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... to some extent could reflect differences in the quality of care, indicated by the numbers of perinatal deaths in categories of potentially avoidable deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 97% of all perinatal deaths in 1991 in the two countries were analyzed. A new classification focusing...... on potential avoidability from a health services perspective was elaborated at a Nordic-Baltic workshop, using the variables: time of death in relation to admission and delivery, fetal malformation, gestational age, growth-retardation and Apgar score at 5 min. RESULTS: Rates of perinatal deaths of malformed...

  17. Epidemiology of Chronic Pain in Denmark and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Harker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Estimates on the epidemiology of chronic pain vary widely throughout Europe. It is unclear whether this variation reflects true differences between populations or methodological factors. Information on the epidemiology of chronic pain can support decision makers in allocating adequate health care resources. Methods. In order to obtain epidemiological data on chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden, we conducted a literature review of epidemiological data primarily on chronic noncancer pain, prioritising studies of highest quality, recency, and validity by conducting a systematic search for relevant studies. Following quality assessment, data were summarised and assigned to the research questions. Results. The prevalence of moderate to severe noncancer pain was estimated at 16% in Denmark and 18% in Sweden. Chronic pain impacts negatively on perceived health status, quality of life and is associated with increased cost. Despite using pain medications, a large proportion of chronic pain sufferers have inadequate pain control. There was a lack of high-quality and low-bias studies with clear inclusion criteria. Conclusions. In both Denmark and Sweden, chronic pain is a common health problem which is potentially undertreated and warrants attention of health care workers, policy makers and researchers. Future research should utilise clear reporting guidelines to assist decision and policy makers, in this important area.

  18. Antibacterial use in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark 1999-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gudnason, Thorolfur; Jensen, Ulrich Stab

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark are neighbouring Nordic countries with great ethnic, cultural, and political similarities and are relatively homogeneous. Important information about prescribing practices can be obtained by comparing the antibacterial use in these countries....... The objective was to describe, compare, and analyse the use of systemic antibacterial agents in these countries during the y 1999-2011. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark on systemic antibacterial use and expressed in defined daily dosages (DDD). Prescription data were also...... obtained for specific age groups. RESULTS: The total antibacterial use for the y 1999-2011 varied markedly between the 3 countries, with a mean use of 21.8 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day (DID) in Iceland, 17.7 in the Faroe Islands, and 16.3 in Denmark. The total use remained fairly constant over the years...

  19. Antibacterial use in the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark 1999-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gudnason, Thorolfur; Jensen, Ulrich Stab; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Kristinsson, Karl G

    2014-07-01

    The Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark are neighbouring Nordic countries with great ethnic, cultural, and political similarities and are relatively homogeneous. Important information about prescribing practices can be obtained by comparing the antibacterial use in these countries. The objective was to describe, compare, and analyse the use of systemic antibacterial agents in these countries during the y 1999-2011. Data were obtained from the Faroe Islands, Iceland, and Denmark on systemic antibacterial use and expressed in defined daily dosages (DDD). Prescription data were also obtained for specific age groups. The total antibacterial use for the y 1999-2011 varied markedly between the 3 countries, with a mean use of 21.8 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day (DID) in Iceland, 17.7 in the Faroe Islands, and 16.3 in Denmark. The total use remained fairly constant over the years in the Faroe Islands and Iceland, whereas in Denmark it increased gradually from 13.5 DID in 1999 to 19.5 DID in 2011. The higher use in Iceland can be explained by much higher consumption of tetracyclines. There was also considerable variation in the use of individual penicillins and macrolides between the countries. Despite the great ethnic and cultural similarities of these 3 countries, we found marked differences in total antibacterial use and important differences in the use of individual antibacterials.

  20. A review of biomass gasification technologies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    This report provides an overview of existing technologies and projects in Denmark and Sweden with a focus on the Öresund region. Furthermore it presents the research and development of biomass gasification in the region and these two countries. The list of existing gasification plants from...... laboratory scale projects to big scale plants is given. The report ends with an overview of future gasification projects as well as potential experience exchanges that could occur between the countries. We regard biomass gasification as one of the key technologies in future renewable energy systems....

  1. Qualification paths of adult educators in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Per; Köpsén, Susanne; Larson, Anne

    2013-01-01

    fields of education and training. In this study, we analyse the qualification paths, or learning trajectories, of prospective adult educators in Sweden and Denmark. The analysis is based on narrative interviews with 29 students in training to become adult educators. The career paths of adult educators...... and the relation to the learners is part of the professional development. Finally, we argue that both academic studies and hands-on work in the adult education community are crucial parts of the adult educator’s qualification path....

  2. An Inevitable Progress? Educational Restructuring in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Lindblad, Sverker; Simola, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how current changes in the system of reasoning about education in Finland, Iceland, and Sweden are characterized by culturally woven patterns in high marketization strategies are introduced as technically effective devices both for educating the best and to increase inclusion. The system of reason presupposes that the neo-liberalist…

  3. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  4. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rasmus B; Danielsen, Signe H; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-10-20

    Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condition score (BCS) based on owner perception with that of an experienced person and to correlate the BCS to body weight (BW) and morphometric measures in a group of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark. A total of 254 Icelandic horses (≥4 years; 140 geldings, 105 mares, 9 stallions) from 46 different farms were included. All horses were assigned a BCS on a scale from 1 to 9 (1 is poor, 5 is moderate and 9 is extremely fat) by their owner and by an experienced person. Two weight tapes were used to assess BW. Girth circumference (GC), neck circumference (NC) and height at withers (HW) were measured, and the GC:HW and NC:HW ratios were calculated. Categorising the horses into four groups, 5.9 % were underweight (BCS 3-4), 70.1 % were optimal (BCS 5-6), 13.8 % were overweight (BCS 7) and 10.2 % were obese (BCS 8-9). The GC:HW and NC:HW ratios increased with increasing BCS, as did the BW estimated with the weight tapes. A GC:HW ratio >1.21 might indicate overweight or obesity in Icelandic horses. Horse owners underestimated the BCS of their horses compared to an experienced person. The results from this study show that 24.0 % of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark are overweight or obese, and that owners tend to underestimate the BCS of their Icelandic horses. The GC:HW ratio might indicate overweight or obesity, however, the ratio for Icelandic horses is different than reported for horses and ponies of other breeds.

  5. BMPs in urban stormwater management in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Viklander, M.; Linde, Jens Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Best Management Practices (BMPs) for control of stormwater runoff include structural elemts (structural BMPs) that can be applied on the local scale (e.g. infiltration), the drainage catchment scale (e.g. ponds and treatment, or wetlands) and the receiving water scale (e.g. retrofitting of river....... A review of recent experiences with selected stormwater BMPs in Denmark and Sweden is presented and discussed with respect to the current issues related to legislation and the forces driving future development in stormwater management....... reaches), and non-structural BMPs, such as controls of chemicals or building materials, and street sweeping. The available knowledge of stormwater BMPs performance in pollution control is inconsistent and the effect of various BMPs on receiving water quality is either poorly understood, or not known...

  6. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. METHOD: A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. RESULTS: Life expectancy was 24-28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland......, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (-0.8 years) and Sweden (-1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0-5.2), all diseases...

  7. Trends in Care and Services for Elderly Individuals in Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Notes that Denmark and Sweden have achieved reduction in institutionalization of elderly individuals by increasing home care and housing with services and adaptation. Describes innovative model of nursing home care in Denmark--a self-care model that fosters independent living and decision making as long as possible. (Author/NB)

  8. Differences in sickness absence in Sweden and Denmark: the cross national HAKNAK study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Vaez, Marjan

    2009-01-01

    : More subjects from the Swedish study population reported more than 7 days of sickness absence. Factors associated with sickness absence were largely similar in the two countries. The difference in absence level between Sweden and Denmark was not associated with differences in age, gender, skill level......: In 2000, two cross-sectional samples of 8562 public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark were surveyed. The study outcome, self-reported number of sick-leave days the year preceding interview, was dichotomized into 7 days or less, and more than 7 days. Chi square test was used to analyse distribution......AIM: To investigate potential differences in sickness absence among public sector employees in Sweden and Denmark, and to what extent a difference was associated with age, gender, physical and psychosocial work environment exposures, lifestyle factors, self-rated health or work ability. METHODS...

  9. Recent hip fracture trends in Sweden and Denmark with age-period-cohort effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengren, B E; Björk, J; Cooper, C

    2017-01-01

    born thereafter however seem to have a higher hip fracture risk, and we expect a reversal of the present decline in rates, with increasing hip fracture rates in both Denmark and Sweden during the upcoming decade. CONCLUSIONS: Time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in SE and DK. This may......This study used nationwide hip fracture data from Denmark and Sweden during 1987-2010 to examine effects of (birth) cohort and period. We found that time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in the two countries. Results also indicated that hip fracture rates may increase in the not so...... far future. INTRODUCTION: The reasons for the downturn in hip fracture rates remain largely unclear but circumstances earlier in life seem important. METHODS: We ascertained hip fractures in the populations ≥50 years in Denmark and Sweden in national discharge registers. Country- and sex-specific age...

  10. Evaluation of Seafood Product Concepts by Young Adults and Families with Young Children from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Einarsdottir, G.; Schelvis, R.; Luten, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that tested the responses to 14 seafood concepts among young adults and families with young children in Denmark, Norway, and Iceland. This study was aimed at gaining insight into the evaluation of new seafood product concepts by individuals with low

  11. Food Marketing to Children in Sweden and Denmark: a Missed Opportunity for Nordic Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    2017-01-01

    This contribution evaluates the rules in Sweden and Denmark on marketing of unhealthy food and non-alcoholic beverages to children in light of the WHO Recommendations. The countries are analysed in tandem as, despite similarities in their core legislation on marketing, they have pursued distinct...... approaches that provide policy makers with interesting insights. In the case of Sweden, one might expect a proactive approach. Sweden is, of course, well-known for its opposition to the commercialisation of childhood – having prohibited television advertising directed at children since the advent...

  12. Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This issue of Background Notes examines the country of Iceland. In the profile section, the geography, people, government, economy, and membership in international organizations are briefly examined. An island located in the North Atlantic Ocean east of Greenland, almost 80% of Iceland's land mass is relative wasteland (glaciers, lakes, a mountainous lava desert, and others). Literature is the heritage that Iceland has given the world, especially in the forms of poetry and the Sagas. Iceland is governed by a president who is elected to a 4-year term and who has limited powers as well as a Prime Minister and the Cabinet with most of the executive functions. The current party coalition is committed to Iceland's continued membership in NATO and to maintaining the presence of US forces at the Keflavik NATO Base. Mainly, the coalition has attempted to adopt economic measures to counter Iceland's economic difficulties. Its economic backbone is the fishing industry and the US is the major overseas market for fish products. There is currently an effort underway to spur greater GNP growth rates. Iceland maintains diplomatic and commercial relations with the most important nations of the East and West but its ties with other Nordic countries and the US are especially lose. Also included in this Background Notes issue is a section on travel notes, principal Iceland related US officials, principal, Iceland government officials, and history of the country.

  13. Volcanic ash and daily mortality in Sweden after the Icelandic volcano eruption of May 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Anna; Carlsen, Hanne K; Forsberg, Bertil; Johansson, Christer

    2013-12-10

    In the aftermath of the Icelandic volcano Grimsvötn's eruption on 21 May 2011, volcanic ash reached Northern Europe. Elevated levels of ambient particles (PM) were registered in mid Sweden. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Grimsvötn eruption had an effect on mortality in Sweden. Based on PM measurements at 16 sites across Sweden, data were classified into an ash exposed data set (Ash area) and an unexposed data set (No ash area). Data on daily all-cause mortality were obtained from Statistics Sweden for the time period 1 April through 31 July 2011. Mortality ratios were calculated as the ratio between the daily number of deaths in the Ash area and the No ash area. The exposure period was defined as the week following the days with elevated particle concentrations, namely 24 May through 31 May. The control period was defined as 1 April through 23 May and 1 June through 31 July. There was no absolute increase in mortality during the exposure period. However, during the exposure period the mean mortality ratio was 2.42 compared with 2.17 during the control period, implying a relatively higher number of deaths in the Ash area than in the No ash area. The differences in ratios were mostly due to a single day, 31 May, and were not statistically significant when tested with a Mann-Whitney non-parametric test (p > 0.3). The statistical power was low with only 8 days in the exposure period (24 May through 31 May). Assuming that the observed relative differences were not due to chance, the results would imply an increase of 128 deaths during the exposure period 24-31 May. If 31 May was excluded, the number of extra deaths was reduced to 20. The results of the present study are contradicting and inconclusive, but may indicate that all-cause mortality was increased by the ash-fall from the Grimsvötn eruption. Meta-analysis or pooled analysis of data from neighboring countries might make it possible to reach sufficient statistical power to study effects

  14. Norovirus outbreaks linked to oyster consumption in the United Kingdom, Norway, France, Sweden and Denmark, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrell, T; Dusch, V; Ethelberg, S; Harris, J; Hjertqvist, M; Jourdan-da Silva, N; Koller, A; Lenglet, A; Lisby, M; Vold, L

    2010-03-25

    This paper reports on several simultaneous outbreaks of norovirus infection linked to the consumption of raw oysters. Since January 2010, 334 cases in 65 clusters were reported from five European countries: the United Kingdom, Norway, France, Sweden and Denmark. The article describes the available epidemiological and microbiological evidence of these outbreaks.

  15. Learning from Wind Energy Policy in the EU: Lessons from Denmark, Sweden and Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2007-01-01

    In order to deduce the most efficient policies for promoting wind power, this paper compares the different national energy policies adopted by Denmark, Sweden and Spain, and relates them to wind energy outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the importance of long-range national energy policies...

  16. Mortality and life expectancy of people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, J; Wahlbeck, K; Laursen, T M; Gissler, M; Nordentoft, M; Hällgren, J; Arffman, M; Ösby, U

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse mortality and life expectancy in people with alcohol use disorder in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Method A population-based register study including all patients admitted to hospital diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (1 158 486 person-years) from 1987 to 2006 in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Results Life expectancy was 24–28 years shorter in people with alcohol use disorder than in the general population. From 1987 to 2006, the difference in life expectancy between patients with alcohol use disorder and the general population increased in men (Denmark, 1.8 years; Finland, 2.6 years; Sweden, 1.0 years); in women, the difference in life expectancy increased in Denmark (0.3 years) but decreased in Finland (−0.8 years) and Sweden (−1.8 years). People with alcohol use disorder had higher mortality from all causes of death (mortality rate ratio, 3.0–5.2), all diseases and medical conditions (2.3–4.8), and suicide (9.3–35.9). Conclusion People hospitalized with alcohol use disorder have an average life expectancy of 47–53 years (men) and 50–58 years (women) and die 24–28 years earlier than people in the general population. PMID:25243359

  17. Use of prescribed opioids by children and adolescents: Differences between Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahic, M; Fredheim, O M; Borchgrevink, P C; Skurtveit, S

    2015-09-01

    There are few studies on the use of opioids among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the 1-year prevalence of prescribed opioid dispensing in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and to compare gender and age differences in the use of weak and strong opioids between the three countries. Data on the dispensing of opioids were collected from the websites of the complete national prescription databases in the three countries. All individuals aged 0-19 with at least one prescription of opioids during the study period were included. The 1-year prevalence of opioid use among young individuals aged 0-19 years increased during the study period (2006-2012) in Denmark from 2.5 to 3.4 per thousand, in Norway from 10.7 to 13.4 per thousand and in Sweden from 5.9 to 7.1 per thousand. In all three countries, more boys than girls used opioids between the ages of 0 and 10, whereas girls were the major users in the age range 11-19. Use of opioids in all three countries was dominated by weak opioids, codeine being the most dominant in Norway and Sweden and tramadol in Denmark. The 1-year prevalence of prescribed opioid use among children and adolescents in Norway was far higher than in Denmark and Sweden. During the study period, an increasing use of opioids among children and adolescents was observed in all three countries. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  18. Preschool Teachers' View on Learning in Preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Sandberg, Anette; Frøkjaer, Thorleif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children's learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is "learning"? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children's learning? What is the role of participation in children's learning? The…

  19. Trends and differences in tuberculosis incidences and clustering among natives in Denmark, Sweden and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M K; Lillebaek, T; Andersen, A B

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Denmark, Sweden and Finland, by focusing on the native population in order to identify epidemiologic differences and thus indirectly possible differences in TB control. METHODS: TB incidence trends from 1990 through 2015 were compared...... in conjunction with the 15-locus MIRU-VNTR method was used for 2012-2013 and translated into the 24-locus MIRU-VNTR when feasible, and for 2014-2015 only MIRU-VNTR was used. Both incidence trends and molecular epidemiology were assessed for native cases. RESULTS: The average annual rate of change in TB incidence.......2% for native Swedes and Finns respectively. For 2014-2015, a similar pattern was seen. CONCLUSIONS: The decline of TB among natives in Denmark is slower than for Sweden and Finland, and it seems Denmark has more active transmission among natives. The focused assessment on basic native TB epidemiology reveals...

  20. A comparative study of educational inequality in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-01-01

    in Finland was relatively stable. Conclusions There were persisting educational inequalities in stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the 1980s and 1990s. Inequalities were stable or decreasing except in Sweden, where an increase in inequality was observed. This increase was not solely......Background The stillbirth rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are among the lowest in the world, but socioeconomic disparities in stillbirth still exist. This study examined the educational patterns in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. Methods...... socioeconomic factors from various national registers. Linear and logistic regression were used to calculate RR and risk differences for stillbirth according to maternal educational attainment. Results The risk of stillbirth was lowest in Finland and highest in Denmark. The risk decreased over time in Denmark...

  1. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    2014-01-01

    and extracts some key factors underpinning the effective whole-of-government and whole-of-society efforts. It then considers experiences of several nations – Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands and Sweden – in building integrated security and defence systems. Finally, the paper investigates the ‘state of play...

  2. Organization and overall job satisfaction among publicly employed, salaried dentists in Sweden and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordell, Sven; Söderfeldt, Björn; Hjalmers, Karin; Berthelsen, Hanne; Bergström, Kamilla

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden and Denmark, clinical dentistry is changing and public dentistry is in transition towards more market orientation. Dentists' overall job satisfaction is important for how public dentistry can fulfil the new expectations from patients, the public and politicians. The aim of this study was to investigate what organizational factors were important for publicly employed salaried dentists' overall job satisfaction. A random sample of active, general dental practitioners (private and publicly employed) was selected in Denmark and in Sweden, and they received a postal questionnaire. The number of questionnaires was 1835 and the response rate was 68% (n = 1226). This study analysed only the publicly employed dentists. The sampling frame for the Swedish dentists was 431, response rate 68.9% (n = 297) and for the Danish ones 194, response rate 81.9% (n = 159). Multivariate regression was used with overall job satisfaction as a dependent variable. Common organizational variables were important. The used model explained between 32% (Sweden) and 39% (Denmark) of the variance in overall job satisfaction. The only significant individual factor was less job satisfaction for Swedish dentists born outside Sweden. An organizational climate characterized by a focus on professional values was associated with job satisfaction in both countries. Among the Swedish dentists, number of colleagues and degree of influence were also important and among the Danish ones sufficient time for patients. Organizational factors had an impact on salaried publicly employed dentists' overall job satisfaction in both countries. The findings may have implications for other Human Service Organizations with employed professionals.

  3. Labour Force Activity after 65: What Explain Recent Trends in Denmark, Germany and Sweden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark is rather small in this age group. While the increase in Germany mainly seems to be a result of policy reforms, the increase in Sweden appear to be a result of a combination of policy changes and an increasing educational level. Financial incentives seem most important in Germany and only of minor......In most OECD member countries labour force attachment has increased in recent years in the age groups 60-64 years in particular, but also among people 65 years and older. Focus in this paper is on the trend in older workers’ labour force participation in Denmark, Germany and Sweden since 2004. Main...... emphasis is given to people aged 65-69 years eligible for social security retirement programs from age 65. The gender aspect is included to accommodate different trends for women and men. To explain country differences in trends, the importance of changes in retirement policies of relevance for this age...

  4. Preschool teacher's view on learning in preschool in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig; Frøkjær, Thorleif; Johansson, Inge

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how preschool teachers in Sweden and Denmark perceive children’s learning in preschool. The study aimed to answer the following questions: What is ‘learning’? How do children learn? What are the best conditions for children’s learning? What is the role...... similarities between how Danish and Swedish preschool teachers think of learning and participation. This supports earlier assumption about the coherence of Nordic preschool beliefs which unites education and care....

  5. The Paediatric Cataract Register (PECARE): an overview of operated childhood cataract in Sweden and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Gunilla; Haargaard, Birgitte; Basit, Saima; Lundvall, Anna; Nyström, Alf; Rosensvärd, Annika; Tornqvist, Kristina

    2018-02-01

    To report basic epidemiological data concerning surgically treated childhood cataract in Sweden and Denmark. Data were derived from the Paediatric Cataract Register (PECARE), a binational, web-based surgical register representing Sweden and Denmark. All children operated before 8 years of age between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2013 were included. Age-specific prevalence per 100 000 population was calculated. A total 574 operations in 213 boys (51.7%) and 199 girls (48.3%), altogether 412 children, were registered, the vast majority (n = 395/412; 95.9%) being individuals with congenital/infantile cataract. Of these 412, a total of 294 (147 boys and 147 girls) were Swedish and 118 (66 boys and 52 girls) were Danish. The age-specific prevalence of operated cataract in Sweden was 31/100 000 and in Denmark 28/100 000. In 454 of 574 eyes (79.1%), the cataract was dense. Altogether, 266 of 574 (46.3%) were operated during the first year of life, 193 during the first 12 weeks representing 33.6% of all operations. A primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was done in altogether 411 of 574 eyes (71,6%). In total, 210 unilateral cataract operations (210/574; 36.6%) were performed. Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) was present in 64 of 193 (33.1%) of those with a congenital unilateral cataract. In 84 individuals (84/395; 21.3%) with congenital or infantile cataract, a coexisting disorder was found. The age-specific binational prevalence of operated congenital/infantile cataract in Sweden and Denmark is 30/100 000. About half of the operations are performed within the first year of life, one-third within the first 3 months. In our study population, a primary IOL was implanted in the majority of cases. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Long term variations of extreme rainfall in Denmark and southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2015-01-01

    the anthropogenic changes are imposed. This study identifies multi-decadal variations in daily rainfall extremes from Denmark and southern Sweden, with a recurrence level relevant for flood hazard analysis. Based on smoothed series it is concluded that the frequency of the extreme events shows both a general...... and Haparanda. The identification of a cyclic pattern in the extreme rainfall is highly relevant for our understanding of the non-stationarities in flood hazard. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg....

  7. Usage of veterinary therapeutic antimicrobials in Denmark, Norway and Sweden following termination of antimicrobial growth promoter use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grave, K.; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Odensvik, K.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were phased out in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 1998-1999, 1995 and 1986, respectively. The annual usage of therapeutic antimicrobials in animals in Denmark almost doubled during the period when AGPs were phased out (1988-1999) and in the subsequent 2 years....

  8. Epidemiology of Massive Transfusion: A Binational Study From Sweden and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmin, Märit; Chiesa, Flaminia; Vasan, Senthil K; Wikman, Agneta; Norda, Rut; Rostgaard, Klaus; Vesterager Pedersen, Ole Birger; Erikstrup, Christian; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Titlestad, Kjell; Ullum, Henrik; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing focus on massive transfusion, but there is a paucity of comprehensive descriptions of the massively transfused patients and their outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the incidence rate of massive transfusion, patient characteristics, and the mortality of massively transfused patients. Descriptive cohort study. Nationwide study with data from Sweden and Denmark. The study was based on the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database, including all patients receiving 10 or more red cell concentrate transfusions in Sweden from 1987 and in Denmark from 1996. A total of 92,057 patients were included. Patients were followed until the end of 2012. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the patients and indications. Post transfusion mortality was expressed as crude 30-day mortality and as long-term mortality using the Kaplan-Meier method and using standardized mortality ratios. The incidence of massive transfusion was higher in Denmark (4.5 per 10,000) than in Sweden (2.5 per 10,000). The most common indication for massive transfusion was major surgery (61.2%) followed by trauma (15.4%). Massive transfusion due to obstetrical bleeding constituted only 1.8%. The overall 5-year mortality was very high (54.6%), however with large differences between indication groups, ranging from 91.1% among those transfused for a malignant disease without surgery to 1.7% among patients transfused for obstetrical bleeding. The early standardized mortality ratios were high and decreased thereafter, but remained elevated throughout the time period. This large-scale study based on nationwide data from Sweden and Denmark describes the complete range of massive transfusion. We report a nonnegligible incidence and both a high absolute mortality and high standardized mortality ratio. The general pattern was similar for Sweden and Denmark, and we believe that similar patterns may be found in other high-resource countries. The study provides a

  9. An instructive comparison of Denmark and Sweden CO{sub 2} emissions; Les emissions de CO{sub 2} du Danemark et de la Suede - une comparaison instructive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, E.; Nifenecker, H

    2007-02-15

    Denmark and Sweden are close neighbors, they have pretty much the same Climate, so that it is interesting to try to understand what makes them so different in their per capita GHG (Green House Gas) emissions from fuel combustion. Indeed, the CO{sub 2} emissions of Denmark and Sweden are practically equal while the population of Sweden is much larger. Thus, the per capita CO{sub 2} emissions of Denmark are 63 % larger than those of Sweden. Denmark resorts heavily to fossil fuels for its production of both its electric power and its industrial heat whereas Sweden resorts to other primary energy sources which are either renewable or do not emit CO{sub 2}. True, Sweden is in a privileged situation for its access to hydro power and to biomass but Denmark could considerably reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions if it were to call on nuclear power as Sweden has been doing. (A.L.B.)

  10. A comparative study of educational inequality in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden 1981-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Ane L; Mortensen, Laust H; Cnattingius, Sven; Arntzen, Annett; Gissler, Mika; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-03-01

    The stillbirth rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are among the lowest in the world, but socioeconomic disparities in stillbirth still exist. This study examined the educational patterns in the risk of stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden from 1981 to 2000. From the national birth registries, all singleton live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 28 weeks were selected in Denmark (n=1 182 888), Finland (n=419 729), Norway (n=1 006 767) and Sweden (n=1 974 101). The births were linked with individual data on parental socioeconomic factors from various national registers. Linear and logistic regression were used to calculate RR and risk differences for stillbirth according to maternal educational attainment. The risk of stillbirth was lowest in Finland and highest in Denmark. The risk decreased over time in Denmark, Norway and Finland, but remained stable in Sweden. Educational gradients were found in all countries in all time periods under study. In Denmark, the gradient remained stable over time. In Norway the gradient decreased slightly during the 1990s, whereas the gradient increased in Sweden. The gradient in Finland was relatively stable. There were persisting educational inequalities in stillbirth in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the 1980s and 1990s. Inequalities were stable or decreasing except in Sweden, where an increase in inequality was observed. This increase was not solely attributable to a decreasing absolute risk of stillbirth as both the relative and absolute measures of inequality increased.

  11. Bats and wind power – investigations required for risk assessment in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlén, Ingemar; Baagøe, Hans J.

    2013-01-01

    Ingemar Ahlén1 & Hans J. Baagøe2 1Department of Ecology, SLU, Box 7002 (Natur icum), SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden, ingemar.ahlen@slu.se 2Natura l History Museum of Denmark, Zoological Museum, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Bats and wind power – investigations required for risk....... to provide data necessary for a meaningful risk assessment. We prepared “Guidelines for bat investigations prior to wind projects” for distribution to authorities. Recommendations were based on our research on bat ecology and behaviour at wind power installations and our many years of experience of bat....... Investigations are obligatory for the following periods: A) At least two separate nights in the breeding season (late June – early August), B) two nights in mid-August to mid-September when bats migrate or disperse. C) If certain “key habitats” are suspected with mass occurrence of insects in spring, two...

  12. DETERMINANTS OF COMPETITIVENESS OF DENMARK, FINLAND AND SWEDEN DURING ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN 2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Leśniewski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article compares the determinants of competitiveness of the Nordic countries and innovation-driven economies in the context of the global financial crisis. Determi-nants analysed during period 2007-2013, in accordance with the methodology used by the World Economic Forum, the IMD World Competitiveness Center and the United Nations Development Programme. The high level of technology development, the good quality of institutions and macroeconomic stability, confirm the high competitiveness of these coun-tries. Denmark, Finland and Sweden as innovation-driven economies, are high ranked on international competitiveness rankings.

  13. Nordic Cuisine, but National Identities: Nordic Cuisines and the Gastronationalist Projects of Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuman, Nicklas; Leer, Jonatan

    2017-01-01

    This article is a cross-national comparison of how food is promoted on tourism websites offering information about Denmark and Sweden – two countries with big national projects targeting the promotion of culinary excellence, following the initiation of “New Nordic Cuisine” (NNC) in 2004. The aim...... is to study similarities and differences in the projects of these two countries, both quantitatively and qualitatively. 19 out of 32 (approx. 59%) Danish texts referred to a shared Nordic culinary identity, whereas this was only the case in five out 51 (approx. 10%) of the Swedish texts. Moreover...

  14. Policies of school-to-work transitions and VET in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Lundahl, Lisbeth; Järvinen, Tero

    trajectories and transitions, but more importantly how these are governed by context-specific transition policies. When comparing the cases of Sweden, Denmark and Finland the modified definition of youth transition policies by Eurofound (2012, p. 108) is utilized. The comparison uses three kinds of measures: a......) measures to prevent dropout in school, b) measures to complete upper secondary education when young people have failed to get an exam/complete grades, and c) measures to facilitate school-to-work transitions and employment....

  15. Case study on the components of an innovative region: Öresund Region (Denmark-Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ştefan Săbău

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How can one describe the components of an innovative region? What characterizes a region as being innovative? This paper presents the close relationship between innovation and regional development in an empirical analysis of the Öresund Region (the south-western part of Scandinavia: Sweden and Denmark, arguing the role of the universities, public institutions and R&D companies in placing the Öresund Region on the map as a world-leading player in providing biotech and medical technology.

  16. Burn injury during long-term oxygen therapy in Denmark and Sweden: the potential role of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanash, Hanan A; Ringbaek, Thomas; Huss, Fredrik; Ekström, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) increases life expectancy in patients with COPD and severe hypoxemia. Smoking is the main cause of burn injury during LTOT. Policy regarding smoking while on LTOT varies between countries. In this study, we compare the incidence of burn injury that required contact with a health care specialist, between Sweden (a country with a strict policy regarding smoking while on LTOT) and Denmark (a country with less strict smoking policy). This was a population-based, cohort study of patients initiating LTOT due to any cause in Sweden and Denmark. Data on diagnoses, external causes, and procedures were obtained from the Swedish and Danish National Patient Registers for inpatient and outpatient care. Patients were followed from January 1, 2000, until the first of the following: LTOT withdrawal, death, or study end (December 31, 2009). The primary end point was burn injury during LTOT. A total of 23,741 patients received LTOT in Denmark and 7,754 patients in Sweden. Most patients started LTOT due to COPD, both in Sweden (74%) and in Denmark (62%). The rate of burn injury while on LTOT was higher in Denmark than in Sweden; 170 (95% confidence interval [CI], 126-225) vs 85 (95% CI, 44-148) per 100,000 person-years; rate ratio 2.0 (95% CI, 1.0-4.1). The risk remained higher after adjustment for gender, age, and diagnosis in multivariate Cox regression, hazard ratio 1.8 (95% CI, 1.0-3.5). Thirty-day mortality after burn injury was 8% in both countries. Compared to Sweden, the rate of burn injury was twice as high in Denmark where smoking is not a contraindication for prescribing LTOT.

  17. A 'civic turn' in Scandinavian family migration policies? Comparing Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Emily Cochran; Borevi, Karin; Mouritsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners' possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration policies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden range widely - from more minimal support and age requirements to high expectations of language skills, work records and even income levels. While in Denmark and increasingly in Norway growing sets of requirements have been justified on the need to protect the welfare state and a Nordic liberal way of life, in Sweden more minimal requirements have been introduced in the name of spurring immigrants' labor market integration even as rights-based reasoning has continued to dominate. In all three countries, new restrictions have been introduced in the wake of the refugee crisis. These cases show how prioritizations of the right to family life vis-à-vis welfare-state sustainability have produced different rules for family entry, and how family migration policies are used to different extents to push civic integration of both new and already settled immigrants.

  18. The male-female health-survival paradox and sex differences in cohort life expectancy in Utah, Denmark, and Sweden 1850-1910

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hanson, Heidi A; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2013-01-01

    similar for individuals actively affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and for Denmark and Sweden. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis that a smaller sex difference in cohort life expectancies in Utah would be detected in relation to Denmark and Sweden was not supported. In Utah...

  19. An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, T; Sørensen, G; Forshell, L P; Jensen, T; Nygard, K; Kapperud, G; Lindstedt, B A; Berglund, T; Wingstrand, A; Petersen, R F; Müller, L; Kjelsø, C; Ivarsson, S; Hjertqvist, M; Löfdahl, S; Ethelberg, S

    2009-03-12

    In November-December 2008, Norway and Denmark independently identified outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infections characterised in the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) by a distinct profile. Outbreak investigations were initiated independently in the two countries. In Denmark, a total of 37 cases were identified, and multiple findings of the outbreak strain in pork and pigs within the same supply chain led to the identification of pork in various forms as the source. In Norway, ten cases were identified, and the outbreak investigation quickly indicated meat bought in Sweden as the probable source and the Swedish authorities were alerted. Investigations in Sweden identified four human cases and two isolates from minced meat with the distinct profile. Subsequent trace-back of the meat showed that it most likely originated from Denmark. Through international alert from Norway on 19 December, it became clear that the Danish and Norwegian outbreak strains were identical and, later on, that the source of the outbreaks in all three countries could be traced back to Danish pork. MLVA was instrumental in linking the outbreaks in the different countries and tracing the source. This outbreak illustrates that good international communication channels, early alerting mechanisms, inter-sectoral collaboration between public health and food safety authorities and harmonised molecular typing tools are important for effective identification and management of cross-border outbreaks. Differences in legal requirements for food safety in neighbouring countries may be a challenge in terms of communication with consumers in areas where cross-border shopping is common.

  20. Long term variations of extreme rainfall in Denmark and southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2014-08-01

    A high number of studies have detected changes in the observed heavy rainfall in Northern and Central Europe, all adding to the debate on anthropogenic climate change and its potential impact on rainfall extremes. However, it is equally relevant to understand natural variations on which the anthropogenic changes are imposed. This study identifies multi-decadal variations in daily rainfall extremes from Denmark and southern Sweden, with a recurrence level relevant for flood hazard analysis. Based on smoothed series it is concluded that the frequency of the extreme events shows both a general increase from 1874 to present and an oscillation with a cycle of 25-40 years. The magnitude of the extreme events also oscillates, but with a cycle of 15-30 years and a smaller amplitude. Regional analysis of a larger Danish dataset with a shorter observations period found a countrywide low period in 1970-1979. It is furthermore concluded that the oscillation signal along the west coast of Denmark is dominated by the changeable coastal weather of this region. The eastern part of Denmark shows a more consistent signal, which partly can be explained by an index derived from sea level pressure differences between Gibraltar and Haparanda. The identification of a cyclic pattern in the extreme rainfall is highly relevant for our understanding of the non-stationarities in flood hazard.

  1. Recent hip fracture trends in Sweden and Denmark with age-period-cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, B E; Björk, J; Cooper, C; Abrahamsen, B

    2017-01-01

    This study used nationwide hip fracture data from Denmark and Sweden during 1987-2010 to examine effects of (birth) cohort and period. We found that time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in the two countries. Results also indicated that hip fracture rates may increase in the not so far future. The reasons for the downturn in hip fracture rates remain largely unclear but circumstances earlier in life seem important. We ascertained hip fractures in the populations ≥50 years in Denmark and Sweden in national discharge registers. Country- and sex-specific age-period-cohort (APC) effects during 1987-2010 were evaluated by log-likelihood estimates in Poisson regression models presented as incidence rate ratios (IRR). There were 399,596 hip fractures in SE and 248,773 in DK. Age-standardized hip fracture rate was stable in SE men but decreased in SE women and in DK. Combined period + cohort effects were generally stronger in SE than DK and in women than men. IRR per period ranged from 1.05 to 1.30 in SE and 0.95 to 1.21 in DK. IRR per birth cohort ranged from 1.07 to 3.13 in SE and 0.77 to 1.67 in DK. Relative period effects decreased with successive period in SE and described a convex curve in DK. Relative cohort effects increased with successive birth cohort in both countries but with lower risks for DK women and men and SE women born around the 1930s (age 75-86 years today and responsible for most hip fractures) partly explaining the recent downturn. Men and women born thereafter however seem to have a higher hip fracture risk, and we expect a reversal of the present decline in rates, with increasing hip fracture rates in both Denmark and Sweden during the upcoming decade. Time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in SE and DK. This may reflect differences in general health as evident in known differences in life expectancy, healthcare organization, and prevention such as use of anti-osteoporosis drugs. Analyses indicate that hip

  2. Neo-Liberalism and Universal State Education: The Cases of Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1980-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates neo-liberal policy on education in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Traditionally, the edifice of the education system in these Scandinavian countries has been built on egalitarian values, but over the last 20 years they have increasingly adopted market-led reforms of education. The extent of neo-liberal policy varies between…

  3. Biogenic gas in the Cambrian-Ordovcian Alum Shale (Denmark and Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.M.; Wirth, R.; Biermann, S.; Arning, E.T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Krueger, M.; Straaten, N. [BGR Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A. [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany); Schovsbo, N.H. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland - GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Crabtree, Stephen [Gripen Gas (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Shale gas is mainly produced from thermally mature black shales. However, biogenic methane also represents a resource which is often underestimated. Today biogenic methane is being produced from the Upper Devonian Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin which was the most successfully exploited shale gas system during the 1990-2000 decade in the U.S.A. before significant gas production from the Barnett Shale started (Curtis et al., 2008). The Cambro-Ordovician Alum Shale in northern Europe has thermal maturities ranging from overmature in southern areas (Denmark and southern Sweden) to immature conditions (central Sweden). Biogenic methane is recorded during drilling in central Sweden. The immature Alum Shale in central Sweden has total organic carbon (TOC) contents up to 20 wt%. The hydrogen index HI ranges from 380 to 560 mgHC/gTOC at very low oxygen index (OI) values of around 4 mg CO{sub 2}/gTOC, Tmax ranges between 420 - 430 C. The organic matter is highly porous. In general, the Alum Shale is a dense shale with intercalated sandy beds which may be dense due to carbonate cementation. Secondary porosity is created in some sandy beds due to feldspar dissolution and these beds serve as gas conduits. Methane production rates with shale as substrate in the laboratory are dependent on the kind of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial enrichment cultures used in the incubation experiments, ranging from 10-620 nmol/(g*d). In these experiments, the CO{sub 2} production rate was always higher than for methane. Like the northern part of North America, also Northern European has been covered by glaciers during the Pleistocene and similar geological processes may have developed leading to biogenic shale gas formation. For the Antrim Shale one hypothesis suggests that fresh waters, recharged from Pleistocene glaciation and modern precipitation, suppressed basinal brine salinity along the northern margins of the Michigan Basin to greater depths and thereby enhancing methanogenesis

  4. Consumer perceptions - pork and pig production: Insights from France, England, Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J.-F.

    2004-01-01

    that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer......Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked...

  5. A Scandinavian Public Transport Model? Reform Changes in Denmark, Sweden and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza; Næss, Petter

    2017-01-01

    model of public transport. The findings are based on public documents, reform evaluations, and statistics. This is the first paper focusing on Scandinavian public transport systems and their governing models per se, taking into account the considerable reforms of the 2000s. The results provide......Scandinavian public transport, especially aspects of how the Scandinavian countries (i.e., Sweden, Denmark, and Norway) have created governing structures for a cohesive public transport system, is often cited positively in international research. Scandinavia is often treated as a homogeneous unit...... in public transport research, which sometimes refers to the “Scandinavian model of public transport”. It is not uncommon for conclusions regarding Scandinavian countries to be based on analyses of just one country. Is there actually such a thing as a Scandinavian model of public transport? All around Europe...

  6. Benchmarking Analysis of Institutional University Autonomy in Denmark, Lithuania, Romania, Scotland, and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    by the EUniAM Lead Task Force team that collected and analysed secondary and primary data in each of these countries and produced four benchmark reports that are part of this book. For each dimension and interface of institutional university autonomy, the members of the Lead Task Force team identified...... respective evaluation criteria and searched for similarities and differences in approaches to higher education sectors and respective autonomy regimes in these countries. The consolidated report that precedes the benchmark reports summarises the process and key findings from the four benchmark reports....... The entire EUniAM project team would like to acknowledge warm welcome and invaluable inputs from the colleagues the EUniAM Lead Task Force team met during their visits to Denmark, Lithuania, Romania, Scotland, and Sweden. Without their firm support, this benchmark analysis would not have been that successful....

  7. Self-reported food hypersensitivity in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia, Lithuania, and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, N E; Möller, C; Werner, S; Magnusson, J; Bengtsson, U; Zolubas, M

    2004-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to describe the differences between some Northern countries regarding what foods, according to the patients, elicit hypersensitivity symptoms. At the participating clinics, patients with a history of food hypersensitivity (n = 1139) were asked to fill in a questionnaire in which 86 different foodstuffs were listed. Skin-prick tests (SPT) were performed with common inhalant allergens. The foods that were reported as eliciting symptoms differed between countries. In Russia, Estonia, and Lithuania; citrus fruits, chocolate, honey, apple, hazelnut, strawberry, fish, tomato, egg, and milk were most often reported as causes of hypersensitivity. In Sweden and Denmark; birch pollen (BP) related foods, such as nuts, apple, pear, kiwi, stone fruits, and carrot were the most common causes. In all countries, children, more often than adults, had symptoms of allergic reaction to citrus fruits, tomato, strawberry, milk, egg, and fish. Most patients (95%) reported hypersensitivity to several foodstuffs (median: eight foods). The most common symptoms were oral allergy syndrome and urticaria. Severe symptoms were most common with fish, shellfish, nuts, and milk. Slight symptoms were most common with rice, coriander, poppy seed, lingonberry, corn, caraway red currant, and fig. Earlier well-known correlations, such as that between BP sensitization and some fruits and vegetables, as well as that between mugwort and some spices, were conoborated. Positive correlations were found between self-reported hypersensitivity to crustaceans and SPT with horse. A negative correlation was seen between hypersensitivity to crustaceans and SPT with BP. The foodstuffs that often are reported to cause food hypersensitivity, differ between Sweden/Denmark on one side and the Baltic States and Russia on the other. BP-related foods dominate in Scandinavia, whereas some mugwort-related foods are of more importance in Russia and the Baltic States.

  8. A twin study of autism in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenburg, S; Gillberg, C; Hellgren, L; Andersson, L; Gillberg, I C; Jakobsson, G; Bohman, M

    1989-05-01

    The Nordic countries were screened for the occurrence of cases of autism with a same-sexed twin under age 25 years. Twenty-one pairs (11 monozygotic and 10 dizygotic) of twins and one set of identical triplets were found and extensively examined. The concordance for autism by pair was 91% in the monoygotic and 0% in the dizygotic pairs. The corresponding concordances for cognitive disorder were 91% and 30%, respectively. In most of the pairs discordant for autism, the autistic twin had more perinatal stress. The results lend support for the notion that autism sometimes has a hereditary component and that perinatal stress is involved in some cases.

  9. Social inequality in fetal growth: a comparative study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in the period 1981-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Diderichsen, F; Arntzen, A

    2008-01-01

    ,077,584; Finland n = 400,442; Norway n = 929,458; Sweden n = 1,761,562). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Slope index of inequality (SII) and mean differences in birthweight for gestational age, SII and risk differences in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants. RESULTS: In all countries......, gradients in fetal growth by parental education existed. Low parental education was associated with lower birthweight, increased risk of SGA and decreased risk of LGA. Mother's education exerted the strongest influence on outcomes, whereas father's education had a weaker effect. The educational gradients...... as measured by the SII were generally steepest in Denmark, followed by Norway, Sweden, and Finland. From 1981 to 2000, the educational gradients in birthweight decreased in all countries, except Denmark where it increased. All countries experienced small decreases in the educational gradient in SGA over time...

  10. Nordel - Availability statistics for thermal power plants 1995. (Denmark, Finland, Sweden); Nordel - Tillgaenglighetsstatistik foer vaermekraft 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The power companies of Denmark, Finland and Sweden have agreed on almost identical procedures for the recording and analysing of data describing the availability of power producing units over a certain capacity. Since 1975 the data for all three countries have been summarized and published in a joint report. The purpose of this report is to present some basic information about the operation of power producing units in the three countries. Referring to the report, companies or bodies will be able to exchange more detailed information with other companies or bodies in any of the countries. The report includes power producing units using fossil fuels, nuclear power plants and gas turbines. The information is presented separately for each country with a joint NORDEL statistics for units using fossil fuels, arranged in separate groups according to the type of fossil fuel which is used. The grouping of power producing units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. The definitions in NORDEL`s `Tillgaenglighetsbegrepp foer vaermekraft` (`The Concept of Availability for Thermal Power`), September 1977, are used in this report. The basic data for the availability are in accordance with the recommendations of UNIPEDE/WEC. (author).

  11. Rent control and other aspects of tenancy law in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Per; Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    In the Nordic EU member states legislation on landlord’s and tenant’s rights is defined from a socio-economic aspect. The three countries share a common legal »core« which originates from common contract law principles. Tenancy law regulation is different in major areas – especially rent regulation...... the rent regulation regimes in Sweden and Denmark as opposed to the »free market« in Finland. The aim is to draw conclusions on the functionality of the different and whether some things can be learned from the differences in between them. The elements of tenant »ownership rights« in the three countries...... are also compared and leads up to the question of whether they should be assessed as so important in relation to contractual principles that one can state that a tenant has a »right of ownership« to a home in the three countries. Analysing rent regulation regimes understanding the importance of path...

  12. Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Mellemkjaer

    Full Text Available A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08 adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77. Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66. There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis.

  13. Cancer Incidence among Patients with Anorexia Nervosa from Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellemkjaer, Lene; Papadopoulos, Fotios C.; Pukkala, Eero; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Christensen, Jane; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2015-01-01

    A diet with restricted energy content reduces the occurrence of cancer in animal experiments. It is not known if the underlying mechanism also exists in human beings. To determine whether cancer incidence is reduced among patients with anorexia nervosa who tend to have a low intake of energy, we carried out a retrospective cohort study of 22 654 women and 1678 men diagnosed with anorexia nervosa at ages 10-50 years during 1968-2010 according to National Hospital Registers in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected persons from population registers who were similar to the anorexia nervosa patients in respect to sex, year of birth and place of residence. Patients and population comparisons were followed for cancer by linkage to Cancer Registries. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson models. In total, 366 cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) were seen among women with anorexia nervosa, and the IRR for all cancer sites was 0.97 (95% CI = 0.87-1.08) adjusted for age, parity and age at first child. There were 76 breast cancers corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 0.61 (95% CI = 0.49-0.77). Significantly increased IRRs were observed for esophageal, lung, and liver cancer. Among men with anorexia nervosa, there were 23 cases of cancer (age-adjusted IRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.71-1.66). There seems to be no general reduction in cancer occurrence among patients with anorexia nervosa, giving little support to the energy restriction hypothesis. PMID:26000630

  14. Sickness Absence and Precarious Employment: A Comparative Cross-National Study of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Oke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precarious employment is a major social determinant of health and health inequalities with effects beyond the health of workers. Objective: To investigate the association between precarious employment and sickness absence in 4 Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Methods: Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each country on data from 4186 respondents aged 15–65 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden derived from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. Sickness absence was based on self-reports and defined as absence of seven or more day per year. Precarious employment was operationalized as a multidimensional construct of indicators. Analyses were also conducted separately for men and women. Results: The prevalence of sickness absence was lowest in Sweden (18%, and highest in Finland (28%. 3 precarious employment indicators were positively associated with sickness absence; the pattern being largely similar in the total sample. In the sex-disaggregated sample, 5 precarious employment indicators increased the likelihood of sickness absence; the pattern was heterogeneous, with women generally having significantly higher odds of sickness absence than men. “Low household income” and “sickness presenteeism” were strong predictors of sickness absence among both sexes in most of the 4 studied countries. Sickness absence varied between the Nordic countries in the sex-disaggregated analyses. Conclusion: Precarious employment indicators predicted sickness absence in the Nordic countries. Findings emphasize the need to prioritize informed and monitored collective bargaining for all workers, increase working time flexibility, and improving work conditions.

  15. The Male-Female Health-Survival Paradox and Sex Differences in Cohort Life Expectancy in Utah, Denmark and Sweden 1850-1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hanson, Heidi A.; Oksuzyan, Anna; Mineau, Geraldine P.; Christensen, Kaare; Smith, Ken R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In Utah, prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviours are lower than in most other male populations while women experience higher mortality risk due to higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than in Sweden and Denmark. Methods Life tables from Utah, Denmark and Sweden, were used to calculate cohort life expectancies for men and women born 1850-1910. Results The sex difference in cohort life expectancy was similar or larger in Utah when compared to Denmark and Sweden. The change over time in the sex differences in cohort life expectancy was approximately two years smaller for active Mormons in Utah than for other groups suggesting lifestyle as an important component for the overall change seen in cohort life expectancy. Sex differences in cohort life expectancy at age 50 were similar for individuals actively affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and for Denmark and Sweden. Conclusions The hypothesis that a smaller sex difference in cohort life expectancies in Utah would be detected in relation to Denmark and Sweden was not supported. In Utah the male-female differences in life expectancy remain substantial pointing towards biological mechanisms, or other unmeasured risk factors. PMID:23453386

  16. The male-female health-survival paradox and sex differences in cohort life expectancy in Utah, Denmark, and Sweden 1850-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hanson, Heidi A; Oksuzyan, Anna; Mineau, Geraldine P; Christensen, Kaare; Smith, Ken R

    2013-04-01

    In Utah, the prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviors are lower than in most other male populations, whereas women experience higher mortality risk because of higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than in Sweden and Denmark. Life tables from Utah, Denmark, and Sweden were used to calculate cohort life expectancies for men and women born in 1850-1910. The sex difference in cohort life expectancy was similar or larger in Utah when compared with Denmark and Sweden. The change over time in the sex differences in cohort life expectancy was approximately 2 years smaller for active Mormons in Utah than for other groups suggesting lifestyle as an important component for the overall change seen in cohort life expectancy. Sex differences in cohort life expectancy at the age of 50 years were similar for individuals actively affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and for Denmark and Sweden. The hypothesis that a smaller sex difference in cohort life expectancies in Utah would be detected in relation to Denmark and Sweden was not supported. In Utah, the male-female differences in life expectancy remain substantial pointing toward biological mechanisms or other unmeasured risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Government Disaster Response and Narrative Retrospection - A Comparative Study of the Electoral Impacts in Denmark and Sweden of the 2004 Tsunami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the nexus between disaster response and voting behaviour through a comparative study of the electoral dynamics in the immediate aftermath of the 2004 Tsunami in Denmark and Sweden. The paper addresses three hypotheses of retrospection: (i) blind retrospection where voters...... that voters did not appear to immediately punish the Danish and Swedish governments for the Tsunami despite the severe impacts and the widespread public disapproval of the governments’ disaster responses. The concept of narrative retrospection shows how there was limited pressure to politicize the government......’s disaster management efforts in Denmark, while the brunt of the political blame in Sweden occurred more than a year after the Tsunami....

  18. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in raw and drinking water - current situation in Sweden, Denmark and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Bester, Kai; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Licha, Tobias; Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic environmental pollutants which have been used and produced for more than 60 years. PFASs are used for multiple industrial purposes, e.g. as water repellent on clothing, leather, and paper and as firefighting foam. The most well studied PFASs subgroup are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). Two PFAAs of particular interest are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). These are the most studied homologues which are ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, wildlife and humans. Some PFASs are recognized as being potentially toxic for both animals and humans (e.g. PFOS), whereas the majority has not been thoroughly studied yet regarding their toxicity. PFAAs are highly mobile once present in the aquatic environment. Currently, they are not eliminated during conventional wastewater or drinking water treatment and therefore pose a severe threat for drinking water supply. We reviewed the current occurrence of PFAAs in the surface and groundwater and legal situation of PFAAs in Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Although first detections of PFAAs were reported in the early 2000s, PFASs only recently attracted huge media attention raising public concern. In Sweden, for instance, several public waterworks needed to cease operation due to high PFASs concentrations in drinking water. Moreover, threshold values for drinking water are under discussion and a first preliminary guiding value for PFOS was recently presented as a first step (Pettersson et al., 2015). Germany only defined a guiding value for the sum of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water so far (Dieter, 2011). Limits of 0.3 μg/L PFOA and 0.1 μg/L PFOS and PFOSA each have been suggested in Denmark (MST, 2015). In summary, none of the three countries has defined a clear threshold value for any PFAS compound in drinking water so far. This is of huge concern as PFASs are detected at increasing rates while it remains unclear when

  19. Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    In 1985, Sweden's population stood at 8.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 0.2%. The infant mortality rate was 6.4/1000, and life expectancy was 76 years for men and 82 years for women. The gross domestic product was US$100.2 billion, with a per capita income of $11,989. Of the work force of 4.34 million, 4.9% are in agriculture, 29.8% work in industry, 21.3% are employed in the commerce and finance sector, and 43.9% are engaged in services. Among the social problems Sweden faces are the increasingly large proportion of the population over age 65 years and the challenge of integrating immigrants into social and political life while preserving national languages and customs. Development during the 1970s was less favorable than in most comparable countries; however, industrial recovery during the 1980s has restored the competitiveness of Swedish exports. There is general agreement that investment in new plants and machinery must be increased and wages and consumption must be moderated if Sweden is to expand its industrial sector.

  20. Learnings from wind energy policy in EU, with focus on Denmark, Sweden and Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    The paper describes the learnings from different policies for promotion of wind power and compares the Danish development to that in Sweden and Spain. It is concluded that liberalization has created a number of problems for the promotion of wind power and for the establishment of a sustainable...

  1. Vocational Didactics: Core Assumptions and Approaches from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Spain and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Michael; Moreno Herrera, Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    The design of vocational didactics has to meet special requirements. Six core assumptions are identified: outcome orientation, cultural-historical embedding, horizontal structure, vertical structure, temporal structure, and the changing nature of work. Different approaches and discussions from school-based systems (Spain and Sweden) and dual…

  2. Socioeconomic Status and Net Fertility during the Fertility Decline: A Comparative Analysis of Canada, Iceland, Sweden, Norway and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribe, Martin; Hacker, J. David; Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Most previous work on the historical fertility transition has been macro-oriented, using aggregate data to examine economic correlates of demographic behaviour at regional or national levels, while much less has been done using micro data, and specifically looking at behavioural differentials among social groups. In this paper we study at the impact of socioeconomic status on net fertility during the fertility transition in five Northern American and European Countries (Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the USA). We use micro-level census data in 1900, containing information on number of children by age, occupation of the mother and father, place of residence and household context. The results show highly similar patterns across countries, with the elite and upper middle classes having considerably lower net fertility early in the transition. These patterns remain also after controlling for a range of individual and community-level fertility determinants and geographical unobserved heterogeneity. PMID:24684711

  3. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Natalie Videbæk

    2015-01-01

    The chapter explains the legal framework concerning transgender and transsexual persons in Denmark, statistics, the procedures and requirements for changing legal sex and/or gender, the legal consequences of the changes as regards rights and duties of the person, and the legal challenges of the r......The chapter explains the legal framework concerning transgender and transsexual persons in Denmark, statistics, the procedures and requirements for changing legal sex and/or gender, the legal consequences of the changes as regards rights and duties of the person, and the legal challenges...

  4. An Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, T; Sørensen, Gitte; Forshell, L P

    2009-01-01

    In November-December 2008, Norway and Denmark independently identified outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infections characterised in the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) by a distinct profile. Outbreak investigations were initiated independently in the two countr......-border outbreaks. Differences in legal requirements for food safety in neighbouring countries may be a challenge in terms of communication with consumers in areas where cross-border shopping is common....

  5. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Hansen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Tax Treaty case of 2014 is the case reported as SKM2014.347.HR,[1] decided by the Supreme Court (Højesteret) on 14 February 2014. The case deals with a taxable loss on shares allocated to a Permanent Establishment located in Denmark belonging to an Aktiengesellschaft (AG) resident...

  6. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tilsted, Hans-Henrik; Ahlehoff, Ole; Terkelsen, Christian J

    2017-01-01

    Interventional cardiology in Denmark has been carried out since the mid 1980s. Interventional cardiology is only performed at a few high-volume centres. Healthcare coverage is universal and is essentially free of charge. Hospitals are mostly publicly owned and financed by fixed budgets and, in part...

  7. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Hartley, Jannie Møller; Flensburg, Sofie

    2018-01-01

    In Denmark the public debate on media ethics and accountability has seen an all-time high in recent years, culminating, in 2013, with an update of the common and institutionalised guidelines for press ethics. As recently as the summer 2014, in light of a media hacking scandal, the politicians again...

  8. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Anette

    2017-01-01

    the chapter is a thorough presentation of the legal positions of children and juvenile offenders in Denmark including procedural as well as material law and practises. The contemporary tense debate on legal rights and consequences is presented and debated critically. Included is also a discussion...... of the role of the age for criminal liability....

  9. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Jurassic of Skåne, southern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Sivhed, Ulf; Ahlberg, Anders; Erlström, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    In Sweden, Jurassic strata are restricted to Skåne and adjacent offshore areas. Jurassic sedimentary rocks predominantly comprise sandy to muddy siliciclastics, with subordinate coal beds andfew carbonate-rich beds. During Mesozoic times, block-faulting took place in the Sorgenfrei–Tornquist Zone, a tectonic zone which transects Skåne in a NW–SE direction. The Jurassic depositionalenvironments in Skåne were thus strongly influenced by uplift and downfaulting, and to some extent by volcanism. ...

  10. Icelandic National Culture compared to National Cultures of 25 OECD member states using VSM94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svala Guðmundsdóttir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers such as Hofstede (2002 and House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman and Gupta, (2004 have defined well-known cultural clusters such as, Anglo, Germanic, and Nordic cultural clusters. However, Iceland was not incorporated in these studies and therefore the research question of this paper is: In relation to Hofstede´s five cultural dimensions where does Iceland differ in relation to 25 of the OECD member states using VSM94? A questionnaire was sent to students at the University of Iceland, School of Social Sciences by e-mail in October 2013. The five dimensions of national culture were measured using scales developed by Hofstede called VSM 94. The results indicated that Iceland differs considerably from nations such as Slovakia, Japan, India, Thailand and China, which were found high in PDI and the MAS dimension while Iceland was found to be high in IDV and low in PDI. When considering the 25 OECD countries, Iceland is more similar to the Anglo cluster, C3, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdon, Australia and United States than the Nordic cluster, C1 i.e. Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Iceland is similar to those countries in relation to high IDV, low PDI but differs in the dimensions MAS and UAI where Iceland scores higher.

  11. Apprentice or Student? The Structures of Construction Industry Vocational Education and Training in Denmark and Sweden and their Possible Consequences for Safety Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grytnes, Regine; Grill, Martin; Pousette, Anders

    2017-01-01

    for their safety practices and also for the teachers’ position to influence safety learning and practices during company-based training. An analysis of interview and survey data focusing on how VET students enact safety ‘knowings’ across learning sites, suggest how different forms of connectivity models in VET......There is a notable difference in occupational injury rates in the two Scandinavian countries, Sweden and Denmark, with the latter having a 40% higher rate of fatal occupational injuries in the construction industry. This study explored differences in the vocational education and training (VET......) systems between Sweden and Denmark that may be important for students’ safety learning and practice during VET. In both countries, students participate in full-time education, and the curriculum includes school-based as well as company- based training. However, during company- based training Swedish...

  12. Differences in socioeconomic and gender inequalities in tobacco smoking in Denmark and Sweden; a cross sectional comparison of the equity effect of different public health policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eek, Frida; Ôstergren, Per-Olof; Diderichsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Denmark and Sweden are considered to be countries of rather similar socio-political type, but public health policies and smoking habits differ considerably between the two neighbours. A study comparing mechanisms behind socioeconomic inequalities in tobacco smoking, could yield...... information regarding the impact of health policy and -promotion in the two countries. Methods Cross-sectional comparisons of socioeconomic and gender differences in smoking behaviour among 6 995 Danish and 13 604 Swedish persons aged 18-80 years. Results The prevalence of smoking was higher in Denmark...... compared to Sweden. The total attributable fraction (TAF) of low education regarding daily smoking was 36% for Danish men and 35% for Danish women, and 32% and 46%, respectively, for Swedish men and women. TAF of low education regarding continued smoking were 16.2% and 15.8% for Danish men and women...

  13. Evaluation of long-term global radiation measurements in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skalík, Lukáš; Lulkovičová, Otília; Furbo, Simon

    The climate, especially global radiation is one of the key factors influencing the energy yield of solar energy systems. In connection with planning and optimization of energy efficient buildings and solar energy systems it is important to know the climate data of the area where the buildings....../systems are located. This study is based on yearly and monthly values of global radiation based on measurements from a climate station placed on the roof of building 119 at Technical University of Denmark in Kgs. Lyngby, from different Danish climate stations runned by Danish Meteorological Institute and from...... different Swedish climate stations of Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The global horizontal radiation has been measured for a high number of years at all of these stations. The values show a tendency of increased annual global radiation, most likely due to decreased pollution...

  14. Human exposure to carcinogens in ambient air in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, P.; Ketzel, M.; Becker, T.; Plejdrup, M. S.; Brandt, J.; Gidhagen, L.; Omstedt, G.; Skårman, T.; Bartonova, A.; Schwarze, P.; Karvosenoja, N.; Paunu, V.-V.; Kukkonen, J.; Karppinen, A.

    2017-10-01

    The concentrations of seventeen pollutants (particulate mass fractions PM2.5 and PM10, a range of metals, inorganic gases and organic compounds) are for the first time analyzed in a screening of the carcinogenic risk at a resolution of 1 × 1 km2 in ambient air in three Nordic countries. Modelled annual mean air concentrations in 2010 show no exceedances of the EU air quality limit, guideline or target values. The only modelled exceedance of US-EPA 1:100,000 cancer risk concentrations (0.12 ng/m3, US-EPA IRIS, 2015) occurs for B(a)P in Denmark, for approximately 80% of the Danish population. However, the EU target value threshold of 1 ng/m3 for B(a)P is not exceeded in the modelled values in any parts of Denmark. No emission data for B(a)P were available for the whole domain of the other two considered Nordic countries and important uncertainties are still related to the emissions. Long-range transport is significant for the concentrations of all of the considered pollutants, except for B(a)P that commonly originates mostly from local residential wood combustion. The ambient air concentrations of NOx, SO2, Cd, Cr and Pb also have significant contributions from national sources; 45-65% for NOx and SO2, and for the metals from 15 to 60% in urban areas and from 1 to 20% in rural areas, within the considered Nordic area. High national contributions occur especially in urban air, due to primarily road traffic, residential wood combustion, energy production and industrial point sources. It is recommended to monitor the influence from residential wood combustion more extensively, and to analyze longer time trends for long-term human exposure.

  15. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2004-01-01

    After a theoretical outset (Rhodes), the author gives an overview of the Danish regions (history, place in the national / EU-system, administrative organisation), followed by discussions of the intra-regional relations (incl. degree of Europeanisation, local - regional cooperation), the relations...... to the national centre and the supranational centre. This is followed bu a conclussion in which it i.a. is stated, that the proces of Europeanization has streangthned the Dansh regions within Denmark, and that the regions do nt have any federal aspirations....

  16. Economic cycle synchronization in the context of financial crisis: empirical evidence of Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the economic cycle synchronization of the euro area outsiders: Denmark, Sweden and United Kingdom. The authors discussed openness of the selected economies, their structural similarities and economic cycle synchronization in the years 2000–2011. They applied moving correlation and correlation between the selected countries and the euro area. They found significant synchronization of the economic cycles after the year 2005. Furthermore, economic cycles of the analyzed countries were exceptionally synchronized than the euro area average level.Our contribution is in comparison of the economic cycle synchronization in the selected countries with the euro area average. The authors assume that changes in order provide important information about the synchronization, unbiased by the consequences of the financial crisis in the year 2007.A theoretical background for the final discussions provided new version of the OCA theory focused on the costs associated with the loss of the monetary policy autonomy. The authors concluded that selected countries were not protected against the global macroeconomic shock after the year 2007, although they keep the autonomous monetary policy.

  17. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Jurassic of Skåne, southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivhed, Ulf

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, Jurassic strata are restricted to Skåne and adjacent offshore areas. Jurassic sedimentary rocks predominantly comprise sandy to muddy siliciclastics, with subordinate coal beds andfew carbonate-rich beds. During Mesozoic times, block-faulting took place in the Sorgenfrei–Tornquist Zone, a tectonic zone which transects Skåne in a NW–SE direction. The Jurassic depositionalenvironments in Skåne were thus strongly influenced by uplift and downfaulting, and to some extent by volcanism. Consequently, the sedimentary record reveals evidence of numerous transgressions, regressions and breaks in sedimentation. Relative sea-level changes played a significant role in controlling the facies distribution, as deposition mainly took place in coastal plain to shallow shelf environments.The alluvial deposits in Skåne include floodplain palaeosols, autochthonous coals, overbank sandstones, and stream channel pebbly sandstones. Restricted marine strata comprise intertidalheteroliths with mixed freshwater and marine trace fossil assemblages, and intertidal delta distributary channel sandstones. Shallow marine sediments encompass subtidal and shoreface sandstoneswith herringbone structures, and bioturbated mudstones with tempestite sandstones. Offshore deposits typically comprise extensively bioturbated muddy sandstones.Floral remains, palaeopedology, clay mineralogy and arenite maturity indicate a warm and humid climate in Skåne throughout the Jurassic, possibly with slightly increasing aridity towards the end of the period. Most Jurassic strata in Skåne have been subjected to mild burial diagenesis, and the petroleum generative window has rarely been reached.

  18. Prenatal maternal bereavement and mortality in the first decades of life: a nationwide cohort study from Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y; Cnattingius, S; Olsen, J; Parner, E T; Vestergaard, M; Liew, Z; Zhao, N; Li, J

    2017-02-01

    The loss of a close relative is one of the most stressful life events. In pregnancy, this experience has been associated with a higher risk of fetal death and under-five mortality, but little is known about potential effects on long-term mortality in offspring. We examined the association between prenatal maternal bereavement and mortality in a cohort of 5.3 million children followed until up to 37 years of age. The population-based cohort study included 5 253 508 live singleton births in Denmark (1973-2004) and Sweden (1973-2006). Children born to mothers who lost a child, spouse, sibling, or parent during or 1 year before pregnancy were categorized as exposed. Prenatal maternal bereavement was associated with a 10% increased all-cause mortality risk in offspring [mortality rate ratio (MRR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.18]. The association was the most pronounced for children of mothers who lost a child/spouse (MRR 1.28, 95% CI 1.14-1.44) and was stronger during the first 10 years of life. Prenatal maternal bereavement may have stronger effects on natural causes of death in offspring, including infectious/parasitic disease (MRR 1.86, 95% CI 1.07-3.23), endocrine/nutritional/metabolic diseases (MRR 3.23, 95% CI 2.02-5.17), diseases of nervous system (MRR 3.36, 95% CI 2.47-4.58), and congenital malformations (MRR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08-1.80). No excess mortality risk in offspring was observed for unnatural causes of death. Prenatal maternal bereavement was associated with an increased long-term mortality risk in offspring, particularly for selected natural causes of diseases and medical conditions. Our results support the fetal programming hypothesis that prenatal stress may contribute to ill health from physical diseases later in life.

  19. Iceland: a postcolonial literary landscape?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Liet, H.; Kroonen, G.; Langbroek, E.; Perridon, H.; Roeleveld, A.

    2011-01-01

    How does Iceland appear in postcolonial literary texts by writers from Denmark, the former colonial power? Three texts from modern Danish literature were chosen, with Iceland as their main theme and based on first hand knowledge of the country gathered through sojourns and travels by the authors:

  20. Antibacterial Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli from Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections in the Faroe Islands, Associations with Antibacterial Sales, and Comparison with Iceland and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Marita Debess; Gislason, Hannes; Gaini, Shahin

    2018-01-01

    methods and criteria. Logistic regression (quasibinomial) of the antibacterial resistance proportions versus mean sales during the period of 2008-2011 was used to determine association. Nonsusceptibility to at least 1 of the 14 antibacterial drugs investigated was found in 54% of the E. coli isolates...... between antibacterial mean sales and antibacterial resistances. For the resistances in the Faroe Islands compared with data from Denmark and Iceland, we infer two groups of resistances indicating different responses-one steep and one gradual-to antibacterial sales. For these two groups, we find β1 = 4.......77 (Std. Error = 0.624, p-value = 0.002) and β1 = 0.26 (Std. Error = 0.020, p-value = 4e-7) for the steep and gradual groups, respectively. This knowledge can potentially be used to predict and control the future increase in E. coli resistance with antibacterial sales....

  1. Ultrasound in Prenatal Diagnostics and Its Impact on the Epidemiology of Spina Bifida in a National Cohort from Denmark with a Comparison to Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Rosenkrantz Bodin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, the prenatal detection rate by ultrasound, and the pregnancy outcome of spina bifida (SB in Denmark (DK in 2008–2015 and to compare results to national data from Sweden. Methods. Data were retrieved from the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, which includes International Classification of Diseases- (ICD- 10 codes for pre- or postnatally diagnoses and pregnancy outcome. Missing data were obtained from the National Patient Register. Livebirth data with myelomeningocele (MMC in Sweden were obtained from different databases. Results. There were 234 cases with SB in DK in 2008–2015. The incidence of SB was 4.9 : 10,000; 89% were detected with ultrasound prior to week 22; 90% of these pregnancies were terminated (ToP; 91% were isolated malformations of which 11% showed abnormal karyotype. The incidence of newborns with MMC was 1.3 : 10,000 in Sweden. Conclusions. Ultrasound screening has a major impact on the epidemiology of SB. The prenatal detection rate of SB was high, and most SB cases were isolated and had a normal karyotype. Among women with a prenatal fetal diagnosis of SB, 90% chose to have ToP. The incidence of newborns with SB was higher in Sweden than in DK.

  2. Summer eczema in exported Icelandic horses: influence of environmental and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björnsdóttir Sigríður

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of summer eczema (a chronic, recurrent seasonal dermatitis in exported Icelandic horses and the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the development of the disease. Among 330 horses, which had been exported to Germany, Denmark and Sweden, 114 (34.5% were found to have clinical signs of summer eczema. The prevalence was highest 2 years after export and the exposure to the biting midges Culicoides spp., was found to be the main risk factor for developing the disease. Genetic influence on the sensitivity for the disease was not established. It was concluded that exported Icelandic horses are predisposed for summer dermatitis and the fact that they are not introduced to the antigens of the biting midges early in live, due to it's absence in Iceland, is likely to explain the high prevalence of the disease after export.

  3. A review of PU prevalence and incidence across Scandinavia, Iceland and Ireland (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Z; Johanssen, E; van Etten, M

    2013-07-01

    To provide a critical appraisal and synthesis of the published literature pertaining to pressure ulcer (PU) prevalence, incidence and prevention practices from the context of Scandinavia, Iceland and Ireland. An integrative research review following Cooper's five stages. Studies published in peer-reviewed journals, involving any study design, but specifically exploring PU prevalence or incidence in adults or children, in any care setting, were included. Fifty-five papers were data extracted, quality appraised and included in the qualitative synthesis of the review. Mean prevalence in Norway was 17% (4.8-29%) in Ireland was 16% (4-37%), in Denmark was 15% (2.2-35.5%) and in Sweden was 25%, (0.04-42.7%). Prevalence in Iceland was 8.9%. In acute care, mean prevalence was 21% (0-42.7%) and in long stay was 12% (2.4-23.7%). Prevalence among hospice patients was 35.7%, and in community care was 0.04% and 4%. No incidence study from Iceland was identified; the single incidence study from Norway noted a figure of 16.4%. The mean incidence from Ireland was 11% (8-14.4%) from Sweden was 20% (3.1-49%) and Denmark was 1.8% (1.4-2.7%). Mean incidence in acute care setting was 17.6%, (1.4-49%); in long stay was 6.63% (3.1-8.4%). Incidence in the hospice setting was 20.4%. No study reported PU incidence figures from the community setting. Figures for both prevalence and incidence were similar in Ireland and Norway and highest in Sweden, whereas Denmark demonstrated the lowest incidence rates and Iceland demonstrated the lowest prevalence rates. Figures were consistently highest in acute care and hospice settings, and lowest in the care of the older person setting.

  4. Differences in socioeconomic and gender inequalities in tobacco smoking in Denmark and Sweden; a cross sectional comparison of the equity effect of different public health policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Denmark and Sweden are considered to be countries of rather similar socio-political type, but public health policies and smoking habits differ considerably between the two neighbours. A study comparing mechanisms behind socioeconomic inequalities in tobacco smoking, could yield information regarding the impact of health policy and -promotion in the two countries. Methods Cross-sectional comparisons of socioeconomic and gender differences in smoking behaviour among 6 995 Danish and 13 604 Swedish persons aged 18-80 years. Results The prevalence of smoking was higher in Denmark compared to Sweden. The total attributable fraction (TAF) of low education regarding daily smoking was 36% for Danish men and 35% for Danish women, and 32% and 46%, respectively, for Swedish men and women. TAF of low education regarding continued smoking were 16.2% and 15.8% for Danish men and women, and 11.0% and 18.8% for Swedish men and women, respectively The main finding of the study was that the socioeconomic patterning of smoking, based on level of education and expressed as the relative contribution to the total burden of smoking exposure, was rather different in Sweden and Denmark. Moreover, these differences were modified by gender and age. As a general pattern, socioeconomic differences in Sweden tended to contribute more to the total burden of this habit among women, especially in the younger age groups. In men, the patterns were much more similar between the two countries. Regarding continued smoking/unsuccessful quitting, the patterns were similar for women, but somewhat different for men. Here we found that socioeconomic differences contributed more to overall continued smoking in Danish men, especially in the middle-age and older age strata. Conclusion The results imply that Swedish anti-smoking policy and/or implemented measures have been less effective in a health equity perspective among the younger generation of women, but more effective among men, compared to

  5. Comparison of remote sensing reflectance from above-water and in-water measurements west of Greenland, Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and west of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P; Zielinski, Oliver

    2013-07-01

    The need to obtain ocean color essential climate variables (OC-ECVs) using hyperspectral technology has gained increased interest in recent years. Assessing ocean color on a large scale in high latitude environments using satellite remote sensing is constrained by polar environmental conditions. Nevertheless, on a small scale we can assess ocean color using above-water and in-water remote sensing. Unfortunately, above-water remote sensing can only determine apparent optical properties leaving the sea surface and is susceptible to near surface environmental conditions for example sky and sunglint. Consequently, we have to rely on accurate in-water remote sensing as it can provide both synoptic inherent and apparent optical properties of seawater. We use normalized water leaving radiance LWN or the equivalent remote sensing reflectance RRS from 27 stations to compare the differences in above-water and in-water OC-ECVs. Analysis of above-water and in-water RRS spectra provided very good match-ups (R2 > 0.97, MSE < 1.8*10(-7)) for all stations. The unbiased percent differences (UPD) between above-water and in-water approaches were determined at common OC-ECVs spectral bands (410, 440, 490, 510 and 555) nm and the classic band ratio (490/555) nm. The spectral average UPD ranged (5 - 110) % and band ratio UPD ranged (0 - 12) %, the latter showing that the 5% uncertainty threshold for ocean color radiometric products is attainable. UPD analysis of these stations West of Greenland, Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait and West of Iceland also suggests that the differences observed are likely a result of environmental and instrumental perturbations.

  6. Trends in teenage fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates in Iceland compared with other Nordic countries, 1976-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Sóley; Geirsson, Reynir T; Kosunen, Elise

    2003-01-01

    Iceland is often considered very similar to the other Nordic countries. The purpose of this study was to explore trends in teenage fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates in Iceland, compare these trends with corresponding rates in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden during the period 1976-99, and to evaluate similarities and dissimilarities. The study is based on data about fertility, abortion, and pregnancy rates obtained from the Icelandic and Nordic national population and abortion registers for the age group 15-19 years years. Teenage fertility and pregnancy rates in the five Nordic countries declined over the study period by 57-67% and 31-50%, respectively, and in Iceland they remained significantly higher than in the Nordic countries. In 1999 almost every other teenage pregnancy in Iceland (45.9/1000) resulted in a childbirth (24.4/1000). Regional fertility rates were highest in the countryside. While the abortion rate has been declining in the four Nordic countries by 20-41%, they have concurrently been rising in Iceland by 133% (9.4/1000 in 1976-80, 21.9/1000 in 1996-99) and are presently higher than in the other Nordic countries. Regionally, abortion rates in Iceland were highest in the Capital area. The teenage pregnancy rate is higher in Iceland than in the other Nordic countries. This may be explained by cultural norms in Iceland's society regarding childbearing, early initiation of sexual intercourse, more limited sex education, and less effective delivery and use of contraceptive methods. There is a need to promote sexual and reproductive health to young people in Iceland by combining diverse preventive approaches.

  7. Access to health care for undocumented migrants from a human rights perspective: a comparative study of Denmark, Sweden, and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Dan; Toebes, Brigit; Hjern, Anders; Ascher, Henry; Norredam, Marie

    2012-12-15

    Undocumented migrants' access to health care varies across Europe, and entitlements on national levels are often at odds with the rights stated in international human rights law. The aim of this study is to address undocumented migrants' access to health care in Denmark, Sweden, and the Netherlands from a human rights perspective. Based on desk research in October 2011, we identified national laws, policies, peer-reviewed studies, and grey literature concerning undocumented migrants' access to health care in the three involved countries. Through treaties and related explanatory documents from the United Nations and the Council of Europe, we identified relevant international laws concerning the right to health and the rights of different groups of undocumented migrants. A synopsis of these laws is included in the analysis of the three countries. Undocumented migrants in Denmark have the right to emergency care, while additional care is restricted and may be subject to payment. Undocumented migrants in Sweden have the right to emergency care only. There is an exception made for former asylum-seeking children, who have the same rights as Swedish citizens. In the Netherlands, undocumented migrants have greater entitlements and have access to primary, secondary and tertiary care, although shortcomings remain. All three countries have ratified international human rights treaties that include right of access to health care services. We identified international treaties from the United Nations and the Council of Europe that recognize a right to health for undocumented migrants and embrace governmental obligations to ensure the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health services, in particular for specific groups such as women and children. In the Netherlands, undocumented migrants' right to health care is largely acknowledged, while in Denmark and Sweden, there are more restrictions on access. This reveals major discrepancies in relation to

  8. The Icelandic and Nordic cervical screening programs: trends in incidence and mortality rates through 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    1999-07-01

    The objective of cervical cancer screening is to lower the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. This study evaluates the effectiveness of cervical screening and the UICC and EC screening recommendations based on the Nordic screening experience. The study analyzes the features of the Icelandic and the Nordic screening programs and the observed trends in the incidence and mortality rates in these countries through 1995. Organized screening started in all the Nordic countries soon after 1960 and had nation-wide coverage in all these countries, except in Denmark (45% coverage in 1991), by around 1973 but in Norway screening was only spontaneous up to late in 1994. Up to 1985 the target age group and screening interval were most intensive in Iceland, followed by Finland, Sweden and Denmark. All countries except Finland lowered the lower age limit and intensified the screening intervals after 1985. Through the period 1986-1995 the reduction in both the mortality and the incidence rates was greatest in Iceland (mortality: 76% and incidence: 67%) and Finland (73% and 75%, respectively), intermediate in Sweden (60% and 55%, respectively) and Denmark (55% and 54%, respectively), and lowest in Norway (43% and 34%, respectively). The age-specific incidence in the 20-29 age group has been increasing since 1971 in all the Nordic countries, except in Finland, where the yearly registered age-specific incidence has been increasing in the targeted 30-54 age group since 1991. In Iceland screening has greatly affected the rate of all stages of squamous cell carcinoma, but not the rate of adeno- and adenosquamous carcinomas. In fact the rate of adenocarcinoma has been increasing. Organized screening is more effective than spontaneous screening in reducing the risk of cervical cancer. Although differences in environmental, biological and ethnic factors may call for different screening strategies, screening should preferably start soon after age 20 with a screening interval of 2

  9. The construction of the Øresund link between Denmark and Sweden: the effect of a multi-faceted safety campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kines, Peter; Spangenberg, S.; Mikkelsen, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a safety campaign implemented midway during the construction of the railway and road link across the Sound, Oresund, between Denmark and Sweden. The safety campaign was multi-faceted and aimed both at promoting positive attitudes...... towards safety and at the behavioural aspects of safety at work. The effect of the campaign was a 25% reduction of the number of injuries resulting from accidents, which did not completely fulfil the objective set by the site owner. This effect became only just statistically significant when heterogeneity...... of type of work before and after the campaign was taken into account. The modest effect of the safety campaign might be explained by the fact that the site, like any construction site, was a temporary workplace, where several contractors' had short-term project assignments. Apparently, the contractors...

  10. Patients' initial steps to cancer diagnosis in Denmark, England and Sweden: what can a qualitative, cross-country comparison of narrative interviews tell us about potentially modifiable factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArtney, John; Malmström, Marlene; Overgaard Nielsen, Trine; Evans, Julie; Bernhardson, Britt-Marie; Hajdarevic, Senada; Chapple, Alison; Eriksson, Lars E; Locock, Louise; Rasmussen, Birgit; Vedsted, Peter; Tishelman, Carol; Andersen, Rikke Sand; Ziebland, Sue

    2017-11-19

    To illuminate patterns observed in International Cancer Benchmarking Programme studies by extending understanding of the various influences on presentation and referral with cancer symptoms. Cross-country comparison of Denmark, England and Sweden with qualitative analysis of in-depth interview accounts of the prediagnostic process in lung or bowel cancer. 155 women and men, aged between 35 and 86 years old, diagnosed with lung or bowel cancer in 6 months before interview. Participants recruited through primary and secondary care, social media and word of mouth. Interviews collected by social scientists or nurse researchers during 2015, mainly in participants' homes. Participants reported difficulties in interpreting diffuse bodily sensations and symptoms and deciding when to consult. There were examples of swift referrals by primary care professionals in all three countries. In all countries, participants described difficulty deciding if and when to consult, highlighting concerns about access to general practitioner appointments and overstretched primary care services, although this appears less prominent in the Swedish data. It was not unusual for there to be more than one consultation before referral and we noted two distinct patterns of repeated consultation: (1) situations where the participant left the primary care consultation with a plan of action about what should happen next; (2) participants were unclear about under which conditions to return to the doctors. This second pattern sometimes extended over many weeks during which patients described uncertainty, and sometimes frustration, about if and when they should return and whether there were any other feasible investigations. The latter pattern appeared more evident in the interviews in England and Denmark than Sweden. We suggest that if clear action plans, as part of safety netting, were routinely used in primary care consultations then uncertainty, false reassurance and the inefficiency and distress

  11. Shape of the association between income and mortality: a cohort study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1995 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Rehnberg, Johan; Dahl, Espen; Diderichsen, Finn; Elstad, Jon Ivar; Martikainen, Pekka; Rehkopf, David; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Fritzell, Johan

    2016-12-23

    Prior work has examined the shape of the income-mortality association, but work has not compared gradients between countries. In this study, we focus on changes over time in the shape of income-mortality gradients for 4 Nordic countries during a period of rising income inequality. Context and time differentials in shape imply that the relationship between income and mortality is not fixed. Population-based cohort study of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. We collected data on individuals aged 25 or more in 1995 (n=12.98 million individuals, 0.84 million deaths) and 2003 (n=13.08 million individuals, 0.90 million deaths). We then examined the household size equivalised disposable income at the baseline year in relation to the rate of mortality in the following 5 years. A steep income gradient in mortality in men and women across all age groups except the oldest old in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. From the 1990s to 2000s mortality dropped, but generally more so in the upper part of the income distribution than in the lower part. As a consequence, the shape of the income gradient in mortality changed. The shift in the shape of the association was similar in all 4 countries. A non-linear gradient exists between income and mortality in most cases and because of a more rapid mortality decline among those with high income the income gradient has become steeper over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Low back pain patients in Sweden, Denmark and the UK share similar characteristics and outcomes: a cross-national comparison of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsted, Alice; Davies, Laura; Axen, Iben

    2015-11-26

    Low back pain (LBP) is the world's leading cause of disability and yet poorly understood. Cross-national comparisons may motivate hypotheses about outcomes being condition-specific or related to cultural differences and can inform whether observations from one country may be generalised to another. This analysis of data from three cohort studies explored whether characteristics and outcomes differed between LBP patients visiting chiropractors in Sweden, Denmark and the UK. LBP patients completed a baseline questionnaire and were followed up after 3, 5, 12 and 26 weeks. Outcomes were LBP intensity (0-10 scales) and LBP frequency (0-7 days the previous week). Cohort differences were tested in mixed models accounting for repeated measures. It was investigated if any differences were explained by different baseline characteristics, and interaction terms between baseline factors and nations tested if strength of prognostic factors differed across countries. The study sample consisted of 262, 947 and 453 patients from Sweden, Denmark and the UK respectively. Patient characteristics were largely similar across cohorts although some statistically significant differences were observed. The clinical course followed almost identical patterns across nations and small observed differences were not present after adjusting for baseline factors. The associations of LBP intensity and episode duration with outcome differed in strength between countries. Chiropractic patients with low back pain had similar characteristics and clinical course across three Northern European countries. It is unlikely that culture have substantially different impacts on the course of LBP in these countries and the results support knowledge transfer between the investigated countries.

  13. National Reading Tests in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden: A Comparison of Construct Definitions, Cognitive Targets, and Response Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reading comprehension tests are often assumed to measure the same, or at least similar, constructs. Yet, reading is not a single but a multidimensional form of processing, which means that variations in terms of reading material and item design may emphasize one aspect of the construct at the cost of another. The educational systems in Denmark,…

  14. Completeness of the disease recording systems for dairy cows in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with special reference to clinical mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, the majority of dairy herds are covered by disease recording systems, in general based on veterinary registration of diagnoses and treatments. Disease data are submitted to the national cattle databases where they are combined with, e.g., production data at cow level, and used for breeding programmes, advisory work and herd health management. Previous studies have raised questions about the quality of the disease data. The main aim of this study was to examine the country-specific completeness of the disease data, regarding clinical mastitis (CM) diagnosis, in each of the national cattle databases. A second aim was to estimate country-specific CM incidence rates (IRs). Results Over 4 months in 2008, farmers in the four Nordic countries recorded clinical diseases in their dairy cows. Their registrations were matched to registrations in the central cattle databases. The country-specific completeness of disease registrations was calculated as the proportion of farmer-recorded cases that could be found in the central database. The completeness (95% confidence interval) for veterinary-supervised cases of CM was 0.94 (0.92, 0.97), 0.56 (0.48, 0.64), 0.82 (0.75, 0.90) and 0.78 (0.70, 0.85) in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, respectively. The completeness of registration of all CM cases, which includes all cases noted by farmers, regardless of whether the cows were seen or treated by a veterinarian or not, was 0.90 (0.87, 0.93), 0.51 (0.43, 0.59), 0.75 (0.67, 0.83) and 0.67 (0.60, 0.75), respectively, in the same countries. The IRs, estimated by Poisson regression in cases per 100 cow-years, based on the farmers’ recordings, were 46.9 (41.7, 52.7), 38.6 (34.2, 43.5), 31.3 (27.2, 35.9) and 26.2 (23.2, 26.9), respectively, which was between 20% (DK) and 100% (FI) higher than the IRs based on recordings in the central cattle databases. Conclusions The completeness for veterinary-supervised cases of

  15. Preconception care policy, guidelines, recommendations and services across six European countries: Belgium (Flanders), Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawe, Jill; Delbaere, Ilse; Ekstrand, Maria; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Larsson, Margareta; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Stern, Jenny; Steegers, Eric; Stephenson, Judith; Tydén, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    Preconception care is important for the screening, prevention and management of risk factors that affect pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to investigate pre-pregnancy care policies, guidelines, recommendations and services in six European countries. In 2013, an electronic search and investigation was undertaken of preconception policy, guidelines, recommendations and services available to healthcare professionals and the general public in six European countries: Belgium (Flanders), Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Findings were compared within five categories: Governmental policy and legislation; Professional bodies and organisations; Healthcare providers; Charitable organisations; Web-based public information and internet sites. All countries had preconception recommendations for women with chronic diseases, such as diabetes and epilepsy. Recommendations for healthy women and men were fragmented and inconsistent. Preconception guidance was often included in antenatal and pregnancy guidelines. Differences between countries were seen with regard to nutritional and lifestyle advice particularly in relation to fish, caffeine and alcohol consumption, and vitamin supplementation. Current guidelines are heterogeneous. Collaborative research across Europe is required in order to develop evidence-based guidelines for preconception health and care. There is a need to establish a clear strategy for promoting advice and guidance within the European childbearing population.

  16. Excess Mortality, Causes of Death and Life Expectancy in 270,770 Patients with Recent Onset of Mental Disorders in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Hällgren, Jonas; Westman, Jeanette; Ösby, Urban; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Gissler, Mika; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2013-01-01

    Background Excess mortality among patients with severe mental disorders has not previously been investigated in detail in large complete national populations. Objective To investigate the excess mortality in different diagnostic categories due to suicide and other external causes of death, and due to specific causes in connection with diseases and medical conditions. Methods In longitudinal national psychiatric case registers from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, a cohort of 270,770 recent-onset patients, who at least once during the period 2000 to 2006 were admitted due to a psychiatric disorder, were followed until death or the end of 2006. They were followed for 912,279 person years, and 28,088 deaths were analyzed. Life expectancy and standardized cause-specific mortality rates were estimated in each diagnostic group in all three countries. Results The life expectancy was generally approximately 15 years shorter for women and 20 years shorter for men, compared to the general population. Mortality due to diseases and medical conditions was increased two- to three-fold, while excess mortality from external causes ranged from three- to 77-fold. Mortality due to diseases and medical conditions was generally lowest in patients with affective disorders and highest in patients with substance abuse and personality disorders, while mortality due to suicide was highest in patients with affective disorders and personality disorders, and mortality due to other external causes was highest in patients with substance abuse. Conclusions These alarming figures call for action in order to prevent the high mortality. PMID:23372832

  17. Payment for Care, Impact on the Economic Situation of the Pensioner in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Great Britain and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Charlotte; Willumsen, Marie; Hansen, Hans

    Micro simulation is used to graph the economic situation of single pensioners receiving public old-age pensions in six European countries when the former earnings vary from a low to a relatively high level. The economic situation is measured by the income concept called ‘Family Purse’, i.e. dispo......Micro simulation is used to graph the economic situation of single pensioners receiving public old-age pensions in six European countries when the former earnings vary from a low to a relatively high level. The economic situation is measured by the income concept called ‘Family Purse’, i.......e. disposable income after net housing costs. Two alternative ways of calculating gross housing costs are included, one is 20 percent of former earnings, another is 20 percent of gross pension income. In two of the countries, Denmark and Germany, there is no direct payment for care provided by professionals...... in the home of the pensioner, but the four other countries have pay schemes for care. The impact from payment on the economic situation of the pensioner is studied in two cases, one with care for one hour a week and another with care for one hour a day. The relative impact from payment on the ‘Family Purse...

  18. On the Navigation from Indialand to Denmark and on Menelaus, Konung of the Tattararíkah: Geographical Descriptions in the Icelandic-Norwegian Chronicles and Sagas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Jackson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with geographic descriptions in the Icelandic sagas. In the 12th through the 14th centuries Scandinavia special geographical works contained descriptions of the inhabited world based both on West-European chorographical tradition and local topographic information about Northern and Eastern Europe. At the same time we can often come across “written geography” in the sagas. Geographical descriptions occur in the sagas of different genres, their functions and their sources are quite varied. Different saga authors possessed different degrees of skill in inserting the geographical material into their narrative. The main attention in this article is paid to the geographic description that we find in the Icelandic “Göngu-Hrólfs saga”, relating to the sagas of ancient times and written down, probably, at the beginning of the 14th century, namely – to the description of Tattararíki, that is the “State of the Tatars”.

  19. Brint research in Denmark - Challenges and perspectives; Brintforskning i Danmark - udfordringer og perspektiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerskov, J.K. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark); Feidenhans' l, R. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Res. Dept., Roskilde (DK)] (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    Nordel is a body for co-operation between the transmission system operators (TSO's) in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden with the primary objective to create conditions for and develop an efficient and harmonised Nordic electricity market, regardless of national borders. Furthermore, Nordel serves as forum for contact between the TSOs and representatives of the market players in the Nordic countries. The statistical part of Nordel's annual report includes data about: Exchange of electricity; Gross consumption; Electricity generation; Installed capacity; Generation of condensing power; Net consumption; Transmission capacity; Pumped storage power; Losses; Occasional power to electric boilers; Total consumption; CHP generation. (BA)

  20. Trends in poverty risks among people with and without limiting-longstanding illness by employment status in Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom during the current economic recession – a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found higher employment rates and lower risk of relative poverty among people with chronic illness in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. However, Nordic countries have not been immune to the general rise in poverty in many welfare states in recent decades. This study analysed the trends in poverty risks among a particularly vulnerable group in the labour market: people with limiting-longstanding illness (LLSI), examining the experience of those with and without employment, and compared to healthy people in employment in Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Methods Cross-sectional survey data from EU-SILC (European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) on people aged 25–64 years in Sweden, Denmark and the United Kingdom (UK) were analysed between 2005 and 2010. Age-standardised rates of poverty risks (employed people with LLSI had considerably higher prevalence of poverty risk than employed people with or without LLSI. Rates of poverty risk in the UK for non-employed people with LLSI were higher than in Sweden and Denmark. Over time, the rates of poverty risk for Swedish non-employed people with LLSI in 2005 (13.8% CI=9.7-17.8) had almost doubled by 2010 (26.5% CI=19.9-33.1). For both sexes, the inequalities in poverty risks between non-employed people with LLSI and healthy employed people were much higher in the UK than in Sweden and Denmark. Over time, however, the odds of poverty risk among British non-employed men and women with LLSI compared with their healthy employed counterparts declined. The opposite trend was seen for Swedish men: the odds of poverty risk for non-employed men with LLSI compared with healthy employed men increased from OR 2.8 (CIs=1.6-4.7) in 2005 to OR 5.3 (CIs=3.2-8.9) in 2010. Conclusions The increasing poverty risks among the non-employed people with LLSI in Sweden over time are of concern from a health equity perspective. The role of recent Swedish social policy changes

  1. Strength and deformation properties of volcanic rocks in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    2016-01-01

    Tunnelling work and preinvestigations for road traces require knowledge of the strength and de-formation properties of the rock material involved. This paper presents results related to tunnel-ling for Icelandic water power plants and road tunnels from a number of regions in Iceland. The volcanic...... rock from Iceland has been the topic for rock mechanical studies carried out by Ice-landic guest students at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Den-mark over a number of years in cooperation with University of Iceland, Vegagerðin (The Icelandic Road Directorate......) and Landsvirkjun (The National Power Company of Iceland). These projects involve engineering geological properties of volcanic rock in Iceland, rock mechanical testing and parameter evaluation. Upscaling to rock mass properties and modelling using Q- or GSI-methods have been studied by the students...

  2. Denmark country note 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    . In addition to the new country, these are: Australia, Austria, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal...... available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2016 review includes one new country: Korea. Altogether, it covers 39 countries...

  3. Denmark country note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2014-01-01

    , Israel. Altogether, it covers 35 countries. In addition to Israel, these are: Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland...... overviews cover: each main type of leave; total leave available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2014 review includes one new country...

  4. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of reduced mild hypoglycaemia in subjects with Type 1 diabetes treated with insulin detemir or NPH insulin in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentine, W J; Jendle, J; Saraheimo, M

    2012-01-01

    -effectiveness based on mild (self-treated) hypoglycaemia and pharmacy costs over 1 year. Published rates of mild hypoglycaemia were used for NPH insulin and insulin detemir. Effectiveness was calculated in terms of quality-adjusted life expectancy. Pharmacy costs were accounted using published prices and defined......Diabet. Med. 29, 303-312 (2012) ABSTRACT: Aims To estimate short-term cost-effectiveness of insulin detemir vs. NPH insulin based on the incidence of mild hypoglycaemia in subjects with Type 1 diabetes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and the Netherlands. Methods A model was developed to evaluate cost...... daily doses for both insulins. Costs were expressed in 2010 euros (€). Results Treatment with insulin detemir was associated with fewer mild hypoglycaemic events than NPH insulin (mean rates of 26.3 vs. 35.5 events per person-year), leading to an improvement in mean quality-adjusted life expectancy...

  5. Clinical and laboratory studies on herds affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in Denmark, France, Spain, and Sweden: Disease progression and a proposal for herd case definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau-Roma, L.; Baekbo, P.; Rose, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To propose and evaluate a protocol to establish a diagnosis of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) at herd level. Materials and methods: The data used included both laboratory data from previous epidemiological studies carried out in Italy, Denmark, and Spain and origina...

  6. Do 'flexicurity' Policies Work for People With Low Education and Health Problems? A Comparison of Labour Market Policies and Employment Rates in Denmark, The Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Ashley; Nylén, Lotta; Backhans, Mona; Boye, Katarina; Thielen, Karsten; Whitehead, Margaret; Burström, Bo

    2015-01-01

    People with limiting longstanding illness and low education may experience problems in the labor market. Reduced employment protection that maintains economic security for the individual, known as "flexicurity," has been proposed as a way to increase overall employment. We compared the development of labor market policies and employment rates from 1990 to 2010 in Denmark and the Netherlands (representing flexicurity), the United Kingdom, and Sweden. Employment rates in all countries were much lower in the target group than for other groups over the study period. However, "flexicurity" as practiced in Denmark, far from being a "magic bullet," appeared to fail low-educated people with longstanding illness in particular. The Swedish policy, on the other hand, with higher employment protection and higher economic security, particularly earlier in the study period, led to higher employment rates in this group. Findings also revealed that economic security policies in all countries were eroding and shifting toward individual responsibility. Finally, results showed that active labor market policies need to be subcategorized to better understand which types are best suited for the target group. Increasing employment among the target group could reduce adverse health consequences and contribute to decreasing inequalities in health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Mortality among anesthesiologists in Denmark, 1973-95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K; Husum, Bent; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary data from Sweden indicating that anesthesiologists have a high mortality risk has caused a lot of concern in Denmark. The aim of this study therefore was to compare mortality between consultant anesthesiologists and other consultants in Denmark.......Preliminary data from Sweden indicating that anesthesiologists have a high mortality risk has caused a lot of concern in Denmark. The aim of this study therefore was to compare mortality between consultant anesthesiologists and other consultants in Denmark....

  8. Genetic analysis of competition traits in Icelandic horses

    OpenAIRE

    Albertsdóttir, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to explore the basis for including competition traits in the genetic evaluations of the Icelandic horse. This evaluation is currently based on breeding field-test traits. For this purpose knowledge about genetic parameters of the competition traits, and of genetic relationships between competition traits and the breeding field-test traits was required. A data-set including 18 982 records of 3790 horses competing in Iceland and Sweden 1998 – 2004 were analysed using ...

  9. Icelandic Geopower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maguire, James

    2017-01-01

    into these discussions through an ethnographic and practice based approach to the study of renewable energy. It does so by examining the production of geothermal energy in the Hengill volcanic zone in the southwest of Iceland. The analysis that is produced is based upon an engagement with the practices, ideas...... with those who make geothermal energy (geologists) as well as those who protest against its production (residents living in the vicinity of the volcanic zone) allows me to understand how geothermal energy is produced and resisted through particular sets of practices and technologies. At the same time it also....... Carrying out ethnographic fieldwork with key actors allows me to examine how this complex techno-political work is carried out and to what effects. However, drilling deep in the subterranean of a highly active seismic area is dangerous and risky. In producing geothermal energy, other consequences...

  10. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  11. Cancer Mortality by Country of Birth, Sex, and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden, 1961–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend Sweden-born (86.1%) individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.07), but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth. PMID:24682217

  12. Association between population prevalence of smoking and incidence of meningococcal disease in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009: a population-based time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norheim, Gunnstein; Sadarangani, Manish; Omar, Omar; Yu, Ly-Mee; Mølbak, Kåre; Howitz, Michael; Olcén, Per; Haglund, Margaretha; van der Ende, Arie; Pollard, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the prevalence of smoking in the population and incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) among children under 5 years of age. Design Retrospective, longitudinal, observational study. Poisson regression controlled for confounding factors. Setting Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands between 1975 and 2009. Population Total population of approximately 35 million people in these four countries. Data sources Data were collected from the Ministries of Health, National Statistics Bureaus and other relevant national institutes. Results In Norway, there was a significant positive relationship between the annual prevalence of daily smokers among individuals aged 25–49 years and the incidence of IMD in children under 5 years of age, unadjusted (RR=1.04–1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, p<0.001) and after adjustment for time of year (quarter), incidence of influenza-like illness and household crowding (RR=1.05–1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.09, p<0.001). Depending on age group, the risk of IMD increased by 5.2–6.9% per 1% increase in smoking prevalence among individuals aged 25–49 years in adjusted analyses. Using limited datasets from the three other countries, unadjusted analysis showed positive associations between IMD in children related to older smokers in Sweden and the Netherlands and negative associations related to younger smokers in Sweden. However, there were no demonstrable associations between incidence of IMD and prevalence of smoking, after adjustment for the same confounding variables. Conclusions The reduced incidence of IMD in Norway between 1975 and 2009 may partly be explained by the reduced prevalence of smoking during this period. High-quality surveillance data are required to confirm this in other countries. Strong efforts to reduce smoking in the whole population including targeted campaigns to reduce smoking among adults may have a role to play in the prevention of IMD in children

  13. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: An offshore transgressive–regressive mudstone-dominated succession from the Sinemurian of Skåne, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A Sinemurian mudstone-dominated succession was exposed until recently in the Gantofta quarry in Skåne, southern Sweden. The deposits are placed in the Döshult and Pankarp Members of the Sinemurian–Aalenian Rya Formation. Similar facies of the same age are widespread in the Danish Basin where they constitute the F-Ib unit (F-I member of the Fjerritslev Formation. The Gantofta succession thus represents the easternmost extension of the environment characteristic of the Fjerritslev Formation and is essentially the only locality where it has been possible tostudy the facies of this formation in outcrop. Sedimentation seems to have taken place under relatively quiet tectonic conditions except for the possible fault-control of the basin margin. Thelower part of the Gantofta section is of Early and early Late Sinemurian age. It represents the upper part of the Döshult Member and consists of muddy, lower shoreface sandstones, abruptlyoverlain by dark, bioturbated, fossiliferous mudstones with thin storm siltstones and sandstones. They are overlain by the Upper Sinemurian Pankarp Member which comprises red-brown, restricted marine calcareous mudstones with an upwards increasing number of storm siltstones and sandstones reflecting general shallowing and shoreline progradation.The succession spans the greater part of two simple sequences with a distal sequence boundary located at the boundary between the Döshult Member and the Pankarp Member. The exposed part of the lower sequence includes a thick transgressive systems tract and a very thin highstand systems tract. The upper sequence is represented by an undifferentiated transgressive and highstand systems tract. An Early Sinemurian sea-level rise, a late Early Sinemurian highstand, an early Late Sinemurian fall and a Late Sinemurian minor rise and a major fall are recognised. Nearby boreholes show evidence for an end-Sinemurian – Early Pliensbachian major rise. This evolution corresponds well with

  14. The Vikings are coming! A modern Icelandic self-image in the light of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Nielsen Gremaud

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the connection between the economic crisis in Iceland in 2008 and the role of Viking imagery in the collective self-image of Iceland. This connection is informed by Iceland’s status as a Danish dependency for centuries – a condition that deeply affected the development of Icelandic self-perception and its cultural life. In recent years, the Viking has appeared as an image of central cultural significance in Iceland’s international relations with both Denmark and Great Britain in recent years. This article explores the connection between the sensational rise and fall of the so-called útrásarvíkingar (ex-pansion Vikings, or Icelandic businessmen, and the effect of Iceland being a former dependency of Denmark on the general function of the Viking image in Iceland’s collective identity. Thus, a postcolonial approach sheds light on how imagological representations of Vikings have affected modern Icelandic identity conceptualizations.

  15. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrún; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna

    2017-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (CIV) is a newly developed open-access web resource (http://icelandicvolcanoes.is) intended to serve as an official source of information about volcanoes in Iceland for the public and decision makers. CIV contains text and graphic information on all 32 active volcanic systems in Iceland, as well as real-time data from monitoring systems in a format that enables non-specialists to understand the volcanic activity status. The CIV data portal contains scientific data on all eruptions since Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and is an unprecedented endeavour in making volcanological data open and easy to access. CIV forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the European Union funded effort FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. The supersite concept implies integration of space and ground based observations for improved monitoring and evaluation of volcanic hazards, and open data policy. This work is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere.

  16. High resolution modelling of the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Logemann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The northward inflow of Atlantic Water through Denmark Strait – the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC – is simulated with a numerical model of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. The model uses the technique of adaptive grid refinement which allows a high spatial resolution (1 km horizontal, 10 m vertical around Iceland. The model is used to assess time and space variability of volume and heat fluxes for the years 1997–2003. Passive tracers are applied to study origin and composition of NIIC water masses. The NIIC originates from two sources: the Irminger Current, flowing as part of the sub-polar gyre in 100–500 m depth along the Reykjanes Ridge and the shallow Icelandic coastal current, flowing north-westward on the south-west Icelandic shelf. The ratio of volume flux between the deep and shallow branch is around 2:1. The NIIC continues as a warm and saline branch northward through Denmark Strait where it entrains large amounts of polar water due to the collision with the southward flowing East Greenland Current. After passing Denmark Strait, the NIIC follows the coast line eastward being an important heat source for north Icelandic waters. At least 60% of the temporal temperature variability of north Icelandic waters is caused by the NIIC. The NIIC volume and heat transport is highly variable and depends strongly on the wind field north-east of Denmark Strait. Daily means can change from 1 Sv eastward to 2 Sv westward within a few days. Highest monthly mean transport rates occur in summer when winds from north are weak, whereas the volume flux is reduced by around 50% in winter. Summer heat flux rates can be even three times higher than in winter. The simulation also shows variability on the interannual scale. In particular weak winds from north during winter 2002/2003 combined with mild weather conditions south of Iceland led to anomalous high NIIC volume (+40% and heat flux (+60% rates. In this period, simulated north Icelandic

  17. Blood transfusion exposure in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Although essential for the evaluation of blood transfusion safety, the prevalence of blood transfusion in the general population is not presently known. This study estimated the exposure to blood transfusion in the general Scandinavian population.......Although essential for the evaluation of blood transfusion safety, the prevalence of blood transfusion in the general population is not presently known. This study estimated the exposure to blood transfusion in the general Scandinavian population....

  18. EU Studies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garski, Salla; Jørgensen, Knud Erik; Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In this brief chapter we take stock of Danish and Swedish scholarship on the European Union (EU). We intend to analyze and evaluate Danish and Swedish scholarship on EU issues, using a mixed methodology integrated into the analysis of this chapter. The method integrates a secondary analysis of le...

  19. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2016-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  20. Composition and variability of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water in a high-resolution numerical model hindcast simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Erik; Vâge, Kjetil; Harden, Benjamin; Biastoch, Arne; Böning, Claus W.

    2017-04-01

    The upstream sources and pathways of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water and their variability have been investigated using a high-resolution model hindcast. This global simulation covers the period from 1948 to 2009 and uses a fine model mesh (1/20°) to resolve mesoscale features and the complex current structure north of Iceland explicitly. The three sources of the Denmark Strait Overflow, the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC), the separated EGC, and the North Icelandic Jet, have been analyzed using Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics. The shelfbreak EGC contributes the largest fraction in terms of volume and freshwater transport to the Denmark Strait Overflow and is the main driver of the overflow variability. The North Icelandic Jet contributes the densest water to the Denmark Strait Overflow and shows only small temporal transport variations. During summer, the net volume and freshwater transports to the south are reduced. On interannual time scales, these transports are highly correlated with the large-scale wind stress curl around Iceland and, to some extent, influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation, with enhanced southward transports during positive phases. The Lagrangian trajectories support the existence of a hypothesized overturning loop along the shelfbreak north of Iceland, where water carried by the North Icelandic Irminger Current is transformed and feeds the North Icelandic Jet. Monitoring these two currents and the region north of the Iceland shelfbreak could provide the potential to track long-term changes in the Denmark Strait Overflow and thus also the AMOC.

  1. [Phenylketonuria (PKU) in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddason, Karl Erlingur; Eiriksdóttir, Lilja; Franzson, Leifur; Dagbjartsson, Atli

    2011-06-01

    PKU is a metabolic disorder caused by a mutation in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Icelandic neonatal screening for PKU started in 1972. The mutation causes a variable [corrected] dysfunction in PAH, that metabolizes phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine (Tyr) with the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Accumulation of Phe causes mental retardation and seizures. Current therapy focuses on Phe-restrictive diet and newer methods like BH4 in large doses. The primary aim was to collect data about PKU in Iceland and evaluate therapy and screening. Additional focus was on BH4 therapy. Information was gathered from Landspitali medical charts retrospectively. Serum-Phe (S-Phe) measurements, age at initiation of therapy, PAH mutation types and information on current therapy was collected. RESULTS from BH4 loading tests were collected. 27 patients have been diagnosed with PKU in Iceland since 1947. Incidence 1972-2008 is 1/8400 living births. Classic PKU is the most common presentation in Iceland. Patients diagnosed after screening started have normal intelligence. Age at initiation of therapy and S-Phe average values lower with time. 12 PAH mutation types have been found in Iceland. A novel Icelandic mutation, Y377fsdelT, did not respond to BH4 loading test. Two patients responded to a BH4 loading test and four other patients are likely to respond to BH4 loading test. PKU incidence in Iceland is slightly higher than in neighboring countries. Therapy compliance is adequate and international consensuses regarding therapy are met. PKU patients in Iceland are generally in good health. Screening is efficient and save. BH4 therapy is a an optional alternative therapy in Iceland.

  2. Cultural Policy in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2003-01-01

    The article examines the history of cultural policy in Iceland from a Nordic comparative perspective. National cultural policy takes form in the 19th and early 20th century as a part of the nation-building, emphasising the Icelandic language as the core of national identity, building cultural...... on the continuing emphasis on central cultural institution and the Icelandic language. Since the 1970s Cold War conflicts have been replaced by a consensus on growing support to artists and an armth's length policy, and furthermore the 1990s have seen a strong move towards NPM and international participation....

  3. Whither Nordic Public Libraries? Towards a Cross-country Research Initiative on the Historical Heritage, Role, Selfperception, and Challenges of Public Libraries in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden Whither Nordic Public Libraries? Towards a Cross-country Research Initiative on the Historical Heritage, Role, Selfperception, and Challenges of Public Libraries in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Kajberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In these years, the role and mission of the mainstream Western world public library are increasingly being questioned and challenged. Current discussion as it has unfolded during the last few years within the public library community, and among educators and researchers in the field, more and more point to the fact that public libraries are facing a need for reorientation and reconsideration of their role along with the services they provide to their users. Public library use, primarily the number of library loans, seems to be shrinking, but the function of the library as an informal meeting place and a social space in the local community seems to attract an increasing amount of interest professionally and academically. As a by-product of this interest, various scenarios for the development of the public library have been presented. The nature of challenges confronting public libraries - including those emerging from the web, from the dispersion of social software and changes in users' habits, tastes, preferences, etc. - are examined. Moreover, commoditisation of human life, a manifest phenomenon in the age of late modernity, has gradually led to a shift in emphasis from enlightenment to a short-term and customer-centred perspective. The discussion of emerging identities and roles for the public library can be seen as the starting point for a joint research initiative initiated by Library and Information Science (LIS schools in the Nordic countries. Detailed treatment is given to the efforts to get this research initiative, which aims to reflect strategically on the role of the public library in democracy and welfare state in Scandinavia, off the ground. In defining the contents and direction of the research initiative, a public library researchers' seminar was held in Uppsala, Sweden in May 2007. Finally, some critical observations are presented on the way in which current professional policy- making, LIS scholarship and theory building as

  4. The Language Situation in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda; Kristinsson, Ari Pall

    2010-01-01

    Purist language policies in Iceland have preserved and modernized Icelandic up until the present time. However, the impact of globalization and global English has led to the perception that the language is less secure than in the past and has prompted efforts by policy makers towards greater protection of Icelandic. This monograph presents the…

  5. Latin Hagiography in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensson, Gottskálk

    2017-01-01

    I. INTRODUCTION A. Latin literacy in Iceland and the cult of saints B. Icelandic quasi-hagiography and the Christian monarchs of Norway II. THE ICELANDIC SAINTS AND THEIR LATIN TEXTS A. S. Thorlacus Scalotensis episcopus. – 1. The texts: the Latin hagiography about St Þorlákur. – 2. The historical...

  6. Clinical and analytical evaluation of the new Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay, with data on M. genitalium prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unemo, M.; Salado-Rasmussen, K.; Hansen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes urethritis and cervicitis, potentially causing reproductive complications. Resistance in MG to first-line (azithromycin) and second-line (moxifloxacin) treatment has increased. We examined the clinical and analytical performance of the new Conformité...... Européene (CE)/. in vitro diagnostics (IVD) Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay (CE/IVD AMG; Hologic); the prevalence of MG, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG); and MG resistance to azithromycin and moxifloxacin in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2016. Methods: From February 2016......). The sensitivity of the CE/IVD AMG, MG Alt TMA-1 and mgpB qPCR ranged 99.13-100%, 99.13-100% and 73.24-81.60%, respectively, in the countries. The specificity ranged 99.57-99.96%, 100% and 99.69-100%, respectively. The prevalence of resistance-associated mutations for azithromycin and moxifloxacin was 41.4% (120...

  7. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  8. Home Care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csonka, Agi Eva; Boll, Joachim

    The study presented in this paper is part of the European project: New Forms of Employment and Working Time in the Service Economy/NESY. The overall objective of the project is to analyse the emergence and the effects of new forms of employment, work organisation and working time patterns in the ...... in the service sector. The project covers Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom.......The study presented in this paper is part of the European project: New Forms of Employment and Working Time in the Service Economy/NESY. The overall objective of the project is to analyse the emergence and the effects of new forms of employment, work organisation and working time patterns...

  9. IT Services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csonka, Agi Eva; Boll, Joachim

    The study presented in this paper is part of the European project: New Forms of Employment and Working Time in the Service Economy/NESY. The overall objective of the project is to analyse the emergence and the effects of new forms of employment, work organisation and working time patterns in the ...... in the service sector. The project covers Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom. This paper presents the results of the case study within the IT sector.......The study presented in this paper is part of the European project: New Forms of Employment and Working Time in the Service Economy/NESY. The overall objective of the project is to analyse the emergence and the effects of new forms of employment, work organisation and working time patterns...

  10. Postcolonial Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    -connections between Denmark and its former colonies are paradoxically juxtaposed with processes of new reinforcement: The U.S. Virgin Islands has emerged as an important tourist destination for Danes (more than 10,000 visitors each year). Ghana is one of the major recipients of Danish development aid. Major...... restoration programs are and have been conducted in all former Danish tropical colonies. In Greenland, Denmark is using its sovereignty to boost its international status as part of the Arctic council, as a scientific power centre on Polar/Arctic research – not least in relation to climate change. The article...

  11. Globalizing Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory article examines the paradox of being open-minded while ethnocentric as expressed in Danish international management practices at the micro level. With a population of 5.4 million, Denmark is one of the smallest of the European countries. The pressure on many small advanced...... to integrate counteracts to some extent the need to maintain openness to differences. Thus, a strong economy and a feeling of smug ethnocentrism in Denmark generate a central paradox in thinking about internationalization in Danish society....

  12. The Icelandic ITQ System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sofie; Hegland, Troels Jacob; Oddsson, Geir

    2009-01-01

    volume of landings is constituted by pelagic species. Cod, which is mainly caught in the Icelanders’ own exclusive economic zone, is the economically most important fish. The aim of this chapter is to evaluate the Icelandic individual transferable quota shares system with its management innovations, e...

  13. An Icelandic wind atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Gudrun; Bjornsson, Halldór; Arason, Þórður; Jónasson, Kristján

    2013-04-01

    While Iceland has ample wind, its use for energy production has been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated from renewable hydro- and geothermal source and adding wind energy has not be considered practical or even necessary. However, adding wind into the energy mix is becoming a more viable options as opportunities for new hydro or geothermal power installation become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland a wind atlas has been developed as a part of the Nordic project "Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing" (IceWind). The atlas is based on mesoscale model runs produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and high-resolution regional analyses obtained through the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The wind atlas shows that the wind energy potential is considerable. The regions with the strongest average wind are nevertheless impractical for wind farms, due to distance from road infrastructure and power grid as well as harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. There is a strong seasonal cycle, with wintertime power densities throughout the island being at least a factor of two higher than during summer. Calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plants making wind energy a viable additional option.

  14. MABEL Iceland 2012 Flight Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, William B.; Brunt, Kelly M.; De Marco, Eugenia L.; Reed, Daniel L.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Markus, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In March and April 2012, NASA conducted an airborne lidar campaign based out of Keflavik, Iceland, in support of Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) algorithm development. The survey targeted the Greenland Ice Sheet, Iceland ice caps, and sea ice in the Arctic Ocean during the winter season. Ultimately, the mission, MABEL Iceland 2012, including checkout and transit flights, conducted 14 science flights, for a total of over 80 flight hours over glaciers, icefields, and sea ice.

  15. [Tablets and tablet production - with special reference to Icelandic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2013-04-01

    Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades.

  16. Onychomycosis in Icelandic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurgeirsson, B; Kristinsson, K G; Jonasson, P S

    2006-08-01

    Onychomycosis is a rare disorder in children. Few studies exist on the incidence or prevalence of onychomycosis in children. To examine the epidemiology of childhood onychomycosis in Iceland during the period 1982-2000. Results from all mycological samples taken from children in Iceland from 1982 to 2000 were examined. Information about the requesting physician, unique social security number, date of birth, sex, results of culture and microscopy were registered. Growth of a dermatophyte was taken as an indication of a case of onychomycosis. During the period 1982-2000 a total of 493 samples from 408 Icelandic children, aged 0-17 years, were examined. Dermatophytes were cultured from 148 (30.0%) samples. During the period 1982-85, the mean annual incidence of positive cultures was 1.65 per 100,000, increasing to 21.30 per 100,000 for the years 1996-2000. Trichophyton rubrum was the dominating organism and was found in 102/148 cases positive for the growth of a dermatophyte. The incidence of positive dermatophyte cultures increased with age and was found in eight children aged 0-4, and in 57 children aged 10-14 years. Onychomycosis is rare in children, but increases with age. It seems that onychomycosis increased during the study period, but it is not clear if this was due to a true increase in the prevalence of onychomycosis or an increased awareness of onychomycosis, or both.

  17. Aeolian Environments of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson Waldhauserová, Pavla

    2017-04-01

    Iceland has the largest area of volcaniclastic sandy desert on Earth or 22,000 km2. The sand has been mostly produced by glacio-fluvial processes, leaving behind fine-grained unstable sediments which are later re-distributed by repeated aeolian events. Volcanic eruptions add to this pool of unstable sediments, often from subglacial eruptions. Icelandic desert surfaces are divided into sand fields, sandy lavas and sandy lag gravel, each with separate aeolian surface characteristics such as threshold velocities. Storms are frequent due to Iceland's location on the North Atlantic Storm track. Dry winds occur on the leeward sides of mountains and glaciers, in spite of the high moisture content of the Atlantic cyclones. Surface winds often move hundreds to more than 1000 kg m-1 per annum, and more than 10,000 kg m-1 have been measured in a single storm. Desertification occurs when aeolian processes push sand fronts and have thus destroyed many previously fully vegetated ecosystems since the time of the settlement of Iceland in the late ninth century. There are about 135 dust events per annum, ranging from minor storms to >300,000 t of dust emitted in single storms. Dust can be generated from all the major sandy areas of Iceland; however the amount of finer particles that become dust varies with the surfaces. There are areas that produce more dust by far compared to the general sandy deserts; they have therefore been termed "dust plume areas" or "dust hot-spots". They are characterized by repeated charging of fine sediments with a relatively high proportion of finer (silty) materials which, upon repeated wind erosion become sorted downwind from the sources with loss of silt (dust) and an increasing saltation component (sand). Dust production is on the order of 30-40 million tons annually, some travelling over 1000 km and deposited on land and sea. Dust deposited on deserts tends to be re-suspended during subsequent storms. High PM10 concentrations occur during major dust

  18. Assessing the effectiveness of Denmark's waste tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1998-01-01

    pollution from incinerators. Denmark responded to this situation by adopting a comprehensive waste management policy that included an innovative tax on waste designed to promote the reuse and recycling of many types of waste. Now that the tax has been in place for a decade, there is enough data to assess...... its effectiveness. Such an assessment has implications that extend far beyond Denmark. To date, six other countries in Europe (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) have adopted waste taxes at the national level, and two others (Norway and Sweden) are considering...

  19. Postcolonial Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This article begins by providing a brief overview of Danish colonial and imperial history in the tropics, the Arctic and the sub-Arctic. It then discusses how Danish colonialism relates to a broader regional (Scandinavian/Nordic) and pan-European colonial history. From there it moves on to consid...... concludes by looking at critical approaches to Danish colonial history and its legacy in contemporary Danophone literature. ‘Something is rotten in the state of Denmark.’ (William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act 1, Scene 4)...

  20. Iceland’s External Affairs from the Napoleonic Era to the occupation of Denmark: Danish and British Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldur Thorhallsson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Iceland enjoyed essential shelter, for its development and prosperity, provided by Denmark and Britain. Societal relations with Copenhagen were of fundamental importance in the preservation and evolution of Icelandic identity and culture, providing the foundation of the modern society and leading to the establishment of the Icelandic state. Danish financial backups created the basis for the island’s economic prosperity in the 20th century. Moreover, Denmark provided partial political shelter in terms of significant diplomatic support in guaranteeing trade agreements with other states. Also, Denmark led by example and Iceland followed its foreign policy. On the other hand, Denmark failed to provide Iceland with protection of its land and waters and economic cover when it was in most need. Moreover, the economic cover it did provide was, at times, highly costly. Denmark had been downgraded to a small European power in the post-Napoleonic period. In practice, Britain was in control over the North Atlantic. It guaranteed Iceland’s neutrality and connection to the outside world and markets when the Danish authorities failed in these areas, as long as British interests were also served. Nor did British protection come without cost. Accordingly, this paper confirms the common claim of small-state studies that small states are at the mercy of their larger neighbours. Moreover, our findings indicate that Iceland’s growing autonomy did not affect its need for political, economic and societal cover.

  1. The Crash Course from Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huginn Freyr Þorsteinsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The years between 2006 and 2008 are key in understanding the Icelandic economic crisis. One of the main questions one gets when discussing the lessons from Iceland is: Was the quick recovery due to how the country 'burned' the creditors? Myth has it that when things got tough for the banks, the Icelandic government denied to bail them out and the country therefore escaped the difficult long-term consequence felt by, for example, Ireland. But that is a serious distortion of what happened. The Icelandic banks were on Central Bank life support from 2006 to 2008. It was only when the CBI ran out of steam that an alternative approach in crisis management was put in place. For admirers of historical contingencies, this case is of interest. Iceland did not take a calculated decision to let the banks fail, but an attempted bail-out failed. This meant that that its tackling of a banking crisis took an unexpected turn as banks were put into administration; a move only considered in the face of failure. And despite the route taken by Iceland, the total cost of the economic crisis for the State has surpassed Ireland's and is one of the costliest any sovereign has faced in the ongoing crisis. This is interesting, given the ongoing discussion about the Icelandic 'miraculous' escape from an economic crisis and that the possibilities countries face during crisis management may be many more than those that are discussed.

  2. Forest restoration in the Nordic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle Madsen; Ása Arad•ttir; Emile Gardiner; Pelle Gemmel; Kåre Lund Høie; Magnus Löf; John A. Stanturf; Peter Tigerstedt; Hardi Tullus; Sauli Valkonen; Veiko Uri

    2000-01-01

    The Nordic countries include Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark, which range from lat. 54° in southern Denmark to lat. 72° at North Cape, Norway. This region is dominated by the boreal coniferous vegetational zone.Denmark and southern Sweden are, however, located in the deciduous (nemoral) forest zone, whereas the interior part of Iceland and the high...

  3. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  4. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  5. Whither Nordic Public Libraries? Towards a Cross-country Research Initiative on the Histo rical Heritage, Role, Self- perception, and Challenges of Public Libraries in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Kajberg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In these years, the role and mission of the mainstream Western world public library are increasingly being questioned and challenged. Current discussion as it has unfolded during the last few years within the public library community, and among educators and researchers in the field, more and more point to the fact that public libraries are facing a need for reorientation and reconsideration of their role along with the services they provide to their users. Public library use, primarily the number of library loans, seems to be shrinking, but the function of the library as an informal meetingplace and a social space in the local commu­nity seems to attract an increasing amount of interest professionally and aca- demically. As a by-product of this interest, various scenarios for the development of the public library have been presented. The nature of challenges confronting public libraries - including those emerging from the web, from the dispersion of social software and changes in users' habits, tastes, preferences, etc. - are exa- mined. Moreover, commoditisation of human life, a manifest phenomenon in the age of late modernity, has gradually led to a shift in emphasis from enlightenment to a short-term and customer-centred perspective. The discussion of emerging identities and roles for the public library can be seen as the starting point for a joint research initiative initiated by Library & Information Science (LIS schools in the Nordic countries. Detailed treatment is given to the efforts to get this research initiative, which aims to reflect strategically on the role of the public library in democracy and welfare state in Scandinavia, off the ground. In defining the contents and direction of the research initiative, a public library researchers' seminar was held in Uppsala, Sweden in May 2007. Finally, some critical observations are presented on the way in which current professional po- licy-making, LIS scholarship and theory building as

  6. Religion, modernity and foreign nurses in Iceland 1896-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Kristin; Malchau, Susanne

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the influence of foreign nurses upon the development of modern healthcare services and the nursing profession in Iceland in the first three decades of the twentieth century. It represents a case study of how new ideas, traditions and practices migrated between countries and cultures in the twentieth century. Icelandic society was, at that time, still premodern in many ways. Healthcare institutions were almost nonexistent and the means of production were undeveloped. It was into this context that the idea of nursing as a professional activity was introduced. Groups of nurses, the Catholic Sisters of St Joseph of Chambéry and secular nurses, mainly from Denmark, came to the country to organize and provide healthcare services, of which nursing was of central importance. These groups were diasporas, in that they brought traditions and practices from other cultures. The Sisters of St Joseph built, owned and ran the first modern hospital in the country. The Danish nurses introduced nursing as a specialized field of work, in leprosy and tuberculosis nursing and by initiating public health nursing services. They were instrumental in promoting education as an important condition to becoming a nurse, and the development of an Icelandic nursing profession. These nurses were generally respected by the Icelandic people for their contributions and were received with interest and appreciation. The healthcare services introduced by these different groups of nurses reflected modern ways of living and a commitment to professionalism, which involved providing assistance to patients based on the best knowledge available and a philosophy of respect and care.

  7. Iceland's Language Technology: Policy versus Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda M.; Kristinsson, Ari P.

    2009-01-01

    Iceland's language policies are purist and protectionist, aiming to maintain the grammatical system and basic vocabulary of Icelandic as it has been for a thousand years and to keep the language free of foreign (English) borrowings. In order to use Icelandic in the domain of information technology, there has been a major investment in language…

  8. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  9. Wine production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    to more than 60 at the end of year 2009 and the Association of Danish Winegrowers now counts more than 1400 members. Denmark can no longer be seen as a non-wine producing country! Formally, the transformation of Denmark to a wine producing country took place in year 2000 when Denmark was accepted...

  10. Pectinoidea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Warén, A.; Gudmundsson, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Icelandic pectinoid fauna is reviewed, based on material from the benthic survey programme BIOICE and 17 species are recorded. Similipecten oskarssoni is proposed as a replacement name for Pecten groenlandicus var. minor Locard, 1898 (Propeamussiidae), which is considered a valid species.

  11. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Amundsen, Hans E. F.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Griffin, William L.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The magmatic activity (0–16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland—and especially the Öræfajökull volcano—is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/204Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr–Nd–Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2–6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  12. Foreign Direct Investments into Denmark before 1939

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kurt; Strandskov, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Drawing on a new database, this article presents the first systematic description and assessment of inward FDI into Denmark before World War II. A total of 168 cases were identified, with British, American and German firms dominating the overall picture as might be expected. The composit......Abstract Drawing on a new database, this article presents the first systematic description and assessment of inward FDI into Denmark before World War II. A total of 168 cases were identified, with British, American and German firms dominating the overall picture as might be expected...... waves, which were primarily directed towards 'new' industries. The article thus offers a link to Danish economic history in general. The material also enables a comparison with FDI into Norway and Sweden over the same period. For the purposes of allowing a discussion of the comparative aspect, FDI...

  13. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  14. The Copyright/Design Interface in Denmark (and Scandinavia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Rosenmeier, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the interface in copyright and design law in Denmark and with accounts also for Norway and Sweden. It is pointed out how Scandinavian courts have historically employed several strategies to limit copyright protection of works of applied art including 1) “raising the bar......” to keep works with “clear functional intentions” out of copyright (as seen in Norway and until recently also in Sweden) and 2) narrowing the scope of protection (seen in all three nations). It is finally pointed out how, presently, it is doubtful to what extent the de-velopment in EU law will allow...

  15. English Teacher Training Programs in Denmark, Sweden and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2016-01-01

    Teachers play one of the most important roles in reaching learning objectives. The qualifications of teachers in an education system reflect the potential of that system and directly influence the learners' achievement. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare Danish and Swedish English teacher training programs with that of Turkey and…

  16. Nursing Education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birte Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim.  This paper is a discussion of the similarities and differences in baccalaureate nursing education programme structures, content and pathways to postbaccalaureate education in the Scandinavian countries. Background.  For the last three decades nursing education internationally......, as well as in the Scandinavian countries, has experienced ongoing reforms. The driving forces behind these reforms have been efforts for professional development within nursing and to harmonize higher education in several European countries. Data sources.  The data were collected by a critical review...... of the guiding principles, national directives and educational structures and content of Bachelor’s degree programmes from 1990 to 2008 and of further educational levels in the four Scandinavian countries. Discussion.  There are similarities as well as substantial differences in the educational structures...

  17. Equalisation and Local Taxation in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Werner; Anwar Shah

    2005-01-01

    Education is one of the most important services provided by public governments in almost every country worldwide. However, the most important cross-country observations about education ? like the PISA report by the OECD or the TIMSS by the IEA ? focus only on international benchmarks to compare the knowledge capacity of pupils. This paper provides a general overview of the different forms to finance education in the framework of intergovernmental transfers as well as educational providers in ...

  18. Actual preferences for EV households in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Haustein, Sonja; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    Battery electric vehicles (EVs) have received vast attention in the recent decade, especially due to their potential environmental benefits. The car industry has invested huge amounts in the battery electric vehicle technology, leading to a much larger selection of car models with better comfort......, driving range and options for recharging the batteries. Several studies have indicated that a great share of car households would now be able to maintain their current mobility patterns with only a minor level of adaption (Christensen 2011; Pearre et al. 2011; Greaves et al. 2014). Still, the driving...... be reduced. Thus, the EV alternative has changed from being a product for a very small group of enthusiasts to being an actual car alternative for a common household and knowledge about which type of households would be interested in EVs is extremely valuable for both industry and policy makers. However...

  19. Two Phenotypes of Traditional Serrated Adenomas Nationwide Survey in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carlos A; Jónasson, Jón G

    2015-09-01

    Iceland has a total population of 300,000 inhabitants. All patients consulting for symptoms of the lower digestive tract during a four-year period (2003-2006) were subjected to a colonoscopic examination; all polyps were endoscopically removed. Out of the total 3,037 colorectal adenomas (CRAs), 308 (10.2%) were traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs). TSAs were divided according the predominant histological phenotype (>50%) into those with ectopic crypt formations (ECF), and those with unlocked serrations (US). ECF-TSA accounted for 5.9% (178/3037) and US-TSA for 4.3% (130/3037). The majority of patients with ECF-TSA and US-TSA were ≥ 60 years of age (74.1% and 76.2%, respectively). Notwithstanding, when patients having advanced adenomas (with high-grade dysplasia, with or without intramucosal carcinoma) were listed by age, those with ECF-TSA were significantly younger than those with US-TSA (pIceland than in Sweden or in Italy (p<0.05). Genetic and putative epigenetic (environmental) factor(s) might account for the high incidence rate/year of ECF-TSA and US-TSA in this country. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Illuga saga Gríðarfóstra in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavender, Philip Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the intellectual history behind and scholarly preparation towards the first edition of Illuga saga Gríðarfóstra in Sweden in 1695. One of the main questions which the article tries to answer is why an edition of a saga about Danish kings and heroes would end up being produced...... in the middle of the Sweden and Denmark's fiercely competitive nation-building furore....

  1. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian Sundström; Helene Wahlström; Sofie Ivarsson; Susanna Sternberg Lewerin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae), for differences in the control programmes and for changes i...

  2. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  3. [Tuberculosis in Iceland. 1976].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur

    2005-01-01

    ray examination was made in all cases where tuberculin examination had not been made or was incomplete. The negative reactors were not X rayed. The tuberculin tests were percutaneous, cutaneous and intracutaneous. The X ray examination during the first years was performed by means of fluoroscopy and roentgenograms were made in all doubtful cases. In 1945 when the survey of the capital city of Reykjavík was made and comprised a total of 43,595 persons photoroentgenograms were made. After 1948 only this method together with tuberculin testing was used in all the larger towns in the country. During the period 1940-1945 such surveys were carried out in 12 medical districts, or parts thereof and included 58,837 persons or 47 percent of the entire population. The attendance in these surveys ranged from 89.3 percent to 100 percent of those considered able to attend. In the capital city, Reykjavík, the attendance was 99.32 percent. The course and prevalence of tuberculosis in Iceland from 1911 to 1970 are traced on the basis of tuberculosis reporting registers, mortality records which were ordered by law in 1911, tuberculin surveys and post mortem examinations. The deficiencies of these sources are pointed out. Since 1939 the morbidity rates are accurate. The number of reported cases of tuberculosis increases steadily up to the year 1935, when 1.6 percent of the population is reported to have active tuberculosis at the end of that year. Thereafter it begins to decline gradually the first years but abruptly in 1939, then without doubt because of the revision of the tuberculosis legislation and more exact reporting regulations. After that year the fall is almost constant with rather small fluctuations as regards new cases, relapses and total number of reported cases remaining on register at the end of each year. In 1950 the new cases are down to 1.6 per thousand and at the end of the year the rate for those remaining on register is 6.9 per thousand. In the year 1954 there is

  4. Iceland's Economic Eruption and Meltdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsson, Ulf; Torfason, Bjarni K.

    2012-01-01

    The Icelandic financial collapse, which occurred in the fall of 2008, is without precedent. Never before in modern history has an entire financial system of a developed country collapsed so dramatically. This paper describes the country's path towards financial liberalisation and the economic bac...... that any fast growing market may be exposed to. It concludes that the economic collapse was primarily home-brewed and a consequence of an unbound, risk-seeking banking sector and ineffective (or non-existent) actions of the Icelandic authorities.......The Icelandic financial collapse, which occurred in the fall of 2008, is without precedent. Never before in modern history has an entire financial system of a developed country collapsed so dramatically. This paper describes the country's path towards financial liberalisation and the economic...... background that lead to an initially flourishing banking sector. In doing so, the paper elaborates on the economic oversights that were made during the financial build-up of the country and how such mistakes contributed to the crash. The focus is thus on identifying the main factors that contributed...

  5. Synchronized Phasor Measurements of a Power System Event in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana; Jørgensen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    Two sets of synchronized phasor measurements 200 km apart have been performed during a planned outage of a double 400-kV tie-line between Eastern Denmark and Southern Sweden. The interconnection between Eastern Denmark and Southern Sweden comprises of a double 400-kV line and a double 132-kV line....... The outage of the 400-kV tie-line weakened the Eastern Danish power system and excited power oscillations in the interconnected power systems. During this event prototype Phasor Measurements Units (PMU) gave the opportunity of realtime monitoring of positive sequence voltage and current phasors using...

  6. Synchronized Phasor Measurements of a Power System Event in Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joana; Jørgensen, Preben

    2003-01-01

    Two sets of synchronized phasor measurements 200 km apart have been performed during a planned outage of a double 400-kV tie-line between Eastern Denmark and Southern Sweden. The interconnection between Southern Sweden and Eastern Denmark comprises of a double 400-kV line and a double 132-kV line....... The outage of the 400-kV tie-line weakened the Eastern Danish power system and excited power oscillations in the interconnected power systems. During this event prototype Phasor Measurements Units (PMU) gave the opportunity of realtime monitoring of positive sequence voltage and current phasors using...

  7. Special Issues Grid Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja; Jakobsen, Turf Böcker

    2012-01-01

    The project "Financialisation of Social Welfare" studies the consequences of financialisation at the household level. As part of the research process, a database of institutional data was developed on a number of social welfare areas for Norway, Denmark and the UK, covering the period 1970-2011. ......-2011. This is the data for Denmark. - National Institute for Consumer Research, Norway...

  8. Nordic Countries: Denmark 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund; Anker, Helle Tegner

    2017-01-01

    https://academic.oup.com/yielaw/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/yiel/yvw031/3084445/6-Nordic-CountriesA-Denmark......https://academic.oup.com/yielaw/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/yiel/yvw031/3084445/6-Nordic-CountriesA-Denmark...

  9. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, CO...

  10. Arbitration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Having lagged behind in its arbitration rules for 30 years, Denmark has become an attractive country in which to conduct arbitration. Denmark now has one of Europe's most modern and streamlined arbitration acts, and if they so wish, the parties can exert a substantial influence on how the case is...

  11. Microbreweries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Birthe Kofoed; Østergaard Brandt, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The large breweries in Denmark have existed in more than 150 years. The industry has in recent 10 years experienced a true beer revolution where local entrepreneurs created more than 100 microbreweries, so today there are about 120 breweries in Denmark. One of the reasons why so many microbreweri...

  12. Literature review, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nielsen, Robert Green

    2001-01-01

    Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing......Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing...

  13. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, ...

  14. Denmark and UN peacekeeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Denmark became a staunch supporter of UN peacekeeping during the cold war because it simultaneously served its interests and values and this winning combination meant that it relatively quickly became internalized as part of Denmark’s foreign policy identity. Denmark turned its back on UN...

  15. LCA Center Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Frydendal, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    product-oriented environmental tools in companies, to ensure that the LCA efforts is based on a solid and scientific basis, and to maintain the well-established co-operation between all important actors in the LCA field in Denmark. A status is given on the achievements of LCA Center Denmark...

  16. Kabbalah in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karlsson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history of Kabbalah in Sweden. The reader is presented with an overall view to Kabbalah in Sweden: first, the Johannes Bureus and the Nordic Kabbalah, Kabbalah after Bureus, Kabbalistic literature, and last, Kabbalah in Sweden today. When the Kabbalah reached Sweden it was mainly the non-Jewish Kabbalah that gained influence, even if its Jewish roots were acknowledged. Johannes Bureus unites, in a similar fashion as do the Christian Kabbalists in continental Europe, Christian motifs with the symbolic world of the Kabbalah. Bureus, however, adds runes, ancient Norse gods and Gothic ideas in his own unique manner. The Kabbalah invites speculation and the search for correspondences which has caused the Kabbalah in Sweden to be united with a number of other traditions. Bureus combined the Kabbalah with runes and Gothicism; in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries we can find the Kabbalah in Freemasonry and Esoteric societies, while the Kabbalah in the twentieth century and onwards has been associated with New Age, Parapsychology and Indian Mysticism. Apart from Bureus, most Kabbalists in Sweden have followed the trends that flourished in the rest of the world. Bureus was the first to create a specifically Swedish interpretation of the Kabbalah.

  17. Origin and population structure of the Icelanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J T

    1993-04-01

    The Norse and Celtic contributions to the founding population of Iceland have been estimated previously on a pan-Icelandic basis using gene frequency data for the entire island. Accounts of the settlement of Iceland, however, suggest that different regions received different proportions of Norse and Celtic settlers, indicating the need to incorporate geographic variation into Icelandic admixture studies. A formal likelihood ratio test rejects the null hypothesis of regional homogeneity in admixture proportions. Here, regional admixture estimates for Iceland are reported; they are in agreement with the settlement pattern inferred from historical accounts. The western, northern, and southern regions of Iceland exhibit a moderate Celtic component, consistent with historical indications that these regions were settled by Norse Vikings from the British Isles, accompanied by Celtic wives and slaves. Eastern Iceland, believed to have been settled chiefly by Vikings from Scandinavia, is characterized by a large Norse component of admixture. The northwestern peninsula is also found to be predominantly Norse. Regional genetic data are used to elucidate the contemporary population structure of Iceland. The observed structure correlates well with patterns of Icelandic geography, history, economy, marriage, urbanization, and internal migration. The northeastern region is strongly isolated, the urbanized areas of the north and southwest are representative of the overall population, and the remaining regions exhibit small-scale variation about the genetic central tendency. A high level of genetic homogeneity is indicated (RST = 0.0005), consistent with the high internal migration rate of the Icelanders. A regression of mean per-locus heterozygosity on distance from the gene frequency centroid reveals a greater than average external gene flow into the eastern region, whereas the northwestern peninsula has received less than average external gene flow. Iceland is compared with

  18. Epidemiology of Primary Immunodeficiency in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludviksson, Bjorn R; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T; Johannsson, Johann Heidar; Haraldsson, Asgeir; Hardarson, Thorgeir O

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are rare heterogeneous diseases. Little is known about the prevalence of PID in Iceland and no national registry exists. The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology of PID in Iceland. Using The European Society's for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) criteria for PID, information about individuals with a known PID between 1990 and 2010 in Iceland were collected from inpatient registries of the National University Hospital of Iceland, the Department of Immunology and from clinical immunologists. Selective IgA deficiency, mannan binding lectin deficiency and secondary immunodeficiencies were excluded Sixty six individuals met the study criteria, 35 of them (53%) were females. Four patients died during the study period from PID- or treatment related complications and two moved abroad. In the beginning of 2011 there were 60 individuals living in Iceland with a known PID diagnosis meeting ESID's criteria. Estimated prevalence for PID in the Icelandic population of 318.452 habitants was 18.8 for 100.000 inhabitants. Predominantly antibody disorders comprised the largest category of PID in Iceland. The prevalence of PID is high in Iceland compared to reports from other nations. Our patient data are easily accessible and a central laboratory measures the immune parameters. This high prevalence may indicate that PID is more common than generally recognized.

  19. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  20. Holocene marine tephrochronology on the Iceland shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guomundsdottir, Esther Ruth; Eiriksson, Jón; Larsen, Guorun

    2012-01-01

    Currently the Late-glacial and Holocene marine tephrochronology on the shelf around Iceland comprises 130 tephra layers from 30 sediment cores ranging in age from 15,000 years cal. BP to AD 1947. A vast majority of the cores and tephra layers are from the North Iceland shelf Much fewer tephra...... layers have been found on the South and West Iceland shell The early Holocene Saksunarvatn ash and Vedde Ash are the only tephra layers identified on all investigated shelf areas. For the last 15,000 years correlated tephra layers from the shelf sediments around Iceland to their terrestrial counterparts...... both in Iceland and overseas are 40 of which 26 are terrestrially dated tephra markers. Thirty correlations are within the last 7050 years. The terrestrially dated tephra markers found on the shelf have been used to constrain past environmental variability in the region, as well as marine reservoir age...

  1. Social Work Education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The development of the social work education and the education for social educators in Denmark. The undergraduate programs and the possibilities for further study within social work in Denmark.......The development of the social work education and the education for social educators in Denmark. The undergraduate programs and the possibilities for further study within social work in Denmark....

  2. Play Spaces in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Edna; Anderson, Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the variety of play spaces found in urban areas in Denmark: in banks, stores and individual businesses, neighborhood parks and small pocket playgrounds, specialized adventure and traffic playgrounds with supervised activities, and commercial amusement parks. (CM)

  3. Energy in Sweden 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Swedish Energy Agency's main duty is to assist the evolution of Sweden's energy system into a reliable, ecologically and economically sustainable system. The Agency is also responsible for the collection, processing and publication of official statistics in the energy field. The annual Energy in Sweden report, and its sister publication, Energy in Sweden - Facts and Figures (download able from the Agency's web site), are intended to provide decision makers, journalists, businesses, teachers and the public with co herent and easily accessible information on developments in the energy sector. The report also provides an overview of Sweden's current energy and climate policy, policy measures, the use and supply of energy, energy prices and energy markets, together with information on the effects of the energy system on the environment. Starting with Energy in Sweden 2012, the structure and layout of the report has been revised, to produce a shorter report than in previous years. It is the intention that this shorter format should be published in alternate years, alternating with a longer version. The new structure means that the division into chapters has been changed. The presentation of energy use is now divided up into chapters in the respective sections for the three sectors of residential and services, industry and transport. The presentation of energy supply is divided into two chapters: Primary Energy Carriers and Secondary Energy Carriers. The statistics which provide the foundation for the publication are based mainly on official statistics up to and including 2010, complemented where possible by input reflecting current events and decisions up to the summer of 2011. The Agency's annual publication, Energy Indicators, complements this Energy in Sweden report with details of a number of indicators for monitoring the progress towards energy policy objects.

  4. Virtual Reality in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), Aalborg University, the National Survey and Cadastre – Denmark, Kampsax A/S, and Informi GIS A/S...National Survey and Cadastre Department. Everybody can go into the North Jutland County homepage, www.3d.nja.dk, and fly around in the county or you can...Fund (ERDF), Aalborg University, the National Survey and Cadastre – Denmark, Kampsax A/S, and Informi GIS A/S VR Media Lab = Military

  5. Self Censorship among Icelandic Journalists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on media self-censorship has flourished in Iceland after the attacks on the Charlie Hebdo editorial offices in January 2015 and after some dramatic changes in the top management and owner-groups of some of the media firms. But what is this experience that journalists describe as self censorship? This paper attempts to answer two main research questions. On the one hand the question how journalists understand the concept of selfcensorship. On the other hand the question: what is the experience of Icelandic journalist of self-censorship? The approach is the one of a qualitative research and is based on interviews with six experienced journalists. The main findings suggest important influence of the social discourse on news and news values of journalists and their tendency for self-censorship. This discourse is partly directed by politicians and influential bloggers and also by a massive discussion by active social media users. Furthermore the findings suggest, that ownership and the location of the particular medium where a journalist works in the lineup of different commercial-political blocks in the media market, is important for self-censorship. Finally it seems that journalists understand the concept selfcensorship in a different manner and that it is important to define the term carefully if it is to be used as an analytical tool.

  6. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Aase, Hildegunn S; Álvarez, Marina; Azavedo, Edward; Baarslag, Henk J; Balleyguier, Corinne; Baltzer, Pascal A; Beslagic, Vanesa; Bick, Ulrich; Bogdanovic-Stojanovic, Dragana; Briediene, Ruta; Brkljacic, Boris; Camps Herrero, Julia; Colin, Catherine; Cornford, Eleanor; Danes, Jan; de Geer, Gérard; Esen, Gul; Evans, Andrew; Fuchsjaeger, Michael H; Gilbert, Fiona J; Graf, Oswald; Hargaden, Gormlaith; Helbich, Thomas H; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Ivanov, Valentin; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Kuhl, Christiane K; Lisencu, Eugenia C; Luczynska, Elzbieta; Mann, Ritse M; Marques, Jose C; Martincich, Laura; Mortier, Margarete; Müller-Schimpfle, Markus; Ormandi, Katalin; Panizza, Pietro; Pediconi, Federica; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Pinker, Katja; Rissanen, Tarja; Rotaru, Natalia; Saguatti, Gianni; Sella, Tamar; Slobodníková, Jana; Talk, Maret; Taourel, Patrice; Trimboli, Rubina M; Vejborg, Ilse; Vourtsis, Athina; Forrai, Gabor

    2017-07-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years taking up the invitation while the probability of false-positive needle biopsy is <1 % per round and overdiagnosis is only 1-10 % for a 20-year screening. Mortality reduction was also observed for the age groups 40-49 years and 70-74 years, although with "limited evidence". Thus, we firstly recommend biennial screening mammography for average-risk women aged 50-69 years; extension up to 73 or 75 years, biennially, is a second priority, from 40-45 to 49 years, annually, a third priority. Screening with thermography or other optical tools as alternatives to mammography is discouraged. Preference should be given to population screening programmes on a territorial basis, with double reading. Adoption of digital mammography (not film-screen or phosphor-plate computer radiography) is a priority, which also improves sensitivity in dense breasts. Radiologists qualified as screening readers should be involved in programmes. Digital breast tomosynthesis is also set to become "routine mammography" in the screening setting in the next future. Dedicated pathways for high-risk women offering breast MRI according to national or international guidelines and recommendations are encouraged. • EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support screening mammography. • A first priority is double-reading biennial mammography for women aged 50-69 years. • Extension to 73-75 and from 40-45 to 49 years is also encouraged. • Digital mammography (not film-screen or computer radiography) should be used. • DBT is set to become "routine mammography" in the screening setting in the next future.

  7. Position paper on screening for breast cancer by the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI) and 30 national breast radiology bodies from Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Israel, Lithuania, Moldova, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardanelli, F.; Aase, H.S.; Alvarez, M.; Azavedo, E.; Baarslag, H.J.; Balleyguier, C.; Baltzer, P.A.; Beslagic, V.; Bick, U.; Bogdanovic-Stojanovic, D.; Briediene, R.; Brkljacic, B.; Herrero, J.; Colin, C.; Cornford, E.; Danes, J.; Geer, G. de; Esen, G.; Evans, A.; Fuchsjaeger, M.H.; Gilbert, F.J.; Graf, O.; Hargaden, G.; Helbich, T.H.; Heywang-Kobrunner, S.H.; Ivanov, V.; Jonsson, A.; Kuhl, C.K.; Lisencu, E.C.; Luczynska, E.; Mann, R.M.; Marques, J.C.; Martincich, L.; Mortier, M.; Muller-Schimpfle, M.; Ormandi, K.; Panizza, P.; Pediconi, F.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Pinker, K.; Rissanen, T.; Rotaru, N.; Saguatti, G.; Sella, T.; Slobodnikova, J.; Talk, M.; Taourel, P.; Trimboli, R.M.; Vejborg, I.; Vourtsis, A.; Forrai, G.

    2017-01-01

    EUSOBI and 30 national breast radiology bodies support mammography for population-based screening, demonstrated to reduce breast cancer (BC) mortality and treatment impact. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the reduction in mortality is 40 % for women aged 50-69 years

  8. Sweden to host a new neutron source

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The first European neutron source, currently under development, should commence operations by the end of this decade. Its aim: to produce beams of neutrons that can penetrate into the heart of matter without damaging it and reveal its secrets.   An artist's impression of what the ESS should look like in 2019. At the southern end of Sweden, a town called Lund is preparing for the arrival of the world's most powerful neutron source: the European Spallation Source (ESS). Construction is scheduled to start at the beginning of next year, and the facility is expected to become operational by 2019, when it will produce its first neutron beams. “The ESS is the result of an idea that began 20 years ago!” underlines Mats Lindroos, in charge of the ESS Accelerator Division. “Today, 17 European countries support the project, including Sweden, Denmark and Norway, who together account for 50% of the construction funding.” The ESS, whose design is al...

  9. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Petersen, Guðrún Nína; Björnsson, Halldór

    2014-01-01

    Downscaling simulations performed with theWeather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.......6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0e5.5. In any season......, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 and 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 and 1500 W m_2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations...

  10. Psychotropic drug use among Icelandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoëga, Helga; Baldursson, Gísli; Hrafnkelsson, Birgir

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. METHODS: A nationwide population-based drug use study covering the total pediatric population (ages 0-17) in Iceland. Information was obtained from the National Medicines....... RESULTS: The overall prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 48.7 per 1000 Icelandic children in 2007. Stimulants and antidepressants increased in prevalence from 2003 to 2007 and were the two most prevalent psychotropic drug groups, respectively, 28.4 and 23.4 per 1000 children in 2007. A statistically...... extensive psychotropic drug use among children in Iceland between 2003 and 2007. Further scrutiny is needed to assess the rationale behind this widespread use....

  11. Laryngeal Chondritis in Sheep in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurðardóttir, Ó G; Jörundsson, E; Friðriksdóttir, V

    2016-11-01

    Laryngeal chondritis is a chronic disease in sheep with low morbidity, high mortality and unresolved pathogenesis. The disease has been recognized recently in Iceland and affects both ewes and rams. Animals of different ages are affected, but lambs and yearlings predominate. The disease is seen in housed animals and most cases occur during the late winter months. We report the gross and microscopical findings in 45 cases of laryngeal chondritis in Icelandic sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Individualistic Vikings: Culture, Economics and Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Már Wolfgang Mixa; Vlad Vaiman

    2015-01-01

    Icelandic culture has generally been considered to share many similarities to the Nordic cultures. However, the financial crisis in 2008 painted a completely different picture, with the Nordic nations faring much less worse than Iceland, which saw its banking system becoming almost entirely worthless. Looking at traditional cultural yardsticks in the vein of the most commonly used research in the field of business and organizational management, generally linked to Hofstede´s dimensional studi...

  13. Decreasing intensity of open-ocean convection in the Greenland and Iceland seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G. W. K.; Våge, K.; Pickart, R. S.; Renfrew, I. A.

    2015-09-01

    The air-sea transfer of heat and fresh water plays a critical role in the global climate system. This is particularly true for the Greenland and Iceland seas, where these fluxes drive ocean convection that contributes to Denmark Strait overflow water, the densest component of the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC; ref. ). Here we show that the wintertime retreat of sea ice in the region, combined with different rates of warming for the atmosphere and sea surface of the Greenland and Iceland seas, has resulted in statistically significant reductions of approximately 20% in the magnitude of the winter air-sea heat fluxes since 1979. We also show that modes of climate variability other than the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO; refs , , , , ) are required to fully characterize the regional air-sea interaction. Mixed-layer model simulations imply that further decreases in atmospheric forcing will exceed a threshold for the Greenland Sea whereby convection will become depth limited, reducing the ventilation of mid-depth waters in the Nordic seas. In the Iceland Sea, further reductions have the potential to decrease the supply of the densest overflow waters to the AMOC (ref. ).

  14. The Blue Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    This paper makes an important contribution to the discussion about knowledge based localised externalities in the context of shipping and the maritime sector in Denmark. In the paper we ask if there is a national, knowledge‐based maritime cluster configured around the shipowners in Denmark....... This is an important question, since there may be a crucial link between the regional concentration of shipping companies and the productivity of the broader national maritime sector. The analysis shows that there is a national, knowledge based maritime cluster in Denmark, which is driven by the flow of skilled...... seafarers from the cargo carrying part of the shipping industry to the other maritime industries. However the analysis also shows that the Danish maritime cluster is somewhat different from, and more restricted, than what is usually implied when policymakers, maritime associations and other organisations...

  15. A midwifery model of woman-centred childbirth care--in Swedish and Icelandic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Marie; Asta Ólafsdóttir, Olöf; Lundgren, Ingela

    2012-06-01

    Theoretical models for health care practice are important both as tools for guiding daily practice and for explaining the philosophical basis for care. The aim of this study was to define and develop an evidence-based midwifery model of woman-centred care in Sweden and Iceland. Using a hermeneutic approach we developed a model based on a synthesis of findings from 12 of our own published qualitative studies about women's and/or midwives' experiences of childbirth. For validity testing, the model was assessed in six focus group interviews with 30 practising midwives in Iceland and Sweden. The model includes five main themes. Three central intertwined themes are: a reciprocal relationship; a birthing atmosphere; and grounded knowledge. The remaining two themes, which likewise influence care, are the cultural context (with hindering and promoting norms); and the balancing act involved in facilitating woman-centred care. The model shows that midwifery care in this era of modern medical technology entails a balancing act for enhancing the culture of care based on midwifery philosophies. The next step will be to implement the model in midwifery programmes and in clinical practice, and to evaluate its applicability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Don't damn Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Despite its apparently anti-immigration political rhetoric, Denmark remains mainly tolerant of migrants......Despite its apparently anti-immigration political rhetoric, Denmark remains mainly tolerant of migrants...

  17. Study Groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions.......Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions....

  18. Stroke awareness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the awareness of major stroke symptoms and stroke risk factors among the general population in Denmark. Early recognition of stroke warning signs and means of reducing stroke occurrence could improve the treatment and prevention of stroke.......This is the first study to examine the awareness of major stroke symptoms and stroke risk factors among the general population in Denmark. Early recognition of stroke warning signs and means of reducing stroke occurrence could improve the treatment and prevention of stroke....

  19. MOBILIZING KNOWLEDGE IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2011-01-01

    competition state – that is to be realized by fulfilling the ambitions for comprehensive knowledge mobilization through education.1 On the other hand, Denmark is having a hard time finding a broad consensus when what is, in principle, supposed to be a common political will is to be translated into knowledge...... mobilization. This lack of consensus can be traced to the political-administrative level and to the relationship between representatives of education research and representatives of the education system. So, if the concept of knowledge mobilization is not especially exploited in Denmark, it can be seen...

  20. Cancer rehabilitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption behind cancer rehabilitation in many Western societies is that cancer survivors can return to normal life by learning to deal with the consequences of their illness and their treatment. This assumption is supported by increasing political attention to cancer rehabilitation...... and a growth in residential cancer-rehabilitation initiatives in Denmark (Danish Cancer Society 1999; Government of Denmark 2003). On the basis of their ethnographic fieldwork in residential-cancer rehabilitation courses, the authors examine the new rehabilitation discourse. They argue that this discourse has...

  1. BIM education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld

    The International Conference on Digital Construction of 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania. See the invited speak ppt. presentation here http://skaitmeninestatyba.lt/files/SKST'15%20skaidr%C4%97s/2_3_Svidt_BIM_education_i_Denmark_Skaitmenine_statyba2015.pdf......The International Conference on Digital Construction of 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania. See the invited speak ppt. presentation here http://skaitmeninestatyba.lt/files/SKST'15%20skaidr%C4%97s/2_3_Svidt_BIM_education_i_Denmark_Skaitmenine_statyba2015.pdf...

  2. Anaerobic digestion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.

    2002-01-01

    Centralized biogas plants (CBP) in Denmark codigest mainly manure, together with other organic waste such as industrial organic waste, source sorted household waste and sewage sludge. Today 22 large scale CBP's are in operation in Denmark and in 2001 they treated approx. 1.2 mio tonnes of manure ...... comprises about 80% of this potential. Special emphasis has been paid to establish good sanitation and pathogen reduction of the digested material, to avoid risk of spreading pathogens when applying the digested manure as fertilizer to agricultural soils....

  3. Science Communication in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper was presented during the author?s visit at the Faculty of Human Development of the University of Kobe . The paper is intended to provide the knowledge about science communication in the Nordic countries (in particular in Denmark). The focus in the paper is on (i) examples of new...... and innovative modes of science communication in Denmark and (ii) educational programs for science communicators. Furthermore, emphasis is on the pedagogical ideas behind the initiatives, rather than on thorough descriptions of structures, curricula and evaluations of the projects....

  4. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...... of comparative criminal law....

  5. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    2010-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2.......This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....

  6. Gender in physics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Kristine; Nordsröm, Birgitta; Bearden, Ian

    2013-01-01

    More women than men get a college degree in Denmark. However, Denmark still has very gender-separated labor market, and in physics only 10 of the university professors are women. Measures are needed to get a more balanced gender distribution among university physicists at all levels in Denmark....

  7. Educational Governance in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Lejf

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…

  8. Real Estate in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Røhr

    2016-01-01

    A general introduction to buying, owning and selling Property i Denmark. The cost of buying and selling property and the tax implications as well as the general concept of real estate is introduced. The paper includes also a brief introduction to some of the aspects which you should beware of when...

  9. Stroke awareness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the awareness of major stroke symptoms and stroke risk factors among the general population in Denmark. Early recognition of stroke warning signs and means of reducing stroke occurrence could improve the treatment and prevention of stroke....

  10. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  11. Wealth & Immigration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Wolffsen, Poul; Mortensen, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Applying newly developed methods this paper quantifies human capital in Denmark and analyzes highly qualified immigration as a potential source of wealth generation. In order to quantify human capital, we use the methodology of Lettau and Ludvigson (2001, 2004), Zhang (2006) and Dreyer et al. (2013...

  12. School Psychology in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Anders

    1987-01-01

    Describes education system of Denmark and reviews background and development of school psychology in that country. Discusses organization of school psychology work and practice. Explains qualifications and training of school psychologists and describes professional organizations, wages, and problems in school psychology. (NB)

  13. Mumps resurgence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St-Martin, Gry; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause; Engsig, Frederik Neess

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The past decade has witnessed a resurgence of parotitisvirus (mumps) in several countries where seemingly good mumps control otherwise had been achieved through vaccination. Recently detection of mumps has increased in Denmark. OBJECTIVES: To describe the age-specific changes and time...

  14. Denmark. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    According to an agreement between the parties of the labour market and the Ministry of Labour, the immigration of foreign workers into Denmark takes place on a quota basis and conforms to a series of regulations, including a rule that the foreign worker, prior to departing from his country, must have made contract arrangements for his job. This…

  15. What's Happening in Denmark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Corey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in alumni relations in a country, Denmark, where few are willing to bear the institution's logo. The author likens his journey to that of Lewis and Clark, who introduced the rest of America to the western part of North America. And just like them, the author and his colleague experienced unforeseen…

  16. Europe in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the presence of European ‘contacts’ during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period, i.e. elements of culture derived from Central Europe that were introduced into historical Denmark, on the basis of three examples. First, Baltic Ware, a specific pottery type, was developed ...

  17. Country Report Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    The ePrivacy Directive has been implemented in Denmark through a range of legislative instruments, beginning with the Act on Electronic Communications and Services but leading into more important Executive Order on Provision of Electronic Services and the Cookie Order. This structure could...

  18. Clinical Supervision in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2011-01-01

    on giving and receiving clinical supervision as reported by therapists in Denmark. Method: Currently, the Danish sample consists of 350 clinical psychologist doing psychotherapy who completed DPCCQ. Data are currently being prepared for statistical analysis. Results: This paper will focus primarily...

  19. Prostitution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel; Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Hansen, Kirsten Grønbæk

    2015-01-01

    Prostitution is a worldwide phenomenon, and so are the controversies surrounding it. In Denmark, as in many countries, there is an ongoing public debate about whether it should be seen as a social/political problem, or as a job like any other. The debate takes place within the tension between...

  20. Music Streaming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Rex

    This report analyses how a ’per user’ settlement model differs from the ‘pro rata’ model currently used. The analysis is based on data for all streams by WiMP users in Denmark during August 2013. The analysis has been conducted in collaboration with Christian Schlelein from Koda on the basis of d...

  1. Made in Denmark 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik; Fonnesbech-Sandberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Denne rapport er en effektanalyse af golftuneringen, Made in Denmark 2015. Rapporten er udfærdiget af to delanalyser - en analyse af tilskuertilfredsheden ved eventen, og en analyse af de turismeøkonomiske effekter, som følge af eventens afholdelse. Derudover giver rapporter nogle referencer...

  2. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2002-01-01

    4. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden CHARLOTTE MOSHØJ1,2 1University of Copenhagen Department of Population Ecology, Zoological Institute Universitetsparken 15 DK-2100 Copenhagen Denmark cmmoshoj@zi.ku.dk 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Department of Conservation Biology...... behavior and hunting success. Securing knowledge on lynx predation and impact on prey populations may aid in balancing conflicting concerns in management strategies for viable lynx populations and desired level of prey densities, in the multi-use semi-natural forest habitats of Scandinavia....

  3. Citizenship Education in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Coşkun KESKİN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many countries in the world refer to the social studies and history program to achieve the objective training a good citizen according to its own structure and approach. Denmark is one of these countries. For this purpose Denmark aims to educate individuals who are respectful to the values of community, actively participate in the democratic society and contribute to the development of living community. In this context, the content of Social Studies Program in Denmark forms such as freedom of thought, democracy, ideology, policy and constitutional issues. In recent years in our country makes many applications and project that is based to citizenship education by the Ministry of Education. To shed light on these studies and bring recommendations, social studies and history curriculum of Denmark carrying out citizenship education very seriously is investigated in terms of dimensions of goals, content, learning and teaching process and evaluation.This study is limited with social studies lesson in 7th-9th class and history lesson in 3th-9th class which is applied in Odense of Denmark. In this study it is examined metioned the programs by document analysis. The Programs are obtained reaching the country’s Education Ministry sources. The documents which were written Danish language are translated into first English and then Turkish language. In the meantime it is receieved the support for translation fromDanish programs professionals and teachers where it is needed. In addition to data collection, the researcher is observed participating various course activities.According to results of analysis of the data, these findings are reached: It is often emphasized on concept of democracy, freedom, and respect in citizenship education in Denmark. It is intended to give the students required the rules and values for participation in the democratic life and it is attempted to be given approach that the students have a right to say their ideas freely and to

  4. Public opinion on childhood immunisations in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óskarsson, Ýmir; Guðnason, Þórólfur; Jónsdóttir, Guðbjörg A; Kristinsson, Karl G; Briem, Haraldur; Haraldsson, Ásgeir

    2015-12-16

    In recent years, vaccine preventable diseases such as measles and pertussis have been re-emerging in Western countries, maybe because of decreasing participation in childhood vaccination programs in some countries. There is clear evidence for vaccine efficacy and the risk of adverse effects is low. This needs to be communicated to the general public. The aim of the study was to evaluate the public opinion on childhood vaccinations in Iceland. An internet based study was used to evaluate the opinion on childhood immunisations in Iceland. The cohort was divided in three groups: (a) general public (b) employees of the University Hospital Iceland and (c) employees (teachers and staff) of the University of Iceland. The cohorts could be stratified according to age, gender, education, household income, parenthood and residency. Responses were received from 5584 individuals (53% response rate). When asked about childhood vaccinations in the first and second year of life, approximately 95% of participants were "positive" or "very positive", approximately 1% were "negative" or "very negative". When participants were asked whether they would have their child immunized according to the Icelandic childhood vaccination schedule, 96% were "positive" or "very positive", 1.2% were "negative" or "very negative". Similarly, 92% trust Icelandic Health authorities to decide on childhood vaccination schedule, 2.3% did not. In total, 9.3% "rather" or "strongly" agreed to the statement "I fear that vaccinations can cause severe adverse effects", 17.5% were undecided and 66.9% "disagreed" or "strongly disagreed". Individuals with higher education were more likely to disagree with this statement (OR=1.45, CI95=1.29-1.64, pIceland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Icelanders' beliefs about medicines. Use of BMQ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmsdottir, Hlif; Johannsson, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    To study beliefs held by the general public in Iceland about medicines. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire was used to explore Icelanders' beliefs about medicines. A sample of 1500 Icelandic citizens, aged 18-75, obtained from the Social Science Research Insti-tute was given The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. The response rate was 61.6%. Most Icelanders have positive beliefs about their medication as well as general trust. Those who suffer from chronic diseases are more positive towards medicines than others and less inclined to view them as excessively used and harmful. Higher level of education predicts more positive beliefs towards medication - and vice versa. Gender and age do not seem to affect such beliefs. Gaining a better understanding of people´s beliefs about medicines and what determines these beliefs can be of considerable value in the search for ways to improve therapy and adherence, espe-cially for those suffering from chronic diseases. Promoting education for the general public about medicines might result in less mis-understanding among patients and subsequently better grounded -beliefs and more adequate therapeutic adherence. Key words: beliefs, medicines, Icelanders, BMQ, survey. Correspondence: Hlif Vilhelmsdottir, hlif84@gmail.com.

  6. Individualistic Vikings: Culture, Economics and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Már Wolfgang Mixa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Icelandic culture has generally been considered to share many similarities to the Nordic cultures. However, the financial crisis in 2008 painted a completely different picture, with the Nordic nations faring much less worse than Iceland, which saw its banking system becoming almost entirely worthless. Looking at traditional cultural yardsticks in the vein of the most commonly used research in the field of business and organizational management, generally linked to Hofstede´s dimensional studies, one would at first glance conclude that Icelanders would have behaved in a similar manner as people in the Nordic nations. By focusing on savings ratio, it is shown that Icelanders were much more risk-seeking during the prelude of the crisis. Many nations badly hit during the 2008 financial crisis have a high level of individualism inherent in their culture. Iceland fits this scenario. Thus while general cultural characteristics may lack explanatory power regarding economic behavior of people between cultures, the individual/collective cultural dimension may provide clues of what dangers (and possible strengths lurk within societies from a financial point of view. Such developments may affect the financial stability of nations, especially those with a high level of individualism where financial liberalization with possible abuses is occurring.

  7. Examining Teaching Practices in Design and Craft Education in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Olafsson, Brynjar

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a survey which aimed to examine the present situation in Design and Craft Education (D&C) in Iceland in terms of teachers' general standing and their teaching inside the Icelandic elementary schools. A questionnaire was sent to 170 D&C teachers in Icelandic elementary schools. The questionnaire was completed by 101…

  8. Icelandic: A Lesser-Used Language in the Global Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2001-01-01

    States that despite the country's relatively small population and the globalization pressures from the international community, the Icelandic language and culture have remained strong. Reports that Iceland's language policy comes from the government's and official institutions' commitment to the people of Iceland, who are determined to preserve…

  9. Energy in Sweden 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  10. Energy in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  11. Sweden's largest Facebook study

    OpenAIRE

    Denti, Leif; Barbopoulus, Isak; Nilsson, Ida; Holmberg, Linda; Thulin, Magdalena; Wendeblad, Malin; Andén, Lisa; Davidsson, Emelie

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet has made it easier for people to socially interact than ever before. Today, the most popular channel is Facebook with over 845 million users world wide. In Sweden, the number of users amount to approximately half of the population. We had two aims with this study. First, we investigate which areas of Facebook usage that Swedish Facebook users consider more important vis-a-vis less important. We were also interested in how users convey their persona through t... m...

  12. Varying gas quality - Gas supply in Sweden 2011 and onwards; Varierande gaskvalitet - Gasfoersoerjning i Sverige 2011och framaat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsson, Corfitz

    2011-10-15

    Since fall 2010 limited volumes of gas are imported from Germany to Denmark, which also reaches Sweden, but only between 10-30 % of the total volume of gas in winter. The gas which is imported from Germany has a composition that differs slightly from the Danish North Sea gas which has consequences for Swedish gas distributors and customers. The report highlights various possible consequences and how these are managed primarily in Denmark. One can conclude that for the time being, there is limited import capacity between Denmark and Germany, but work is underway to strengthen the capacity and within five years there is a possibility that by import support large parts of Sweden and Denmark, where necessary. In the current situation one can normally expect between 10-40 % imported gas in the gas that reach Sweden, which means a relatively limited impact on Swedish customers. In the current situation one can normally expect between 10-40 % import gas in the gas that reaches Sweden, which means a relatively limited impact on Swedish customers. If a number of different events coincides may temporarily the impact be high, but this is considered less likely in the short term. There are still a number of issues that need to be investigated further claims alleged, taxes and fees as well as billing and discounting.

  13. Cost containment of pharmaceutical use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Morgall, J M; Grímsson, A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Iceland was the first Nordic country to liberalise its drug distribution system, in March 1996. Subsequent regulation in January 1997 increased patients' share of drug costs. The objectives of this study were to test the assumptions that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership would...... reimbursement costs before and after the legislation and regulation took effect. A control variable (the number of office visits to general practitioners) was tested to assess other events in the health care arena. Monthly data on these variables were provided by the Icelandic State Social Security Institute...... in March 1996 or from the regulatory intervention in January 1997. CONCLUSIONS: The main argument used for liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland was built on false assumptions regarding the effect on drug reimbursement costs to the state. It will be necessary to find more promising...

  14. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed...... the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D...... is a valid personality construct in Iceland, and is associated with health-related risk markers, but not cardiac disease severity....

  15. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Iceland and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. These studies, conducted in Iceland and in Antarctica, investigated physical and chemical weathering mechanisms and rates, eolitan processes, mudflow phenomena, drainage development, and catastrophic fluvial and volcanic phenomena. Continuing investigations in Iceland fall in three main catagories: (1) catastrophic floods of the Jokulsa a Fjollum, (2) lahars associated with explosive volcanic eruptions of Askja caldera, and (3) rates of eolian abrasion in cold, volcanic deserts. The ice-free valleys of Antarctica, in particular those in South Victoria Land, have much is common with the surface of Mars. In addition to providing independent support for the application of the Iceland findings to consideration of the martian erosional system, the Antarctic observations also provide analogies to other martian phenomena. For example, a family of sand dunes in Victoria Valley are stabilized by the incorporation of snow as beds.

  16. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    to think in alternative ways such as issuing corporate bonds. A market for corporate bonds exists in countries such as Norway, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, while Denmark is still behind in this trend. Some large Danish corporations have instead used foreign corporate bonds...... markets. However, NASDAQ OMX has introduced the First North Bond Market in December 2012 and new regulatory framework came into place in 2014, which may contribute to a Danish based corporate bond market. The purpose of this article is to present the regulatory changes in Denmark in relation to corporate......Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...

  17. MCAD deficiency in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Brage Storstein; Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Hougaard, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most common defect of fatty acid oxidation. Many countries have introduced newborn screening for MCADD, because characteristic acylcarnitines can easily be identified in filter paper blood spot samples by tandem mass spectrometry (MS...... analysis. This gives an incidence of MCADD detected by newborn screening in Denmark of 1/8954. In sharp contrast to this we found that the incidence of clinically presenting MCADD in Denmark in the 10 year period preceding introduction of MS/MS-based screening was only 1 in 39,691. This means that four...... lower proportion of newborns being homozygous for the prevalent disease-causing c.985A>G mutation. A significant number of the newborns have genotypes with mutations that have not been observed in patients detected clinically. Some of these mutations, like c.199T>C and c.127G>A, are always associated...

  18. Technology Museums in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an exhibit review of some of the major technology museums in Denmark. First comes an introduction to the Danish museum ”landscape”. Second a total of six museums and their technology focused exhibits are presented. Among the museums are the Fisheries and Maritime Museum...... in Esbjerg, housing one of the most impressive and representative exhibitions on the technology behind the strong Danish maritime sector. Another museum being mentioned is the Energy Museum, which covers the background for some of the major breakthroughs performed in Denmark within this area; particularly...... within wind power technology. Finally special attention is devoted to the Danish Technological Museum. A museum which is the oldest and most elaborate of all the technology museums. The museum covers virtually every technological breakthrough with any relevance in a Danish section, with a special focus...

  19. Nutritional rickets in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jensen, Tina Kold; Gram, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes clinical and biochemical characteristics of nutritional rickets and risk factors at diagnosis among children living in Denmark. All medical records from patients with rickets referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark from 1985 to 2005 were...... identified by register search. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were younger than 15 years of age and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of primary, nutritional rickets. A total of 112 patients with nutritional rickets were included: 29 were of ethnic Danish origin, and 83 were immigrants. RESULTS......: Patients diagnosed before the age of 4 (median 1.4) years displayed the classic clinical signs of rickets, whereas patients diagnosed after the age of 4 (median 12.5) years had few clinical signs and unspecific symptoms. Ethnic Danish patients were only diagnosed before age 24 months, and they accounted...

  20. Metal Detecting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    the beginning of metal detector archaeology pursued a liberal model, focusing on cooperation and inclusion rather than confrontation and criminalization. Like no other surveying method, the metal detector has contributed to increasing enormously the amount of data and sites from metal-rich periods. Virtually......Since the early 1980s, metal detector surveying conducted by non-professional volunteers (amateur archaeologists) has contributed significantly to archaeological research and heritage practice in Denmark. Metal detecting has always been legal in Denmark, and official stakeholders have from...... all of the spectacular and ground-breaking discoveries of the past decades are owed to metal detectors in the hands of amateur archaeologists. In order to serve as a contribution to the discussion on the upsides and downsides of liberal metal detector archaeology, this article addresses mainly three...

  1. Energy policy in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidegaard, M.

    2012-12-15

    Denmark has a long tradition of active energy policy, initiated by the first oil crisis in 1973. Over the years, numerous actions have been taken on the basis of a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament - both in order to reduce the energy consumption and in order to increase the share of renewable energy. Now, the cornerstones for the Danish energy future have also been laid. The Danish Government has set the long-term goal to abandon fossil fuels by 2050. An important milestone was reached in March 2012 with an Energy Agreement for the period 2012-2020 - again based on a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament. This Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, bringing Denmark a good step closer to the target of 100% renewable energy. In the present publication, a selection of past and present Danish energy policies is presented, together with the results achieved in terms of energy savings, use of renewables etc. (LN)

  2. PPP in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    It is the aim of the paper to contribute to the discussion on restating the PPP principles. The paper is based on an ongoing research project: ”Procuring Facilities Management through PPP´s”. A review of litterature with a critical, but positive attitude towards PPP is given. An overview of PPP i......-life thinking can be released in PPPs. The question is raised whether the formation of partnerships between the public and private part might be a way forward for PPP in Denmark and elsewhere....... in Denmark is presented. Only a few PPP´s have been initiated and though more might be in the pipeline, it is likely that the market for PPP is too small. Government policy is positive toward PPP. Private financing is not seen as an essential part of PPP. Attitudes among participants in PPP isare described...

  3. Metal Detecting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, metal detector surveying conducted by non-professional volunteers (amateur archaeologists) has contributed significantly to archaeological research and heritage practice in Denmark. Metal detecting has always been legal in Denmark, and official stakeholders have from...... the beginning of metal detector archaeology pursued a liberal model, focusing on cooperation and inclusion rather than confrontation and criminalization. Like no other surveying method, the metal detector has contributed to increasing enormously the amount of data and sites from metal-rich periods. Virtually...... all of the spectacular and ground-breaking discoveries of the past decades are owed to metal detectors in the hands of amateur archaeologists. In order to serve as a contribution to the discussion on the upsides and downsides of liberal metal detector archaeology, this article addresses mainly three...

  4. Food insecurity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Holm, Lotte; Tetens, Inge

    2017-01-01

    .001) and higher risk of psychological distress (women: adj.RR 2.42 P Obesity was more prevalent in low/very low food secure women (RR 2.44 P Food insecurity in Denmark is associated with adverse factors...... such as unhealthy diet, obesity, life satisfaction, and psychological distress. It is important to widen food insecurity research to non-liberal welfare states since low/very low food security is negatively associated with unhealthy eating and other health indicators, even in a social-democratic welfare state.......Background: Food insecurity and its consequences have not received much attention in the Nordic, social-democratic welfare states. This study reports the prevalence of low and very low food security in Denmark, identifies its socio-demographic determinants and examines its associations with eating...

  5. Youth Homelessness in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børner Stax, Tobias

    Based on a literature study this chapter reflects upon the existence of youth homelessness in Denmark. The chapter contains reflections upon the juridical measures directed towards youngsters living on the margin of the Danish society and presents two concrete project directed towards young people...... living rough. The chapter is taken form an anthology discussion youth homelessness in the different member states of the European Union....

  6. Denmark at a Crossroad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is regularly portrayed in international science journals as ‘the epidemiologist’s dream’: a country where health data on all citizens can be combined with e.g. information about social or financial position, kinship ties, school performance data as well as tissue samples. Moreover, it can......, it is a good place from which to begin rethinking the policy challenges associated with intensified data sourcing at both national and European levels....

  7. Plague and landscape resilience in premodern Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J.; Vésteinsson, Orri

    2012-01-01

    In debates on societal collapse, Iceland occupies a position of precarious survival, defined by not becoming extinct, like Norse Greenland, but having endured, sometimes by the narrowest of margins. Classic decline narratives for late medieval to early modern Iceland stress compounding adversities, where climate, trade, political domination, unsustainable practices, and environmental degradation conspire with epidemics and volcanism to depress the Icelanders and turn the once-proud Vikings and Saga writers into one of Europe's poorest nations. A mainstay of this narrative is the impact of incidental setbacks such as plague and volcanism, which are seen to have compounded and exacerbated underlying structural problems. This research shows that this view is not correct. We present a study of landscape change that uses 15 precisely dated tephra layers spanning the whole 1,200-y period of human settlement in Iceland. These tephras have provided 2,625 horizons of known age within 200 stratigraphic sections to form a high-resolution spatial and temporal record of change. This finding shows short-term (50 y) declines in geomorphological activity after two major plagues in A.D. 15th century, variations that probably mirrored variations in the population. In the longer term, the geomorphological impact of climate changes from the 14th century on is delayed, and landscapes (as well as Icelandic society) exhibit resilience over decade to century timescales. This finding is not a simple consequence of depopulation but a reflection of how Icelandic society responded with a scaling back of their economy, conservation of core functionality, and entrenchment of the established order. PMID:22371601

  8. The Wind Energy Potential of Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Bjornsson, Halldór; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Jónasson, Kristján; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2014-05-01

    While Iceland has an abundant wind energy resource, its use for electrical power production has so far been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated primarily from hydro- and geothermal sources, and adding wind energy has so far not been considered practical or even necessary. However, wind energy is becoming a more viable option, as opportunities for new hydro- or geothermal power installations become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland, a wind atlas has been developed as part of the joint Nordic project 'Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing' (IceWind). Downscaling simulations performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to determine the large-scale wind energy potential of Iceland. Local wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull statistics. The shape parameter across Iceland varies between 1.2 and 3.6, with the lowest values indicative of near-exponential distributions at sheltered locations, and the highest values indicative of normal distributions at exposed locations in winter. Compared with summer, average power density in winter is increased throughout Iceland by a factor of 2.0 - 5.5. In any season, there are also considerable spatial differences in average wind power density. Relative to the average value within 10 km of the coast, power density across Iceland varies between 50 - 250%, excluding glaciers, or between 300 - 1500 W m-2 at 50 m above ground level in winter. At intermediate elevations of 500 - 1000 m above mean sea level, power density is independent of the distance to the coast. In addition to seasonal and spatial variability, differences in average wind speed and power density also exist for different wind directions. Along the coast in winter, power density of onshore winds is higher by 100 - 700 W m-2 than that of offshore winds. The regions with the highest average wind speeds are impractical for wind farms, due to the distances from road

  9. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  10. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  11. Gendering in one Icelandic preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Alda Hardardottir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to shed light on gendering in preschool. It analyzes the opinions and beliefs of preschool teachers with regard to boys and girls in one Icelandic preschool, and how gender performative acts are manifested in the preschool’s children. The preschool, which was observed for one school year, comprised 60 children, aged 18 months to five years, and 20 employees, of which eight were qualified teachers. The research material is analyzed in terms of Judith Butler’s gender constructivism. Butler contends that gender is constituted by, and is a product of, society, and that the individual’s empowerment is therefore limited in relation to society, with individuals typically seeking to identify themselves with the dominant norms concerning gender. The main conclusions suggest that “gendering” is prominent within the preschool. There is a strong tendency among the preschool teachers to classify the children into categories of boys/masculine and girls/feminine, and specific norms direct the children into the dominant feminine and masculine categories, thus maintaining and reinforcing their gender stereotypes. The children used symbols such as colors, locations and types of play as means to instantiate the “girling” and the “boying”. These findings are consistent with previous Nordic research and indicate a prevailing essentialist perspective towards both girls and boys. The originality of the research, however, lies in focusing on children’s gender from the individual’s perspective and how the individual child generally enacts gender performatively within the confines of society’s norms.

  12. Nation in a sheep’s coat: The Icelandic sweater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Helgadottir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Icelandic sweater is presented and received as being traditional—even ancient—authentically Icelandic and hand made by Icelandic women from the wool of Icelandic sheep. Even so, the sweater type, the so-called ‘Icelandic sweater’ in English, only dates back to the mid-20th century and is not necessarily made in Iceland nor from indigenous wool. Nevertheless, the sweater is a successful invention of a tradition (Hobsbawm & Ranger, 1983, popular among Icelanders and tourists alike since its introduction in the mid-20th century. It has gained ground as a national symbol, particularly in times of crisis for example in the reconstruction of values in the aftermath of the Icelandic bank collapse of 2008. I traced the development of the discourse about wool and the origins of the Icelandic sweater by looking at publications of the Icelandic National Craft Association, current design discourse in Iceland and its effect on the development of the wool industry. I then tied these factors to notions of tradition, authenticity, national culture, image and souvenirs.

  13. Porphyria in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunell, S; Floderus, Y; Henrichson, A; Harper, P

    2006-01-01

    In a brief survey the work of Swedish porphyrinologists through time is presented, from the organic chemist Jakob Berzelius 1840 to the molecular biologists of today. The building up in Stockholm of a Swedish national competence centre for porphyria is touched upon and the emergence of a computerized national register on the porphyria gene carriers in the country described. Figures for the prevalences of the seven different forms of porphyria diagnosed in Sweden are given. The geographical distribution of gene mutation spectra is shown for the most frequent form, acute intermittent porphyria. The organisation at Porphyria Centre Sweden of its diagnostic and consultative services is described, as is the decentralized model for porphyria care applied in the form of a clinical network covering the long and sparsely populated country. The ideas and activities of the Swedish Porphyria Patients' Association are presented. Its focus on protection-by-information of the porphyria gene carrier against maltreatment in health service contacts, and against other exposures to environmental threats to his or her health, is discussed. The combined efforts of the national porphyria centre and the patients' association have resulted in early and accurate diagnosis of most of the porphyria gene carriers in the country. The information to the carriers and to the health service regarding the mechanisms of the diseases and the importance of avoiding exposure to disease triggering environmental factors have greatly reduced porphyric morbidity. In the case of the acute porphyrias, by this programme and after the introduction of heme arginate in the therapy, mortality in the acute phase has become extremely rare in Sweden. In contrast, probably due to greater awareness of the high risk for liver cancer in acute porphyrias the number of hepatoma cases diagnosed has increased. The current research activities at the Porphyria Centre which aim at finding ways to substitute the mutated gene in

  14. Modern indoor climate research in Denmark from 1962 to the early 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    Modern, holistic indoor climate research started with the formation of an interdisciplinary 'Indoor Climate Research Group' in 1962 at the Institute of Hygiene, University of Aarhus, Denmark. After some years, other groups started similar research in Denmark and Sweden, and later - after the First...... International Indoor Air Symposium in Copenhagen 1978--this research spread to many countries and today it is carried out globally by probably 2000 scientists. This paper recounts the history of Danish indoor climate research, focusing on the three decades from the early 1960s to the founding of the Indoor Air...

  15. Wind farm progress in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a status of wind power in Denmark and on the technical and industrial achievements. The present total installed capacity is be the end of 1995 approx. 630 MW, and the contribution to the electric energy generation in Denmark is approx. 4%.......The paper presents a status of wind power in Denmark and on the technical and industrial achievements. The present total installed capacity is be the end of 1995 approx. 630 MW, and the contribution to the electric energy generation in Denmark is approx. 4%....

  16. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  17. Sweden health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders; Glenngård, Anna H; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Life expectancy in Sweden is high and the country performs well in comparisons related to disease-oriented indicators of health service outcomes and quality of care. The Swedish health system is committed to ensuring the health of all citizens and abides by the principles of human dignity, need and solidarity, and cost-effectiveness. The state is responsible for overall health policy, while the funding and provision of services lies largely with the county councils and regions. The municipalities are responsible for the care of older and disabled people. The majority of primary care centres and almost all hospitals are owned by the county councils. Health care expenditure is mainly tax funded (80%) and is equivalent to 9.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) (2009). Only about 4% of the population has voluntary health insurance (VHI). User charges fund about 17% of health expenditure and are levied on visits to professionals, hospitalization and medicines. The number of acute care hospital beds is below the European Union (EU) average and Sweden allocates more human resources to the health sector than most OECD countries. In the past, the Achilles heel of Swedish health care included long waiting times for diagnosis and treatment and, more recently, divergence in quality of care between regions and socioeconomic groups. Addressing long waiting times remains a key policy objective along with improving access to providers. Recent principal health reforms over the past decade relate to: concentrating hospital services; regionalizing health care services, including mergers; improving coordinated care; increasing choice, competition and privatization in primary care; privatization and competition in the pharmacy sector; changing co-payments; and increasing attention to public comparison of quality and efficiency indicators, the value of investments in health care and responsiveness to patients needs. Reforms are often introduced on the local level, thus the pattern of

  18. Professional Learning outside the Classroom: Expedition Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Julie; Bull, Sue

    2012-01-01

    A bunch of intrepid teachers spent a week in Iceland in a quest to learn more about the country's challenging landscape, by engaging in a unique and inspiring professional development opportunity to learn about innovative ways to teach science and mathematics outside of a classroom setting. A 2008 Ofsted report highlighted the benefits of learning…

  19. Cost containment of pharmaceutical use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Grímsson, A

    2000-01-01

    Iceland was the first Nordic country to liberalise its drug distribution system, in March 1996. Subsequent regulation in January 1997 increased patients' share of drug costs. The objectives of this study were to test the assumptions that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership would lower...

  20. Historic magmatism on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David W.; Baker, Joel A.; Jakobssen, Sveinn P.

    2009-01-01

    We present new compositional data on a suite of historic lava flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. They were erupted over a short time period between c. 940 and c. 1340 AD and provide a snap-shot view of melt generation and evolution processes beneath this onshore, 65 km long, ridge segment...

  1. Multicultural Education in Iceland: Vision or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Elsa Sigriour; Ragnarsdottir, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the development of educational policy and curricula in relation to the development of a multicultural society in Iceland are critically discussed. Neither policy nor national curriculum guides refer particularly to multicultural society, multicultural or intercultural education. Implementations of equity principles are not clear in…

  2. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  3. Recent saltmarsh foraminiferal assemblages from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbers, Julia; Schönfeld, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    This study reports for the first time boreal to subarctic intertidal foraminiferal assemblages from saltmarshes at Borgarnes and Faskrudsfjördur on Iceland. The composition of living and dead foraminiferal assemblages was investigated along transects from the tidal flat to the highest reach of halophytic plants. The foraminiferal assemblages from Borgarnes showed 18 species in the total foraminiferal assemblage of which only 7 species were recorded in the living fauna. The assemblages were dominated by agglutinated taxa, whereas 3 calcareous species were recorded, of which only Haynesina orbicularis was found in the living fauna. The distribution limit of calcifying species corresponds to the lower boundary of the lower saltmarsh vegetation zone. Furthermore, calcareous tests showed many features of dissolution, which is an indication of a carbonate corrosive environment. The species forming the dead assemblages were mainly derived from the ambient intertidal areas and were displaced by tidal currents into the saltmarsh. The foraminiferal assemblages from Faskrudsfjördur showed two species, of which only one species was recorded in the living fauna. The assemblage was dominated by the agglutinated foraminifer Trochaminita irregularis. The foraminiferal species recorded on Iceland were the same as commonly found elsewhere in Europa. Since no species was found which is endemic to North America, Iceland is considered part of the European bio province. The foraminiferal could have been immigrated to Iceland from Europe through warm water currents, migratory birds or marine traffic since the last Ice Age.

  4. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  5. Physical properties of suspended dust in Iceland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Olafsson, H.; Arnalds, O.; Škrabalová, L.; Sigurdardottir, G.; Braniš, M.; Hladil, Jindřich; Chadimová, Leona; Navrátil, Tomáš; von Lowis of Menar, S.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2014), s. 8565-8565 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 27.04.2014-02.05.2014, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : dust * volcanology * Iceland http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2014/EGU2014-8565.pdf

  6. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  7. Esperanto and Icelandic: Two Contrasting Lexical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmans, Theodore

    1972-01-01

    The article comprises a table listing Esperanto words conveying international concepts, accompained by equivalents in English, French, German, Russian, Hungarian, Hebrew and Icelandic, representing various language groups. The comparison shows that although the world language would opt for international terms, a language making no claims on…

  8. Children's Outdoor Environment in Icelandic Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norðdahl, Kristín; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate what characterizes the discourse on the role of the outdoor environment in young children's learning in educational policy documents in Iceland. Policy documents, laws and regulations, national curriculum guides for pre- and compulsory school levels, and documents from municipalities were analyzed. A…

  9. Seismic Tomography in Reykjanes , SW Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jousset, Philippe; Blanck, Hanna; Franke, Steven; Metz, M.; Águstsson, K.; Verdel, Arie; Ryberg, T.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll; Weemstra, C.; Bruhn, D.F.; Flovenz, Olafur G

    2016-01-01

    We present tomographic results obtained around geothermal reservoirs using seismic data recorded both on-land Reykjanes, SW-Iceland and offshore along Reykjanes Ridge. We gathered records from a network of 83 seismic stations (including 21 Ocean Bottom Seismometers) deployed between April 2014 and

  10. Broiler Contamination and Human campylobacteriosis in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    To examine whether there is a relationship between the degree of Campylobacter contamination observed in product lots of retail Icelandic briler chicken carcasses and human disease, 1617 isolates from 327 individual product lots were genetically matched (using flaA Short Variable Region) to 289 isol...

  11. Reporting from the Iceland Deep Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Geoscience-related topics are in many cases difficult to communicate to the public: Often they include dead soil which not easily tells lively stories. And it is hard to sell those topics to editors of public media. In addition the topics might also be politically supercharged if they are resource-related with a visible environmental impact. Therefore any researcher involved might be overcautious while talking to journalists. With a grant from the EGU Science Journalist Fellowship I travelled to Iceland in autumn 2016 to report about the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). The project which started just weeks prior to my arrival aimed to drill the deepest borehole in a volcanically active region. During earlier trials the borehole collapsed or the drill string unintentionally hit magma. If successful the IDDP promises a much higher level of geothermal energy harvested. The IDDP was therefore ideally suited to be sold to public media outlets since Iceland's volcanic legacy easily tells a lively story. But the drilling's potential environmental impact makes it a political topic in Iceland - even though geothermal energy has a positive public perception. Therefore the IDDP included some pitfalls I observed several times before while reporting about geoscience research. Those could be circumvented if researchers and journalists knew better about their expectations before any interview takes place.

  12. Alcohol Consumption in Southern Sweden after Major Decreases in Danish Spirits Taxes and Increases in Swedish Travellers’ Quotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri J.

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2003, Denmark lowered its tax on spirits, and in 2004, Sweden increased its traveller import quotas. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine whether these two changes increased self-reported alcohol consumption in southern Sweden, which is located near Denmark. Method Data were collected through telephone interviews with the general population between 2003 and 2006. Individuals aged 16–80 years were interviewed. Some lived in southern Sweden, others in the northern region, which was assumed to be unaffected by the policy changes and was thus used as a control site. Analyses were performed for the total population as well as by sex, age, socio-economic group and consumption pattern. Results The expected results were not found: alcohol consumption in southern Sweden had not changed. The few statistically significant changes found in southern Sweden indicated decreases. In the north, however, consumption seemed to have increased. Conclusion In addition to the two policy changes mentioned above, other changes seem to have affected alcohol consumption in Sweden. It is possible, however, that the policy changes have affected population groups not reached by the survey, and thus other types of data need to be analysed before drawing any far-reaching conclusions. PMID:20453510

  13. The Greenland-Iceland-Faroe Ridge Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Ögmundur; Hjartarson, Árni; Blischke, Anett

    2017-04-01

    The Greenland-Iceland-Faroe Ridge Complex GIFRC covers 480.000 km2 of a thick volcanic crust that stretches 1150 km across the central Northeast Atlantic Ocean between the central East Greenland and the Northwest European margins. It incorporates the Iceland plateau, the aseismic Greenland-Iceland ridge, and the Iceland-Faroe ridge. GIFRC has been in development since the opening of the NE-Atlantic around 55 Ma. It appears as a prominent feature in all geological and geophysical data sets. Synclines and anticlines in the area will be summarised and, among others, several new ones that were revealed in seismic reflection data near to Iceland. Specifically, the offshore anticlines and synclines may be related to old rift systems prior the forming of Iceland as an insular shelf region (>24 Ma). Synclines are suggested to be manifestations of former rift axes that have been abandoned by rift jumps. These rift jumps appear to be more common inside the GIFRC region than in the ocean basins south and north of the area. They can be confirmed by the observation of cumulative crustal accretion through time as well. The GIFRC represents a complex region of crustal accretion in 3 dimensions due to overlapping rift systems, complex interlinked rift and transform zones, and several unconformities that suggest a variable uplift and subsidence history for the ridge complex. An excellent example to visualise such processes of vertical crustal accretion and rift jumps is seen in seismic reflection data that extends along the southwestern slope of the Iceland-Faroe Ridge. They clearly display the internal structures of basement blocks, separated by a syncline and younger rift system, and the formation of an anticline across the deeply buried basement blocks that are overlain by seaward dipping reflectors (SDR). We suggest a major hiatus (40 Ma - 24-20 Ma) and a related unconformity at the boundary of the volcanic insular shelf edge of East Iceland and the Faroe Ridge, buried beneath

  14. The forest Gribskov, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Buttenschøn, Rita M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of forest history is crucial for understanding the processes, structures, functions and current status of forest ecosystems. An enhanced understanding of the long history of disturbance factors affecting forest development and thereby the present state of the forest is particularly...... valuable when working with forest management, conservation and restoration. Integrating the legacies of past disturbances-natural as well as anthropogenic-into conservation and management strategies is likely to favour natural values and ecosystem services. A case-study in Gribskov, Denmark, using...

  15. Culture Wars in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s high and low culture were brought into sharp conflict i Denmark. In 1961 a Ministry of Culture was established for the first time. The first minister of culture, the social democrat Julius Bomholt, saw art and culture as an important part of education for democracy that should be made...... available to everyone. The general public, however, raised demands for more popular and relaxing entertainment. The confrontation between the cultural elite and popular opinion escalated to a series of veritable culture wars....

  16. Regionalization Lessons from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    responsibilities in organizing welfare state services. The Danish healthcare system has demonstrated an ability to increase productivity, while at the same time maintaining a high level of patient satisfaction. Ongoing reforms have contributed to these results, as well as a firm commitment to innovation...... and coordination. Regions and municipalities in Denmark are governed by directly elected democratic councils. The Danish case is thus an example of democratic decentralization, but within a framework of national coordination and fiscal control. In spite of the difference in size and historical traditions...

  17. The new Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guglielmi, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Many countries are confronting challenges of moving internal borders as well as borders of tolerance. Territories and borders are like many aspects of life affected by change and rationalism in a globalised world. The New Denmark, which is about restructuring municipals, is very much concerned...... and need to hold on to common understandings of a given territory. Our project aims at critical view upon political rationalisation of administrative and economic resources. The functionalistic argumentations favouring such attitudes might be covering up for an ideological agenda echoing on a larger scale...

  18. Mobility Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    There is today an undisputed superiority of cars on any other means of transportation, both practically and psychologically. However, the reliance on cars as the main means of transportation has led to a number of social and environmental problems. Mobility Management aims at managing the way...... people fulfil their mobility needs so that they rely less on their cars and start using alternatives such as bicycles and public transport. This article analyses the possibility to use businesses as vectors for introducing Mobility Management within social practices in Denmark in the light of the recent...

  19. Long-term variability of dust-storms in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Ólafur

    2013-04-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland are volcanic sandy deserts. Natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect not only regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze") but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean > 1000 km at times. The study places Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long term frequency of dust storm events in NE Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in NE Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the NE erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the NE deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust is not only a substantial source for regional air pollution, but may be considered to contribute to the Arctic haze phenomena and Arctic air pollution.

  20. Public accountability procedures in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Møhl, Terkel

    2004-01-01

    The article raises questions as - who is responsible for environmental and tehnological policy in Denmark? And how are those 'policymakers' made accountable to the public for their decisions?......The article raises questions as - who is responsible for environmental and tehnological policy in Denmark? And how are those 'policymakers' made accountable to the public for their decisions?...

  1. Immigration and Religion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2009-01-01

    An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches......An overview over legal framework for immigration into Denmark, special clauses on religion as a parameter for residence permit and asylum in churches...

  2. Elderly Turkish Migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora; Petersen, Signe Sofia Gronwald; Yazici, Suzan

    Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark: Health in a life course perspective Objective According to Statistics Denmark, Turkish immigrants constitute the largest immigrant group in Denmark with 1.1% of the population (60,390 people) in 2012. They account for a higher rate of chronic ailments and a hi......Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark: Health in a life course perspective Objective According to Statistics Denmark, Turkish immigrants constitute the largest immigrant group in Denmark with 1.1% of the population (60,390 people) in 2012. They account for a higher rate of chronic ailments...... elderly people by studying the every day life of elderly Turkish migrants. Methods Qualitative interviews were carried out with 12 Turkish men and 18 women aged 54-80. The interviews had a focus on their health practices and health perceptions in a life history perspective. The interviews were...... histories, we learned that the interviewees had not only encountered unskilled and physical demanding work, but many of them had experienced very bad and unhealthy living conditions during their stay in Denmark. Conclusions A life course approach to the study of Elderly Turkish migrants in Denmark suggests...

  3. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their tr...... on their transnational engagement in development activities in their countries of origin....

  4. Denmark's national inventory report 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Lyck, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO....

  5. A Church History of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz

    A Church History of Denmark from the Missionary periode, through the Middle Ages, the Lutheran Reformation, the Ortodoxy, Pietisme, Enlightenment and det History of the 19. and 20. century......A Church History of Denmark from the Missionary periode, through the Middle Ages, the Lutheran Reformation, the Ortodoxy, Pietisme, Enlightenment and det History of the 19. and 20. century...

  6. Sexual offences in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Schierff, Laura Marie; Ejbye-Ernst, Peter

    2017-01-01

    During the last years, the question of whether or not Denmark suffers from an increasing culture of violation mirroring incidents of rape and sexual coercion has been a hot topic. Thus, the low number of convictions and the complexities of the reported cases has brought about questions to be answ......During the last years, the question of whether or not Denmark suffers from an increasing culture of violation mirroring incidents of rape and sexual coercion has been a hot topic. Thus, the low number of convictions and the complexities of the reported cases has brought about questions...... to be answered. Statistically, the number of reported rape incidents has increased substantially from roughly 200 reports in the 1960’s to 791 reported incidents in 2016. Being the lowest number of reports in Scandinavia, the ability of the Danish police as well as the Danish criminal justice system in handling...... addresses the question of a dark figure of crime as well as a supposed hidden population of male victims and is consequently developed as a two-stage survey project. The population of interest is men and women above the age of 18 who potentially are victims of sexual offences. The analysis will initially...

  7. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  8. Nordic hydrogen energy foresight - challenges of managing the interactive process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eerola, A.; Loikkanen, T.; Koljonen, T.

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the managerial challenges of the Nordic Hydrogen Energy Foresight, a joint effort of the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden). Interaction between research, industry and government, and combination ofjudgmental and formal procedures, were essential...

  9. Delegation and accountability in European integration the Nordic parliamentary democracies and the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Torbjorn

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the effects of the European Union on national decision-making and the chain of delegation and accountability, the authors look at Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Iceland and Norway. The analyses are based on principal-agent perspective.

  10. Sea Ice Retreat and its Impact on the Intensity of Open-Ocean Convection in the Greenland and Iceland Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K.; Våge, K.; Pickart, R. S.; Renfrew, I.

    2016-12-01

    The air-sea transfer of heat and freshwater plays a critical role in the global climate system. This is particularly true for the Greenland and Iceland Seas, where these fluxes drive ocean convection that contributes to Denmark Strait Overflow Water, the densest component of the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). This buoyancy transfer is most pronounced during the winter downstream of the ice edge, where the cold and dry Arctic air first comes in contact with the relatively warm ocean surface. Here we show that the wintertime retreat of sea ice in the region, combined with different rates of warming for the atmosphere and sea surface of the Greenland and Iceland Seas, has resulted in statistically significant reductions of approximately 20% in the magnitude of the winter air-sea heat fluxes since 1979. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that modes of climate variability other than the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are required to fully characterize the regional air-sea interaction in this region. Mixed-layer model simulations imply that a continued decrease in atmospheric forcing will exceed a threshold for the Greenland Sea whereby convection will become depth limited, reducing the ventilation of mid-depth waters in the Nordic Seas. In the Iceland Sea, further reductions have the potential to decrease the supply of the densest overflow waters to the AMOC.

  11. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  12. Tracing Paths - A Study of Combs from Viking Age ICeland

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhoff, Nicolai Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a technological and comparative analysis of combs from Viking Age Iceland. Recent research suggests that it was important for people in the Viking Age that the comb they caried was affiliated with their own culture; hence combs seem to have an inherent ability to portray cultural patterns. Such patterns are difficult to find in Iceland as few artefact studies have been completed in Icelandic archaeology. This thesis focuses on this fact, as the regional variations in the ...

  13. Suburban development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I focus on current projects and activities aiming at renewal and revitalisation of Danish suburban areas. In the last five years several activities have been initiated in order to discuss possibilities and strategies for the future development of the suburban areas in Denmark. A Think...... Tank has published a report, books and political statements have pointing to the suburban areas as important focal points for future developments, and a number of architectural competitions have been launched. The paper is based on review of these acitivities. It is pointed out, that ‘cultural heritage...... original developed. On this background the paper raise the question, if ‘dynamic change’ is in fact the primary goal....

  14. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......-politicization of Danish newspapers; but also that the news media as an arena of influence is only one part of the equation, since some of the corporatist political networks are still intact and working outside the media...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  15. Graduation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Margit

    2009-01-01

    all the characteristics of a rite of passage. The graduates wear a traditional cap with a cross as cockade emblem; this special cross is a symbol of Denmark. For graduates of non-Christian background, alternative cockade emblems are available, e.g. a Star of David or a crescent; this shows...... that the cross emblem is also perceived as a Christian symbol. Social anthropologists Sally Moore and Barbara Myerhoff have suggested a scheme of the categories of religious versus scared for analysing secular rituals where religious symbols are sometimes exhibited. The applicability of their approach...... is discussed in the analysis of a central part of the Danish graduation ritual, which is a tradition-laden ride through town with the graduates sitting on the platform of a richly decorated old truck. Finding that the approach of Moore and Myerhoff is not particularly yielding in this case I suggest...

  16. Medical Spending in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Gørtz, Mette; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene

    2016-01-01

    Using full population longitudinal data from merged administrative registers for Denmark, we document that medical spending is highly concentrated in the population, and persistent through time at the individual level. In addition, we provide overviews of institutional details of the Danish health...... care system, aggregate trends in health care expenditures, and the relevant register data. Nearly two thirds of expenditures are on hospitals and one fifth on long-term care, with the remainder roughly equally split between primary care and prescription drugs. Health expenditures are higher for men...... is responsible for more than twice as much spending on health as the richest, and this reverse social gradient is even stronger for long-term care and is stronger among men than among women, especially in hospital expenses. Expenditures in the year (over the three years) before death are nearly 12 times...

  17. [Bariatric surgery in Denmark.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, P.; Iversen, M.G.; Kehlet, H.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 2005 the National Board of Health (NBH) published guidelines on bariatric surgery in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the national bariatric effort in relation to these guidelines. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis is based on extraction of the following......, a tendency which was attributable to the activities of one of the private clinics. CONCLUSION: The frequency with which bariatric surgery is performed follows a strongly increasing trend and the procedures are only performed at the public departments selected by the National Board of Health...... data from the National Patient Registry in the period from 2005 through 2007: annual number of operations, type of operation, laparoscopic versus open procedure. Furthermore, the centres were compared. RESULTS: A total of 2,098 bariatric procedures were performed in the years 2005 to 2007. Apart from...

  18. Company cases Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2005-01-01

    to technology but also from more focus on human beings and business.It has been important that CSC has respected Nordic values in worklife and that the CSC philosophy has been important and not so different from DC. The other case is from pharmaceutical industry in which Norwegian Nycomed buys DAK......The Danish part of the publication describes two Danish cases with foreign companies taking over Danish companies. The first case is from software industry where Datacentralen (DC) was taken over by American company Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) in 1986. DC delivered IT - solutions...... for government sector in Denmark. DC employed 1,000 persons and had a market share on 75 % in the market of large government institutions when it was taken over. Danish government wanted to sell DC in order to get more intensity in competion in IT - markets in general and especially in the market for public...

  19. Corporate taxation in Iceland and the international challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnarsdóttir Fjóla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the development in the field of corporate tax law in Iceland, from both legal and economic point of view, with a focus on measures taken to protect the tax base and in order to try to make Iceland an attractive place for investment and establishment companies. First, there will be a brief general description of the development of the corporate tax rate in Iceland since 2004 and an overview of new taxes that have been introduced for companies over the past ten years. Second, there will be an analysis of how the Icelandic legal framework provides for incentives for investment and establishment of companies in Iceland. Third, this discussion is to be followed by a section on the steps Iceland has taken in order to combat tax avoidance. Fourth, there is a general description of the economic development for the corporate taxation in Iceland since 1990 and fifth, there is brief discussion of the development of revenues from the corporate tax. Sixth, a short overview of the real investment in the Icelandic economy is given, and finally, the main conclusions of this article will be summed up with a short discussion on the main challenges Iceland is currently facing in the field of corporate taxation in today’s globalised economy.

  20. Interventions to curb rising pharmaceutical costs in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2003-01-01

    In Iceland, drugs provided in hospitals during regular inpatient care are free of charge to the patients but outside institutional care fall under the State Social Security Institute's budget. This article details the measures taken to control drug costs and their impact in Iceland....... The cancellation of reimbursement for antibiotics in 1991 resulted in a slight decrease in sales. The change in the list of "hospital only" medicines caused massive protests from pharmacists and physicians. The pharmaceutical policy in Iceland has been problematic in its formulations and implementations....... Recommendations in the light of the problems of Icelandic pharmaceutical policies have been provided in the article....

  1. Icelandic: A Lesser-Used Language in the Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2001-07-01

    A small nation in the middle of the North Atlantic, Iceland currently has a population of 265,000 (1996). The Iceland language has changed very little since the island was settled some 11 centuries ago. Despite the relatively small number of people who speak the language and irrespective of the globalisation efforts by the international community, which includes the ever-increasing influence of English worldwide, the Icelandic language and culture are stronger than ever. The current volume and variety of publications of Icelandic works in all areas have never been as great. Icelandic is a living and growing language. Growth in vocabulary, in response to recent phenomena like the introduction of new technology, has primarily come about with the development of new words from the language's roots. The near absence of Latin, Greek and, more recently, English or Danish words in Icelandic, is striking. Iceland's language policy is not only a governmental policy. It is a policy that comes from the grassroots with the government and official institutions viewing their job as one of service to the people of Iceland. Icelanders are very proud of their language and are extremely determined to continually develop and preserve it for future generations.

  2. Quantifying Seasonal Skill In Coupled Sea Ice Models Using Freeboard Measurements From Spaceborne Laser Altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Iceland are the eight Arctic nations that encircle the Arctic Ocean. Russia has the longest coastline in the region...et al. 2009). Such increased activities and development may further disrupt the delicate environment and clash with the indigenous culture and...nations. Source: National Science Foundation (1998). The United States, Canada, Russia, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Iceland are the eight

  3. [Gallbladder carcinoma in Iceland 2004-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldvinsdottir, Bryndis; Hauksson, Haraldur; Haraldsdóttir, Kristin Huld

    2017-04-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is about 0.5% of all cancer. The outcome of patients with gallbladder carcinoma is overall bad and the only potentially curative treatment is surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the disease's prevalence in Iceland and outcome of the patients diagnosed in the study period. This was a retrospective study of all diagnosed patients with gallbladder carcinoma during the years 2004-2013. A list of patients was obtained from the Icelandic Cancer Registry. Information was gathered from the patient's charts in Landspitali University Hospital and the Hospital in Akureyri. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the results. Median follow-up time was 6 years. Twenty-four patients were diagnosed with gallbladder carci-noma in Iceland during the study period, 16 women and 8 men. Eighteen patients were diagnosed in Landspitali and six in the Hospital in Akureyri. The average age at diagnosis was 73 years. Eighteen patients have died, on average 5 months after the time of diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma was the most common cancer type (n=19). Three patients (3/24, 12.5%) underwent extended operation following the diagnosis of the gallbladder carcinoma. Nine patients (9/24, 37.5%) had advanced disease at the time of diagnosis and died within two months after being diagnosed with gallbladder carcinoma. Gallbladder carcinoma is a rare cancer type in Iceland and has a bad prognosis. One third of the patients had no connection with Landspitali University Hospital following the diagnosis. Extended surgery following the diagnosis was seldom performed. Key words: gallbladder carcinoma, gastrointestinal cancer, adenocarcinoma, extended cholecystectomy. Correspondence: Kristin Huld Haraldsdottir, kristinh@landspitali.is.

  4. New Proposed Drilling at Surtsey Volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Marie D.

    2014-12-01

    Surtsey, an isolated oceanic island and a World Heritage Site of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, is a uniquely well-documented natural laboratory for investigating processes of rift zone volcanism, hydrothermal alteration of basaltic tephra, and biological colonization and succession in surface and subsurface pyroclastic deposits. Deposits from Surtsey's eruptions from 1963 to 1967 were first explored via a 181-meter hole drilled in 1979 by the U.S. Geological Survey and Icelandic Museum of Natural History.

  5. The passive of reflexive verbs in Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlíf Árnadóttir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Reflexive Passive in Icelandic is reminiscent of the so-called New Passive (or New Impersonal in that the oblique case of a passivized object NP is preserved. As is shown by recent surveys, however, speakers who accept the Reflexive Passive do not necessarily accept the New Passive, whereas conversely, speakers who accept the New Passive do also accept the Reflexive Passive. Based on these results we suggest that there is a hierarchy in the acceptance of passive sentences in Icelandic, termed the Passive Acceptability Hierarchy. The validity of this hierarchy is confirmed by our diachronic corpus study of open access digital library texts from Icelandic journals and newspapers dating from the 19th and 20th centuries (tímarit.is. Finally, we sketch an analysis of the Reflexive Passive, proposing that the different acceptability rates of the Reflexive and New Passives lie in the argument status of the object. Simplex reflexive pronouns are semantically dependent on the verbs which select them, and should therefore be analyzed as syntactic arguments only, and not as semantic arguments of these verbs.

  6. Provenance variation in subalpine fir grown as an exotic tree species in Denmark and Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skúlason, Brynjar

    in a period of 15 growing seasons after establishment. Provenances showed significant differences for all measured traits. The northernmost provenances showed earliest bud set, highest autumn frost tolerance and a latitudinal cline was delineated, while the southernmost provenances showed earliest flushing...

  7. Investigating Cultures and Their Stories: Stories from Australia, Iceland, Native America, Ireland, Romania, Denmark, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Flora

    Intended for teachers of middle and secondary schools, this book presents folk stories to provide readers (listeners) with insight into other cultures. The book is organized into seven sections, each section featuring a different country. Each section contains a divider page (which teachers can duplicate to use as a cover page), a page of…

  8. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    , and the GC:HW and NC:HW ratios were calculated. Results: Categorising the horses into four groups, 5.9 % were underweight (BCS 3–4), 70.1 % were optimal (BCS 5–6), 13.8 % were overweight (BCS 7) and 10.2 % were obese (BCS 8–9). The GC:HW and NC:HW ratios increased with increasing BCS, as did the BW estimated...

  9. Cultural Distinctions in Aalborg, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents findings from an ongoing study of social differentiation in Aalborg, Denmark. The aim is to evaluate the applicability of Bourdieu's model of capital volume vs. capital composition....

  10. Denmark: a geography of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Since the oil crises of the 1970s, when Denmark was 90% dependent upon imported oil, the country has decoupled economic growth from energy consumption and greatly diversified its sources of energy....

  11. Monitoring Telemedicine Implementation in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøhr, Christian; Villumsen, Sidsel; Bernth Ahrenkiel, Stephanie; Hulbæk, Lars

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, Denmark has a leading position in the dissemination and use of health informatics. However, there is a lack of systematically collected and documented experience of telemedicine solutions in Denmark. This evidence is being established with a new project, which maps out all telemedicine initiatives in Denmark. Data on all the initiatives is collected in a single database and some of the data is analyzed in this paper. It is shown that there are a very large number of telemedicine initiatives in Denmark and that the elements from the national strategy for telemedicine are clearly visible in the telemedicine map. The very large number of projects could, however, also indicate a lack of national coordination of initiatives and a need for evaluation activities to systematically collect and communicate the learning outcomes from all the new projects.

  12. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2007 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2. The report documents the methodology as well as presents activity data and emission...... factors for energy, industrial processes, sovent and other product use, agriculture, LULUCF (Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry) and waste....

  13. The Environment in Denmark 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon-Frank, T.; Andersen, B.; Lausen, J.

    Rapporten opdateres årligt og er baseret på: The State of the Environment in Denmark 1997. NERI Technical Report 243, 1998.; Den danske udgave: Natur og Miljø 1999. Udvalgte indikatorer.......Rapporten opdateres årligt og er baseret på: The State of the Environment in Denmark 1997. NERI Technical Report 243, 1998.; Den danske udgave: Natur og Miljø 1999. Udvalgte indikatorer....

  14. Geographic Names of Iceland's Glaciers: Historic and Modern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Oddur; Williams, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Climatic changes and resulting glacier fluctuations alter landscapes. In the past, such changes were noted by local residents who often documented them in historic annals; eventually, glacier variations were recorded on maps and scientific reports. In Iceland, 10 glacier place-names are to be found in Icelandic sagas, and one of Iceland's ice caps, Snaefellsjokull, appeared on maps of Iceland published in the 16th century. In the late 17th century, the first description of eight of Iceland's glaciers was written. Therefore, Iceland distinguishes itself in having a more than 300-year history of observations by Icelanders on its glaciers. A long-term collaboration between Oddur Sigurdsson and Richard S. Williams, Jr., led to the authorship of three books on the glaciers of Iceland. Much effort has been devoted to documenting historical glacier research and related nomenclature and to physical descriptions of Icelandic glaciers by Icelanders and other scientists from as far back as the Saga Age to recent (2008) times. The first book, Icelandic Ice Mountains, was published by the Icelandic Literary Society in 2004 in cooperation with the Icelandic Glaciological Society and the International Glaciological Society. Icelandic Ice Mountains was a glacier treatise written by Sveinn Palsson in 1795 and is the first English translation of this important scientific document. Icelandic Ice Mountains includes a Preface, including a summary of the history and facsimiles of page(s) from the original manuscript, a handwritten copy, and an 1815 manuscript (without maps and drawings) by Sveinn Palsson on the same subject which he wrote for Rev. Ebenezer Henderson; an Editor's Introduction; 82 figures, including facsimiles of Sveinn Palsson's original maps and perspective drawings, maps, and photographs to illustrate the text; a comprehensive Index of Geographic Place-Names and Other Names in the treatise; References, and 415 Endnotes. Professional Paper 1746 (this book) is the second

  15. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  16. Coming to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage; Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2017-01-01

    Cross-national differences in public opinions about welfare policies, and the role of the government more generally, are often explained in terms of institutional differences. It is widely believed that the hostility towards welfare policies in the US and their support in the Nordic countries is ...... are Americans living in (neo)liberal welfare institutions and 2) are as, or more, supportive than are native Danes. The article finds more evidence of the context-effect being caused by exposure to Danish welfare state institutions than to Danish culture in general....... is partly caused by the institutional structure of what Esping-Andersen (1990) famously labeled liberal and social democratic welfare regimes. The paper contributes to this literature by analyzing welfare attitudes among American migrants living in a social democratic welfare regime. The paper combines...... a survey among first generation American migrants living in Denmark with already existing survey data on American and Danish welfare attitudes. As expected, the article finds that Americans living in a context of social democratic welfare institutions are 1) more supportive of the welfare state than...

  17. Upper mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness under Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, A.; Wal, W. van der; Drury, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Deglaciation during the Holocene on Iceland caused uplift due to glacial isostatic adjustment. Relatively low estimates for the upper mantle viscosity and lithospheric thickness result in rapid uplift responses to the deglaciation cycles on Iceland. The relatively high temperatures of the upper

  18. The Mathematical Content Knowledge of Prospective Teachers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsdottir, Bjorg

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the mathematical content knowledge of prospective teachers in Iceland. The sample was 38 students in the School of Education at the University of Iceland, both graduate and undergraduate students. All of the participants in the study completed a questionnaire survey and 10 were interviewed. The choice of ways to measure the…

  19. Explaining Gender Inequality in Iceland: What Makes the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijstra, Thamar M.; O'Connor, Pat; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the explanations offered by men and women, at different academic ranks, for the scarcity of women in full professorial positions in Icelandic universities. Data derive from interviews and a survey involving the total Icelandic academic population. We test three hypotheses: Firstly, academics will not see family…

  20. Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Iceland were used to test the hypothesis that plastic debris decreases at northern latitudes in the Atlantic when moving away from major human centres of coastal and marine activities. Stomach analyses of Icelandic fulmars confirm that plastic

  1. Culture and the Early Childhood Curriculum in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Tryggvadottir, Jonina

    1996-01-01

    Presents the relationship between Iceland's early childhood curriculum and important elements of its culture, such as population size, weather, terrain, language, literature, and cultural celebrations. Discusses the influence of foreign ideas on Icelandic educational thought and provides information on college curriculum for early childhood…

  2. Iceland. OECD Reviews of National Policies for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Three general concerns of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) examiners in preparing this first review of Iceland's educational system were that: (1) education contribute to the broader social and economic culture; (2) it differentiate itself from the educational forms of other countries in response to Iceland's…

  3. Icelandic for Adult Foreigners: Effects of Imposing an Icelandic Language Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Pamela; Skaptadóttir, Unnur Dís

    2017-01-01

    Legislation linking language course attendance and passage of a language test for residence visas and citizenship, respectively, was enacted in Iceland in the early 2000s. Curricular guidelines and the language test were developed as a result. Research in other countries suggests such structures cause teachers to create "de facto"…

  4. The Relevance of English Language Instruction in a Changing Linguistic Environment in Iceland: The L2 Self of Young Icelanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeves, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study perceptions of post-compulsory school studies in Iceland were investigated through semi-structured interviews. While colloquial English suffices for entertainment, hobbies and Internet use in Iceland, a high level of proficiency is required for employment and tertiary study. School learners and young people in tertiary study and…

  5. Social media and journalism study 2013 - Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Pole, K.; Gulyás, A

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of the wider 2013 social journalism study and reports specifically on Sweden. It suggests that journalists in Sweden are a moderately high user of social media, using it regularly for their work particularly for sourcing stories. Using cluster analysis the largest group is the Architects suggesting that journalism in Sweden is dominated by active social media users.

  6. Health care technology in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, E.; Banta, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    Health care in Sweden is a public sector responsibility and equity in access to care is quite important. The Swedish system is organized into several levels, with the Federation of County Councils at the top, and with regional, county, and local levels. In theory, the four hospital tiers developed

  7. Reimbursement of hormonal contraceptives and the frequency of induced abortion among teenagers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydsjö, Adam; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Josefsson, Ann

    2014-05-29

    Reduction in costs of hormonal contraceptives is often proposed to reduce rates of induced abortion among young women. This study investigates the relationship between rates of induced abortion and reimbursement of dispensed hormonal contraceptives among young women in Sweden. Comparisons are made with the Nordic countries Finland, Norway and Denmark. Official statistics on induced abortion and numbers of prescribed and dispensed hormonal contraceptives presented as "Defined Daily Dose/thousand women" (DDD/T) aged 15-19 years were compiled and related to levels of reimbursement in all Swedish counties by using public official data. The Swedish numbers of induced abortion were compared to those of Finland, Norway and Denmark. The main outcome measure was rates of induced abortion and DDD/T. No correlation was observed between rates of abortion and reimbursement among Swedish counties. Nor was any correlation found between sales of hormonal contraceptives and the rates of abortion. In a Nordic perspective, Finland and Denmark, which have no reimbursement at all, and Norway all have lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden. Reimbursement does not seem to be enough in order to reduce rates of induced abortion. Evidently, other factors such as attitudes, education, religion, tradition or cultural differences in each of Swedish counties as well as in the Nordic countries may be of importance. A more innovative approach is needed in order to facilitate safe sex and to protect young women from unwanted pregnancies.

  8. Reimbursement of hormonal contraceptives and the frequency of induced abortion among teenagers in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduction in costs of hormonal contraceptives is often proposed to reduce rates of induced abortion among young women. This study investigates the relationship between rates of induced abortion and reimbursement of dispensed hormonal contraceptives among young women in Sweden. Comparisons are made with the Nordic countries Finland, Norway and Denmark. Methods Official statistics on induced abortion and numbers of prescribed and dispensed hormonal contraceptives presented as “Defined Daily Dose/thousand women” (DDD/T) aged 15-19 years were compiled and related to levels of reimbursement in all Swedish counties by using public official data. The Swedish numbers of induced abortion were compared to those of Finland, Norway and Denmark. The main outcome measure was rates of induced abortion and DDD/T. Results No correlation was observed between rates of abortion and reimbursement among Swedish counties. Nor was any correlation found between sales of hormonal contraceptives and the rates of abortion. In a Nordic perspective, Finland and Denmark, which have no reimbursement at all, and Norway all have lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden. Conclusions Reimbursement does not seem to be enough in order to reduce rates of induced abortion. Evidently, other factors such as attitudes, education, religion, tradition or cultural differences in each of Swedish counties as well as in the Nordic countries may be of importance. A more innovative approach is needed in order to facilitate safe sex and to protect young women from unwanted pregnancies. PMID:24884539

  9. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Kristian; Wahlström, Helene; Ivarsson, Sofie; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae), for differences in the control programmes and for changes in cattle morbidity. The net effects (benefits minus costs) were negative in all scenarios (€ -5 to -105 million), implying that it would not be cost-effective to introduce alternative control strategies in Sweden. This result was mainly due to an expected increase in the incidence of Salmonella in humans (6035-57108 reported and unreported new cases/year), with expected additional costs of € 5-55 million. Other increased costs were due to expected higher incidences of sequelae (€ 3-49 million) and a higher cattle morbidity (€ 4-8 million). Benefits in terms of lower control costs amounted to € 4-7 million.

  10. Economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Sundström

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae, for differences in the control programmes and for changes in cattle morbidity. The net effects (benefits minus costs were negative in all scenarios (€ -5 to -105 million, implying that it would not be cost-effective to introduce alternative control strategies in Sweden. This result was mainly due to an expected increase in the incidence of Salmonella in humans (6035-57108 reported and unreported new cases/year, with expected additional costs of € 5-55 million. Other increased costs were due to expected higher incidences of sequelae (€ 3-49 million and a higher cattle morbidity (€ 4-8 million. Benefits in terms of lower control costs amounted to € 4-7 million.

  11. Incidence of sialolithiasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine Attrup; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    of sialolithiasis and the IR variation according to age, gender and geography in Denmark. We included data from hospitals as well as from private ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinics. The study was based on registry data on all sialolithiasis cases in Denmark between 2003 and 2009 extracted from the Danish National...... Patient Registry (hospital cohort) and the Danish Regions Centre for Healthcare Statistics (private ENT clinic cohort). To validate the diagnosis, the proportion of visually confirmed cases was estimated based on patient records from subsamples of the two cohorts. The IR was 7.27 and 14.10 per 100......,000 person-years based on visually confirmed cases only and on all cases, respectively. The highest IR was observed among 60- to 70-year-olds, in the North Denmark region and among females. In the validation subsamples, 35% of assumed sialoliths were visually confirmed in the private ENT clinic cohort and 59...

  12. Epidemiology of organising pneumonia in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, G; Sveinsson, O; Isaksson, H J; Jonsson, S; Frodadottir, H; Aspelund, T

    2006-09-01

    Cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP) has also been called idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia. In secondary organising pneumonia (SOP) the causes can be identified or it occurs in a characteristic clinical context. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and epidemiological features of COP and SOP nationwide in Iceland over an extended period. A retrospective study of organising pneumonia (OP) in Iceland over 20 years was conducted and the epidemiology and survival were studied. All pathological reports of patients diagnosed with or suspected of having COP or SOP in the period 1984-2003 were identified and the pathology samples were re-evaluated using strict diagnostic criteria. After re-evaluation, 104 patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for OP (58 COP and 46 SOP). The mean annual incidence of OP was 1.97/100 000 population (1.10/100 000 for COP and 0.87/100 000 for SOP). The mean age at diagnosis was 67 years with a wide age range. The most common causes of death were lung diseases other than OP, and only one patient died from OP. Patients with OP had a lower rate of survival than the general population, but there was no statistical difference between COP and SOP. The incidence of OP is higher than previously reported, suggesting that OP needs to be considered as a diagnosis more often than has been done in the past.

  13. Extreme winds in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-02-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites are, from west, Skjern (15 years), Kegnaes (7 years), Sprogoe (20 years), and Tystofte (15 years). The data are ten minute averages of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The last two quantities are used to determine the air density {rho}. The data are cleaned for terrain effects by means of a slightly modified WASP technique where the sector speed-up factors and roughness lengths are linearly smoothed with a direction resolution of one degree. Assuming geotropic balance, all the wind-velocity data are transformed to friction velocity u{sub *} and direction at standard conditions by means of the geotropic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30 deg. sectors are obtained through ranking of the largest values of the friction velocity pressure 1/2{rho}u{sub *}{sup 2} taken both one every two months and once every year. The main conclusion is that the basic wind velocity is significantly larger at Skjern, close to the west coast of Jutland, than at any of the other sites. Irrespective of direction, the present standard estimates of 50-year wind are 25 {+-} 1 m/s at Skern and 22 {+-} 1 m/s at the other three sites. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Jensen and Franck (1970) and Abild (1994) and supports the conclusion that the wind climate at the west coast of Jutland is more extreme than in any other part of the country. Simple procedures to translate in a particular direction sector the standard basic wind velocity to conditions with a different roughness length and height are presented. It is shown that a simple scheme makes it possible to calculate the total 50-year extreme load on a general structure without

  14. Enamel erosion and mechanical tooth wear in medieval Icelanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Svend; Eliasson, Sigfus Thor

    2016-01-01

    The Icelandic Sagas are an important source of information on the way of life and diet habits in Iceland and possibly other Nordic countries 1000 years ago. Archaeological human skull material worldwide has revealed extensive tooth wear, with the main cause believed to be coarse diet. From a graveyard near volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in Icelanders 1000 years ago. Forty-nine skulls were available for research. Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation. An attempt was made to determine the main causes of tooth wear in the light of likely diet and beverage consumption according to a computer search on food and drink customs described in the Icelandic Sagas. Tooth wear was extensive in all groups, increasing with age. The highest score was on first molars, with no difference between sexes. It had all the similarities seen in wear from coarse diet. In some instances it had similar characteristics to those seen in erosion in modern Icelanders consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and used for preservation of food in Iceland until recently. Since acidic whey has considerably high dental erosive potential, it is postulated that consumption of acidic drinks and food, in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental wear of ancient Icelanders.

  15. Etnic Diversity in the Globalised Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Popova, Dr. Margarita

    This paper deals with ethnic minorities in Denmark and covers some psychosocial aspects including bilingualism.......This paper deals with ethnic minorities in Denmark and covers some psychosocial aspects including bilingualism....

  16. Zone Denmark - gasell Taanist / Reet Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Reet, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Taanis Viborgis asuva firma Zone Company Denmark, kaubamärgi Zone Denmark ja firma disainerite tutvustus. Ettevõte valmistab disainitooteid roostevabast terasest, klaasist, puidust, kummist jm. Disainer Naja Utzon Popov endast, oma loomingust

  17. Stepfamilies in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toulemon, Laurent; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2006-01-01

    In both Denmark and France, the past decades have shown profound changes in the patterns of fertility as well as in family formation and family dissolution, with no related decline in overall fertility. Using very large data sets (380,000 respondents in the French survey, 1.3 million women...... in Danish Register data), we built synthetic indexes to show the frequency of stepfamilies in both countries. It is more frequent in Denmark than in France. We then analyse fertility of stepfamilies, compared to couples without any child born before the union, with controlling for age, duration of union...

  18. Building Local Governance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    Local partnerships have become an important strategic element in active social policy in Denmark. In order to progress towards the parallel objectives of increasing employment rates and creating a more open and inclusive labour market, improving local collaboration is considered paramount....... Accordingly, the municipalities (which in Denmark are in charge of implementing most social policies and carry a large share of the financial burdens) have since 1999 been obliged to have a local coordination committee. Law determines the composition, the competences, and the main tasks of these committees...

  19. Morphine: oxycodone interventions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Mikkelsen, Camilla; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    2012-01-01

    In the years of the late 2000s, the use of oxycodone in both primary care and hospital care increased significantly in Denmark while the use of morphine decreased. Although oxycodone and morphine are considered equally effective and safe, oxycodone is much more expensive than morphine. Therefore......, morphine is more cost effective than oxycodone. In primary care, in particular, the price of oxycodone is about 2–3 times higher than that of morphine. Public health insurance in Denmark pays up to 80% of the medication costs for patients in primary care and the regions pays all costs for patients...

  20. Housing and energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Grupe Larsen, Vibeke; Kragh, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

      This paper examines the historical background, current context and future challenges for housing energy consumption in Denmark. There has been a radical transformation in housing energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth...... framework is proposed for defining low-energy paradigms, based on which components of energy consumption are regulated. It is shown that there has been a historical movement from older, narrow paradigms to newer, broader paradigms in Denmark, best exemplified by the movement towards zero-energy housing.  ...

  1. Is Denmark still a fairytale country?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirsøe, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, you earn much more as a salesperson if you are named Kasper or Katrine than Amir or Fatima. Why? Because in Denmark, people favour the majority culture over the minority culture, a new Danish study concludes.......In Denmark, you earn much more as a salesperson if you are named Kasper or Katrine than Amir or Fatima. Why? Because in Denmark, people favour the majority culture over the minority culture, a new Danish study concludes....

  2. Isotope heterogeneity of Pre-Holocene groundwater in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E.; Arnorsson, S.; Heinemeier, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that groundwater with a Pre-Holocene component is more common in the Icelandic bedrock than previously thought. Some of the Pre-Holocene water samples are more depleted in delta H-2 and delta O-18 than any mean annual precipitation in Iceland today due to the cold......-Holocene component in the groundwater. The deuterium excess value may also help to identify water from a different climate regime, if no oxygen shift has occurred. The relative abundance of a Pre-Holocene water component of the Icelandic groundwater has led to the understanding that combined interpretation of water...

  3. Too Few Indians and Too Many Chiefs. Is This One Reason for Declining Trade Union Membership in Denmark?

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Voxted; Jens Lind

    2012-01-01

    The decline in trade union membership in many countries since the 1970s and the consequent weakening of the trade unions is due to a number of reasons, including occupational changes, welfare state and social regulation, liberalism and individualization, and in Denmark (and Sweden and Finland) changes in unemployment insurance legislation and the institutional settings of the unemployment insurance system. All these factors are well known and have been analyzed in the literature. This article...

  4. Dinosaur tracks in Lower Jurassic coastal plain sediments (Sose Bugt Member, Rønne Formation) on Bornholm, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Milàn, Jesper; Pedersen, Gunver K

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial palaeochannels of coastal plain sediments of the Lower Jurassic Sose Bugt Member of the Rønne Formation exposed in the coastal cliffs at Sose Bugt, Bornholm, contain abundant dinosaur or other large vertebrate tracks in the form of deformation structures exposed in vertical section...... track. Contemporary Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic strata from southern Sweden and Poland contain a diverse track fauna, supporting our interpretation. This is the earliest evidence of dinosaur activity in Denmark....

  5. Home birth constructed as a safe choice in Iceland: A content analysis on Icelandic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredsdottir, Helga; Magnúsdóttir, Herdís; Hálfdánsdóttir, Berglind

    2015-10-01

    The rate of home birth in Iceland increased from 0.1% in the 90's, to 2.2% in 2012. As the media contributes to the development and public perceptions, engagement and use of health care, it is of interest to explore the media representation of planned home birth in Iceland. The aim of this study was to explore the way in which the constructions of planned home birth are represented in the Icelandic media; the frequency with which planned home birth was discussed and by whom it was discussed; whether the discourse was congruent with practice development in the country; and if so, how such congruency was effected. Data from the main newspapers in Iceland published from the beginning of 1990 until the end of 2011 were explored using content analysis. In total, 127 items were summarized and we identified five themes: approach to safety, having a choice, the medicalization of childbirth, the relationship between women and midwives, and the reaction of the pregnant woman's local community. Central in the analysis were the importance of being able to choose a safe place of birth and the need for woman-centred care. Overall planned home birth was not discussed with much intensity or frequency, but in general the discussion was shaped by a positive attitude. There was a distinction in the public media discourse among midwives and physicians or obstetricians who do not argue against planned home birth but who nevertheless speak with caution. The pregnant women who chose home birth found their own home to be safe and similar views were identified among women and midwives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. RIO Country Report Denmark 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    The report offers an analysis of the R&I system in Denmark for 2014, including relevant policies and funding, with particular focus on topics critical for two EU policies: the European Research Area and the Innovation Union. The report was prepared according to a set of guidelines for collecting...

  7. Denmark in the Bologna Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area foreseen in the Bologna Declaration (1999) will facilitate inter-university co-operation by promoting the mobility and employability of European citizens. The article outlines the current development in Denmark, especially as regards the training...

  8. eHealth in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Denmark is widely regarded as a leading country in terms of eHealth integration and healthcare delivery services. The push for eHealth adoption over that past 20 years in the Danish health sector has led to the deployment of multiple eHealth technologies. However, in reality the Danish healthcare...

  9. Open Educational Resources in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlung, Asger

    2010-01-01

    The report presents an overview of accessibility, content types,and educational levels of open Educational Resources for public school, high shcool, higher education, and citizen empowerment and enlightenment offered from educational institutions or via other internet sources in Denmark in late...

  10. Green tax reform in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1994-01-01

    Energy, transport and fuel taxes in Denmark have, since the late 1970s, been among the highest in the OECD, and raise already more than 30 billion DKK annually to cover 10-12 per cent of the state household: a share that will be increased over the next five years with new green taxes. Furthermore...

  11. Law and Protestantism in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamm, Ditlev

    2016-01-01

    This contribution deals with the influence of the Reformation on the law in Denmark. The Reformation was basically a reform of the church, but it also affected the concept of law and state in general. In 1536, King Christian III dismissed the catholic bishops and withheld the property of the chur...

  12. Denmark: consensus seeking and decentralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Winter, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Governance and Environment in Western Europe: Politics, Policy and Administration, provides an up-to-date overview of developments in this area focusing on a selection of ten countries in Western Europe and the European Union. The countries examined are: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy...

  13. Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas Regional Climatology (NODC Accession 0112824)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas (GINS), NODC developed a new set...

  14. Magma chamber processes in central volcanic systems of Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Tegner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New field work and petrological investigations of the largest gabbro outcrop in Iceland, the Hvalnesfjall gabbro of the 6-7 Ma Austurhorn intrusive complex, have established a stratigraphic sequence exceeding 800 m composed of at least 8 macrorhythmic units. The bases of the macrorhythmic units...... olivine basalts from Iceland that had undergone about 20% crystallisation of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene and that the macrorhythmic units formed from thin magma layers not exceeding 200-300 m. Such a "mushy" magma chamber is akin to volcanic plumbing systems in settings of high magma supply...... rate including the mid-ocean ridges and present-day magma chambers over the Iceland mantle plume. The Austurhorn central volcano likely formed in an off-rift flank zone proximal to the Iceland mantle plume during a major rift relocation....

  15. Multigenerational information: the example of the Icelandic Genealogy Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulinius, Hrafn

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the chapter describes the Icelandic Genealogical Database, how it was created, what it contains, and how it operates. In the second part, an overview of research accomplished with material from the database is given.

  16. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Sweden 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Oil and natural gas represented respectively 27% and 3% of Sweden’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2010. With coal representing 5% of TPES, Sweden has the lowest share of fossil fuels in the energy supply mix among IEA member countries. This is a significant difference from the mid-1970s, when fossil fuels made up three-quarters of Sweden’s energy supply, and is the result of a concerted effort to move away from the use of oil through the development of nuclear and renewable energy sources. Sweden’s energy policy seeks to further increase the share of renewable energy sources, including having them provide half of all energy, and 10% of all transport needs, by 2020. The share of fossil fuel is also to be further reduced, through plans to fully eliminate their use for heating purposes by 2020 and having a vehicle stock in Sweden that is ''independent'' of fossil fuels by 2030. Under this policy, demand for both oil and natural gas is anticipated to decline from current levels. Oil demand in Sweden was nearly 330 thousand barrels per day (kb/d) in 2011. While fully dependent on imports to meet domestic oil demand, Sweden is a net exporter of refined oil products. Overall oil demand will likely decline in the coming decade, however demand for oil in the transport sector is expected to grow. At the same time, oil demand will be ever more concentrated on transport diesel, with demand for the fuel reaching over 110 kb/d by 2020 compared to just under 80 kb/d in 2011. Concerning natural gas, consumption in Sweden totalled 1.3 billion cubic metres (bcm) in 2011, all of which was supplied via a single interconnector with Denmark. While natural gas plays only a minor role in Sweden’s TPES, its role in the energy supply of southern and western Sweden is much more substantial, accounting for around 20% of the area’s total energy use. Around 30 large consumers, including CHP plants, account for roughly 80% of total gas demand in the country

  17. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different

  18. Historical and social context for birth planning in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J M

    1988-01-01

    Iceland is a rugged subarctic island 600 miles from Norway and 500 miles from Scotland. From the mid-14th to the end of the 18th century the island was virtually isolated. Isolation and sociocultural factors interacted to delay the fertility transition in Iceland until late in the 20th century. In 1983 Iceland had the highest crude birth rate of any developed country -- 18.4/1000. Between 1890-1982, the population almost tripled, to 235,501 inhabitants. The total fertility rate is 2.2, down from 4.17 in 1960. Combined with a high birth rate was a low mortality rate of 7.0/1000 of the population and a life expectancy of 79.5 years for women and 73.9 years for men -- the highest in the world. Infant mortality is only 6.2/1000 live births. This combination of high fertility, low mortality, and low emigration caused the high population growth. By the end of the 18th century, Iceland had achieved near universal literacy, and education through university is free, but not until 1960 did a woman receive a doctorate from the University of Iceland. By 198, 2/3 of women in Iceland participated in the labor force, but their earnings were only 2/3 those of men. In 1983 a Women's Party was formed, and women now hold 15% of the seats in the Althing (Parliament). Marriage rates have declined to 5.22/1000 of the population. The unique marital pattern of Iceland contributes to the high (41%) illegitimacy rate. Icelandic couples cohabit and have a child or 2 before they marry. They therefore tend to marry late (25.5 for men, 23.3 for women). Health care, including family planning services, is free in Iceland; and there is a medical school, a school of pharmacy, and 2 nursing schools. 35% of Icelandic women 20-40 years of age use either the pill or the IUD. Over-the-counter contraceptives are also available, and an average of 358 women are sterilized each year. The abortion rate is only 10.6/1000 females 15-49 years of age. The Birth Control Act of 1975 calls for the provision of sex

  19. Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Westermann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries...... in combination with 14 t-RFLP profiles revealed a high abundance of clones clustering together with sequences from the nonthermophilic I.1b group of Crenarchaeota. The archaeal diversity in one solfatara was high; 26 different RFLP patterns were found using double digestion of the PCR products with restriction......Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation...

  20. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine.......The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  1. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Larsen, Guðrun

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson, ggudmund@landspitali.is.

  2. Wild Collection and Cultivation of Native Species in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney, Cory; Gebauer, Jens; Anderson, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Based on an MSc thesis submitted to the joint Master program between University of Kassel and University of Goettingen and later published: WHITNEY C.W., GEBAUER J. & ANDERSON M. 2012. A Survey of Wild Collection and Cultivation of Indigenous Species in Iceland. Human Ecology. This paper outlines a survey of Icelanders who use local plants. Some of the species (e.g. Angelica spp. and Betula spp.) were very important. However, great potential exists for a more diverse harvest and for sust...

  3. Rural tourism retail : Tourism retail in the rural Westfjords (Iceland)

    OpenAIRE

    Olafsdottir, Viktoria Ran

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Rural tourism and service quality of Icelandic retailers is of focal attention in this research. The catapulting rise of the Icelandic tourism industry, is forcing rural retailers to rapidly adapt new managerial strategies. A better understanding of perceived service quality is required, and especially the differences of the two target markets, local and tourist customer. Plus, whether there is a relationship between perceived s...

  4. Macroeconomic conditions and population health in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristín Helga Birgisdóttir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Results from recent research on the impact of economic cycles and population health have been mixed, with results appearing to be context-sensitive. Objective: We examine the long-term relationship between economic conditions and population health in Iceland, which has experienced some economically turbulent times in the last years and decades. Methods: We use aggregate annual data for 1981‒2014. We use three aggregate indicators of economic activity to proxy the economic cycle: unemployment rate, real GDP per capita, and real GDP. Life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, and total mortality as well as four cause-specific mortality rates were used as outcome measures. Results: Our results do not suggest a statistically significant relationship between economic conditions and total mortality, infant mortality, or life expectancy. Different responses between causes of death are found, and in some instances between genders, although statistical significance is low. We do, however, find a consistent and statistically significant relationship for females aged 45‒64, where economic downturns are associated with lower all-cause mortality. Conclusions: For the time period studied we do not find a significant relationship between economic cycles and population health, where health is proxied by mortality rates, life expectancy at birth, and infant mortality. Further studies using less extreme health outcomes, such as morbidity rates, are warranted. Contribution: This type of study has not been performed using Icelandic data before and provides a comparison to research from other countries where the relationship has been explored more. Additionally, one of the contributions of this paper is to use a variety of economic indicators as proxies for economic cycles in a study examining their relationship with population health.

  5. Icelandic experience with water safety plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, M J; Gardarsson, S M; Bartram, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate accumulated experience with water safety plans in one of the first countries to adopt systematic preventive management for drinking-water safety. Water utilities in Iceland have had a legal obligation since 1995 to implement a systematic preventive approach to secure safety of drinking water and protect public health. The water utilities responded by implementing either an adapted HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) model for larger water utilities or a simpler five step model for smaller water utilities. The research was carried out at 16 water utilities that serve about two-thirds of the population of Iceland. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used with the aim of analysing if and what benefits water safety plans bring for water utilities and what is needed for successful implementation and operation of such systems. The results of the study show that numerous benefits and even the process of going through the implementing process were considered to be of advantage and change the attitude of the staff and the utility culture. Some obstacles and shortcomings came to light, such as lack of documentation and lack of regular internal and external audit. There was little communication with the public, although some mentioned that good public relations are important to succeed with water safety plans. Many important elements of success were revealed of which intensive training of staff and participation of staff in the whole process are deemed the most important. It is also important to have simple and well-structured guidelines, and good cooperation with the health authorities.

  6. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  7. Influenza A virus H10N7 detected in dead harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) at several locations in Denmark 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Krog, Jesper Schak; Hansen, Mette Sif

    as many waterfowl species and are therefore potentially exposed to AIV. Outbreaks of AI in seals have been described in North America and Asia but prior to 2014 never in Europe. In 2014 massive deaths of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) were reported in Northern Europe. In Denmark, harbor seals were...... initially found dead on the Danish island Anholt in Kattegat, which is the sea surrounded by Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Between June and August, 152 harbor seals were found dead. Four seals were submitted to the National Veterinary Institute in Dennmark and diagnosed with severe pneumonia. Influenza...... A virus of the subtype H10N7 was detected in two out of four seals. Subsequently IAV was detected in dead harbor seals at several locations in Denmark. The IAV outbreak appeared to move with time to the west through the Limfjord to the North Sea and further down south along the west coast of Jutland...

  8. [Infection risks associated with importation of fresh food in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Karl G; Georgsson, Franklín

    2015-06-01

    Access to safe food is a privilege for people living in Iceland. Rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance, related to factory farming and antimicrobial use in agriculture, is a major threat to public health. Increasing food trade between countries and continents facilitates global spread of pathogens and resistance. Icelandic agriculture has benefitted from its isolation and small size. After interventions to reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella at poultry farms, the incidence of human campylobacteriolsis is 17-43/100.000, of which about half is domestically acquired and Salmonella infections 10-15/100.000 mainly acquired abroad. Since Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) has not been detected in domestic cattle, the low incidence of infections is not surprising (0-0.6/100.000/year). A recent outbreak due to a multiresistant EHEC strain was traced to imported lettuce. Antimicrobial use in Icelandic agriculture is among the lowest in Europe and domestic infections caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter are rarely caused by resistant strains. Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae have not been found in Iceland. Low use of antimicrobials in Icelandic agriculture and actions to limit the spread of Campylobacter and Salmonella have been successful. The public should be informed of the importance of the origin of food and that Icelandic food products are among the safest.

  9. WorldFengur - the studbook of origin for the Icelandic horse

    OpenAIRE

    Lorange, J?n Baldur

    2011-01-01

    WorldFengur is the database that contains and functions as the studbook of origin of the Icelandic horse. Only pure-bred Icelandic horses, whose ancestry can be traced back to Iceland entirely, may be registered into WorldFengur. The WorldFengur project is a joint effort by the FAIC (Farmers Association of Iceland) and FEIF (International Federation of Icelandic Horse Associations) to construct an official and central database on horses of Icelandic origin located all over the world. It is us...

  10. The History of Tuberculosis Management in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Wallstedt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB.

  11. The history of tuberculosis management in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstedt, Helen; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Introgression of mountain hare (Lepus timidus mitochondrial DNA into wild brown hares (Lepus europaeus in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villesen Palle

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe the mountain hare (Lepus timidus exists in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, Finland, parts of the Alps and in Eastern Europe, but not in Denmark. Interspecific hybridization has been demonstrated between native Swedish mountain hares and introduced brown hares (Lepus europaeus. During the data collection in a study concerning Danish brown hares we identified 16 hares with a single very divergent haplotype. Results Phylogenetic analysis shows that the divergent Danish haplotype is most closely related to the Swedish mountain hare. The frequency of Lepus timidus mtDNA haplotype in the Eastern Danish hare populations is estimated to 6%. Conclusion In contrast to what is known, the Danish hare populations are not pure L. europaeus populations but include introgressed brown hares with Swedish L. timidus mtDNA. The most probable explanation of this is natural migration or translocation of introgressed brown hares from Sweden. The impurity of hare populations has implications for conservation and population genetics.

  13. Work family-life balance and social investment strategies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses and discusses the options and possibilities of combining work and family life in a universal welfare state, e. g. Denmark. Related to the ability to combine work and family life is the welfare states investment in affordable and high quality day care and a perspective...... on caring for elderly citizens. The theoretical underpinnings of universal welfare states is given and also the reason why it has been important to ensure and be able to combine work and family life. The article shows how Denmark, Sweden and Finland compare with countries from other and different types...... of welfare states in Europe with regard to the caring for children, female participation rates and support to the elderly. Support to families in cash is also discussed including the size of the state budget to family policy. Besides presenting central quantitative indicators the article also gives a short...

  14. Child Health Systems in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Björn; Blennow, Margareta; Hjern, Anders; Söder, Olle; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2016-10-01

    On a national level, several factors are responsible for Sweden's leading position in achieving the excellent health of children because Sweden has experienced a long history of peace and success in establishing a parliamentary democracy throughout the 20th century. Among the different sectors of society, Sweden has been able to focus on prevention and health promotion. The Swedish health care system is publicly financed based on local taxation. Pediatricians working in secondary and tertiary care are employed by the public sector, whereas family physicians are employed by both the private and public sectors. The pediatric departments at county and university levels provide a high quality of inpatient care for neonates and children. The county hospital pediatric departments typically include one neonatal ward and one ward for older children. Subspecialization exists even at the county level, and there is close cooperation between the county level and subspecialist units at the university level. Within the primary care sector, most children receive care from family physicians. The majority of family physicians have completed 3 months of pediatrics in their basic training program. In the more densely populated areas there are also pediatric ambulatory care centers working mostly with referrals from the family physicians. Preventive care is carried out at midwife-led maternity health centers, nurse-led Child Health Centers, and nurse-led school health care settings and reach almost everyone (99%). All health care for children and adolescents is free of charge up to 18 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  16. Co-payments for general practitioners in Denmark: an analysis using two policy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Camilla; Andrioti, Despena

    2017-01-05

    The increasing health expenditure for general practitioners (GPs) in Denmark requires that other ways of financing the health system are investigated. This study aims to analyse possibilities for implementing out-of-pocket payments to GPs in Denmark. The study was conducted as a literature review with 11 articles included. The Health Policy Triangle and the Kingdon Model were used in analysing and discussing the implementation of a cost-sharing policy with an emphasis on the out-of-pocket payments method. The Danish Parliament has expressed mixed opinions about out-of-pocket payments, whereas the Danish population, the GPs and the media are against introducing payments. The public debate and the fact that Danes are used to healthcare being free of charge both work against introducing co-payments. However, experiences from Sweden, Norway and OECD countries serve to promote implementation, but at the expense of decreased accessibility for the most vulnerable population groups. Introducing out-of-pocket payments in Denmark may lead to decreased health expenditure, but also increased inequalities. Due to a lack of support from the relevant policy actors in the country, in addition to a lack of a policy window, it may not be possible to introduce out-of-pocket payments for GPs in Denmark in the short term.

  17. Rethinking Project Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    2012-01-01

    Projects are everywhere across different sectors, industries and countries. Project management is no longer a sub-discipline of engineering and other rather technical disciplines but is also used for many other purposes. Even though practice has changed dramatically over the years, the models...... and methodologies for project management has been fairly static and has therefore received substantial criticism for a lack of relevance to practice. Several scholars have therefore started to think more widely about projects and project management conceptualized as rethinking project management. However this theme...... has lived a somewhat quiet life in Denmark, which leads to the purpose of this chapter, which is to set the stage for rethinking project management in Denmark. The chapter is based on an empirical study within the Danish project management community and beyond where we discuss this rethinking process...

  18. Rescaling Welfare Policies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad Thorgaard, Camilla; Vinter, Henrik

    The report is a contribution to the research project ”Rescaling of Social Welfare Policies: a comparative study on the path towards multilevel governance in Europe”, which is coordinated by the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research. The report is a background paper for the project....... It provides background information for understanding the rescaling process in Denmark. The report has a three-fold purpose. First, it describes the contextual conditions within which the rescaling process occurs. Second, it describes the institutional settings in terms of territorial responsibilities...... and competences, identifying the relevant actors involved in policy design, management and delivery. Third, it describes the rescaling process that has occurred in Denmark since the 1980s; it focuses on four policy areas: social assistance and local politics against poverty, employment policy, elder care...

  19. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  20. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  1. Experiences with biomass in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Bolwig, Simon; Solér, Ola

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...... with biomass use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement....

  2. Denmark: consensus seeking and decentralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Winter, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Governance and Environment in Western Europe: Politics, Policy and Administration, provides an up-to-date overview of developments in this area focusing on a selection of ten countries in Western Europe and the European Union. The countries examined are: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, T...... similar problems of environmental management have responded politically and (re)organised their administrative systems for implementing these policies....

  3. Oncoplastic breast surgery in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Anders; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Siersen, Hans Erik

    2014-01-01

    With improved survival rates after breast cancer treatment, more attention is drawn to improve the cosmetic outcome after surgical treatment of breast cancer. In this process the oncoplastic breast surgery was conceived. It supplements the traditional surgical treatments (mastectomy and breast...... conserving surgery) with increased focus on individualized therapy. The ambition is to obtain the best possible cosmetic outcome without compromising recurrence rates and survival. This article provides an overview of the current oncoplastic breast surgery treatment offered in Denmark....

  4. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States... on carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden. SUMMARY: The Commission... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  5. The impact of volcanic tephra on weathering and soil development of Icelandic Histosols, SE Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatotzky, Theresa; Ottner, Franz; Gísladóttir, Guðrún

    2017-04-01

    A mixture of poorly decomposed plant remains, crystalline volcanic material and intense aeolian deposition sets Icelandic Histosols apart from other Histosols in the northern hemisphere. They exhibit a unique combination of histic (organic) and andic soil characteristics. Allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite are common minerals in Icelandic soils while layer silicates are rare. The volcanically active area south of Vatnajökull has received numerous tephra deposits of varying thickness during Holocene. Two distinct tephra layers, the light coloured rhyolitic tephra from the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362 and a black basaltic tephra from a Veiðivötn fissure eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system in AD 1477, are well preserved in the soils. This provides a unique opportunity to study weathering behaviour of tephra deposits of different composition and to examine their contrasting mineralogy and impact on soils south of Vatnajökull glacier. The investigated soils can be classified as Histosols with plant residues as parent material and influenced by volcanic ejecta (tephra) and aeolian material. Low pH (H2O) and high organic matter (OM) content are the two dominating factors influencing their weathering behaviour. The soil organic carbon (SOC) content was found to between 16 - 31%. As OM inhibits the formation of amorphous secondary minerals, the clay content in Icelandic soils is generally low while Al-humus complexes are predominant. The soil horizons developed from rhyolitic and basaltic tephra both show differences. Investigations of the mineralogy show small evidence of weathering in the basaltic V1477 tephra, whereas the rhyolitic volcanic ejecta has hardly altered since its formation.

  6. [Malaria in Iceland, a rare but looming threat for travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognvaldsson, Kristjan Godsk; Gudmundsson, Sigurdur; Gottfredsson, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is one of the most common causes of preventable deaths in the developing countries, especially among children. A previous study of imported malaria in Iceland during 1980-1997 identified 15 confirmed cases. The objective of this retrospective study was to update epidemiological data on malaria in Iceland, 1998-2014. The inclusion criteria were a positive thick or thin blood smear for malaria parasites at the Dept. of Microbiology at Landspitali University Hospital, which serves as a referral laboratory for malaria diagnosis in the country. Medical records of confirmed cases, nationwide sales data for antimalarial agents and international travel of Icelanders were reviewed. Thirty-one cases of malaria were confirmed in Iceland during 1998-2014, 1.8 cases/year on average, a rate of 0.6 cases/100.000 inhabitants/year. The rate was 0.3/100.000 inhabitants/year in the previous study 1980-1997 (p=0.056). Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 71% of cases, P. vivax in 16%, P. ovale and P. malariae in 7% each. Only 2 patients (7%) had used chemoprophylaxis prior to diagnosis. Two patients needed intensive care, but no fatalities were documented. One patient had a relapse. The most common agent used for treatment was atovaquone with proguanil, however annual sales figures plateaued during 2010-2014 despite a significant increase in foreign travel by Icelanders during the same period. The detection rate for malaria in Iceland showed a tendency for increase between study periods while a slight decrease was noted in the neighbouring countries at the same time. The importance of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and other preventive measures among Icelandic travellers to endemic areas needs to be emphasized. malaria, epidemiology, complications, treatment, travelers' health. Correspondence: Magnús Gottfredsson, magnusgo@landspitali.is.

  7. Isotope systematics of Icelandic thermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Hilton, David R.; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árný E.; Torssander, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan; Barnes, Jaime D.; Ono, Shuhei; Halldórsson, Sæmundur Ari; Fiebig, Jens; Arnórsson, Stefán

    2017-05-01

    Thermal fluids in Iceland range in temperature from 440 °C and are dominated by water (> 97 mol%) with a chloride concentration from 20,000 ppm. The isotope systematics of the fluids reveal many important features of the source(s) and transport properties of volatiles at this divergent plate boundary. Studies spanning over four decades have revealed a large range of values for δD (- 131 to + 3.3‰), tritium (- 0.4 to + 13.8 TU), δ18O (- 20.8 to + 2.3‰), 3He/4He (3.1 to 30.4 RA), δ11B (- 6.7 to + 25.0‰), δ13C∑ CO2 (- 27.4 to + 4.6‰), 14C∑ CO2 (+ 0.6 to + 118 pMC), δ13CCH4 (- 52.3 to - 17.8‰), δ15N (- 10.5 to + 3.0‰), δ34S∑ S- II (- 10.9 to + 3.4‰), δ34SSO4 (- 2.0 to + 21.2‰) and δ37Cl (- 1.0 to + 2.1‰) in both liquid and vapor phases. Based on this isotopic dataset, the thermal waters originate from meteoric inputs and/or seawater. For other volatiles, degassing of mantle-derived melts contributes to He, CO2 and possibly also to Cl in the fluids. Water-basalt interaction also contributes to CO2 and is the major source of H2S, SO4, Cl and B in the fluids. Redox reactions additionally influence the composition of the fluids, for example, oxidation of H2S to SO4 and reduction of CO2 to CH4. Air-water interaction mainly controls N2, Ar and Ne concentrations. The large range of many non-reactive volatile isotope ratios, such as δ37Cl and 3He/4He, indicate heterogeneity of the mantle and mantle-derived melts beneath Iceland. In contrast, the large range of many reactive isotopes, such as δ13C∑ CO2 and δ34S∑ S- II, are heavily affected by processes occurring within the geothermal systems, including fluid-rock interaction, depressurization boiling, and isotopic fractionation between secondary minerals and the aqueous and vapor species. Variations due to these geothermal processes may exceed differences observed among various crust and mantle sources, highlighting the importance and effects of chemical reactions on the isotope

  8. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-15

    Barsebaeck 1 was closed on 30 November 1999. Barsebaeck's output of approximately 4 TWh per year will primarily be replaced by imports from coal-fired plants in Denmark and Germany. During the year, the closure of Swedish fossil-fired condensing power stations continued. With that, over 3,000 MW of peak-load power has been shut down during recent years. Consequently, situations entailing shortages of power can arise. On the deregulated electricity market, it is only the system operators that have a satisfactory overview of the overall electricity balance. The Swedish Power Association has thus lobbied the government as regards the need to elucidate Svenska Kraftnaet's responsibility. In a governmental decision from December, Svenska Kraftnaet was given the task of, among other things, monitoring the available capacity during peak loads and developing market instruments that can contribute to safeguarding the availability of power during peak loads. Svenska Kraftnaet has acquired gas turbines with a combined output power of 400 MW from Vattenfall. In order to cover the remaining requirement for rapid disruption reserves, Svenska Kraftnaet also has agreements with several power producers regarding a further 800 MW of gas turbine capacity. One further possibility lies in agreements with industry regarding the disconnection of consumption during times of peak loading. On 1 January 2000, the nuclear power tax was increased by SEK 0.005 per kWh to SEK 0.027 per kWh. This means that the nuclear power companies pay approximately SEK 1,800 MSEK per year in fiscal taxation on their nuclear power generation. The tax on electrical energy, paid by the consumer, was raised by SEK 0.011 to SEK 0.162 per kWh. The tax on diesel fuel was increased at the same time by SEK 0.25 per litre. In addition, a special network fee of SEK 0.002 per kWh came into existence in order to finance small-scale electricity generation, following removal of the obligation-to-receive system

  9. INOPS Survey data report for Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Severin, Majbritt Christine

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Sweden. The statistics rely on data collected in the period from May 2015 to June 2015 through an online survey...... send to managers in all 290 municipalities in Sweden....

  10. MNCs in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Marginson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    country’s institutions to suit the MNC’s needs (country-of-origin effect). This question is discussed by Steen E. Navrbjerg from FAOS and Paul Marginson from Warwick in the article MNCs in Denmark and the UK - accommodating to or transforming national industrial relations? The article is based on a survey...... of 301 MNCs in the UK and 110 MNC’s in Denmark. In the article home owned MNCs is compared with overseas MNCs in Denmark and the UK respectively; furthermore, MNCs in a liberal market economy (UK) is compared with MNCs in a coordinated market economy (Denmark). The analysis shows that the MNCs in Denmark...... much more often recognize unions than is the case with MNCs in the UK. This indicates that strong relations between the social partners and a strong institutionalised IR-system in Denmark are defining the relations between employer and employee, and are also inhibiting the MNCs opportunities...

  11. Energy use in Sweden: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Johnson, F.; Howarth, R.; Price, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Andersson, B.; Andersson, B.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Handelshoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-01

    This report analyzes the evolution of energy use in Sweden since the early 1970s. The purpose of the study, which is sponsored by NUTEK, Department of Energy Efficiency, the Swedish Agency for Technical and Industrial Development, is to shed light on the future path of energy use in Sweden by quantifying and understanding changes in past energy use. Energy efficiency has been identified by Swedish authorities in countless official studies as a key element in Sweden`s efforts to restrain oil imports, reduce reliance on nuclear power, reduce environmental impacts of energy use, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. To understand the role or performance of energy efficiency in the 1970s and 1980s in Sweden, and what this performance means about the future, the authors seek answers to three broad questions: (1) How has the structure and efficiency of energy use in Sweden evolved since the early 1970s, and where data permit, since even earlier? What caused these changes? (2) How does the structure of energy use in Sweden differ from that of other countries, and how has the evolution of energy use in Sweden differed from developments in other countries? (3) How much energy has Sweden saved, and why? Are these savings permanent? To what extent were they offset by changes in the structure of energy use? And to what extent is the magnitude of these savings dependent upon the way we measure energy use? The report reviews the long-term evolution of Swedish energy use, focusing on developments in five sectors of the economy: residential, service, industrial (manufacturing and {open_quotes}other industry{close_quotes} defined as mining, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and construction), travel, and freight. The authors then examine Swedish energy use in a broader perspective, drawing detailed comparisons to other nations. Finally, they discuss a series of issues that hover over the future of energy demand in Sweden.

  12. The Question of How Denmark Got To Be Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Frisk

    2014-01-01

    in an attempt to consolidate the rule has been an integral part of the process of state building in Denmark since the establishment of the absolute monarchy in 1660. The institutional framework set up at this point along with continuing reforms to improve the administration in the period of absolutism between...... 1660 and 1849 came to form an important basis for an administrative culture based on the rule of law which came to minimize corruption. The building of the absolute monarchial state power came to be ensured through the establishment of a strong and comprehensive state hierarchy with a king at the top...

  13. Incidence of first stroke: a population study in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmarsson, Agust; Kjartansson, Olafur; Olafsson, Elias

    2013-06-01

    Iceland is an island in the North Atlantic with ≈319 000 inhabitants. The study determines the incidence of first stroke in the adult population of Iceland during 12 months, which has not been previously reported in the entire Icelandic population. The study population consisted of all residents of Iceland, aged ≥ 18 years, during the 12-month study period. Cases were identified by multiple overlapping approaches. Medical records were reviewed to verify diagnosis, to determine stroke subtype and to determine selected risk factors. A total of 343 individuals, aged ≥ 18 years, had a first stroke during the study period. Incidence was 144 per 100 000 person years; 81% ischemic infarction; 9% intracerebral hemorrhage; 7% subarachnoid hemorrhage; and 3% unknown. Fifty percent of the individuals were men. Mean age for ischemic infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage was 71 years for men and 73 years for women. Atrial fibrillation was previously known in 18% with first ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage and another 6% were diagnosed on routine admission ECG. Long-term ECG study (24 hours) found that 12% (18/154) of the remaining individuals had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Incidence of first stroke in Iceland is similar to other Western countries. The high number of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation found during the 24-hour ECG suggests that atrial fibrillation may be underdiagnosed in patients with stroke.

  14. Radiocaesium fallout behaviour in volcanic soils in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurgeirsson, M A; Arnalds, O; Palsson, S E; Howard, B J; Gudnason, K

    2005-01-01

    The retention of 137Cs in various types of Andosols in Iceland was investigated. Soils were sampled at 29 sites with varying precipitation and environmental conditions. Samples were obtained from 0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 15 cm depths. The amount of radiocaesium present was quite variable, ranging between 300 and 4800 Bq m(-2) and correlated closely to total annual precipitation (r2=0.71). The majority of 137Cs, 82.7% on average, was retained in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil. The greatest penetration of 137Cs was observed for organic Histosols (76.3% in top 5 cm). The Icelandic Vitrisols (barren, poorly developed Andosols) are coarse grained with only 2-5% clay content and contain little organic matter (allophane and ferrihydrite. Most soils in Iceland are subject to severe and prolonged freezing and waterlogging; despite this, 137Cs is retained in the upper soil horizons and vertical migration is negligible in Icelandic Andosols. However, erosion and aeolian activity can markedly influence the amount and vertical distribution of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils.

  15. Radiocaesium fallout behaviour in volcanic soils in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurgeirsson, M.A. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Raudararstigur 10, IS-150 Reykjavik (Iceland)]. E-mail: ms@gr.is; Arnalds, O. [Agricultural Research Institute, Keldnaholt, IS-112 Reykjavik (Iceland); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Raudararstigur 10, IS-150 Reykjavik (Iceland); Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Gudnason, K. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Raudararstigur 10, IS-150 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2005-07-01

    The retention of {sup 137}Cs in various types of Andosols in Iceland was investigated. Soils were sampled at 29 sites with varying precipitation and environmental conditions. Samples were obtained from 0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 15 cm depths. The amount of radiocaesium present was quite variable, ranging between 300 and 4800 Bq m{sup -2} and correlated closely to total annual precipitation (r{sup 2} = 0.71). The majority of {sup 137}Cs, 82.7% on average, was retained in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil. The greatest penetration of {sup 137}Cs was observed for organic Histosols (76.3% in top 5 cm). The Icelandic Vitrisols (barren, poorly developed Andosols) are coarse grained with only 2-5% clay content and contain little organic matter (<1%). Yet these soils retained 74% of {sup 137}Cs in the top 5 cm. The results indicate that radiocaesium fallout is strongly retained by colloidal materials characteristic of Andosols, such as allophane and ferrihydrite. Most soils in Iceland are subject to severe and prolonged freezing and waterlogging; despite this, {sup 137}Cs is retained in the upper soil horizons and vertical migration is negligible in Icelandic Andosols. However, erosion and aeolian activity can markedly influence the amount and vertical distribution of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils.

  16. Distribution of dust during two dust storms in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ösp Magnúsdóttir, Agnes; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Ólafur; Ólafsson, Haraldur

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter mass concentrations and size fractions of PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and PM15 measured in transversal horizontal profile of two dust storms in southwestern Iceland are presented. Images from a camera network were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. Numerical simulations were used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 and 280,000 tons for each storm. The mean PM15 concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from 10 to 1600 ?g?m?3 (PM10 = 7 to 583 ?g?m?3). The mean PM1 concentrations were 97-241 ?g?m?3 with a maximum of 261 ?g?m?3 for the first storm. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios of >0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34-0.63 show that suspension of volcanic materials in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations, similar to polluted urban areas in Europe or Asia. Icelandic volcanic dust consists of a higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. Both dust storms occurred in relatively densely inhabited areas of Iceland. First results on size partitioning of Icelandic dust presented here should challenge health authorities to enhance research in relation to dust and shows the need for public dust warning systems.

  17. The Icelandic 16-electrode electrohysterogram database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandersson, Asgeir; Steingrimsdottir, Thora; Terrien, Jeremy; Marque, Catherine; Karlsson, Brynjar

    2015-04-01

    External recordings of the electrohysterogram (EHG) can provide new knowledge on uterine electrical activity associated with contractions. Better understanding of the mechanisms underlying labor can contribute to preventing preterm birth which is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in newborns. Promising results using the EHG for labor prediction and other uses in obstetric care are the drivers of this work. This paper presents a database of 122 4-by-4 electrode EHG recordings performed on 45 pregnant women using a standardized recording protocol and a placement guide system. The recordings were performed in Iceland between 2008 and 2010. Of the 45 participants, 32 were measured repeatedly during the same pregnancy and participated in two to seven recordings. Recordings were performed in the third trimester (112 recordings) and during labor (10 recordings). The database includes simultaneously recorded tocographs, annotations of events and obstetric information on participants. The publication of this database enables independent and novel analysis of multi-electrode EHG by the researchers in the field and hopefully development towards new life-saving technology.

  18. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Frank; Johannesdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2011-01-01

    The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher engagement with online and open delivery methods of higher…

  19. Additional Workload or a Part of the Job? Icelandic Teachers' Discourse on Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnþórsdóttir, Hermína; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the discourse of Icelandic compulsory school teachers on inclusive education. From 1974 and onwards, the education policy in Iceland has been towards inclusion, and Iceland is considered to be an example of a highly inclusive education system with few segregated resources for students with special educational…

  20. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Barsebaeck 1 was closed on 30 November 1999. Barsebaeck's output of approximately 4 TWh per year will primarily be replaced by imports from coal-fired plants in Denmark and Germany. During the year, the closure of Swedish fossil-fired condensing power stations continued. With that, over 3,000 MW of peak-load power has been shut down during recent years. Consequently, situations entailing shortages of power can arise. On the deregulated electricity market, it is only the system operators that have a satisfactory overview of the overall electricity balance. The Swedish Power Association has thus lobbied the government as regards the need to elucidate Svenska Kraftnaet's responsibility. In a governmental decision from December, Svenska Kraftnaet was given the task of, among other things, monitoring the available capacity during peak loads and developing market instruments that can contribute to safeguarding the availability of power during peak loads. Svenska Kraftnaet has acquired gas turbines with a combined output power of 400 MW from Vattenfall. In order to cover the remaining requirement for rapid disruption reserves, Svenska Kraftnaet also has agreements with several power producers regarding a further 800 MW of gas turbine capacity. One further possibility lies in agreements with industry regarding the disconnection of consumption during times of peak loading. On 1 January 2000, the nuclear power tax was increased by SEK 0.005 per kWh to SEK 0.027 per kWh. This means that the nuclear power companies pay approximately SEK 1,800 MSEK per year in fiscal taxation on their nuclear power generation. The tax on electrical energy, paid by the consumer, was raised by SEK 0.011 to SEK 0.162 per kWh. The tax on diesel fuel was increased at the same time by SEK 0.25 per litre. In addition, a special network fee of SEK 0.002 per kWh came into existence in order to finance small-scale electricity generation, following removal of the obligation-to-receive system

  1. Nasal and sinonasal cancer. Connection with occupational exposures in Denmark, Finland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernberg, S; Westerholm, P; Schultz-Larsen, K

    1983-01-01

    , not significant), (v) welding, flame-cutting and soldering (17: 6), and (vi) lacquers and paints (14: 0). The last finding was probably due to confounding from wood dust exposure. Hardwood dust exposure was associated with adenocarcinoma. Softwood dust exposure alone was associated with epidermoid and anaplastic...

  2. Lung cancer survival and stage at diagnosis in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walters, Sarah; Maringe, Camille; Coleman, Michel P

    2013-01-01

    The authors consider whether differences in stage at diagnosis could explain the variation in lung cancer survival between six developed countries in 2004-2007.......The authors consider whether differences in stage at diagnosis could explain the variation in lung cancer survival between six developed countries in 2004-2007....

  3. Reflections on the Scandinavian model: some insights into energy-related taxes in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how excise taxes on energy products and electricity have been combined with taxes on CO2 emissions and air pollution in the Nordic countries. The methods and principles employed in this region may be of interest to other countries considering how to tax fossil fuels as part...

  4. Reflections on the Scandinavian Model: Some Insights into Energy-Related Taxes in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes how excise taxes on energy products and electricity have been combined with taxes on CO2 emissions and air pollution in the Nordic countries. The methods and principles employed in this region may be of interest to other countries considering how to tax fossil fuels as part...

  5. Burn injury during long-term oxygen therapy in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanash, Hanan A; Ringbaek, Thomas; Huss, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) increases life expectancy in patients with COPD and severe hypoxemia. Smoking is the main cause of burn injury during LTOT. Policy regarding smoking while on LTOT varies between countries. In this study, we compare the incidence of burn injury...

  6. DETERMINANTS OF COMPETITIVENESS OF DENMARK, FINLAND AND SWEDEN DURING ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN 2007–2013

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leszek Leśniewski

    2015-01-01

    .... Determi-nants analysed during period 2007-2013, in accordance with the methodology used by the World Economic Forum, the IMD World Competitiveness Center and the United Nations Development Programme...

  7. Dental care for aging populations in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, United kingdom, and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Vigild, Merete; Nitschke, Ina

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews access to and financing of dental care for aging populations in selected nations in Europe. Old age per se does not seem to be a major factor in determining the use of dental services. Dentition status, on the other hand, is a major determinant of dental attendance. In additi...

  8. Policies of school-to-work transitions and VET in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Lundahl, Lisbeth; Järvinen, Tero

    All over Europe, a range of policy measures to support young people’s school-to-work transitions have been initiated. However, these transition policies have rarely been studied systematically, particularly not from a comparative perspective. The aim of this article is to compare Swedish, Danish ...

  9. Nordic Moral Climates. Value Continuities and Discontinuities in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondeson, Ulla V.

    Morality, Crime and Punishment, Legal Sociology, Legal Philosophy, Politology, Scandinavia, Comparatilve Studies, Criminology......Morality, Crime and Punishment, Legal Sociology, Legal Philosophy, Politology, Scandinavia, Comparatilve Studies, Criminology...

  10. Benchmark Analysis of Institutional University Autonomy Higher Education Sectors in Denmark, Lithuania, Romania, Scotland and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Gulieva, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    This chapter consolidates the process and the findings from the four benchmark reports. It presents (i) the methodology and methods employed for data collection and data analysis; (ii) the comparative analysis of HE sectors and respective education systems in these countries; (iii) the executive...

  11. Climate Benefits of Material Recycling: Inventory of Average Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillman, Karl; Damgaard, Anders; Eriksson, Ola

    The purpose of this project is to compare emissions of greenhouse gases from material recycling with those from virgin material production, both from a material supply perspective and from a recycling system perspective. The method for estimating emissions and climate benefits is based on a review...

  12. Reflections on the Scandinavian Model: Some Insights into Energy-Related Taxes in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how excise taxes on energy products and electricity have been combined with taxes on CO2 emissions and air pollution in the Nordic countries. The methods and principles employed in this region may be of interest to other countries considering how to tax fossil fuels as part...

  13. Consequences of activation policy targeting young adults with health-related problems in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultqvist, Sara; Nørup, Iben

    2017-01-01

    protection for young adults who cannot work for health reasons . A strong emphasis on paid work as the main source to social participation has legitimized work-promoting activation that targets socially vulnerable groups such as young adults with comprehensive health problems. In this paper we discuss...

  14. The role of mediation institutions in Sweden and Denmark after centralized bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    not explain the internal stability of bargaining coordination once established. This analysis stresses the role of mediation institutions of both countries for solving collective action problems in pattern bargaining by pegging other settlements to the manufacturing labour cost norm. Mediation capabilities...

  15. An overview of pedagogy and organisation in clinical interprofessional training units in Sweden and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the organization and pedagogy in Swedish and Danish interprofessional training units (ITUs) and to synthesize empirical findings from Swedish and Danish ITUs published in peer review journals. A questionnaire concerning organization and pedagogy was sent to twenty Swedish and Danish ITUs. After a bibliographic search aimed to find empirical studies from ITUs, twenty Swedish and eight Danish studies were included in the review. The questionnaires results showed that despite different wording, the overall aims for the ITUs were to provide students with the possibility of uniprofessional learning, interprofessional learning, and strengthening of professional identity. Furthermore, it appeared that there were different organizational and pedagogical approaches. The review revealed that differences in clinical tutors' affiliation and presence in the ITU were challenging. Also different pedagogical approaches were discussed. However, all articles showed that the goals for the ITUs in general were fulfilled. There is basis therefore to recommend the establishment of future clinical ITUs with the patient in the core and with the use of a student activating approach.

  16. The digitalisation of service work – social partner responses in Denmark, Sweden and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The discussion on the digitalisation of work has intensified in recent years. The literature points to two main trends accelerated by digitalisation – work automation that eliminates or changes job functions, and the creation of work without jobs via digital platforms. This article addresses...... to be very active in the unilateral arena in all three countries, responses differ in the tripartite and bipartite arenas. The article concludes by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of the responses in the face of current digitalisation trends and existing models of labour market regulation....... in the unilateral, tripartite and bipartite arenas on various forms of neo-corporatist labour market regulation. The focus is on service work in the private sector, an area of the economy currently under pressure from both automation and the trend towards work without jobs. Whereas the social partners seem...

  17. Creating an Educational Testing Profession in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, 1910-1960

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian; Ludvigsen, Kari; Lundahl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    and educational climates were shaped by new experts and knowledge. It is argued that the testing communities were able to gain authority in the national educational fields through the creation and maintenance of organisations, knowledge, and practices, as well as in the forming of alliances with politicians......, universities, and teachers’ unions in a joint endeavour that promoted educational psychology and testing in the three Scandinavian educational fields....

  18. Biomarker responses in eelpouts from four coastal areas in Sweden, Denmark and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, Noomi; Albertsson, Eva; Wijkmark, Emma; Bergek, Sara; Parkkonen, Jari; Kammann, Ulrike; Holmqvist, Inger; Kristiansson, Erik; Strand, Jakob; Gercken, Jens; Förlin, Lars

    2016-09-01

    To increase our understanding of possible chemical impacts on coastal fish populations in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak, the viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was used as sentinel species in two major sampling campaigns (spring and autumn) in 16 different coastal sites. Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), gonad somatic index (GSI) were measured and the activity of the hepatic enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione reductase GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and muscular activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were assessed. PAH metabolites in bile were also analyzed. The most notable finding in the data set was the low EROD activity in eelpouts collected at the relatively polluted region in Germany compared to the other regions, which could be due to an inhibition of the CYP1A-system or to adaptation to chronic exposure of pollutants in this area. Additionally, low AChE activity was noted in the German region in the autumn campaign and low AChE activity detected in the Danish region in the spring campaign. These differences suggest possible season-specific differences in the use and release of AChE-inhibiting chemicals in the Danish and German regions. Clustering of biomarkers on site level indicated a relationship between CF and GSI and suggested that sites with a high CF contained eelpout that put a larger effort into their larvae development. Clustering of the oxidative stress markers GR, GST and CAT on the individual level reflected a possible coordinated regulation of these enzymes. Overall, the results support the importance of taking into account general regional differences and seasonal variation in biomarker activity when monitoring and assessing the effects of pollution. Despite the expected seasonal variation for most of the measured endpoint, several markers (GSI, EROD and CF) vary similarly between all selected sites in both spring and autumn. This suggests that the differences between sites for these endpoints are independent of season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rationality of the subsidy regime for wind power in Sweden and Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, P. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental and Energy System Studies

    1995-12-31

    This study comprise analysis and discussion of incentives inherent in the Swedish and Danish subsidy regimes for household owned wind power. New results include an evaluation of the subsidy value of income and VAT tax breaks available to investors, and a demonstration of the importance of the choice of ownership arrangements for the profitability of wind power projects. The study outlines the complex restrictions associated with different forms of wind power ownership. These cause the investment market to be highly segmented. The discussion includes several irrational system effects of the subsidy regimes. Among these are collision with energy saving goals, excessive capital costs, dubious siting decisions, and distorted competition among technologies. In conclusion, come policy recommendations are suggested. (author)

  20. Chronic urticaria in the real-life clinical practice setting in Sweden, Norway and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Pritzier, E C; Anderson, C D

    2017-01-01

    (19.6%), allergic rhinitis (16.5%) and food allergies (8.2%). Overall, 60.1% of patients reported using treatments for CU including non-sedative H1-antihistamines (40.5%), corticosteroids (19%), montelukast (14.6%) and omalizumab (8.2%). Pharmacological treatment rates increased to 96.2% during...

  1. Low back pain patients in Sweden, Denmark and the UK share similar characteristics and outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Davies, Laura; Axén, Iben

    2015-01-01

    observed. The clinical course followed almost identical patterns across nations and small observed differences were not present after adjusting for baseline factors. The associations of LBP intensity and episode duration with outcome differed in strength between countries. CONCLUSIONS: Chiropractic...... were LBP intensity (0-10 scales) and LBP frequency (0-7 days the previous week). Cohort differences were tested in mixed models accounting for repeated measures. It was investigated if any differences were explained by different baseline characteristics, and interaction terms between baseline factors...... patients with low back pain had similar characteristics and clinical course across three Northern European countries. It is unlikely that culture have substantially different impacts on the course of LBP in these countries and the results support knowledge transfer between the investigated countries....

  2. The Role of Business Schools in Ethics Education in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Vaiman, Vlad; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores managers’ views on various ways in which business schools can contribute to providing solid ethics education to their students, who will ultimately become the next generation of business leaders. One thousand top level managers of Icelandic firms were approached and asked...... a number of questions aimed at establishing their view on the relationship between ethics education and the role of business schools in forming and developing business ethics education. Icelandic businesses were badly hurt by the 2008 crisis, and therefore Iceland provides an interesting foundation...... for an empirical study of this sort as the aftermath of the crisis has encouraged managers to consciously reflect on the way their business was and should be conducted. Based on the results of the survey, a few main themes have developed. First, it appears that according to practicing managers, business schools...

  3. Day-Care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Helle

    2011-01-01

      The chapter explores central notions of appropriate social behavior in what is arguably the most important institution in Denmark when it comes to social integration, namely day-care, also known as pre-school. Moral values guiding everyday practices are generally taken for granted. When...... interacting with ethnic minority children and their parents, however, staff are occasionally forced to make explicit the reasoning behind their actions. A focus on the interaction of ethnic minority children and their parents in day-care centres therefore provides insights into the cultural beliefs and values...... which structure daily socialization practices in a Danish day-care, and by implication in Danish society....

  4. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and 80......s demanded large numbers of landscape architects. Today landscape architecture education addresses current challenges of climate change and the need for sustainable development where an understanding of natural systems is seen as essential for future urbanisation processes in evermore innovative...

  5. Tracking Iceland Plume Motion Using Trace Element Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitton, J. G.; Walters, R. L.; Jones, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a hotspot track built by interaction between the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the Iceland mantle plume. Unlike most other hotspot tracks built by ridge-plume interaction, the GSR is 2 to 3 times wider than the plume conduit in the upper mantle. (This unusual wide morphology arises because Icelandic crust changes significantly in thickness within a few million years of accretion, probably mainly by viscous flow in the hot lower crust). The upshot is that the GSR cannot be compared directly with theoretical plume tracks from hotspot reference frame models. However, it is possible to track the position of the Iceland plume conduit using the trace element geochemistry of basaltic lavas. Away from the plume conduit, plate spreading drives upwelling of mantle through the melting region. Above the plume conduit, plume-driven flow forces mantle through the lower part of the melting region faster than the plate-driven upwelling rate. The average depth of melting is therefore greater directly above the plume conduit than away from the plume conduit, and this difference in average melting depth means that melts generated directly above the plume conduit are relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Joint modelling of trace element compositions and crustal thickness can also be used to establish location of melting relative to the plume conduit. To date, these concepts have been used only to explain compositional variations in modern (post-glacial) Icelandic lavas; in this study we show that the same concepts can be applied to map the location of the plume conduit throughout the onshore Icelandic geological record (since the middle Miocene, c. 16 Ma). The plume track thus determined is in reasonable agreement with theoretical tracks calculated under the assumption that the Iceland Plume has remained fixed relative to other Indo-Atlantic hotspots. This result also supports the idea that episodic relocations of the onshore part of

  6. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar

    2000-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. Methods: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru......Background: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. Methods: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using...

  7. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru......BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using...

  8. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nína Petersen, Guðrún

    2017-10-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007-2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.876206).

  9. The development of the suffix –erni in Icelandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Ellert Þór

    This paper investigates the suffix –erni in Icelandic, its origin, and development from the period of Old Norse to Modern Icelandic. This suffix is most often used to derive a neuter noun from nouns and adjectives with the meaning ‘belonging to’ e.g. faðir ‘father’ => faðerni ‘fatherhood......’. By taking a closer look at source material and evaluating words formed with this suffix in their textual context we are able to identify and observe the processes involved in the establishment and spread of this derivational pattern. The current study illustrates how the suffix spreads through different...

  10. Optical properties and climate forcing of Icelandic dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur; Hladil, Jindrich; Skala, Roman; Navratil, Tomas; Chadimova, Leona; Gritsevich, Maria; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Hakala, Teemu

    2014-05-01

    Iceland is an active source of dust originating from glaciogenic and volcanic sediments. The frequency of days with dust suspension exceeded 34 dust days annually in 1949-2011. This figure represents a minimum value as many dust storms occur without the dust passing the weather stations recording the events. Comparison of meteorological synoptic codes for dust observation and direct particulate matter mass concentration measurements in 2005-2013 showed that the mean number of dust days in Iceland can increase up to135 dust days annually. Dust events in NE Iceland occur mostly in May-September, while almost half of all dust events in SW Iceland were at sub-zero temperatures or in winter. Icelandic dust is different from the crustal dust; it is of volcanic origin and dark in colour. It contains sharp-tipped shards and is often with bubbles. Such physical properties allow large particle suspension and transport to long distances, e.g. towards the Arctic. To estimate the further impacts of dust transport, both laboratory and snow spectropolarimetric measurements were done using the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer FIGIFIGO (http://www.polarisation.eu/index.php/list-of-instruments/view-submission/172), an automated portable instrument for multiangular reflectance measurements. The albedo, hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF), polarization, and other snow properties were monitored on the snow and areas affected by the dust deposition through the following melting period in spring 2013 in Lapland during the Soot on Snow (SoS) 2013 campaign. Glaciogenic silt deposited on snow made the snow optically darker. The melting, metamorphose and diffusion processes were fast during the measurement time while the sun heated the particles, snow melted around, and the particles diffused inside the snow. Smaller particles diffused faster than the larger. Fine silt particles tended to form larger grains. Larger volcanic sand particles had lower

  11. Environmental studies of Iceland with ERTS-1 imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. S., Jr.; Boovarsson, A.; Frioriksson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Saemundsson, K.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Thorarinsson, S.

    1974-01-01

    Imagery from the ERTS-1 satellite can be used to study geological and geophysical phenomena which are important in relation to Iceland's natural resources. Multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery can be used to map areas of altered ground, intense thermal emission, fallout from volcanic eruptions, lava flows, volcanic geomorphology, erosion or build-up of land, snow cover, the areal extent of glaciers and ice caps, etc. At least five distinct vegetation types and barren areas can be mapped using MSS false-color composites. Stereoscopic coverage of iceland by side-lapping ERTS imagery permits precise analysis of various natural phenomena.

  12. Sigur Rós's Heima: An Icelandic Psychogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Tony

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the sonic geography of the Icelandic ambient rock group Sigur Rós with particular reference to their documentary film Heima, which documents a tour the group made of remote places in their home country. Known for causing some people to faint or burst into tears during their concerts, Sigur Rós’s music could be said to express sonically both the isolation of their Icelandic location and to induce a feeling of hermetic isolation in the listener through the climactic and melo...

  13. Progress report on research on human genetics in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characteristics and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period from 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  14. Research on human genetics in Iceland. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic Population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characters and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  15. Live and work in North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sascha; Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    This report is based on a survey among Expats in North Denmark, and was carried out in collaboration with 'Velkomstcentre - live and work in North Denmark'. It includes findings about the backgrounds of the Expats, their motives for coming to the region and their perceptions of the region before...

  16. Oral contraception in Denmark 1998-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nadia M; Laursen, Maja; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most popular contraception in Denmark. Overall figures on use are well described, but more detailed use patterns according to type and age need to be updated.......Oral contraceptives (OC) are the most popular contraception in Denmark. Overall figures on use are well described, but more detailed use patterns according to type and age need to be updated....

  17. Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokumsen, Alfred; Svendsen, Lars Moeslund

    Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark......Textbook on Farming of Freshwater Rainbow Trout in Denmark. Danish edition with the title: Opdræt af regnbueørred i Danmark...

  18. The Mobilisation of Muslim Women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Under the headline of ‘the mobilisation of Muslim women in Denmark', this paper contains a series of introductory considerations as well as a few preliminary findings on the relatively unexplored question of how and why Muslim women in Denmark form organisations, and via their organisations inter...

  19. The BRICS and Denmark - Economics & High Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Denmark's otherwise strategic opening towards the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) lacks the world order dimension of raison de système.......Denmark's otherwise strategic opening towards the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) lacks the world order dimension of raison de système....

  20. Socioeconomic differences in health expectancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups.......Social differences in mortality rates reported in Denmark gave rise to the present study of health expectancy in different socioeconomic groups....

  1. Solar energy activities in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbensen T.; Kristensen, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Danish solar energy group has about 70 members, and there are about 6 professional manufacturers of solar energy equipment in Denmark. In these years the Danish government subsidizes solar energy installations with 30% of the total expenses. High efficiency hot water systems of 4 m/sup 2/ collector size has been developed and are now available on the Danish market. These systems are tested as the very best in the European Community, and they are competetive to other energy sources in Denmark except for district heating connected to heat and power generation plants. Presently much effort is put in developing Danish solar heating components for use in third world countries, such as solar driven freezers, high efficiency collectors and solar water heating systems especially suited for trophical conditions. On the domestic market, the local communities can now require free expert assistance in order to identify public buildings especially suited for solar water heating systems. Several grants have been given for projects concerned with using large solar collector areas for industrial proposes and for district heating.

  2. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Torben; Møller, Winnie Friis; Elle, Morten

    2009-01-01

    This publication summarises the activities of the COST C23 Action entitled ‘Strategies for a Low Carbon Urban Built Environments (LCUBE)’ which took place over the period 2004 to 2009. This publication is supported by COST. The main objective of the COST C23 Action was to investigate, through...... a network of nineteen countries across Europe, ‘how carbon reductions can be achieved through appropriate design and management of the urban built environment’. This involved investigating the built environment at building and urban scale, focusing on minimising energy use and associated carbon dioxide...... emissions. The Action investigated how nineteen EU member states were active in reducing carbon dioxide levels in the built environment, not only in line with buildings meeting the requirements of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) (1), but also in taking standards further and looking...

  3. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Ørsten, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The media environment continues to be characterized by strong public service broadcasters (DR and TV2) and a strong national press, but the already entrenched debate about the role of public service media online is intensifying ahead of a new remit in 2018...

  4. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth

    2008-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change helps readers learn about the astonishingly intricate processes that make ours the only planet known to be habitable. These three volumes include more than 750 articles that explore major topics related to global warming and climate change...

  5. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf

    2008-01-01

    The European Tort Law Yearbook provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in tort law in Europe. It contains reports on most EU Member States, including the new Member States the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithunia, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Bulgaria and Romania....

  6. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the political consequences of European security commercialisation through increased reliance on private military and security companies (PMSCs). The role of commercial security in the domestic setting in Europe is widely acknowledged; after all, the biggest private security com...

  7. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinck-Jensen, Jeppe; Rosenmeier, Morten; Scotwin, Helene Egede

    2015-01-01

    Content: Background, Employees' Copyright, Employees´ Semi-Conductor Chips, Employees' Inventions, Employees' Utility Models, Employees´ Design Rights, Employees´ Plant Varieties, Instances for Disputes, Concluding Remarks....

  8. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    on the kinds of gendered understanding that underline research surveys like the WIME project and discusses the potential limitations of this approach to gender analysis. Furthermore, it discusses the benefits and potential problems of applying gender inclusive policies to media institutions by drawing upon...... Sara Ahmed’s critique of the ‘politics of declarations.’ (2004) Ahmed has shown how declarations of anti-racism are performances which admit to potential negative racist practices, after which the admission itself becomes a positive practice and hence mistakenly interpreted as an anti-racist practice...

  9. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Despite a change of government in September 2011, Danish politics have been largely characterised by continuity since the beginning of the economic crisis in 2008, although with an increased emphasis on reforming the welfare state in order to increase growth and create new jobs. A pragmatist turn...

  10. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Denne bog er et resultat af det internationale netværk C.A.L.M.A.Z, og undersøger mulighederne for at integrere skolefagene idræt (Physical Education, PE) og Geografi. Tværfaglig integration er en vigtig didaktisk tilgang, som bl.a. giver studerende en dybere og mere varig viden. Publikationen be...

  11. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg Bennike, Kathrine; Stoltz, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    and still is influential in terms of Denmark’s response to gender and HS. The chapter further examines the Danish women’s movement, which has been influential on a national level in achieving economic, political and social rights, but which has also been advocating for gender, equality and security......The chapter aims at creating awareness of Denmark’s involvement in gender and human security (HS) issues on multiple levels, including the Baltic Sea Region. The chapter addresses HS with a focus on economic, political and social indicators. It is argued that the Nordic welfare state has been...

  12. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Werler, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the so-called life enlightenment (livsoplysning) and the concepts elaborated by N. F. S. Grundtvig and his work on residential adult education centers form the fundamental principles of the Danish school system. A significant goal of Danish education is not just the acquisition of t...... of theoretical knowledge, but the acquisition of practical knowledge that provides an explanation of and orientation in life....

  13. Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Transitional Justice is a reference tool directed to both practitioners and academics interested in the field of Transitional Justice. It covers concepts, country studies, institutions, methods, and key debates....

  14. Food Micro 2010, 22th International ICFMH Symposium, “ Microbial Behaviour in the Food Chain ” 30th August – 3rd September 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This Special Issue of International Journal of Food Microbiology contains a selection of papers presented at Food Micro 2010, the 22th Symposium of the International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene (ICFMH). Food Micro 2010 was held on 30th August to 3rd September 2010 in Copenhagen......, Denmark and organized in collaboration between the Danish Centre for Advanced Food Studies (LMC) and Lund University in Sweden....

  15. [Treatment of end-stage renal disease in Iceland 1968-1997 heart disease in Iceland?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundsson, P; Palsson, R

    1999-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) jas been provided in Iceland since 1968 when hemodialysis was begun. Kidney transplantation in Iceland patients has benn performed abroad since 1970 mainly in Copenhagen, Gothenburg and Boston. The purpose of theis retrospective study was to determine the changes in incidencs, prevalence, and outcome of ESRD treatment during the period 1968-1997 and compare the results with other ESRD programs, mainly in the Nordic countries. Included in this study were all patients who began renal replacement therapy for ESRD during the study period and remained on therapy for at least six weeks. Data were obtained from the registry of ESRD, compiled by the Dialysis Service of the National University Hospital. The data were used to determine the annual incidence and prevalence of treated ESRD. Changes in parameters, such as age at the beginning of renal replacement therapy, gender distribution, causes of ESRD, treatment modalities, and survival were evaluated. Annual mortality rate was calculated as deaths per 100 life-years. Comparison of means was done by the twö sample t-test, survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and survival differences weere determined with the Mantel-Cox test. A total of 201 patients began therapy for ESRD during this 30 year period. The number of patients beginning renal replacement therapy in each of the three consecutive decades was 27, 59 and 115, respectively, which corresponds to 12.8, 25.1 and 44 per million population per year. The mean age rose throughout hte study period nad was 54.8 in the final decade. The prevalence per million population was 72 in 1977, 182 in 1987 nad 356 in 1997. Diabetic nephropathy was not observed as a cause of ESRD until the last decade when it accounted for 12% of new patiens. Hemodialysis was the sole dialysis modality undtil 1985. Peritoneal dialysis has since provided approximately one third of the dialysis treatment. The number of renal

  16. Public Procurement of Innovation in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Ågren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sweden is often thought of as a country with a strong tradition for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Early on, Sweden recognized and developed procedures for using public procurement as a technologydevelopment tool. After a period where emphasis was put on this aspect...... of public procurement Sweden dropped many policy initiatives within this field. This was in part due to neo-liberal movements during the 1980s which in interaction with a distributed institutional setup led to the removal of incentives for a procuring authority to engage in public procurement of innovation....... Another contributing cause was poor policy guidance from the academia upon Sweden’s accession into the EU, which spread apprehension among procuring authorities. It is not until the last few years that Sweden has started to reengage in public procurement for innovation policy, by using predominantly...

  17. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Bernhardt; Livia Sz. Oláh

    2008-01-01

    Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been e...

  19. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Frances Goldscheider; Eva Bernhardt; Maria Brandén

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in th...

  20. Yoshio Nakajima. A Japanese Artist from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden.......Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden....

  1. LNG - Status in Denmark. Technology and potential. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2012-05-15

    The interest for LNG both on a small and a large scale is increasing worldwide. The experiences and knowledge on LNG is limited in Denmark. The Danish gas companies' Technical Management Group (TCG) has asked for a status report including a technology description and an evaluation of the potential in Denmark. A survey of primarily small-scale LNG technology is done in the report. The focus is motivated by the new areas of gas utilisation that become possible with small-scale LNG. Small-scale LNG in this study is defined as LNG stored and used at the application or in an isolated gas grid. The small-scale use of LNG has today an almost negligible share of the total LNG trade but offers interesting new applications for gas utilisation. LNG on a small scale can be used primarily as: 1) Ship fuel. 2) Truck fuel (heavy duty long distance). 3) Individual users not connected to the natural gas grid. 4) Backup for upgraded biogas to individual users and vehicle fleets. 5) Security of supply or supply enhancement of heavily loaded parts of the gas grid. 6) Small-scale storage and/or peak shaving. All but the first topics are natural uses for the current Danish gas distributors. LNG as ship fuel may engage other specialized LNG companies. The report contains a technical description of the parts in primarily small-scale LNG handling and operation. Liquefaction, transport, storage, engine technologies, gas quality and safety aspects related to LNG are covered. There seem to be two more or less separate paths for LNG in Denmark, onshore and off-shore use. These are not, apparently, sharing their experiences and knowledge. Rules and regulations are also different which may create some problems in the interface, for example ship bunkering. Further studies are suggested in the area of gas quality and engine technologies and adaptation of foreign guidelines for small-scale installations to Danish conditions. These guidelines ought to be based on international standards and

  2. The Case of Iceland in PISA: Girls' Educational Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Almar M.; Olafsson, Ragnar F.

    2009-01-01

    Among 41 participating countries in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003, the gender difference in favour of females was greatest in Iceland in the three subjects tested: mathematics, science and reading. The aims of this article are to put these findings in national and international context, and report on a number of…

  3. Students' Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in Iceland and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Gísli; Ólafsson, Brynjar; Autio, Ossi

    2012-01-01

    Craft education in both Finland and Iceland originated over 140 years ago and was influenced by the Scandinavian Sloyd pedagogy. Since then, the subject has moved away from craft and towards technology, with the aim being to increase students' technological abilities. In the beginning, the subject largely focused on the students copying artefacts,…

  4. Foreign citizen mortality in Iceland January 2006 - December 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Bingert, Rebecca

    In recent years, tourism has become the number one account for foreign exchange income in Iceland, overtaking the fisheries industry and aluminium production. The rise of tourism has strongly affected Icelandic society in various sectors. With the increase of tourists visiting Iceland, the number of foreign citizens that died and were autopsied also rose. Data were collected from the Department of Forensic Pathology at Landspitali University Hospital in Reykjavik for the period January 2006 - December 2016. During this time there were 109 autopsies performed on foreign citizens of which 58 died from natural causes, 49 were injury deaths and in 2 cases no certain cause of death could be determined. Most represented were citizens from North America, United Kingdom and Germany (each 11%). The main causes of death were cardiovascular events (41%) followed by unintentional injuries (34%). The research at hand shows the significant influence of tourism on Forensic Medicine and provides an update on deaths of overseas travellers. Furthermore this study points out variable risks of travel-related injuries and deaths in Iceland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Agustsdóttir, Elfa; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Oström, Inga-Lena Örde; Berndtsson, Louise Treiberg; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Wensman, Jonas Johansson

    2013-11-01

    In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered.

  6. Injury Pattern in Icelandic Elite Male Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, Elis Thor; Valdimarsson, Örnólfur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Árnason, Árni

    2017-10-10

    To examine the incidence, type, location, and severity of injuries in Icelandic elite male handball players and compare across factors like physical characteristics and playing position. Prospective cohort study. The latter part of the preseason and the competitive season of Icelandic male handball. Eleven handball teams (185 players) from the 2 highest divisions in Iceland participated in the study. Six teams (109 players) completed the study. Injuries were recorded by the players under supervision from their team physiotherapists or coaches. Coaches recorded training exposure, and match exposure was obtained from the Icelandic and European Handball Federations. The players directly recorded potential risk factors, such as age, height, weight, previous injuries, and player position. Injury incidence and injury location and number of injury days. Recorded time-loss injuries were 86, of which 53 (62%) were acute and 33 (38%) were due to overuse. The incidence of acute injuries was 15.0 injuries/1000 hours during games and 1.1 injuries/1000 hours during training sessions. No significant difference was found in injury incidence between teams, but number of injury days did differ between teams (P = 0.0006). Acute injuries were most common in knees (26%), ankles (19%), and feet/toes (17%), but overuse injuries occurred in low back/pelvic region (39%), shoulders (21%), and knees (21%). Previous knee injuries were the only potential risk factor found for knee injury. The results indicate a higher rate of overuse injuries in low back/pelvic region and shoulders than in comparable studies.

  7. Iceland's Central Highlands: Nature conservation, ecotourism, and energy resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Gunnarsson; Maria-Victoria Gunnarsson

    2002-01-01

    Iceland’s natural resources include an abundance of geothermal energy and hydropower, of which only 10 to 15 percent is currently being utilized. These are clean, renewable sources of energy. The cost to convert these resources to electricity is relatively low, making them attractive and highly marketable for industrial development, particularly for heavy industry....

  8. [Scrapie of sheep and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgsson, Gudmundur; Olafsson, Elías; Gudmundsson, Gunnar

    2008-07-01

    Scrapie of sheep and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are both classified as prion diseases. The infectious agents of both diseases are closely related. The objectives of the study was to explore, whether sheep scrapie could be transmitted to humans and cause CJD. The occurrence of CJD was studied in a period of 40 years, 1960 to 2000. The first part of the study, which was started in 1980, was retrospective. Hospital records from the Department of Neurology of the National Hospital from the years 1960-1980 were scrutinised and paraffin blocks from the collection of the Department of Pathology from cases with the diagnosis CJD and some suspect cases were obtained and analysed. The latter part of the study was prospective, which gave the possibility to study codon 129 of PRNP gene and characterise the strain of the infectious agent. Information on the epidemiology of scrapie in Iceland and of the diet of Icelanders was collected. Four cases of CJD were detected in the 40 years studied, which corresponds to an incidence of 0.44 per million inhabitants, which is less than half the average incidence in 18 other European countries in the years 1997-2004. The low incidence of CJD in Iceland does not indicate that sheep scrapie can be transmitted to humans and cause CJD. If this were the case, we would have expected an higher incidence of CJD and possibly atypical cases, as the Icelandic population has been exposed to scrapie for 130 years.

  9. Island connections: Icelandic spatiality in the wake of worldly linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bjarnason

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The notions and materiality of connections, through electronic networks as well as modes of mobility, play an ever-increasing role in how we define, understand, engage and experience the world we live in and the islands we live on. This article presents an account of Icelandic encounters with technologies of telecommunication and explores how electronic connections have participated in formulating a particularly connected, island spatiality. It is argued that an island can be regarded as a kind of connected laboratory suitable for studying how associations form around technologies of connections, which can be traced through various actors. For this purpose, the historical genealogy of connections and telecommunication in Iceland is analyzed, as well as more contemporary ideas and representations of mobile phone usage and network connectivity. It is maintained that connections have fundamentally altered the spatiality as well as representations of Iceland. While still an island in a geographical sense, and in that manner remote and isolated, the social space of the island now denies such connotations in many respects, valorizing the connectivity of Iceland and its people.

  10. Curriculum Analysis and Education for Sustainable Development in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir; Norodahl, Kristin; Oskarsdottir, Gunnhildur; Palsdottir, Auour; Petursdottir, Bjorg

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how the Icelandic public school curriculum for early childhood, compulsory and upper secondary school deals with education for sustainable development. As the curriculum does not often mention the term sustainability, a key with which to investigate signs of education for sustainable development in the three curricula was…

  11. Transition to School Practices: Comparisons from Iceland and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob; Dockett, Sue

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the result of collaboration among early childhood education researchers from different cultures on opposite sides of the globe. The project sought to identify what practitioners in both preschool and primary school settings in Iceland and Australia regarded as successful transition to school practices. Independently developed surveys…

  12. Broadcasting in Iceland: Cultural Protectionism and U.S. Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Tim

    Icelanders are a highly literate people, their culture tied together by perhaps the most complete written tradition of any modern nation. No wonder, then, that the tiny island country seemed in no rush to develop a television broadcasting system. Indeed, it is questionable whether television would have been in demand at all if not for outside…

  13. Bibliographies: Swedes, Danes, Finns, Icelanders, and Norwegians in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavus Adolphus Coll., St. Peter, Minn.

    Produced for college students, five bibliographies list emigration and immigration sources related to the peopling of Minnesota by Scandanavian groups (Swedes, Danes, Finns, Icelanders, and Norwegians). Over 400 citations identify books, articles, conference papers, diaries, personal papers of families, and historical society papers from the late…

  14. Business cycles and workplace accidents in Iceland 1986- 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinna Laufey Ásgeirsdóttir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to explore the association between business cycles and workplace accidents using Icelandic data. The relationship is evaluated for the entire labor market, for specific sectors, by gender and by the severity of injuries. Most prior research has found workplace accidents to be pro-cyclical. Hypothesized reasons include increased labor supply and greater work intensity in upswings, and that accidents are more likely to be reported. Aggregate data for workplace accidents from the Administration of Occupational Safety and Health and several macroeconomic indicators from Statistics Iceland and Directorate of Labour were examined. The time series were non-stationary so first differences were used to detrend them. Their relationship was then examined using a linear regression model. Data from the Directorate of Health in Iceland and Statistics Iceland were used to calculate the relative risk of an accident. Pro-cyclical associations between business cycles and work-place accidents were observed, particularly in construction, in commerce and for men. The results of the relative-risk calculations indicated that workers were at considerably greater risk of having an accident in 2007 than in 2004-2006 and 2008-2011. By comparing the different estimations of the study, one can conclude that only a small part of the variability of risk can be explained by changes in labour supply. Increased risk at work, given the labor supply, seems to be a more significant reason for increased prevalence of accidents during periods of economic expansion.

  15. An outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae in Sweden, May-June 2009, with sugar snaps as the suspected source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfdahl, M; Ivarsson, S; Andersson, S; Långmark, J; Plym-Forshell, L

    2009-07-16

    We report an outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae type 2 infections during May-June 2009 in Sweden, involving 47 suspected cases of whom 35 were laboratory-confirmed. The epidemiological investigation based on interviews with the patients pointed at sugar snaps from Kenya as the source. Shigella was not detected in samples of sugar snaps. However, Escherichia coli was confirmed in three of four samples indicating contamination by faecal material. During April to May 2009 outbreaks with Shigella connected to sugar snaps from Kenya were reported from Norway and Denmark. In the three countries trace back of the indicated sugar snaps revealed a complex system with several involved import companies and distributers. In Sweden one wholesale company was identified and connections were seen to the Danish trace back. These three outbreaks question whether the existing international certification and quality standards that are in place to prevent products from contamination by faecal pathogens are strict enough.

  16. The thin hot plume beneath Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Vogfjord, K.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Foulger, G.R.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Julian, B.R.; Pritchard, M.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of a seismological investigation of the frequency-dependent amplitude variations across Iceland using data from the HOTSPOT array currently deployed there. The array is composed of 30 broad-band PASSCAL instruments. We use the parameter t(*), defined in the usual manner from spectral ratios (Halderman and Davis 1991), to compare observed S-wave amplitude variations with those predicted due to both anelastic attenuation and diffraction effects. Four teleseismic events at a range of azimuths are used to measure t(*). A 2-D vertical cylindrical plume model with a Gaussian-shaped velocity anomaly is used to model the variations. That part of t(*) caused by attenuation was estimated by tracing a ray through IASP91, then superimposing our plume model velocity anomaly and calculating the path integral of 1/vQ. That part of t(*) caused by diffraction was estimated using a 2-D finite difference code to generate synthetic seismograms. The same spectral ratio technique used for the data was then used to extract a predicted t(*). The t(*) variations caused by anelastic attenuation are unable to account for the variations we observe, but those caused by diffraction do. We calculate the t(*) variations caused by diffraction for different plume models and obtain our best-fit plume, which exhibits good agreement between the observed and measured t(*). The best-fit plume model has a maximum S-velocity anomaly of - 12 per cent and falls to 1/e of its maximum at 100 km from the plume centre. This is narrower than previous estimates from seismic tomography, which are broadened and damped by the methods of tomography. This velocity model would suggest greater ray theoretical traveltime delays than observed. However, we find that for such a plume, wave-front healing effects at frequencies of 0.03-0.175 Hz (the frequency range used to pick S-wave arrivals) causes a 40 per cent reduction in traveltime delay, reducing the ray theoretical delay to that observed.

  17. Becoming adult educators in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Søgaard Lund, Lise

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of identity-construction processes among adult educators in Denmark and we address the question how adult educators develop professionalism, not least by taking advantage of existing opportunity structures for current and prospective adult educators. A between......-cases analysis of fifteen narrative interviews explores the professional pathways towards adult education, the perceived images of a (professional) adult educator, processes of identification with concrete or imaginary communities, and motivation for adult educator to enrol in current opportunity structures...... to better qualify as professionals. The findings suggest that identity-building among Danish adult educators fluctuates between several processes of identification with either concrete or imaginary communities to which they relate at home, at work etc., but which do not necessarily result from a strong...

  18. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  19. HOMED-Homicides Eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background:An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. Content: The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical...... examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. Validity and coverage: The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because...... of a medico-legal homicide autopsy rate close to 100%. Regional differences might exist however, due to the fact that the catchment area of the department is dominated by the city of Copenhagen. Conclusions: The strength of the database includes a long running time, near complete regional coverage...

  20. Diabetes among migrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Kamper-Jørgensen, Zaza; Carstensen, Bendix

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies of diabetes in migrant populations have shown a higher prevalence compared to their respective countries of origin and to people natively born in the host country, but there is little population-based data on diabetes incidence and mortality in migrant populations. The aim...... of the current study was (1) to describe the incidence rates and prevalence of diabetes among first generation migrants in Denmark compared to the Danish background population, and (2) to compare standardised mortality rates (SMRs) for individuals with and without diabetes according to country of origin...... to the part of the population without diabetes were calculated based on follow up of the entire Danish population. RESULTS: Compared with native born Danes, the incidence of diabetes was about 2.5 times higher among migrants from Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, and these migrant groups also showed...