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Sample records for sweatshirt size large

  1. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    possible to achieve a drop in relative piglet mortality and the related welfare problems. However, there will be a growing problem with the need to use foster or nurse sows which may have negative effects on both sows and piglets. This gives rise to new challenges for management....... adverse consequences for animal welfare of Danish breeding for large litter sizes due to increased piglet mortality and the subsequent attempts to reverse these consequences by breeding for number of live piglets at day five rather than number of piglets born. By this change of breeding goal it seems...

  2. Structural sizing considerations for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, W. L., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Walz, J. E.

    1981-02-01

    A number of missions for the space shuttle were proposed which involve placing large truss platforms on-orbit. These platforms range in size from tens of meters in span for reflector application to several thousand meters for solar power collector application. These proposed sizes and the operational requirements considered are unconventional in comparison to Earthbound structures and little information exists concerning efficient proportions of the structural elements forming the framework of the platforms. Such proportions are of major concern because they have a strong influence on the packaging efficiency and, thus, the transportation effectiveness of the shuttle. The present study is undertaken to: (1) identify efficient ranges of application of deployable and erectable platforms configured for shuttle transport to orbit, and (2) determine sensitivity to key parameters of minimum mass deployable and erectable platform designs.

  3. Effect Sizes in Single Case Research: How Large is Large?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Brossart, Daniel F.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Long, James R.; De-Alba, Roman Garcia; Baugh, Frank G.; Sullivan, Jeremy R.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the problem of interpreting effect sizes in single case research. Nine single case analytic techniques were applied to a convenience sample of 77 published interrupted time series (AB) datasets, and the results were compared by technique across the datasets. Reanalysis of the published data helped answer questions about the…

  4. Growth processes leading to a large or small adult size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T; Sheehy, A; Molinari, L; Largo, R H

    2001-01-01

    The way in which a large size in anthropometric variables is achieved is a longstanding problem, since the pubertal spurt shows statistically and clinically little association with adult size (mostly studied for height). By analysing longitudinal growth of groups of subjects with a large or a small adult size separately for height, leg and sitting height, and bihumeral and biiliac width, we studied this problem in some detail. Of interest are growth patterns specific for these variables and for boys or girls. The data consist of 120 boys and 112 girls followed longitudinally from 4 weeks until adulthood. Statistically, structural average velocity curves were computed for each variable and each subgroup separately for comparison. This velocity curve represents the average intensity and the average tempo of growth. Since the area under the velocity curve is adult size, differences in the growth process can be visualized. Both sexes show similar patterns in reaching a small or large adult size. The different variables, however, show marked differences. Only for legs is the pubertal spurt delayed for the large groups (with additional gains in prepubertal years). For sitting height and biiliac width, a slightly elevated velocity all along development (after 2 years) leads to a larger size and for bihumeral width the size of the pubertal peak is decisive. The steering of growth to a certain target size is qualitatively similar for boys and girls, but quite different for different anthropometric variables. This leads to questions about endocrinological control for various parts of the body and differential bone growth in development.

  5. Estimated spatial requirements of the medium- to large-sized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation planning in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a recognised world plant diversity hotspot, required information on the estimated spatial requirements of selected medium- to large-sized mammals within each of 102 Broad Habitat Units (BHUs) delineated according to key biophysical parameters.

  6. Measurement of large-size casting geometry of the CMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gapiński

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the geometric dimensions’ control of large castings and moulds on coordinate measuring machines(CMMs. Precise measurements of large components are connected with many problems that arise from the vast mass and dimensions ofthe element. The bodies with a mass of several or even tens of tons require that the same metrological regime is restricted which isdedicated for small components measurement. That force the use of suitable measuring device, measurement conditions and the adequatepreparation of the element. Quality requirements expressed as tolerances in absolute terms do not cause difficulties in measurement. With regard to the significant size of the workpiece, it is not as easy to measure dimensions as with control of small elements. The paper presents the Coordinate Measuring Machines used to control large-size items.

  7. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto

    2018-01-04

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  8. Accuracy of the photogrametric measuring system for large size elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grzelka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methods of estimating and guidelines for verifying the accuracy of optical photogrammetric measuringsystems, using for measurement of large size elements. Measuring systems applied to measure workpieces of a large size which oftenreach more than 10000mm require use of appropriate standards. Those standards provided by the manufacturer of photogrammetricsystems are certified and are inspected annually. To make sure that these systems work properly there was developed a special standardVDI / VDE 2634, "Optical 3D measuring systems. Imaging systems with point - by - point probing. " According to recommendationsdescribed in this standard research on accuracy of photogrametric measuring system was conducted using K class gauge blocks dedicatedto calibrate and test accuracy of classic CMMs. The paper presents results of research of estimation the actual error of indication for sizemeasurement MPEE for photogrammetric coordinate measuring system TRITOP.

  9. Aerodynamic levitator for large-sized glassy material production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Shinichi; Cho, Won-Seung; Imai, Ryoji

    2015-09-01

    Containerless aerodynamic levitation processing is a unique technology for the fabrication of bulk non-crystalline materials. Using conventional aerodynamic levitation, a high reflective index (RI) material (BaTi2O5 and LaO3/2-TiO2-ZrO2 system) was developed with a RI greater than approximately 2.2, which is similar to that of diamond. However, the glass size was small, approximately 3 mm in diameter. Therefore, it is essential to produce large sized materials for future optical materials applications, such as camera lenses. In this study, a new aerodynamic levitator was designed to produce non-crystalline materials with diameters larger than 6 mm. The concept of this new levitator was to set up a reduced pressure at the top of the molten samples without generating turbulent flow. A numerical simulation was also performed to verify the concept.

  10. Nuclear states with anomalously large radius (size isomers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogloblin, A. A.; Demyanova, A. S., E-mail: a.s.demyanova@bk.ru; Danilov, A. N. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Belyaeva, T. L. [Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Meéxico (Mexico); Goncharov, S. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Trzaska, W. [University of Jyvaäskylaä (Finland)

    2016-07-15

    Methods of determination of the nuclear excited state radii are discussed together with the recently obtained data on the states of some light nuclei having abnormally large radii (size isomers). It is shown that such states include excited neutron-halo states in {sup 9}Be, {sup 11}Be, and {sup 13}C and some alpha-cluster states in {sup 12}C, {sup 11}B, and {sup 13}C. Among the latter ones, there is the well-known Hoyle state in {sup 12}C—the structure of this state exhibit rudimentary features of alpha-particle states.

  11. Uncertainty of the sample size reduction step in pesticide residue analysis of large-sized crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeroglu, P Yolci; Ambrus, Á; Boyacioglu, D; Majzik, E Solymosne

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the uncertainty of the sample size reduction step, each unit in laboratory samples of papaya and cucumber was cut into four segments in longitudinal directions and two opposite segments were selected for further homogenisation while the other two were discarded. Jackfruit was cut into six segments in longitudinal directions, and all segments were kept for further analysis. To determine the pesticide residue concentrations in each segment, they were individually homogenised and analysed by chromatographic methods. One segment from each unit of the laboratory sample was drawn randomly to obtain 50 theoretical sub-samples with an MS Office Excel macro. The residue concentrations in a sub-sample were calculated from the weight of segments and the corresponding residue concentration. The coefficient of variation calculated from the residue concentrations of 50 sub-samples gave the relative uncertainty resulting from the sample size reduction step. The sample size reduction step, which is performed by selecting one longitudinal segment from each unit of the laboratory sample, resulted in relative uncertainties of 17% and 21% for field-treated jackfruits and cucumber, respectively, and 7% for post-harvest treated papaya. The results demonstrated that sample size reduction is an inevitable source of uncertainty in pesticide residue analysis of large-sized crops. The post-harvest treatment resulted in a lower variability because the dipping process leads to a more uniform residue concentration on the surface of the crops than does the foliar application of pesticides.

  12. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John P; Woodruff, D Cary; Gardner, Jacob D; Flora, Holley M; Horner, John R; Organ, Chris L

    2016-01-01

    Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not.

  13. Large-sized kidney tumor mimicking an extraorgan retroperitoneal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Reva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The retroperitoneal space may be a site for a broad spectrum of both rare benign and malignant tumors that are in turn a focus of primary or metastatic involvement. Sarcomas, lymphomas, and different epithelial tumors (of the kidney, adrenal, and pancreas constitute the bulk of retroperitoneal tumors. Detection of a large-sized tumor located at one of the renal poles may raise the question of whether this mass is a kidney tumor or an extraorgan retroperitoneal tumor adjacent to or growing into the kidney. In view of significant differences in treatment procedures for various retroperitoneal tumors, when the origin of the mass is unknown, there is a need for an individual approach to defining the optimal therapeutic and diagnostic tactics, by attracting specialists in allied fields. 

  14. BAND STRUCTURE OF NON-STEIOCHIOMETRIC LARGE-SIZED NANOCRYSTALLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V.Kityk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A band structure of large-sized (from 20 to 35nm non-steichiometric nanocrystallites (NC of the Si2-xCx (1.04 < x < 1.10 has been investigated using different band energy approaches and a modified Car-Parinello molecular dynamics structure optimization of the NC interfaces. The non-steichiometric excess of carbon favors the appearance of a thin prevailingly carbon-contained layer (with thickness of about 1 nm covering the crystallites. As a consequence, one can observe a substantial structure reconstruction of boundary SiC crystalline layers. The numerical modeling has shown that these NC can be considered as SiC reconstructed crystalline films with thickness of about 2 nm covering the SiC crystallites. The observed data are considered within the different one-electron band structure methods. It was shown that the nano-sized carbon sheet plays a key role in a modified band structure. Independent manifestation of the important role played by the reconstructed confined layers is due to the experimentally discovered excitonic-like resonances. Low-temperature absorption measurements confirm the existence of sharp-like absorption resonances originating from the reconstructed layers.

  15. An alternative method for determining particle-size distribution of forest road aggregate and soil with large-sized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakjun Rhee; Randy B. Foltz; James L. Fridley; Finn Krogstad; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of particle-size distribution (PSD) of soil with large-sized particles (e.g., 25.4 mm diameter) requires a large sample and numerous particle-size analyses (PSAs). A new method is needed that would reduce time, effort, and cost for PSAs of the soil and aggregate material with large-sized particles. We evaluated a nested method for sampling and PSA by...

  16. Processing and properties of large-sized ceramic slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossa, L.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Large-sized ceramic slabs – with dimensions up to 360x120 cm2 and thickness down to 2 mm – are manufactured through an innovative ceramic process, starting from porcelain stoneware formulations and involving wet ball milling, spray drying, die-less slow-rate pressing, a single stage of fast drying-firing, and finishing (trimming, assembling of ceramic-fiberglass composites. Fired and unfired industrial slabs were selected and characterized from the technological, compositional (XRF, XRD and microstructural (SEM viewpoints. Semi-finished products exhibit a remarkable microstructural uniformity and stability in a rather wide window of firing schedules. The phase composition and compact microstructure of fired slabs are very similar to those of porcelain stoneware tiles. The values of water absorption, bulk density, closed porosity, functional performances as well as mechanical and tribological properties conform to the top quality range of porcelain stoneware tiles. However, the large size coupled with low thickness bestow on the slab a certain degree of flexibility, which is emphasized in ceramic-fiberglass composites. These outstanding performances make the large-sized slabs suitable to be used in novel applications: building and construction (new floorings without dismantling the previous paving, ventilated façades, tunnel coverings, insulating panelling, indoor furnitures (table tops, doors, support for photovoltaic ceramic panels.

    Se han fabricado piezas de gran formato, con dimensiones de hasta 360x120 cm, y menos de 2 mm, de espesor, empleando métodos innovadores de fabricación, partiendo de composiciones de gres porcelánico y utilizando, molienda con bolas por vía húmeda, atomización, prensado a baja velocidad sin boquilla de extrusión, secado y cocción rápido en una sola etapa, y un acabado que incluye la adhesión de fibra de vidrio al soporte cerámico y el rectificado de la pieza final. Se han

  17. IBAR: Interacting boson model calculations for large system sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Scaling the system size of the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1) into the realm of hundreds of bosons has many interesting applications in the field of nuclear structure, most notably quantum phase transitions in nuclei. We introduce IBAR, a new software package for calculating the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the IBM-1 Hamiltonian, for large numbers of bosons. Energies and wavefunctions of the nuclear states, as well as transition strengths between them, are calculated using these values. Numerical errors in the recursive calculation of reduced matrix elements of the d-boson creation operator are reduced by using an arbitrary precision mathematical library. This software has been tested for up to 1000 bosons using comparisons to analytic expressions. Comparisons have also been made to the code PHINT for smaller system sizes. Catalogue identifier: AELI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 28 734 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 104 467 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Any computer system with a C++ compiler Operating system: Tested under Linux RAM: 150 MB for 1000 boson calculations with angular momenta of up to L=4 Classification: 17.18, 17.20 External routines: ARPACK (http://www.caam.rice.edu/software/ARPACK/) Nature of problem: Construction and diagonalization of large Hamiltonian matrices, using reduced matrix elements of the d-boson creation operator. Solution method: Reduced matrix elements of the d-boson creation operator have been stored in data files at machine precision, after being recursively calculated with higher than machine precision. The Hamiltonian matrix is calculated and diagonalized, and the requested transition strengths are calculated

  18. Large-size space debris flyby in low earth orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A. A.; Grishko, D. A.; Razoumny, Y. N.

    2017-09-01

    the analysis of NORAD catalogue of space objects executed with respect to the overall sizes of upper-stages and last stages of carrier rockets allows the classification of 5 groups of large-size space debris (LSSD). These groups are defined according to the proximity of orbital inclinations of the involved objects. The orbits within a group have various values of deviations in the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN). It is proposed to use the RAANs deviations' evolution portrait to clarify the orbital planes' relative spatial distribution in a group so that the RAAN deviations should be calculated with respect to the concrete precessing orbital plane of the concrete object. In case of the first three groups (inclinations i = 71°, i = 74°, i = 81°) the straight lines of the RAAN relative deviations almost do not intersect each other. So the simple, successive flyby of group's elements is effective, but the significant value of total Δ V is required to form drift orbits. In case of the fifth group (Sun-synchronous orbits) these straight lines chaotically intersect each other for many times due to the noticeable differences in values of semi-major axes and orbital inclinations. The intersections' existence makes it possible to create such a flyby sequence for LSSD group when the orbit of one LSSD object simultaneously serves as the drift orbit to attain another LSSD object. This flyby scheme requiring less Δ V was called "diagonal." The RAANs deviations' evolution portrait built for the fourth group (to be studied in the paper) contains both types of lines, so the simultaneous combination of diagonal and successive flyby schemes is possible. The value of total Δ V and temporal costs were calculated to cover all the elements of the 4th group. The article is also enriched by the results obtained for the flyby problem solution in case of all the five mentioned LSSD groups. The general recommendations are given concerned with the required reserve of total

  19. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Embrittlement and decrease of apparent strength in large-sized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/sadh/027/04/0425-0448. Keywords. Concrete structures; size-effects; fractal geometry. Abstract. The problem of scale-effects on the performances of concrete structures is discussed. Experimentally observed decrease of nominal tensile strength, accompanied by structural embrittlement, ...

  1. Flow adjustment inside large finite-size wind farms approaching the infinite wind farm regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ka Ling; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Due to the increasing number and the growing size of wind farms, the distance among them continues to decrease. Thus, it is necessary to understand how these large finite-size wind farms and their wakes could interfere the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics and adjacent wind farms. Fully-developed flow inside wind farms has been extensively studied through numerical simulations of infinite wind farms. The transportation of momentum and energy is only vertical and the advection of them is neglected in these infinite wind farms. However, less attention has been paid to examine the length of wind farms required to reach such asymptotic regime and the ABL dynamics in the leading and trailing edges of the large finite-size wind farms. Large eddy simulations are performed in this study to investigate the flow adjustment inside large finite-size wind farms in conventionally-neutral boundary layer with the effect of Coriolis force and free-atmosphere stratification from 1 to 5 K/km. For the large finite-size wind farms considered in the present work, when the potential temperature lapse rate is 5 K/km, the wind farms exceed the height of the ABL by two orders of magnitude for the incoming flow inside the farms to approach the fully-developed regime. An entrance fetch of approximately 40 times of the ABL height is also required for such flow adjustment. At the fully-developed flow regime of the large finite-size wind farms, the flow characteristics match those of infinite wind farms even though they have different adjustment length scales. The role of advection at the entrance and exit regions of the large finite-size wind farms is also examined. The interaction between the internal boundary layer developed above the large finite-size wind farms and the ABL under different potential temperature lapse rates are compared. It is shown that the potential temperature lapse rate plays a role in whether the flow inside the large finite-size wind farms adjusts to the fully

  2. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning nests because of their advantage in competition among sneaker males in keeping a suitable position to sneak, whereas small sneakers had few chances to sneak. However, small sneaker males were able to stay in the nests longer than large sneaker males when they succeeded in sneak intrusion. This suggests the possibility of an increase in their paternity. The findings of these size-specific behavioural advantages may be important in considering the evolution of size-related reproductive traits.

  3. Study on information strategic planning for large and medium-sized enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Tan, Shaosheng

    2011-10-01

    Enterprise Information is an inevitable trend in management change for large and medium-sized enterprises and also the basic conditions for company's future business, which has become an indispensable part of the overall strategy. Based on analyzing current situation in enterprise information especially that in China, its information strategy-based factors and its existing outstanding issues in China, the paper tries to explore information strategic planning for large and medium-sized enterprises.

  4. Predator size, prey size and threshold food densities of diving ducks: does a common prey base support fewer large animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Samantha E; Lovvorn, James R

    2009-09-01

    1. Allometry predicts that a given habitat area or common prey biomass supports fewer numbers of larger than smaller predators; however, birds from related taxa or the same feeding guild often deviate from this pattern. In particular, foraging costs of birds may differ among locomotor modes, while intake rates vary with accessibility, handling times and energy content of different-sized prey. Such mechanisms might affect threshold prey densities needed for energy balance, and thus relative numbers of different-sized predators in habitats with varying prey patches. 2. We compared the foraging profitability (energy gain minus cost) of two diving ducks: smaller lesser scaup (Aythya affinis, 450-1090 g) and larger white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca, 950-1800 g). Calculations were based on past measurements of dive costs with respirometry, and of intake rates of a common bivalve prey ranging in size, energy content and burial depth in sediments. 3. For scaup feeding on small prey wings as well as feet (not an option for scaup), threshold prey densities were 11-12% lower. 5. Our results show that threshold densities of total prey numbers for different-sized ducks depend on prey size structure and depth in the sediments. Thus, heterogeneity in disturbance regimes and prey population dynamics can create a mosaic of patches favouring large or small predators. Whether a given area or total prey biomass will support greater numbers of larger or smaller predators will vary with these effects.

  5. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutherford, K.M.D; Baxter, E.M.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    , in a number of ways, large litter size is a risk factor for decreased animal welfare in pig production. Increased litter size is associated with increased piglet mortality, which is likely to be associated with significant negative animal welfare impacts. In surviving piglets, many of the causes of mortality...... with large litters are being implemented. An important mitigation strategy is genetic selection encompassing traits that promote piglet survival, vitality and growth. Sow nutrition and the minimisation of stress during gestation could also contribute to improving outcomes in terms of piglet welfare......Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig breeders and producers, and may have implications for pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) welfare. This paper reviews the scientific evidence on biological factors affecting sow and piglet welfare in relation to large litter size. It is concluded that...

  6. Optimum siting and sizing of a large distributed generator in a mesh connected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnashar, Mohab M.; El Shatshat, Ramadan; Salama, Magdy M.A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    This paper proposes a new approach to optimally determine the appropriate size and location of the distributed generator (DG) in a large mesh connected system. This paper presents a visual optimization approach in which the planner plays an important role in determining the optimal siting and sizing of the DG through the choice of the appropriate weight factors of the parameters included in the optimization technique according to the system deficiencies. Losses, voltage profile and short circuit level are used in the algorithm to determine the optimum sizes and locations of the DG. The short circuit level parameter is introduced to represent the protective device requirements in the selection of the size and location of the DG. The proposed technique has been tested on the IEEE 24 - bus mesh connected test system. The obtained results showed clearly that the optimal size and location can be simply determined through the proposed approach. (author)

  7. Corporate Social Responsibility in Large and Medium-sized Companies in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Żychlewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to confront views on the CSR concept with the actual activities undertaken in this area by the large and medium-sized companies in Poland. The paper is enriched by the presentation of consumer opinions on CSR, by which it is possible to identify the purpose of implementing socially responsible activities in these entities. The thesis of the paper is that large and medium-sized enterprises in Poland recognize the expectations of consumers in the implementation of the concept of corporate social responsibility and at the same time feel the same need, but many of them have not taken any action in this respect so far.

  8. One-click scanning of large-size documents using mobile phone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijiang; Jiang, Bo; Yang, Yuanjie

    2016-07-01

    Currently mobile apps for document scanning do not provide convenient operations to tackle large-size documents. In this paper, we present a one-click scanning approach for large-size documents using mobile phone camera. After capturing a continuous video of documents, our approach automatically extracts several key frames by optical flow analysis. Then based on key frames, a mobile GPU based image stitching method is adopted to generate a completed document image with high details. There are no extra manual intervention in the process and experimental results show that our app performs well, showing convenience and practicability for daily life.

  9. Classification of large-sized hyperspectral imagery using fast machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junshi; Yokoya, Naoto; Iwasaki, Akira

    2017-07-01

    We present a framework of fast machine learning algorithms in the context of large-sized hyperspectral images classification from the theoretical to a practical viewpoint. In particular, we assess the performance of random forest (RF), rotation forest (RoF), and extreme learning machine (ELM) and the ensembles of RF and ELM. These classifiers are applied to two large-sized hyperspectral images and compared to the support vector machines. To give the quantitative analysis, we pay attention to comparing these methods when working with high input dimensions and a limited/sufficient training set. Moreover, other important issues such as the computational cost and robustness against the noise are also discussed.

  10. Evolution of large body size in abalones (Haliotis): Patterns and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J.A.; Lindberg, D.R.; Wray, C.

    2005-01-01

    Kelps and other fleshy macroalgae - dominant reef-inhabiting organisms in cool - seasmay have radiated extensively following late Cenozoic polar cooling, thus triggering a chain of evolutionary change in the trophic ecology of nearshore temperate ecosystems. We explore this hypothesis through an analysis of body size in the abalones (Gastropoda; Haliotidae), a widely distributed group in modern oceans that displays a broad range of body sizes and contains fossil representatives from the late Cretaceous (60-75 Ma). Geographic analysis of maximum shell length in living abalones showed that small-bodied species, while most common in the Tropics, have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas large-bodied species occur exclusively in cold-water ecosystems dominated by kelps and other macroalgae. The phylogeography of body size evolution in extant abalones was assessed by constructing a molecular phylogeny in a mix of large and small species obtained from different regions of the world. This analysis demonstrates that small body size is the plesiomorphic state and largeness has likely arisen at least twice. Finally, we compiled data on shell length from the fossil record to determine how (slowly or suddenly) and when large body size arose in the abalones. These data indicate that large body size appears suddenly at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Our findings support the view that fleshy-algal dominated ecosystems radiated rapidly in the coastal oceans with the onset of the most recent glacial age. We conclude with a discussion of the broader implications of this change. ?? 2005 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Low is large: spatial location and pitch interact in voice-based body size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Isenstein, Sari G E; Montano, Kelyn J; O'Connor, Jillian J M; Feinberg, David R

    2017-05-01

    The binding of incongruent cues poses a challenge for multimodal perception. Indeed, although taller objects emit sounds from higher elevations, low-pitched sounds are perceptually mapped both to large size and to low elevation. In the present study, we examined how these incongruent vertical spatial cues (up is more) and pitch cues (low is large) to size interact, and whether similar biases influence size perception along the horizontal axis. In Experiment 1, we measured listeners' voice-based judgments of human body size using pitch-manipulated voices projected from a high versus a low, and a right versus a left, spatial location. Listeners associated low spatial locations with largeness for lowered-pitch but not for raised-pitch voices, demonstrating that pitch overrode vertical-elevation cues. Listeners associated rightward spatial locations with largeness, regardless of voice pitch. In Experiment 2, listeners performed the task while sitting or standing, allowing us to examine self-referential cues to elevation in size estimation. Listeners associated vertically low and rightward spatial cues with largeness more for lowered- than for raised-pitch voices. These correspondences were robust to sex (of both the voice and the listener) and head elevation (standing or sitting); however, horizontal correspondences were amplified when participants stood. Moreover, when participants were standing, their judgments of how much larger men's voices sounded than women's increased when the voices were projected from the low speaker. Our results provide novel evidence for a multidimensional spatial mapping of pitch that is generalizable to human voices and that affects performance in an indirect, ecologically relevant spatial task (body size estimation). These findings suggest that crossmodal pitch correspondences evoke both low-level and higher-level cognitive processes.

  12. Angiography technique with a large-sized image amplifier and process control via microprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holsten, D.R.; Jalloul, M.K.; Joetten, G.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of new technological developments it was possible to design and introduce into practice a new generation of large-sized image amplifiers, which were first of all used in X-ray examination equipment and are now also being used in special devices for angiography and digital substraction angiography.

  13. Consumption with Large Sip Sizes Increases Food Intake and Leads to Underestimation of the Amount Consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, D.P.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Wijk, de R.A.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of studies have shown that bite and sip sizes influence the amount of food intake. Consuming with small sips instead of large sips means relatively more sips for the same amount of food to be consumed; people may believe that intake is higher which leads to faster satiation. This

  14. THE QUALIMETRY OF LARGE-SIZED STAMPED-SHEET DETAILS GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Demchenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualimetric method of the large-sized stamped-sheet details influence of geometric shape on the manufacture performance characteristics are given. The graphic model of shape classification and geometric shape factor definition algorithms for triangular and quadrangular shapes are proposed.

  15. Individual differences in susceptibility to large portion sizes among obese and normal‐weight children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mooreville, Mira; Davey, Adam; Orloski, Alexandria; Hannah, Elizabeth L; Mathias, Kevin C; Birch, Leann L; Kral, Tanja V.E; Zakeri, Issa F; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2015-01-01

    ... and satiety among children by promoting energy intake at and across meals . Such conditions do not have uniform effects on children, however, as evidenced by the observation that a majority of youth are not obese in the current environment . Whether heavier children are more susceptible to large food portion sizes is unclear. The notion of ...

  16. Large Time Asymptotics for a Continuous Coagulation-Fragmentation Model with Degenerate Size-Dependent Diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Desvillettes, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    We study a continuous coagulation-fragmentation model with constant kernels for reacting polymers (see [M. Aizenman and T. Bak, Comm. Math. Phys., 65 (1979), pp. 203-230]). The polymers are set to diffuse within a smooth bounded one-dimensional domain with no-flux boundary conditions. In particular, we consider size-dependent diffusion coefficients, which may degenerate for small and large cluster-sizes. We prove that the entropy-entropy dissipation method applies directly in this inhomogeneous setting. We first show the necessary basic a priori estimates in dimension one, and second we show faster-than-polynomial convergence toward global equilibria for diffusion coefficients which vanish not faster than linearly for large sizes. This extends the previous results of [J.A. Carrillo, L. Desvillettes, and K. Fellner, Comm. Math. Phys., 278 (2008), pp. 433-451], which assumes that the diffusion coefficients are bounded below. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  17. INSTALLATION FOR LARGE SIZE STAMP HARDENING TRANINIG BY WATER-AIR MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Glazkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The BNTU has developed a technological process for large-size stamp hardening by means of a water-air mixture.  The  basic  requirements  imposed on an hardening  installation using  a  water-air mixture are the following: provision of smooth cooling of a part in order to achieve the required  hardness and structure; possibility of machining parts of various sizes; change of modes for machining parts of various grades of steel according to any hardness rate.The peculiar features of the given installation are: a presence of microprocessor control of water-air mixture supply, possibility of simultaneous machining of a stamp set (2 parts and position change of parts to be hardened in the process of thermal treatment.Installation for large-sized stamp hardening has been manufactured and introduced at theMinskplant of special tools and machining attachments.

  18. Potential enhanced ability of giant squid to detect sperm whales is an exaptation tied to their large body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Lars; Motani, Ryosuke; Oufiero, Christopher E; Martin, Christopher H; McGee, Matthew D; Wainwright, Peter C

    2013-10-15

    It has been hypothesized that sperm whale predation is the driver of eye size evolution in giant squid. Given that the eyes of giant squid have the size expected for a squid this big, it is likely that any enhanced ability of giant squid to detect whales is an exaptation tied to their body size. Future studies should target the mechanism behind the evolution of large body size, not eye size. Reconstructions of the evolutionary history of selective regime, eye size, optical performance, and body size will improve the understanding of the evolution of large eyes in large ocean animals.

  19. Empirically determining the sample size for large-scale gene network inference algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, G

    2012-04-01

    The performance of genome-wide gene regulatory network inference algorithms depends on the sample size. It is generally considered that the larger the sample size, the better the gene network inference performance. Nevertheless, there is not adequate information on determining the sample size for optimal performance. In this study, the author systematically demonstrates the effect of sample size on information-theory-based gene network inference algorithms with an ensemble approach. The empirical results showed that the inference performances of the considered algorithms tend to converge after a particular sample size region. As a specific example, the sample size region around ≃64 is sufficient to obtain the most of the inference performance with respect to precision using the representative algorithm C3NET on the synthetic steady-state data sets of Escherichia coli and also time-series data set of a homo sapiens subnetworks. The author verified the convergence result on a large, real data set of E. coli as well. The results give evidence to biologists to better design experiments to infer gene networks. Further, the effect of cutoff on inference performances over various sample sizes is considered. [Includes supplementary material].

  20. Development and experimental study of large size composite plasma immersion ion implantation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falun, SONG; Fei, LI; Mingdong, ZHU; Langping, WANG; Beizhen, ZHANG; Haitao, GONG; Yanqing, GAN; Xiao, JIN

    2018-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) overcomes the direct exposure limit of traditional beam-line ion implantation, and is suitable for the treatment of complex work-piece with large size. PIII technology is often used for surface modification of metal, plastics and ceramics. Based on the requirement of surface modification of large size insulating material, a composite full-directional PIII device based on RF plasma source and metal plasma source is developed in this paper. This device can not only realize gas ion implantation, but also can realize metal ion implantation, and can also realize gas ion mixing with metal ions injection. This device has two metal plasma sources and each metal source contains three cathodes. Under the condition of keeping the vacuum unchanged, the cathode can be switched freely. The volume of the vacuum chamber is about 0.94 m3, and maximum vacuum degree is about 5 × 10‑4 Pa. The density of RF plasma in homogeneous region is about 109 cm‑3, and plasma density in the ion implantation region is about 1010 cm‑3. This device can be used for large-size sample material PIII treatment, the maximum size of the sample diameter up to 400 mm. The experimental results show that the plasma discharge in the device is stable and can run for a long time. It is suitable for surface treatment of insulating materials.

  1. Jurisdiction Size and Local Democracy: Evidence on Internal Political Efficacy from Large-scale Municipal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritzlew, Søren

    2011-01-01

    and problems of endogeneity. We focus on internal political efficacy, a psychological condition that many see as necessary for high-quality participatory democracy. We identify a quasiexperiment, a large-scale municipal reform in Denmark, which allows us to estimate a causal effect of jurisdiction size...... on internal political efficacy. The reform, affecting some municipalities, but not all, was implemented by the central government, and resulted in exogenous, and substantial, changes in municipal population size. Based on survey data collected before and after the reform, we find, using various difference...

  2. Spin-torque oscillation in large size nano-magnet with perpendicular magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Linqiang; Kabir, Mehdi; Dao, Nam; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn; Cyberey, Michael; Wolf, Stuart A.; Stan, Mircea; Lu, Jiwei

    2017-06-01

    DC current induced magnetization reversal and magnetization oscillation was observed in 500 nm large size Co90Fe10/Cu/Ni80Fe20 pillars. A perpendicular external field enhanced the coercive field separation between the reference layer (Co90Fe10) and free layer (Ni80Fe20) in the pseudo spin valve, allowing a large window of external magnetic field for exploring the free-layer reversal. A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved for the study of spin torque oscillation by applying a perpendicular field >3 kOe. The magnetization precession was manifested in terms of the multiple peaks on the differential resistance curves. Depending on the bias current and applied field, the regions of magnetic switching and magnetization precession on a dynamical stability diagram has been discussed in details. Micromagnetic simulations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results and provide insight for synchronization of inhomogeneities in large sized device. The ability to manipulate spin-dynamics on large size devices could be proved useful for increasing the output power of the spin-transfer nano-oscillators (STNOs).

  3. Effect of pore size on performance of monolithic tube chromatography of large biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornik, Ales; Hamachi, Masataka; Isakari, Yu; Yoshimoto, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2017-11-01

    Effect of pore size on the performance of ion-exchange monolith tube chromatography of large biomolecules was investigated. Radial flow 1 mL polymer based monolith tubes of different pore sizes (1.5, 2, and 6 μm) were tested with model samples such as 20 mer poly T-DNA, basic proteins, and acidic proteins (molecular weight 14 000-670 000). Pressure drop, pH transient, the number of binding site, dynamic binding capacity, and peak width were examined. Pressure drop-flow rate curves and dynamic binding capacity values were well correlated with the nominal pore size. While duration of the pH transient curves depends on the pore size, it was found that pH duration normalized on estimated surface area was constant, indicating that the ligand density is the same. This was also confirmed by the constant number of binding site values being independent of pore size. The peak width values were similar to those for axial flow monolith chromatography. These results showed that it is easy to scale up axial flow monolith chromatography to radial flow monolith tube chromatography by choosing the right pore size in terms of the pressure drop and capacity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Predator-prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Smith, Norman; Mills, M G L

    2008-01-01

    1. Size relationships are central in structuring trophic linkages within food webs, leading to suggestions that the dietary niche of smaller carnivores is nested within that of larger species. However, past analyses have not taken into account the differing selection shown by carnivores for specific size ranges of prey, nor the extent to which the greater carcass mass of larger prey outweighs the greater numerical representation of smaller prey species in the predator diet. Furthermore, the top-down impact that predation has on prey abundance cannot be assessed simply in terms of the number of predator species involved. 2. Records of found carcasses and cause of death assembled over 46 years in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, corrected for under-recording of smaller species, enabled a definitive assessment of size relationships between large mammalian carnivores and their ungulate prey. Five carnivore species were considered, including lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), and 22 herbivore prey species larger than 10 kg in adult body mass. 3. These carnivores selectively favoured prey species approximately half to twice their mass, within a total prey size range from an order of magnitude below to an order of magnitude above the body mass of the predator. The three smallest carnivores, i.e. leopard, cheetah and wild dog, showed high similarity in prey species favoured. Despite overlap in prey size range, each carnivore showed a distinct dietary preference. 4. Almost all mortality was through the agency of a predator for ungulate species up to the size of a giraffe (800-1200 kg). Ungulates larger than twice the mass of the predator contributed substantially to the dietary intake of lions, despite the low proportional mortality inflicted by predation on these species. Only for megaherbivores substantially exceeding 1000 kg in adult body mass did

  5. Comparative analysis of non-destructive methods to control fissile materials in large-size containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyaev V.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of various non-destructive methods to control fissile materials (FM in large-size containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW has been carried out. The difficulty of applying passive gamma-neutron monitoring FM in large containers filled with concreted RAW is shown. Selection of an active non-destructive assay technique depends on the container contents; and in case of a concrete or iron matrix with very low activity and low activity RAW the neutron radiation method appears to be more preferable as compared with the photonuclear one.

  6. Scrum of scrums solution for large size teams using scrum methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Qurashi, Saja Al; Qureshi, M. Rizwan Jameel

    2014-01-01

    Scrum is a structured framework to support complex product development. However, Scrum methodology faces a challenge of managing large teams. To address this challenge, in this paper we propose a solution called Scrum of Scrums. In Scrum of Scrums, we divide the Scrum team into teams of the right size, and then organize them hierarchically into a Scrum of Scrums. The main goals of the proposed solution are to optimize communication between teams in Scrum of Scrums; to make the system work aft...

  7. Intra-panel interface with clock-embedded differential signalling for large size digital television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Ho; Yoo, Changsik

    2014-01-01

    For large size digital television, an intra-panel interface scheme with clock-embedded differential signalling is developed which connects a timing controller and column data driver at 2.0 Gbps. A two-wire differential data channel has tri-level and clock information is embedded in it. Embedded clocking eliminates the skew between data channel and clock, which makes the clock-data recovery very simple. A prototype chip has been implemented in a standard 45-nm CMOS technology.

  8. The Use of Bipolar Transurethral Enucleation for the Treatment of Large-Sized Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Sevryukov F.A.; Nakagawa Ken

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to study the clinical efficiency of the transurethral enucleation of large-sized prostate adenoma based on a comparative analysis with the results of open adenomectomy. Materials and Methods. The research is based on the treatment results of 122 patients treated using the transurethral enucleation method, and 122 patients with open adenomectomy. Conclusion. The advantage of an operative method of bipolar transurethral enucleation of prostate over adenom...

  9. Synthesis of monodisperse Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles with large size by a facile fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weiwei [Non-equilibrium Condensed Matter and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang Liqing, E-mail: lqhuang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Non-equilibrium Condensed Matter and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhu Jian; Liu You; Wang Jun [Non-equilibrium Condensed Matter and Quantum Engineering Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel facile procedure for synthesizing Ag-Ag alloy nanoparticles was proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The monodisperse Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles with large size (>20 nm) were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation mechanism is suggested by analyzing the characteristic results. - Abstract: The fairish monodisperse Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles (NPs) with various composition and size were synthesized by a facile fabrication procedure. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of homogeneous alloy NPs. The diameters of the resultant monodisperse spherical Ag-Au alloy NPs are 21-32 nm and the long-axis size of the resultant monodisperse nonspherical Ag-Au alloy NPs are about 28 nm. The possible formation mechanism is suggested by analyzing the dynamic absorption spectra, TEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy of the alloy nanoparticles at the different time. Ag-Au alloy NPs synthesis method developed in this paper has several advantages: (1) the synthesis process is very simple. Only sodium citrate was used as both reducing agent and stabilizing agent and only one step heating process was needed. (2) The resultant Ag-Au colloidal dispersion is free from AgCl deposition and (3) the fairish monodisperse and large size (>20 nm) Ag-Au alloy NPs can be obtained.

  10. An Improved Adaptive Template Size Pixel-Tracking Method for Monitoring Large-Gradient Mining Subsidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilei Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of large-gradient deformation caused by coal mining is of great significance to the prevention and management of disasters in mining areas. The interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR method captures the small-gradient ground deformation on the edge of the subsidence basin accurately but is unreliable for capturing large-gradient deformation. The intensity-based pixel-tracking method (e.g., the normalized cross-correlation (NCC method can overcome the limitations of InSAR’s maximum detectable displacement gradient and incoherence. However, the pixel-tracking method is sensitive to template size. It is difficult to estimate ground subsidence accurately by the conventional pixel-tracking method with fixed template size. In this paper, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is redefined and an improved locally adaptive template size method is proposed by identifying optimal template adaptively based on maximization of the redefined SNR. The constraint radius is used to constrain the search area in this improved method. The frequency of misrepresentation is reduced by finding the peak of the correlation coefficient surface within the search area. Both simulation data and real ground subsidence data are used to test this algorithm. The results show that this method can improve monitoring accuracy compared with the traditional pixel-tracking method for fixed template size.

  11. Estimating the Size of a Large Network and its Communities from a Random Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Karbasi, Amin; Crawford, Forrest W

    2016-01-01

    Most real-world networks are too large to be measured or studied directly and there is substantial interest in estimating global network properties from smaller sub-samples. One of the most important global properties is the number of vertices/nodes in the network. Estimating the number of vertices in a large network is a major challenge in computer science, epidemiology, demography, and intelligence analysis. In this paper we consider a population random graph G = (V, E) from the stochastic block model (SBM) with K communities/blocks. A sample is obtained by randomly choosing a subset W ⊆ V and letting G(W) be the induced subgraph in G of the vertices in W. In addition to G(W), we observe the total degree of each sampled vertex and its block membership. Given this partial information, we propose an efficient PopULation Size Estimation algorithm, called PULSE, that accurately estimates the size of the whole population as well as the size of each community. To support our theoretical analysis, we perform an exhaustive set of experiments to study the effects of sample size, K, and SBM model parameters on the accuracy of the estimates. The experimental results also demonstrate that PULSE significantly outperforms a widely-used method called the network scale-up estimator in a wide variety of scenarios.

  12. Mechanical evaluation of large-size fourth-generation composite femur and tibia models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Matthew P; Chong, Alexander C M; Pollock, Anthony G; Wooley, Paul H

    2010-03-01

    Composite analogue bone models provide consistent geometric and structural properties that represent a valuable asset in a range of biomechanical analyses and testing procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diaphyseal structural properties of the large-size Fourth-Generation composite analogue femur and tibia models concentrated on mechanical behaviors under axial compression, bending and torsion. Thirty of each large-size composite analogue models (femora and tibiae) were tested under medial-lateral four-point bending, anterior-posterior four-point bending, axial compression and external rotational torque to evaluate flexural rigidity, axial stiffness, torsional rigidity and ultimate failure strength. The composite femur was tested under torsion at both the femoral neck and the mid-diaphyseal areas. Large-size Fourth-Generation composite replicate bones exhibited intra-specimen variations under 10% for all cases and was also found to perform within the biological range of healthy adult bones (age: evaluated and advanced our overall understanding of the capacity of composite analogue bone models mimic the structural properties of average healthy adult human bones.

  13. Process Design by FEM Simulation for Shape Ring Rolling of Large-Sized Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. S.; Lee, M. W.; Park, S. S.; Lee, I.; Moon, Y. H.

    2010-06-01

    Ring rolling process is usually used to fabricate large-sized ring, such as, tower flange for wind power electric generator. Many kinds of seamless ring are used in wind power electric generator and manufactured by ring rolling process. In general, final part is machined after forming with shape of plain square section. Since interests for near net shaping of seamless ring have been increased gradually because of green energy, it is necessary to develop the technology for shape ring rolling with respect to the market demands and cost. Therefore, we studied the process and die design for shape ring rolling of large sized ring over 3,500 mm out diameter by experiment and FEM simulation. Ring rolling process is very difficult to solve by FEM method because of equilibrium state and size effect, etc. Moreover, shape ring rolling is more difficult to solve the problem that two plastic deformation zones are different each other, that is main roll and conical roll. Also since conical roll has a shape, deformation velocity field is very much complex and the deformed section passed axial roll is different section and velocity field. The FE simulations are performed to analyze process variables affected in forming of profiled ring. Therefore, the main features of used FE model are: (1) it adopts a transient or unsteady state full ring mesh to model the deformation processes and shape development; (2) the mandrel and conical rolls are modeled using coupled heat-transfer elements; (3) the model involves the full process from blank through perform to final profiled ring. From these calculated results, we have proposed the mechanisms of various tools, such as mandrel and conical roll. The calculated results are compared experimental results. Calculated results can predict the tilting of profiled ring and then process variables to form large sized ring.

  14. A simple method for estimating genetic diversity in large populations from finite sample sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajora Om P

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sample size is one of the critical factors affecting the accuracy of the estimation of population genetic diversity parameters. Small sample sizes often lead to significant errors in determining the allelic richness, which is one of the most important and commonly used estimators of genetic diversity in populations. Correct estimation of allelic richness in natural populations is challenging since they often do not conform to model assumptions. Here, we introduce a simple and robust approach to estimate the genetic diversity in large natural populations based on the empirical data for finite sample sizes. Results We developed a non-linear regression model to infer genetic diversity estimates in large natural populations from finite sample sizes. The allelic richness values predicted by our model were in good agreement with those observed in the simulated data sets and the true allelic richness observed in the source populations. The model has been validated using simulated population genetic data sets with different evolutionary scenarios implied in the simulated populations, as well as large microsatellite and allozyme experimental data sets for four conifer species with contrasting patterns of inherent genetic diversity and mating systems. Our model was a better predictor for allelic richness in natural populations than the widely-used Ewens sampling formula, coalescent approach, and rarefaction algorithm. Conclusions Our regression model was capable of accurately estimating allelic richness in natural populations regardless of the species and marker system. This regression modeling approach is free from assumptions and can be widely used for population genetic and conservation applications.

  15. Tailored TEMp0 beams for large size 3-D laser prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnaoui, A.; Bencheikh, A.; Aït-Ameur, K.

    2011-02-01

    The Laser-Lithography technique allows the fabrication of complex objects having microsizes by selectively solidifying polymeric materials layer by layer upon exposure to a focused Gaussian laser beam having a beam propagation factor M2=1. We can expect that extension of this technique to large sizes 3-D prototyping comes up against a large increase in the design time. A possible solution is the increase in the focused spot size, but unfortunately at the price of a great reduction in the longitudinal resolution due to the resulting increase in the depth of focus. To overcome these difficulties, we propose the use of a rectified TEMp0 beam allowing the obtaining of a Gaussian beam intensity profile in the focus plane of a lens. The reshaped TEMp0 beam has a beam propagation factor M2≈(2 p+1), and this yields to a relative improvement of the longitudinal resolution although the spot size is increased for reducing the processing time.

  16. Estimating the Size of a Large Network and its Communities from a Random Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lin; Crawford, Forrest W

    2016-01-01

    Most real-world networks are too large to be measured or studied directly and there is substantial interest in estimating global network properties from smaller sub-samples. One of the most important global properties is the number of vertices/nodes in the network. Estimating the number of vertices in a large network is a major challenge in computer science, epidemiology, demography, and intelligence analysis. In this paper we consider a population random graph G = (V;E) from the stochastic block model (SBM) with K communities/blocks. A sample is obtained by randomly choosing a subset W and letting G(W) be the induced subgraph in G of the vertices in W. In addition to G(W), we observe the total degree of each sampled vertex and its block membership. Given this partial information, we propose an efficient PopULation Size Estimation algorithm, called PULSE, that correctly estimates the size of the whole population as well as the size of each community. To support our theoretical analysis, we perform an exhausti...

  17. Large Scale Behavior and Droplet Size Distributions in Crude Oil Jets and Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph; Murphy, David; Morra, David

    2013-11-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout introduced several million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Injected initially as a turbulent jet containing crude oil and gas, the spill caused formation of a subsurface plume stretching for tens of miles. The behavior of such buoyant multiphase plumes depends on several factors, such as the oil droplet and bubble size distributions, current speed, and ambient stratification. While large droplets quickly rise to the surface, fine ones together with entrained seawater form intrusion layers. Many elements of the physics of droplet formation by an immiscible turbulent jet and their resulting size distribution have not been elucidated, but are known to be significantly influenced by the addition of dispersants, which vary the Weber Number by orders of magnitude. We present experimental high speed visualizations of turbulent jets of sweet petroleum crude oil (MC 252) premixed with Corexit 9500A dispersant at various dispersant to oil ratios. Observations were conducted in a 0.9 m × 0.9 m × 2.5 m towing tank, where large-scale behavior of the jet, both stationary and towed at various speeds to simulate cross-flow, have been recorded at high speed. Preliminary data on oil droplet size and spatial distributions were also measured using a videoscope and pulsed light sheet. Sponsored by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  18. Paleogenomic data suggest mammal-like genome size in the ancestral amniote and derived large genome size in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, C L; Canoville, A; Reisz, R R; Laurin, M

    2011-02-01

    An unsolved question in evolutionary genomics is whether amniote genomes have been expanding or contracting since the common ancestor of this diverse group. Here, we report on the polarity of amniote genome size evolution using genome size estimates for 14 extinct tetrapod genera from the Paleozoic and early Mesozoic Eras using osteocyte lacunae size as a correlate. We find substantial support for a phylogenetically controlled regression model relating genome size to osteocyte lacunae size (P of slopes <0.01, r²=0.65, phylogenetic signal λ=0.83). Genome size appears to have been homogeneous across Paleozoic crown-tetrapod lineages (average haploid genome size 2.9-3.7 pg) with values similar to those of extant mammals. The differentiation in genome size and underlying architecture among extant tetrapod lineages likely evolved in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, with expansion in amphibians, contractions along the diapsid lineage, and no directional change within the synapsid lineage leading to mammals. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Effect of drop size on the impact thermodynamics for supercooled large droplet in aircraft icing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chen [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Hong, E-mail: hongliu@sjtu.edu.cn [J. C. Wu Center of Aerodynamics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Supercooled large droplet (SLD), which can cause abnormal icing, is a well-known issue in aerospace engineering. Although efforts have been exerted to understand large droplet impact dynamics and the supercooled feature in the film/substrate interface, respectively, the thermodynamic effect during the SLD impact process has not received sufficient attention. This work conducts experimental studies to determine the effects of drop size on the thermodynamics for supercooled large droplet impingement. Through phenomenological reproduction, the rapid-freezing characteristics are observed in diameters of 400, 800, and 1300 μm. The experimental analysis provides information on the maximum spreading rate and the shrinkage rate of the drop, the supercooled diffusive rate, and the freezing time. A physical explanation of this unsteady heat transfer process is proposed theoretically, which indicates that the drop size is a critical factor influencing the supercooled heat exchange and effective heat transfer duration between the film/substrate interface. On the basis of the present experimental data and theoretical analysis, an impinging heating model is developed and applied to typical SLD cases. The model behaves as anticipated, which underlines the wide applicability to SLD icing problems in related fields.

  20. A hybrid adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm applied to a lot-sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt; Spoorendonk, Simon

    programming solver and its built-in feasibility heuristics is used to search a neighborhood for improving solutions. The general reoptimization approach used for repairing solutions is specifically suited for combinatorial problems where it may be hard to otherwise design operations to define a neighborhood......This paper presents a hybrid of a general heuristic framework that has been successfully applied to vehicle routing problems and a general purpose MIP solver. The framework uses local search and an adaptive procedure which choses between a set of large neighborhoods to be searched. A mixed integer...... of a solution and to investigate the feasibility of elements in such a neighborhood. The hybrid heuristic framework is applied to the multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with dynamic lot sizes, where experiments have been conducted on a series of instances from the literature. On average the heuristic...

  1. New approaches in luminescence dating using single grains of small and large sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, N.; Shinde, D. P.; Anand, S.; Mayya, Y. S.; Singhvi, A. K.

    2009-04-01

    Luminescence dating of sediments relies on the estimation of the dose absorbed by a constituent mineral grain (quartz and/or feldspar) from the natural radiation field arising from the decay of natural radioactivity viz. U, Th and K. A minor contribution is provided by the cosmic rays. Improvements in measurement technology have enabled the measurements of single grains. Using Monte Carlo simulations we explore here the implications of two realms of single grains, one where the size of grains is larger or comparable to the beta ranges (centimeter to sub centimeter scale) and the other when the size is much smaller (micrometer to sub millimeter scale), In the case of large grain sizes, we suggest that the beta dose to the grains get attenuated with depth such that the interior of the grains receives only a fraction of total dose, mostly due to the gamma rays. This fraction is typically ~30% of the total dose. Under the same irradiation condition, such a truncated dose rate implies a delayed onset of saturation in the growth of luminescence signal with radiation does. This implies an increased dating range. Based on a detailed calculation of the dose-depth profiles, we present a conceptual frame work for a three to four fold increase in the age range achievable by conventional dating protocols using 100-200 m grains. This is based on removal of the beta skin of a large grain akin to the removal of the alpha skin in the case of small grains. Experiments on the optical transparency of large grains suggested a finite light transmission through 7 mm thick slices of quartz. This ensures that despite the size the geological luminescence of the grains will get photobleached, providing a way for their application in dating. Given that the beta dose attenuation is dependent on the grain size, it is reasonable to expect that the total absorbed dose is also grain size dependent. This implies the prospects of development of an isochronal methods, where the absorbed doses are

  2. Biophysical interactions control the size and abundance of large phytoplankton chains at the Ushant tidal front.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Landeira

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton blooms are usually dominated by chain-forming diatom species that can alter food pathways from primary producers to predators by reducing the interactions between intermediate trophic levels. The food-web modifications are determined by the length of the chains; however, the estimation is biased because traditional sampling strategies damage the chains and, therefore, change the phytoplankton size structure. Sedimentological studies around oceanic fronts have shown high concentrations of giant diatom mats (>1 cm in length, suggesting that the size of diatom chains is underestimated in the pelagic realm. Here, we investigate the variability in size and abundance of phytoplankton chains at the Ushant tidal front (NW France using the Video Fluorescence Analyzer (VFA, a novel and non-invasive system. CTD and Scanfish profiling characterized a strong temperature and chlorophyll front, separating mixed coastal waters from the oceanic-stratified domain. In order to elucidate spring-neap variations in the front, vertical microstructure profiler was used to estimate the turbulence and vertical nitrate flux. Key findings were: (1 the VFA system recorded large diatom chains up to 10.7 mm in length; (2 chains were mainly distributed in the frontal region, with maximum values above the pycnocline in coincidence with the maximum chlorophyll; (3 the diapycnal fluxes of nitrate enabled the maintenance of the bloom in the frontal area throughout the spring-neap tidal cycle; (4 from spring to neap tide the chains length was significantly reduced; (5 during neap tide, the less intense vertical diffusion of nutrients, as well as the lower turbulence around the chains, intensified nutrient-depleted conditions and, thus, very large chains became disadvantageous. To explain this pattern, we suggest that size plasticity is an important ecological trait driving phytoplankton species competition. Although this plasticity behavior is well known from

  3. High genetic variation in leopards indicates large and long-term stable effective population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, G; Johansson, M; Björklund, M

    2000-11-01

    In this paper we employ recently developed statistical and molecular tools to analyse the population history of the Tanzanian leopard (Panthera pardus), a large solitary felid. Because of their solitary lifestyle little is known of their past or present population dynamics. Eighty-one individuals were scored at 18 microsatellite loci. Overall, levels of heterozygosity were high (0.77 +/- 0.03), with a small heterozygote deficiency (0.06 +/- 0.03). Effective population size (Ne) was calculated to be 38 000-48 000. A Ne:N ratio of 0.42 (average from four cat studies) gives a present population size of about 100 000 leopards in Tanzania. Four different bottleneck tests indicated that this population has been large and stable for a minimum of several thousand years. FST values were low and no significant genetic structuring of the population could be detected. This concurs well with the large migration values (Nm) obtained (>3.3 individuals/generation). Our analysis reveals that ecological factors (e.g. disease), which are known to have had major impact on other carnivore populations, are unlikely to have impacted strongly on the population dynamics of Tanzanian leopards. The explanation may be found in their solitary life-style, their often nonconfrontational behaviour toward interspecific competitors, or that any bottlenecks have been of limited size, localized, or too short to have affected genetic variation to any measurable degree. Since the genetic structuring is weak, gene flow is not restricted to within protected areas. Local loss of genetic variation is therefore not of immediate concern.

  4. A simple, compact, and rigid piezoelectric step motor with large step size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Lu, Qingyou

    2009-08-01

    We present a novel piezoelectric stepper motor featuring high compactness, rigidity, simplicity, and any direction operability. Although tested in room temperature, it is believed to work in low temperatures, owing to its loose operation conditions and large step size. The motor is implemented with a piezoelectric scanner tube that is axially cut into almost two halves and clamp holds a hollow shaft inside at both ends via the spring parts of the shaft. Two driving voltages that singly deform the two halves of the piezotube in one direction and recover simultaneously will move the shaft in the opposite direction, and vice versa.

  5. A large size vertical cavity surface emitting laser with multiple concentric ring apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Hao, Yong-Qin; Zhang, Xin; Li, Yang; Yue, Guang-Li; Yan, Chang-Ling; Feng, Yuan; Ma, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Guo-Jun

    2017-10-01

    A large size vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with multiple concentric ring apertures (MCRA) is investigated. Compared with a typical VCSEL with the same outer dimension, the 804nm VCSEL with MCRA has maximal continuous wave(CW) light output power 0.23 W which is about 3 times that of a typical device. The novel laser also exhibits a stable single-lobed far field pattern with low beam divergence angle, which is suitable for free-space optical communication and optical interconnection applications.

  6. Comparative Study of Machining Technology Selection to Manufacture Large-Size Components of Offshore Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deja Mariusz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on process planning for large parts manufacture in systems of definite process capabilities, involving the use of multi-axis machining centres. The analysis of machining heavy mechanical components used in off-shore constructions has been carried out. Setup concepts applied and operation sequences determined in related process plans underwent studies. The paper presents in particular a reasoning approach to setup sequencing and machine assignment in manufacturing large-size components of offshore constructions. The relevant reasoning mechanism within a decision making scheme on generated process plan is shown based on a case study derived from the offshore sector. Recommendations for manufacture of selected exemplary and typical parts were formulated.

  7. Ultra-large elongation and dislocation behavior of nano-sized tantalum single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although extensive simulations and experimental investigations have been carried out, the plastic deformation mechanism of body-centered-cubic (BCC metals is still unclear. With our home-made device, the in situ tensile tests of single crystal tantalum (Ta nanoplates with a lateral dimension of ∼200 nm in width and ∼100 nm in thickness were conducted inside a transmission electron microscope. We discovered an unusual ambient temperature (below ∼60°C ultra-large elongation which could be as large as 63% on Ta nanoplates. The in situ observations revealed that the continuous and homogeneous dislocation nucleation and fast dislocation escape lead to the ultra-large elongation in BCC Ta nanoplates. Besides commonly believed screw dislocations, a large amount of mixed dislocation with b=12 were also found during the tensile loading, indicating the dislocation process can be significantly influenced by the small sizes of BCC metals. These results provide basic understanding of plastic deformation in BCC metallic nanomaterials.

  8. Ultra-large elongation and dislocation behavior of nano-sized tantalum single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Lu, Yan; Kong, Deli; Shu, Xinyu; Deng, Qingsong; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Yanhui; Zou, Jin; Wang, Lihua

    2017-04-01

    Although extensive simulations and experimental investigations have been carried out, the plastic deformation mechanism of body-centered-cubic (BCC) metals is still unclear. With our home-made device, the in situ tensile tests of single crystal tantalum (Ta) nanoplates with a lateral dimension of ˜200 nm in width and ˜100 nm in thickness were conducted inside a transmission electron microscope. We discovered an unusual ambient temperature (below ˜60°C) ultra-large elongation which could be as large as 63% on Ta nanoplates. The in situ observations revealed that the continuous and homogeneous dislocation nucleation and fast dislocation escape lead to the ultra-large elongation in BCC Ta nanoplates. Besides commonly believed screw dislocations, a large amount of mixed dislocation with b=1/2 were also found during the tensile loading, indicating the dislocation process can be significantly influenced by the small sizes of BCC metals. These results provide basic understanding of plastic deformation in BCC metallic nanomaterials.

  9. Diffractive optics in large sizes: computer-generated holograms (CGH) based on Bayfol HX photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Kleinschmidt, Tim Patrick; Orselli, Enrico; Rewitz, Christian; Rölle, Thomas; Walze, Günther

    2015-03-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOE) offer angular and spectral Bragg selectivity that can be tuned by film thickness and holographic recording conditions. With the option to integrate complex optical function in a very thin plastic layer formerly heavy refractive optics can be made thin and lightweight especially for large area applications like liquid crystal displays, projection screens or photovoltaic. Additionally their Bragg selectivity enables the integration of several completely separated optical functions in the same film. The new instant developing photopolymer film (Bayfol® HX) paves the way towards new cost effective diffractive large optics, due to its easy holographic recording and environmental stability. A major bottleneck for large area applications has been the master hologram recording which traditionally needs expensive, large high precision optical equipment and high power laser with long coherence length. Further the recording setup needs to be rearranged for a change in optical design. In this paper we describe an alternative method for large area holographic master recording, using standard optics and low power lasers in combination with an x, y-translation stage. In this setup small sub-holograms generated by a phase only spatial light modulator (SLM) are recorded next to each other to generate a large size vHOE. The setup is flexible to generate various types of HOEs without the need of a change in the mechanical and optical construction by convenient SLM programming. One Application example and parameter studies for printed vHOEs based on Bayfol® HX Photopolymer will be given.

  10. Prediction of Accurate Thermochemistry of Medium and Large Sized Radicals Using Connectivity-Based Hierarchy (CBH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Arkajyoti; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2014-10-14

    Accurate modeling of the chemical reactions in many diverse areas such as combustion, photochemistry, or atmospheric chemistry strongly depends on the availability of thermochemical information of the radicals involved. However, accurate thermochemical investigations of radical systems using state of the art composite methods have mostly been restricted to the study of hydrocarbon radicals of modest size. In an alternative approach, systematic error-canceling thermochemical hierarchy of reaction schemes can be applied to yield accurate results for such systems. In this work, we have extended our connectivity-based hierarchy (CBH) method to the investigation of radical systems. We have calibrated our method using a test set of 30 medium sized radicals to evaluate their heats of formation. The CBH-rad30 test set contains radicals containing diverse functional groups as well as cyclic systems. We demonstrate that the sophisticated error-canceling isoatomic scheme (CBH-2) with modest levels of theory is adequate to provide heats of formation accurate to ∼1.5 kcal/mol. Finally, we predict heats of formation of 19 other large and medium sized radicals for which the accuracy of available heats of formation are less well-known.

  11. Energetic proton generation from intense Coulomb explosion of large-size ethane clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Zhou, Zili; Tian, Ye; Lu, Haiyang; Wang, Wentao; Ju, Jingjing; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Yi; Leng, Yuxin; Ni, Guoquan; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng

    2013-04-01

    An experimental investigation is performed on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses at the intensity of 6 × 1017 W/cm2 (55 fs, 160 mJ at 800 nm) with ethane cluster (C2H6)N jets prepared under the backing pressure of 30 bars at room temperature (298 K). The experiment results indicate the generation of energetic protons, whose average and maximum kinetic energies are 12.2 and 138.1 keV, respectively, by Coulomb explosion of (C2H6)N clusters. (C2H6)N clusters of 5 nm in radius are generated in the experiment, which are 1.7 times larger than that of (CH4)N clusters prepared in the same conditions. Empirical estimation suggests that (C2H6)N clusters with radius of about 9.6 nm can be prepared at 80-bars backing pressure at 308 K. While (C2H6)N clusters of so large size are irradiated by sufficiently intense laser pulses, the average energy of protons will be increased up to 50 keV. It is inferred that such large-size deuterated ethane clusters (C2D6)N will favor more efficient neutron generation due to the significant increase of the D-D nuclear reaction cross section in laser-driven cluster nuclear fusion.

  12. [Health behaviors by job stress level in large-sized company with male and female workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunju; Jung, Hye-Sun

    2010-12-01

    This study was done to investigate differences in health behaviors by job stress level in male and female workers in a large-sized company. Participants were 576 male and 228 female workers who completed questionnaires. Job stress was measured using the 'Short Form Korean Occupational Stress Scale (SF-KOSS)'. Health behaviors included smoking, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and diet. Frequency, mean, SD, chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression using SAS version 9.1 were used to analyze data. Smoking, drinking and regular exercise rates were not different by job stress level in male or female workers. Only regular diet was significantly different by job stress level in male and female workers. From multivariate analysis, the alcohol consumption rates for female workers differed by marital status. Regular exercise rate was significantly related to age for male workers and type of employment for female workers. After adjusting for demographic and work-related characteristics, regular diet significantly differed by shift work for male workers and marital status and shift work for female workers. The findings of the study indicate that nursing interventions should be developed to manage job stress to improve diet habits for male and female workers in large-sized companies.

  13. Comparison of two methods for short circuit current measurement of large size solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuebo; Quan, Chenggen; Kng, Jerald

    2015-07-01

    The differential spectral responsivity (DSR) measurement and the solar simulator based current to voltage characterisation methods are two accurate methods for measuring the short circuit current, a critical parameter, of a solar cell under standard testing conditions. For the calibration of World Photovoltaic Scale (WPVS) reference solar cell with small size (20 mm x 20 mm), the measurement results using these two methods are agreed well within 1%. But for the calibration of large size (e.g. 156 mm x 156 mm) of solar cell, the measurement results using two methods are not agreed well and their deviation could be more than 10 %. In DSR method, the short circuit current of a solar cell is determined through measuring its relative irradiance spectral responsivity in spectral range from 280 nm to 1200 nm and its absolute irradiance responsivity at wavelength of 650 nm by reference standard photodiodes. As the detective area of large size solar cell (detective area: 156 mm x 156 mm) is much bigger than that of standard photodiodes (detective area: 12.56 mm2), the spatial uniformity of irradiance of modulated monochromatic probe beam on the test solar cell and the standard photodiode is critical for calculation of absolute irradiance responsivity of the test solar cell. The correction for the calculation must be done according to the measured spatial uniformity of probe beam and the detective areas of the test solar cell and standard photodiodes. The experiment showed the correction factor and its uncertainty are smaller if the detective areas difference between the test solar cell and the standard is smaller. Based on this observation, a standard solar cell (detective area: 20 mm x 20 mm) instead of standard photodiodes was used to calibrate absolute irradiance responsivity of the test solar cell (detective area: 156 mm x 156 mm) at wavelength of 650 nm. After such improvement, measurement results using two different methods agree well about 3 % for the large size

  14. 40 CFR 428.70 - Applicability; description of the large-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... large-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.70 Section 428.70... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Large-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber... fabricated rubber plants subcategory. The following provisions of this subpart are applicable to process...

  15. The Implication of Large Class Size in the Teaching and Learning of Business Education in Tertiary Institution in Ekiti State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Olapade Grace; Olowe, Modupe Oluwatoyin

    2016-01-01

    Large class size is one of the problems in the educational sector that developing nations have been grappling with. Nigeria as a developing nation is no exception. The purpose of this study is to provide views of both lecturers and students on large class size and how it affects teaching and learning in tertiary institutions in Ekiti State of…

  16. Are large farms more efficient? Tenure security, farm size and farm efficiency: evidence from northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no

  17. Myocardial Infarct Size and Mortality Depend on the Time of Day—A Large Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Stephane; Taffé, Patrick; Radovanovic, Dragana; Von Elm, Erik; Morawiec, Beata; Stauffer, Jean-Christophe; Erne, Paul; Beggah, Ahmed; Monney, Pierre; Pascale, Patrizio; Iglesias, Juan-Fernando; Eeckhout, Eric; Muller, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Background Different studies have shown circadian variation of ischemic burden among patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), but with controversial results. The aim of this study was to analyze circadian variation of myocardial infarction size and in-hospital mortality in a large multicenter registry. Methods This retrospective, registry-based study was based on data from AMIS Plus, a large multicenter Swiss registry of patients who suffered myocardial infarction between 1999 and 2013. Peak creatine kinase (CK) was used as a proxy measure for myocardial infarction size. Associations between peak CK, in-hospital mortality, and the time of day at symptom onset were modelled using polynomial-harmonic regression methods. Results 6,223 STEMI patients were admitted to 82 acute-care hospitals in Switzerland and treated with primary angioplasty within six hours of symptom onset. Only the 24-hour harmonic was significantly associated with peak CK (p = 0.0001). The maximum average peak CK value (2,315 U/L) was for patients with symptom onset at 23:00, whereas the minimum average (2,017 U/L) was for onset at 11:00. The amplitude of variation was 298 U/L. In addition, no correlation was observed between ischemic time and circadian peak CK variation. Of the 6,223 patients, 223 (3.58%) died during index hospitalization. Remarkably, only the 24-hour harmonic was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. The risk of death from STEMI was highest for patients with symptom onset at 00:00 and lowest for those with onset at 12:00. Discussion As a part of this first large study of STEMI patients treated with primary angioplasty in Swiss hospitals, investigations confirmed a circadian pattern to both peak CK and in-hospital mortality which were independent of total ischemic time. Accordingly, this study proposes that symptom onset time be incorporated as a prognosis factor in patients with myocardial infarction. PMID:25760988

  18. Myocardial infarct size and mortality depend on the time of day-a large multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Fournier

    Full Text Available Different studies have shown circadian variation of ischemic burden among patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI, but with controversial results. The aim of this study was to analyze circadian variation of myocardial infarction size and in-hospital mortality in a large multicenter registry.This retrospective, registry-based study was based on data from AMIS Plus, a large multicenter Swiss registry of patients who suffered myocardial infarction between 1999 and 2013. Peak creatine kinase (CK was used as a proxy measure for myocardial infarction size. Associations between peak CK, in-hospital mortality, and the time of day at symptom onset were modelled using polynomial-harmonic regression methods.6,223 STEMI patients were admitted to 82 acute-care hospitals in Switzerland and treated with primary angioplasty within six hours of symptom onset. Only the 24-hour harmonic was significantly associated with peak CK (p = 0.0001. The maximum average peak CK value (2,315 U/L was for patients with symptom onset at 23:00, whereas the minimum average (2,017 U/L was for onset at 11:00. The amplitude of variation was 298 U/L. In addition, no correlation was observed between ischemic time and circadian peak CK variation. Of the 6,223 patients, 223 (3.58% died during index hospitalization. Remarkably, only the 24-hour harmonic was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. The risk of death from STEMI was highest for patients with symptom onset at 00:00 and lowest for those with onset at 12:00.As a part of this first large study of STEMI patients treated with primary angioplasty in Swiss hospitals, investigations confirmed a circadian pattern to both peak CK and in-hospital mortality which were independent of total ischemic time. Accordingly, this study proposes that symptom onset time be incorporated as a prognosis factor in patients with myocardial infarction.

  19. Myocardial infarct size and mortality depend on the time of day-a large multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Stephane; Taffé, Patrick; Radovanovic, Dragana; Von Elm, Erik; Morawiec, Beata; Stauffer, Jean-Christophe; Erne, Paul; Beggah, Ahmed; Monney, Pierre; Pascale, Patrizio; Iglesias, Juan-Fernando; Eeckhout, Eric; Muller, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have shown circadian variation of ischemic burden among patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI), but with controversial results. The aim of this study was to analyze circadian variation of myocardial infarction size and in-hospital mortality in a large multicenter registry. This retrospective, registry-based study was based on data from AMIS Plus, a large multicenter Swiss registry of patients who suffered myocardial infarction between 1999 and 2013. Peak creatine kinase (CK) was used as a proxy measure for myocardial infarction size. Associations between peak CK, in-hospital mortality, and the time of day at symptom onset were modelled using polynomial-harmonic regression methods. 6,223 STEMI patients were admitted to 82 acute-care hospitals in Switzerland and treated with primary angioplasty within six hours of symptom onset. Only the 24-hour harmonic was significantly associated with peak CK (p = 0.0001). The maximum average peak CK value (2,315 U/L) was for patients with symptom onset at 23:00, whereas the minimum average (2,017 U/L) was for onset at 11:00. The amplitude of variation was 298 U/L. In addition, no correlation was observed between ischemic time and circadian peak CK variation. Of the 6,223 patients, 223 (3.58%) died during index hospitalization. Remarkably, only the 24-hour harmonic was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. The risk of death from STEMI was highest for patients with symptom onset at 00:00 and lowest for those with onset at 12:00. As a part of this first large study of STEMI patients treated with primary angioplasty in Swiss hospitals, investigations confirmed a circadian pattern to both peak CK and in-hospital mortality which were independent of total ischemic time. Accordingly, this study proposes that symptom onset time be incorporated as a prognosis factor in patients with myocardial infarction.

  20. GeoLearn: Prediction Modeling Using Large Size Geospatial Raster and Vector Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcsy, P.; Kooper, R.; Keselman, Y.; Li, Q.; Feng, W.; Mehra, V.; Richard, R.; Kumar, P.

    2006-12-01

    This research develops informatics technologies that support hydrologic scientists in predictive modeling using large size geospatial raster and vector data. The technology helps scientists understand inter-relationships between land surface variables such as radiation, precipitation, temperature, and the presence and amount of vegetation. We have been studying how these relationships manifest themselves at relatively large scales of regions, continents, and the entire globe. In the past, the class of such scientific studies usually has been limited to small spatial regions because of the lack of informatics solutions and the challenges associated with integration and modeling using large size geospatial raster and vector data. The motivation for our work was to provide a desktop software solution for understanding the inter-relationships among multiple variables at spatial scales and resolutions than have not been modeled in the past. Examples of such studies include the understanding of the most important drivers of vegetation growth across a variety of ecosystems at the US continental scale in search of common elements, or finding commonalities and differences within existing eco-regions. The studies conducted in our work considered a large number of input variables for predicting vegetation greenness and are broadly characterized into meteorology, topography, and soil categories. Most of the variables of interest are acquired using remote sensing because otherwise large spatial coverage and sufficient spatial resolution could not be achieved. The data sets are accessible from NASA web sites, for instance, the data products acquired by the MODIS satellite. These data products in HDF EOS file format are characterized by a large size, variable temporal and spatial resolution, spatially varying quality control and quality assurance (QA/QC) parameters and by a set of geographic projections. Additional data sets might come from other agencies (e.g., soil type maps or

  1. Simulation of the main physical processes in remote laser penetration with large laser spot size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Khairallah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3D model is developed to simulate remote laser penetration of a 1mm Aluminum metal sheet with large laser spot size (∼ 3x3cm2, using the ALE3D multi-physics code. The model deals with the laser-induced melting of the plate and the mechanical interaction between the solid and the melted part through plate elastic-plastic response. The effect of plate oscillations and other forces on plate rupture, the droplet formation mechanism and the influence of gravity and high laser power in further breaking the single melt droplet into many more fragments are analyzed. In the limit of low laser power, the numerical results match the available experiments. The numerical approach couples mechanical and thermal diffusion to hydrodynamics melt flow and accounts for temperature dependent material properties, surface tension, gravity and vapor recoil pressure.

  2. A hybrid adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for lot-sizing with setup times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt; Spoorendonk, Simon; Pisinger, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid of a general heuristic framework and a general purpose mixed-integer programming (MIP) solver. The framework is based on local search and an adaptive procedure which chooses between a set of large neighborhoods to be searched. A mixed integer programming solver and its...... built-in feasibility heuristics is used to search a neighborhood for improving solutions. The general reoptimization approach used for repairing solutions is specifically suited for combinatorial problems where it may be hard to otherwise design suitable repair neighborhoods. The hybrid heuristic...... framework is applied to the multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with setup times, where experiments have been conducted on a series of instances from the literature and a newly generated extension of these. On average the presented heuristic outperforms the best heuristics from the literature...

  3. A Novel Read Scheme for Large Size One-Resistor Resistive Random Access Memory Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackriya, Mohammed; Kittur, Harish M.; Chin, Albert

    2017-02-01

    The major issue of RRAM is the uneven sneak path that limits the array size. For the first time record large One-Resistor (1R) RRAM array of 128x128 is realized, and the array cells at the worst case still have good Low-/High-Resistive State (LRS/HRS) current difference of 378 nA/16 nA, even without using the selector device. This array has extremely low read current of 9.7 μA due to both low-current RRAM device and circuit interaction, where a novel and simple scheme of a reference point by half selected cell and a differential amplifier (DA) were implemented in the circuit design.

  4. Status of the large-size telescope prototyping for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Excellence Cluster ' ' Universe' ' , Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching b. Muenchen (Germany); Teshima, Masahiro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo (Japan); Schweizer, Thomas; Mirzoyan, Razmik; Wetteskind, Holger; Jablonski, Christopher; Reimann, Olaf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Lorenz, Eckart [ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory aims at increasing the sensitivity of ground-based gamma-ray (GeV/TeV energies) observatories by a factor >10 compared to current facilities, to extend the accessible gamma-ray energies from a few tens of GeV to a hundred TeV, and to improve on other parameters like the energy and angular resolution. Sensitivity at the lowest possible energies is important for a variety of key physics goals, like the observation of distant active galactic nuclei or gamma-ray bursts, but also for measuring pulsar cutoffs. For this aim, CTA will incorporate a number of central large-size telescopes (LSTs of 23 m diameter). In this presentation, design considerations and the status of the LST prototyping are reported.

  5. Energetic proton generation from intense Coulomb explosion of large-size ethane clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Song; Zhou Zili; Tian Ye; Lu Haiyang; Wang Wentao; Ju Jingjing; Xu Yi; Leng Yuxin; Ni Guoquan; Wang Cheng; Liu Jiansheng [State Key Laboratory of High Filed Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li Hongyu [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2013-04-15

    An experimental investigation is performed on the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses at the intensity of 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} (55 fs, 160 mJ at 800 nm) with ethane cluster (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} jets prepared under the backing pressure of 30 bars at room temperature (298 K). The experiment results indicate the generation of energetic protons, whose average and maximum kinetic energies are 12.2 and 138.1 keV, respectively, by Coulomb explosion of (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters. (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters of 5 nm in radius are generated in the experiment, which are 1.7 times larger than that of (CH{sub 4}){sub N} clusters prepared in the same conditions. Empirical estimation suggests that (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters with radius of about 9.6 nm can be prepared at 80-bars backing pressure at 308 K. While (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}){sub N} clusters of so large size are irradiated by sufficiently intense laser pulses, the average energy of protons will be increased up to 50 keV. It is inferred that such large-size deuterated ethane clusters (C{sub 2}D{sub 6}){sub N} will favor more efficient neutron generation due to the significant increase of the D-D nuclear reaction cross section in laser-driven cluster nuclear fusion.

  6. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  7. Development of high sensitivity and high speed large size blank inspection system LBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shinobu; Yoshida, Akinori; Hirai, Mitsuo; Kato, Takenori; Moriizumi, Koichi; Kusunose, Haruhiko

    2017-07-01

    The production of high-resolution flat panel displays (FPDs) for mobile phones today requires the use of high-quality large-size photomasks (LSPMs). Organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays use several transistors on each pixel for precise current control and, as such, the mask patterns for OLED displays are denser and finer than the patterns for the previous generation displays throughout the entire mask surface. It is therefore strongly demanded that mask patterns be produced with high fidelity and free of defect. To enable the production of a high quality LSPM in a short lead time, the manufacturers need a high-sensitivity high-speed mask blank inspection system that meets the requirement of advanced LSPMs. Lasertec has developed a large-size blank inspection system called LBIS, which achieves high sensitivity based on a laser-scattering technique. LBIS employs a high power laser as its inspection light source. LBIS's delivery optics, including a scanner and F-Theta scan lens, focus the light from the source linearly on the surface of the blank. Its specially-designed optics collect the light scattered by particles and defects generated during the manufacturing process, such as scratches, on the surface and guide it to photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) with high efficiency. Multiple PMTs are used on LBIS for the stable detection of scattered light, which may be distributed at various angles due to irregular shapes of defects. LBIS captures 0.3mμ PSL at a detection rate of over 99.5% with uniform sensitivity. Its inspection time is 20 minutes for a G8 blank and 35 minutes for G10. The differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope on the inspection head of LBIS captures high-contrast review images after inspection. The images are classified automatically.

  8. Technical trends of large-size photomasks for flat panel displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Koichiro

    2017-06-01

    Currently, flat panel displays (FPDs) are one of the main parts for information technology devices and sets. From 1990's to 2000's, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and plasma displays had been mainstream FPDs. In the middle of 2000's, demand of plasma displays declined and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) newly came into FPD market. And today, major technology of FPDs are LCDs and OLEDs. Especially for mobile devices, the penetration of OLEDs is remarkable. In FPDs panel production, photolithography is the key technology as same as LSI. Photomasks for FPDs are used not only as original master of circuit pattern, but also as a tool to form other functional structures of FPDs. Photomasks for FPDs are called as "Large Size Photomasks(LSPMs)", since the remarkable feature is " Size" which reaches over 1- meter square and over 100kg. In this report, we discuss three LSPMs technical topics with FPDs technical transition and trend. The first topics is upsizing of LSPMs, the second is the challenge for higher resolution patterning, and the last is "Multi-Tone Mask" for "Half -Tone Exposure".

  9. Large apparent electric size of solid-state nanopores due to spatially extended surface conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choongyeop; Joly, Laurent; Siria, Alessandro; Biance, Anne-Laure; Fulcrand, Rémy; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2012-08-08

    Ion transport through nanopores drilled in thin membranes is central to numerous applications, including biosensing and ion selective membranes. This paper reports experiments, numerical calculations, and theoretical predictions demonstrating an unexpectedly large ionic conduction in solid-state nanopores, taking its origin in anomalous entrance effects. In contrast to naive expectations based on analogies with electric circuits, the surface conductance inside the nanopore is shown to perturb the three-dimensional electric current streamlines far outside the nanopore in order to meet charge conservation at the pore entrance. This unexpected contribution to the ionic conductance can be interpreted in terms of an apparent electric size of the solid-state nanopore, which is much larger than its geometric counterpart whenever the number of charges carried by the nanopore surface exceeds its bulk counterpart. This apparent electric size, which can reach hundreds of nanometers, can have a major impact on the electrical detection of translocation events through nanopores, as well as for ionic transport in biological nanopores.

  10. Mie scattering by ensembles of particles with very large size parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.

    2004-09-01

    We present a computer program for the simulation of Mie scattering in case of arbitrarily large size parameters. The elements of the scattering matrix, efficiency factors as well as the corresponding cross-sections, the albedo and the scattering asymmetry parameter are calculated. Single particles as well as particle ensembles consisting of several components and particle size distributions can be considered. Program summary Title of program: miex Catalogue identifier: ADUD Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUD Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Computers: Any machine running standard FORTRAN 90; miex has been tested on an Intel Celeron processor (Redhat Linux 9.0, Intel Fortran Compiler 7.1), an Intel XEON processor (SuSE Linux 9.0, Intel Fortran Compiler 8.0), and a Sun-Blade-1000 (OS 8.5, Sun Workshop Compiler Fortran 90 2.0). Installations: standard Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: Redhat Linux 9.0, SuSE Linux 9.0, Sun OS 8.5 Programming language used: Fortran 90 Memory required to execute with typical data: 1 MByte - several 100 MByte (see Appendix A for examples) No. of bits in a word: 8 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 78238 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1015805 Distributed format: tar.gz Nature of the physical problem: Among a variety of applications, Mie scattering is of essential importance for the continuum radiative transfer in cosmic dust configurations. In this particular case, Mie theory describes the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with spherical dust grains on the basis of their complex refractive index and size parameter. Both, broad grain size distributions (radii a: nanometers-millimeters) and a very wide

  11. The limits of weak selection and large population size in evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Allen, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a mathematical approach to studying how social behaviors evolve. In many recent works, evolutionary competition between strategies is modeled as a stochastic process in a finite population. In this context, two limits are both mathematically convenient and biologically relevant: weak selection and large population size. These limits can be combined in different ways, leading to potentially different results. We consider two orderings: the [Formula: see text] limit, in which weak selection is applied before the large population limit, and the [Formula: see text] limit, in which the order is reversed. Formal mathematical definitions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits are provided. Applying these definitions to the Moran process of evolutionary game theory, we obtain asymptotic expressions for fixation probability and conditions for success in these limits. We find that the asymptotic expressions for fixation probability, and the conditions for a strategy to be favored over a neutral mutation, are different in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits. However, the ordering of limits does not affect the conditions for one strategy to be favored over another.

  12. The hierarchical stability of the seven known large size ratio triple asteroids using the empirical stability parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Baoyin, Hexi; Marchis, Franck

    In this study, the hierarchical stability of the seven known large size ratio triple asteroids is investigated. The effect of the solar gravity and primary's J 2 are considered. The force function is expanded in terms of mass ratios based on the Hill's approximation and the large size ratio property. The empirical stability parameters are used to examine the hierarchical stability of the triple asteroids. It is found that the all the known large size ratio triple asteroid systems are hierarchically stable. This study provides useful information for future evolutions of the triple asteroids.

  13. Hospital-based study of dental pathology and faecal particle size distribution in horses with large colon impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Helga; Van der Stede, Yves; De Vlamynck, Caroline; Muurling, Floor; De Clercq, Dominique; van Loon, Gunther; Vlaminck, Lieven

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if horses with large colon impaction were more severely affected by oral pathology than control cases and to relate faecal particle size distribution to dental pathology in both study groups. A prospective study included 39 horses with large colon impaction and 72 control horses from a hospital-based population. An oral pathology score (OPscore) and periodontal disease index (PDI) were assigned to all horses and faecal samples were collected for estimating faecal particle size and analysis of particle size distribution. Horses with large colon impactions were not more severely affected by oral pathology than control horses for both OPscore (P = 0.2) and PDI (P = 0.3). Faecal particle size estimates were significantly higher in control animals (P particle size estimates and OPscores in horses with large colon impaction or control horses. In horses with large colon impaction, faecal particle size estimates increased with increasing PDI (P = 0.05). No associations were found between dental pathology and faecal particle size estimates. Horses developing large colon impaction did not have worse dentition than control horses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Technology for Obtaining Large Size Complex Oxide Crystals for Experiments on Muon-Electron Conversion Registration in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasymov, Ya.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Technological approaches for qualitative large size scintillation crystals growing based on rare-earth silicates are proposed. A method of iridium crucibles charging using eutectic phase instead of a oxyorthosilicate was developed.

  15. Large defects in aplasia cutis congenita treated by large-sized thin split-thickness skin grafting: long-term follow-up of 18 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Qiu, Lin; Fu, Yuexian; Tian, Xiaofei; Yuan, Xingang; Xiao, Jun; Li, Tianwu

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of using surgical large-sized thin split-thickness skin grafting to treat aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) in neonates. This study included 18 ACC neonates with large skin defects who underwent large-sized thin split-thickness skin grafting at our hospital from March 2002 to November 2011. The size of the lesion was >10% of the total body surface area (TBSA) in 16 patients, 7% of TBSA in one patient, and 3% of TBSA in another patient. The size of the skin graft was designed to be equal to or slightly larger than the size of the lesion. Skin grafts in 16 patients who were followed for periods of 6 months-7 years after surgery showed good survival; however, two patients were lost to follow-up. The wound healed completely without scarring in five patients. One of the five patients who healed without scarring had failed previous conservative treatment. Several mild hypertrophic scars occurred in one patient, and flat, thin, shiny, soft, parchment-like scars were noted in five other patients. Dark red, hard, raised hypertrophic scars occurred in five patients who had partial necrosis in the skin graft after surgery. A large-sized thin split-thickness skin graft can be used to effectively close a wound and permit healing to occur with reduced long-term scarring. This procedure is ideal for treating skin defects in patients with ACC. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Body size evolution in an old insect order: No evidence for Cope's Rule in spite of fitness benefits of large size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, John T; Svensson, Erik I

    2017-09-01

    We integrate field data and phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate causes of body size evolution and stasis in an old insect order: odonates ("dragonflies and damselflies"). Fossil evidence for "Cope's Rule" in odonates is weak or nonexistent since the last major extinction event 65 million years ago, yet selection studies show consistent positive selection for increased body size among adults. In particular, we find that large males in natural populations of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens) over several generations have consistent fitness benefits both in terms of survival and mating success. Additionally, there was no evidence for stabilizing or conflicting selection between fitness components within the adult life-stage. This lack of stabilizing selection during the adult life-stage was independently supported by a literature survey on different male and female fitness components from several odonate species. We did detect several significant body size shifts among extant taxa using comparative methods and a large new molecular phylogeny for odonates. We suggest that the lack of Cope's rule in odonates results from conflicting selection between fitness advantages of large adult size and costs of long larval development. We also discuss competing explanations for body size stasis in this insect group. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Strength and fatigue testing of large size wind turbines rotors. Vol. II: Full size natural vibration and static strength test, a reference case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, F.; Soria, E.

    1996-12-01

    This report shows the methods and procedures selected to define a strength test for large size wind turbine, anyway in particular it application on a 500 kW blade and it results obtained in the test carried out in july of 1995 in Asinel`s test plant (Madrid). Henceforth, this project is designed in an abbreviate form whit the acronym SFAT. (Author)

  18. Fabrication of large size alginate beads for three-dimensional cell-cluster culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengtao; Ruan, Meilin; Liu, Hongni; Cao, Yiping; He, Rongxiang

    2017-08-01

    We fabricated large size alginate beads using a simple microfluidic device under a co-axial injection regime. This device was made by PDMS casting with a mold formed by small diameter metal and polytetrafluorothylene tubes. Droplets of 2% sodium alginate were generated in soybean oil through the device and then cross-linked in a 2% CaCl2 solution, which was mixed tween80 with at a concentration of 0.4 to 40% (w/v). Our results showed that the morphology of the produced alginate beads strongly depends on the tween80 concentration. With the increase of concentration of tween80, the shape of the alginate beads varied from semi-spherical to tailed-spherical, due to the decrease of interface tension between oil and cross-link solution. To access the biocompatibility of the approach, MCF-7 cells were cultured with the alginate beads, showing the formation of cancer cells clusters which might be useful for future studies.

  19. Hydrophobic polymers modification of mesoporous silica with large pore size for drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Shenmin, E-mail: smzhu@sjtu.edu.c [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites (China); Zhang Di; Yang Na [Fudan University, Ministry of Education, Key Lab of Molecular Engineering of Polymers (China)

    2009-04-15

    Mesostructure cellular foam (MCF) materials were modified with hydrophobic polyisoprene (PI) through free radical polymerization in the pores network, and the resulting materials (MCF-PI) were investigated as matrices for drug storage. The successful synthesis of PI inside MCF was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. It was interesting to find the resultant system held a relatively large pore size (19.5 nm) and pore volume (1.02 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}), which would benefit for drug storage. Ibuprofen (IBU) and vancomycin were selected as model drugs and loaded onto unmodified MCF and modified MCF (MCF-PI). The adsorption capacities of these model drugs on MCF-PI were observed increase as compared to that of on pure MCF, due to the trap effects induced by polyisoprene chains inside the pores. The delivery system of MCF-PI was found to be more favorable for the adsorption of IBU (31 wt%, IBU/silica), possibly attributing to the hydrophobic interaction between IBU and PI formed on the internal surface of MCF matrix. The release of drug through the porous network was investigated by measuring uptake and release of IBU.

  20. Measurement of the thickness of the sprayed nickel coatings on large-sized cast iron products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Сясько

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern industries increasingly use automatic spraying of heat-resistant Nickel  coating with a thickness  of      T = 1-3 mm for large-size parts made of cast iron with nodular graphite. The process of coating application is characterized by time-dependent behavior of its relative magnetic permeability, μс , that is a function of relaxation time, which can be as long as 24 hours, and by μс deviation from point to point on the surface. Aspects of eddy-current phase method for measuring the T value are considered. The structure of four- winding eddy current transformer transducers is described and results of calculation and optimization of their parameters are presented. The influence of controlled and interfering parameters is considered. Based  on the above results, a two-channel combined transducer is developed  providing measurement  error  of ΔТ ≤ ±(0.03T + 0.02 mm  in the shop environment in the process of coating application and in the final product check. Results of tests on reference specimens and of application in production processes are presented.

  1. Bore-sight calibration of the profile laser scanner using a large size exterior calibration field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Bronislav; Křemen, Tomáš; Štroner, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The bore-sight calibration procedure and results of a profile laser scanner using a large size exterior calibration field is presented in the paper. The task is a part of Autonomous Mapping Airship (AMA) project which aims to create s surveying system with specific properties suitable for effective surveying of medium-wide areas (units to tens of square kilometers per a day). As is obvious from the project name an airship is used as a carrier. This vehicle has some specific properties. The most important properties are high carrying capacity (15 kg), long flight time (3 hours), high operating safety and special flight characteristics such as stability of flight, in terms of vibrations, and possibility to flight at low speed. The high carrying capacity enables using of high quality sensors like professional infrared (IR) camera FLIR SC645, high-end visible spectrum (VIS) digital camera and optics in the visible spectrum and tactical grade INSGPS sensor iMAR iTracerRT-F200 and profile laser scanner SICK LD-LRS1000. The calibration method is based on direct laboratory measuring of coordinate offset (lever-arm) and in-flight determination of rotation offsets (bore-sights). The bore-sight determination is based on the minimization of squares of individual point distances from measured planar surfaces.

  2. Prototyping a large field size IORT applicator for a mobile linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rogier W J; Dries, Wim J F [Catharina-Hospital Eindhoven, PO Box 1350, 5602 ZA, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Faddegon, Bruce A [University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, CA 94115-1708 (United States)], E-mail: rogier.janssen@mac.com

    2008-04-21

    The treatment of large tumors such as sarcomas with intra-operative radiotherapy using a Mobetron (registered) is often complicated because of the limited field size of the primary collimator and the available applicators (max Oe100 mm). To circumvent this limitation a prototype rectangular applicator of 80 x 150 mm{sup 2} was designed and built featuring an additional scattering foil located at the top of the applicator. Because of its proven accuracy in modeling linear accelerator components the design was based on the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code BEAMnrc. First, the Mobetron (registered) treatment head was simulated both without an applicator and with a standard 100 mm applicator. Next, this model was used to design an applicator foil consisting of a rectangular Al base plate covering the whole beam and a pyramid of four stacked cylindrical slabs of different diameters centered on top of it. This foil was mounted on top of a plain rectangular Al tube. A prototype was built and tested with diode dosimetry in a water tank. Here, the prototype showed clinically acceptable 80 x 150 mm{sup 2} dose distributions for 4 MeV, 6 MeV and 9 MeV, obviating the use of complicated multiple irradiations with abutting field techniques. In addition, the measurements agreed well with the MC simulations, typically within 2%/1 mm.

  3. Special features of large-size resistors for high-voltage pulsed installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakova, N. N.; Ushakov, V. Ya.

    2017-12-01

    Many structural materials in pulsed power engineering operate under extreme conditions. For example, in high-voltage electrophysical installations among which there are multistage high-voltage pulse generators (HVPG), rigid requirements are imposed on characteristics of solid-state resistors that are more promising in comparison with widely used liquid resistors. Materials of such resistors shall be able to withstand strong electric fields, operate at elevated temperatures, in transformer oil, etc. Effective charge of high-voltage capacitors distributed over the HVPG steps (levels) requires uniform voltage distribution along the steps of the installation that can be obtained using large-size resistors. For such applications, polymer composite materials are considered rather promising. They can work in transformer oil and have small mass in comparison with bulky resistors on inorganic basis. This allows technical solutions already developed and implemented in HVPG with liquid resistors to be employed. This paper is devoted to the solution of some tasks related to the application of filled polymers in high-voltage engineering.

  4. 77 FR 15459 - Procedures To Establish Appropriate Minimum Block Sizes for Large Notional Off-Facility Swaps and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Reference Prices c. Physical Commodity Swaps d. Currency Conversion e. Successor Currencies E. Procedural... Appropriate Minimum Block Sizes for Large Notional Off-Facility Swaps and Block Trades; Proposed Rule #0;#0... for Large Notional Off-Facility Swaps and Block Trades AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission...

  5. Small, medium, large or supersize: trends in food portion sizes in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Leeuwis, Franca H; Vermeer, Willemijn M

    2010-06-01

    Larger food portion sizes lead to increased energy intake levels and might contribute to the current obesity epidemic. Only a very limited number of studies are available on the actual development of food portion sizes during past decades. The present study aims to reveal trends in portion sizes of some high-energy-dense food products during recent decades in The Netherlands. The data were collected from manufacturers and from information found in professional journals, marketing and advertising materials, and on manufacturers' websites. A number of trends in food portion sizes were observed. Larger sizes have been added to the portion size portfolio. The portion sizes of a number of products have also increased since their introduction, although this did not apply to all the products included. Finally, multi-packs have been introduced and the number of products within a multi-pack has also increased. A trend towards larger portion sizes was observed, which is relevant to the public health debate regarding the prevention of overweight and obesity. It is recommended that developments in food portion sizes continue to be monitored over the coming years, and the effects of the newly introduced portion sizes on food intake be studied.

  6. Growth of large-size-two-dimensional crystalline pentacene grains for high performance organic thin film transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Du

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available New approach is presented for growth of pentacene crystalline thin film with large grain size. Modification of dielectric surfaces using a monolayer of small molecule results in the formation of pentacene thin films with well ordered large crystalline domain structures. This suggests that pentacene molecules may have significantly large diffusion constant on the modified surface. An average hole mobility about 1.52 cm2/Vs of pentacene based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs is achieved with good reproducibility.

  7. Large bottleneck size in Cauliflower Mosaic Virus populations during host plant colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Monsion

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The effective size of populations (Ne determines whether selection or genetic drift is the predominant force shaping their genetic structure and evolution. Despite their high mutation rate and rapid evolution, this parameter is poorly documented experimentally in viruses, particularly plant viruses. All available studies, however, have demonstrated the existence of huge within-host demographic fluctuations, drastically reducing Ne upon systemic invasion of different organs and tissues. Notably, extreme bottlenecks have been detected at the stage of systemic leaf colonization in all plant viral species investigated so far, sustaining the general idea that some unknown obstacle(s imposes a barrier on the development of all plant viruses. This idea has important implications, as it appoints genetic drift as a constant major force in plant virus evolution. By co-inoculating several genetic variants of Cauliflower mosaic virus into a large number of replicate host plants, and by monitoring their relative frequency within the viral population over the course of the host systemic infection, only minute stochastic variations were detected. This allowed the estimation of the CaMV Ne during colonization of successive leaves at several hundreds of viral genomes, a value about 100-fold higher than that reported for any other plant virus investigated so far, and indicated the very limited role played by genetic drift during plant systemic infection by this virus. These results suggest that the barriers that generate bottlenecks in some plant virus species might well not exist, or can be surmounted by other viruses, implying that severe bottlenecks during host colonization do not necessarily apply to all plant-infecting viruses.

  8. Large bottleneck size in Cauliflower Mosaic Virus populations during host plant colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsion, Baptiste; Froissart, Rémy; Michalakis, Yannis; Blanc, Stéphane

    2008-10-01

    The effective size of populations (Ne) determines whether selection or genetic drift is the predominant force shaping their genetic structure and evolution. Despite their high mutation rate and rapid evolution, this parameter is poorly documented experimentally in viruses, particularly plant viruses. All available studies, however, have demonstrated the existence of huge within-host demographic fluctuations, drastically reducing Ne upon systemic invasion of different organs and tissues. Notably, extreme bottlenecks have been detected at the stage of systemic leaf colonization in all plant viral species investigated so far, sustaining the general idea that some unknown obstacle(s) imposes a barrier on the development of all plant viruses. This idea has important implications, as it appoints genetic drift as a constant major force in plant virus evolution. By co-inoculating several genetic variants of Cauliflower mosaic virus into a large number of replicate host plants, and by monitoring their relative frequency within the viral population over the course of the host systemic infection, only minute stochastic variations were detected. This allowed the estimation of the CaMV Ne during colonization of successive leaves at several hundreds of viral genomes, a value about 100-fold higher than that reported for any other plant virus investigated so far, and indicated the very limited role played by genetic drift during plant systemic infection by this virus. These results suggest that the barriers that generate bottlenecks in some plant virus species might well not exist, or can be surmounted by other viruses, implying that severe bottlenecks during host colonization do not necessarily apply to all plant-infecting viruses.

  9. The biotic effects of large bolide impacts: size versus time and place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkden, Gordon; Parker, Julian

    2008-10-01

    In estimating the biotic effects of large terrestrial impacts we are reliant upon apparent crater diameter as a proxy for impact magnitude. This underlies the ‘kill-curve’ approach which graphs crater diameter directly against likely percentage losses of taxa. However, crater diameter is a complex product of syn- and post-impact processes that can be site-dependent. Furthermore, location (global positioning) and timing (moment in geological history) also strongly influence biotic effects. We examine four of our largest and best-documented Phanerozoic impacts to explore this more holistic size time place relationship. Only the c. 180 km end-Cretaceous Chicxulub crater (Mexico) links to any substantial immediate extinction and some of the worst effects stem from where it struck the planet (a continental margin carbonate platform site) and when (a time of high regional and global biodiversity). Both the c. 100 km late Triassic Manicouagan crater in NE Canada (arid continental interior, low regional and world biodiversity) and the c. 35 Ma 100 km Popigai crater, Siberia (continental arctic desert) provide much less damaging scenarios. However the c. 90 km Chesapeake Bay crater, Eastern USA (also c. 35 Ma) marks a far more sensitive (Chicxulub-like) site but it also proved relatively benign. Here the rheologically varied shallow marine target site produced an anomalously broad crater, and the scale of the impact has evidently been overestimated. We offer a new approach to the graphical prediction of biotic risk in which both crater diameter and a generalised time/place factor we term ‘vulnerability’ are variables.

  10. Coronary calcium scores are systematically underestimated at a large chest size : A multivendor phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Abramiuc, Bronislaw; den Harder, Annemarie M.; van der Werf, Niels R.; de Jong, Pim A.; Budde, Ricardo P. J.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Willems, Tineke P.; Greuter, Marcel J. W.; Leiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of chest size on coronary calcium score (CCS) as assessed with new-generation CT systems from 4 major vendors. Methods: An anthropomorphic, small-sized (300 x 200 mm) chest phantom containing 100 small calcifications (diameters, 0.5-2.0 mm) was evaluated with and

  11. Coronary calcium scores are systematically underestimated at a large chest size : A multivendor phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemink, Martin J.; Abramiuc, Bronislaw; den Harder, Annemarie M.; van der Werf, Niels R.; de Jong, Pim A.; Budde, Ricardo P J; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Willems, Tineke P.; Greuter, Marcel J W; Leiner, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of chest size on coronary calcium score (CCS) as assessed with new-generation CT systems from 4 major vendors. Methods: An anthropomorphic, small-sized (300 × 200 mm) chest phantom containing 100 small calcifications (diameters, 0.5-2.0 mm) was evaluated with and

  12. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig II: management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, E.M.; Rutherford, K.M.D.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) breeders and producers in many countries. Whilst this has economic and environmental benefits for the pig industry, there are also implications for pig welfare. Certain management interventions are used when litter size ro...

  13. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, W.M.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Poelman, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was

  14. Ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses; Ventilation i medelstora och stoerre pannhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotherus, Dan [AaF Installation AB, Oerebro (Sweden); Larsson, Tord [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to exemplify and clarify the need for ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses. We will furthermore present some recommendations, guidelines and advice for the design and construction of a boiler house ventilation system to the plant owners and suppliers of equipment. Boiler house ventilation can be performed in different ways using mechanical or natural ventilation. The solution to be chosen depends on the following factors: Working environment requirements and a necessity to control temperature and pressure in the boiler house; The design of the boiler plant and house; The need for combustion air; The investment expenditure as well as operation and maintenance costs. Mechanical ventilation should be chosen if the aim is a controllable 'climate'. The mechanical ventilation can be either centrally situated or distributed with many aggregates in the boiler house. Centrally situated ventilation equipment will give a higher accessibility and lower maintenance costs than a distributed ventilation system. If the boiler house is designed with natural ventilation the air and flue gas fans will be the only ones installed. In this case temperature and pressure inside the boiler house will be difficult to control. The design factor for the ventilation plant in a boiler house is in most cases the demand to cool the air inside the boiler house to approximately 45 deg C. This is the highest temperature allowed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in a work environment where the boiler operator is working alone. The air flow which is required for the combustion is normally less than the air flow needed to cool the air in the boiler house. The supply air which is cooling the air inside the boiler house should be supplied on several different levels to attain an efficient cooling. If the combustion air is taken from the heated indoor air the boiler house will work as a heat reclaimer. The difference between outdoor and indoor

  15. SMART amplification combined with cDNA size fractionation in order to obtain large full-length clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poustka Annemarie

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background cDNA libraries are widely used to identify genes and splice variants, and as a physical resource for full-length clones. Conventionally-generated cDNA libraries contain a high percentage of 5'-truncated clones. Current library construction methods that enrich for full-length mRNA are laborious, and involve several enzymatic steps performed on mRNA, which renders them sensitive to RNA degradation. The SMART technique for full-length enrichment is robust but results in limited cDNA insert size of the library. Results We describe a method to construct SMART full-length enriched cDNA libraries with large insert sizes. Sub-libraries were generated from size-fractionated cDNA with an average insert size of up to seven kb. The percentage of full-length clones was calculated for different size ranges from BLAST results of over 12,000 5'ESTs. Conclusions The presented technique is suitable to generate full-length enriched cDNA libraries with large average insert sizes in a straightforward and robust way. The representation of full-coding clones is high also for large cDNAs (70%, 4–10 kb, when high-quality starting mRNA is used.

  16. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mette Juhl; Pernille Stemann Larsen; Per Kragh Andersen; Susanne Wulff Svendsen; Jens Peter Bonde; Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen; Katrine Strandberg-Larsen

    2014-01-01

    .... We examined the association between quantity and frequency of maternal occupational lifting and the child's size at birth, measured by weight, length, ponderal index, small-for-gestational-age (SGA...

  17. Robust statistical properties of the size of large burst events in AE

    OpenAIRE

    Hush, Philip; Chapman, Sandra C.; Dunlop, M. W.; Watkins, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Geomagnetic indices provide a comprehensive data set with which to quantify space climate, that is, how the statistical likelihood of activity varies with the solar cycle. We characterize space climate by the AE index burst distribution. Burst sizes are constructed by thresholding the AE time series; a burst is the sum of the excess in the time series for each time interval over which the threshold is exceeded. The distribution of burst sizes is two component with a crossover in behavior at t...

  18. Prey size and availability limits maximum size of rainbow trout in a large tailwater: insights from a drift-foraging bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Michael J.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Haye, John W

    2016-01-01

    The cold and clear water conditions present below many large dams create ideal conditions for the development of economically important salmonid fisheries. Many of these tailwater fisheries have experienced declines in the abundance and condition of large trout species, yet the causes of these declines remain uncertain. Here, we develop, assess, and apply a drift-foraging bioenergetics model to identify the factors limiting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growth in a large tailwater. We explored the relative importance of temperature, prey quantity, and prey size by constructing scenarios where these variables, both singly and in combination, were altered. Predicted growth matched empirical mass-at-age estimates, particularly for younger ages, demonstrating that the model accurately describes how current temperature and prey conditions interact to determine rainbow trout growth. Modeling scenarios that artificially inflated prey size and abundance demonstrate that rainbow trout growth is limited by the scarcity of large prey items and overall prey availability. For example, shifting 10% of the prey biomass to the 13 mm (large) length class, without increasing overall prey biomass, increased lifetime maximum mass of rainbow trout by 88%. Additionally, warmer temperatures resulted in lower predicted growth at current and lower levels of prey availability; however, growth was similar across all temperatures at higher levels of prey availability. Climate change will likely alter flow and temperature regimes in large rivers with corresponding changes to invertebrate prey resources used by fish. Broader application of drift-foraging bioenergetics models to build a mechanistic understanding of how changes to habitat conditions and prey resources affect growth of salmonids will benefit management of tailwater fisheries.

  19. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 78 FR 32865 - Procedures To Establish Appropriate Minimum Block Sizes for Large Notional Off-Facility Swaps and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... Swaps d. Currency Conversion e. Successor Currencies C. Procedural Provisions 1. Sec. 43.6(a) Commission... composite reference prices, physical commodity swaps, currency conversions, and successor currencies; (v... Appropriate Minimum Block Sizes for Large Notional Off-Facility Swaps and Block Trades; Final Rule #0;#0...

  1. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Energy Storage System for Power Systems with Large-scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for optimal sitingand sizing of Energy Storage System (ESS) for the operationplanning of power systems with large scale wind power integration.The ESS in this study aims to mitigate the wind powerfluctuations during the interval between two rolling EconomicDispatches...

  2. Large group size yields group stability in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, D.; Bachar, Z; Taborsky, M; Brouwer, L.

    2005-01-01

    Group size has been shown to positively influence survival of group members in many cooperatively breeding vertebrates, including the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher, suggesting Allee effects. However, long-term data are scarce to test how these survival differences translate into

  3. Estimation of body-size traits by photogrammetry in large mammals to inform conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel

    2012-10-01

    Photography, including remote imagery and camera traps, has contributed substantially to conservation. However, the potential to use photography to understand demography and inform policy is limited. To have practical value, remote assessments must be reasonably accurate and widely deployable. Prior efforts to develop noninvasive methods of estimating trait size have been motivated by a desire to answer evolutionary questions, measure physiological growth, or, in the case of illegal trade, assess economics of horn sizes; but rarely have such methods been directed at conservation. Here I demonstrate a simple, noninvasive photographic technique and address how knowledge of values of individual-specific metrics bears on conservation policy. I used 10 years of data on juvenile moose (Alces alces) to examine whether body size and probability of survival are positively correlated in cold climates. I investigated whether the presence of mothers improved juvenile survival. The posited latter relation is relevant to policy because harvest of adult females has been permitted in some Canadian and American jurisdictions under the assumption that probability of survival of young is independent of maternal presence. The accuracy of estimates of head sizes made from photographs exceeded 98%. The estimates revealed that overwinter juvenile survival had no relation to the juvenile's estimated mass (p change in harvest policy will increase survival. Furthermore, photographic imaging of growth of individual juvenile muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) over 3 Arctic winters revealed annual variability in size, which supports the idea that noninvasive monitoring may allow one to detect how some environmental conditions ultimately affect body growth. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. PERSPECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF THERMAL HARDENING OF LARGE-SIZE ARTICLES OF TWO-PHASE TITANIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development and industrial assimilation of the fundamentally new methods of thermal strengthening of large articles out of hardenable titanic alloys.

  5. Massively Parallel Delivery of Large-Sized Cargo into Mammalian Cells with Light Pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yi-Chien; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Clemens, Daniel L.; Lee, Bai-Yu; Wen, Ximiao; Horwitz, Marcus A.; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    We report a high-throughput platform for delivering large cargo into 100,000 cells in 1 min. An array of micro-cavitation bubbles explode in response to laser pulsing, forming pores in adjacent cell membranes, and immediately thereafter, pressurized flows drive slow diffusing cargo through these pores into cells. The platform delivers large cargo including bacteria, enzymes, antibodies, and nanoparticles into diverse cell types with high efficiency and cell viability. We used this platform to...

  6. The maximum sizes of large scale structures in alternative theories of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav; Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F.; Enea Romano, Antonio; Skordis, Constantinos; Tomaras, Theodore N.

    2017-07-01

    The maximum size of a cosmic structure is given by the maximum turnaround radius—the scale where the attraction due to its mass is balanced by the repulsion due to dark energy. We derive generic formulae for the estimation of the maximum turnaround radius in any theory of gravity obeying the Einstein equivalence principle, in two situations: on a spherically symmetric spacetime and on a perturbed Friedman-Robertson-Walker spacetime. We show that the two formulae agree. As an application of our formula, we calculate the maximum turnaround radius in the case of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We find that for this theory, such maximum sizes always lie above the ΛCDM value, by a factor 1 + 1/3ω, where ωgg 1 is the Brans-Dicke parameter, implying consistency of the theory with current data.

  7. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    -for-gestational-age (SGA), abdominal circumference, head circumference, and placental weight. METHODS: We analyzed birth size from the Danish Medical Birth Registry of 66 693 live-born children in the Danish National Birth Cohort according to the mother's self-reported information on occupational lifting from telephone...... odds of SGA among children of women who lifted 501-1000 kilos per day [odds ratio (OR) 1.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.98-1.83] and >1000 kilos per day (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.83-2.76) compared to no lifting. In jobs with no person-lifting, occupational lifting was not associated with SGA....... CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we observed no strong support for an association between maternal occupational lifting and impaired size at birth. Our data indicated a potential association between lifting and SGA among offspring of women in occupations that are likely to include person-lifting. These results should...

  8. Highly crystallized nanometer-sized zeolite a with large Cs adsorption capability for the decontamination of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torad, Nagy L; Naito, Masanobu; Tatami, Junichi; Endo, Akira; Leo, Sin-Yen; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Wu, Kevin C-W; Wakihara, Toru; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    Nanometer-sized zeolite A with a large cesium (Cs) uptake capability is prepared through a simple post-milling recrystallization method. This method is suitable for producing nanometer-sized zeolite in large scale, as additional organic compounds are not needed to control zeolite nucleation and crystal growth. Herein, we perform a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) study to evaluate the uptake ability of Cs ions by zeolite, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. In comparison to micrometer-sized zeolite A, nanometer-sized zeolite A can rapidly accommodate a larger amount of Cs ions into the zeolite crystal structure, owing to its high external surface area. Nanometer-sized zeolite is a promising candidate for the removal of radioactive Cs ions from polluted water. Our QCM study on Cs adsorption uptake behavior provides the information of adsorption kinetics (e.g., adsorption amounts and rates). This technique is applicable to other zeolites, which will be highly valuable for further consideration of radioactive Cs removal in the future. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Large sample area and size are needed for forest soil seed bank studies to ensure low discrepancy with standing vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-xin Shen

    Full Text Available A large number of small-sized samples invariably shows that woody species are absent from forest soil seed banks, leading to a large discrepancy with the seedling bank on the forest floor. We ask: 1 Does this conventional sampling strategy limit the detection of seeds of woody species? 2 Are large sample areas and sample sizes needed for higher recovery of seeds of woody species? We collected 100 samples that were 10 cm (length × 10 cm (width × 10 cm (depth, referred to as larger number of small-sized samples (LNSS in a 1 ha forest plot, and placed them to germinate in a greenhouse, and collected 30 samples that were 1 m × 1 m × 10 cm, referred to as small number of large-sized samples (SNLS and placed them (10 each in a nearby secondary forest, shrub land and grass land. Only 15.7% of woody plant species of the forest stand were detected by the 100 LNSS, contrasting with 22.9%, 37.3% and 20.5% woody plant species being detected by SNLS in the secondary forest, shrub land and grassland, respectively. The increased number of species vs. sampled areas confirmed power-law relationships for forest stand, the LNSS and SNLS at all three recipient sites. Our results, although based on one forest, indicate that conventional LNSS did not yield a high percentage of detection for woody species, but SNLS strategy yielded a higher percentage of detection for woody species in the seed bank if samples were exposed to a better field germination environment. A 4 m2 minimum sample area derived from power equations is larger than the sampled area in most studies in the literature. Increased sample size also is needed to obtain an increased sample area if the number of samples is to remain relatively low.

  10. Early outcome in renal transplantation from large donors to small and size-matched recipients - a porcine experimental model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravlo, Kristian; Chhoden, Tashi; Søndergaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from a large donor to a small recipient, as in pediatric transplantation, is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis and DGF. We established a porcine model for renal transplantation from an adult donor to a small or size-matched recipient with a high risk of DGF...... and studied GFR, RPP using MRI, and markers of kidney injury within 10 h after transplantation. After induction of BD, kidneys were removed from ∼63-kg donors and kept in cold storage for ∼22 h until transplanted into small (∼15 kg, n = 8) or size-matched (n = 8) recipients. A reduction in GFR was observed...

  11. Participation and Collaborative Learning in Large Class Sizes: Wiki, Can You Help Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative learning has a long tradition within higher education. However, its application in classes with a large number of students is complicated, since it is a teaching method that requires a high level of participation from the students and careful monitoring of the process by the educator. This article presents an experience in…

  12. Stress-strain state simulation of large-sized cable-stayed shell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, S.; Zhukov, A.; Belkov, A.; Ponomarev, V.; Belov, S.; Pavlov, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the opportunities for applying framed cable-stayed shell structures to generate innovative structures in civil engineering. Numerical solution methods for stress-strain state problems of these kinds of geometrically nonlinear structures were developed. Developed methods efficiency is presented by a range of large-dimensional space antenna reflectors.

  13. Organizing Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Large Firms: Size Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann-Pauly, D.; Wickert, C.M.J.; Spence, L.; Scherer, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the findings of a qualitative empirical study of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Swiss MNCs and SMEs, we suggest that smaller firms are not necessarily less advanced in organizing CSR than large firms. Results according to theoretically derived assessment frameworks illustrate the

  14. Magnetomotive forming for precision sizing and joining of large-diameter tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennight, J. D.; Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1969-01-01

    Portable electromagnetic coil enables high precision expansion or constriction and joining of large diameter metal tubes. A nonconducting mandrel or forming die is used on the side of the tubes wall opposite the coil. The coil is insulated from the tube by a thin plastic sleeve.

  15. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávnícek, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    Aesculus L. (horse chestnut, buckeye) is a genus of 12-19 extant woody species native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. This genus is known for unusually large seeds among angiosperms. While chromosome counts are available for many Aesculus species, only one has had its genome size measured. The aim of this study is to provide more genome size data and analyse the relationship between genome size and seed mass in this genus. Chromosome numbers in root tip cuttings were confirmed for four species and reported for the first time for three additional species. Flow cytometric measurements of 2C nuclear DNA values were conducted on eight species, and mean seed mass values were estimated for the same taxa. The same chromosome number, 2 n = 40, was determined in all investigated taxa. Original measurements of 2C values for seven Aesculus species (eight taxa), added to just one reliable datum for A. hippocastanum , confirmed the notion that the genome size in this genus with relatively large seeds is surprisingly low, ranging from 0·955 pg 2C -1 in A. parviflora to 1·275 pg 2C -1 in A. glabra var. glabra. The chromosome number of 2 n = 40 seems to be conclusively the universal 2 n number for non-hybrid species in this genus. Aesculus genome sizes are relatively small, not only within its own family, Sapindaceae, but also within woody angiosperms. The genome sizes seem to be distinct and non-overlapping among the four major Aesculus clades. These results provide an extra support for the most recent reconstruction of Aesculus phylogeny. The correlation between the 2C values and seed masses in examined Aesculus species is slightly negative and not significant. However, when the four major clades are treated separately, there is consistent positive association between larger genome size and larger seed mass within individual lineages.

  16. Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Cristian Adamescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus. Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data series and its usefulness for non-normal distributed data. The trend was tested at three spatial scales: game management units (n=1565, biogeographical region (n=5 and national. Trends depicted for each game management unit were plotted using ArcGIS, resulting species trend distribution maps. For the studied period increasing population trends were observed for Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Canis aureus and Lynx lynx, while for Felis silvestris there was no trend recorded. Such an analysis in especially useful for conservation proposes, game management and reporting obligations under article 17 of the EC Habitat Directive, using population trend as a proxy for population dynamics. We conclude that the status of the five carnivore species is favourable during the study period.

  17. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  18. Preparation of large-size graphene oxide-like with hydroxyl groups and its optoelectronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Liu, Ling-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Laser materials are very important for fabricating laser devices. In this paper, a new type of graphene oxide-like with hydroxyl groups (GOLH) was synthesized for developing pulse laser devices. GOLH was characterized by fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra and dynamic light scattering. Experimental results showed that GOLH contained mainly one kind of substituent, hydroxyl group. Average size of GOLH was about 1.5 μm. Its optoelectronic properties were studied by a Q-switched pulse laser. Experimental results suggested that GOLH would be employed as a saturable absorber. A Q-switched pulse laser with the GOLH materials exhibited stable signal intensity and narrow pulse duration, 0.8 μs. Therefore, GOLH would be potential pulse laser materials.

  19. An experimental investigation on the mechanical properties of the interface between large-sized graphene and a flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chaochen; Guo, Jiangang, E-mail: guojg@tju.edu.cn; Song, Haibin; Xie, Haimei [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Modern Engineering Mechanics, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xue, Tao [Center for Analysis and Test, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qin, Qinghua [Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 2601 (Australia); Wu, Sen [Key Lab of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, School of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-04-28

    In this paper, the interfacial mechanical properties of large-sized monolayer graphene attached to a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate are investigated. Using a micro-tensile test and Raman spectroscopy, in situ measurements are taken to obtain the full-field deformation of graphene subjected to a uniaxial tensile loading and unloading cycle. The results of the full-field deformation are subsequently used to identify the status of the interface between the graphene and the substrate as one of perfect adhesion, one showing slide or partial debonding, and one that is fully debonded. The interfacial stress/strain transfer and the evolution of the interface from one status to another during the loading and unloading processes are discussed and the mechanical parameters, such as interfacial strength and interfacial shear strength, are obtained quantitatively demonstrating a relatively weak interface between large-sized graphene and PET.

  20. Large size GEM for Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) polarimeter for Hall A 12 GeV program at JLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Sacher, Seth; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2015-05-01

    We report on the R&D effort in the design and construction of a large size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for the Proton Polarimeter Back Tracker (BT) of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab). The SBS BT GEM trackers consist of two sets of five large GEM chambers of size 60×200 cm2. The GEM chamber is a vertical stack of four GEM modules, each with an active area of 60×50 cm2. We have built and tested several prototypes and the construction of GEM modules for SBS BT is ongoing. We describe in this paper the design and construction of the GEM module prototype as well as the preliminary results on performance from tests carried out in our detector lab and during test beam at Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab).

  1. Large size GEM for Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) polarimeter for Hall A 12 GeV program at JLab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanvo, Kondo, E-mail: kgnanvo@virginia.edu [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Liyanage, Nilanga; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Sacher, Seth [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2015-05-11

    We report on the R&D effort in the design and construction of a large size Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for the Proton Polarimeter Back Tracker (BT) of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS) in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab). The SBS BT GEM trackers consist of two sets of five large GEM chambers of size 60×200 cm{sup 2}. The GEM chamber is a vertical stack of four GEM modules, each with an active area of 60×50 cm{sup 2}. We have built and tested several prototypes and the construction of GEM modules for SBS BT is ongoing. We describe in this paper the design and construction of the GEM module prototype as well as the preliminary results on performance from tests carried out in our detector lab and during test beam at Fermi National Laboratory (Fermilab)

  2. The main postulates of adaptive correction of distortions of the wave front in large-size optical systems

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Sychev

    2014-01-01

    In the development of optical telescopes, striving to increase the penetrating power of a telescope has been always the main trend. A real way to solve this problem is to raise the quality of the image (reduction of the image angular size under real conditions of distorting factor) and increase a diameter of the main mirror. This is counteracted by the various distorting factors or interference occurring in realtime use of telescopes, as well as by complicated manufacturing processes of large...

  3. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  4. Large Size High Performance Transparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors for Laser Beam Position Detection and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Kohler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M. B.

    2006-09-04

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparente amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30 x 30 mm2) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20 mA/W), an intinsic position resolution better than 3 m, a spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 m, deflection angles smaller than 10 rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition, multipoint alignment monitoring, using up to five sensors lined along a light path of about 5 meters, can be achieved with a resolution better than 20m. (Author)

  5. Dealing with large sample sizes: comparison of a new one spot dot blot method to western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Sulistyo Emantoko Dwi; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Von Websky, Karoline; Ritter, Teresa; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Hocher, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Western blot is the gold standard method to determine individual protein expression levels. However, western blot is technically difficult to perform in large sample sizes because it is a time consuming and labor intensive process. Dot blot is often used instead when dealing with large sample sizes, but the main disadvantage of the existing dot blot techniques, is the absence of signal normalization to a housekeeping protein. In this study we established a one dot two development signals (ODTDS) dot blot method employing two different signal development systems. The first signal from the protein of interest was detected by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The second signal, detecting the housekeeping protein, was obtained by using alkaline phosphatase (AP). Inter-assay results variations within ODTDS dot blot and western blot and intra-assay variations between both methods were low (1.04-5.71%) as assessed by coefficient of variation. ODTDS dot blot technique can be used instead of western blot when dealing with large sample sizes without a reduction in results accuracy.

  6. IMPACTS OF OWN BRANDS STRATEGY ON MANUFACTURER – RETAILER RELATIONSHIP: CASE STUDIES IN LARGE SIZE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Telles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of marketing and production strategy of own brand products requires an understanding of both the benefits gained by retailers and manufacturers involved in this activity and also the effects of this strategy on the relationship between these companies. According to this idea, a qualitative and descriptive work was conducted, based on six case studies, three of them on large product manufacturers and three on large retailers. The aim of this study is defined is threefold: (1 to analyze the expectations of manufacturers and retailers with their own brands’ current operations, (2 to analyze the expectations of manufacturers and retailers with their own brands’ future operations, and (3 to analyze the influence of the own brands adoption on the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. The results indicate that (a current operations are primarily based on economic reasons (market share, and use of spare capacity, (b future operations are perceived from a marketing perspective (survival, and (c the adoption of own brand strategy does not harm the relationship between the parties – both manufacturers and retailers –, unlike the earlier studies indicated.

  7. Exercise in youth: High bone mass, large bone size, and low fracture risk in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, M; Rosengren, B E; Nilsson, J Å; Karlsson, M K

    2015-08-01

    Physical activity is favorable for peak bone mass but if the skeletal benefits remain and influence fracture risk in old age is debated. In a cross-sectional controlled mixed model design, we compared dual X-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in 193 active and retired male elite soccer players and 280 controls, with duplicate measurements of the same individual done a mean 5 years apart. To evaluate lifetime fractures, we used a retrospective controlled study design in 397 retired male elite soccer players and 1368 controls. Differences in bone traits were evaluated by Student's t-test and fracture risk assessments by Poisson regression and Cox regression. More than 30 years after retirement from sports, the soccer players had a Z-score for total body BMD of 0.4 (0.1 to 0.6), leg BMD of 0.5 (0.2 to 0.8), and femoral neck area of 0.3 (0.0 to 0.5). The rate ratio for fracture after career end was 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9) and for any fragility fracture 0.4 (0.2 to 0.9). Exercise-associated bone trait benefits are found long term after retirement from sports together with a lower fracture risk. This indicates that physical activity in youth could reduce the burden of fragility fractures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Genes predict long distance migration and large body size in a migratory fish, Pacific lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jon E; Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L; McIlraith, Brian J; Moser, Mary L; Narum, Shawn R

    2014-12-01

    Elucidation of genetic mechanisms underpinning migratory behavior could help predict how changes in genetic diversity may affect future spatiotemporal distribution of a migratory species. This ability would benefit conservation of one such declining species, anadromous Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus). Nonphilopatric migration of adult Pacific lamprey has homogenized population-level neutral variation but has maintained adaptive variation that differentiates groups based on geography, run-timing and adult body form. To investigate causes for this adaptive divergence, we examined 647 adult lamprey sampled at a fixed location on the Columbia River and radiotracked during their subsequent upstream migration. We tested whether genetic variation [94 neutral and adaptive single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously identified from a genomewide association study] was associated with phenotypes of migration distance, migration timing, or morphology. Three adaptive markers were strongly associated with morphology, and one marker also correlated with upstream migration distance and timing. Genes physically linked with these markers plausibly influence differences in body size, which is also consistently associated with migration distance in Pacific lamprey. Pacific lamprey conservation implications include the potential to predict an individual's upstream destination based on its genotype. More broadly, the results suggest a genetic basis for intrapopulation variation in migration distance in migratory species.

  9. Production of large numbers of size-controlled tumor spheroids using microwell plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razian, Golsa; Yu, Yang; Ungrin, Mark

    2013-11-18

    Tumor spheroids are increasingly recognized as an important in vitro model for the behavior of tumor cells in three dimensions. More physiologically relevant than conventional adherent-sheet cultures, they more accurately recapitulate the complexity and interactions present in real tumors. In order to harness this model to better assess tumor biology, or the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents, it is necessary to be able to generate spheroids reproducibly, in a controlled manner and in significant numbers. The AggreWell system consists of a high-density array of pyramid-shaped microwells, into which a suspension of single cells is centrifuged. The numbers of cells clustering at the bottom of each microwell, and the number and ratio of distinct cell types involved depend only on the properties of the suspension introduced by the experimenter. Thus, we are able to generate tumor spheroids of arbitrary size and composition without needing to modify the underlying platform technology. The hundreds of microwells per square centimeter of culture surface area in turn ensure that extremely high production levels may be attained via a straightforward, nonlabor-intensive process. We therefore expect that this protocol will be broadly useful to researchers in the tumor spheroid field.

  10. Large Clothing Size in Children Is Associated with High Body Mass Index and Clustering of Medical Comorbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafiu, Olubukola O.; Burke, Constance

    2013-01-01

    Background. Since most people are aware of their clothing size (CS), this prospective study explored the potential utility of CS as a proxy for body size and as a predictor of incident obesity-related health conditions in children. Methods. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 725 children aged 6–18 yr. We collected clinical, anthropometric, and sartorial data on all study subjects. Parents reported their children's usual CS. This was compared with US clothing chart for children. Based on this we determined whether a child's CS was appropriate or large for age. Results. The prevalence of overweight/obese was 31.4%. Among the study subjects, 36% usually wore large CS. Children who wore large CS were more likely to be overweight/obese compared to those in the normal CS group (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 4.0–8.0, P < 0.001). Similarly, large CS was associated with higher rates of incident asthma (P = 0.003), obstructive sleep apnea (P = 0.01), habitual snoring (P = 0.02), and elevated preoperative blood pressure (P = 0.03). Conclusion. CS in children is associated with higher indices of adiposity and increased rates of obesity-related comorbidities. PMID:24555149

  11. Investigation on the Size Effect in Large-Scale Beta-Processed Ti-17 Disks Based on Quantitative Metallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Saifei; Zeng, Weidong; Gao, Xiongxiong; Zhao, Xingdong; Li, Siqing

    2017-10-01

    The present study investigates the mechanical properties of large-scale beta-processed Ti-17 forgings because of the increasing interest in beta thermal-mechanical processing method for fabricating compressor disks or blisks in aero-engines due to its advantage in damage tolerance performance. Three Ti-17 disks with different weights of 57, 250 and 400 kg were prepared by beta processing techniques firstly for comparative study. The results reveal a significant `size effect' in beta-processed Ti-17 disks, i.e., dependences of high cycle fatigue, tensile properties and fracture toughness of beta-processed Ti-17 disks on disk size (or weight). With increasing disk weight from 57 to 400 kg, the fatigue limit (fatigue strength at 107 cycles, R = -1) was reduced from 583 to 495 MPa, tensile yield strength dropped from 1073 to 1030 MPa, while fracture toughness ( K IC) rose from 70.9 to 95.5 MPaṡm1/2. Quantitative metallography analysis shows that the `size effect' of mechanical properties can be attributed to evident differences between microstructures of the three disk forgings. With increasing disk size, nearly all microstructural components in the basket-weave microstructure, including prior β grain, α layers at β grain boundaries (GB- α) and α lamellas at the interior of the grains, get coarsened to different degrees. Further, the microstructural difference between the beta-processed disks is proved to be the consequence of longer pre-forging soaking time and lower post-forging cooling rate for large disks than small ones. Finally, suggestions are made from the perspective of microstructural control on how to improve mechanical properties of large-scale beta-processed Ti-17 forgings.

  12. When David beats Goliath: the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive contests declines over evolutionary time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Martin

    Full Text Available Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions. For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. If these traits accumulate as lineages diverge, then the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive interactions should decline with increased evolutionary distance. We tested this hypothesis using data on the outcomes of 23,362 aggressive interactions among 246 bird species pairs involving vultures at carcasses, hummingbirds at nectar sources, and antbirds and woodcreepers at army ant swarms. We found the advantage of large size declined as species became more evolutionarily divergent, and smaller species were more likely to dominate aggressive contests when interacting with more distantly-related species. These results appear to be caused by both the evolution of traits in smaller species that enhanced their abilities in aggressive contests, and the evolution of traits in larger species that were adaptive for other functions, but compromised their abilities to compete aggressively. Specific traits that may provide advantages to small species in aggressive interactions included well-developed leg musculature and talons, enhanced flight acceleration and maneuverability, novel fighting behaviors, and traits associated with aggression, such as testosterone and muscle development. Traits that may have hindered larger species in aggressive interactions included the evolution of morphologies for tree trunk foraging that compromised performance in aggressive contests away from trunks, and the evolution of migration. Overall, our results suggest that fundamental trade-offs, such as those

  13. Separation of large DNA molecules by applying pulsed electric field to size exclusion chromatography-based microchip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Naoki; Itoh, Shintaro; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Zhang, Hedong

    2018-02-01

    Through electrophoresis driven by a pulsed electric field, we succeeded in separating large DNA molecules with an electrophoretic microchip based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which was proposed in our previous study. The conditions of the pulsed electric field required to achieve the separation were determined by numerical analyses using our originally proposed separation model. From the numerical results, we succeeded in separating large DNA molecules (λ DNA and T4 DNA) within 1600 s, which was approximately half of that achieved under a direct electric field in our previous study. Our SEC-based electrophoresis microchip will be one of the effective tools to meet the growing demand of faster and more convenient separation of large DNA molecules, especially in the field of epidemiological research of infectious diseases.

  14. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneau, Fabien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m2 of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m2 for a total active area of 1200 m2. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 μm along the precision coordinate and 80 μm perpendicular to the chamber. In the prototyping towards the final configuration two similar quadruplets with dimensions 1.2×0.5 m2 have been built with the same structure as foreseen for the NSW upgrade. It represents ...

  15. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00380308; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface area of about 150 m$^2$ of the forward regions (pseudo-rapidity coverage -- 1.3 $\\boldsymbol{< |\\eta| <}$ 2.7) of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m$^2$ for a total active area of 1200 m$^2$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels (NSW), which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15\\% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic position resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be $\\boldsymbol{30{\\mu}m}$ along the precision coordinate and $\\boldsymbol{80{\\mu}m}$ perpendicular to the chamber. All readout planes are segmented into strips with a pitch of $\\bold...

  16. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneau, Fabien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m2 of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m2 for a total active area of 1200 m2. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 μm along the precision coordinate and 80 μm perpendicular to the chamber. All readout planes are segmented into strips with a pitch of 400 μm for a total of 4096 strips. In two of the four planes the strips are inclined by 1.5 ◦ and provide a measurement of the...

  17. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Lösel, Philipp; Müller, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about $\\mathbf{150~m^2}$ of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each layer covers more than $\\mathbf{2~m^2}$ for a total active area of $\\mathbf{1200~m^2}$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15$\\mathbf{\\%}$ transverse momentum resolution for $\\mathbf{1~TeV}$ muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as $\\mathbf{30~\\mu m}$ along the precision coordinate and $\\mathbf{80~\\mu m}$ perpendicular to the chamber. The design and construction procedure of the Micromegas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly ...

  18. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed fo r the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m$^2$ of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m$^2$ for a total active area of 1200 m$^2$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resol ution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical prec ision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 $\\mu$m along the precision coordi nate and 80 $\\mu$m perpendicular to the chamber. The design and construction procedure of the microm egas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly of modules onto the New Small Wheel. Emphasis wi...

  19. INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN MANAGEMENT OF REMOTE HANDLED AND LARGE SIZED MIXED WASTE FORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACKFORD LT

    2008-02-04

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) plays a critical role in Hanford Site cleanup for the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP). CH2M HILL is responsible for the management of 177 tanks containing 53 million gallons of highly radioactive wastes generated from weapons production activities from 1943 through 1990. In that time, 149 single-shell tanks, ranging in capacity from 50,000 gallons to 500,000 gallons, and 28 double-shell tanks with a capacity of 1 million gallons each, were constructed and filled with toxic liquid wastes and sludges. The cleanup mission includes removing these radioactive waste solids from the single-shell tanks to double-shell tanks for staging as feed to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site for vitrification of the wastes and disposal on the Hanford Site and Yucca Mountain repository. Concentrated efforts in retrieving residual solid and sludges from the single-shell tanks began in 2003; the first tank retrieved was C-106 in the 200 East Area of the site. The process for retrieval requires installation of modified sluicing systems, vacuum systems, and pumping systems into existing tank risers. Inherent with this process is the removal of existing pumps, thermo-couples, and agitating and monitoring equipment from the tank to be retrieved. Historically, these types of equipment have been extremely difficult to manage from the aspect of radiological dose, size, and weight of the equipment, as well as their attendant operating and support systems such as electrical distribution and control panels, filter systems, and mobile retrieval systems. Significant effort and expense were required to manage this new waste stream and resulted in several events over time that were both determined to be unsafe for workers and potentially unsound for protection of the environment. Over the last four years, processes and systems have been developed that reduce worker exposures to these hazards, eliminate violations

  20. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanneau, Fabien

    2016-08-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface area of about 150 m2 of the forward regions (pseudorapidity coverage, 1.3 Wheels (NSW), which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic position resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be 30 microns along the precision coordinate and 80 microns perpendicular to the chamber. All readout planes are segmented into strips with a pitch of 450 microns for a total of 8180 strips per plane and more than 2 million channels for the NSW. In two of the four planes the strips are inclined by ±1.5° and provide a measurement of the second coordinate. The design and construction procedure of the Micromegas modules are presented, as well as the design for the assembly of modules onto the NSW. Emphasis is given on the methods developed to achieve the challenging mechanical precision. Measurements of deformation on chamber prototypes as a function of thermal gradients, gas over-pressure and internal stress (mesh tension and module fixation on supports) are also shown and compared to simulation. These tests were essential in the development of the final design in order to minimize the effects of deformations. During installation and operation all deformations and relative misalignments will be monitored through an optical alignment system and compensated in the tracking software.

  1. Inferring Population Size History from Large Samples of Genome-Wide Molecular Data - An Approximate Bayesian Computation Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boitard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species. Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach named PopSizeABC that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes. This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average zygotic linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data. Our approach provides accurate estimations of past population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds (Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey, PopSizeABC revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles.

  2. Assessing the failure of continuum formula for solid-solid drag force using discrete element method in large size ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Payman; Hyppänen, Timo

    2017-06-01

    In loose or moderately-dense particle mixtures, the contact forces between particles due to successive collisions create average volumetric solid-solid drag force between different granular phases (of different particle sizes). The derivation of the mathematical formula for this drag force is based on the homogeneity of mixture within the calculational control volume. This assumption especially fails when the size ratio of particles grows to a large value of 10 or greater. The size-driven inhomogeneity is responsible to the deviation of intergranular force from the continuum formula. In this paper, we have implemented discrete element method (DEM) simulations to obtain the volumetric mean force exchanged between the granular phases with the size ratios greater than 10. First, the force is calculated directly from DEM averaged over a proper time window. Second, the continuum formula is applied to calculate the drag forces using the DEM quantities. We have shown the two volumetric forces are in good agreement as long as the homogeneity condition is maintained. However, the relative motion of larger particles in a cloud of finer particles imposes the inhomogeneous distribution of finer particles around the larger ones. We have presented correction factors to the volumetric force from continuum formula.

  3. Efficient Algorithm for Locating and Sizing Series Compensation Devices in Large Transmission Grids: Model Implementation (PART 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, Vladimir [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Moscow (Russian Federation); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-14

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed to relieve transmission grid congestion. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to Series Compensation (SC) devices that can be represented by modification of the inductance of transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the l1 norm of the inductance modification subject to the usual line thermal-limit constraints. We develop heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) which are accelerated further using cutting plane methods. The algorithm solves an instance of the MatPower Polish Grid model (3299 lines and 2746 nodes) in 40 seconds per iteration on a standard laptop—a speed up that allows the sizing and placement of a family of SC devices to correct a large set of anticipated congestions. We observe that our algorithm finds feasible solutions that are always sparse, i.e., SC devices are placed on only a few lines. In a companion manuscript, we demonstrate our approach on realistically-sized networks that suffer congestion from a range of causes including generator retirement. In this manuscript, we focus on the development of our approach, investigate its structure on a small test system subject to congestion from uniform load growth, and demonstrate computational efficiency on a realistically-sized network.

  4. Low Temperature Synthesis of Large-Size Anatase TiO2 Nanosheets with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Chu, Wanyi; Qian, Jueshi; Lin, Jingcheng; Cao, Guozhong

    2017-12-01

    TiO2 nanosheets have continuously been intriguing due to their high surface activities as photocatalyst but still challenging to synthesis large-scale 2D nanostructures. A special microstructure evolution of TiO2 , ripening in aqueous solution at low temperature (≈4 °C), is found for the first time, i.e., from the initial aperiodic atom-networks gradually into low crystallized continuous spongy structure with small crystal facets and ultimately forming large-size anatase nanosheets with exposed (101) and (200) facets. Based on this finding, the synthesized anatase TiO2 nanosheets possess monodispersed large-scale 2D nanostructure so as to exhibit appreciable quantum size effects and remarkable enhanced optical absorption capacity. Using photocatalytic reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) as the probe reaction to evaluate photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 nanosheets, the reductivity of Cr (VI) achieves 99.8% in 15 min under irradiation of 200-800 nm light. At the same time, an in situ Cr (III)-doping occurs spontaneously and triggers pronounced visible light driven photocatalysis, reducing 99% of Cr (VI) in 100 min under irradiation of 400-800 nm light. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Characterization of a large glycoprotein proteoglycan by size-exclusion chromatography combined with light and X-ray scattering methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasushi; Inoko, Yoji

    2013-08-16

    The molecular weight and chain conformation of a proteoglycan derived from shark cartilage in solution were characterized by size-exclusion chromatography combined with low-angle laser light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering methods. The total molecular weight of the proteoglycan was 3.9±0.2 million and the molecular weight of the main component was about 2.0±0.2 million. The X-ray scattering data revealed that the main components of the proteoglycan are nearly equal to a chain with excluded volume and their persistence lengths range from 13.5 to 16.4nm. These results show that size-exclusion chromatography combined with low-angle laser light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements are complementarily useful for characterization of large biopolymers in solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A shift in germ layer allocation is correlated with large egg size and facultative planktotrophy in the echinoid Clypeaster rosaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Kirk S; Raff, Rudolf A

    2013-08-01

    Egg size is a correlate of larval evolution in marine embryos. Comparing species with different egg sizes that develop via similar larvae reveals the flexibility and the constraints underlying larval forms. Clypeaster rosaceus is an echinoid that develops via a facultatively planktotrophic pluteus larva. Unlike most echinoids that develop via plutei, C. rosaceus (1) has a larger egg, with a correspondingly smaller ratio of surface area to volume, and (2) forms a large left coelom early in development. Given these characteristics, we predicted underlying changes in the allocation of embryonic tissues to germ layers. With a low surface-to-volume ratio, the C. rosaceus pluteus likely requires relatively less ectoderm than a typical pluteus, whereas the early formation of a large left coelom likely requires relatively more mesoderm than a typical pluteus. We tested this hypothesis by examining the cell lineage of C. rosaceus. We found that the boundary between ectoderm and endoderm in C. rosaceus has shifted relative to echinoids with more typical planktotrophic plutei and extends to or above the third cleavage plane at the equator of the embryo. This indicates a smaller proportional allocation to ectoderm and a larger proportional allocation to endomesoderm compared to echinoids with smaller egg sizes. On the basis of this observation, we develop a new model for the transition from obligate planktotrophy to lecithotrophy. We argue that species with larger eggs may allocate proportionally more tissue to structures selected for accelerated development. In the case of C. rosaceus, the larval cell lineage apportions more cells to endomesoderm and less to ectoderm due to the smaller surface-to-volume ratio of its larger eggs and the early formation of a large left coelom.

  7. Single-Seed Casting Large-Size Monocrystalline Silicon for High-Efficiency and Low-Cost Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To grow high-quality and large-size monocrystal-line silicon at low cost, we proposed a single-seed casting technique. To realize this technique, two challenges—polycrystalline nucleation on the crucible wall and dislocation multiplication inside the crystal—needed to be addressed. Numerical analysis was used to develop solutions for these challenges. Based on an optimized furnace structure and operating conditions from numerical analysis, experiments were performed to grow monocrystalline silicon using the single-seed casting technique. The results revealed that this technique is highly superior to the popular high-performance multicrystalline and multiseed casting mono-like techniques.

  8. Single large or several small? The influence of prey size on feeding performance of Philodryas nattereri (Squamata: Serpentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Catunda Pereira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the energetic return and feeding time on Philodryas nattereri kept in captivity. Snakes were fed biweekly for 60 days (four feeding trials, in two different feeding treatments (single and multiple prey items. The energetic return revealed no significant difference between the feeding treatments; however, we found a negative relationship between snake size and prey handling time during a feed using multiple prey items. In P. nattereri, when large preys are as easy to find as small ones, there seems to be no difference in energetic return.

  9. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator.

  10. Evaluation and improvement of the regulatory inference for large co-expression networks with limited sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Calixto, Cristiane P G; Tzioutziou, Nikoleta; Lin, Ping; Waugh, Robbie; Brown, John W S; Zhang, Runxuan

    2017-06-19

    Co-expression has been widely used to identify novel regulatory relationships using high throughput measurements, such as microarray and RNA-seq data. Evaluation studies on co-expression network analysis methods mostly focus on networks of small or medium size of up to a few hundred nodes. For large networks, simulated expression data usually consist of hundreds or thousands of profiles with different perturbations or knock-outs, which is uncommon in real experiments due to their cost and the amount of work required. Thus, the performances of co-expression network analysis methods on large co-expression networks consisting of a few thousand nodes, with only a small number of profiles with a single perturbation, which more accurately reflect normal experimental conditions, are generally uncharacterized and unknown. We proposed a novel network inference methods based on Relevance Low order Partial Correlation (RLowPC). RLowPC method uses a two-step approach to select on the high-confidence edges first by reducing the search space by only picking the top ranked genes from an intial partial correlation analysis and, then computes the partial correlations in the confined search space by only removing the linear dependencies from the shared neighbours, largely ignoring the genes showing lower association. We selected six co-expression-based methods with good performance in evaluation studies from the literature: Partial correlation, PCIT, ARACNE, MRNET, MRNETB and CLR. The evaluation of these methods was carried out on simulated time-series data with various network sizes ranging from 100 to 3000 nodes. Simulation results show low precision and recall for all of the above methods for large networks with a small number of expression profiles. We improved the inference significantly by refinement of the top weighted edges in the pre-inferred partial correlation networks using RLowPC. We found improved performance by partitioning large networks into smaller co

  11. Large Size Color-tunable Electroluminescence from Cationic Iridium Complexes-based Light-emitting Electrochemical Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qunying; Li, Fushan; Guo, Tailiang; Shan, Guogang; Su, Zhongmin

    2016-06-01

    Solution-processable light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with simple device architecture have become an attractive candidate for application in next generation lighting and flat-panel displays. Herein, single layer LECs employing two cationic Ir(III) complexes showing highly efficient blue-green and yellow electroluminescence with peak current efficiency of 31.6 cd A-1 and 40.6 cd A-1, respectively, have been reported. By using both complexes in the device, color-tunable LECs with a single spectral peak in the wavelength range from 499 to 570 nm were obtained by varying their rations. In addition, the fabrication of efficient LECs was demonstrated based on low cost doctor-blade coating technique, which was compatible with the roll to roll fabrication process for the large size production. In this work, for the first time, 4 inch LEC devices by doctor-blade coating were fabricated, which exhibit the efficiencies of 23.4 cd A-1 and 25.4 cd A-1 for the blue-green and yellow emission, respectively. The exciting results indicated that highly efficient LECs with controllable color could be realized and find practical application in large size lighting and displays.

  12. Deformation and Recrystallization Behavior of the Cast Structure in Large Size, High Strength Steel Ingots: Experimentation and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, K.; Shahriari, D.; Tremblay, R.; Bhattacharjee, P. P.; Jahazi, M.

    2017-09-01

    Constitutive modeling of the ingot breakdown process of large size ingots of high strength steel was carried out through comprehensive thermomechanical processing using Gleeble 3800® thermomechanical simulator, finite element modeling (FEM), optical and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD). For this purpose, hot compression tests in the range of 1473 K to 1323 K (1200 °C to 1050 °C) and strain rates of 0.25 to 2 s-1 were carried out. The stress-strain curves describing the deformation behavior of the dendritic microstructure of the cast ingot were analyzed in terms of the Arrhenius and Hansel-Spittel models which were implemented in Forge NxT 1.0® FEM software. The results indicated that the Arrhenius model was more reliable in predicting microstructure evolution of the as-cast structure during ingot breakdown, particularly the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) process which was a vital parameter in estimating the optimum loads for forming of large size components. The accuracy and reliability of both models were compared in terms of correlation coefficient (R) and the average absolute relative error (ARRE).

  13. Eco-friendly preparation of large-sized graphene via short-circuit discharge of lithium primary battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shaohong; Yu, Tao; Liu, Tingting; Guan, Shiyou

    2017-10-03

    We proposed a large-sized graphene preparation method by short-circuit discharge of the lithium-graphite primary battery for the first time. LiCx is obtained through lithium ions intercalation into graphite cathode in the above primary battery. Graphene was acquired by chemical reaction between LiCx and stripper agents with dispersion under sonication conditions. The gained graphene is characterized by Raman spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic force microscope (AFM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the as-prepared graphene has a large size and few defects, and it is monolayer or less than three layers. The quality of graphene is significant improved compared to the reported electrochemical methods. The yield of graphene can reach 8.76% when the ratio of the H2O and NMP is 3:7. This method provides a potential solution for the recycling of waste lithium ion batteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Examination of Teachers' Perceptions and Practice when Teaching Large and Reduced-Size Classes: Do Teachers Really Teach Them in the Same Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfitt, Gary James

    2012-01-01

    Class size research suggests that teachers do not vary their teaching strategies when moving from large to smaller classes. This study draws on interviews and classroom observations of three experienced English language teachers working with large and reduced-size classes in Hong Kong secondary schools. Findings from the study point to subtle…

  15. Prospects for the domestic production of large-sized cast blades and vanes for industrial gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanskiy, D. A.; Grin, E. A.; Klimov, A. N.; Berestevich, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    Russian experience in the production of large-sized cast blades and vanes for industrial gas turbines is analyzed for the past decades. It is noted that the production of small- and medium-sized blades and vanes made of Russian alloys using technologies for aviation, marine, and gas-pumping turbines cannot be scaled for industrial gas turbines. It is shown that, in order to provide manufacturability under large-scale casting from domestic nickel alloys, it is necessary to solve complex problems in changing their chemical composition, to develop new casting technologies and to optimize the heat treatment modes. An experience of PAO NPO Saturn in manufacturing the blades and vanes made of ChS88U-VI and IN738-LC foundry nickel alloys for the turbines of the GTE-110 gas turbine unit is considered in detail. Potentialities for achieving adopted target parameters for the mechanical properties of working blades cast from ChS88UM-VI modified alloy are established. For the blades made of IN738-LC alloy manufactured using the existing foundry technology, a complete compliance with the requirements of normative and technical documentation has been established. Currently, in Russia, the basis of the fleet of gas turbine plants is composed by foreign turbines, and, for the implementation of the import substitution program, one can use the positive experience of PAO NPO Saturn in casting blades from IN738-LC alloy based on a reverse engineering technique. A preliminary complex of studies of the original manufacturer's blades should be carried out, involving, first of all, the determination of geometric size using modern measurement methods as well as the studies on the chemical compositions of the used materials (base metal and protective coatings). Further, verifying the constructed calculation models based on the obtained data, one could choose available domestic materials that would meet the operating conditions of the blades according to their heat resistance and corrosion

  16. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, A., E-mail: ahahn@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Mazin, D., E-mail: mazin@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277–8582 (Japan); Bangale, P., E-mail: priya@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Dettlaff, A., E-mail: todettl@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Fink, D., E-mail: fink@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Grundner, F., E-mail: grundner@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Haberer, W., E-mail: haberer@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Maier, R., E-mail: rma@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); and others

    2017-02-11

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges. - Highlights: • The design of the first SiPM large-size IACT pixel is described. • The simulation of the light concentrators is presented. • The temperature stability of the detector module is demonstrated. • The calibration procedure of SiPM device in the field is described.

  17. From mantle to critical zone: A review of large and giant sized deposits of the rare earth elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rare earth elements are unusual when defining giant-sized ore deposits, as resources are often quoted as total rare earth oxide, but the importance of a deposit may be related to the grade for individual, or a limited group of the elements. Taking the total REE resource, only one currently known deposit (Bayan Obo would class as giant (>1.7 × 107 tonnes contained metal, but a range of others classify as large (>1.7 × 106 tonnes. With the exception of unclassified resource estimates from the Olympic Dam IOCG deposit, all of these deposits are related to alkaline igneous activity – either carbonatites or agpaitic nepheline syenites. The total resource in these deposits must relate to the scale of the primary igneous source, but the grade is a complex function of igneous source, magmatic crystallisation, hydrothermal modification and supergene enrichment during weathering. Isotopic data suggest that the sources conducive to the formation of large REE deposits are developed in subcontinental lithospheric mantle, enriched in trace elements either by plume activity, or by previous subduction. The reactivation of such enriched mantle domains in relatively restricted geographical areas may have played a role in the formation of some of the largest deposits (e.g. Bayan Obo. Hydrothermal activity involving fluids from magmatic to meteoric sources may result in the redistribution of the REE and increases in grade, depending on primary mineralogy and the availability of ligands. Weathering and supergene enrichment of carbonatite has played a role in the formation of the highest grade deposits at Mount Weld (Australia and Tomtor (Russia. For the individual REE with the current highest economic value (Nd and the HREE, the boundaries for the large and giant size classes are two orders of magnitude lower, and deposits enriched in these metals (agpaitic systems, ion absorption deposits may have significant economic impact in the near future.

  18. Shallow size-density relations within mammal clades suggest greater intra-guild ecological impact of large-bodied species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Østergaard; Faurby, Søren; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-09-01

    relationship shows that large species within clades use proportionally more energy than smaller species. Therefore, our results are consistent with a greater intra-guild ecological impact of large-bodied species via partial monopolisation of resources by the largest species of a given guild, and hence size-asymmetric intra-guild competition. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  19. Growth of large size lithium niobate single crystals of high quality by tilting-mirror-type floating zone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, E-mail: razzaque_ru2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

    2016-05-15

    Large size high quality LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals were grown successfully by tilting-mirror-type floating zone (TMFZ) technique. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, etch pits density measurement, Impedance analysis, Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The effect of mirror tilting during growth on the structural, electrical, optical properties and defect density of the LiNbO{sub 3} crystals were investigated. It was found that the defect density in the crystals reduced for tilting the mirror in the TMFZ method. The chemical analysis revealed that the grown crystals were of high quality with uniform composition. The single crystals grown by TMFZ method contains no low-angle grain boundaries, indicating that they can be used for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. (author)

  20. CAT 2 - An improved version of Cryogenic Analysis Tools for online and offline monitoring and analysis of large size cryostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliarone, C. E.; Uttaro, S.; Cappelli, L.; Fallone, M.; Kartal, S.

    2017-02-01

    CAT, Cryogenic Analysis Tools is a software package developed using LabVIEW and ROOT environments to analyze the performances of large size cryostats, where many parameters, input, and control variables need to be acquired and studied at the same time. The present paper describes how CAT works and which are the main improvements achieved in the new version: CAT 2. New Graphical User Interfaces have been developed in order to make the use of the full package more user-friendly as well as a process of resource optimization has been carried out. The offline analysis of the full cryostat performances is available both trough ROOT line command interface band also by using the new graphical interfaces.

  1. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, E., E-mail: elin@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Departamento de Conservacao e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Araujo, M.F. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Silva, R.J.C. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Senna-Martinez, J.C. [Centro de Arqueologia (Uniarq), Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, 1600-214 Lisboa (Portugal); Ines Vaz, J.L. [Departamento de Letras, Universidade Catolica, Estrada da Circunvalacao, 3504-505 Viseu (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction. - Highlights: > EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography in cultural heritage studies. > Archaeometallurgical study of a Late Bronze Age artefact collection from Portugal. > Practise of a specific and traditional bronze metallurgy. > Appearance of technological innovations as the casting-on technique.

  2. How do low dispersal species establish large range sizes? The case of the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Rannap, Riinu; Thomsen, Philip Francis

    2013-01-01

    important than species phylogeny or local spatial attributes. In this study we used the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus a philopatric species of conservation concern in Europe as a model to explain large range size and to support effective conservation measures for such species that also have limited...... systems and wetlands which used to be highly connected throughout the central plains of Europe. Our data suggest that a broad habitat niche can prevent landscape elements from becoming barriers for species like G. bilineatus. Therefore, we question the usefulness of site protection as conservation...... measures for G. bilineatus and similar philopatric species. Instead, conservation actions should be focused at the landscape level to ensure a long-term viability of such species across their range....

  3. FR-type radio sources in COSMOS: relation of radio structure to size, accretion modes and large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulaki, Eleni; Faustino Jimenez Andrade, Eric; Delvecchio, Ivan; Karim, Alexander; Smolčić, Vernesa; Magnelli, Benjamin; Bertoldi, Frank; Schinnener, Eva; Sargent, Mark; Finoguenov, Alexis; VLA COSMOS Team

    2018-01-01

    The radio sources associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN) can exhibit a variety of radio structures, from simple to more complex, giving rise to a variety of classification schemes. The question which still remains open, given deeper surveys revealing new populations of radio sources, is whether this plethora of radio structures can be attributed to the physical properties of the host or to the environment. Here we present an analysis on the radio structure of radio-selected AGN from the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (JVLA-COSMOS; Smolčić et al.) in relation to: 1) their linear projected size, 2) the Eddington ratio, and 3) the environment their hosts lie within. We classify these as FRI (jet-like) and FRII (lobe-like) based on the FR-type classification scheme, and compare them to a sample of jet-less radio AGN in JVLA-COSMOS. We measure their linear projected sizes using a semi-automatic machine learning technique. Their Eddington ratios are calculated from X-ray data available for COSMOS. As environmental probes we take the X-ray groups (hundreds kpc) and the density fields (~Mpc-scale) in COSMOS. We find that FRII radio sources are on average larger than FRIs, which agrees with literature. But contrary to past studies, we find no dichotomy in FR objects in JVLA-COSMOS given their Eddington ratios, as on average they exhibit similar values. Furthermore our results show that the large-scale environment does not explain the observed dichotomy in lobe- and jet-like FR-type objects as both types are found on similar environments, but it does affect the shape of the radio structure introducing bents for objects closer to the centre of an X-ray group.

  4. Occurrence of large and medium-sized mammals: Occurrence but not count models predict pronghorn distribution: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Management of medium to large-sized terrestrial mammals (Antilocapridae, Canidae, Cervidae, Leporidae, Mustelidae, Ochotonidae) in the western United States is multifaceted and complex. Species in this group generally are charismatic and provide economic opportunities, although others are considered a nuisance at one extreme or are listed as species of conservation concern at the other. Understanding the relative influence of land cover, habitat fragmentation, and human land use on their distribution during the breeding season is imperative to inform management decisions on land use and conservation planning for these species. We surveyed medium to large-sized sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-associated mammal species in 2005 and 2006 on 141 random transects (mean length = 1.1 km) in the Wyoming Basins, an area undergoing rapid land cover transformation due to human actions including energy development. Overall, we observed 10 species but only obtained enough observations of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) to develop spatially explicit distribution models. For pronghorn, occurrence related positively to proportion of sagebrush land cover within 0.27 km, mixed shrubland land cover within 3 km, riparian land cover within 5 km, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 0.27 km, road density within 5 km, and decay distance to power line corridors at 1 km, but negatively to salt-desert shrubland cover within 18 km and an interaction between sagebrush and NDVI within 0.27 km. We found excellent predictive capability of this model when evaluated with independent test data. The model provides a basis for assessing the effects of proposed development on pronghorn and can aid planning efforts to avoid or mitigate adverse effects on pronghorn.

  5. Modulation of large-scale structures by neutrally buoyant and inertial finite-size particles in turbulent Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiquan; Abbas, Micheline; Climent, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Particle-resolved numerical simulations based on the Force Coupling Method are carried out to study the effect of finite-size particles on turbulent plane Couette flow. The Reynolds number is close to the laminar-turbulent transition, such that large-scale rotational structures are well developed and self-sustained. The study particularly considers the effect of concentration, particle size, and particle-to-fluid density ratio on the mixture flow features. Time-averaged profiles, in the wall-normal direction, of the mean flow and Reynolds stress components reveal that there is no significant difference between single-phase and two-phase flows at equivalent effective Reynolds number, except that the wall shear stress is higher for the two-phase flow. However, temporal and modal analysis of flow fluctuations suggest that besides injecting small-scale perturbation due to their rigidity, particles have an effect on the regeneration cycle of turbulence. Indeed, the shape of the streaks and the intermittent character of the flow (amplitude and period of oscillation of the modal fluctuation energy) are all altered by the particle presence, and especially by the inertial ones.

  6. ASIC-based architecture for the real-time computation of 2D convolution with large kernel size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Rui; Zhong, Sheng; Yan, Luxin

    2015-12-01

    Bidimensional convolution is a low-level processing algorithm of interest in many areas, but its high computational cost constrains the size of the kernels, especially in real-time embedded systems. This paper presents a hardware architecture for the ASIC-based implementation of 2-D convolution with medium-large kernels. Aiming to improve the efficiency of storage resources on-chip, reducing off-chip bandwidth of these two issues, proposed construction of a data cache reuse. Multi-block SPRAM to cross cached images and the on-chip ping-pong operation takes full advantage of the data convolution calculation reuse, design a new ASIC data scheduling scheme and overall architecture. Experimental results show that the structure can achieve 40× 32 size of template real-time convolution operations, and improve the utilization of on-chip memory bandwidth and on-chip memory resources, the experimental results show that the structure satisfies the conditions to maximize data throughput output , reducing the need for off-chip memory bandwidth.

  7. Large-scale fabrication of wafer-size colloidal crystals, macroporous polymers and nanocomposites by spin-coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; McFarland, Michael J

    2004-10-27

    This paper reports a simple spin-coating technique for rapidly fabricating three types of technologically important materials--colloidal crystal, macroporous polymer, and polymeric nanocomposite, each with high crystalline qualities and wafer-scale sizes. Dispersion of monodisperse silica colloids in triacrylate monomers is spin-coated onto a variety of substrates. Shear-induced ordering and subsequent polymerization lead to the formation of three-dimensionally (3D) ordered colloidal crystals trapped inside a polymer matrix. The thickness of as-synthesized colloidal crystal-polymer nanocomposite is highly uniform and can be controlled simply by changing the spin speed and time. Selective removal of the polymer matrix and silica spheres lead to the formation of large-area colloidal crystals and macroporous polymers, respectively. The wafer-scale process is compatible with standard semiconductor microfabrication, as multiple micrometer-sized patterns can be created simultaneously for potential device applications. Normal-incidence transmission spectra in the visible and near-infrared regions show distinct peaks due to Bragg diffraction from 3D ordered structures. The spin-coating process opens a new route to the fundamental studies of shear-induced crystallization, melting and relaxation. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  8. Optimal size, shape, and control design in dynamics of planar frame structures under large displacements and rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gams, M.; Saje, M.; Planinc, I.; Kegl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Size, shape, and drive optimization procedures are combined with an energy-conserving time-integration scheme for the dynamic analysis of planar geometrically non-linear frame structures undergoing large overall motions. The solution method is based on the finite-element formulation, employing the classical displacement-based planar beam finite elements described in an inertial frame. Finite axial, bending, and shear strains are taken into account. If the system is conservative, the energy and momenta conservation in the discrete system during motion is guaranteed. Size, shape, and drive design variables are introduced into the model. Shape parameterization is achieved by the design element technique, using Bezier patches. The sensitivity analysis is performed by the discrete approach and the analytical direct differentiation method. A gradient-based optimization method, using an automatically adjustable convex approximation technique, is employed. The efficiency and the applicability of the approach are demonstrated via numerical examples. The shape and the driving function of a load-moving robot arm are optimized to reduce oscillations in its final position. The shape of a steel frame is optimized to reduce oscillations after an idealized ground motion jerk.

  9. Statistical process control charts for attribute data involving very large sample sizes: a review of problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Panesar, Jagdeep S; Laney, David B; Wilson, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The use of statistical process control (SPC) charts in healthcare is increasing. The primary purpose of SPC is to distinguish between common-cause variation which is attributable to the underlying process, and special-cause variation which is extrinsic to the underlying process. This is important because improvement under common-cause variation requires action on the process, whereas special-cause variation merits an investigation to first find the cause. Nonetheless, when dealing with attribute or count data (eg, number of emergency admissions) involving very large sample sizes, traditional SPC charts often produce tight control limits with most of the data points appearing outside the control limits. This can give a false impression of common and special-cause variation, and potentially misguide the user into taking the wrong actions. Given the growing availability of large datasets from routinely collected databases in healthcare, there is a need to present a review of this problem (which arises because traditional attribute charts only consider within-subgroup variation) and its solutions (which consider within and between-subgroup variation), which involve the use of the well-established measurements chart and the more recently developed attribute charts based on Laney's innovative approach. We close by making some suggestions for practice.

  10. Facile synthesis of uniform large-sized InP nanocrystal quantum dots using tris(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)phosphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Somyoung; Yoon, Sungwoo; Han, Chang-Soo; Kim, Youngjo; Jeong, Sohee

    2012-01-30

    Colloidal III-V semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots [NQDs] have attracted interest because they have reduced toxicity compared with II-VI compounds. However, the study and application of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals are limited by difficulties in their synthesis. In particular, it is difficult to control nucleation because the molecular bonds in III-V semiconductors are highly covalent. A synthetic approach of InP NQDs was presented using newly synthesized organometallic phosphorus [P] precursors with different functional moieties while preserving the P-Si bond. Introducing bulky side chains in our study improved the stability while facilitating InP formation with strong confinement at a readily low temperature regime (210°C to 300°C). Further shell coating with ZnS resulted in highly luminescent core-shell materials. The design and synthesis of P precursors for high-quality InP NQDs were conducted for the first time, and we were able to control the nucleation by varying the reactivity of P precursors, therefore achieving uniform large-sized InP NQDs. This opens the way for the large-scale production of high-quality Cd-free nanocrystal quantum dots.

  11. Recombinant production of medium- to large-sized peptides in Escherichia coli using a cleavable self-aggregating tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Xu, Wanghui; Xing, Lei; Lin, Zhanglin

    2016-08-05

    Peptides have recently become attractive for therapeutic applications. However, efficient production of medium- to large-sized peptides (30-100 amino acids [aa]) remains challenging both by recombinant and chemical synthesis. We previously reported the formation of active enzyme aggregates in Escherichia coli cells induced by the short β-structured peptide ELK16 (LELELKLKLELELKLK) and developed a streamlined protein expression and purification approach. In this approach, a cleavable self-aggregating tag (cSAT) consisting of an intein molecule and ELK16 was used to release the recombinant peptides with reasonable purity from active aggregates. In this work, we extended the cSAT approach to a generalized expression and purification solution for a set of medium- to large-sized peptides with important therapeutic uses, including human glucagon-like peptide 1 (31 aa), B-type natriuretic peptide (32 aa), exendin 4 (39 aa), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (also known as RANTES, 66 aa), stromal cell-derived factor 1α (67 aa), insulin-like growth factor 1 (70 aa), and leptin (146 aa). After intein-mediated cleavage, the soluble peptides were released directly into the supernatant while insoluble peptides could be refolded and purified by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, an N-terminal thioredoxin tag was added upstream of the target peptides, which can be removed by enterokinase cleavage, generating native N-terminus for target peptides. Final yields of the peptides ranged from 0.1 to 1.8 μg/mg wet cell weight at laboratory scale. The approach described in this study provides a fast and efficient route to express and purify peptides that are difficult or expensive to produce by chemical synthesis or by ordinary recombinant methods. It is particularly well suited for large peptides, peptides likely to be degraded, and peptides that have toxic effects on the host. It can greatly reduce the cost and time of downstream processing, and thus

  12. Ferrocene/fullerene hybrids showing large second-order nonlinear optical activities: impact of the cage unit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Yong; Wang, Li; Ma, Na-Na; Zhu, Chang-Li; Qiu, Yong-Qing

    2015-06-07

    The electron donor-acceptor complexes, which undergo intramolecular charge transfer under external stimulus, are an emerging class of materials showing important application in nonlinear optics. Synthesizing ferrocene/fullerene complexes through face-to-face fusion would enjoy the merits of both ferrocene and fullerene due to their strong donor-acceptor interactions. Four ferrocene/fullerene hybrid complexes with the gradual extension of fullerene cage size, including CpFe(C60H5), CpFe(C66H5), CpFe(C70H5), and CpFe(C80H5) (Cp is cyclopentadienyl), have been investigated by density functional theory. These hybrid molecules give eclipsed and staggered isomers. The main reason that the eclipsed isomer is stable is that the eclipsed structure possesses large CpFefullerene bonding energy. The CpFefullerene interaction is smaller than that of CpFefullerene, which must come from two different interfaces. The presence of covalent bond character between CpFe and fullerene is supported by the localized orbital locator, deformation of electron density distribution and energy decomposition analysis. Significantly, the absorption bands and first hyperpolarizabilities of these hybrid complexes are strongly sensitive to the fullerene cage size, which is ascribed to a change in the charge transfer pattern, especially for CpFe(C80H5), which displays reverse π → π* charge transfer from bottom to top cage, leading to notable hyperpolarizability. Investigation of the structure-property relationship at the molecular level can benefit the design and preparation of such hybrid complexes in chemistry and materials science.

  13. Flyby of large-size space debris objects and their transition to the disposal orbits in LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Andrey A.; Grishko, Dmitriy A.; Razoumny, Yury N.; Jun, Li

    2017-06-01

    The article focuses on the flyby issue involving large-size space debris (LSSD) objects in low Earth orbits. The data on overall sizes of the known upper-stages and last stages of launch-vehicles make it possible to emphasize five compact groups of such objects from the Satellite catalogue in 600-2000 km altitude interval. The flyby maneuvers are executed by a single space vehicle (SV) that transfers the current captured LSSD object to the specially selected circular or elliptical disposal orbit (DO) and after a period of time returns to capture a new one. The flight is always realized when a value of the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN) is approximately the same for the current DO and for an orbit of the following LSSD object. Distinctive features of changes in mutual distribution of orbital planes of LSSD within a group are shown on the RAAN deviations' evolution portrait. In case of the first three groups (inclinations 71°, 74° and 81°), the lines describing the relative orientation of orbital planes are quasi-parallel. Such configuration allows easy identification of the flyby order within a group, and calculation of the mission duration and the required total ΔV. In case of the 4th and the 5th groups the RAAN deviations' evolution portrait represents a conjunction of lines chaotically intersecting. The article studies changes in mission duration and in the required ΔV depending on the catalogue number of the first object in the flyby order. The article also contains a comparative efficiency analysis of the two world-wide known schemes applicable to LSSD objects' de-orbiting; the analysis is carried out for all 5 distinguished LSSD groups.

  14. Precise large deviations of aggregate claims in a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Wang, Dehui; Yu, Shihang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process. In this model, we do not make any assumption on the dependence structure of claim sizes and inter-arrival times. We study large deviations of the aggregate amount of claims. For the subexponential heavy-tailed case, we obtain a precise large-deviation formula; our method substantially relies on a martingale for the structure of our models.

  15. Precise large deviations of aggregate claims in a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process. In this model, we do not make any assumption on the dependence structure of claim sizes and inter-arrival times. We study large deviations of the aggregate amount of claims. For the subexponential heavy-tailed case, we obtain a precise large-deviation formula; our method substantially relies on a martingale for the structure of our models.

  16. How great white sharks nourish their embryos to a large size: evidence of lipid histotrophy in lamnoid shark reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiichi; Nakamura, Masaru; Tomita, Taketeru; Toda, Minoru; Miyamoto, Kei; Nozu, Ryo

    2016-09-15

    The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) exhibits viviparous and oophagous reproduction. A 4950 mm total length (TL) gravid female accidentally caught by fishermen in the Okinawa Prefecture, Southern Japan carried six embryos (543-624 mm TL, three in each uterus). Both uteri contained copious amounts of yellowish viscous uterine fluid (over 79.2 litres in the left uterus), nutrient eggs and broken egg cases. The embryos had yolk stomachs that had ruptured, the mean volume of which was approximately 197.9 ml. Embryos had about 20 rows of potentially functional teeth in the upper and lower jaws. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive substances were observed on the surface and in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells, and large, secretory, OsO4-oxidized lipid droplets of various sizes were distributed on the surface of the villous string epithelium on the uterine wall. Histological examination of the uterine wall showed it to consist of villi, similar to the trophonemata of Dasyatidae rays, suggesting that the large amount of fluid found in the uterus of the white shark was likely required for embryo nutrition. We conclude that: (1) the lipid-rich fluid is secreted from the uterine epithelium only in early gestation before the onset of oophagy, (2) the embryos probably use the abundant uterine fluid and encased nutrient eggs for nutrition at this stage of their development, and (3) the uterine fluid is the major source of embryonic nutrition before oophagy onset. This is the first record of the lipid histotrophy of reproduction among all shark species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. How great white sharks nourish their embryos to a large size: evidence of lipid histotrophy in lamnoid shark reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Sato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias exhibits viviparous and oophagous reproduction. A 4950 mm total length (TL gravid female accidentally caught by fishermen in the Okinawa Prefecture, Southern Japan carried six embryos (543-624 mm TL, three in each uterus. Both uteri contained copious amounts of yellowish viscous uterine fluid (over 79.2 litres in the left uterus, nutrient eggs and broken egg cases. The embryos had yolk stomachs that had ruptured, the mean volume of which was approximately 197.9 ml. Embryos had about 20 rows of potentially functional teeth in the upper and lower jaws. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS-positive substances were observed on the surface and in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells, and large, secretory, OsO4-oxidized lipid droplets of various sizes were distributed on the surface of the villous string epithelium on the uterine wall. Histological examination of the uterine wall showed it to consist of villi, similar to the trophonemata of Dasyatidae rays, suggesting that the large amount of fluid found in the uterus of the white shark was likely required for embryo nutrition. We conclude that: (1 the lipid-rich fluid is secreted from the uterine epithelium only in early gestation before the onset of oophagy, (2 the embryos probably use the abundant uterine fluid and encased nutrient eggs for nutrition at this stage of their development, and (3 the uterine fluid is the major source of embryonic nutrition before oophagy onset. This is the first record of the lipid histotrophy of reproduction among all shark species.

  18. Long‐term creep rates on the Hayward Fault: evidence for controls on the size and frequency of large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienkaemper, James J.; McFarland, Forrest S.; Simpson, Robert W.; Bilham, Roger; Ponce, David A.; Boatwright, John; Caskey, S. John

    2012-01-01

    The Hayward fault (HF) in California exhibits large (Mw 6.5–7.1) earthquakes with short recurrence times (161±65 yr), probably kept short by a 26%–78% aseismic release rate (including postseismic). Its interseismic release rate varies locally over time, as we infer from many decades of surface creep data. Earliest estimates of creep rate, primarily from infrequent surveys of offset cultural features, revealed distinct spatial variation in rates along the fault, but no detectable temporal variation. Since the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake (LPE), monitoring on 32 alinement arrays and 5 creepmeters has greatly improved the spatial and temporal resolution of creep rate. We now identify significant temporal variations, mostly associated with local and regional earthquakes. The largest rate change was a 6‐yr cessation of creep along a 5‐km length near the south end of the HF, attributed to a regional stress drop from the LPE, ending in 1996 with a 2‐cm creep event. North of there near Union City starting in 1991, rates apparently increased by 25% above pre‐LPE levels on a 16‐km‐long reach of the fault. Near Oakland in 2007 an Mw 4.2 earthquake initiated a 1–2 cm creep event extending 10–15 km along the fault. Using new better‐constrained long‐term creep rates, we updated earlier estimates of depth to locking along the HF. The locking depths outline a single, ∼50‐km‐long locked or retarded patch with the potential for an Mw∼6.8 event equaling the 1868 HF earthquake. We propose that this inferred patch regulates the size and frequency of large earthquakes on HF.

  19. Performance of a large size triple GEM detector at high particle rate for the CBM Experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Rama Prasad; Kumar, Ajit; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Das, Supriya; Raha, Sibaji; Samanta, Subhasis; Saini, Jogender

    2017-02-01

    In CBM Experiment at FAIR, dimuons will be detected by a Muon Chamber (MUCH) consisting of segmented absorbers of varying widths and tracking chambers sandwiched between the absorber-pairs. In this fixed target heavy-ion collision experiment, operating at highest interaction rate of 10 MHz for Au+Au collision, the inner region of the 1st detector will face a particle rate of 1 MHz/cm2. To operate at such a high particle density, GEM technology based detectors have been selected for the first two stations of MUCH. We have reported earlier the performance of several small-size GEM detector prototypes built at VECC for use in MUCH. In this work, we report on a large GEM prototype tested with proton beam of momentum 2.36 GeV/c at COSY-Jülich Germany. The detector was read out using nXYTER operated in self-triggering mode. An efficiency higher than 96% at ΔVGEM = 375.2 V was achieved. The variation of efficiency with the rate of incoming protons has been found to vary within 2% when tested up to a maximum rate of 2.8 MHz/cm2. The gain was found to be stable at high particle rate with a maximum variation of ∼9%.

  20. Depletion of trophy large-sized sharks populations of the Argentinean coast, south-western Atlantic: insights from fishers' knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, sharks are impacted by a wide range of human activities, resulting in many populations being depleted. Trophy large-sized sharks of the Argentinean coast, the sand-tiger Carcharias taurus , the copper Carcharhinus brachyurus and the sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus are under intense sport and artisanal fishing since the 50's decade. However, the current and historical information for the assessment of its populations status is scarce. The aim of this work was to analyze the status of conservation of these species through the gathering of expert fishermen knowledge (FK on semi-structured interviews. Abundance variation perception between the beginning and the end of fishermen careers revealed a critical status for the species study (means variation between -77 and -90 %. Furthermore, a best day's catch analysis reinforce this result in the case of the sand tiger shark. The school shark Galeorhinus galeus was included on this work with the objective of contrast FK with formal information available of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE time series. Both sources of information, despite are not comparable, shows declines ~ - 80%. The critical conservation situation of study species needs urgent management action, particularly for the san tiger shark which could became regionally extinct before the reaction of stakeholders occurs.

  1. Size-exclusion chromatography of large molecules from coal liquids, petroleum residues, soots, biomass tars and humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herod, Alan A; Zhuo, Yuqun; Kandiyoti, Rafael

    2003-06-30

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) using 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) as eluent has been calibrated using various standard polymers and model compounds and applied to the analysis of extracts of coal, petroleum and kerogens, to petroleum vacuum residues, soots, biomass tars and humic substances. Three separate columns of different molecular mass (MM) ranges were used, with detection by UV absorption; an evaporative light scattering detector was used for samples with no UV absorption. Fractionation was useful to separate signal from the less abundant high-mass material, which was normally masked by the strong signal from the more abundant low-mass material in the absence of fractionation. Fractionation methods used to isolate high-mass materials before SEC analysis included planar chromatography, column chromatography and solvent solubility. The apparently large molecules were concentrated into the fractions not soluble in common solvents and were relatively immobile in planar chromatography. All samples and fractions contained some material excluded from the column porosity. Evidence from other techniques suggests that the excluded material is of different structures from that of the resolved material rather than consisting of aggregates of small molecules. We speculate that the excluded material may elute early because the structures of this material are three-dimensional rather than planar or near planar.

  2. Mammals of medium and large size in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

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    Eduardo, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of Brazilian vertebrates is regarded among the highest in the world. However, the biologicaldiversity is still mostly unknown and a good part of it is seriously threatened by human activities. This study aimed toinventory the medium and large size mammals present in the Reserva Biológica de Santa Rita do Sapucaí, an Atlanticforest reserve located in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, southeastern Brazil. Sand-plots, photographic traps and searches foranimal tracks on pre-existent trails in the area, were carried out once every two months between May 2006 andFebruary 2007. The sand-plots and tracks were inspected during five consecutive days per sampling. We obtained 108records of 15 species, mostly of carnivorans. Two confirmed species are threatened with extinction in Brazil (Callithrixaurita and Leopardus pardalis. The results suggest that the sampled reserve has high species richness and plays animportant role in conservation of mammals in this landscape, including species threatened with extinction.

  3. Boys who pee the farthest have a large hollow head, a thin skin, and medium-size manhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, Daniel; Lee, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    Following a recent trend of scientific studies on artwork, we study here the thermodynamics of a jetting thermometer made of ceramic, related to the Chinese tea culture. The thermometer represents a boy who "urinates" shortly after hot water is poured onto his head. Long jetting distance indicates if the water temperature is hot enough to brew tea. Here, a thermofluid model describes the jetting phenomenon of that pee-pee boy. The study demonstrates how thermal expansion of an interior air pocket causes jetting. The validity of assumptions underlying the Hagen-Poiseuille flow is discussed for urethra of finite length. A thermodynamic potential is shown to define maximum jetting velocity. Seven optimization criteria to maximize jetting distance are provided, including two dimensionless numbers. The dimensionless numbers are obtained by comparing the time scales of the internal pressure buildup due to heating, with that of pressure relief due to jetting. Optimization results show that longer jets are produced by large individuals, with low body mass index, with a boyhood of medium size inclined at an angle π/4. Analogies are drawn with pissing contests among humans and lobsters. The study ends by noting similitudes of working principle between that politically incorrect thermometer and Galileo Galilei's thermoscope.

  4. Contribution of large-sized primary sensory neuronal sensitization to mechanical allodynia by upregulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels via cyclooxygenase 1 cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yang, Fei; Wang, Yan; Fu, Han; Yang, Yan; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Lin, Qing; Chen, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Under physiological state, small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are believed to mediate nociceptive behavioral responses to painful stimuli. However, recently it has been found that a number of large-sized neurons are also involved in nociceptive transmission under neuropathic conditions. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms that large-sized DRG neurons mediate nociception are poorly understood. In the present study, the role of large-sized neurons in bee venom (BV)-induced mechanical allodynia and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Behaviorally, it was found that mechanical allodynia was still evoked by BV injection in rats in which the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-positive DRG neurons were chemically deleted. Electrophysiologically, in vitro patch clamp recordings of large-sized neurons showed hyperexcitability in these neurons. Interestingly, the firing pattern of these neurons was changed from phasic to tonic under BV-inflamed state. It has been suggested that hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels (HCN) expressed in large-sized DRG neurons contribute importantly to repeatedly firing. So we examined the roles of HCNs in BV-induced mechanical allodynia. Consistent with the overexpression of HCN1/2 detected by immunofluorescence, HCNs-mediated hyperpolarization activated cation current (Ih) was significantly increased in the BV treated samples. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that the hyperexcitability and upregulation of Ih in large-sized neurons were mediated by cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)-prostaglandin E2 pathway. This is evident by the fact that the COX-1 inhibitor significantly attenuated the BV-induced mechanical allodynia. These results suggest that BV can excite the large-sized DRG neurons at least in part by increasing Ih through activation of COX-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolution of interspecific variation in size of attachment structures in the large tapeworm genus Acanthobothrium (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, H S; Poulin, R

    2010-09-01

    Parasites have evolved a myriad of attachment structures closely adapted to their hosts and sites of attachment. Here, using members of the genus Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1850 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae), we (i) examined the influence of host body size and phylogeny, in addition to morphological features of these tapeworms, on the size of 3 structures used in attachment (bothridia, accessory suckers and hooks) by means of general linear models and phylogenetic-independent contrasts methods, and (ii) quantified the scaling exponents of relationships between size of attachment structures and tapeworm body size. Our results indicate that there exists a positive relationship, albeit not directly proportional, between size of attachment structures and Acanthobothrium spp. body size, and hook size and size of bothridia and accessory suckers. These results suggest that the resource investment in whole-body growth is greater than that in attachment structures, and that a greater investment in development of bothridia and accessory suckers is required to maintain an equivalent functional efficacy to hooks. In addition, host body size also influences, though less markedly, the size of attachment structures in Acanthobothrium spp. independently of parasite size itself. Acanthobothrium species have evolved a generalized mode of attachment that is successful in maintaining their position on various intestinal mucosal topographies across a variety of hosts exploiting different food resources.

  6. A new RE + 011 TSIG method for the fabrication of high quality and large size single domain YBCO bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. M.; Chen, L. P.; Wang, X. J.

    2016-02-01

    High quality single domain YBCO bulk superconductors, 20 mm in diameter, have been fabricated using a new top seeded infiltration and growth method (called the RE + 011 TSIG method), with a new solid phase (Y2O3 + xBaCuO2) instead of the conventional Y2BaCuO5 solid phase, x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.8, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0. The effects of different BaCuO2 contents x on the growth morphology, microstructure, and levitation force have been investigated. The results show that the levitation force of the YBCO bulks first increases and then decreases with increasing x, and reaches maximum levitation forces of about 49.2 N (77 K, 0.5 T, with the traditional liquid phase of YBa2Cu3O y + 3 BaCuO2 + 2 CuO) and 47 N (77.3 K, 0.5 T, with the new liquid phase of Y2O3 + 10 BaCuO2 + 6 CuO) when x = 1.2, which is much higher than that of the samples fabricated with the conventional solid phases (23 N). The average Y2BaCuO5 particle size is about 1 μm, which is much smaller than the 3.4 μm in the samples prepared with the conventional Y2BaCuO5 solid phase; this means that the flux pinning force of the sample can be improved by using the new solid phase. Based on this method, single domain YBCO bulks 40 mm, 59 mm, and 93 mm in diameter have also been fabricated using the TSIG process with the new solid phases (Y2O3 + 1.2BaCuO2). These results indicate that the new TSIG process developed by our lab is a very important and practical method for the fabrication of low cost, large size, and high quality single domain REBCO bulk superconductors.

  7. The main postulates of adaptive correction of distortions of the wave front in large-size optical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of optical telescopes, striving to increase the penetrating power of a telescope has been always the main trend. A real way to solve this problem is to raise the quality of the image (reduction of the image angular size under real conditions of distorting factor and increase a diameter of the main mirror. This is counteracted by the various distorting factors or interference occurring in realtime use of telescopes, as well as by complicated manufacturing processes of large mirrors.It is shown that the most effective method to deal with the influence of distorting factors on the image quality in the telescope is the minimization (through selecting the place to mount a telescope and choosing the rational optical scheme, creating materials and new technologies, improving a design, unloading the mirrors, mounting choice, etc., and then the adaptive compensation of remaining distortions.It should be noted that a domestic concept to design large-sized telescopes allows us to use, in our opinion, the most efficient ways to do this. It means to abandon the creation of "an absolutely rigid and well-ordered" design, providing the passively aligned state telescope optics under operating conditions. The design must just have such a level of residual deformations that their effect can be efficiently compensated by the adaptive system using the segmented elements of the primary mirror and the secondary mirror as a corrector.It has been found that in the transmission optical systems to deliver laser power to a remote object, it is necessary not only to overcome the distorting effect of factors inherent in optical information systems, but, additionally, find a way to overcome a number of new difficulties. The main ones have been identified to be as follows:• the influence of laser radiation on the structure components and the propagation medium and, as a consequence, the opposite effect of the structure components and the propagation

  8. Efficacy of informed versus uninformed physiotherapy on postoperative retear rates of medium-sized and large rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chin-Tsai; Hu, Weichih; Wen, Che-Sheng; Wang, Su-Fan; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Teng, Jyh-Tong

    2015-09-01

    It is important to perform the first 12 weeks of rehabilitation without risk of tearing a cuff tendon from its repair site. Our hypothesis was that performing early postoperative rehabilitation with a limitable pendulum exercise device can produce lower retear rate outcomes when it is combined with safe, informed physiotherapy compared with a standardized protocol of rehabilitation performed at home. By using an asymmetric arm support brace and an advanced accelerometer, we attempted to determine the benefits of small pendulum exercises (proposed by Long et al). This study enrolled 24 patients to use a monitoring device in standardized small pendulum exercises. Clinical outcomes and magnetic resonance images were evaluated preoperatively and 12 weeks after surgery. While a patient performed pendulum exercises, a therapist used computer imagery to observe whether vertical acceleration was over a given threshold (identified as physiologic tremors), as a warning of and precaution associated with the increased risk of repair failure. Similar self-reported functional outcomes were reported in 2 areas. The rate of recurrent tears was significantly higher for both the medium-sized and large areas in the uninformed home rehabilitation group compared with the informed group. The results of monitoring of pendulum exercises to develop informed physical therapeutic methodology were consistent with those of previously published literature. In this study, use of a monitoring device during early rehabilitation was associated with lower retear rates after rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Uluçay, Orhan; Şakiroğlu, Muhammet; Udvardi, Michael K; Verdier, Jerome

    2016-09-08

    Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  10. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  11. Large and variable genome size unrelated to serpentine adaptation but supportive of cryptic sexuality in Cenococcum geophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Elizabeth C; Mina, Diogo; Gonçalves, Susana C; Loureiro, João; Freitas, Helena; Muller, Ludo A H

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of genome size and its variation can provide valuable information regarding the genetic diversity of organisms and their adaptation potential to heterogeneous environments. We used flow cytometry to characterize the variation in genome size among 40 isolates of Cenococcum geophilum, an ectomycorrhizal fungus with a wide ecological and geographical distribution, obtained from two serpentine and two non-serpentine sites in Portugal. Besides determining the genome size and its intraspecies variation, we wanted to assess whether a relationship exists between genome size and the edaphic background of the C. geophilum isolates. Our results reveal C. geophilum to have one of the largest genome sizes so far measured in the Ascomycota, with a mean haploid genome size estimate of 0.208 pg (203 Mbp). However, no relationship was found between genome size and the edaphic background of the sampled isolates, indicating genetic and demographic processes to be more important for shaping the genome size variation in this species than environmental selection. The detection of variation in ploidy level among our isolates, including a single individual with both presumed haploid and diploid nuclei, provides supportive evidence for a possible cryptic sexual or parasexual cycle in C. geophilum (although other mechanisms may have caused this variation). The existence of such a cycle would have wide significance, explaining the high levels of genetic diversity and likelihood of recombination previously reported in this species, and adds to the increasing number of studies suggesting sexual cycles in previously assumed asexual fungi.

  12. Finite-time and finite-size scalings in the evaluation of large-deviation functions: Numerical approach in continuous time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien

    2017-06-01

    Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provides a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to selection rules that favor the rare trajectories of interest. Such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time and finite population size, effects that can render their use delicate. In this paper, we present a numerical approach which uses the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of rare trajectories. The method we propose allows one to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators, which—as shown on the contact process—provides a significant improvement of the large deviation function estimators compared to the standard one.

  13. Estimates of genetic differentiation measured by F(ST do not necessarily require large sample sizes when using many SNP markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Willing

    Full Text Available Population genetic studies provide insights into the evolutionary processes that influence the distribution of sequence variants within and among wild populations. F(ST is among the most widely used measures for genetic differentiation and plays a central role in ecological and evolutionary genetic studies. It is commonly thought that large sample sizes are required in order to precisely infer F(ST and that small sample sizes lead to overestimation of genetic differentiation. Until recently, studies in ecological model organisms incorporated a limited number of genetic markers, but since the emergence of next generation sequencing, the panel size of genetic markers available even in non-reference organisms has rapidly increased. In this study we examine whether a large number of genetic markers can substitute for small sample sizes when estimating F(ST. We tested the behavior of three different estimators that infer F(ST and that are commonly used in population genetic studies. By simulating populations, we assessed the effects of sample size and the number of markers on the various estimates of genetic differentiation. Furthermore, we tested the effect of ascertainment bias on these estimates. We show that the population sample size can be significantly reduced (as small as n = 4-6 when using an appropriate estimator and a large number of bi-allelic genetic markers (k>1,000. Therefore, conservation genetic studies can now obtain almost the same statistical power as studies performed on model organisms using markers developed with next-generation sequencing.

  14. HOW THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE DEVELOPED A NEW WASTE PACKAGE USING A POLYUREA COATING THAT IS SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY ELIMINATING SIZE REDUCTION OF LARGE ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Hogue, Richard S.; Kimokeo, Margaret K.

    2003-02-27

    One of the major challenges involved in closing the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is the disposal of extremely large pieces of contaminated production equipment and building debris. Past practice has been to size reduce the equipment into pieces small enough to fit into approved, standard waste containers. Size reducing this equipment is extremely expensive, and exposes workers to high-risk tasks, including significant industrial, chemical, and radiological hazards. RFETS has developed a waste package using a Polyurea coating for shipping large contaminated objects. The cost and schedule savings have been significant.

  15. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  16. The underestimated role of temperature-oxygen relationship in large-scale studies on size-to-temperature response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyńska, Aleksandra; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2017-09-01

    The observation that ectotherm size decreases with increasing temperature (temperature-size rule; TSR) has been widely supported. This phenomenon intrigues researchers because neither its adaptive role nor the conditions under which it is realized are well defined. In light of recent theoretical and empirical studies, oxygen availability is an important candidate for understanding the adaptive role behind TSR. However, this hypothesis is still undervalued in TSR studies at the geographical level. We reanalyzed previously published data about the TSR pattern in diatoms sampled from Icelandic geothermal streams, which concluded that diatoms were an exception to the TSR. Our goal was to incorporate oxygen as a factor in the analysis and to examine whether this approach would change the results. Specifically, we expected that the strength of size response to cold temperatures would be different than the strength of response to hot temperatures, where the oxygen limitation is strongest. By conducting a regression analysis for size response at the community level, we found that diatoms from cold, well-oxygenated streams showed no size-to-temperature response, those from intermediate temperature and oxygen conditions showed reverse TSR, and diatoms from warm, poorly oxygenated streams showed significant TSR. We also distinguished the roles of oxygen and nutrition in TSR. Oxygen is a driving factor, while nutrition is an important factor that should be controlled for. Our results show that if the geographical or global patterns of TSR are to be understood, oxygen should be included in the studies. This argument is important especially for predicting the size response of ectotherms facing climate warming.

  17. Evidence from a Large Sample on the Effects of Group Size and Decision-Making Time on Performance in a Marketing Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treen, Emily; Atanasova, Christina; Pitt, Leyland; Johnson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing instructors using simulation games as a way of inducing some realism into a marketing course are faced with many dilemmas. Two important quandaries are the optimal size of groups and how much of the students' time should ideally be devoted to the game. Using evidence from a very large sample of teams playing a simulation game, the study…

  18. 78 FR 42436 - Procedures To Establish Appropriate Minimum Block Sizes for Large Notional Off-Facility Swaps and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Currencies Australia dollar (AUD), Switzerland franc (CHF), Canada dollar (CAD), Republic of South Africa... minimum block Units size AB NIT Basis (ICE) 62,500 MMBtu. Brent Crude (ICE and NYMEX).. 25,000 bbl. Cheese (CME) 400,000......... lbs. Class III Milk (CME)......... NO BLOCKS. Cocoa (ICE and NYSE LIFFE and 1...

  19. Refractory Inclusion Size Distribution and Fabric Measured in a Large Slab of the Allende CV3 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; Simon, Justin I.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregate textures of chondrites reflect accretion of early-formed particles in the solar nebula. Explanations for the size and density variations of particle populations found among chondrites are debated. Differences could have risen out of formation in different locations in the nebula, and/or they could have been caused by a sorting process [1]. Many ideas on the cause of chondrule sorting have been proposed; some including sorting by mass [2,3], by X-winds [4], turbulent concentration [5], and by photophoresis [6]. However, few similar studies have been conducted for Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). These particles are known to have formed early, and their distribution could attest to the early stages of Solar System (ESS) history. Unfortunately, CAIs are not as common in chondrites as chondrules are, reducing the usefulness of studies restricted to a few thin sections. Furthermore, the largest sizes of CAIs are generally much larger than chondrules, and therefore rarely present in most studied chondrite thin sections. This study attempts to perform a more representative sampling of the CAI population in the Allende chondrite by investigating a two decimeter-sized slab.

  20. A Large Size Chimeric Highly Immunogenic Peptide Presents Multistage Plasmodium Antigens as a Vaccine Candidate System against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lozano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rational strategies for obtaining malaria vaccine candidates should include not only a proper selection of target antigens for antibody stimulation, but also a versatile molecular design based on ordering the right pieces from the complex pathogen molecular puzzle towards more active and functional immunogens. Classical Plasmodium falciparum antigens regarded as vaccine candidates have been selected as model targets in this study. Among all possibilities we have chosen epitopes of PfCSP, STARP; MSA1 and Pf155/RESA from pre- and erythrocyte stages respectively for designing a large 82-residue chimeric immunogen. A number of options aimed at diminishing steric hindrance for synthetic procedures were assessed based on standard Fmoc chemistry such as building block orthogonal ligation; pseudo-proline and microwave-assisted procedures, therefore the large-chimeric target was produced, characterized and immunologically tested. Antigenicity and functional in vivo efficacy tests of the large-chimera formulations administered alone or as antigen mixtures have proven the stimulation of high antibody titers, showing strong correlation with protection and parasite clearance of vaccinated BALB/c mice after being lethally challenged with both P. berghei-ANKA and P. yoelii 17XL malaria strains. Besides, 3D structure features shown by the large-chimera encouraged as to propose using these rational designed large synthetic molecules as reliable vaccine candidate-presenting systems.

  1. Sizing and Siting of Large-Scale Batteries in Transmission Grids to Optimize the Use of Renewables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorini, Laura; Pagani, Giuliano; Pelacchi, P.; Poli, Davide; Aiello, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Power systems are a recent field of application of Complex Network research, which allows to perform large scale studies and evaluations. Based on this theory, a power grid is modeled as a weighted graph with several kinds of nodes and edges, and further analysis can help in investigating the

  2. Does size matter? An examination of problem gamblers' skin conductance responses to large and small magnitude rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lole, Lisa; Gonsalvez, Craig J

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has shown that individuals with substance use disorder equally value small and large magnitude rewards. This has led some researchers to conceptualize the problematic behaviors associated with this disorder as being, at least in part, caused by a deficiency in processing reward stimuli. Considering the documented similarities between substance use disorder and disordered gambling, the current study sought to investigate whether problem gamblers also display such an aberrant pattern of incentive processing. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) to small and large magnitude wins were recorded from 16 problem gamblers (PGs) and 16 healthy controls (HCs) while they completed a computer-simulated electronic gaming machine task. The results show that, while large wins elicited greater SCRs compared to small wins for the HC group, no difference in SCR amplitude was found following large and small wins in the PG group. These findings suggest that problem gamblers may be less effective at evaluating the value of incentives, and are discussed in terms of relevant theoretical frameworks. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Monodisperse AgSbS2 nanocrystals: size-control strategy, large-scale synthesis, and photoelectrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Li, Mingrun; Wu, Yihui; Yang, Chi; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Li, Can

    2015-07-27

    We report an efficient approach to the synthesis of AgSbS2 nanocrystals (NCs) by colloidal chemistry. The size of the AgSbS2 NCs can be tuned from 5.3 to 58.3 nm with narrow size distributions by selection of appropriate precursors and fine control of the experimental conditions. Over 15 g of high-quality AgSbS2 NCs can be obtained from one single reaction, indicative of the up-scalability of the present synthesis. The resulting NCs display strong absorptions in the visible-to-NIR range and exceptional air stability. The photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that, although the pristine AgSbS2 NC electrodes generate a cathodic photocurrent with a relatively small photocurrent density and poor stability, both of them can be significantly improved subject to CdS surface modification, showing promise in solar energy conversion applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Efficient Algorithm for Locating and Sizing Series Compensation Devices in Large Transmission Grids: Solutions and Applications (PART II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, Vladimir [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Moscow (Russian Federation); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-14

    In a companion manuscript, we developed a novel optimization method for placement, sizing, and operation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide Series Compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (~2700 nodes and ~3300 lines). The results on the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions including non-locality and sparsity. The Polish grid is used as a demonstration of the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverages sequential linearization of power flow constraints and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, the algorithm is able to solve an instance of Polish grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (a) uniform load growth, (b) multiple overloaded configurations, and (c) sequential generator retirements

  5. A critical evaluation of the effect of population size and phenotypic measurement on QTL detection and localization using a large F2 murine mapping population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmin Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Population size and phenotypic measurement are two key factors determining the detection power of quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping. We evaluated how these two controllable factors quantitatively affect the detection of QTL and their localization using a large F2 murine mapping population and found that three main points emerged from this study. One finding was that the sensitivity of QTL detection significantly decreased as the population size decreased. The decrease in the percentage logarithm of the odd score (LOD score, which is a statistical measure of the likelihood of two loci being lied near each other on a chromosome can be estimated using the formula 1 - n/N, where n is the smaller and N the larger population size. This empirical formula has several practical implications in QTL mapping. We also found that a population size of 300 seems to be a threshold for the detection of QTL and their localization, which challenges the small population sizes commonly-used in published studies, in excess of 60% of which cite population sizes <300. In addition, it seems that the precision of phenotypic measurement has a limited capacity to affect detection power, which means that quantitative traits that cannot be measured precisely can also be used in QTL mapping for the detection of major QTL.

  6. Amino acid Alphabet Size in Protein Evolution Experiments: Better to Search a Small library Thoroughly or a Large Library Sparsely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    We compare the results obtained from searching a smaller library thoroughly versus searching a more diverse, larger library sparsely. We study protein evolution with reduced amino acid alphabets, by simulating directed evolution experiments at three different alphabet sizes: 20, 5 and 2. We employ a physical model for evolution, the generalized NK model, that has proved successful in modeling protein evolution, antibody evolution, and T cell selection. We find that antibodies with higher affinity are found by searching a library with a larger alphabet sparsely than by searching a smaller library thoroughly, even with well-designed reduced libraries. We find ranked amino acid usage frequencies in agreement with observations of the CDR-H3 variable region of human antibodies. PMID:18375453

  7. Flexible Multi-Bit Feedback Design for HARQ Operation of Large-Size Data Packets in 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosravirad, Saeed; Mudolo, Luke; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2017-01-01

    A reliable feedback channel is vital to report decoding acknowledgments in retransmission mechanisms such as the hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ). While the feedback bits are known to be costly for the wireless link, a feedback message more informative than the conventional single-bit feedb......A reliable feedback channel is vital to report decoding acknowledgments in retransmission mechanisms such as the hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ). While the feedback bits are known to be costly for the wireless link, a feedback message more informative than the conventional single......-bit feedback can increase resource utilization efficiency. Considering the practical limitations for increasing feedback message size, this paper proposes a framework for the design of flexible-content multi-bit feedback. The proposed design is capable of efficiently indicating the faulty segments of a failed...

  8. Preliminary approach on early post mortem stress and quality indexes changes in large size bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ugolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is very appreciated on Japan and USA market for the preparation of sushi and sahimi. The market price of the fresh product can vary from 8 to 33 Euro/kg (gate farm/producers prices according to size, shape, fat level, meat colour, consistency and freshness (absence of “hyake”, all parameters strictly connected to feeding quality and quantity, rearing and killing stress factors and refrigeration times and conditions after death. Excessive levels of stress during the slaughtering can affect meat quality, contributing to significantly decrease of tuna’s price. The present trial was carried out to evaluate the possible harvesting/slaughtering stress effect on reared bluefin tuna meat quality, starting from the examination of the most important stress and quality parameters changes during the early post mortem period.

  9. Large size and high light do not lower the cost of reproduction for the Neotropical herb Goeppertia marantifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlaga, David P; Horvitz, Carol C

    2015-03-01

    • Sexual reproduction is often associated with a cost in terms of reduced survival, growth, or future reproduction. It has been proposed that plant size and the environment (availability of key resources) can sometimes lower or even nullify the cost of reproduction.• We address this issue experimentally with the Neotropical herb Goeppertia marantifolia, by manipulating sexual reproductive effort and measuring the demographic performance of plants and of their clonal offspring, in the context of natural variation in light availability.• Plants in the high-reproductive-effort treatment grew less between seasons but did not differ in their probability of flowering the second season or in inflorescence size compared with plants in the low-effort treatment. Reproductive effort of parent plants influenced the leaf area of their clonal offspring. Plants that invested less in sexual reproduction produced clonal offspring that were initially larger than those produced by plants that invested more in reproduction. The magnitude of this effect was greater in parent plants that received two seasons of the manipulated reproductive effort than in those that received a single season. The trade-off between reproductive modes dampened with time, leading to smaller differences in clonal offspring leaf area between treatments over time.• We found evidence of a cost of reproduction and trade-offs between reproductive modes, although the magnitude of these costs was small. However, we found no evidence of lower costs of reproduction for larger plants or for plants in higher-light environments over our 2-yr study period. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. The influence of technological mounting of lightweight large size space astronomical mirrors into the shape of its reflecting surface during interferometric control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasenko, Oleg; Sachkov, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    The technological mounting is necessary during the ground base tests to exclude the gravity influence into the lightweight large-size space astronomical mirrors (diameter of 1.7 m and more). We propose a method that allows to correct the influence of this mounting onto the mirror shape surface during an interferometric control. Here we present results based on primary mirror tests of the WSO-UV project.

  11. Large-sized hepotocellular carcinoma (HCC): a neoadjuvant treatment protocol with repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) before percutaneous MR-guided laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangos, Stephan; Eichler, Katrin; Balzer, Joern O.; Straub, Ralf; Hammerstingl, Renate; Herzog, Christopher; Lehnert, Thomas; Heller, Mathias; Thalhammer, Axel; Mack, Martin G.; Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a neoadjuvant treatment protocol with repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) before MR-guided laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) for large-sized hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Repeated TACE (mean, 3.5 treatments per patient) was performed in 48 patients with neoadjuvant intention (the largest lesion was between 50 and 80 mm in diameter, and there were no more than five lesions). For the TACE treatment, we used 10 mg/m{sup 2} mitomycin, 10 ml/m{sup 2} Lipiodol and microspheres. The tumor volume was measured by MRI. Lipiodol retention of the tumors was evaluated with CT. After the diameter of the tumors had decreased to less than 50 mm, the patients were treated with MR-guided LITT 4 to 6 weeks after embolization. Repeated TACE reduced the tumor size in 32 patients (66.7%), forming the basis for performing MR-guided LITT procedures. These patients received one to four laser treatments (mean, 1.9 per patient) for tumor ablation, resulting in a median survival of 36.0 months after the first treatment. For the remaining patients, no reduction in tumor size was achieved in 12 patients and disease progression in 4 patients. Neoadjuvant TACE appears to be an effective treatment of large-sized HCC, which extends the indication for MR-guided LITT. (orig.)

  12. Dynamic correction of the laser beam coordinate in fabrication of large-sized diffractive elements for testing aspherical mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, R. V.; Poleshchuk, A. G.; Korolkov, V. P.; Cherkashin, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a method of improving the accuracy of a circular laser system in fabrication of large-diameter diffractive optical elements by means of a polar coordinate system and the results of their use. An algorithm for correcting positioning errors of a circular laser writing system developed at the Institute of Automation and Electrometry, SB RAS, is proposed and tested. Highprecision synthesized holograms fabricated by this method and the results of using these elements for testing the 6.5 m diameter aspheric mirror of the James Webb space telescope (JWST) are described..

  13. Technology of CCS coal utilization (outline of large-size demonstration test for CCS); CCS tan riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, K. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Hironaka, H. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The coal cartridge system (CCS) is a series of the total system, in which coal is processed centrally at a supply base for each unit of consumer areas, supplied as pulverized coal in bulk units, and coal ash after combustion is recovered and treated. The system is expected of advantages resulted from the centralized production, elimination of handling troubles, and cleanliness. Following a small scale demonstration test, a large demonstration test for practically usable scale has begun in 1990, and completed in fiscal 1995. This paper introduces the CCS and reports the result of the test. In the large demonstration test, a supply station (with manufacturing capability of 200,000 tons a year) was installed in the Aichi refinery of Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., and systematization on quality design and system technologies has been carried out. Long-term continuous operation for five years was achieved (operation time of the supply facilities was about 19,000 hours) without a failure and accident, to which every elemental technology was evaluated highly, and convenience and reliability of the system was verified. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Outcome of shock wave lithotripsy as monotherapy for large solitary renal stones (>2 cm in size without stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasundaram Rajaian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the outcome of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL as monotherapy for solitary renal stones larger than 2 cm without ureteral stenting. Materials and Methods : Our retrospective study included patients with solitary renal radio opaque stones larger than 2 cm treated with SWL using electromagnetic Dornier Compact S lithotripter device (Wessling, Germany for a period of 3 years (September 2002-2005. Stone clearance was assessed at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months with plain X-rays of kidney, ureter, and bladder region, ultrasonography, and tomograms. Stone-free status, morbidity of the procedure, and fate of clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRF were studied. A stone-free state was defined as no radiologic evidence of stone. Success was defined as complete clearance + CIRF. Results : Fifty-five patients, aged 11-65 years (mean 49.8 underwent SWL. Of them, only two were children. Male-to-female ratio was 3:1. The stone size was 21-28 mm (average 24 mm. The mean number of shocks were 3732 (range 724-12,100 and average energy level was 14 kV (range 11-16 kV. The mean follow-up was 18 months (range 3-22 months. Over all, stone-free status was achieved in 50% and success in 81% at 3 months. Stone clearance was not affected by stone location. Stones 26 mm (P = -0.10. Of 54 patients, 39 developed steinstrasse with mean length of 3.2 cm (range 1.4-6.2 cm and only four required intervention. Effectiveness quotient (EQ for SWL monotherapy for solitary renal stones more than 2 cm was 25.3%. The EQ for stones <25 mm and those more than 25 mm were 28.4% and 10% (P = -0.12, respectively. There was a lesser trend of difference between stones with size <25 and more than 25 mm. During the last review, the overall stone-free rate was 67.2%. Conclusions : SWL monotherapy was safe but significantly less effective for solitary renal stones larger than 2 cm. It can only be suggested to those who refuse surgical intervention. Pretreatment DJ

  15. How Large Can We Build a Cyclic Assembly? Impact of Ring Size on Chelate Cooperativity in Noncovalent Macrocyclizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro-García, Carlos; Mayoral, María J; Chamorro, Raquel; González-Rodríguez, David

    2017-12-04

    Self-assembled systems rely on intramolecular cooperative effects to control their growth and regulate their shape, thus yielding discrete, well-defined structures. However, as the size of the system increases, cooperative effects tend to dissipate. We analyze here this situation by studying a set of oligomers of different lengths capped with guanosine and cytidine nucleosides, which associate in cyclic tetramers by complementary Watson-Crick H-bonding interactions. As the monomer length increases, and thus the number of C(sp)-C(sp2 ) σ-bonds in the π-conjugated skeleton, the macrocycle stability decreases due to a notable reduction in effective molarity (EM), which has a clear entropic origin. We determined the relationship between EM or ΔS and the number of σ-bonds, which allowed us to predict the maximum monomer lengths at which cyclic species would still assemble quantitatively, or whether the cyclic species would not able to compete at all with linear oligomers over the whole concentration range. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Fabrication by using a sputtering method and charge-discharge properties of large-sized and thin-filmed lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Hiromi; Sano, Kimihiro [Research and Development Center, Geomatec Co. Ltd., 3-13-7 Yaguchi, Otaku, Tokyo 146-0093 (Japan); Baba, Mamoru [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

    2005-08-26

    Large-sized and thin-filmed lithium ion rechargeable batteries composed of a Li{sub 2-x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode, a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} negative electrode and a Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4-x}N{sub x} electrolyte have been developed on glass substrates by using a sputtering method, and their electrochemical characteristics were investigated. A typical cell size of the batteries was 100mmx100mm in area and about 3.1{mu}m in thickness as a whole. The battery with a maximum cell size of 200mmx200mm was also successfully fabricated. These pinhole-free batteries showed a good rechargeable performance between 3.5 and 0.3V with a typical charge-discharge capacity of about 0.9mAh for the battery with a 100mmx100mm size and of about 5.5mAh for the battery with a 200mmx200mm size. These batteries having almost the same characteristics have stably been fabricated with a good yield rate, and they could drive a digital watch as one of realistic portable devices more than 1 month with only one time charge. (author)

  17. γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by sol–gel with large nanoparticles size for magnetic hyperthermia application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemine, O.M., E-mail: leminej@yahoo.com [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Omri, K. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Faculty of Sciences in Gabes, Gabes (Tunisia); Iglesias, M.; Velasco, V. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC (Spain); Crespo, P.; Presa, P. de la [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC (Spain); Dpto. Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); El Mir, L. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Faculty of Sciences in Gabes, Gabes (Tunisia); Bouzid, Houcine [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Laboratoire des Matériaux Ferroélectriques, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Route Soukra Km 3 5, B.P. 802, F-3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Yousif, A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Code 123, Al Khoud (Oman); Al-Hajry, Ali [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Iron oxides nanoparticles with different sizes are successfully synthesized using sol–gel method. • The obtained nanoparticles are mainly composed of maghemite phase (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). • A non-negligible coercive field suggests that the particles are ferromagnetic. • A mean heating efficiency of 30 W/g is obtained for the smallest particles at 110 kHz and 190 Oe. - Abstract: Iron oxides nanoparticles with different sizes are successfully synthesized using sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy show that the obtained nanoparticles are mainly composed of maghemite phase (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results suggest that the nanoparticles have sizes ranging from 14 to 30 nm, which are indeed confirmed by large magnetic saturation and high blocking temperature. At room temperature, the observation of a non-negligible coercive field suggests that the particles are ferro/ferrimagnetic. The specific absorption rate (SAR) under an alternating magnetic field is investigated as a function of size, frequency and amplitude of the applied magnetic field. A mean heating efficiency of 30 W/g is obtained for the smallest particles at 110 kHz and 190 Oe, whereas further increase of particle size does not improve significantly the heating efficiency.

  18. Signal Formation Processes in Micromegas Detectors and Quality Control for large size Detector Construction for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387450; Rembser, Christoph

    2017-08-04

    The Micromegas technology is one of the most successful modern gaseous detector concepts and widely utilized in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Twenty years of R & D rendered the technology sufficiently mature to be selected as precision tracking detector for the New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade of the ATLAS Muon spectrometer. This will be the first large scale application of Micromegas in one of the major LHC experiments. However, many of the fundamental microscopic processes in these gaseous detectors are still not fully understood and studies on several detector aspects, like the micromesh geometry, have never been addressed systematically. The studies on signal formation in Micromegas, presented in the first part of this thesis, focuses on the microscopic signal electron loss mechanisms and the amplification processes in electron gas interaction. Based on a detailed model of detector parameter dependencies, these processes are scrutinized in an iterating comparison between exper- imental result...

  19. Computational study on the conformations of CD38 and inclusion complexes of some lower-size large-ring cyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Petko; Atanassov, Emanouil; Jaime, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The conformations of CD38 were examined by conformational search with molecular dynamics simulations using the Glycam04 force field. The results were compared with previous ones for CD26, the largest cyclodextrin for which crystal data are available. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for post-processing of the simulation trajectories. Limited number of modes determine the overall deformations of the macroring of CD38. The longer perimeter of the macroring allowed the formation of a form not observed so far - a three-turn helix shaped as a short tube. In analogy with CD26, significant participation was monitored for conformations of CD38 with one-turn spirals at the opposite sides of the macroring linked together from the 'bottom' and from the 'top' with extended bridge spacers. Computationally were examined for the first time inclusion complexes of some lower-size LR-CDs, namely complexes of CDn (n = 13, 14, 26) with adamantane and of CD14 with 1-hydroxyadamantane. The macroring conformation of CD13 was not altered by the inclusion of the substrate molecule which acquired preferred positioning not in the middle of the cavity but rather close to the glucose residues at one of the sides. The same positioning of the small molecule in the cavity of the more flexible CD14 macroring enhanced the appearance of bent onto two conformation of this cyclodextrin. The most interesting behaviour presented the complex of CD26 with adamantane in which case the small molecule acts as a 'nucleation center' for the formation of a second helical turn about the substrate molecule.

  20. Towards large size substrates for III-V co-integration made by direct wafer bonding on Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Daix

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the first demonstration of 200 mm InGaAs-on-insulator (InGaAs-o-I fabricated by the direct wafer bonding technique with a donor wafer made of III-V heteroepitaxial structure grown on 200 mm silicon wafer. The measured threading dislocation density of the In0.53Ga0.47As (InGaAs active layer is equal to 3.5 × 109 cm−2, and it does not degrade after the bonding and the layer transfer steps. The surface roughness of the InGaAs layer can be improved by chemical-mechanical-polishing step, reaching values as low as 0.4 nm root-mean-square. The electron Hall mobility in 450 nm thick InGaAs-o-I layer reaches values of up to 6000 cm2/Vs, and working pseudo-MOS transistors are demonstrated with an extracted electron mobility in the range of 2000–3000 cm2/Vs. Finally, the fabrication of an InGaAs-o-I substrate with the active layer as thin as 90 nm is achieved with a Buried Oxide of 50 nm. These results open the way to very large scale production of III-V-o-I advanced substrates for future CMOS technology nodes.

  1. Large size biogas-fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power plants with carbon dioxide management: Technical and economic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curletti, F.; Gandiglio, M.; Lanzini, A.; Santarelli, M.; Maréchal, F.

    2015-10-01

    This article investigates the techno-economic performance of large integrated biogas Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plants. Both atmospheric and pressurized operation is analysed with CO2 vented or captured. The SOFC module produces a constant electrical power of 1 MWe. Sensitivity analysis and multi-objective optimization are the mathematical tools used to investigate the effects of Fuel Utilization (FU), SOFC operating temperature and pressure on the plant energy and economic performances. FU is the design variable that most affects the plant performance. Pressurized SOFC with hybridization with a gas turbine provides a notable boost in electrical efficiency. For most of the proposed plant configurations, the electrical efficiency ranges in the interval 50-62% (LHV biogas) when a trade-off of between energy and economic performances is applied based on Pareto charts obtained from multi-objective plant optimization. The hybrid SOFC is potentially able to reach an efficiency above 70% when FU is 90%. Carbon capture entails a penalty of more 10 percentage points in pressurized configurations mainly due to the extra energy burdens of captured CO2 pressurization and oxygen production and for the separate and different handling of the anode and cathode exhausts and power recovery from them.

  2. Small lesion size measured by colposcopy may predict absence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in a large loop excision of the transformation zone specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munmany, M; Marimon, L; Cardona, M; Nonell, R; Juiz, M; Astudillo, R; Ordi, J; Torné, A; Del Pino, M

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate whether colposcopic measurement of the lesion size at diagnosis and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping can predict the absence of dysplasia in a large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) specimen in women treated for squamous intraepithelial lesions/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (SIL/CIN). Prospective observational study. Tertiary university hospital. A cohort of 116 women who underwent LLETZ because of biopsy-proven low-grade SIL/CIN that had persisted for 2 years, or because of a high-grade SIL/CIN diagnosed in the referral visit and squamocolumnar junction completely visible (types 1 or 2, according to the International Federation of Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy, IFCPC). After LLETZ the women were classified by histology into the study group (absence of SIL/CIN in the surgical specimen, 28/116, 24.1%) and the control group (SIL/CIN in the LLETZ specimen, 88/116, 75.9%). The size of the lesion determined in the diagnostic colposcopy and the HPV genotype were evaluated in all women. The lesion size was significantly smaller in the study group (25.7 ± 37.8 versus 84.5 ± 81.7 mm 2 ; P lesion size of ≤12 mm 2 and HPV types other than 16 or 18 were associated with an absence of SIL/CIN in the LLETZ specimen (P lesion size of ≤12 mm 2 predicted the absence of SIL/CIN (odds ratio, OR 10.6; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 3.6-30.6; P lesion size of ≤12 mm 2 had a specificity of 90.9% (95% CI 83.0-95.3%) and a negative predictive value of 86.0% (95% CI 77.5-91.6%) to predict the absence of SIL/CIN in the surgical specimen. Small lesion size in diagnostic colposcopy could predict the absence of SIL/CIN in the LLETZ specimen. Colposcopy measurement of lesion size prior to LLETZ may avoid unnecessary treatment. Small lesion size in colposcopic evaluation might predict the absence of SIL/CIN in an LLETZ specimen. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Velocity dispersions and dynamical masses for a large sample of quiescent galaxies at z >1: Improved measures of the growth in mass and size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Sirio; Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy for a sample of 103 massive (M > 10{sup 10.6} M {sub ☉}) galaxies with redshifts 0.9 < z < 1.6. Of these, 56 are quiescent with high signal-to-noise absorption line spectra, enabling us to determine robust stellar velocity dispersions for the largest sample yet available beyond a redshift of 1. Together with effective radii measured from deep Hubble Space Telescope images, we calculate dynamical masses and address key questions relating to the puzzling size growth claimed by many observers for quiescent galaxies over the redshift interval 0 < z < 2. Our large sample provides the first opportunity to carefully examine the relationship between stellar and dynamical masses at high redshift. We find this relation closely follows that determined locally. We also confirm the utility of the locally established empirical calibration which enables high-redshift velocity dispersions to be estimated photometrically, and we determine its accuracy to be 35%. To address recent suggestions that progenitor bias—the continued arrival of recently quenched larger galaxies—can largely explain the size evolution of quiescent galaxies, we examine the growth at fixed velocity dispersion assuming this quantity is largely unaffected by the merger history. Using the velocity dispersion-age relation observed in the local universe, we demonstrate that significant size and mass growth have clearly occurred in individual systems. Parameterizing the relation between mass and size growth over 0 < z < 1.6 as R∝M {sup α}, we find α = 1.6 ± 0.3, in agreement with theoretical expectations from simulations of minor mergers. Relaxing the assumption that the velocity dispersion is unchanging, we examine growth assuming a constant ranking in galaxy velocity dispersion. This approach is applicable only to the large-dispersion tail of the distribution, but yields a consistent growth rate of α = 1.4 ± 0.2. Both methods confirm that progenitor bias alone is

  4. Size does not matter, but features do: Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) weigh features more heavily than geometry in large and small enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambinet, Veronika; Wilzeck, Christiane; Kelly, Debbie M

    2014-02-01

    Two groups of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) were trained to locate a hidden goal which was consistently located at one corner of a fully enclosed rectangular environment with distinctive cues available at each corner. One group was trained in a small enclosure, whereas the second group was trained in a large enclosure. Once the birds were showing accurate search behavior, they were presented with non-reinforced tests in either the same sized environment as training or the novel sized environment, as well as in a square-shaped environment. The birds were able to accurately search at the two geometrically correct corners when the four distinctive features were removed showing that they had encoded geometry. Although accuracy was greater when tested in the same sized environment as during training, accuracy was above chance in both environments. Regardless of the size of training enclosure both groups showed primary control by features along with secondary control by geometry. Furthermore, when the features and geometric cues provided conflicting information as to the goal location, both groups weighed featural cues over geometry, and this was independent of whether the size of the testing environment was maintained or manipulated. These results show that for Clark's nutcrackers the size of the environment had little effect on the weighing of featural and geometric cues. Furthermore, although nutcrackers encoded both features and geometry, when spatial cues provided discrepant information as to the goal location, nutcrackers relied primarily on features. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Medium and large-sized mammals of Deciduous Seasonal Forest remnants, in Fritz Plaumann State Park and in surrounding areas, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Deonisia Hendges

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p121 Seasonal forests are one of the most endangered ecosystems in the Atlantic Forest biome, with few protected areas and scarce knowledge on fauna. In order to contribute by means of data on mammal occurrence, distribution, and conservation, this study aimed to provide a list of medium and large-sized mammal species in Fritz Plaumann State Park and in surrounding areas and identify the main threats to mammal species in these locations. Having 741 ha, the park is the only protected area with this ecosystem in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In 2007, 2010, and 2012, samplings were carried out through direct and indirect observation, camera traps, and interviews. Twenty three species were registered, representing 42% of the total number of medium and large-sized land mammals known for the state of Santa Catarina. Six species fell within some threat level in the state or national red list. Even with a small size, this park is one of the largest forest fragments in this region and a refuge for many species within a matrix under intense anthropogenic pressure (e.g. presence of exotic species, hunting. Areas adjacent to the park also show significance for mammal conservation and further strategies must involve, whenever possible, the region as a whole.

  6. Feasibility of laparoscopic abdomino-perineal resection for large-sized anorectal cancers: a single-institution experience of 59 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Parul J; Barreto, Savio G; Hawaldar, Rohini; Nadkarni, Mandar; Kanitkar, Gajanan A; Kerkar, Rajendra; Shrikhande, Shailesh V

    2009-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for anorectal carcinoma is steadily gaining acceptance. While feasibility has already been reported, there are no reports addressing the impact of the actual size of large tumors on laparoscopic resectability. To assess the feasibility and short-term results (including oncological surrogate end points) of performing laparoscopic abdomino-perineal resection (APR) for large rectal cancers. Data of 59 patients undergoing laparoscopic APR (LAPR) for anorectal malignancies were reviewed retrospectively. Outcomes were evaluated considering the surgical procedure, surface area of the tumor and short-term outcomes. Of the 59 cases, LAPR could be completed in 53 (89.8%) patients. Thirty-one (58.4%) patients had Astler-Coller C2 stage disease. The mean surface area of the tumors was 24+/-17.5 (4-83) cm2. The number of median lymph nodes harvested per case was 12 (1-48). Circumferential resection margin (CRM) was positive in 11 (20.7%) patients. No mortality was reported. This appears to be the first report analyzing the impact of the size of the rectal tumor in LAPR. The data clearly indicates that LAPR is not hampered by the size of the tumor. There appears to be a need for preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy before undertaking surgery on larger tumors in view of the higher circumferential resection margin positivity.

  7. Effects of chalazia on corneal astigmatism : Large-sized chalazia in middle upper eyelids compress the cornea and induce the corneal astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ki Won; Shin, Young Joo; Hyon, Joon Young

    2017-03-31

    A chalazion is a common eyelid disease that causes eye morbidity due to inflammation and cosmetic disfigurement. Corneal topographic changes are important factors in corneal refractive surgery, intraocular lens power calculations for cataract surgery, and visual acuity assessments. However, the effects of chalazia on corneal astigmatism have not been thoroughly investigated. The changes in corneal astigmatism according to chalazion size and location is necessary for better outcome of ocular surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes in corneal astigmatism according to chalazion size and location. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 44 eyes from 33 patients were included in the chalazion group and 70 eyes from 46 patients comprised the control group. Chalazia were classified according to location and size. An autokeratorefractometer (KR8100, Topcon; Japan) and a Galilei™ dual-Scheimpflug analyzer (Ziemer Group; Port, Switzerland) were utilized to evaluate corneal changes. Oblique astigmatism was greater in the chalazion group compared with the control group (p chalazion group (p chalazion group, whole area group, and large-sized chalazion group (p Chalazion should be treated before corneal topography is performed preoperatively and before the diagnosis of corneal diseases.

  8. The potential distributions, and estimated spatial requirements and population sizes, of the medium to large-sized mammals in the planning domain of the Greater Addo Elephant National Park project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Boshoff

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Addo Elephant National Park project (GAENP involves the establishment of a mega biodiversity reserve in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Conservation planning in the GAENP planning domain requires systematic information on the potential distributions and estimated spatial requirements, and population sizes of the medium to largesized mammals. The potential distribution of each species is based on a combination of literature survey, a review of their ecological requirements, and consultation with conservation scientists and managers. Spatial requirements were estimated within 21 Mammal Habitat Classes derived from 43 Land Classes delineated by expert-based vegetation and river mapping procedures. These estimates were derived from spreadsheet models based on forage availability estimates and the metabolic requirements of the respective mammal species, and that incorporate modifications of the agriculture-based Large Stock Unit approach. The potential population size of each species was calculated by multiplying its density estimate with the area of suitable habitat. Population sizes were calculated for pristine, or near pristine, habitats alone, and then for these habitats together with potentially restorable habitats for two park planning domain scenarios. These data will enable (a the measurement of the effectiveness of the GAENP in achieving predetermined demographic, genetic and evolutionary targets for mammals that can potentially occur in selected park sizes and configurations, (b decisions regarding acquisition of additional land to achieve these targets to be informed, (c the identification of species for which targets can only be met through metapopulation management,(d park managers to be guided regarding the re-introduction of appropriate species, and (e the application of realistic stocking rates. Where possible, the model predictions were tested by comparison with empirical data, which in general corroborated the

  9. Simulation of temperature distribution for large sized ceramic substrates in vertical type sintering furnace; Tategata denkiro shosei deno ogata seramikkusu kiban no ondo bunpu shumyureshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, M.; Ami, N.; Hirasawa, S. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The temperature distribution in large sized ceramic substrates at 1600 degree C sintered by vertical type furnace was simulated by using a model of heat conduction and radiation heat transfer. The temperature distribution at the center of each ceramic substrate is larger than that in each ceramic substrate at steady state in the case of 3 substrates were fired. The temperature distribution becomes narrow by using a high thermal conductivity material setter or inserting heat insulating material between the bottom setter and the furnace floor. The temperature distribution in each ceramic substrate is closely related to the distance between the surface of the ceramic substrate and the bottom of the upper setter. (author)

  10. Prototyping hexagonal light concentrators using high-reflectance specular films for the Large-Sized Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, A.; Dang, T. V.; Ono, S.; Tanaka, S.; Hayashida, M.; Hinton, J.; Katagiri, H.; Noda, K.; Teshima, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshida, T.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a prototype hexagonal light concentrator for the Large-Sized Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array. To maximize the photodetection efficiency of the focal-plane camera pixels for atmospheric Cherenkov photons and to lower the energy threshold, a specular film with a very high reflectance of 92–99% has been developed to cover the inner surfaces of the light concentrators. The prototype has a relative anode sensitivity (which can be roughly regarded as collection efficiency) of about 95 to 105% at the most important angles of incidence. The design, simulation, production procedure, and performance measurements of the light-concentrator prototype are reported.

  11. Private forest reserves can aid in preserving the community of medium and large-sized vertebrates in the Amazon arc of deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Negroes, Nuno; Revilla, Eloy; Fonseca, Carlos; Soares, Amadeo M.V.M.; Jácomo, Anah T.A.; Silveira, Leandro

    2011-01-01

    Due to the advancing agricultural frontier in the Brazilian Amazon, the present rate of deforestation engenders a pessimistic scenario for vertebrate diversity in the area. Protected areas are an essential conservation tool to limit biodiversity loss, but their efficiency have yet to be proven. Here, we used camera-trap data on the presence of medium and large-size vertebrates in a protected area (Canta˜o State Park) and a neigh- bouring private forest reserve (Santa Fe´ Ranch) to evaluate th...

  12. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Nuha; Gebremeskel, Eyoab Iyasu; Elnour, Mohamed Ali; Isabirye, Dan; Okello, John; Hussien, Ayman; Kwiatksowski, Dominic; Hirbo, Jibril; Tishkoff, Sara; Ibrahim, Muntaser E

    2014-01-01

    Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2), and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne) of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  13. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Elhassan

    Full Text Available Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2, and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  14. Development of the quality control system of the readout electronics for the large size telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Masuda, S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Paoletti, R.; Poulios, S. [SFTA Department, Physics Section, University of Siena and INFN, Siena (Italy); Rugliancich, A., E-mail: andrea.rugliancich@pi.infn.it [SFTA Department, Physics Section, University of Siena and INFN, Siena (Italy); Saito, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-07-11

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation VHE γ-ray observatory which will improve the currently available sensitivity by a factor of 10 in the range 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The array consists of different types of telescopes, called large size telescope (LST), medium size telescope (MST) and small size telescope (SST). A LST prototype is currently being built and will be installed at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, island of La Palma, Canary islands, Spain. The readout system for the LST prototype has been designed and around 300 readout boards will be produced in the coming months. In this note we describe an automated quality control system able to measure basic performance parameters and quickly identify faulty boards. - Highlights: • The Dragon Board is part of the DAQ of the LST Cherenkov telescope prototype. • We developed an automated quality control system for the Dragon Board. • We check pedestal, linearity, pulse shape and crosstalk values. • The quality control test can be performed on the production line.

  15. Diets high in resistant starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tina S; Lærke, Helle N; Theil, Peter K; Sørensen, Jens F; Saarinen, Markku; Forssten, Sofia; Knudsen, Knud E Bach

    2014-12-14

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total of thirty female pigs (body weight 63.1 (sem 4.4) kg) were fed a low-DF, high-fat Western-style control diet (WSD), an AX-rich diet (AXD) or a RS-rich diet (RSD) for 3 weeks. Diet significantly affected the digestibility of DM, protein, fat, NSP and NSP components, and the arabinose:xylose ratio, as well as the disappearance of NSP and AX in the large intestine. RS was mainly digested in the caecum. AX was digested at a slower rate than RS. The digesta from AXD-fed pigs passed from the ileum to the distal colon more than twice as fast as those from WSD-fed pigs, with those from RSD-fed pigs being intermediate (Pdigestion processes compared with the WSD, and the AXD most efficiently shifted the microbial composition towards butyrogenic species in the faeces and increased the large-intestinal butyrate pool size.

  16. Full domain-decomposition scheme for diffuse optical tomography of large-sized tissues with a combined CPU and GPU parallelization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xi; Wang, Xin; Chen, Weiting; Wan, Wenbo; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2014-05-01

    The common approach to diffuse optical tomography is to solve a nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem using a linearized iteration process that involves repeated use of the forward and inverse solvers on an appropriately discretized domain of interest. This scheme normally brings severe computation and storage burdens to its applications on large-sized tissues, such as breast tumor diagnosis and brain functional imaging, and prevents from using the matrix-fashioned linear inversions for improved image quality. To cope with the difficulties, we propose in this paper a parallelized full domain-decomposition scheme, which divides the whole domain into several overlapped subdomains and solves the corresponding subinversions independently within the framework of the Schwarz-type iterations, with the support of a combined multicore CPU and multithread graphics processing unit (GPU) parallelization strategy. The numerical and phantom experiments both demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively reduce the computation time and memory occupation for the large-sized problem and improve the quantitative performance of the reconstruction.

  17. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yang Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonyl compounds (CCs in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches.

  18. Large-sized SmBCO single crystals with T sub c over 93 K grown in atmospheric ambient by crystal pulling

    CERN Document Server

    Yao Xin; Shiohara, Y

    2003-01-01

    Sm sub 1 sub + sub x Ba sub 2 sub - sub x Cu sub 3 O sub z (SmBCO) single crystals were grown under atmospheric ambient by the top-seeded solution growth method. Inductively coupled plasma results indicate that there is negligible Sm substitution for Ba sites in the grown SmBCO crystals, although they crystallized from different Ba-Cu-O solvents with a wide composition range (Ba/Cu ratio of 0.5-0.6). As a result, these crystals show high superconducting critical transition temperature values (T sub c) of over 93 K with a sharp transition width after oxygenation. A large-sized crystal with an a-b plane of 23 x 22 mm sup 2 and a c-axis of 19 mm was obtained at a high growth rate of nearly 0.13 mm h sup - sup 1. In short, with more controllable thermodynamic parameters, SmBCO single crystals can readily achieve both large size and high superconducting properties. (rapid communication)

  19. Large Mesopore Generation in an Amorphous Silica-Alumina by Controlling the Pore Size with the Gel Skeletal Reinforcement and Its Application to Catalytic Cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Nasu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetraethoxy orthosilicate (TEOS was used not only as a precursor of silica, but also as an agent which reinforces the skeleton of silica-gel to prepare an aerogel and resultant silica and silica-alumina with large pore size and pore volume. In this gel skeletal reinforcement, the strength of silica aerogel skeleton was enhanced by aging with TEOS/2-propanol mixed solution to prevent the shrink of the pores. When silica aerogel was reinforced by TEOS solution, the pore diameter and pore volume of calcined silica could be controlled by the amount of TEOS solution and reached 30 nm and 3.1 cm3/g. The results from N2 adsorption measurement indicated that most of pores for this silica consisted of mesopores. Silica-alumina was prepared by the impregnation of an aluminum tri-sec-butoxide/2-butanol solution with obtained silica. Mixed catalysts were prepared by the combination of β-zeolite (26 wt% and prepared silica-aluminas with large mesopore (58 wt% and subsequently the effects of their pore sizes on the catalytic activity and the product selectivity were investigated in catalytic cracking of n-dodecane at 500 °C. The mixed catalysts exhibited not only comparable activity to that for single zeolite, but also unique selectivity where larger amounts of branched products were formed.

  20. Small Versus Large-Sized Drug-Eluting Beads (DEBIRI) for the Treatment of Hepatic Colorectal Metastases: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinwande, Olaguoke K., E-mail: gokeakin@gmail.com [University of Louisville Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Philips, Prejesh, E-mail: prejesh.philips@louisville.edu [University of Louisville, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery (United States); Duras, Petr, E-mail: durasp@seznam.cz [Fakultní nemocnice Plzeň (Czech Republic); Pluntke, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.pluntke@t-online.de [Onkologe bei Kliniken Essen-Mitte (Germany); Scoggins, Charles, E-mail: charles.scoggins@louisville.edu; Martin, Robert C. G., E-mail: Robert.Martin@louisville.edu [University of Louisville, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery (United States)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo compare the feasibility, safety, and efficacy with small and large irinotecan drug-eluting beads (DEBIRI) for treating hepatic colorectal metastases.MethodsUsing our prospectively maintained, multi-center, intra-arterial therapy registry, we identified 196 patients treated with a combination of large beads (100–300 to 500–700 μm) and patients treated with a combination of small beads (70–150 to 100–300 μm). To minimize selection bias, a propensity score analysis was performed to compare both groups.ResultsUnadjusted analysis consisted of 196 and 30 patients treated with large and small beads, respectively. The adjusted analysis consisted of 19 patients each. Unadjusted analysis showed decreased all-grade (p = <0.001) and high-grade adverse effects (p = 0.02) in the small bead group, with a persisting trend toward decreased overall side effects in the adjusted analysis favoring small beads (p = 0.09) The adjusted analysis showed the percentage dose delivered (delivered dose/intended dose) was significantly greater in the small bead group compared to the large bead group (96 vs 79 %; p = 0.005). There were also a lower percentage of treatments terminating in complete stasis in the adjusted analysis (0.0035). Adjusted analysis also showed increased objective response rate (ORR) at 12 months (p = 0.04), with a corresponding trend also seen in the unadjusted analysis (0.09).ConclusionSmaller beads result in increased dose delivery probably due to less propensity to reach complete stasis. It may also lead to more durable long-term efficacy. Smaller beads also demonstrate similarly low toxicity compared to large-sized beads with a trend toward less toxicity.

  1. Effects of Annular Electromagnetic Stirring Coupled with Intercooling on Grain Refinement and Homogeneity During Direct Chill Casting of Large-Sized 7005 Alloy Billet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yajun; Zhang, Zhifeng; Li, Bao; Gao, Mingwei; Qiu, Yang; He, Min

    2017-12-01

    To obtain a large-sized, high-quality aluminum alloy billet, an advanced uniform direct chill (UDC) casting method was developed by combining annular electromagnetic stirring (A-EMS) with intercooling in the sump. The 7005 alloy was chosen to investigate the effect of UDC on grain refinement and homogeneity during normal direct chill (NDC) casting. It was concluded that the microstructure consisting of both primary α-Al phase and secondary phases becomes finer and more homogeneous for the billets prepared with UDC casting compared to those prepared with NDC casting, and the forced cooling from both the inner and outer melt under A-EMS has a measurable effect on grain refinement and homogeneity.

  2. Effects of Annular Electromagnetic Stirring Coupled with Intercooling on Grain Refinement and Homogeneity During Direct Chill Casting of Large-Sized 7005 Alloy Billet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yajun; Zhang, Zhifeng; Li, Bao; Gao, Mingwei; Qiu, Yang; He, Min

    2017-04-01

    To obtain a large-sized, high-quality aluminum alloy billet, an advanced uniform direct chill (UDC) casting method was developed by combining annular electromagnetic stirring (A-EMS) with intercooling in the sump. The 7005 alloy was chosen to investigate the effect of UDC on grain refinement and homogeneity during normal direct chill (NDC) casting. It was concluded that the microstructure consisting of both primary α-Al phase and secondary phases becomes finer and more homogeneous for the billets prepared with UDC casting compared to those prepared with NDC casting, and the forced cooling from both the inner and outer melt under A-EMS has a measurable effect on grain refinement and homogeneity.

  3. Arthroscopic-assisted plate fixation for displaced large-sized comminuted greater tuberosity fractures of proximal humerus: a novel surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Eun; Jeong, Jae-Jung; Panchal, Karnav; Lee, Jong-Yun; Min, Hyung-Ki; Ji, Jong-Hun

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the use of a novel hybrid surgical technique-arthroscopic-assisted plate fixation-and evaluate its clinical and anatomical outcomes in the management of large, displaced greater tuberosity (GT) fractures with comminution. From 2009 to 2011, this novel technique was performed in 11 patients [2 men and 9 women; median age, 64 years (range 41-83 years)] with large, comminuted GT fractures, with fragment displacements of >5 mm. The preoperative mean posterior and superior migration of the fractured fragment, as measured on computed tomography (CT), was 19.5 and 5.5 mm, respectively. Two patients had shoulder fracture-dislocation, and three had associated undisplaced surgical neck fracture. The mean duration between injury and surgery was 4 days. The mean follow-up duration was 26 months. At the final follow-up, the mean postoperative ASES, UCLA and SST scores were 84, 29, and 8, respectively. The mean range of motion was as follows: forward flexion, 138°; abduction, 135°; external rotation at the side, 19°; and internal rotation, up to the L2 level. The mean posterior and superior displacements of fracture fragments on postoperative CT scan [0.7 ± 0.8 mm (range 0-2.1 mm) and 2.8 ± 0.5 mm (range 3.4-5.3 mm), respectively] were significantly improved (p fracture fragment was noted in 1 patient at 4 weeks, after corrective reduction and fixation surgery. The novel arthroscopic-assisted anatomical plate fixation technique was found to be effective in reducing large-sized, displaced, comminuted GT fractures and in allowing concurrent management of intra-articular pathologies and early functional rehabilitation. Compared with the conventional plate fixation or arthroscopic suture anchor fixation technique, arthroscopic-assisted plate fixation enabled accurate restoration of the medial footprint of the GT fracture and provided an effective buttress to the large-sized GT fracture fragments. Retrospective

  4. Texture-Based Differences in Eating Rate Reduce the Impact of Increased Energy Density and Large Portions on Meal Size in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, Keri; Lim, Charlotte Mh; Leong, Claudia; Chia, Edwin M; Forde, Ciaran G

    2017-06-01

    Background: Large portions and high dietary energy density promote overconsumption at meal times. This could be reduced by eating slowly.Objective: Two studies investigated whether texture-based reductions in eating rate and oral processing moderate consumption at breakfast in combination with variations in energy density and portion size.Methods: Adults attended 4 breakfast sessions (2 × 2 repeated-measures design) to consume rice porridge, combining a 45% reduction in eating rate [thin porridge (140 g/min) compared with thick porridge (77 g/min)] with a 77% increase in energy density (0.57 compared with 1.01 kcal/g) in study 1 [n = 61; aged 21-48 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 16-29] and a 50% increase in portion size (100% compared with 150%) in study 2 (n = 53; aged 21-42 y; BMI: 16-29). Oral processing behaviors were coded by using webcams. Porridge intake was measured alongside changes in rated appetite.Results: Increases in energy density and portion size led to increases of 80% and 13% in energy intake at breakfast, respectively (P energy intake compared with the thin versions (P energy was consumed when the thick "slow" porridge was served with a lower energy density or smaller portion (P eat in response to external features of the food environment. An opportunity exists to use a combination of energy-density dilution, smaller portions, and natural variations in food texture to design meals that promote reductions in energy intake while maintaining satiety. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Uroflowmetry in a Large Population of Brazilian Men Submitted to a health check up program and its correlation with ipss and prostate size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Zambon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the uroflowmetry data in a large population of asymptomatic Brazilian men submitted to a health check up program and their correlation to IPSS and prostate size. Materials and Methods Asymptomatic men underwent a health check-up program between January and December 2012. The inclusion criteria were men between 40 and 70 years, IPSS ≤ 7, without bladder, prostate, urethral surgery, neurological diseases, urinary tract infection, PSA < 4.0 ng/dL and urinary volume higher than 150 mL. Urological assessment consisted of clinical history, IPSS, digital rectal examination (DRE, prostate specific antigen (PSA, urinalysis, ultrasonography and uroflowmetry. Results A total of 1041 asymptomatic men were included in this study. The average age was 49 years and average maximum flow rate was 17.4 mL/s. In spite of IPSS and prostate size increase with aging, they had a weak correlation with Qmax cutoffs (10 mL/s and 15 mL/s. A total of 85 men (8.3% had more than 60 years, and even in this group, Qmax was higher than 15 mL/s. Out of 1041 men, 117 had IPSS less than 8 and Qmax less than 10 mL/s. Conclusions In asymptomatic men there is a weak correlation between IPSS, prostate size and uroflowmetric data. The establishment of different normal cutoffs seems to be complicated and uroflowmetry data should be interpreted with caution in order to avoid misdiagnosis.

  6. Simple Cloning by Prolonged Overlap Extension-PCR with Application to the Preparation of Large-Size Random Gene Mutagenesis Library in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chao; You, Chun; Wei, Ping; Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival

    2017-01-01

    We developed a simple method (simple cloning) for subcloning DNA fragments into any location of a targeted vector without the need of restriction enzyme, ligase, exonuclease, or recombinase in Escherichia coli. This technology can be applied to common E. coli hosts (e.g., DH5α, JM109, TOP10, BL21(DE3)). The protocol includes three steps: (1) generate DNA insert and linear vector backbone by regular high-fidelity PCR, where these two DNA fragments contain 3' and 5' overlapping termini; (2) generate DNA multimers based on these two DNA fragments by using prolonged overlap extension-PCR (POE-PCR) without primers added; and (3) transform POE-PCR product to competent Escherichia coli cells directly, yielding the desired plasmid. Simple cloning provides a new cloning method with great simplicity and flexibility. Furthermore, this new method can be modified for the preparation of a large-size mutant library for directed evolution in E. coli. Using this method, it is very easy to generate a mutant library with a size of more than 10(7) per 50 μL of the POE-PCR product within 1 day.

  7. Nanometer scale pores similar in size to the entrance of the ribosomal exit cavity are a common feature of large RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Mario; Tran, Quyen; Fox, George E.

    2013-01-01

    The highly conserved peptidyl transferase center (PTC) of the ribosome contains an RNA pore that serves as the entrance to the exit tunnel. Analysis of available ribosome crystal structures has revealed the presence of multiple additional well-defined pores of comparable size in the ribosomal (rRNA) RNAs. These typically have dimensions of 1–2 nm, with a total area of ∼100 Å2 or more, and most are associated with one or more ribosomal proteins. The PTC example and the other rRNA pores result from the packing of helices. However, in the non-PTC cases the nitrogenous bases do not protrude into the pore, thereby limiting the potential for hydrogen bonding within the pore. Instead, it is the RNA backbone that largely defines the pore likely resulting in a negatively charged environment. In many but not all cases, ribosomal proteins are associated with the pores to a greater or lesser extent. With the exception of the PTC case, the large subunit pores are not found in what are thought to be the evolutionarily oldest regions of the 23S rRNA. The unusual nature of the PTC pore may reflect a history of being created by hybridization between two or more RNAs early in evolution rather than simple folding of a single RNA. An initial survey of nonribosomal RNA crystal structures revealed additional pores, thereby showing that they are likely a general feature of RNA tertiary structure. PMID:23940386

  8. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Espinosa

    Full Text Available Abstract The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca. Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  9. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, C C; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Marinho, J R

    2016-02-01

    The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca). Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  10. Long-term Comparison of a Large Spot Vacuum Assisted Handpiece vs the Small Spot Size Traditional Handpiece of the 800 nm Diode Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Nour J; Rizk, Alain G; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Tannous, Zeina S

    2017-09-01

    BACKGROUND The 800 nm long-pulsed diode laser machine is safe and effective for permanent hair reduction. Traditionally, most long-pulsed diode lasers used for hair removal had a relatively small spot size. Recently, a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum assisted suction handpiece was introduced. The treatment parameters of each type of handpiece differ. Short and long-term clinical efficacy, treatment associated pain, and patient satisfaction are important factors to be considered. This study aims to conduct a direct head to head comparison of both handpieces of the 800nm long-pulsed diode laser by evaluating long term hair reduction, treatment associated pain and patient satisfaction. Thirteen subjects were enrolled in this prospective, self-controlled, single-center study of axillary laser hair removal. The study involved 4 treatments using a long pulsed diode laser with a large spot size HS handpiece (single pass), HS handpiece (double pass), and a small spot size ET handpiece according to a randomized choice. The treatment sessions were done at 4-8 week intervals with follow up visits taken at 6 and 12 months after the last treatment session. Hair clearance and thickness analysis were assessed using macro hair count photographs taken at baseline visit, at each treatment session visit and at follow up visits. Other factors including pain, treatment duration, and patients' preference were secondary study endpoints. At 6 months follow up visits after receiving four laser treatments, there was statistically significant hair clearance in the three treatment arms with 66.1 % mean percentage hair reduction with the ET handpiece, 43.6% with the HSS (single pass) and 64.1 % with the HSD (double). However, at one year follow up, the results significantly varied from the 6 months follow up. The mean percentage hair reduction was 57.8% with the ET handpiece treated axillas (n=9), 16.5% with the HSS (single pass) handpiece treated axillas (n=7), and

  11. RIM1 and RIM2 redundantly determine Ca2+ channel density and readily releasable pool size at a large hindbrain synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yunyun; Babai, Norbert; Kaeser, Pascal; Südhof, Thomas C; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The localization and density of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels at active zones are essential for the amount and kinetics of transmitter release at synapses. RIM proteins are scaffolding proteins at the active zone that bind to several other presynaptic proteins, including voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel α-subunits. The long isoforms of RIM proteins, which contain NH2-terminal Rab3- and Munc13-interacting domains, as well as a central PDZ domain and two COOH-terminal C2 domains, are encoded by two genes, Rim1 and Rim2. Here, we used the ideal accessibility of the large calyx of Held synapse for direct presynaptic electrophysiology to investigate whether the two Rim genes have redundant, or separate, functions in determining the presynaptic Ca(2+) channel density, and the size of a readily releasable vesicle pool (RRP). Quantitative PCR showed that cochlear nucleus neurons, which include calyx of Held generating neurons, express both RIM1 and RIM2. Conditional genetic inactivation of RIM2 at the calyx of Held led to a subtle reduction in presynaptic Ca(2+) current density, whereas deletion of RIM1 was ineffective. The release efficiency of brief presynaptic Ca(2+) "tail" currents and the RRP were unaffected in conditional single RIM1 and RIM2 knockout (KO) mice, whereas both parameters were strongly reduced in RIM1/2 double KO mice. Thus, despite a somewhat more decisive role for RIM2 in determining presynaptic Ca(2+) channel density, RIM1 and RIM2 can overall replace each other's presynaptic functions at a large relay synapse in the hindbrain, the calyx of Held. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. The mosquito Aedes aegypti has a large genome size and high transposable element load but contains a low proportion of transposon-specific piRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arensburger Peter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The piRNA pathway has been shown in model organisms to be involved in silencing of transposons thereby providing genome stability. In D. melanogaster the majority of piRNAs map to these sequences. The medically important mosquito species Aedes aegypti has a large genome size, a high transposon load which includes Miniature Inverted repeat Transposable Elements (MITES and an expansion of the piRNA biogenesis genes. Studies of transgenic lines of Ae. aegypti have indicated that introduced transposons are poorly remobilized and we sought to explore the basis of this. We wished to analyze the piRNA profile of Ae. aegypti and thereby determine if it is responsible for transposon silencing in this mosquito. Results Estimated piRNA sequence diversity was comparable between Ae. aegypti and D. melanogaster, but surprisingly only 19% of mosquito piRNAs mapped to transposons compared to 51% for D. melanogaster. Ae. aegypti piRNA clusters made up a larger percentage of the total genome than those of D. melanogaster but did not contain significantly higher percentages of transposon derived sequences than other regions of the genome. Ae. aegypti contains a number of protein coding genes that may be sources of piRNA biogenesis with two, traffic jam and maelstrom, implicated in this process in model organisms. Several genes of viral origin were also targeted by piRNAs. Examination of six mosquito libraries that had previously been transformed with transposon derived sequence revealed that new piRNA sequences had been generated to the transformed sequences, suggesting that they may have stimulated a transposon inactivation mechanism. Conclusions Ae. aegypti has a large piRNA complement that maps to transposons but primarily gene sequences, including many viral-derived sequences. This, together the more uniform distribution of piRNA clusters throughout its genome, suggest that some aspects of the piRNA system differ between Ae. aegypti and D

  13. Development of zinc alloy diecasting technology on large-size and thin-wall products; Ogata hakuniku aen gokin daikasuto gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagami, Y.; Nagami, Y.; Kamiya, T.; Ogawa, H. [Aishin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1995-12-25

    The mold to be used for the automobile window frame has so far been the combination of extruded products and pressed products, but because of strong requests for improvement of the quality of its appearance, Aishin Seiki Co. established the technology to integrate these products by the zinc alloy thin wall diecasting technology and from 1989, it has been producing 10 items totalling 50,000 pieces per month. In this article, the technology of thin wall diecasting of a large size cast molding (belt molding) is reported. This molding is a belt molding which has been integrated by zinc diecasting using ZDC2 alloy of JIS, is 1,230mm long, 425mm wide and 1.2mm thick. The casting line is totally automated from casting to product trimming. In this article, two especially important items for thin-wall casting, namely control of the winkling defects in quality and shortening of the casting cycle in production are explained in detail. As a part of it, the development of a high speed spraying device of a releasing agent is also described. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Mucosal C-terminal maltase-glucoamylase hydrolyzes large size starch digestion products that may contribute to rapid postprandial glucose generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hoo; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Nichols, Buford L; Jones, Kyra; Rose, David R; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2014-05-01

    The four mucosal α-glucosidases, which differ in their digestive roles, generate glucose from glycemic carbohydrates and accordingly can be viewed as a control point for rate of glucose delivery to the body. In this study, individual recombinant enzymes were used to understand how α-glucan oligomers are digested by each enzyme, and how intermediate α-amylolyzed starches are hydrolyzed, to elucidate a strategy for moderating the glycemic spike of rapidly digestible starchy foods. The C-terminal maltase-glucoamylase (ctMGAM, commonly termed "glucoamylase") was able to rapidly hydrolyze longer maltooligosaccharides, such as maltotetraose and maltopentaose, to glucose. Moreover, it was found to convert larger size maltodextrins, as would be produced early in α-amylase digestion of starch, efficiently to glucose. It is postulated that ctMGAM has the additional capacity to hydrolyze large α-amylase products that are produced immediately on starch digestion in the duodenum and contribute to the rapid generation of glucose from starch-based meals. The findings suggest that partial inhibition of ctMGAM, such as by natural inhibitors found in foods, might be used to moderate the early stage of high glycemic response, as well as to extend digestion distally; thereby having relevance in regulating glucose delivery to the body. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Potential Distributions, and Estimated Spatial Requirements and Population Sizes, of the Medium to Large-sized Mammals in the Planning Domain of the Greater Addo Elephant National Park Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerley, G I H; Cowling, R M; Boshoff, A F; Wilson, S L

    2002-01-01

    .... Conservation planning in the GAENP planning domain requires systematic information on the potential distributions and estimated spatial requirements, and population sizes of the medium to largesized mammals...

  16. The Effects of Large Class Size on Effective EFL Teaching and Learning--A Study of Grade 10 Teachers and Pupils at "Instituto Médio Politécnico do Namibe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangangula, Londaka Amasio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide views of teachers and pupils on large class size and its effects on teaching and English learning, at "Instituto Médio Politécnico do Namibe", and by showing that the large class scenario at IMP-Namibe may be attributed to various factors of which the most pertinent is the imbalance between the…

  17. Effect of training data size and noise level on support vector machines virtual screening of genotoxic compounds from large compound libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Ma, Xiaohua; Liu, Xianghui; Jia, Jia; Bucong, Han; Xue, Ying; Li, Ze Rong; Yang, Sheng Yong; Wei, Yu Quan; Chen, Yu Zong

    2011-05-01

    Various in vitro and in-silico methods have been used for drug genotoxicity tests, which show limited genotoxicity (GT+) and non-genotoxicity (GT-) identification rates. New methods and combinatorial approaches have been explored for enhanced collective identification capability. The rates of in-silco methods may be further improved by significantly diversified training data enriched by the large number of recently reported GT+ and GT- compounds, but a major concern is the increased noise levels arising from high false-positive rates of in vitro data. In this work, we evaluated the effect of training data size and noise level on the performance of support vector machines (SVM) method known to tolerate high noise levels in training data. Two SVMs of different diversity/noise levels were developed and tested. H-SVM trained by higher diversity higher noise data (GT+ in any in vivo or in vitro test) outperforms L-SVM trained by lower noise lower diversity data (GT+ in in vivo or Ames test only). H-SVM trained by 4,763 GT+ compounds reported before 2008 and 8,232 GT- compounds excluding clinical trial drugs correctly identified 81.6% of the 38 GT+ compounds reported since 2008, predicted 83.1% of the 2,008 clinical trial drugs as GT-, and 23.96% of 168 K MDDR and 27.23% of 17.86M PubChem compounds as GT+. These are comparable to the 43.1-51.9% GT+ and 75-93% GT- rates of existing in-silico methods, 58.8% GT+ and 79% GT- rates of Ames method, and the estimated percentages of 23% in vivo and 31-33% in vitro GT+ compounds in the "universe of chemicals". There is a substantial level of agreement between H-SVM and L-SVM predicted GT+ and GT- MDDR compounds and the prediction from TOPKAT. SVM showed good potential in identifying GT+ compounds from large compound libraries based on higher diversity and higher noise training data.

  18. Influence of large wood on channel hydraulics, sediment (dis-)connectivity and channel morphology in a medium-sized mixed-load Austrian stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Anne; Pöppl, Ronald; Morche, David

    2017-04-01

    It is widely known that large wood (LW) in rivers alters channel hydraulics, channel morphology and sediment transport. Channel spanning LW can create blocking barriers, steps and dams which store sediment and organic material in small reservoirs for the lifetime of the damming structure. Otherwise, the breach of LW key logs and jams makes the long term stored sediment available for fluvial transport. However, detailed field measurements on the distribution of LW and its influence on hydraulic variables, channel morphology and (especially) sediment connectivity are still rare, thus further constituting the major aim of this study. The study was performed along the lower reaches ( 6 km) of the Fugnitz River, a mixed-load, medium-sized (catchment area 130 km2) single-thread perennial stream, located in the Bohemian Massif, Austria. The spatial distribution and characterization of LW (>1 m in length and >10 cm in diameter) was examined along the main stem via field mapping and dGPS measurements. Hydraulic channel parameters (e.g. channel gradient, cross-sectional profiles) and volumes of retained sediment were determined via field measurements, while channel morphology incl. indications of LW-induced geomorphic processes (e.g. bank undercutting, scouring) was obtained via geomorphic mapping. Flow characteristics and bed load transport rates were measured using an Ott-Nautilus and a portable Helley-Smith bed load sampler during different water stages. Additionally, bed sediment textures were examined by performing pebble count analyses. In-channel LW accumulations (total volume of 588 m3) were primarily observed in meandering river reaches as well as in reaches with steep hillslopes. 36% of all LW accumulations were classified as dams, steps or deflectors altering flow conditions or creating backwater areas decreasing sediment connectivity. Highest volumes of sediment storage (total volume of 26 m3) have been primarily recorded at locations where bank erosion processes

  19. Using large eddy simulations to reveal the size, strength, and phase of updraft and downdraft cores of an Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Erika L.; Posselt, Derek J.; Rood, Richard B.

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional large eddy simulations (LES) are used to analyze a springtime Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus observed on 26 April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign. Two subgrid-scale turbulence parameterizations are compared. The first scheme is a 1.5-order turbulent kinetic energy (1.5-TKE) parameterization that has been previously applied to boundary layer cloud simulations. The second scheme, Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB), provides higher-order turbulent closure with scale awareness. The simulations, in comparisons with observations, show that both schemes produce the liquid profiles within measurement variability but underpredict ice water mass and overpredict ice number concentration. The simulation using CLUBB underpredicted liquid water path more than the simulation using the 1.5-TKE scheme, so the turbulent length scale and horizontal grid box size were increased to increase liquid water path and reduce dissipative energy. The LES simulations show this stratocumulus cloud to maintain a closed cellular structure, similar to observations. The updraft and downdraft cores self-organize into a larger meso-γ-scale convective pattern with the 1.5-TKE scheme, but the cores remain more isotropic with the CLUBB scheme. Additionally, the cores are often composed of liquid and ice instead of exclusively containing one or the other. These results provide insight into traditionally unresolved and unmeasurable aspects of an Arctic mixed-phase cloud. From analysis, this cloud's updraft and downdraft cores appear smaller than other closed-cell stratocumulus such as midlatitude stratocumulus and Arctic autumnal mixed-phase stratocumulus due to the weaker downdrafts and lower precipitation rates.

  20. Performance evaluation of a PET detector consisting of an LYSO array coupled to a 4 × 4 array of large-size GAPD for MR compatible imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Key Jo; Choi, Yong; Kang, Jihoon; Hu, Wei; Jung, Jin Ho; Min, Byung Jun; Chung, Yong Hyun; Jackson, Carl

    2011-05-01

    We examined a PET detector consisting of an LYSO array coupled to a 4 × 4 array of large-size Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD). The GAPD coupled to 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm LYSO pixel crystal has been investigated for possible use as an MR-compatible PET photosensor. Primary characteristics of a PET detector, such as energy resolution and coincidence timing resolution were measured. Gain variation, count uniformity, and count estimation error of 4 × 4 array of LYSO-GAPD were measured to evaluate the performance parameters relevant for PET imaging. The energy resolution and coincidence timing resolution with 511 keV gamma rays were 18.5 ± 0.7% and 1.6 ns, respectively. The gain variation, count uniformity for all 16 channels were 1.3:1 and 1.3:1, respectively. The count estimation error between adjacent channels measured with an LYSO connected to a GAPD pixel was negligible (0.24 ± 0.04%). Long-term stability results show that there was no significant change in the photopeak position, energy resolution and count rate for 20 days. Cable lengths up to 300 cm, used between the GAPD and preamplifier, did not affect photopeak position and energy resolution. The performance of the LYSO-GAPD detector inside the MRI exhibited no significant change compared to that measured outside the MRI. The MR images acquired with and without the operating LYSO-GAPD detector located on top of the RF coil showed no considerable degradation in image quality. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using the LYSO-GAPD detector as PET photosensors, which could be used for MR compatible PET development.

  1. The Effect of Rotor Cruise Tip Speed, Engine Technology and Engine/Drive System RPM on the NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) Size and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuck, Mark; Wilkerson, Joseph; Maciolek, Robert; Vonderwell, Dan

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year study was conducted under NASA NNA06BC41C Task Order 10 and NASA NNA09DA56C task orders 2, 4, and 5 to identify the most promising propulsion system concepts that enable rotor cruise tip speeds down to 54% of the hover tip speed for a civil tiltrotor aircraft. Combinations of engine RPM reduction and 2-speed drive systems were evaluated. Three levels of engine and the drive system advanced technology were assessed; 2015, 2025 and 2035. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified. Design variables included engine speed reduction, drive system speed reduction, technology, and rotor cruise propulsion efficiency. The NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor, LCTR, aircraft served as the base vehicle concept for this study and was resized for over thirty combinations of operating cruise RPM and technology level, quantifying LCTR2 Gross Weight, size, and mission fuel. Additional studies show design sensitivity to other mission ranges and design airspeeds, with corresponding relative estimated operational cost. The lightest vehicle gross weight solution consistently came from rotor cruise tip speeds between 422 fps and 500 fps. Nearly equivalent results were achieved with operating at reduced engine RPM with a single-speed drive system or with a two-speed drive system and 100% engine RPM. Projected performance for a 2025 engine technology provided improved fuel flow over a wide range of operating speeds relative to the 2015 technology, but increased engine weight nullified the improved fuel flow resulting in increased aircraft gross weights. The 2035 engine technology provided further fuel flow reduction and 25% lower engine weight, and the 2035 drive system technology provided a 12% reduction in drive system weight. In combination, the 2035 technologies reduced aircraft takeoff gross weight by 14% relative to the 2015 technologies.

  2. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape : A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, Thomas W.; Justice, Anne E.; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Magi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rueeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D.; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C.; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Johansson, Asa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Montasser, May E.; Mueller, Gabriele; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stancakova, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345493990; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loic; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blueher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S.; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S.; Gottesman, Omri; Graessler, Juergen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L.; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jorgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krueger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Lindstrom, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stephane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Mannisto, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew P.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Perusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Scott, William R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smit, Jan H.; Sparso, Thomas H.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvanen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Toenjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Voelker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W.; Wennauer, Roman; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/270752137; de Bakker, Paul I. W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/342957082; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Boeger, Carsten A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gronberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliovaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kaehoenen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mantyselka, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Moll, Frans L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070246882; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Musk, Arthur W.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njolstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pankow, James S.; Pasterkamp, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138488304; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polasek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304123846; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, Andre L. M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Voelzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Rao, D. C.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Ines; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Heid, Iris M.; North, Kari E.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially

  3. River network bedload model: a tool to investigate the impact of flow regulation on grain size distribution in a large Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Sediment transport rates along rivers and the grain size distribution (GSD) of coarse channel bed sediment are the result of the long term balance between transport capacity and sediment supply. Transport capacity, mainly a function of channel geometry and flow competence, can be altered by changes in climatic forcing as well as by human activities. In Alpine rivers it is hydropower production systems that are the main causes of modification to the transport capacity of water courses through flow regulation, leading over longer time scales to the adjustment of river bed GSDs. We developed a river network bedload transport model to evaluate the impacts of hydropower on the transfer of sediments and the GSDs of the Upper Rhône basin, a 5,200 km2 catchment located in the Swiss Alps. Many large reservoirs for hydropower production have been built along the main tributaries of the Rhône River since the 1960s, resulting in a complex system of intakes, tunnels, and pumping stations. Sediment storage behind dams and intakes, is accompanied by altered discharge due to hydropower operations, mainly higher flow in winter and lower in summer. It is expected that this change in flow regime may have resulted in different bedload transport. However, due the non-linear, threshold-based nature of the relation between discharge and sediment mobilization, the effects of changed hydraulic conditions are not easily deducible, and because observations of bedload in pre- and post-dam conditions are usually not available, a modelling approach is often necessary. In our modelling approach, the river network is conceptualized as a series of connected links (river reaches). Average geometric characteristics of each link (width, length, and slope of cross section) are extracted from digital elevation data, while surface roughness coefficients are assigned based on the GSD. Under the assumptions of rectangular prismatic cross sections and normal flow conditions, bed shear stress is estimated

  4. Diets high in resistent starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total...... resulted in a 3- to 5-fold higher pool size of butyrate compared with WSD feeding, with the RSD being intermediate (P microbial composition towards butyrogenic...

  5. DNA metabarcoding reveals that 200-μm-size-fractionated filtering is unable to discriminate between planktonic microbial and large eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lemian; Liu, Min; Wilkinson, David M; Chen, Huihuang; Yu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Microeukaryotic plankton (0.2-200 μm) are critical components of aquatic ecosystems and key players in global ecological processes. High-throughput sequencing is currently revolutionizing their study on an unprecedented scale. However, it is currently unclear whether we can accurately, effectively and quantitatively depict the microeukaryotic plankton communities using traditional size-fractionated filtering combined with molecular methods. To address this, we analysed the eukaryotic plankton communities both with, and without, prefiltering with a 200 μm pore-size sieve -by using SSU rDNA-based high-throughput sequencing on 16 samples with three replicates in each sample from two subtropical reservoirs sampled from January to October in 2013. We found that ~25% reads were classified as metazoan in both size groups. The species richness, alpha and beta diversity of plankton community and relative abundance of reads in 99.2% eukaryotic OTUs showed no significant changes after prefiltering with a 200 μm pore-size sieve. We further found that both >0.2 μm and 0.2-200 μm eukaryotic plankton communities, especially the abundant plankton subcommunities, exhibited very similar, and synchronous, spatiotemporal patterns and processes associated with almost identical environmental drivers. The lack of an effect on community structure from prefiltering suggests that environmental DNA from larger metazoa is introduced into the smaller size class. Therefore, size-fractionated filtering with 200 μm is insufficient to discriminate between the eukaryotic plankton size groups in metabarcoding approaches. Our results also highlight the importance of sequencing depth, and strict quality filtering of reads, when designing studies to characterize microeukaryotic plankton communities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Thomas W.; Anne E Justice; Graff, Mariaelisa; Barata, Llilda; Feitosa, Mary F; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rüeger, Sina

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of Eur...

  7. SIZE SELECTION IN DIVING TUFTED DUCKS AYTHYA-FULIGULA EXPLAINED BY DIFFERENTIAL HANDLING OF SMALL AND LARGE MUSSELS DREISSENA-POLYMORPHA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELEEUW, JJ; VANEERDEN, MR

    1992-01-01

    We studied prey size selection of Tufted Ducks feeding on fresh-water mussels under semi-natural conditions. In experiments with non-diving birds, we found that Tufted Ducks use two techniques to handle mussels. Mussels less than 16 mm in length are strained from a waterflow generated in the bill

  8. STELLAR POPULATIONS FROM SPECTROSCOPY OF A LARGE SAMPLE OF QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT Z > 1: MEASURING THE CONTRIBUTION OF PROGENITOR BIAS TO EARLY SIZE GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Sirio; Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Newman, Andrew B. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the stellar populations of a sample of 62 massive (log M {sub *}/M {sub ☉} > 10.7) galaxies in the redshift range 1 < z < 1.6, with the main goal of investigating the role of recent quenching in the size growth of quiescent galaxies. We demonstrate that our sample is not biased toward bright, compact, or young galaxies, and thus is representative of the overall quiescent population. Our high signal-to-noise ratio Keck/LRIS spectra probe the rest-frame Balmer break region that contains important absorption line diagnostics of recent star formation activity. We obtain improved measures of the various stellar population parameters, including the star formation timescale τ, age, and dust extinction, by fitting templates jointly to both our spectroscopic and broadband photometric data. We identify which quiescent galaxies were recently quenched and backtrack their individual evolving trajectories on the UVJ color-color plane finding evidence for two distinct quenching routes. By using sizes measured in the previous paper of this series, we confirm that the largest galaxies are indeed among the youngest at a given redshift. This is consistent with some contribution to the apparent growth from recent arrivals, an effect often called progenitor bias. However, we calculate that recently quenched objects can only be responsible for about half the increase in average size of quiescent galaxies over a 1.5 Gyr period, corresponding to the redshift interval 1.25 < z < 2. The remainder of the observed size evolution arises from a genuine growth of long-standing quiescent galaxies.

  9. Sizing the association between lifestyle behaviours and fatness in a large, heterogeneous sample of youth of multiple ethnicities from 4 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, John D; Scragg, Robert K R; Plank, Lindsay D; Waqa, Gade D; Fotu, Kalesita F; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2013-10-12

    The magnitude of the relationship between lifestyle risk factors for obesity and adiposity is not clear. The aim of this study was to clarify this in order to determine the level of importance of lifestyle factors in obesity aetiology. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on data on youth who were not trying to change weight (n = 5714), aged 12 to 22 years and from 8 ethnic groups living in New Zealand, Australia, Fiji and Tonga. Demographic and lifestyle data were measured by questionnaires. Fatness was measured by body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score and bioimpedance analysis, which was used to estimate percent body fat and total fat mass (TFM). Associations between lifestyle and body composition variables were examined using linear regression and forest plots. TV watching was positively related to fatness in a dose-dependent manner. Strong, dose-dependent associations were observed between fatness and soft drink consumption (positive relationship), breakfast consumption (inverse relationship) and after-school physical activity (inverse relationship). Breakfast consumption-fatness associations varied in size across ethnic groups. Lifestyle risk factors for obesity were associated with percentage differences in body composition variables that were greatest for TFM and smallest for BMI. Lifestyle factors were most strongly related to TFM, which suggests that studies that use BMI alone to quantify fatness underestimate the full effect of lifestyle on adiposity. This study clarifies the size of lifestyle-fatness relationships observed in previous studies.

  10. The Influence of Company Size on Accounting Information: Evidence in Large Caps and Small Caps Companies Listed on BM&FBovespa

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Yukari Yokoyama; Vitor Gomes Baioco; William Brasil Rodrigues Sobrinho; Alfredo Sarlo Neto

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the relation between accounting information aspects and the capitalization level o companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange was investigated, classified as Large Caps or Small Caps, companies with larger and smaller capitalization, respectively, between 2010 and 2012. Three accounting information measures were addressed: informativeness, conservatism and relevance, through the application of Easton and Harris’ (1991) models of earnings informativeness, Basu’s (1997) mod...

  11. The Influence of Company Size on Accounting Information: Evidence in Large Caps and Small Caps Companies Listed on BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Yukari Yokoyama

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relation between accounting information aspects and the capitalization level o companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange was investigated, classified as Large Caps or Small Caps, companies with larger and smaller capitalization, respectively, between 2010 and 2012. Three accounting information measures were addressed: informativeness, conservatism and relevance, through the application of Easton and Harris’ (1991 models of earnings informativeness, Basu’s (1997 model of conditional conservatism and the value relevance model, based on Ohlson (1995. The results appointed that, although the Large Caps present a higher level of conservatism, their accounting figures were less informative and more relevant when compared to the Large Caps companies. Due to the greater production of private information (predisclosure surrounding larger companies, the market would tend to respond less strongly or surprised to the publication of these companies’ accounting information, while the lack of anticipated information would make the effect of disclosing these figures more preponderant for the Small Caps companies.

  12. Human Simulated Intelligent Control with Double-Direction Dead-Zone Compensation for Joint Motion Control of a Large-Sized Boom System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongsheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint motion control of a 52-meter-long five-boom system driven by proportional hydraulic system is developed. It has been considered difficult due to strong nonlinearities and parametric uncertainties, the effect of which increases with the size of booms. A human simulated intelligent control scheme is developed to improve control performance by modifying control mode and control parameters. In addition, considering the negative effects caused by frequent and redundant reverse actions of the proportional valve, a double-direction compensation scheme is proposed to deal with the dead-zone nonlinearity of proportional valve. Sinusoidal motions are implemented on a real boom system. The results indicate that HSIC controller can improve control accuracy, and dead-zone nonlinearity is effectively compensated by proposed compensation scheme without introducing frequent reverse actions of proportional valve.

  13. RF-source development for ITER: Large area H{sup -} beam extraction, modifications for long pulse operation and design of a half size ITER source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: kraus@ipp.mpg.de; Heinemann, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Falter, H.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Franzen, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Speth, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Entscheva, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Fantz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Franke, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Holtum, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Martens, Ch. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); McNeely, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Riedl, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Wilhelm, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    With an extraction area of 152 cm{sup 2} a calorimetrically measured H{sup -} current density of 19.3 mA/cm{sup 2} has been achieved at 0.45 Pa with 90 kW RF power. With 306 cm{sup 2} the electrically measured H{sup -} current has reached up to 9.7 A corresponding to 32 mA/cm{sup 2} at 100 kW. The current on the calorimeter is limited by the extraction system. Down to 0.2 Pa only a weak dependence on the source pressure has been observed. The test bed will be upgraded to demonstrate cw operation with deuterium. Based on the tested prototype a half size ITER RF-source of 80 cm x 90 cm with 360 kW RF power has been designed.

  14. Comparison of runaway electron generation parameters in small, medium-sized and large tokamaks—A survey of experiments in COMPASS, TCV, ASDEX-Upgrade and JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyusnin, V. V.; Reux, C.; Kiptily, V. G.; Pautasso, G.; Decker, J.; Papp, G.; Kallenbach, A.; Weinzettl, V.; Mlynar, J.; Coda, S.; Riccardo, V.; Lomas, P.; Jachmich, S.; Shevelev, A. E.; Alper, B.; Khilkevitch, E.; Martin, Y.; Dux, R.; Fuchs, C.; Duval, B.; Brix, M.; Tardini, G.; Maraschek, M.; Treutterer, W.; Giannone, L.; Mlynek, A.; Ficker, O.; Martin, P.; Gerasimov, S.; Potzel, S.; Paprok, R.; McCarthy, P. J.; Imrisek, M.; Boboc, A.; Lackner, K.; Fernandes, A.; Havlicek, J.; Giacomelli, L.; Vlainic, M.; Nocente, M.; Kruezi, U.; COMPASS team; TCV team; ASDEX-Upgrade team; EUROFusion MST1 Team; contributors, JET

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the experiments on runaway electrons (RE) carried out recently in frames of EUROFusion Consortium in different tokamaks: COMPASS, ASDEX-Upgrade, TCV and JET. Massive gas injection (MGI) has been used in different scenarios for RE generation in small and medium-sized tokamaks to elaborate the most efficient and reliable ones for future RE experiments. New data on RE generated at disruptions in COMPASS and ASDEX-Upgrade was collected and added to the JET database. Different accessible parameters of disruptions, such as current quench rate, conversion rate of plasma current into runaways, etc have been analysed for each tokamak and compared to JET data. It was shown, that tokamaks with larger geometrical sizes provide the wider limits for spatial and temporal variation of plasma parameters during disruptions, thus extending the parameter space for RE generation. The second part of experiments was dedicated to study of RE generation in stationary discharges in COMPASS, TCV and JET. Injection of Ne/Ar have been used to mock-up the JET MGI runaway suppression experiments. Secondary RE avalanching was identified and quantified for the first time in the TCV tokamak in RE generating discharges after massive Ne injection. Simulations of the primary RE generation and secondary avalanching dynamics in stationary discharges has demonstrated that RE current fraction created via avalanching could achieve up to 70–75% of the total plasma current in TCV. Relaxations which are reminiscent the phenomena associated to the kinetic instability driven by RE have been detected in RE discharges in TCV. Macroscopic parameters of RE dominating discharges in TCV before and after onset of the instability fit well to the empirical instability criterion, which was established in the early tokamaks and examined by results of recent numerical simulations.

  15. Determinants of Buying Behavior of Grain Producers: A Multiple Case Study with Mid and Large Size Producers in the State of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Fava Scare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Brazilian agribusiness has demanded for inputs, capital goods, financial services and technology. In addition, there have been changes in the size of the properties, as well as in risk management and commercialization practices, and level of education and posture of those responsible for the decision making of agricultural enterprises. It is fundamental for companies that supply inputs and services to farmers to understand some variables in such changing environment, considering that they influence the business model and the buying behavior of rural producers. The purpose of this study is to develop knowledge and familiarity with the buying behavior of grain farmers in the State of Mato Grosso, with the intent of understanding how this behavior can be influenced by theproducer's profile and the farm features, as well as the risk and business management practices, the decision making, the sources of information, and the products and suppliers. In order to achieve such a goal,a multiple case study was developed by interviewing, face to face, three grain producers, from the State of Mato Grosso. The results demonstrate that the most influential determinants on the buying behavior of the interviewed producers were their level of involvement in the decision making process, the benefit they expect from each type of product, the size of their farming operation, the kind of yield production, and the crop rotation and its relation to productivity. Additionally, the ownership or not of the land, the business profitability, credit restrictions and risk management, they all influence the level of the producer's capitalization and consequently his choices of channels for acquiring inputs and capital goods. Last, though not less important, the sources of information and their reliability have an impact on the producer's loyalty to a brand, or to a local distributor or to a salesperson.

  16. Cell size variations of large granular lymphocyte leukemia: Implication of a small cell subtype of granular lymphocyte leukemia with STAT3 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Takahiro; Sekiguchi, Nodoka; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Takezawa, Yuka; Ito, Toshiro; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Ichikawa, Naoaki; Nishina, Sayaka; Senoo, Noriko; Sakai, Hitoshi; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Ishida, Fumihiro

    2016-06-01

    Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGL-L) has been morphologically defined as a group of lymphoproliferative disorders, including T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGL-L), chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells (CLPD-NK) and aggressive NK cell leukemia. We investigated the morphological features of LGL leukemic cells in 26 LGL-L patients in order to elucidate relationships with current classifications and molecular backgrounds. LGL-L cells were mostly indistinguishable from normal LGL. Patients with STAT3 SH2 domain mutations showed significantly smaller cells compared with patients without STAT3 mutations. Four patients with T-LGL-L showed smaller granular lymphocytes with a median diameter of less than 13μm, which were rarely seen in normal subjects. This small subtype of T-LGL-L was recognized among rather young patients and was associated with D661Y mutations in the STAT3 gene SH2 domain. In addition, all of them showed anemia including two cases with pure red cell aplasia. These results suggest the heterogeneity of T-LGL-L and a specific subtype with small variants of T-LGL-L. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Mary F.; Chu, Su; Czajkowski, Jacek; Esko, Tõnu; Fall, Tove; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Lu, Yingchang; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Pers, Tune H.; Rüeger, Sina; Teumer, Alexander; Ehret, Georg B.; Ferreira, Teresa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Karjalainen, Juha; Lagou, Vasiliki; Mahajan, Anubha; Neinast, Michael D.; Prokopenko, Inga; Simino, Jeannette; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Jansen, Rick; Westra, Harm-Jan; White, Charles C.; Absher, Devin; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Albrecht, Eva; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bonnefond, Amélie; Boucher, Gabrielle; Cadby, Gemma; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Delgado, Graciela; Demirkan, Ayse; Dueker, Nicole; Eklund, Niina; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Joel; Feenstra, Bjarke; Fischer, Krista; Frau, Francesca; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Geller, Frank; Goel, Anuj; Gorski, Mathias; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Haitjema, Saskia; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Johansson, Åsa; Kaakinen, Marika; Kleber, Marcus E.; Lahti, Jari; Leach, Irene Mateo; Lehne, Benjamin; Liu, Youfang; Lo, Ken Sin; Lorentzon, Mattias; Luan, Jian'an; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Monda, Keri L.; Montasser, May E.; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renström, Frida; Rizzi, Federica; Rose, Lynda M.; Ryan, Kathy A.; Salo, Perttu; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert Vernon; Southam, Lorraine; Stančáková, Alena; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sung, Yun Ju; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tanaka, Toshiko; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Trompet, Stella; Pervjakova, Natalia; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van der Laan, Sander W; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wang, Sophie R.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wild, Sarah H.; Willenborg, Christina; Wilson, James F.; Wong, Andrew; Yang, Jian; Yengo, Loïc; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andersson, Ehm A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Baldassarre, Damiano; Banasik, Karina; Barcella, Matteo; Barlassina, Cristina; Bellis, Claire; Benaglio, Paola; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bonnet, Fabrice; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Boyd, Heather A.; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buchman, Aron S; Campbell, Harry; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cole, John; Collins, Francis S.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; Dimitriou, Maria; Duan, Jubao; Enroth, Stefan; Eury, Elodie; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Forouhi, Nita G.; Friedrich, Nele; Gejman, Pablo V.; Gigante, Bruna; Glorioso, Nicola; Go, Alan S.; Gottesman, Omri; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grallert, Harald; Grarup, Niels; Gu, Yu-Mei; Broer, Linda; Ham, Annelies C.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hastie, Nicholas; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hovingh, Kees G; Hui, Jennie; Husemoen, Lise L.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Hysi, Pirro G.; Illig, Thomas; De Jager, Philip L.; Jalilzadeh, Shapour; Jørgensen, Torben; Jukema, J. Wouter; Juonala, Markus; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karaleftheri, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinnunen, Leena; Kittner, Steven J.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kolcic, Ivana; Kovacs, Peter; Krarup, Nikolaj T.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Krüger, Janine; Kuh, Diana; Kumari, Meena; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Langenberg, Claudia; Lannfelt, Lars; Lanzani, Chiara; Lotay, Vaneet; Launer, Lenore J.; Leander, Karin; Lindström, Jaana; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yan-Ping; Lobbens, Stéphane; Luben, Robert; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Magnusson, Patrik K.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Andrew P.; Narisu, Narisu; Nelis, Mari; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Pérusse, Louis; Pichler, Irene; Pilia, Maria G.; Pouta, Anneli; Rheinberger, Myriam; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Richards, Marcus; Rice, Kenneth M.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivolta, Carlo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R.; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Scholtens, Salome; Scott, Robert A.; Scott, William R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengupta, Sebanti; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Silveira, Angela; Slagboom, P. Eline; Smit, Jan H.; Sparsø, Thomas H.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stringham, Heather M.; Swertz, Morris A; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorand, Barbara; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tsafantakis, Emmanouil; van der Most, Peter J.; Völker, Uwe; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Vonk, Judith M.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Walker, Ryan W.; Wennauer, Roman; Widén, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; van Dijk, Suzanne C.; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John; Bennett, David A.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Böger, Carsten A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bouchard, Claude; Chambers, John C.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Dedoussis, George; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; de Faire, Ulf; Farrall, Martin; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ford, Ian; Franke, Lude; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Heliövaara, Markku; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A; Hingorani, Aroon; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Hveem, Kristian; James, Alan L.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knekt, Paul B.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuusisto, Johanna; Maerz, Winfried; Martin, Nicholas G; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lettre, Guillaume; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lind, Lars; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Melbye, Mads; Metspalu, Andres; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Moll, Frans L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Musk, Arthur W.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J; Pankow, James S.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Pedersen, Oluf; Penninx, Brenda W.; Perola, Markus; Peters, Annette; Polašek, Ozren; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Quertermous, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Saltevo, Juha; Sattar, Naveed; Schunkert, Heribert; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sinisalo, Juha; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Tim D.; Staessen, Jan A.; Stefania, Bandinelli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; Verbeek, André L. M.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clegg, Deborah J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Jaquish, Cashell E.; Rao, D. C.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert C.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Heid, Iris M.; North, Kari E.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR<5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y) than in older adults (≥50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape. PMID:26426971

  18. The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape: A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Winkler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI, a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age- and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to ~2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men ≤50y, men >50y, women ≤50y, women >50y and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE, sex-specific effects (G x SEX or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX. For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel that showed significant (FDR<5% age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (<50y than in older adults (≥50y. No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may provide further insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.

  19. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Unz, Ronald J.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m3/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  20. Size-dependent validation of MODIS MCD64A1 burned area over six vegetation types in boreal Eurasia: Large underestimation in croplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kanaya, Yugo; Saito, Masahiko

    2017-07-05

    Pollutants emitted from wildfires in boreal Eurasia can be transported to the Arctic, and their subsequent deposition could accelerate global warming. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MCD64A1 burned area product is the basis of fire emission products. However, uncertainties due to the "moderate resolution" (500 m) characteristic of the MODIS sensor could be introduced. Here, we present a size-dependent validation of MCD64A1 with reference to higher resolution (better than 30 m) satellite products (Landsat 7 ETM+, RapidEye, WorldView-2, and GeoEye-1) for six ecotypes over 12 regions of boreal Eurasia. We considered the 2012 boreal Eurasia burning season when severe wildfires occurred and when Arctic sea ice extent was historically low. Among the six ecotypes, we found MCD64A1 burned areas comprised only 13% of the reference products in croplands because of inadequate detection of small fires (<100 ha). Our results indicate that over all ecotypes, the actual burned area in boreal Eurasia (15,256 km 2 ) could have been ~16% greater than suggested by MCD64A1 (13,187 km 2 ) when applying the correction factors proposed in this study. This implies the effects of wildfire emissions in boreal Eurasia on Arctic warming could be greater than currently estimated.

  1. Dual Delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF from a New Nano-Composite Scaffold, Loaded with Vascular Stents for Large-Size Mandibular Defect Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and advantages of the dual delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF from nano-composite scaffolds (PLGA/PCL/nHA loaded with vascular stents (PLCL/Col/nHA for large bone defect regeneration in rabbit mandibles. Thirty-six large bone defects were repaired in rabbits using engineering bone composed of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs, bFGF, BMP-2 and scaffolds composed of PLGA/PCL/nHA loaded with PLCL/Col/nHA. The experiments were divided into six groups: BMSCs/bFGF/BMP-2/scaffold, BMSCs/BMP-2/scaffold, BMSCs/bFGF/scaffold, BMSCs/scaffold, scaffold alone and no treatment. Sodium alginate hydrogel was used as the carrier for BMP-2 and bFGF and its features, including gelling, degradation and controlled release properties, was detected by the determination of gelation and degradation time coupled with a controlled release study of bovine serum albumin (BSA. AlamarBlue assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity were used to evaluate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in different groups. X-ray and histological examinations of the samples were performed after 4 and 12 weeks post-implantation to clarify new bone formation in the mandible defects. The results verified that the use of sodium alginate hydrogel as a controlled release carrier has good sustained release ability, and the combined application of bFGF and BMP-2 could significantly promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01. In addition, X-ray and histological examinations of the samples exhibited that the dual release group had significantly higher bone formation than the other groups. The above results indicate that the delivery of both growth factors could enhance new bone formation and vascularization compared with delivery of BMP-2 or bFGF alone, and may supply a promising way of repairing large

  2. Method for Determination of Neptunium in Large-Sized Urine Samples Using Manganese Dioxide Coprecipitation and 242Pu as Yield Tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for bioassay of large volumes of human urine samples using manganese dioxide coprecipitation for preconcentration was developed for rapid determination of 237Np. 242Pu was utilized as a nonisotopic tracer to monitor the chemical yield of 237Np. A sequential injection extraction...... to 100% and high separation capacity of processing up to 5 L of human urine samples. The MnO2 coprecipitation process is simple and straightforward in which a batch (8–12) of samples can be pretreated within 4 h (i.e., sample). In connection with the automated column separation and ICPMS...... quantification, which takes less than 1.5 h in total, the overall analytical time was on average less than 2 h for each sample. The high effectiveness and sample throughput make the developed method well suited for urine bioassay of 237Np in routine monitoring of occupationally internal radiation exposure...

  3. Method for determination of neptunium in large-sized urine samples using manganese dioxide coprecipitation and 242Pu as yield tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2013-02-05

    A novel method for bioassay of large volumes of human urine samples using manganese dioxide coprecipitation for preconcentration was developed for rapid determination of (237)Np. (242)Pu was utilized as a nonisotopic tracer to monitor the chemical yield of (237)Np. A sequential injection extraction chromatographic (SI-EC) system coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was exploited to facilitate the rapid column separation and quantification. The analytical results demonstrated satisfactory performance of the MnO(2) coprecipitation as indicated by the high chemical yields close to 100% and high separation capacity of processing up to 5 L of human urine samples. The MnO(2) coprecipitation process is simple and straightforward in which a batch (8-12) of samples can be pretreated within 4 h (i.e., <0.5 h/sample). In connection with the automated column separation and ICPMS quantification, which takes less than 1.5 h in total, the overall analytical time was on average less than 2 h for each sample. The high effectiveness and sample throughput make the developed method well suited for urine bioassay of (237)Np in routine monitoring of occupationally internal radiation exposure and rapid analysis of neptunium contamination level for emergency preparedness.

  4. Radio frequency source of a weakly expanding wedge-shaped xenon ion beam for contactless removal of large-sized space debris objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Victor; Cherkasova, Maria; Kruglov, Kirill; Kudriavtsev, Arseny; Masherov, Pavel; Mogulkin, Andrey; Obukhov, Vladimir; Riaby, Valentin; Svotina, Victoria

    2017-08-01

    A theoretical-experimental research has been carried out to determine the characteristics of a radio frequency (RF) ion source for the generation of a weakly expanding wedge-shaped xenon ion beam. Such ion beam geometry is of interest as a prototype of an on-board ion injector for contactless "ion shepherding" by service spacecraft to remove large space debris objects from geostationary orbits. The wedge shape of the ion beam increases its range. The device described herein comprises an inductive gas discharge chamber and a slit-type three-electrode ion extraction grid (IEG) unit. Calculations of accelerating cell geometries and ion trajectories determined the dependence of beam expansion half-angle on normalized perveance based on the measurements of the spatial distributions of the xenon plasma parameters at the IEG entrance for a xenon flow rate q ≈ 0.2 mg/s and an incident RF power Pin ≤ 250 W at a driving frequency f = 2 MHz. Experimental studies showed that the ion beam, circular at the IEG exit, accepted the elliptical form at the distance of 580 mm with half-angle of beam expansion across IEG slits about 2°-3° and close to 0° along them. Thus, the obtained result proved the possibility of creating a new-generation on-board ion injector that could be used in spacecrafts for removal of debris.

  5. Radio frequency source of a weakly expanding wedge-shaped xenon ion beam for contactless removal of large-sized space debris objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Victor; Cherkasova, Maria; Kruglov, Kirill; Kudriavtsev, Arseny; Masherov, Pavel; Mogulkin, Andrey; Obukhov, Vladimir; Riaby, Valentin; Svotina, Victoria

    2017-08-01

    A theoretical-experimental research has been carried out to determine the characteristics of a radio frequency (RF) ion source for the generation of a weakly expanding wedge-shaped xenon ion beam. Such ion beam geometry is of interest as a prototype of an on-board ion injector for contactless "ion shepherding" by service spacecraft to remove large space debris objects from geostationary orbits. The wedge shape of the ion beam increases its range. The device described herein comprises an inductive gas discharge chamber and a slit-type three-electrode ion extraction grid (IEG) unit. Calculations of accelerating cell geometries and ion trajectories determined the dependence of beam expansion half-angle on normalized perveance based on the measurements of the spatial distributions of the xenon plasma parameters at the IEG entrance for a xenon flow rate q ≈ 0.2 mg/s and an incident RF power Pin ≤ 250 W at a driving frequency f = 2 MHz. Experimental studies showed that the ion beam, circular at the IEG exit, accepted the elliptical form at the distance of 580 mm with half-angle of beam expansion across IEG slits about 2°-3° and close to 0° along them. Thus, the obtained result proved the possibility of creating a new-generation on-board ion injector that could be used in spacecrafts for removal of debris.

  6. Large pore size and controlled mesh elongation are relevant predictors for mesh integration quality and low shrinkage--Systematic analysis of key parameters of meshes in a novel minipig hernia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyhe, Dirk; Cobb, William; Lecuivre, Julie; Alves, Antoine; Ladet, Sebastien; Lomanto, Davide; Bayon, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Prosthetic mesh implants in hernia repair are frequently used based on the fact that lower recurrence rates are detected. However, an undesirable side effect is persistent foreign body reaction that drives adhesions and shrinkage among other things in the course of time. Thereby a variety of meshes have been created in an attempt to alleviate these side effects, and particular relating to shrinkage, the ideal mesh has not been developed. Large pore size is one of the properties to get better ingrowth of the implants but could also be a risk factor to shrinkage behavior. The aim of this preclinical study was to determine optimal pore size based on mesh integration and shrinkage in a hernia minipig model. Twenty female minipigs were each implanted at four abdominal retromuscular sites with meshes (designed and knitted specifically for this study) that had various weights and pore sizes, but similar weave. At 3 and 21 weeks post-operation, ten pigs each were euthanized. Mesh integration and shrinkage were evaluated through macroscopic observation, biomechanical testing and histopathological analysis. The large pore meshes (6.1-6.6 mm(2)) showed significantly better integration than small pore (0.9-1.1 mm(2)) counterparts, by biomechanical testing and histological assessment. This was independent of mesh weight. The lightweight small pore mesh exhibited significantly more shrinkage than any of the other meshes, while the three-dimensional heavyweight large pore mesh exhibited the least shrinkage. Mesh shrinkage and elongation at 50 Newton (N) as one parameter of the implant structural stability appeared to be strongly interrelated. Tissue ingrowth of meshes depends on increasing pore size. Macroporous mesh design >1.5 mm diameter appears to be optimal in terms of mesh integration. Lightweight meshes with a large pore size on one hand and a lack of structural stability on the other hand drives mesh shrinkage. High stretchability (Elongation >50 N) induces higher

  7. Development of a unified sizing method for gas radiation heating facilities used in large-volume buildings; Developpement d'une methode de dimensionnement unifiee d'installations de chauffage radiant gaz pour les batiments de grand volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, M.; Bego, L.; Douls, Y.; Le Dean, P.; Paradowski, V. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    Builders now have perfect command of the natural gas heating technique used for large-volume buildings. However, the sizing of heating facilities still leaves grounds for discussion, whatever the energies actually used. Accordingly, between 1997 and 1999, the ATG (technical association of the Gas industry in France), seven French manufacturers of 'large volume' heating equipment, the Chaleur Et Rayonnement (CER) association and Gaz de France decided to collaborate and develop a 'unified sizing method' for heating facilities using radiating emitters. During the first year of the study, the above partners worked on the said method (theoretical thermal study of the radiative phenomena, and then adaptation to the methods currently used by the various manufacturers). In 1998, with the support of the ADEME (the French environment and energy control agency), the partners tested the method on five industrial buildings (studying the thermal behavior and making air renewal measurements with search gases). This work made it possible to either confirm or adapt the theoretical evaluations which had been made originally. In 1999, a software program was produced to make the developed method more user friendly. The program can be used to determine the power to be installed, but also to assess the quality of the chosen configuration of the emitters (unit power, inclination, orientation) for optimum customer comfort. (authors)

  8. [Workplace Health Promotion in Small, Medium-Sized and Large Enterprises of the Health-Care Sector - Frequency, Reasons for the Company Management to Take Action and Barriers to Implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, E; Drexler, H; Kiesel, J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into worksite health promotion in small and medium-sized companies compared to large concerns in Middle Franconia. Action in worksite health promotion, obstacles and demand for networks for workplace health promotion were determined. A standardised telephone interview served for collecting data for this cross-sectional study. The interviewee was always the manager or their proxy. 106 companies were contacted. The results of this study were analysed via qualitative and quantitative methods in SPSS(®) 20. It was possible to reach and interview 80 companies, a return rate of 75.5%. More than half the companies (68.8%) implemented at least one activity for worksite health promotion, especially ergonomic measures and measures to promote physical activity. Taking the size of the company into consideration when analysing the results, previous study results are confirmed. With an increasing size of the company, the relative frequency of measures for workplace health promotion rises. The motivation for worksite health promotion ranges from keeping the employees healthy (38.2%) to worksite health promotion as part of the business culture (9.1%). 81.1% of the companies consider their activity in worksite health promotion to be successful. Furthermore, 80.0% of the firms that implemented worksite health promotion were supported by a partner like a health insurance (43.2%). Those companies that did not implement any activities for worksite health promotion, state as a prime reason that they did not think about it as yet (44.0%). Besides, 44.0% of the companies without any worksite health promotion would like to implement measures. 65.5% of the companies that already took action in worksite health promotion and 56.0% of the companies that did not would like to cooperate with other firms in a network for workplace health promotion. Mutual exchange is the most important factor for them. The results of this study show that almost half of

  9. Size matter!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Jespersen, Andreas Maaløe; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    trash bags according to size of plates and weighed in bulk. Results Those eating from smaller plates (n=145) left significantly less food to waste (aver. 14,8g) than participants eating from standard plates (n=75) (aver. 20g) amounting to a reduction of 25,8%. Conclusions Our field experiment tests...

  10. A simple method to recover Norovirus from fresh produce with large sample size by using histo-blood group antigen-conjugated to magnetic beads in a recirculating affinity magnetic separation system (RCAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Peng; Yang, David; Mandrell, Robert

    2011-06-30

    PEG method in NoV inoculated lettuce. 40, 4, 0.4, and 0.04 RTU can be detected by both methods. At 0.004 RTU, NoV was detectable in all three samples concentrated by the RCAMS method, while none could be detected by the PEG precipitation method. RCAMS is a simple and rapid method that is more sensitive than conventional methods for recovery of NoV from food samples with a large sample size. In addition, the RTU value detected through RCAMS-processed samples is more biologically relevant. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ethics and sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetti, Peter; Wolf, Leslie E; Segal, Mark R; McCulloch, Charles E

    2005-01-15

    The belief is widespread that studies are unethical if their sample size is not large enough to ensure adequate power. The authors examine how sample size influences the balance that determines the ethical acceptability of a study: the balance between the burdens that participants accept and the clinical or scientific value that a study can be expected to produce. The average projected burden per participant remains constant as the sample size increases, but the projected study value does not increase as rapidly as the sample size if it is assumed to be proportional to power or inversely proportional to confidence interval width. This implies that the value per participant declines as the sample size increases and that smaller studies therefore have more favorable ratios of projected value to participant burden. The ethical treatment of study participants therefore does not require consideration of whether study power is less than the conventional goal of 80% or 90%. Lower power does not make a study unethical. The analysis addresses only ethical acceptability, not optimality; large studies may be desirable for other than ethical reasons.

  12. Rhizosphere size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Razavi, Bahar

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of the soil volume affected by roots - the rhizosphere - is crucial to assess the effects of plants on properties and processes in soils and dynamics of nutrients, water, microorganisms and soil organic matter. The challenges to assess the rhizosphere size are: 1) the continuum of properties between the root surface and root-free soil, 2) differences in the distributions of various properties (carbon, microorganisms and their activities, various nutrients, enzymes, etc.) along and across the roots, 3) temporal changes of properties and processes. Thus, to describe the rhizosphere size and root effects, a holistic approach is necessary. We collected literature and own data on the rhizosphere gradients of a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties: pH, CO2, oxygen, redox potential, water uptake, various nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe), organic compounds (glucose, carboxylic acids, amino acids), activities of enzymes of C, N, P and S cycles. The collected data were obtained based on the destructive approaches (thin layer slicing), rhizotron studies and in situ visualization techniques: optodes, zymography, sensitive gels, 14C and neutron imaging. The root effects were pronounced from less than 0.5 mm (nutrients with slow diffusion) up to more than 50 mm (for gases). However, the most common effects were between 1 - 10 mm. Sharp gradients (e.g. for P, carboxylic acids, enzyme activities) allowed to calculate clear rhizosphere boundaries and so, the soil volume affected by roots. The first analyses were done to assess the effects of soil texture and moisture as well as root system and age on these gradients. The most properties can be described by two curve types: exponential saturation and S curve, each with increasing and decreasing concentration profiles from the root surface. The gradient based distribution functions were calculated and used to extrapolate on the whole soil depending on the root density and rooting intensity. We

  13. Measuring the Sizes of Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stars, other than the Sun, appear to our unaided eyes aspoints of light. Large telescopes show an image whose sizeis dictated by refractive index irregularities in the Earth's atmosphere.The size of this blurring is much greater than thatof the star, and hence it is difficult to measure the stellar size.Fizeau showed how one ...

  14. Size scaling of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-22

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  15. Front-end and slow control electronics for large area SiPMs used for the single mirror Small Size Telescope (SST-1M) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Bilnik, W.; Borkowski, J.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; della Volpe, D.; Favre, Y.; Heller, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lyard, E.; Marszalek, A.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Schioppa, E., Jr.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Zietara, K.; Blocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Curyło, M.; Dyrda, M.; Frankowski, A.; Grudniki, Ł.; Grudzinska, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Lalik, K.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Michalowski, J.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Schovanek, P.; Seweryn, K.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Sowinski, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Walter, R.; Wiecek, M.; Zagdański, A.; Żychowski, P.

    2016-07-01

    The single mirror Small Size Telescope (SST-1M) project proposes a design among others for the smallest type of telescopes (SST), that will compose the south observatory of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The SST camera collecting the Cherenkov light resulting from very high energy gamma-ray interactions in the atmosphere proposes to use Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM). The SST-1M design has led to the use of unique pixel shape and size that required a dedicated development by the University of Geneva and Hamamatsu. An active surface of 94 mm2 and a resulting total capacitance of 3.4 nF combined with the stringent requirements of the CTA project on timing and charge resolution have led the University of Geneva to develop a custom preamplifier stage and slow-control system. The design and performance of the tailor made preamplifier stage and of the slow control electronics will be briefly described. The bias circuit of the sensor contains a resistor meant to prevent the sensor from drawing high current. However this resistor also introduces a voltage drop at the sensor input impacting the stability of its operation. A model has been developed in order to derive the parameters needed to account for it at the data analysis level. A solution based on the SST-1M front-end and digital readout is proposed to compensate for the voltage drop at the sensor cathode.

  16. Sauropod dinosaurs evolved moderately sized genomes unrelated to body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Stein, Koen

    2009-12-22

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs include the largest land animals to have ever lived, some reaching up to 10 times the mass of an African elephant. Despite their status defining the upper range for body size in land animals, it remains unknown whether sauropodomorphs evolved larger-sized genomes than non-avian theropods, their sister taxon, or whether a relationship exists between genome size and body size in dinosaurs, two questions critical for understanding broad patterns of genome evolution in dinosaurs. Here we report inferences of genome size for 10 sauropodomorph taxa. The estimates are derived from a Bayesian phylogenetic generalized least squares approach that generates posterior distributions of regression models relating genome size to osteocyte lacunae volume in extant tetrapods. We estimate that the average genome size of sauropodomorphs was 2.02 pg (range of species means: 1.77-2.21 pg), a value in the upper range of extant birds (mean = 1.42 pg, range: 0.97-2.16 pg) and near the average for extant non-avian reptiles (mean = 2.24 pg, range: 1.05-5.44 pg). The results suggest that the variation in size and architecture of genomes in extinct dinosaurs was lower than the variation found in mammals. A substantial difference in genome size separates the two major clades within dinosaurs, Ornithischia (large genomes) and Saurischia (moderate to small genomes). We find no relationship between body size and estimated genome size in extinct dinosaurs, which suggests that neutral forces did not dominate the evolution of genome size in this group.

  17. A novel mutation and large size polymorphism affecting the V2 domain of keratin 1 in an African-American family with severe, diffuse palmoplantar keratoderma of the ichthyosis hystrix Curth-Macklin type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elizabeth S; Lee, Jason B; Hyde, Patricia H; Richard, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Keratin gene mutations affecting nonhelical head and tail domains are not usually associated with prominent skin blistering and keratin filament clumping. Instead, they have been associated with several distinct clinical phenotypes, such as epidermolysis bullosa simplex with mottled pigmentation (mutation P25L in the V1 domain of keratin 5), epidermolysis bullosa simplex with migratory circinate erythema (frameshift mutation c1649delG in the V2 domain of keratin 5), striate palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK), and ichthyosis hystrix Curth-Macklin (different frameshift mutations in the V2 domain of keratin 1 (K1)). We have studied a family with severe, diffuse, nonepidermolytic PPK and verrucous hyperkeratotic plaques over the joints and in flexures and identified a new KRT1 gene mutation that is predicted to completely alter the K1 tail domain. In addition, a new K1 size polymorphism has been detected, which is especially prevalent among the African-American population. These results further emphasize the functional importance of the nonhelical tail domain in keratin molecules despite the obvious variability in the number of glycine loop motifs and underscore the broad phenotypic spectrum of disorders due to dominant keratin tail mutations.

  18. Materialised Ideals Sizes and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Laitala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s clothing industry is based on a system where clothes are made in ready-to-wear sizes and meant to fit most people. Studies have pointed out that consumers are discontent with the use of these systems: size designations are not accurate enough to find clothing that fits, and different sizes are poorly available. This article discusses in depth who these consumers are, and which consumer groups are the most dissatisfied with today’s sizing systems. Results are based on a web survey where 2834 Nordic consumers responded, complemented with eight in-depth interviews, market analysis on clothing sizes and in-store trouser size measurements. Results indicate that higher shares of the consumers who have a body out of touch with the existing beauty ideals express discontentment with the sizing systems and the poor selection available. In particular, large women, very large men, and thin, short men are those who experience less priority in clothing stores and have more difficulties in finding clothes that fit. Consumers tend to blame themselves when the clothes do not fit their bodies, while our study points out that the industry is to blame as they do not produce clothing for all customers.

  19. On the Relationship between Pollen Size and Genome Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Knight

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we test whether genome size is a predictor of pollen size. If it were, inferences of ancient genome size would be possible using the abundant paleo-palynolgical record. We performed regression analyses across 464 species of pollen width and genome size. We found a significant positive trend. However, regression analysis using phylogentically independent contrasts did not support the correlated evolution of these traits. Instead, a large split between angiosperms and gymnosperms for both pollen width and genome size was revealed. Sister taxa were not more likely to show a positive contrast when compared to deeper nodes. However, significantly more congeneric species had a positive trend than expected by chance. These results may reflect the strong selection pressure for pollen to be small. Also, because pollen grains are not metabolically active when measured, their biology is different than other cells which have been shown to be strongly related to genome size, such as guard cells. Our findings contrast with previously published research. It was our hope that pollen size could be used as a proxy for inferring the genome size of ancient species. However, our results suggest pollen is not a good candidate for such endeavors.

  20. Gender based disruptive selection maintains body size ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-04

    Jul 4, 2014 ... Darwinian fitness in holometabolous insects like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is reported to be positively correlated with body size. If large individuals in a population have higher fitness, then one would expect directional selection to operate leading to uniformly large individuals. However, size ...

  1. Evaluation of autogenous PRGF+β-TCP with or without a collagen membrane on bone formation and implant osseointegration in large size bone defects. A preclinical in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batas, Leonidas; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Papadimitriou, Serafim; Nyengaard, Jens R; Konstantinidis, Antonios

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the adjunctive use of a collagen membrane enhances bone formation and implant osseointegration in non-contained defects grafted with chair-side prepared autologous platelet-rich growth factor (PRGF) adsorbed on a β-TCP particulate carrier. Large box-type defects (10 × 6 mm; W × D) were prepared in the edentulated and completely healed mandibles of six Beagles dogs. An implant with moderately rough surface was placed in the center of each defect leaving the coronal 6 mm of the implant not covered with bone. The remaining defect space was then filled out with chair-side prepared autologous PRGF adsorbed on β-TCP particles and either covered with a collagen membrane (PRGF/β-TCP+CM) (6 defects) or left without a membrane (PRGF/β-TCP) (5 defects). Histology 4 months post-op showed new lamellar and woven bone formation encompassing almost entirely the defect and limited residual β-TCP particles. Extent of osseointegration of the previously exposed portion of the implants varied, but in general was limited. Within the defect, new mineralized bone (%) averaged 43.2 ± 9.86 vs. 39.9 ± 13.7 in the PRGF/β-TCP+CM and PRGF/β-TCP group (P = 0.22) and relative mineralized bone-to-implant contact (%) averaged 26.2 ± 16.45 vs. 35.91 ± 24.45, respectively (P = 0.5). First, bone-to-implant contact from the implant top was 4.1 ± 1.5 and 3.2 ± 2.3 (P = 0.9), in the PRGF/β-TCP+CM and PRGF/β-TCP group, respectively. Implantation of chair-side prepared autologous PRGF adsorbed on a β-TCP carrier in non-contained peri-implant defects resulted in large amounts of bone regeneration, but osseointegration was limited. Provisions for GBR with a collagen membrane did not significantly enhance bone regeneration or implant osseointegration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Theoretical study of the effect of the size of a high-energy proton beam of the Large Hadron Collider on the formation and propagation of shock waves in copper irradiated by 450-GeV proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ryazanov, A I; Vasilyev, Ya S; Ferrari, A

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of 450GeV protons with copper, which is the material of the collimators of the Large Hadron Collider, has been theoretically studied. A theoretical model for the formation and propagation of shock waves has been proposed on the basis of the anal ysis of the energy released by a proton beam in the electronic subsystem of the material owing to the deceleration of secondary particles appearing in nuclear reactions induced by this beam on the electronic subsy stem of the material. The subsequent transfer of the energy from the excited electronic subsystem to the crystal lattice through the electron–phonon interaction has been described within the thermal spike model [I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, Sov. Phys. JETP 4 , 173 (1957); I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, At. Energ. 6 , 391 (1959); K. Yasui, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 90 , 409 (1994)]. The model of the formation of shock waves involves energy exchange processes between excited electronic an...

  3. Study of the pressing operation of large-sized tiles using X-ray absorption; Estudio de la operacion de prensado de baldosas de gran formato utilizando la absorcion de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoros, J. L.; Mallol, G.; Llorens, D.; Boix, J.; Arnau, J. M.; Feliu, C.; Cerisuelo, J. A.; Gargallo, J. J.

    2010-07-01

    An apparatus for X-Ray non destructive inspection of bulk density distribution in large ceramic tiles has been designed, built and patented. This technique has many advantages compared with other methods: it allows tile bulk density distribution to be mapped and is neither destructive nor toxic, provided the X-ray tube and detector area are shielded to prevent leakage. In the present study, this technique, whose technical feasibility and accuracy had been verified in previous studies, has been used to scan ceramic tiles formed under different industrial conditions, modifying press working parameters. The use of high-precision laser telemeters allows tile thicknesses to be mapped, facilitating the interpretation of manufacturing defects produced in pressing, which cannot be interpreted by just measuring bulk density. The bulk density distributions obtained in the same unfired and fired tiles are also compared, a possibility afforded only by this measurement method, since it is non-destructive. The comparison of both unfired and fired tile bulk density distributions allows the influence of the pressing and firing stages on tile end porosity to be individually identified. (Author) 12 refs.

  4. Experiments on clutch size and nest size in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagsvold, Tore

    1989-08-01

    Results of experiments on three passerine species suggest that brood size may be constrained by nest size, since the breeding success of pairs provided with large nestcups was greater than that of those provided with small artificial nestcups. These results may have important implications, e.g. to the design of experiments involving manipulation of clutch and brood size. A small nestcup is requisite for successful hatching during the incubation period, but a large one for successful rearing during the nestling period. In nature this difference may select for types of nesting materials that are elastic, such as mosses and lichens. However, experiments showed that such materials rapidly absorb rainwater but only slowly dry out. In addition, because large nests dry out more slowly than small nests, selection will favour small nests among those open-nesting species that have exposed nests. A further possible nest size constraint on open-nesters is nest predation. However, no difference in the predation rate was found in experiments with small and large artificial nests.

  5. Density functional theory calculations for the band gap and formation energy of Pr4-xCaxSi12O3+xN18-x; a highly disordered compound with low symmetry and a large cell size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Un; Singh, Satendra Pal; Pyo, Myoungho; Park, Woon Bae; Sohn, Kee-Sun

    2017-06-28

    A novel oxynitride compound, Pr4-xCaxSi12O3+xN18-x, synthesized using a solid-state route has been characterized as a monoclinic structure in the C2 space group using Rietveld refinement on synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data. The crystal structure of this compound was disordered due to the random distribution of Ca/Pr and N/O ions at various Wyckoff sites. A pragmatic approach for an ab initio calculation based on density function theory (DFT) for this disordered compound has been implemented to calculate an acceptable value of the band gap and formation energy. In general, for the DFT calculation of a disordered compound, a sufficiently large super cell and infinite variety of ensemble configurations is adopted to simulate the random distribution of ions; however, such an approach is time consuming and cost ineffective. Even a single unit cell model gave rise to 43 008 independent configurations as an input model for the DFT calculations. Since it was nearly impossible to calculate the formation energy and the band gap energy for all 43 008 configurations, an elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) was employed to find the plausible configurations. In the NSGA-II, all 43 008 configurations were mathematically treated as genomes and the calculated band gap and the formation energy as the objective (fitness) function. Generalized gradient approximation (GGA) was first employed in the preliminary screening using NSGA-II, and thereafter a hybrid functional calculation (HSE06) was executed only for the most plausible GGA-relaxed configurations with lower formation and higher band gap energies. The final band gap energy (3.62 eV) obtained after averaging over the selected configurations, resembles closely the experimental band gap value (4.11 eV).

  6. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  7. Multimodal Raindrop Size Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Henri; Koffi, Manlandon

    2000-08-01

    The raindrop size distributions (DSDs) observed over a short span usually have an erratic shape, with several relative maxima. This multimodal structure is studied from disdrometer data acquired in tropical and midlatitude areas. It is shown that some modes of DSDs have a persistence larger than several minutes and can be spotted from one DSD to the next one as they migrate through the size classes. It is demonstrated that Nm, the number of modes of DSDs, for diameter larger than 2 mm, is not related to the mean rain rate but depends on the rain-rate fluctuations. Statistical evidence of such a relation is given. The spread of DSDs is found to be dependent on its multimodal structure, that is, on Nm. The large values of Nm are associated with low values of slope and intercept N0 of the fitted exponential distribution.In order to explain the dependence of the DSD shape on Nm, a conceptual model is proposed in which the modes are interpreted as resulting from an overlapping of rain shafts. The associated DSD is termed a synthetic drop size distribution (SDSD). It is shown that the overlapping of rain shafts generated from a sequence of rain cells of increasing intensity, such as observed at the leading edge of a convective system, results in undersloping SDSDs. In the reverse configuration, that is, with a sequence of rain cells with decreasing intensity, such as observed at the ending edge of a convective system, it results in oversloping SDSDs. Observations in agreement with these conclusions are presented. The readability of the modal structure of the DSDs depends on several factors in such a way that an apparent multimodal structure is not necessary for a DSD to be an SDSD. It is suggested that most of the DSDs observed at the ground are synthetic DSDs.

  8. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Frank den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory and applications of large deviations, a branch of probability theory that describes the probability of rare events in terms of variational problems. By focusing the theory, in Part A of the book, on random sequences, the author succeeds in conveying the main ideas behind large deviations without a need for technicalities, thus providing a concise and accessible entry to this challenging and captivating subject. The selection of modern applications, described in Part B of the book, offers a good sample of what large deviation theory is able to achieve

  9. Genome Size and Species Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2010-12-01

    Theoretically, there are reasons to believe that large genome size should favour speciation. Several major factors contributing to genome size, such as duplications and transposable element activity have been proposed to facilitate the formation of new species. However, it is also possible that small genome size promotes speciation. For example, selection for genome reduction may be resolved in different ways in incipient species, leading to incompatibilities. Mutations and chromosomal rearrangements may also be more stably inherited in smaller genomes. Here I review the following lines of empirical evidence bearing on this question: (i) Correlations between genome size and species richness of taxa are often negative. (ii) Fossil evidence in lungfish shows that the accumulation of DNA in the genomes of this group coincided with a reduction in species diversity. (iii) Estimates of speciation interval in mammals correlate positively with genome size. (iv) Genome reductions are inferred at the base of particular species radiations and genome expansions at the base of others. (v) Insect clades that have been increasing in diversity up to the present have smaller genomes than clades that have remained stable or have decreased in diversity. The general pattern emerging from these observations is that higher diversification rates are generally found in small-genome taxa. Since diversification rates are the net effect of speciation and extinction, large genomes may thus either constrain speciation rate, increase extinction rate, or both. I argue that some of the cited examples are unlikely to be explained by extinction alone.

  10. Genome size variation in Begonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Angelo; Leus, Leen; Eeckhaut, Tom; Vanstechelman, Ives; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Van Bockstaele, Erik

    2009-10-01

    The genome sizes of a Begonia collection comprising 37 species and 23 hybrids of African, Asiatic, Middle American, and South American origin were screened using flow cytometry. Within the collection, 1C values varied between 0.23 and 1.46 pg DNA. Genome sizes were, in most cases, not positively correlated with chromosome number, but with pollen size. A 12-fold difference in mean chromosome size was found between the genotypes with the largest and smallest chromosomes. In general, chromosomes from South American genotypes were smaller than chromosomes of African, Asian, or Middle American genotypes, except for B. boliviensis and B. pearcei. Cytological chromosome studies in different genotypes showed variable chromosome numbers, length, width, and total chromosome volume, which confirmed the diversity in genome size. Large secondary constrictions were present in several investigated genotypes. These data show that chromosome number and structure exhibit a great deal of variation within the genus Begonia, and likely help to explain the large number of taxa found within the genus.

  11. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  12. Embrittlement and decrease of apparent strength in large-sized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The problem of scaling is of central importance in any physical theory. In the field of structural ... neering materials (e.g., the brittleness of Liberty ships as compared to the ductility of. Griffith's glass filaments). ... ity theory, the French scientist E Mariotte observed the random scatter of material proper- ties and shed new light ...

  13. Assembling short reads from jumping libraries with large insert sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilinetc, Irina; Prjibelski, Andrey D; Gurevich, Alexey; Korobeynikov, Anton; Pevzner, Pavel A

    2015-10-15

    Advances in Next-Generation Sequencing technologies and sample preparation recently enabled generation of high-quality jumping libraries that have a potential to significantly improve short read assemblies. However, assembly algorithms have to catch up with experimental innovations to benefit from them and to produce high-quality assemblies. We present a new algorithm that extends recently described exSPAnder universal repeat resolution approach to enable its applications to several challenging data types, including jumping libraries generated by the recently developed Illumina Nextera Mate Pair protocol. We demonstrate that, with these improvements, bacterial genomes often can be assembled in a few contigs using only a single Nextera Mate Pair library of short reads. Described algorithms are implemented in C++ as a part of SPAdes genome assembler, which is freely available at bioinf.spbau.ru/en/spades. ap@bioinf.spbau.ru Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Flexible PMP Approach for Large-Size Cell Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldengorin, Boris; Krushinsky, Dmitry; Slomp, Jannes

    2012-01-01

    Lately, the problem of cell formation (CF) has gained a lot of attention in the industrial engineering literature. Since it was formulated (more than 50 years ago), the problem has incorporated additional industrial factors and constraints while its solution methods have been constantly improving in

  15. How large is large? Identifying large corporate ownerships in FIA datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse Caputo; Brett Butler; Andy. Hartsell

    2017-01-01

    Forest ownership size is a continuous variable, albeit one with a distinctly nonnormal distribution. Although large corporate forest ownerships are expected to differ in terms of behavior and objectives from smaller corporate ownerships, there is no clear and unambiguous means of defined these two ownership groups. We examined the distribution of the ownership size...

  16. Size and Political Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritzlew, Søren

    This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size.......This paper uses a novel research design to re-examine the causal effect of jurisdiction size on political participation. Two waves of municipal consolidation in Denmark, in 1970 and in 2005, provide exogenous variation in jurisdiction size....

  17. Bra sizing and fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    It is often reported that 70% or more of the women wear the wrong-sized bra. A fact is that many women complain about bra fit even though the number of available sizes varies from 20 to 100. Sizing of bras is based on under bust circumference and its difference with circumference over the bust (cup

  18. Evaluating the role of genome downsizing and size thresholds from genome size distributions in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenil-Ferguson, Rosana; Ponciano, José M; Burleigh, J Gordon

    2016-07-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) can rapidly increase genome size in angiosperms. Yet their mean genome size is not correlated with ploidy. We compared three hypotheses to explain the constancy of genome size means across ploidies. The genome downsizing hypothesis suggests that genome size will decrease by a given percentage after a WGD. The genome size threshold hypothesis assumes that taxa with large genomes or large monoploid numbers will fail to undergo or survive WGDs. Finally, the genome downsizing and threshold hypothesis suggests that both genome downsizing and thresholds affect the relationship between genome size means and ploidy. We performed nonparametric bootstrap simulations to compare observed angiosperm genome size means among species or genera against simulated genome sizes under the three different hypotheses. We evaluated the hypotheses using a decision theory approach and estimated the expected percentage of genome downsizing. The threshold hypothesis improves the approximations between mean genome size and simulated genome size. At the species level, the genome downsizing with thresholds hypothesis best explains the genome size means with a 15% genome downsizing percentage. In the genus level simulations, the monoploid number threshold hypothesis best explains the data. Thresholds of genome size and monoploid number added to genome downsizing at species level simulations explain the observed means of angiosperm genome sizes, and monoploid number is important for determining the genome size mean at the genus level. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Determination of the optimal sample size for a clinical trial accounting for the population size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Frank; Day, Simon; Hee, Siew Wan; Madan, Jason; Zohar, Sarah; Posch, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The problem of choosing a sample size for a clinical trial is a very common one. In some settings, such as rare diseases or other small populations, the large sample sizes usually associated with the standard frequentist approach may be infeasible, suggesting that the sample size chosen should reflect the size of the population under consideration. Incorporation of the population size is possible in a decision‐theoretic approach either explicitly by assuming that the population size is fixed and known, or implicitly through geometric discounting of the gain from future patients reflecting the expected population size. This paper develops such approaches. Building on previous work, an asymptotic expression is derived for the sample size for single and two‐arm clinical trials in the general case of a clinical trial with a primary endpoint with a distribution of one parameter exponential family form that optimizes a utility function that quantifies the cost and gain per patient as a continuous function of this parameter. It is shown that as the size of the population, N, or expected size, N∗ in the case of geometric discounting, becomes large, the optimal trial size is O(N1/2) or O(N∗1/2). The sample size obtained from the asymptotic expression is also compared with the exact optimal sample size in examples with responses with Bernoulli and Poisson distributions, showing that the asymptotic approximations can also be reasonable in relatively small sample sizes. PMID:27184938

  20. Size and support ratings of US banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Werger, Charlotte; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine whether Fitch support ratings of US banks depend on bank size. Using quarterly data for the period 2004:Q4 to 2012:Q4 and controlling for several factors that make large and small banks different, we find that bank size is positively related to support ratings. However, the effect is

  1. Effect of cystacanth body size on adult success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinauer, Michelle L; Nickol, Brent B

    2003-04-01

    Laboratory-reared cystacanths of Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) were used to study the effect of cystacanth size on adult success and the factors that influence cystacanth size within the intermediate host. To assess how host size and intensity of infection influence cystacanth size, infected amphipods (Hyalella azteca) were measured, and sex, length, and width of cystacanths were determined. After a subset of cystacanths was measured, small- and large-size classes of cystacanths were designated. To determine how cystacanth size relates to adult size, green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were fed 10 large or small cystacanths. Fish were dissected 6 wk after infection, and worms were removed. After adult worms were permanently mounted on slides, their length and width were measured. Intensity of infection and amphipod size significantly influenced cystacanth size in that large amphipods harbored larger cystacanths than did small amphipods and heavy infections produced smaller cystacanths than did light infections. Adult worms from the small and large cystacanth-size classes showed no significant difference in size; however, large cystacanths had a significantly higher establishment and survival than did small cystacanths: 40% of large worms and 14% of small worms were recovered. The results of this study indicate that host size and host sharing influence cystacanth size and that cystacanth size is an important factor in determining adult success.

  2. Disturbance size and severity covary in small and mid-size wind disturbances in Pennsylvania northern hardwoods forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris J. Peterson; Lisa M. Krueger; Alejandro A. Royo; Scott Stark; Walter P. Carson

    2013-01-01

    Do large disturbances differ from small ones in characteristics other than size? The importance of disturbances in forest dynamics is unquestioned, and the size of the disturbed area (size of gap) is the most common way of differentiating disturbances. But few studies have examined other disturbance characteristics to see if small and large disturbances are different....

  3. Sample size for beginners.

    OpenAIRE

    Florey, C D

    1993-01-01

    The common failure to include an estimation of sample size in grant proposals imposes a major handicap on applicants, particularly for those proposing work in any aspect of research in the health services. Members of research committees need evidence that a study is of adequate size for there to be a reasonable chance of a clear answer at the end. A simple illustrated explanation of the concepts in determining sample size should encourage the faint hearted to pay more attention to this increa...

  4. Body Size Distribution of the Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Gorman, Eoin J.; Hone, David W. E.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size. PMID:23284818

  5. Body size distribution of the dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eoin J; Hone, David W E

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of species body size is critically important for determining resource use within a group or clade. It is widely known that non-avian dinosaurs were the largest creatures to roam the Earth. There is, however, little understanding of how maximum species body size was distributed among the dinosaurs. Do they share a similar distribution to modern day vertebrate groups in spite of their large size, or did they exhibit fundamentally different distributions due to unique evolutionary pressures and adaptations? Here, we address this question by comparing the distribution of maximum species body size for dinosaurs to an extensive set of extant and extinct vertebrate groups. We also examine the body size distribution of dinosaurs by various sub-groups, time periods and formations. We find that dinosaurs exhibit a strong skew towards larger species, in direct contrast to modern day vertebrates. This pattern is not solely an artefact of bias in the fossil record, as demonstrated by contrasting distributions in two major extinct groups and supports the hypothesis that dinosaurs exhibited a fundamentally different life history strategy to other terrestrial vertebrates. A disparity in the size distribution of the herbivorous Ornithischia and Sauropodomorpha and the largely carnivorous Theropoda suggests that this pattern may have been a product of a divergence in evolutionary strategies: herbivorous dinosaurs rapidly evolved large size to escape predation by carnivores and maximise digestive efficiency; carnivores had sufficient resources among juvenile dinosaurs and non-dinosaurian prey to achieve optimal success at smaller body size.

  6. Composição da mastofauna de médio e grande porte na reserva indígena "Parabubure", Mato Grosso, Brasil Composition of medium and large-sized mammalian fauna from "Parabubure" indian reserve, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Cândido Rocha

    2009-06-01

    to create an inventory for the medium and large-sized mammalian species from the "Parabubure" Indian Reserve, Campinápolis county, Mato Grosso state east. Therefore, the East portion of the Reserve, rating around 25,000 ha, was randomly walked to search for medium and large-sized mammalian evidences during August 12th to September 27th 2005. In order to register the species, the sampling included both direct (acoustics signs and visualizations and indirect (track, feces and dens methods. Thirty species of wild mammals, from which 28 were medium and large-sized animals and 2 small-sized animals, were registered, seven of them happen to be listed as endangered species on national level. Lastly, in spite of the mammalian fauna from "Parabubure" Indian Reserve goes throw periodical burnt, apparently, the major threatening source to the mammalian fauna in the Indian Reserve is hunting, both practiced by Xavantes Indians, which has no sustainability plan based on each species capacity support, and other agents.

  7. Automated measurement of diatom size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Sarah A.; Jewson, David H.; Bixby, Rebecca J.; Nelson, Harry; McKnight, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Size analysis of diatom populations has not been widely considered, but it is a potentially powerful tool for understanding diatom life histories, population dynamics, and phylogenetic relationships. However, measuring cell dimensions on a light microscope is a time-consuming process. An alternative technique has been developed using digital flow cytometry on a FlowCAM® (Fluid Imaging Technologies) to capture hundreds, or even thousands, of images of a chosen taxon from a single sample in a matter of minutes. Up to 30 morphological measures may be quantified through post-processing of the high resolution images. We evaluated FlowCAM size measurements, comparing them against measurements from a light microscope. We found good agreement between measurement of apical cell length in species with elongated, straight valves, including small Achnanthidium minutissimum (11-21 µm) and largeDidymosphenia geminata (87–137 µm) forms. However, a taxon with curved cells, Hannaea baicalensis (37–96 µm), showed differences of ~ 4 µm between the two methods. Discrepancies appear to be influenced by the choice of feret or geodesic measurement for asymmetric cells. We describe the operating conditions necessary for analysis of size distributions and present suggestions for optimal instrument conditions for size analysis of diatom samples using the FlowCAM. The increased speed of data acquisition through use of imaging flow cytometers like the FlowCAM is an essential step for advancing studies of diatom populations.

  8. Determination of Sample Size

    OpenAIRE

    Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2003-01-01

    There is a particular importance of determining a basic minimum required ‘n’ size of the sample to recognize a particular measurement of a particular population. This article has highlighted the determination of an appropriate size to estimate population parameters.

  9. Large calcified subdural empyema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S; Mazumder, U; Chowdhury, D; Dey, S K; Hossain, M; Nag, U K; Riaz, B K

    2012-04-01

    Subdural empyema is a known disease entity; however, calcified subdural empyema is uncommon. The authors present a case of an 11-year-old boy in whom there was diagnosed a chronic calcified subdural empyema 10 years after an attack of meningitis. The patient had suffered from generalized tonic clonic seizures occurring 2-6 times in a month. A large fronto-temporo-parietal craniotomy was carried out and the subdural empyema filled with numerous uncharacteristic tissue fragments with thick pus together with the partially calcified and ossified capsule was removed. The empyema mass was found to be sterile for bacteria. After the operation, no epileptic seizure occurred and the boy is on sodium valporate. We must emphasize the unusual occurrence of the chronic subdural empyema presenting with calcification-ossification and large size as observed in our case.

  10. Cell-Size Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Amanda A; Skotheim, Jan M

    2016-04-01

    Cells of a given type maintain a characteristic cell size to function efficiently in their ecological or organismal context. They achieve this through the regulation of growth rates or by actively sensing size and coupling this signal to cell division. We focus this review on potential size-sensing mechanisms, including geometric, external cue, and titration mechanisms. Mechanisms that titrate proteins against DNA are of particular interest because they are consistent with the robust correlation of DNA content and cell size. We review the literature, which suggests that titration mechanisms may underlie cell-size sensing in Xenopus embryos, budding yeast, and Escherichia coli, whereas alternative mechanisms may function in fission yeast. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Squamate hatchling size and the evolutionary causes of negative offspring size allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, S; Feldman, A; Kratochvíl, L

    2015-02-01

    Although fecundity selection is ubiquitous, in an overwhelming majority of animal lineages, small species produce smaller number of offspring per clutch. In this context, egg, hatchling and neonate sizes are absolutely larger, but smaller relative to adult body size in larger species. The evolutionary causes of this widespread phenomenon are not fully explored. The negative offspring size allometry can result from processes limiting maximal egg/offspring size forcing larger species to produce relatively smaller offspring ('upper limit'), or from a limit on minimal egg/offspring size forcing smaller species to produce relatively larger offspring ('lower limit'). Several reptile lineages have invariant clutch sizes, where females always lay either one or two eggs per clutch. These lineages offer an interesting perspective on the general evolutionary forces driving negative offspring size allometry, because an important selective factor, fecundity selection in a single clutch, is eliminated here. Under the upper limit hypotheses, large offspring should be selected against in lineages with invariant clutch sizes as well, and these lineages should therefore exhibit the same, or shallower, offspring size allometry as lineages with variable clutch size. On the other hand, the lower limit hypotheses would allow lineages with invariant clutch sizes to have steeper offspring size allometries. Using an extensive data set on the hatchling and female sizes of > 1800 species of squamates, we document that negative offspring size allometry is widespread in lizards and snakes with variable clutch sizes and that some lineages with invariant clutch sizes have unusually steep offspring size allometries. These findings suggest that the negative offspring size allometry is driven by a constraint on minimal offspring size, which scales with a negative allometry. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary

  12. Estimating Search Engine Index Size Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Bosch, Antal; Bogers, Toine; De Kunder, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We propose a novel...... method of estimating the size of a Web search engine’s index by extrapolating from document frequencies of words observed in a large static corpus of Web pages. In addition, we provide a unique longitudinal perspective on the size of Google and Bing’s indices over a nine-year period, from March 2006...... until January 2015. We find that index size estimates of these two search engines tend to vary dramatically over time, with Google generally possessing a larger index than Bing. This result raises doubts about the reliability of previous one-off estimates of the size of the indexed Web. We find...

  13. Novel large aperture EBCCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsumu; Aoki, Shigeki; Haba, Junji; Sakuda, Makoto; Suyama, Motohiro

    2011-02-01

    A novel large aperture electron bombardment charge coupled device (EBCCD) has been developed. The diameter of its photocathode is 10 cm and it is the first EBCCD with such a large aperture. Its gain shows good linearity as a function of applied voltage up to -12 kV, where the gain is 2400. The spatial resolution was measured using ladder pattern charts. It is better than 2 line pairs/mm, which corresponds to 3.5 times the CCD pixel size. The spatial resolution was also measured with a copper foil pattern on a fluorescent screen irradiated with X-rays (14 and 18 keV) and a 60 keV gamma-ray from an americium source. The result was consistent with the measurement using ladder pattern charts. The output signal as a function of input light intensity shows better linearity than that of image intensifier tubes (IIT) as expected. We could detect cosmic rays passing through a scintillating fiber block and a plastic scintillator as a demonstration for a practical use in particle physics experiments. This kind of large aperture EBCCD can, for example, be used as an image sensor for a detector with a large number of readout channels and is expected to be additionally applied to other physics experiments.

  14. Sample Size Growth with an Increasing Number of Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hong Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate sample size is crucial for the success of many studies that involve a large number of comparisons. Sample size formulas for testing multiple hypotheses are provided in this paper. They can be used to determine the sample sizes required to provide adequate power while controlling familywise error rate or false discovery rate, to derive the growth rate of sample size with respect to an increasing number of comparisons or decrease in effect size, and to assess reliability of study designs. It is demonstrated that practical sample sizes can often be achieved even when adjustments for a large number of comparisons are made as in many genomewide studies.

  15. Tumour size is the only predictive factor of distant recurrence after pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with large operable or locally advanced breast cancers: a sub-study of EORTC 10994/BIG 1-00 phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, F; Messina, C; Slaets, L; Chakiba, C; Cameron, D; Bogaerts, J; Bonnefoi, H

    2015-02-01

    Although achieving a pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in breast cancer predicts a better outcome, some patients still relapse. The objectives of this study were to describe the types of events in this group of patients and to identify predictive factors for relapse. Patients with large operable or locally advanced breast cancers (T4d tumours were excluded) were randomised to receive either six cycles of anthracycline-based chemotherapy or three cycles of docetaxel followed by three cycles of eprirubicin/docetaxel. pCR was defined as no evidence of residual invasive cancer (or very few scattered tumour cells) in the primary tumour and axillary lymph nodes at surgery. Two Cox regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors of relapse: one for recurrence-free interval (RFI) and one for distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI). Out of 283 eligible patients who achieved a pCR, 40 (14.1%) and 28 (9.9%) presented an event of interest for the RFI and DRFI analyses, respectively. Five-year RFI, DRFI and overall survival (OS) were 85.3% (95% confidence interval (CI), 80.1-89.3), 89.6% (95% CI, 85.0-92.9) and 91.9% (95% CI, 87.2-94.9), respectively. No predictors for RFI after pCR were identified. For DRFI, tumour size was the only predictor: Hazard ratio (HR) T3 versus T1-2=3.62 (95% CI, 1.66-7.89); HR T4 versus T1-2: HR, 2.80 (95% CI, 0.62-12.64) p=0.0048. In this study, clinical tumour size emerged as the only predictor for DRFI after pCR, with T3 and T4 tumours having an increased risk for distant recurrence compared to T1-2 tumours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does size matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, B. A. [BACV Solutions, 110 Mohawk Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Physics Department, College of Natural Science and Mathematics and Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775 (United States); Physics Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Newman, D. E., E-mail: denewman@alaska.edu [Physics Department, College of Natural Science and Mathematics and Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775 (United States); Physics Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Dobson, Ian [ECpE Department, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Failures of the complex infrastructures society depends on having enormous human and economic cost that poses the question: Are there ways to optimize these systems to reduce the risks of failure? A dynamic model of one such system, the power transmission grid, is used to investigate the risk from failure as a function of the system size. It is found that there appears to be optimal sizes for such networks where the risk of failure is balanced by the benefit given by the size.

  17. Does size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, B. A.; Newman, D. E.; Dobson, Ian

    2014-06-01

    Failures of the complex infrastructures society depends on having enormous human and economic cost that poses the question: Are there ways to optimize these systems to reduce the risks of failure? A dynamic model of one such system, the power transmission grid, is used to investigate the risk from failure as a function of the system size. It is found that there appears to be optimal sizes for such networks where the risk of failure is balanced by the benefit given by the size.

  18. Sample size methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Desu, M M

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is sample size determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. Also discussed is sample size determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. The determination of the sample size is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. Appropria

  19. Sample size for beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florey, C D

    1993-05-01

    The common failure to include an estimation of sample size in grant proposals imposes a major handicap on applicants, particularly for those proposing work in any aspect of research in the health services. Members of research committees need evidence that a study is of adequate size for there to be a reasonable chance of a clear answer at the end. A simple illustrated explanation of the concepts in determining sample size should encourage the faint hearted to pay more attention to this increasingly important aspect of grantsmanship.

  20. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  1. Genome size evolution: sizing mammalian genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redi, C A; Capanna, E

    2012-01-01

    The study of genome size (GS) and its variation is so fascinating to the scientific community because it constitutes the link between the present-day analytical and molecular studies of the genome and the old trunk of the holistic and synthetic view of the genome. The GS of several taxa vary over a broad range and do not correlate with the complexity of the organisms (the C-value paradox). However, the biology of transposable elements has let us reach a satisfactory view of the molecular mechanisms that give rise to GS variation and novelties, providing a less perplexing view of the significance of the GS (C-enigma). The knowledge of the composition and structure of a genome is a pre-requisite for trying to understand the evolution of the main genome signature: its size. The radiation of mammals provides an approximately 180-million-year test case for theories of how GS evolves. It has been found from data-mining GS databases that GS is a useful cyto-taxonomical instrument at the level of orders/superorders, providing genomic signatures characterizing Monotremata, Marsupialia, Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria, and Euarchontoglires. A hypothetical ancestral mammalian-like GS of 2.9-3.7 pg has been suggested. This value appears compatible with the average values calculated for the high systematic levels of the extant Monotremata (∼2.97 pg) and Marsupialia (∼4.07 pg), suggesting invasion of mobile DNA elements concurrently with the separation of the older clades of Afrotheria (∼5.5 pg) and Xenarthra (∼4.5 pg) with larger GS, leaving the Euarchontoglires (∼3.4 pg) and Laurasiatheria (∼2.8 pg) genomes with fewer transposable elements. However, the paucity of GS data (546 mammalian species sized from 5,488 living species) for species, genera, and families calls for caution. Considering that mammalian species may be vanished even before they are known, GS data are sorely needed to phenotype the effects brought about by their variation and to validate any

  2. Evidence for the Higher Importance of Signal Size Over Body Size in Aposematic Signaling in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmel, Triinu; Tammarub, Toomas

    2011-01-01

    To understand the evolution of warning coloration, it is important to distinguish between different aspects of conspicuous color patterns. As an example, both pattern element size and body size of prey have been shown to enhance the effectiveness of warning signals. However, it is unclear whether the effect of body size is merely a side effect of proportionally increasing pattern elements, or if there is an effect of body size per se. These possibilities were evaluated by offering different sized artificial caterpillars with either fixed or proportionally increasing aposematic color signal elements to wild great tits, Parus major L. (Passeriformes: Paridae). The birds' hesitation time to attack each “caterpillar” was used as a measure of the warning effect. The hesitation time showed a significant, positive size-dependence with the caterpillars whose pattern elements increased proportionally with their body size. In contrast, no size dependence was found in the larvae with fixed-size signal elements. Such a difference in mortality curves is consistent with the idea that pattern element size is a more important aspect than body size in enhancing a warning signal. Since no evidence of an effect of body size per se on signal efficiency was found, this study does not support the hypothesis that aposematic insects gain more from large size than cryptic ones. PMID:21521142

  3. Large traders in financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Fagan, Stephen Perry

    2011-01-01

    Large traders in financial markets care a lot about the supply of liquidity - factors that allow them to trade quickly without incurring a significant cost - since the size of their trading can cause a large market impact if they demand more liquidity than is currently available. The first study examines an important and recurring cause of liquidity shocks in futures markets - the accumulation of extreme and opposing positions by hedgers and speculators. These two classes of traders are found...

  4. Does size really matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2017-01-01

    words, does the size of PTSD really matter? Methods: The aim was investigated by examining differences in diagnostic rates between the two diagnostic systems and independently examining the model fit of the competing DSM-5 and ICD-11 models of PTSD across three trauma samples: university students (N...... diagnostic criteria only the ICD-11 model can reflect the configuration of symptoms satisfactorily. Thus, size does matter when assessing PTSD....

  5. Compressors selection and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Royce N

    2005-01-01

    This practical reference provides in-depth information required to understand and properly estimate compressor capabilities and to select the proper designs. Engineers and students will gain a thorough understanding of compression principles, equipment, applications, selection, sizing, installation, and maintenance. The many examples clearly illustrate key aspects to help readers understand the ""real world"" of compressor technology.Compressors: Selection and Sizing, third edition is completely updated with new API standards. Additions requested by readers include a new section on di

  6. Effects of Anthropometrics and Body Size Changes on the Development of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Sizing Systems in the US Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    size changes in the Army population affect a PPE sizing system. This will be illustrated using ANSUR II 2012 and an Army body armour system to...theoretical coverage of a legacy Army body armour sizing 5 chart was used. The body armour sizing chart uses the body dimension Chest Circumference and is...graded with four inch intervals between sizes. The body armour system originally had five sizes (X-Small, Small, Medium, Large, and X-Large), but

  7. Riqueza de mamíferos de grande e médio porte do Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (Acre, Brasil The richness of the large and medium-sized mammals of the Serra do Divisor National Park (Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Muniz Calouro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the richness (number of species of large and medium-sized mammals, and the antropic threats in the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (PNSD. In 31 days data were collected through direct observations or evidences (bones, hairs, vocalizations and tracks along pre-existing trails distributed in different types of vegetation. Wild mammals captured by local people were also considered. They were found 44 species of terrestrial mammals (with the exception of small mammals and bats and two species of cetaceans, representing 73% of the total predicted, according to the literature and information of local dwellers were registered in PNSD. They exist in the area two species classified by IUCN (1996 as "Endangered" [Cacajao calvus rubicundus (I. Geoffroy, 1806 and Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792] and five as "Vulnerable" [Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812, Callimico goeldii (Thomas, 1904, Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii (Humboldt, 1812, Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 and Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817]. Given that subsistence and commercial hunting are common in the PNSD, mammals more affected by hunting [Ateles chamek (Humboldt, 1812, Lagothrix lagotricha (Humboldt, 1812, Tayassu pecari (Link, 1795] were observed only in the more remote areas such as Serra do Divisor, Rio Moa. In comparison with others areas, the results indicate that PNSD has high richness of the mammals, with special attention to the 14 primates species registered.

  8. Family size and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, D F

    1982-12-01

    For some time now there has been a multidisciplinary interest in the effects of family size on children's development and on their overall life outcomes. In general, available evidence indicates that children from small families tend to accrue advantages in many developmental areas, while children from larger families are, as a group, relatively disadvantaged. Care needs to be taken when drawing conclusions from correlational research, yet there is growing evidence that even when the social class of families is accounted for, children from smaller families fare better on many measures of development than those from large families. 1 of the best documented research findings is that children from smaller families perform better on tests of intellectual ability than children from large families. Efforts to understand why family size should affect intellectual performance have intensified in recent years. Many explanations have been offered, but the explanation termed the "confluence model" has attracted the most interest and controversy. According to this model, a child's intellectual development is a function of the intellectual environment provided by the family. That environment is conceptualized as the average of absolute intelligence of all family members. A child is born with an absolute intelligence of zero. The arrival of each additional child has the effect of lowering the family's intellectual environment. Thus, children from larger families grow up in a less enriched environment and tend to perform less well on measures of ability. A 2nd component of the confluence model is necessary to explain the phenomenon that "only" children fail to perform as well as might be expected on intelligence tests. According to the confluence model, the only child discontinuity results from the absence of an opportunity to tutor younger siblings. Available evidence indicates that family size exerts an effect on educational and occupational achievement over and above its

  9. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having......Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak...... identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive...

  10. Effects of size congruency on item and size recognition with words or pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Lionel G; Bertrand, Michelle I

    2008-10-01

    The effect of size changes (8:1 or 1:8) between learning and recognition sessions upon item and size recognition was tested, using either pictures or words as stimuli. Participants (N = 34) viewed color photographs of everyday objects or the corresponding printed words and then performed 160 trials of a recognition task, including 50% new stimuli, for which they had to indicate whether each item had been seen before and whether its size had changed. Item recognition, for pictures only, was improved by size congruency between the learning and test sessions. In contrast, size recognition was raised by learning/test-size congruency for both pictures and words. Both word- and picture-learning stimuli produced higher item and size recognition when large in area rather than small. The data are interpreted as showing the stronger role of spatial coding with pictorial than with verbal stimuli.

  11. Weighing In--Healthy at Any Size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Camille

    2012-01-01

    It's easy for overweight children to feel singled out and shamed about their body size, at home and at school. Experts say children can easily interpret even the well-intentioned "war on childhood obesity," meant to promote health, to mean a war on their bodies and on them. Size-based stigma stems in large part from the myth that being fat is a…

  12. Determination of the optimal sample size for a clinical trial accounting for the population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Nigel; Miller, Frank; Day, Simon; Hee, Siew Wan; Madan, Jason; Zohar, Sarah; Posch, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The problem of choosing a sample size for a clinical trial is a very common one. In some settings, such as rare diseases or other small populations, the large sample sizes usually associated with the standard frequentist approach may be infeasible, suggesting that the sample size chosen should reflect the size of the population under consideration. Incorporation of the population size is possible in a decision-theoretic approach either explicitly by assuming that the population size is fixed and known, or implicitly through geometric discounting of the gain from future patients reflecting the expected population size. This paper develops such approaches. Building on previous work, an asymptotic expression is derived for the sample size for single and two-arm clinical trials in the general case of a clinical trial with a primary endpoint with a distribution of one parameter exponential family form that optimizes a utility function that quantifies the cost and gain per patient as a continuous function of this parameter. It is shown that as the size of the population, N, or expected size, N∗ in the case of geometric discounting, becomes large, the optimal trial size is O(N1/2) or O(N∗1/2). The sample size obtained from the asymptotic expression is also compared with the exact optimal sample size in examples with responses with Bernoulli and Poisson distributions, showing that the asymptotic approximations can also be reasonable in relatively small sample sizes. © 2016 The Author. Biometrical Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Humeral head size in shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaesel, M T; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1998-01-01

    Changes in kinematics after hemiarthroplasty of the glenohumeral joint were investigated in nine cadaveric specimens. During experiments the influence of the humeral head size on glenohumeral kinematics was evaluated. A modular prosthesis with five different head sizes and press-fit stems was used....... Three-dimensional kinematic measurements during abduction and adduction from 0 degree to 70 degrees showed increased external rotation with increasing head size. Small prosthetic heads translated inferiorly and large prosthetic heads superiorly compared with the intact humeral head. During forced...

  14. Interspecific and intraspecific relationships between tooth size and jaw size in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcan, J Michael; Daegling, David J

    2006-08-01

    The association between mandibular robusticity, postcanine megadontia, and canine reduction in hominins has led to speculation that large and robust jaws might be required to spatially accommodate large canine and molar teeth in hominins and other primates. If so, then variations in mandibular form that are generally regarded as biomechanical adaptations to masticatory demands might instead be incidental effects of functional requirements of tooth support. While the association between large teeth and deep, robust jaws in hominins is well known, the relationship between tooth size and jaw size has not been systematically evaluated in a comparative sample of primates. We evaluate the relationships between molar tooth size, canine tooth size, and mandibular corpus and symphyseal dimensions in a sample of adult anthropoids in interspecific (n=84 species) and intraspecific (n=36 species) contexts. For intraspecific comparisons, tooth size and jaw size are correlated, but for a majority of species this is a function of sexual size dimorphism. Interspecific comparisons lend little direct support to the hypothesis that jaw breadth directly covaries with molar tooth breadth, but they do support the hypothesis that mandibular depth is associated with canine tooth size in males. The latter observation suggests that if there is a causal association between canine size and mandibular depth, it is subject to a threshold effect. In contrast, neither corpus nor symphyseal robusticity, measured as a shape index of breadth/height, are correlated with tooth size. Our results suggest that further studies of the relationship between tooth size and corpus morphology should focus on tooth root size and corpus bony architecture, and that species-specific factors should have a strong impact on such relationships.

  15. Size makes a difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2003-01-01

    items was obtained from a 4-day weighed food record (Study 1). Trends in portion sizes of commercial foods were examined by gathering information from major food manufacturers and fast food chains (Study 2). Data on intakes and sales of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and confectionery were obtained through...... increased over time, and in particular in the last 10 years. Study 3: The development in portion sizes of commercial foods has been paralleled by a sharp increase of more than 50% in the sales of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and confectionery like sweets, chocolate and ice creams since the 1970s. Conclusions...

  16. How large should whales be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Clauset

    Full Text Available The evolution and distribution of species body sizes for terrestrial mammals is well-explained by a macroevolutionary tradeoff between short-term selective advantages and long-term extinction risks from increased species body size, unfolding above the 2 g minimum size induced by thermoregulation in air. Here, we consider whether this same tradeoff, formalized as a constrained convection-reaction-diffusion system, can also explain the sizes of fully aquatic mammals, which have not previously been considered. By replacing the terrestrial minimum with a pelagic one, at roughly 7000 g, the terrestrial mammal tradeoff model accurately predicts, with no tunable parameters, the observed body masses of all extant cetacean species, including the 175,000,000 g Blue Whale. This strong agreement between theory and data suggests that a universal macroevolutionary tradeoff governs body size evolution for all mammals, regardless of their habitat. The dramatic sizes of cetaceans can thus be attributed mainly to the increased convective heat loss is water, which shifts the species size distribution upward and pushes its right tail into ranges inaccessible to terrestrial mammals. Under this macroevolutionary tradeoff, the largest expected species occurs where the rate at which smaller-bodied species move up into large-bodied niches approximately equals the rate at which extinction removes them.

  17. Preparation of large monodisperse vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting F Zhu

    Full Text Available Preparation of monodisperse vesicles is important both for research purposes and for practical applications. While the extrusion of vesicles through small pores (approximately 100 nm in diameter results in relatively uniform populations of vesicles, extrusion to larger sizes results in very heterogeneous populations of vesicles. Here we report a simple method for preparing large monodisperse multilamellar vesicles through a combination of extrusion and large-pore dialysis. For example, extrusion of polydisperse vesicles through 5-microm-diameter pores eliminates vesicles larger than 5 microm in diameter. Dialysis of extruded vesicles against 3-microm-pore-size polycarbonate membranes eliminates vesicles smaller than 3 microm in diameter, leaving behind a population of monodisperse vesicles with a mean diameter of approximately 4 microm. The simplicity of this method makes it an effective tool for laboratory vesicle preparation with potential applications in preparing large monodisperse liposomes for drug delivery.

  18. Correlations Between Degree of Petal Fusion, Leaf Size and Fruit Size: A Case in Syzygium (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUDJI WIDODO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium is one of large genera of the flowering plants. In order to simplify the identification, a classification is required, e.g. based on degree of petal fusion, leaf size and fruit size. Due to variations of vegetative and generative characters, a correlation analysis was carried out. The aim of this research is to know the correlation between degree of petal fusion, leaf length and fruit diameter. The result of this research showed that there is positive correlation between those three variables. The increase of leaf size will increase fruit size and petal lobe depth.

  19. Group size and seasonal pattern of occurrence of humpback ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of humpback dolphins Sousa chinensis and their group size in Algoa Bay, South Africa, are described for the period May 1991–May 1994. The mean group size of dolphins was seven (ranging between 3 and 24). Group size was not affected by diurnal, tidal or lunar variability. Solitary, large individuals were ...

  20. Size and Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Ringsmose, Jens

    2015-01-01

    American public gratitude than the UK. While London has been accused of losing Basra and Musa Qaleh, Copenhagen has been showered with praise and top-posts in NATO. This article explains why demonstrating how the differences in size and reputation gave rise to different expectations of the special...

  1. Sizing up visualizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    techniques with varying display sizes (13.8, 1.5, and 0.17 megapixels). Participants navigated geographical maps to find specific locations, compare items, and follow routes. Results show that for multi-scale navigation, classic interactive visualization techniques did not benefit from being scaled...

  2. Gender based disruptive selection maintains body size polymorphism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Darwinian fitness in holometabolous insects like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is reported to be positively correlated with body size. If large individuals in a population have higher fitness, then one would expect directional selection to operate leading to uniformly large individuals. However, size polymorphism persists ...

  3. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    expressed effects, such as turbidity and water quality, zooplankton density and size composition, or fish growth rates and assemblage composition, are the upshot of large-scale factors operating outside reservoirs and not under the direct control of reservoir managers. Realistically, abiotic and biotic conditions in reservoirs are shaped by factors working inside and outside reservoirs, with the relative importance of external factors differing among reservoirs. With this perspective, large reservoirs are viewed from a habitat standpoint within the framework of a conceptual model in which individual reservoir characteristics are influenced by both local- and landscape-scale factors (Figure 17.1). In the sections that follow, how each element of this hierarchical model influences habitat and fish assemblages in reservoirs is considered. Important in-reservoir habitat issues and reservoirs as part of larger systems, where reservoir management requires looking for real solutions outside individual reservoirs are described.

  4. Does Group Size Matter for Behavior in Online Trust Dilemmas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artinger, Sabrina; Vulkan, Nir

    2016-01-01

    How does group size influence behavior in online trust dilemmas? We investigate cooperation in groups of 4 to 100 players. While overall levels of cooperation are stable across group sizes, we find significant gender differences: women increase cooperation with group size and cooperate significantly more than men in large groups. These results are robust when controlling for risk aversion, age, and other individual differences. They highlight the importance of studying behavior and gender differences in large groups.

  5. Nuclear size isomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogloblin Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing of methods of measuring the radii of nuclei in their highly excited states led to observation of those with dimensions enhanced and, probably, diminished in comparison with the corresponding ground states. Experimental data including very recent ones demonstrating that such “size isomers” belong to two groups: excited states having neutron halos (in 13C, 11Be and 9Be and some specific cluster states (in 12C, 13C and 11B, are discussed.

  6. Group Size and Conformity

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Rod

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews theory and research on the relationship between group size and conformity and presents a meta-analysis of 125 Asch-type conformity studies. It questions the assumption of a single function made in formal models of social influence and proposes instead that the function will vary depending on which social influence process predominates. It is argued that normative influence is lik...

  7. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  8. Size variation in Middle Pleistocene humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M; Lorenzo, C; Gracia, A; Martínez, I; Bermúdez de Castro, J M; Carbonell, E

    1997-08-22

    It has been suggested that European Middle Pleistocene humans, Neandertals, and prehistoric modern humans had a greater sexual dimorphism than modern humans. Analysis of body size variation and cranial capacity variation in the large sample from the Sima de los Huesos site in Spain showed instead that the sexual dimorphism is comparable in Middle Pleistocene and modern populations.

  9. Nursery practices, seedling sizes, and field performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William I. Stein

    1988-01-01

    Highlights are presented from a large cooperative study to determine the combined effects of nursery cultural practices on the initial size and subsequent field performance of 2+0 Douglas-fir seedlings. The study involved seven sources of stock produced in three different nurseries and field plantings made over 3 years on 28 sites in southwestern Oregon. Seedbed...

  10. Effect size as a supplement to statistical significance testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Cankar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in the field of psychology often face the situation that the statistical significance depends largely on the sample size and its statistical power. Effect size is a statistical measure that can offer some solutions for constructive research, since it can overcome the problems that are connected to the sample size. This article presents statistical significance testing we meet in psychology and the usage of smaller group of the effect size measures – measures of the standardised differences between means.

  11. Understanding the City Size Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we decompose city size wage premia into various components. We base these decompositions on an estimated on-the-job search model that incorporates latent ability, search frictions, firm-worker match quality, human capital accumulation and endogenous migration between large, medium and small cities. Counterfactual simulations of the model indicate that variation in returns to experience and differences in wage intercepts across location type are the most important mechanisms contributing to observed city size wage premia. Variation in returns to experience is more important for generating wage premia between large and small locations while differences in wage intercepts are more important for generating wage premia betwen medium and small locations. Sorting on unobserved ability within education group and differences in labor market search frictions and distributions of firm-worker match quality contribute little to observed city size wage premia. These conclusions hold for separate samples of high school and college graduates.

  12. Size effects on the fatigue behavior of bulk metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. Y.; Liaw, P. K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Inoue, A.

    2011-12-01

    Size effects on bending fatigue characteristics are investigated on Zr-based bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs). The fatigue lifetimes and endurance limits of the large-size samples are greater than those of the small-size samples. The results suggest that although a BMG exhibits good ductility due to the formation of multiple shear bands when its size decreases, the fatigue resistance of BMGs might degrade when the specimen size becomes smaller. The current study finds that small-size BMG samples under bending fatigue could fail in the flexural or fracture mode.

  13. Large area LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  14. Isometric size-scaling of metabolic rate and the size abundance distribution of phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Ortega, María; Cermeño, Pedro; Calvo-Díaz, Alejandra; Marañón, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between phytoplankton cell size and abundance has long been known to follow regular, predictable patterns in near steady-state ecosystems, but its origin has remained elusive. To explore the linkage between the size-scaling of metabolic rate and the size abundance distribution of natural phytoplankton communities, we determined simultaneously phytoplankton carbon fixation rates and cell abundance across a cell volume range of over six orders of magnitude in tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean. We found an approximately isometric relationship between carbon fixation rate and cell size (mean slope value: 1.16; range: 1.03–1.32), negating the idea that Kleiber's law is applicable to unicellular autotrophic protists. On the basis of the scaling of individual resource use with cell size, we predicted a reciprocal relationship between the size-scalings of phytoplankton metabolic rate and abundance. This prediction was confirmed by the observed slopes of the relationship between phytoplankton abundance and cell size, which have a mean value of −1.15 (range: −1.29 to −0.97), indicating that the size abundance distribution largely results from the size-scaling of metabolic rate. Our results imply that the total energy processed by carbon fixation is constant along the phytoplankton size spectrum in near steady-state marine ecosystems. PMID:22171079

  15. The economics of urban size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, W

    1971-01-01

    An aggregative economic approach to the theory of city size is presented along with some empirical findings which suggest that even the largest cities have not yet reached excessive sizes from the point of view of growth and productivity. Urban magnitude is no simple 1 dimensional phenomenon. Modern urban centers are surrounded by very large, diffuse zonal boundaries, within which there are marked variations in the proportion of firms and people associated with that center, and in the intensity of the association. In sum, population does not constitute a conventional, countable set. In general, population will be considered as the basic magnitude and as a conventionally definable number. Most approaches to city size have emphasized the presumed diseconomy of urban scale and have sought to establish that population at which costs per capita are least, regarding this as optimal. It is argued here that both the logic and the factual basis of this approach are faulty. The argument of minimum costs is insufficient in its own terms. Such an objective is reasonable only if output per capita is constant, but it appears that output per capita is an increasing function of urban size. In that case, a more sensible objective of public policy would deal with the relation of outputs and inputs, rather than only with inputs. In every country for which evidence was found, local product per capita (or some index for it, such as income or wages) rises with urban size, and where comparable figures on cost are available, these rise far more slowly if at all. Although all of the data desirable are not available for any single country, the overall pattern is clear. Possibly the most surprising element in the data is the marked decline with increasing density in Social Overhead Captial Stocks (SOCS) per capita. This runs counter to common belief that the bigger the city the more infrastructure per capita is needed and may be the result of such effects as the greater linear quantities of

  16. Sexual size dimorphism in ground squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae: Marmotini) does not correlate with body size and sociality

    OpenAIRE

    Mat?j?, Jan; Kratochv?l, Luk??

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon in animals including mammals. It has been demonstrated that across species, the direction and magnitude of sexual dimorphism in body size often corresponds to social systems. Moreover, many animal lineages conform to ?Rensch?s rule?, which states that male-biased SSD increases with body size. We tested whether considerable differences in sociality and large variation in body size were connected with the evolution of SSD in t...

  17. Morphological rates of angiosperm seed size evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Hallie J

    2013-05-01

    The evolution of seed size among angiosperms reflects their ecological diversification in a complex fitness landscape of life-history strategies. The lineages that have evolved seeds beyond the upper and lower boundaries that defined nonflowering seed plants since the Paleozoic are more dispersed across the angiosperm phylogeny than would be expected under a neutral model of phenotypic evolution. Morphological rates of seed size evolution estimated for 40 clades based on 17,375 species ranged from 0.001 (Garryales) to 0.207 (Malvales). Comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated that morphological rates are not associated with the clade's seed size but are negatively correlated with the clade's position in the overall distribution of angiosperm seed sizes; clades with seed sizes closer to the angiosperm mean had significantly higher morphological rates than clades with extremely small or extremely large seeds. Likewise, per-clade taxonomic diversification rates are not associated with the seed size of the clade but with where the clade falls within the angiosperm seed size distribution. These results suggest that evolutionary rates (morphological and taxonomic) are elevated in densely occupied regions of the seed morphospace relative to lineages whose ecophenotypic innovations have moved them toward the edges. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Does Size Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David

    2014-01-01

    In this article, David Watson debates the pros and cons of leadership skills in both a small and large university. Watson relates his own experiences regarding the changing atmosphere of leadership. He states that his experiences have caused him to reflect on what is genuinely generic about individual capacities for institutional leadership: that…

  19. Progress on large area GEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Pinto, S.; Villa, M.; Alfonsi, M.; Brock, I.; Croci, G.; David, E.; de Oliveira, R.; Ropelewski, L.; van Stenis, M.

    2009-12-01

    In 2008, a triple GEM detector prototype with an area of ~ 2000 cm2 has been constructed, based on foils of 66 × 66 cm. GEMs of such dimensions had not been made before, and innovations to the existing technology were introduced to build this detector. This paper discusses these innovations and presents further work on large area GEM development. A single-mask technique overcomes the cumbersome practice of alignment of two masks, which limits the achievable lateral size. The holes obtained with this technique are conical, and have a so-called rim, a small insulating clearance around the hole in the substrate. Further refinements of this technique allow greater control over the shape of holes and the size of rims. Also, an improvement in homogeneity over large areas is expected. Simulation studies have been done to examine the effect of hole shape on the behavior of GEMs. Such studies can help understanding how to use new enhancements of the technique to optimize performance. Many potential applications for large area GEMs foresee large production volumes. Production issues have been studied, and single-mask GEMs turn out to be much more suitable for large scale production than standard GEMs.

  20. Dijets at large rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, B G

    2001-01-01

    Inclusive diet production at large pseudorapidity intervals ( Delta eta ) between the two jets has been suggested as a regime for observing BFKL dynamics. We have measured the dijet cross section for large Delta eta in pp collisions at square root s = 1800 and 630 GeV using the DOE detector. The partonic cross section increases strongly with the size of Delta eta . The observed growth is even stronger than expected on the basis of BFKL resummation in the leading logarithmic approximation. The growth of the partonic cross section can be accommodated with an effective BFKL intercept of alpha /sub BFKL/(20 GeV) = 1.65 +or- 0.07.

  1. Large superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    To realize large (>10 MW) direct-driven off-shore wind turbines, a number of steps are needed to reduce weight and cost compared to on-shore technologies. One of the major challenges is to provide drive trains which can comply with the large torque as the turbine rotor diameter is scaled up...... and thereby having a smaller size and weight [1, 2]. A 5 MW superconducting wind turbine generator forms the basics for the feasibility considerations, particularly for the YBCO and MgB2 superconductors entering the commercial market. Initial results indicate that a 5 MW generator with an active weight of 34...

  2. Simulation of finite size effects of the fiber bundle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Peng; Tang, Gang; Xun, Zhi-Peng; Xia, Hui; Han, Kui

    2018-01-01

    In theory, the macroscopic fracture of materials should correspond with the thermodynamic limit of the fiber bundle model. However, the simulation of a fiber bundle model with an infinite size is unrealistic. To study the finite size effects of the fiber bundle model, fiber bundle models of various size are simulated in detail. The effects of system size on the constitutive behavior, critical stress, maximum avalanche size, avalanche size distribution, and increased step number of external load are explored. The simulation results imply that there is no feature size or cut size for macroscopic mechanical and statistical properties of the model. The constitutive curves near the macroscopic failure for various system size can collapse well with a simple scaling relationship. Simultaneously, the introduction of a simple extrapolation method facilitates the acquisition of more accurate simulation results in a large-limit system, which is better for comparison with theoretical results.

  3. Cell size control in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jonathan J; Ewald, Jennifer C; Skotheim, Jan M

    2012-05-08

    Cell size is an important adaptive trait that influences nearly all aspects of cellular physiology. Despite extensive characterization of the cell-cycle regulatory network, the molecular mechanisms coupling cell growth to division, and thereby controlling cell size, have remained elusive. Recent work in yeast has reinvigorated the size control field and suggested provocative mechanisms for the distinct functions of setting and sensing cell size. Further examination of size-sensing models based on spatial gradients and molecular titration, coupled with elucidation of the pathways responsible for nutrient-modulated target size, may reveal the fundamental principles of eukaryotic cell size control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Small domain-size multiblock copolymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorino, Jonathan; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2016-09-20

    New block polymer electrolytes have been developed which have higher conductivities than previously reported for other block copolymer electrolytes. The new materials are constructed of multiple blocks (>5) of relatively low domain size. The small domain size provides greater protection against formation of dendrites during cycling against lithium in an electrochemical cell, while the large total molecular weight insures poor long range alignment, which leads to higher conductivity. In addition to higher conductivity, these materials can be more easily synthesized because of reduced requirements on the purity level of the reagents.

  5. Computing in Large-Scale Dynamic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruteanu, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Software applications developed for large-scale systems have always been difficult to de- velop due to problems caused by the large number of computing devices involved. Above a certain network size (roughly one hundred), necessary services such as code updating, topol- ogy discovery and data

  6. Factors influencing large wildland fire suppression expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing Liang; Dave E. Calkin; Krista M. Gebert; Tyron J. Venn; Robin P. Silverstein

    2008-01-01

    There is an urgent and immediate need to address the excessive cost of large fires. Here, we studied large wildland fire suppression expenditures by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Among 16 potential nonmanagerial factors, which represented fire size and shape, private properties, public land attributes, forest and fuel conditions, and geographic...

  7. Mother-Offspring Relations: Prey Quality and Maternal Size Affect Egg Size of an Acariphagous Lady Beetle in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Riddick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated mother-offspring relations in a lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise that utilizes spider mites as prey. Our objectives were to determine if (1 prey quality affects egg size, (2 maternal size correlates with egg size, and (3 egg size affects hatching success. We fed predators spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch from lima bean Phaseolus lunatus L. foliage in the laboratory. Mothers of unknown body size offered high rather than low quality spider mites since birth produced larger eggs. Mothers of known body size offered only high quality spider mites, produced eggs of variable size, but mean egg size correlated positively with hind femur length. Mothers laid their eggs singly, rather than in batches, and eggs were large relative to femur size. Egg size did not affect hatch success; mean hatch rate exceeded 95% regardless of egg size. In conclusion, the quality of prey consumed by S. punctillum mothers while in the larval stage can affect their size as adults and, consequently, the size of their eggs. The behavior of laying eggs singly, the positive relationship between maternal size and mean egg size, and the high rate of egg hatch suggest that S. punctillum mothers invest heavily in offspring.

  8. The pack size effect: Influence on consumer perceptions of portion sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieke, Sophie; Palascha, Aikaterini; Jola, Corinne; Wills, Josephine; Raats, Monique M

    2016-01-01

    Larger portions as well as larger packs can lead to larger prospective consumption estimates, larger servings and increased consumption, described as 'portion-size effects' and 'pack size effects'. Although related, the effects of pack sizes on portion estimates have received less attention. While it is not possible to generalize consumer behaviour across cultures, external cues taken from pack size may affect us all. We thus examined whether pack sizes influence portion size estimates across cultures, leading to a general 'pack size effect'. We compared portion size estimates based on digital presentations of different product pack sizes of solid and liquid products. The study with 13,177 participants across six European countries consisted of three parts. Parts 1 and 2 asked participants to indicate the number of portions present in a combined photographic and text-based description of different pack sizes. The estimated portion size was calculated as the quotient of the content weight or volume of the food presented and the number of stated portions. In Part 3, participants stated the number of food items that make up a portion when presented with packs of food containing either a small or a large number of items. The estimated portion size was calculated as the item weight times the item number. For all three parts and across all countries, we found that participants' portion estimates were based on larger portions for larger packs compared to smaller packs (Part 1 and 2) as well as more items to make up a portion (Part 3); hence, portions were stated to be larger in all cases. Considering that the larger estimated portions are likely to be consumed, there are implications for energy intake and weight status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Household size in Ethiopia: variations and some recent correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, M; Hailemariam, A

    1986-10-01

    This analysis of household size in Ethiopia during 1965-84 indicates that conditions did not have the same effect on rural and urban areas at the regional level. Household size fluctuated during the study period. Analysis of variance of household size in 1964 and 1984 among urban and rural areas indicates that overall variation in household size was explained by type of residence, the Awraja, and the region. There were significant differences between rural and urban areas, between the 75 Awrajas, and between the 12 regions. Over the study period, rural areas had decreases in household size, whereas in urban areas and the regions of Gojam, Gonder, and Keffa, which were least affected by famines, household size increased. It is suggested that rural-to-urban migration during periods of famine accounted for the increased household size and temporal changes. Mortality increase and migration due to famine in rural areas reduced household size. During 1970-80, in rural areas, the relative number of small households decreased from 37.3% to 31.5%. The proportion of large households increased from 15.5% to 20.5%. A comparison of household size in Addis Ababa and rural areas around 1980 indicates that the proportion of large households in the city vs. rural areas was similar. The largest differences were in the proportion of small and medium households. The city had more small households, and rural areas had more medium households. Only in 1965 were the differences in average household size between rural and urban areas statistically significant. It appears that household size over time varied with the size of urban centers. Larger urban centers had a greater proportion of large family sizes. Urban household size was larger in all regions in 1984 compared to 1965. Gains were largest in Shoa and Gojam regions and smallest in Arssi and Illubabor. In 1984 average household size was 5.2 in Addis Ababa and 4.3 for the nation.

  10. GRIP LANGLEY AEROSOL RESEARCH GROUP EXPERIMENT (LARGE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) measures ultrafine aerosol number density, total and non-volatile aerosol number density, dry aerosol size...

  11. Does Yellowstone need large fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romme, W.H. (Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO (United States)); Turner, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; Hargrove, W.W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

    1994-06-01

    This paper synthesizes several studies initiated after the 1988 Yellowstone fires, to address the question whether the ecological effects of large fires differ qualitatively as well as quantitatively from small fires. Large burn patches had greater dominance and contagion of burn severity classes, and a higher proportion of crown fire. Burned aspen stands resprouted vigorously over an extensive area, but heavy ungulate browsing prevented establishment of new tree-sized stems. A burst of sexual reproduction occurred in forest herbs that usually reproduce vegetatively, and new aspen clones became established from seed - a rare event in this region. We conclude that the effects of large fires are qualitatively different, but less dramatically so than expected.

  12. Afterimage size is modulated by size-contrast illusions.

    OpenAIRE

    Sperandio, Irene; Lak, Armin; Goodale, Melvyn

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, the perceived size of negative afterimages has been examined in relation to E. Emmert's law (1881), a size-distance equation that states that changes in perceived size of an afterimage are a function of the distance of the surface on which it is projected. Here, we present evidence that the size of an afterimage is also modulated by its surrounding context. We employed a new version of the Ebbinghaus-Titchener illusion with flickering surrounding stimuli and a static inner targ...

  13. Cell size control - a mechanism for maintaining fitness and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Teemu P; Caldez, Matias J; Kaldis, Philipp; Björklund, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    The maintenance of cell size homeostasis has been studied for years in different cellular systems. With the focus on 'what regulates cell size', the question 'why cell size needs to be maintained' has been largely overlooked. Recent evidence indicates that animal cells exhibit nonlinear cell size dependent growth rates and mitochondrial metabolism, which are maximal in intermediate sized cells within each cell population. Increases in intracellular distances and changes in the relative cell surface area impose biophysical limitations on cells, which can explain why growth and metabolic rates are maximal in a specific cell size range. Consistently, aberrant increases in cell size, for example through polyploidy, are typically disadvantageous to cellular metabolism, fitness and functionality. Accordingly, cellular hypertrophy can potentially predispose to or worsen metabolic diseases. We propose that cell size control may have emerged as a guardian of cellular fitness and metabolic activity. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Composição e caracterização da fauna de mamíferos de médio e grande porte em uma pequena reserva de cerrado em Mato Grosso, Brasil Composition and characterization of the medium and large size mammal fauna in a small cerrado reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednaldo Cândido Rocha

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na Reserva Biológica Municipal "Mário Viana", Nova Xavantina, MT, objetivando inventariar e avaliar a abundância e diversidade de mamíferos terrestres de médio e grande porte. Para tanto, foram realizadas duas visitas mensais a um transecto com 2.820 m de extensão, durante todo o ano de 2001, para o levantamento de pegadas (rastreamentos e outras evidências de mamíferos. Um total de 29 espécies foram registradas na área de estudo, sendo que 22 ocorreram no transecto e tiveram suas seqüências individuais de pegadas quantificadas para realização do cálculo dos índices de abundância e de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener (H'. De acordo com seus índices de abundância, as espécies foram classificadas em raras, comuns e abundantes. Dentre outras, onça-parda (Puma concolor - Linnaeus, 1771 e tatu-canastra (Priodontes maximus - Keer, 1792 mostraram-se raras; jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis - Linnaeus, 1758, e tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla - Linnaeus, 1758, comuns; e cutia (Dasyprocta azarae - Lichtenstein, 1823 e tapeti (Sylvilagus brasiliensis - Linnaeus, 1758, abundantes. O H' encontrado foi 2,40, sendo considerado significativo. O presente trabalho apontou que, apesar de pequena (470 ha, a área de estudo desempenha importante papel para a conservação da mastofauna da região de Nova Xavantina, MT.This study was carried out at the 'Mario Viana' Municipal Biological Reserve in Nova Xavantina, MT, aiming to make an inventory and evaluate the abundance and diversity of terrestrial mammals of medium and large size. Thus, two monthly visits were made to a 2.820 m long transect throughout 2001 to assess tracking and other evidences of mammals. Twenty-nine species were recorded in the study area, with 22 in the transect and two individual tracking sequences being quantified for calculation of the Shannon-Wiener (H' abundance and diversity indices. According to the abundance indices, the species were

  15. Asymptotic size determines species abundance in the marine size spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Beyer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The majority of higher organisms in the marine environment display indeterminate growth; that is, they continue to grow throughout their life, limited by an asymptotic size. We derive the abundance of species as a function of their asymptotic size. The derivation is based on size-spectrum theory...

  16. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals) are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew), a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs). When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  17. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Kubo

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade, yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew, a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs. When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope's rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna.

  18. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O.

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. According to a large dataset presented in this study, the body sizes of all nonplantigrades (including nonvolant dinosaurs, nonvolant terrestrial birds, extant mammals, and extinct Nearctic mammals) are above 500 g, except for macroscelid mammals (i.e., elephant shrew), a few alvarezsauroid dinosaurs, and nondinosaur ornithodirans (i.e., the immediate ancestors of dinosaurs). When nonplantigrade tetrapods evolved from plantigrade ancestors, lineages with nonplantigrade foot posture exhibited a steady increase in body size following Cope’s rule. In contrast, contemporaneous plantigrade lineages exhibited no trend in body size evolution and were largely constrained to small body sizes. This evolutionary pattern of body size specific to foot posture occurred repeatedly during both the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras. Although disturbed by the end-Cretaceous extinction, species of mid to large body size have predominantly been nonplantigrade animals from the Jurassic until the present; conversely, species with small body size have been exclusively composed of plantigrades in the nonvolant terrestrial tetrapod fauna. PMID:26790003

  19. Plant Size and Competitive Dynamics along Nutrient Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Deborah E; Martina, Jason P; Elgersma, Kenneth J; Currie, William S

    2017-08-01

    Resource competition theory in plants has focused largely on resource acquisition traits that are independent of size, such as traits of individual leaves or roots or proportional allocation to different functions. However, plants also differ in maximum potential size, which could outweigh differences in module-level traits. We used a community ecosystem model called mondrian to investigate whether larger size inevitably increases competitive ability and how size interacts with nitrogen supply. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that bigger is better, we found that invader success and competitive ability are unimodal functions of maximum potential size, such that plants that are too large (or too small) are disproportionately suppressed by competition. Optimal size increases with nitrogen supply, even when plants compete for nitrogen only in a size-symmetric manner, although adding size-asymmetric competition for light does substantially increase the advantage of larger size at high nitrogen. These complex interactions of plant size and nitrogen supply lead to strong nonlinearities such that small differences in nitrogen can result in large differences in plant invasion success and the influence of competition along productivity gradients.

  20. Size reduction machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-15

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  1. Contribution of growth phases to adult size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, A; Gasser, T; Molinari, L; Largo, R H

    2000-01-01

    Based on the data of the First Zurich Longitudinal Growth Study we investigate how interindividual differences in adult size arise in the variables leg height, sitting height and standing height, arm length, bi-iliac width and bihumeral width. Specifically, we are also interested in the question of whether across sexes and variables the same growth phases and the same parameters are predictive for achieving a certain adult size. A rather complex pattern emerges, demonstrating that regulation of growth is not the same for boys and girls and moreover is not the same for the six anthropometric variables studied. Prepubertal growth is characterized by its intensity (average velocity) and by its duration. Whereas duration has by itself no appreciable influence on adult size, prepubertal intensity determines adult size to a high degree across all variables and both sexes. The intensity of prepubertal growth determines adult size to a larger degree for boys than for girls. For a given size at the end of the prepubertal period, a small duration enhances the chance of obtaining a large adult size. Compared with prepubertal growth, the amount of variance of adult size explained is small for pubertal parameters, and--with respect to linear measures--significant for girls only. A small duration of prepubertal growth is in the following mainly compensated by a stronger pubertal spurt (PS), to a varying degree across variables. The overall picture which emerges indicates that sitting height--and to a lesser extent bihumeral width--develop in a more irregular fashion than the variables bi-iliac width and leg height.

  2. Variable pixel size ionospheric tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dunyong; Zheng, Hongwei; Wang, Yanjun; Nie, Wenfeng; Li, Chaokui; Ao, Minsi; Hu, Wusheng; Zhou, Wei

    2017-06-01

    A novel ionospheric tomography technique based on variable pixel size was developed for the tomographic reconstruction of the ionospheric electron density (IED) distribution. In variable pixel size computerized ionospheric tomography (VPSCIT) model, the IED distribution is parameterized by a decomposition of the lower and upper ionosphere with different pixel sizes. Thus, the lower and upper IED distribution may be very differently determined by the available data. The variable pixel size ionospheric tomography and constant pixel size tomography are similar in most other aspects. There are some differences between two kinds of models with constant and variable pixel size respectively, one is that the segments of GPS signal pay should be assigned to the different kinds of pixel in inversion; the other is smoothness constraint factor need to make the appropriate modified where the pixel change in size. For a real dataset, the variable pixel size method distinguishes different electron density distribution zones better than the constant pixel size method. Furthermore, it can be non-chided that when the effort is spent to identify the regions in a model with best data coverage. The variable pixel size method can not only greatly improve the efficiency of inversion, but also produce IED images with high fidelity which are the same as a used uniform pixel size method. In addition, variable pixel size tomography can reduce the underdetermined problem in an ill-posed inverse problem when the data coverage is irregular or less by adjusting quantitative proportion of pixels with different sizes. In comparison with constant pixel size tomography models, the variable pixel size ionospheric tomography technique achieved relatively good results in a numerical simulation. A careful validation of the reliability and superiority of variable pixel size ionospheric tomography was performed. Finally, according to the results of the statistical analysis and quantitative comparison, the

  3. Firm size and the division of labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. CONTINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent publication of Italy’s 1981 Industrial Census has highlighted a phenomenon of which there had already been some signs for a number of years - the fact that manufacturing firms in every sector are reducing their size. The data indicate that both the appearance of a large number of small new firms and the reduction in the average number of employees in existing firms of all sizes have contributed to this. Similar conclusions have been drawn for other European countries. The author’s hypothesis is that the observed reduction in the average size of firms is caused by two concurrent factors: (1 the increased rigidity of the overall cost structure of business firms; (2 the increased uncertainty in both factor and product markets, which makes more flexible organisational structures desirable.

  4. Collaborative innovation effort and size in alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Anna-Leena; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    of organisational and marketing innovations. Additionally, small firms were more likely (than large) to engage into alliances as a part of their strategy. On more general level our data also confirm that factors such as: number of highly educated employees, foreign ownership of a firm and presence of firm......This study presents quantitative investigation of the factors that influence the process of forming strategic alliances with a special focus on the role of innovation strategies and firm’s size in alliance building process. The empirical sample is based on a large scale data from the Community......’s international sales activities increase the propensity of building alliances....

  5. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better candid...

  6. Sizing Up the Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Hailstorm damage to the Space Shuttle's External Tank inspired a NASA innovation with extensive photography applications. In order to measure the defects caused by the storm, Kennedy Space Center used telephoto lenses to zoom in on the tank and view the damage clearly. However, since there was no reference object in the image, the engineers could not determine the scale of the damage. In photographic situations similar to this, an object, such as a ruler, is placed within the field of view. This allows a person to look at a photograph and have a visual indication of the scale of the objects in it. In the External Tank situation, however, this procedure was not possible. As a solution, Kennedy developed the Scaling and Measurement Device for Photographic Images, which provides a non-intrusive means of adding a scale to a photograph. In addition to meeting Kennedy's needs, scaling images is extremely important in crime and accident scene investigations, oil and chemical tank monitoring, and aerial photography. The innovation consists of a tool that attaches directly to a camera or charge coupled device using a standard screw. Two lasers fitted to the device provide parallel beams that are set 1 inch apart. These lasers enable the device to project a pattern into the field of view. When a photograph is taken, the image of the laser pattern appears, along with the image of the object under investigation, allowing the viewer quantifiable information as to the size of the object. The laser beams are accurate to approximately 200 feet. Windows-based software was developed to work with the scaling device tool. The software provides further techniques to measure objects in photographs and digital images. By using the software, any object in the image can be measured diagonally, vertically, and horizontally. The device and its software enable the user to determine two-dimensional measurements within a photograph.

  7. Particle sizes from sectional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlas, Zbynek; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new statistical method for obtaining information about particle size distributions from sectional data without specific assumptions about particle shape. The method utilizes recent advances in local stereology. We show how to estimate separately from sectional data the variance due...... to the local stereological estimation procedure and the variance due to the variability of particle sizes in the population. Methods for judging the difference between the distribution of estimated particle sizes and the distribution of true particle sizes are also provided....

  8. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Los Alamos transuranic waste size reduction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briesmeister, A.; Harper, J.; Reich, B.; Warren, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    To facilitate disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, Los Alamos National Laboratory designed and constructed the Size Reduction Facility (SRF) during the period 1977 to 1981. This report summarizes the engineering development, installation, and early test operations of the SRF. The facility incorporates a large stainless steel enclosure fitted with remote handling and cutting equipment to obtain an estimated 4:1 volume reduction of gloveboxes and other bulky metallic wastes.

  10. Los Alamos transuranic waste size reduction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briesmeister, A.; Harper, J.; Reich, B.; Warren, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    A transuranic (TRU) Waste Size Reduction Facility (SRF) was designed and constructed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the period of 1977 to 1981. This paper summarizes the engineering development, installation, and early test operations of the SRF. The facility incorporates a large stainless steel enclosure fitted with remote handling and cutting equipment to obtain an estimated 4:1 volume reduction of gloveboxes and other bulky metallic wastes.

  11. Interactions between shoal size and conformity in guppy social foraging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Day, R.L.; Macdonald, T.; Brown, C.; Laland, K.N.; Reader, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have established that shoaling fish forage more effectively in large than small groups. We investigated how shoal size affects the foraging efficiency of laboratory populations of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, exposed to different foraging tasks. Experiment 1

  12. Song repertoire size correlates with measures of body size in Eurasian blackbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Sacher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In most oscine bird species males possess a repertoire of different song patterns. The size of these repertoires is assumed to serve as an honest signal of male quality. The Eurasian blackbird’s (Turdus merula) song contains a large repertoire of different element types with a flexible song organ...

  13. Import Penetration, Export Orientation and Plant Size in Indonesian Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Sadayuki TAKII

    2014-01-01

    This paper empirically examines differential impacts of globalisation on plant size among plants with different characteristics, including initial plant size, import and export status, and ownership. After accounting for other characteristics, results of this analysis suggest that both import penetration and export orientation do not have differential impacts on the size of larger and smaller plants. This is contrary to fears that only relatively large plants can benefit from globalisation wh...

  14. Finite size effects of a pion matrix element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guagnelli, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and INFN, Sezione di Roma II, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Jansen, K. [NIC/DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Palombi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and INFN, Sezione di Roma II, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); E. Fermi Research Center, c/o Compendio Viminale, pal. F, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Petronzio, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata and INFN, Sezione di Roma II, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Shindler, A. [NIC/DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Wetzorke, I. [NIC/DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)]. E-mail: ines.wetzorke@desy.de

    2004-09-09

    We investigate finite size effects of the pion matrix element of the non-singlet, twist-2 operator corresponding to the average momentum of non-singlet quark densities. Using the quenched approximation, they come out to be surprisingly large when compared to the finite size effects of the pion mass. As a consequence, simulations of corresponding nucleon matrix elements could be affected by finite size effects even stronger which could lead to serious systematic uncertainties in their evaluation.

  15. Size does Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespignani, Alessandro

    From schools of fish and flocks of birds, to digital networks and self-organizing biopolymers, our understanding of spontaneously emergent phenomena, self-organization, and critical behavior is in large part due to complex systems science. The complex systems approach is indeed a very powerful conceptual framework to shed light on the link between the microscopic dynamical evolution of the basic elements of the system and the emergence of oscopic phenomena; often providing evidence for mathematical principles that go beyond the particulars of the individual system, thus hinting to general modeling principles. By killing the myth of the ant queen and shifting the focus on the dynamical interaction across the elements of the systems, complex systems science has ushered our way into the conceptual understanding of many phenomena at the core of major scientific and social challenges such as the emergence of consensus, social opinion dynamics, conflicts and cooperation, contagion phenomena. For many years though, these complex systems approaches to real-world problems were often suffering from being oversimplified and not grounded on actual data...

  16. Sizing of scramjet vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenito, A.; Gulli, S.; Bruno, C.

    2011-10-01

    The current European project LAPCAT II has the ambitious goal to define a conceptual vehicle capable of achieving the antipodal range Brussels-Sydney (~18,000 km) in about 2 h at Mach number Ma = 8. At this high speed, the requirement of high lift to drag (L/D) ratio is critical to high performance, because of high skin friction and wave drag: in fact, as the Mach number increases, the L/D ratio decreases. The design of the vehicle architecture (shape and propulsion system) is, as a consequence, crucial to achieve a reasonably high L/D. In this work, critical parameters for the preliminary sizing of a hypersonic airbreathing airliner have been identified. In particular, for a given Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and mission requirements, a solution space of possible vehicle architectures at cruise have been obtained. In this work, the Gross Weight at Take-Off (TOGW) was deliberately discarded as a constraint, based on previous studies by Czysz and Vanderkerkhove [1]. Typically, limiting from the beginning, the TOGW leads to a vicious spiral where weight and propulsion system requirements keep growing, eventually denying convergence. In designing passenger airliners, in fact, it is the payload that is assumed fixed from the start, not the total weight. In order to screen the solutions found, requirements for taking-off (TO) and landing as well as the trajectory have been accounted for. A consistent solution has finally been obtained by imposing typical airliner constraints: emergency take-off and landing. These constraints enable singling out a realistic design from the broad family of vehicles capable of performing the given mission. This vehicle has been obtained by integrating not only aerodynamics, trajectory, and airliner constraints, but also by integrating the propulsion system, the trimming devices and by doing some adjustments to the conceptual vehicle shape (i. e., spatular nose). Thus, the final vehicle is the result of many iterations in the design

  17. Size distribution and roundness of clasts within pseudotachylytes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They carry quartz as well as feldspar clasts with sizes of few mm in diameter; the clast sizes show a modified Power law distribution with finer ones (<1000 μm2) deviating from linearity. The shape of the clasts shows a high degree of roundness (<0.4) due to thermal decrepitation. In a large instance, devitrification has ...

  18. Evaluation of size effect on shear strength of reinforced concrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The generic form of the size effect law has been retained considering the merits of Siao's model and modified Bazant's size effect law using the large experimental data base reported in the literature. The proposed equation for predicting the shear strength of deep beams incorporates the compressive strength of concrete, ...

  19. Class Size and Academic Achievement in Introductory Political Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Terri L.

    2016-01-01

    Research on the influence of class size on student academic achievement is important for university instructors, administrators, and students. The article examines the influence of class size--a small section versus a large section--in introductory political science courses on student grades in two comparable semesters. It is expected that…

  20. The Hierarchy Model of the Size Distribution of Centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1968-01-01

    textabstractWe know that human beings live in centres, that is, cities, towns and villages of different size. Both large and small centres have a number of advantages and disadvantages, different for different people and this is why we have a whole range of sizes. Statistically, we even find that

  1. Does copepod size determine food consumption of particulate feeding fish?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Koski, Marja; Rindorf, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The climate-induced reduction in the mean copepod size, mainly driven by a decrease in the abundance of the large Calanus finmarchicus around 1987, has been linked to the low survival of fish larvae in the North Sea. However, to what extent this sort of reduction in copepod size has any influence...

  2. Effects of Seed Size on Germination and Early Morphorlogical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research was carried out to determine the effects of seed size on germination and early growth rate of Gmelina arborea. Mature seeds of. Gmelina arborea were collected from the mother trees in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. They were grouped into 3 categories as large seed size (LSS), medium seed ...

  3. Understanding Power and Rules of Thumb for Determining Sample Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Betsy L. Morgan; Carmen R. Wilson Van Voorhis

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the definition of power and its relationship to Type I and Type II errors. We discuss the relationship of sample size and power. Finally, we offer statistical rules of thumb guiding the selection of sample sizes large enough for sufficient power to detecting differences, associations, chi-square, and factor analyses.

  4. Class Size and College Teaching: Attitudes and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michal C.

    What effect would the manipulation of class size have on students, faculty, and institutional productivity? By providing each student with a class schedule of varying sized classes (at least one very large and at least one small class per student per semester), the student would derive educational benefits and maintain feelings of community in…

  5. Understanding Power and Rules of Thumb for Determining Sample Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy L. Morgan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the definition of power and its relationship to Type I and Type II errors. We discuss the relationship of sample size and power. Finally, we offer statistical rules of thumb guiding the selection of sample sizes large enough for sufficient power to detecting differences, associations, chi-square, and factor analyses.

  6. Progress on large area GEMs

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Serge Duarte; Alfonsi, Matteo; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; De Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; van Stenis, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, a triple GEM detector prototype with an area of ~2000 cm2 has been constructed, based on foils of 66*66 cm. GEMs of such dimensions had not been made before, and innovations to the existing technology were introduced to build this detector. This paper discusses these innovations and presents further work on large area GEM development. A single-mask technique overcomes the cumbersome practice of alignment of two masks, which limits the achievable lateral size. The holes obtained with this technique are conical, and have a so-called rim, a small insulating clearance around the hole in the substrate. Further refinements of this technique allow greater control over the shape of holes and the size of rims. Also, an improvement in homogeneity over large areas is expected. Simulation studies have been done to examine the effect of hole shape on the behavior of GEMs. Such studies can help understanding how to use new enhancements of the technique to optimize performance. Many potential applications for large...

  7. Characteristics of Unequal Size Drop Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungyong; Longmire, Ellen; Kim, Man Sik

    2009-11-01

    Pairs of water/glycerin drops were injected into silicone oil and traveled on downward trajectories before colliding. Unequal size drop collisions with drop size ratios (Ds/DL) of 0.7 and 0.5 were investigated. Simultaneous dual-field PIV measurements were obtained to characterize coalescence and rebounding behavior. The initial injection angle and tube height were adjusted to access appropriate impact parameters. In the current study, the collision angle of the large drop was, in general, shallower than that of the small drop, and a range of velocity ratios and impact parameters was examined. Coalescence occurs above We* = 11 similar to collision outcomes for equal size drops. As drop size ratio decreases, the intervening film deforms more. If the velocity ratio uL/us 1, the interface flattens before coalescence. The rupture location varies due to the asymmetry of the drops. As collision offset increases (B > 0), the film rupture time is shortened and mixing of the fluid within the drops is enhanced after coalescence. These results will be compared with the behavior observed previously for equal size drop collisions.

  8. Size did not matter: An evolutionary account of the variation in penis size and size anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2016-01-01

    The human penis exhibits considerable variation in size, while a substantial proportion of the adult male population experiences size anxiety. This paper employs an evolutionary framework in order to understand this variation, as well as the concern men exhibit about the adequacy of the size of their penis. It is argued that female choice has been one important sexual selection force, responsible for shaping the size of the penis. However, this force has been relatively weak, because women do...

  9. Size- and shape-selective isostructural microporous metal-organic frameworks with different effective aperture sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinfang; Oh, Minhak; Lah, Myoung Soo

    2011-06-06

    Two isostructural metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) having micropores of the same "static aperture size" but different "effective aperture size" have been prepared using 5-(pyridin-3-ylethynyl)isophthalic acid as a ligand having two different types of functional units, an isophthalate (iph) unit and a pyridyl unit, simultaneously in a single ligand. The combination of iph unit and Cu (or Zn) ion led to two-dimensional layers of Kagomé (kgm) net topology, the layers being further pillared by the internal auxiliary pyridyl unit to form a three-dimensional microporous framework having two different types of cage-like pores, cage A and cage B, with different aperture sizes and shapes. (1) The MOFs can distinguish the adsorbates (N(2)/Ar) not based on the widely used kinetic diameters of the adsorbates but based on the minimum diameters of the adsorbates, which are more shape dependent. While cage A with a sufficiently large aperture size compared with the size of the adsorbates does not show any size selectivity, cage B with an approximate size match between the adsorbates and the pore apertures shows shape selectivity for the adsorbates. The smaller but spherically shaped Ar atom is not allowed into the pore with the oval-shaped aperture; however, the larger linear N(2) molecule is allowed into the pore with the oval-shaped aperture. (2) Even though the two isostructural MOFs have the same static aperture size of cage B, they show different size selectivity for the adsorbates based on the effective aperture size, which reflects the different extents of the framework flexibility. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Portion size and intended consumption. Evidence for a pre-consumption portion size effect in males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; te Raa, Wesselien; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Larger portions increase energy intake (the 'portion size effect'); however, the mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. Although pre-meal intentions are thought to be an important determinant of energy intake, little research has examined how much of a meal individuals intend to eat when served standard versus larger portion sizes. Three studies examined the effect of manipulating portion size on intended food consumption. In Studies 1 (spaghetti bolognese) and 2 (curry and rice) male participants were shown an image of either a standard or a larger meal and indicated how much of the meal they intended to consume. In Study 3 male and female participants were served either a standard or a larger portion of ice cream for dessert, they indicated how much they intended to consume and then ate as much of the ice cream as they desired. Regardless of being shown standard or large portion sizes, in Studies 1 and 2 participants reported that they intended to eat the majority of the meal, equating to a large difference in intended energy consumption between portion size conditions (a 'pre-consumption portion size effect'). This finding was replicated in male participants in Study 3, although females intended to eat a smaller proportion of the larger portion of ice cream, compared to the standard portion. Both male and female participants tended to eat in accordance with their pre-meal intentions and a portion size effect on actual consumption was subsequently observed in males, but not in females. The portion size effect may be observed when measuring pre-meal intended consumption in males. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Positive genetic correlation between brain size and sexual traits in male guppies artificially selected for brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, A; Corral-Lopez, A; Zajitschek, S; Immler, S; Maklakov, A A; Kolm, N

    2015-04-01

    Brain size is an energetically costly trait to develop and maintain. Investments into other costly aspects of an organism's biology may therefore place important constraints on brain size evolution. Sexual traits are often costly and could therefore be traded off against neural investment. However, brain size may itself be under sexual selection through mate choice on cognitive ability. Here, we use guppy (Poecilia reticulata) lines selected for large and small brain size relative to body size to investigate the relationship between brain size, a large suite of male primary and secondary sexual traits, and body condition index. We found no evidence for trade-offs between brain size and sexual traits. Instead, larger-brained males had higher expression of several primary and precopulatory sexual traits--they had longer genitalia, were more colourful and developed longer tails than smaller-brained males. Larger-brained males were also in better body condition when housed in single-sex groups. There was no difference in post-copulatory sexual traits between males from the large- and small-brained lines. Our data do not support the hypothesis that investment into sexual traits is an important limiting factor to brain size evolution, but instead suggest that brain size and several sexual traits are positively genetically correlated. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  12. 75 FR 76405 - Winter Bee, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Highway, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-4408; telephone (301) 504-7612. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The text of... sweatshirts with drawstrings at the neck (``Sweatshirts''). 5. Winter Bee sold Sweatshirts to retailers. 6... prevent children from strangling or entangling on neck and waist drawstrings. The Guidelines state that...

  13. Chunking of Large Multidimensional Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotem, Doron; Otoo, Ekow J.; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2007-02-28

    Data intensive scientific computations as well on-lineanalytical processing applications as are done on very large datasetsthat are modeled as k-dimensional arrays. The storage organization ofsuch arrays on disks is done by partitioning the large global array intofixed size hyper-rectangular sub-arrays called chunks or tiles that formthe units of data transfer between disk and memory. Typical queriesinvolve the retrieval of sub-arrays in a manner that accesses all chunksthat overlap the query results. An important metric of the storageefficiency is the expected number of chunks retrieved over all suchqueries. The question that immediately arises is "what shapes of arraychunks give the minimum expected number of chunks over a query workload?"In this paper we develop two probabilistic mathematical models of theproblem and provide exact solutions using steepest descent and geometricprogramming methods. Experimental results, using synthetic workloads onreal life data sets, show that our chunking is much more efficient thanthe existing approximate solutions.

  14. Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard B; Stanford, Kristin M; Jones, Peter C; Bekker, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Body size, and, by extension, growth has impacts on physiology, survival, attainment of sexual maturity, fecundity, generation time, and population dynamics, especially in ectotherm animals that often exhibit extensive growth following attainment of sexual maturity. Frequently, growth is analyzed at the population level, providing useful population mean growth parameters but ignoring individual variation that is also of ecological and evolutionary significance. Our long-term study of Lake Erie Watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon insularum, provides data sufficient for a detailed analysis of population and individual growth. We describe population mean growth separately for males and females based on size of known age individuals (847 captures of 769 males, 748 captures of 684 females) and annual growth increments of individuals of unknown age (1,152 males, 730 females). We characterize individual variation in asymptotic size based on repeated measurements of 69 males and 71 females that were each captured in five to nine different years. The most striking result of our analyses is that asymptotic size varies dramatically among individuals, ranging from 631-820 mm snout-vent length in males and from 835-1125 mm in females. Because female fecundity increases with increasing body size, we explore the impact of individual variation in asymptotic size on lifetime reproductive success using a range of realistic estimates of annual survival. When all females commence reproduction at the same age, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with greater asymptotic size regardless of annual survival. But when reproduction is delayed in females with greater asymptotic size, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with lower asymptotic size when annual survival is low. Possible causes of individual variation in asymptotic size, including individual- and cohort-specific variation in size at birth and early growth, warrant further investigation.

  15. Size Matters: Individual Variation in Ectotherm Growth and Asymptotic Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Body size, and, by extension, growth has impacts on physiology, survival, attainment of sexual maturity, fecundity, generation time, and population dynamics, especially in ectotherm animals that often exhibit extensive growth following attainment of sexual maturity. Frequently, growth is analyzed at the population level, providing useful population mean growth parameters but ignoring individual variation that is also of ecological and evolutionary significance. Our long-term study of Lake Erie Watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon insularum, provides data sufficient for a detailed analysis of population and individual growth. We describe population mean growth separately for males and females based on size of known age individuals (847 captures of 769 males, 748 captures of 684 females) and annual growth increments of individuals of unknown age (1,152 males, 730 females). We characterize individual variation in asymptotic size based on repeated measurements of 69 males and 71 females that were each captured in five to nine different years. The most striking result of our analyses is that asymptotic size varies dramatically among individuals, ranging from 631–820 mm snout-vent length in males and from 835–1125 mm in females. Because female fecundity increases with increasing body size, we explore the impact of individual variation in asymptotic size on lifetime reproductive success using a range of realistic estimates of annual survival. When all females commence reproduction at the same age, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with greater asymptotic size regardless of annual survival. But when reproduction is delayed in females with greater asymptotic size, lifetime reproductive success is greatest for females with lower asymptotic size when annual survival is low. Possible causes of individual variation in asymptotic size, including individual- and cohort-specific variation in size at birth and early growth, warrant further investigation. PMID

  16. A genetic component to size in queens of the ant, Formica truncorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargum, Katja; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Sundström, L.

    2004-01-01

    with reduced dispersal, and large size with long-range dispersal and independent colony founding. Worker size is connected to division of labour when workers specialize in certain tasks according to their size. In many species, variation in worker size has been shown to increase colony performance...

  17. Deflection of large near-earth objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1999-01-11

    The Earth is periodically hit by near Earth objects (NEOs) ranging in size from dust to mountains. The small ones are a useful source of information, but those larger than about 1 km can cause global damage. The requirements for the deflection of NEOs with significant material strength are known reasonably well; however, the strength of large NEOs is not known, so those requirements may not apply. Meteor impacts on the Earth`s atmosphere give some information on strength as a function of object size and composition. This information is used here to show that large, weak objects could also be deflected efficiently, if addressed properly.

  18. Why large cells dominate estuarine phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.

    2018-01-01

    Surveys across the world oceans have shown that phytoplankton biomass and production are dominated by small cells (picoplankton) where nutrient concentrations are low, but large cells (microplankton) dominate when nutrient-rich deep water is mixed to the surface. I analyzed phytoplankton size structure in samples collected over 25 yr in San Francisco Bay, a nutrient-rich estuary. Biomass was dominated by large cells because their biomass selectively grew during blooms. Large-cell dominance appears to be a characteristic of ecosystems at the land–sea interface, and these places may therefore function as analogs to oceanic upwelling systems. Simulations with a size-structured NPZ model showed that runs of positive net growth rate persisted long enough for biomass of large, but not small, cells to accumulate. Model experiments showed that small cells would dominate in the absence of grazing, at lower nutrient concentrations, and at elevated (+5°C) temperatures. Underlying these results are two fundamental scaling laws: (1) large cells are grazed more slowly than small cells, and (2) grazing rate increases with temperature faster than growth rate. The model experiments suggest testable hypotheses about phytoplankton size structure at the land–sea interface: (1) anthropogenic nutrient enrichment increases cell size; (2) this response varies with temperature and only occurs at mid-high latitudes; (3) large-cell blooms can only develop when temperature is below a critical value, around 15°C; (4) cell size diminishes along temperature gradients from high to low latitudes; and (5) large-cell blooms will diminish or disappear where planetary warming increases temperature beyond their critical threshold.

  19. Radish (Raphanus sativus) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. Studies reporting these results used a large number of plant species that varied in seed size, which might have introduced differences in germination characteristics or various parameter...

  20. The effect of animal size and adaptation on defoliation, selective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A conceptual model of the veld-herbivore relationship is presented. Large-sized, largely grazing animals feed relatively unselectively on abundant roughage. The carrying capacity of veld for them is high. They are low producers per animal, but high producers per ha. Per unit of metabolic mass they have a relatively minor ...

  1. Resolving the Debate over Birth Order, Family Size, and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Cleveland, H. Harrington; van den Oord, Edwin; Rowe, David C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between birth order, family size, and intelligence quotient (IQ), evaluating sibling data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and comparing results with those from other studies using within-family data. Results indicated that although low IQ parents were making large families, large families were not…

  2. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Aggregate Size on Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Okuda-Shimazaki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (titania nanoparticle aggregation is an important factor in understanding cytotoxicity. However, the effect of the aggregate size of nanoparticles on cells is unclear. We prepared two sizes of titania aggregate particles and investigated their biological activity by analyzing biomarker expression based on mRNA expression analysis. The aggregate particle sizes of small and large aggregated titania were 166 nm (PDI = 0.291 and 596 nm (PDI = 0.417, respectively. These two size groups were separated by centrifugation from the same initial nanoparticle sample. We analyzed the gene expression of biomarkers focused on stress, inflammation, and cytotoxicity. Large titania aggregates show a larger effect on cell viability and gene expression when compared with the small aggregates. This suggests that particle aggregate size is related to cellular effects.

  3. Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Aggregate Size on Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda-Shimazaki, Junko; Takaku, Saiko; Kanehira, Koki; Sonezaki, Shunji; Taniguchi, Akiyohshi

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (titania) nanoparticle aggregation is an important factor in understanding cytotoxicity. However, the effect of the aggregate size of nanoparticles on cells is unclear. We prepared two sizes of titania aggregate particles and investigated their biological activity by analyzing biomarker expression based on mRNA expression analysis. The aggregate particle sizes of small and large aggregated titania were 166 nm (PDI = 0.291) and 596 nm (PDI = 0.417), respectively. These two size groups were separated by centrifugation from the same initial nanoparticle sample. We analyzed the gene expression of biomarkers focused on stress, inflammation, and cytotoxicity. Large titania aggregates show a larger effect on cell viability and gene expression when compared with the small aggregates. This suggests that particle aggregate size is related to cellular effects. PMID:20640159

  4. Inflating with Large Effective Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, C P; Quevedo, F; Williams, M

    2014-01-01

    We re-examine large scalar fields within effective field theory, in particular focussing on the issues raised by their use in inflationary models (as suggested by BICEP2 to obtain primordial tensor modes). We argue that when the large-field and low-energy regimes coincide the scalar dynamics is most effectively described in terms of an asymptotic large-field expansion whose form can be dictated by approximate symmetries, which also help control the size of quantum corrections. We discuss several possible symmetries that can achieve this, including pseudo-Goldstone inflatons characterized by a coset $G/H$ (based on abelian and non-abelian, compact and non-compact symmetries), as well as symmetries that are intrinsically higher dimensional. Besides the usual trigonometric potentials of Natural Inflation we also find in this way simple {\\em large-field} power laws (like $V \\propto \\phi^2$) and exponential potentials, $V(\\phi) = \\sum_{k} V_k \\; e^{-k \\phi/M}$. Both of these can describe the data well and give slo...

  5. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  6. Evidence for the formation of different-sized nodules by different accretionary processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    Studies on different-sized polymetallic nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin reveal that chemical composition is largely related to the nodule diameter which show systematic decrease in Mn, Cu, and Ni content with increase in nodule size...

  7. Size did not matter: An evolutionary account of the variation in penis size and size anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human penis exhibits considerable variation in size, while a substantial proportion of the adult male population experiences size anxiety. This paper employs an evolutionary framework in order to understand this variation, as well as the concern men exhibit about the adequacy of the size of their penis. It is argued that female choice has been one important sexual selection force, responsible for shaping the size of the penis. However, this force has been relatively weak, because women do not consider the size of their partners’ penis to be the most important determinant of their sexual satisfaction. Also, in ancestral human societies, sexual satisfaction was a secondary concern, while women had limited space to exercise mate choice. The mismatch between ancestral and modern conditions, with female choice being stronger in the present than in the past, causes anxiety in men about their ability to satisfy their partners, which is also manifested in their concerns about size.

  8. Size-Dependent Localization in Polydisperse Colloidal Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorf, D.; Mutch, K. J.; Egelhaaf, S. U.; Laurati, M.

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated concentrated suspensions of polydisperse hard spheres and have determined the dynamics and sizes of individual particles using confocal microscopy. With increasing concentration, the dynamics of the small and large particles start to differ. The large particles exhibit slower dynamics and stronger localization. Moreover, as the particle size increases, the local volume fraction ϕloc also increases. In the glass state, the localization length significantly decreases beyond ϕloc≈0.67 . This suggests a link between local crowding and dynamical heterogeneities. However dynamical arrest of subpopulations seems not directly linked to a large value of ϕloc, indicating the importance of collective effects.

  9. Bubble size distribution of foam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Engelsen, C.W.; den Engelsen, C.W.; Isarin, J.C.; Warmoeskerken, Marinus; Groot Wassink, J.; Groot Wassink, J.

    2002-01-01

    A procedure based upon image analysis has been adopted to study the influence of several physical parameters on bubble size in foam. A procedure has been described to account for the distribution of bubble size. Foam was generated in a rotor-stator mixer. In the present research, the nature of the

  10. Population Density and Group Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, James; Friedman, S. Thomas

    1972-01-01

    This study looks at the relationship between the size of the small interacting group (in numbers of persons) and its environment; in this case, the density of its immediate population. Results indicated a significant inverse relationship between population density and the size of small interacting groups. (Author)

  11. The importance of effect sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Winkens; Dr. Sil Aarts; M. van den Akker

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE: •  Statistical significance testing alone is not the most adequate manner to evaluate if there is indeed a clinically relevant effect •  Effect sizes should be added to significance testing •  Effect sizes facilitate the decision whether a clinically relevant effect is found, helps

  12. Firm Size and Export Intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Verwaal (Ernst); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a unifying theory, explaining the different relationships between firm size and export intensity that have been found in previous studies. We propose that transaction costs economies and different types of resources induce a moderating effect on the firm size and

  13. Sibship Size and Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories - for substantively different reasons - predict that sibship size should ...

  14. Home-range size in large-bodied carnivores as a model for predicting neandertal territory size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Steven Emilio; Walker, Christopher Scott; Schwartz, Adam Michael

    2016-05-06

    Adult human foragers expend roughly 30-60 kcal per km in unburdened walking at optimal speeds.(1,2) In the context of foraging rounds and residential moves, they may routinely travel distances of 50-70 km per week, often while carrying loads.(3) Movement on the landscape, then, is arguably the single most expensive item in the activity budgets of hunter-gatherers. Mobility costs may have been greater still for Neandertals. They had stocky, short-limbed physiques that were energetically costly to move(4) and lived in relatively unproductive Pleistocene environments(5) that may have required greater movement to deal with problems of biodepletion and resource patchiness.(6) But just how mobile were the Neandertals? © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  16. Missing portion sizes in FFQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Halldorson, Thorhallur I.

    2015-01-01

    of portion sizes based on information about anthropometry, sex, physical activity and age. Energy intakes computed with standard portion sizes, defined as sex-specific medians (median), or with portion sizes estimated with multinomial logistic regression (MLR), ‘comparable categories’ (Coca) or k...... with the reference, the root-mean-square errors of the mean daily total energy intake (in kJ) computed with portion sizes estimated by the four methods were (men; women): median (1118; 1061), MLR (1060; 1051), Coca (1230; 1146), KNN (1281; 1181). The equivalent biases (mean error) were (in kJ): median (579; 469......), MLR (248; 178), Coca (234; 188), KNN (−340; 218). Conclusions: The methods MLR and Coca provided the best agreement with the reference. The stochastic methods allowed for estimation of meaningful portion sizes by conditioning on information about physiology and they were suitable for multiple...

  17. Cell Size Regulation in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ariel

    2014-05-01

    Various bacteria such as the canonical gram negative Escherichia coli or the well-studied gram positive Bacillus subtilis divide symmetrically after they approximately double their volume. Their size at division is not constant, but is typically distributed over a narrow range. Here, we propose an analytically tractable model for cell size control, and calculate the cell size and interdivision time distributions, as well as the correlations between these variables. We suggest ways of extracting the model parameters from experimental data, and show that existing data for E. coli supports partial size control, and a particular explanation: a cell attempts to add a constant volume from the time of initiation of DNA replication to the next initiation event. This hypothesis accounts for the experimentally observed correlations between mother and daughter cells as well as the exponential dependence of size on growth rate.

  18. Conceptualization of relative size by honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore eAvargues-Weber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to process visual information using relational rules allows for decisions independent of the specific physical attributes of individual stimuli. Until recently, the manipulation of relational concepts was considered as a prerogative of large mammalian brains. Here we show that individual free flying honeybees can learn to use size relationship rules to choose either the larger or smaller stimulus as the correct solution in a given context, and subsequently apply the learnt rule to novel colors and shapes providing that there is sufficient input to the long wavelength (green photoreceptor channel. Our results add a novel, size-based conceptual rule to the set of relational concepts that honeybees have been shown to master and underline the value of bees as an animal model for studying the emergence of conceptualization abilities.

  19. Research on Vocabulary Sizes and Codebook Universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Xue Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Codebook is an effective image representation method. By clustering in local image descriptors, a codebook is shown to be a distinctive image feature and widely applied in object classification. In almost all existing works on codebooks, the building of the visual vocabulary follows a basic routine, that is, extracting local image descriptors and clustering with a user-designated number of clusters. The problem with this routine lies in that building a codebook for each single dataset is not efficient. In order to deal with this problem, we investigate the influence of vocabulary sizes on classification performance and vocabulary universality with the kNN classifier. Experimental results indicate that, under the condition that the vocabulary size is large enough, the vocabularies built from different datasets are exchangeable and universal.

  20. Sample size determination in clinical trials with multiple endpoints

    CERN Document Server

    Sozu, Takashi; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Evans, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    This book integrates recent methodological developments for calculating the sample size and power in trials with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, offering an important reference work for statisticians working in this area. The determination of sample size and the evaluation of power are fundamental and critical elements in the design of clinical trials. If the sample size is too small, important effects may go unnoticed; if the sample size is too large, it represents a waste of resources and unethically puts more participants at risk than necessary. Recently many clinical trials have been designed with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, creating a need for new approaches to the design and analysis of these clinical trials. The book focuses on the evaluation of power and sample size determination when comparing the effects of two interventions in superiority clinical trials with multiple endpoints. Methods for sample size calculation in clin...

  1. An Insight Analysis of Nano sized powder of Jackfruit Seed

    CERN Document Server

    Theivasanthi, T; 10.5101/nbe.v3i3.p163-168.

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of biodegradable nanomaterials by blending starch nanocrystals with various polymer matrices are the most active research. This work reports aspect related to nano-sized particles of jackfruit seed. This approach is simple, faster, eco-friendly, cost effective and suitable for large scale production. X-Ray Diffraction studies analyze particles size, morphology, type of starch and degree of crystallinity. The particle size is found to be 12nm, specific surface area is 625 m2g-1, contains A-type starch and 32% degree of crystallinity. A morphology index (MI) is developed from FWHM of XRD data to understand interrelationship of particle size and specific surface area. MI range is from 0.50 to 0.74. It is correlated with the particle size and specific surface area. It is observed that MI has direct relationship with particle size and an inverse relationship with specific surface area.

  2. A Longitudinal Analysis of Search Engine Index Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Bosch, Antal; Bogers, Toine; De Kunder, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We propose a novel...... method of estimating the size of a Web search engine’s index by extrapolating from document frequencies of words observed in a large static corpus of Web pages. In addition, we provide a unique longitudinal perspective on the size of Google and Bing’s indexes over a nine-year period, from March 2006...... until January 2015. We find that index size estimates of these two search engines tend to vary dramatically over time, with Google generally possessing a larger index than Bing. This result raises doubts about the reliability of previous one-off estimates of the size of the indexed Web. We find...

  3. The physics of large eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Based on eruptive volumes, eruptions can be classified as follows: small if the volumes are from less than 0.001 km3 to 0.1 km3, moderate if the volumes are from 0.1 to 10 km3, and large if the volumes are from 10 km3 to 1000 km3 or larger. The largest known explosive and effusive eruptions have eruptive volumes of 4000-5000 km3. The physics of small to moderate eruptions is reasonably well understood. For a typical mafic magma chamber in a crust that behaves as elastic, about 0.1% of the magma leaves the chamber (erupted and injected as a dyke) during rupture and eruption. Similarly, for a typical felsic magma chamber, the eruptive/injected volume during rupture and eruption is about 4%. To provide small to moderate eruptions, chamber volumes of the order of several tens to several hundred cubic kilometres would be needed. Shallow crustal chambers of these sizes are common, and deep-crustal and upper-mantle reservoirs of thousands of cubic kilometres exist. Thus, elastic and poro-elastic chambers of typical volumes can account for small to moderate eruptive volumes. When the eruptions become large, with volumes of tens or hundreds of cubic kilometres or more, an ordinary poro-elastic mechanism can no longer explain the eruptive volumes. The required sizes of the magma chambers and reservoirs to explain such volumes are simply too large to be plausible. Here I propose that the mechanics of large eruptions is fundamentally different from that of small to moderate eruptions. More specifically, I suggest that all large eruptions derive their magmas from chambers and reservoirs whose total cavity-volumes are mechanically reduced very much during the eruption. There are two mechanisms by which chamber/reservoir cavity-volumes can be reduced rapidly so as to squeeze out much of, or all, their magmas. One is piston-like caldera collapse. The other is graben subsidence. During large slip on the ring-faults/graben-faults the associated chamber/reservoir shrinks in volume

  4. Size Matters: Penis Size and Sexual Position in Gay Porn Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Joseph

    2017-08-18

    This article combines qualitative and quantitative textual approaches to the representation of penis size and sexual position of performers in 10 of the most visited gay pornography Web sites currently in operation. Specifically, in excess of 6,900 performer profiles sourced from 10 commercial Web sites are analyzed. Textual analysis of the profile descriptions is combined with a quantitative representation of disclosed penis size and sexual position, which is presented visually by two figures. The figures confirm that these sites generally market themselves as featuring penises that are extraordinarily large and find a sample-wide correlation between smaller penis sizes (5-6.5 inches) and receptive sexual acts (bottoming), and larger (8.5-13 inches) with penetrative acts (topping). These observations are supported through the qualitative textual readings of how the performers are described on these popular sites, revealing the narratives and marketing strategies that shape the construction of popular porn brands, performers, and profitable fantasies.

  5. Biological motion distorts size perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veto, Peter; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2017-02-01

    Visual illusions explore the limits of sensory processing and provide an ideal testbed to study perception. Size illusions - stimuli whose size is consistently misperceived - do not only result from sensory cues, but can also be induced by cognitive factors, such as social status. Here we investigate, whether the ecological relevance of biological motion can also distort perceived size. We asked observers to judge the size of point-light walkers (PLWs), configurations of dots whose movements induce the perception of human movement, and visually matched control stimuli (inverted PLWs). We find that upright PLWs are consistently judged as larger than inverted PLWs, while static point-light figures do not elicit the same effect. We also show the phenomenon using an indirect paradigm: observers judged the relative size of a disc that followed an inverted PLW larger than a disc following an upright PLW. We interpret this as a contrast effect: The upright PLW is perceived larger and thus the subsequent disc is judged smaller. Together, these results demonstrate that ecologically relevant biological-motion stimuli are perceived larger than visually matched control stimuli. Our findings present a novel case of illusory size perception, where ecological importance leads to a distorted perception of size.

  6. Nonlinear Cross-Diffusion with Size Exclusion

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the mathematical properties of a continuum model for diffusion of multiple species incorporating size exclusion effects. The system for two species leads to nonlinear cross-diffusion terms with double degeneracy, which creates significant novel challenges in the analysis of the system. We prove global existence of weak solutions and well-posedness of strong solutions close to equilibrium. We further study some asymptotics of the model, and in particular we characterize the large-time behavior of solutions. 2010 © Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  7. Size-change termination and bound analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil

    2006-01-01

    Despite its simplicity, the size-change termination principle, presented by Lee, Jones and Ben-Amram in [LJB01], is surprisingly strong and is able to show termination for a large class of programs. A significant limitation for its use, however, is the fact that the SCT requires data types to be ...... implemented in a subject language independent shared library, libesct (available at http://esct.kvante.org), as well as for the ANSI C specializer C-Mix/ii, handling a subset of its internal language Core-C....

  8. Software sizing, cost estimation and scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, William G.

    1988-01-01

    The Technology Implementation and Support Section at Martin Marietta Astronautics Group Denver is tasked with software development analysis, data collection, software productivity improvement and developing and applying various computerized software tools and models. The computerized tools are parametric models that reflect actuals taken from the large data base of completed software development projects. Martin Marietta's data base consists of over 300 completed projects and hundreds of cost estimating relationships (CERs) that are used in sizing, costing, scheduling and productivity improvement equations, studies, models and computerized tools.

  9. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-11-30

    We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.

  10. Cavitation erosion size scale effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Size scaling in cavitation erosion is a major problem confronting the design engineers of modern high speed machinery. An overview and erosion data analysis presented in this paper indicate that the size scale exponent n in the erosion rate relationship as a function of the size or diameter can vary from 1.7 to 4.9 depending on the type of device used. There is, however, a general agreement as to the values of n if the correlations are made with constant cavitation number.

  11. Analog design centering and sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Graeb, Helmut E

    2007-01-01

    Here is a compendium of fundamental problem formulations of analog design centering and sizing. It provides a differentiated knowledge about the many tasks of analog design centering and sizing. In particular, coverage formulates the worst-case problem. The book stands at the interface between process technology and design technology, detailing how the two are required to reach a solution. It presents a mathematically founded description based on numerical optimization and statistics. This volume will enable analog and mixed-signal designers to assess CAD solution methods that are presented to them as well as help developers of analog CAD tools to formulate and develop solution approaches for analog design centering and sizing.

  12. Management of small and medium size enterprises as a carrier of economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ožegović Lazar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies in the world of market economy show that the share of small and medium size enterprises is constantly increasing compared to large enterprises. This does not decrease the significance of large enterprises, but the dependence between them gets larger every day. National economies which manage to find the optimal combination between small, medium size and large enterprises are more successful than the others. Management of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in conceptual terms is similar to the process of management of large enterprises. An organization must be managed in order to function and this rule applies to small and medium size enterprises.

  13. Windows in Low Energy Houses. Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Mari-Louise

    2004-06-01

    A generally accepted way of building passive houses has been to have small windows facing north and a large glass facade to the south. This is to minimize losses on the north side while gaining as much solar heat as possible on the south. In spring 2001, twenty terraced houses were built outside Goeteborg partly in this way. The indoor temperature is kept at a comfortable level by passive methods, using solar gains and internal gains from household appliances and occupants. Heat losses are very low, since the building envelope is well insulated and since modern coated triple-glazed windows have been installed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how decreasing the window size facing south and increasing the window size facing north in low energy houses will influence the energy consumption and maximum power needed to keep the indoor temperature between 23 and 26 deg C. Different climates and orientations have been investigated and so have the influence of occupancy and window type. A dynamic building simulation tool, DEROB, has been used and the simulations indicate an extremely low energy demand for the houses. The results show that the size of the energy efficient windows does not have a major influence on the heating demand in winter, but is of relevant signification looking at the cooling need in summer. This indicates that instead of the traditional technique of building passive houses it is possible to enlarge the window area facing north and get better lighting conditions. To decrease the energy need for cooling, there is an optimal window size facing south that is smaller than the original size of the investigated buildings.

  14. Body Size Correlates with Fertilization Success but not Gonad Size in Grass Goby Territorial Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, Jose Martin; Locatello, Lisa; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2012-01-01

    In fish species with alternative male mating tactics, sperm competition typically occurs when small males that are unsuccessful in direct contests steal fertilization opportunities from large dominant males. In the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, large territorial males defend and court females from nest sites, while small sneaker males obtain matings by sneaking into nests. Parentage assignment of 688 eggs from 8 different nests sampled in the 2003–2004 breeding season revealed a high level of sperm competition. Fertilization success of territorial males was very high but in all nests sneakers also contributed to the progeny. In territorial males, fertilization success correlated positively with male body size. Gonadal investment was explored in a sample of 126 grass gobies collected during the period 1995–1996 in the same area (61 territorial males and 65 sneakers). Correlation between body weight and testis weight was positive and significant for sneaker males, while correlation was virtually equal to zero in territorial males. That body size in territorial males is correlated with fertilization success but not gonad size suggests that males allocate much more energy into growth and relatively little into sperm production once the needed size to become territorial is attained. The increased paternity of larger territorial males might be due to a more effective defense of the nest in comparison with smaller territorial males. PMID:23056415

  15. Body size correlates with fertilization success but not gonad size in grass goby territorial males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Martin Pujolar

    Full Text Available In fish species with alternative male mating tactics, sperm competition typically occurs when small males that are unsuccessful in direct contests steal fertilization opportunities from large dominant males. In the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, large territorial males defend and court females from nest sites, while small sneaker males obtain matings by sneaking into nests. Parentage assignment of 688 eggs from 8 different nests sampled in the 2003-2004 breeding season revealed a high level of sperm competition. Fertilization success of territorial males was very high but in all nests sneakers also contributed to the progeny. In territorial males, fertilization success correlated positively with male body size. Gonadal investment was explored in a sample of 126 grass gobies collected during the period 1995-1996 in the same area (61 territorial males and 65 sneakers. Correlation between body weight and testis weight was positive and significant for sneaker males, while correlation was virtually equal to zero in territorial males. That body size in territorial males is correlated with fertilization success but not gonad size suggests that males allocate much more energy into growth and relatively little into sperm production once the needed size to become territorial is attained. The increased paternity of larger territorial males might be due to a more effective defense of the nest in comparison with smaller territorial males.

  16. Body size correlates with fertilization success but not gonad size in grass goby territorial males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolar, Jose Martin; Locatello, Lisa; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2012-01-01

    In fish species with alternative male mating tactics, sperm competition typically occurs when small males that are unsuccessful in direct contests steal fertilization opportunities from large dominant males. In the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, large territorial males defend and court females from nest sites, while small sneaker males obtain matings by sneaking into nests. Parentage assignment of 688 eggs from 8 different nests sampled in the 2003-2004 breeding season revealed a high level of sperm competition. Fertilization success of territorial males was very high but in all nests sneakers also contributed to the progeny. In territorial males, fertilization success correlated positively with male body size. Gonadal investment was explored in a sample of 126 grass gobies collected during the period 1995-1996 in the same area (61 territorial males and 65 sneakers). Correlation between body weight and testis weight was positive and significant for sneaker males, while correlation was virtually equal to zero in territorial males. That body size in territorial males is correlated with fertilization success but not gonad size suggests that males allocate much more energy into growth and relatively little into sperm production once the needed size to become territorial is attained. The increased paternity of larger territorial males might be due to a more effective defense of the nest in comparison with smaller territorial males.

  17. Modelling complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates of particle-size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Sam; Weltje, Gert Jan

    2014-05-01

    Estimates of particle-size made by operators in the field and laboratory represent a vast and relatively untapped data archive. The wide spatial distribution of particle-size estimates makes them ideal for constructing geological models and soil maps. This study uses a large data set from the Netherlands (n = 4837) containing both operator estimates of particle size and complete particle-size distributions measured by laser granulometry. This study introduces a logit-based constrained-cubic-spline (CCS) algorithm to interpolate complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates. The CCS model is compared to four other models: (i) a linear interpolation; (ii) a log-hyperbolic interpolation; (iii) an empirical logistic function; and (iv) an empirical arctan function. Operator estimates were found to be both inaccurate and imprecise; only 14% of samples were successfully classified using the Dutch classification scheme for fine sediment. Operator estimates of sediment particle-size encompass the same range of values as particle-size distributions measured by laser analysis. However, the distributions measured by laser analysis show that most of the sand percentage values lie between zero and one, so the majority of the variability in the data is lost because operator estimates are made to the nearest 1% at best, and more frequently to the nearest 5%. A method for constructing complete particle-size distributions from operator estimates of sediment texture using a logit constrained cubit spline (CCS) interpolation algorithm is presented. This model and four other previously published methods are compared to establish the best approach to modelling particle-size distributions. The logit-CCS model is the most accurate method, although both logit-linear and log-linear interpolation models provide reasonable alternatives. Models based on empirical distribution functions are less accurate than interpolation algorithms for modelling particle-size distributions in

  18. Constraints on the adult-offspring size relationship in protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caval-Holme, Franklin; Payne, Jonathan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between adult and offspring size is an important aspect of reproductive strategy. Although this filial relationship has been extensively examined in plants and animals, we currently lack comparable data for protists, whose strategies may differ due to the distinct ecological and physiological constraints on single-celled organisms. Here, we report measurements of adult and offspring sizes in 3888 species and subspecies of foraminifera, a class of large marine protists. Foraminifera exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies; species of similar adult size may have offspring whose sizes vary 100-fold. Yet, a robust pattern emerges. The minimum (5th percentile), median, and maximum (95th percentile) offspring sizes exhibit a consistent pattern of increase with adult size independent of environmental change and taxonomic variation over the past 400 million years. The consistency of this pattern may arise from evolutionary optimization of the offspring size-fecundity trade-off and/or from cell-biological constraints that limit the range of reproductive strategies available to single-celled organisms. When compared with plants and animals, foraminifera extend the evidence that offspring size covaries with adult size across an additional five orders of magnitude in organism size. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Group Size Predicts Social but Not Nonsocial Cognition in Lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Evan L; Sandel, Aaron A; Bray, Joel; Oldenkamp, Ricki E; Reddy, Rachna B; Hare, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    The social intelligence hypothesis suggests that living in large social networks was the primary selective pressure for the evolution of complex cognition in primates. This hypothesis is supported by comparative studies demonstrating a positive relationship between social group size and relative brain size across primates. However, the relationship between brain size and cognition remains equivocal. Moreover, there have been no experimental studies directly testing the association between group size and cognition across primates. We tested the social intelligence hypothesis by comparing 6 primate species (total N = 96) characterized by different group sizes on two cognitive tasks. Here, we show that a species' typical social group size predicts performance on cognitive measures of social cognition, but not a nonsocial measure of inhibitory control. We also show that a species' mean brain size (in absolute or relative terms) does not predict performance on either task in these species. These data provide evidence for a relationship between group size and social cognition in primates, and reveal the potential for cognitive evolution without concomitant changes in brain size. Furthermore our results underscore the need for more empirical studies of animal cognition, which have the power to reveal species differences in cognition not detectable by proxy variables, such as brain size.

  20. Group Size Predicts Social but Not Nonsocial Cognition in Lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L Maclean

    Full Text Available The social intelligence hypothesis suggests that living in large social networks was the primary selective pressure for the evolution of complex cognition in primates. This hypothesis is supported by comparative studies demonstrating a positive relationship between social group size and relative brain size across primates. However, the relationship between brain size and cognition remains equivocal. Moreover, there have been no experimental studies directly testing the association between group size and cognition across primates. We tested the social intelligence hypothesis by comparing 6 primate species (total N = 96 characterized by different group sizes on two cognitive tasks. Here, we show that a species' typical social group size predicts performance on cognitive measures of social cognition, but not a nonsocial measure of inhibitory control. We also show that a species' mean brain size (in absolute or relative terms does not predict performance on either task in these species. These data provide evidence for a relationship between group size and social cognition in primates, and reveal the potential for cognitive evolution without concomitant changes in brain size. Furthermore our results underscore the need for more empirical studies of animal cognition, which have the power to reveal species differences in cognition not detectable by proxy variables, such as brain size.