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Sample records for sweating manikin controlled

  1. Measuring the thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of sleeping bags using a supine sweating fabric manikin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y S; Fan, Jintu

    2009-01-01

    For testing the thermal insulation of sleeping bags, standard test methods and procedures using heated manikins are provided in ASTM F1720-06 and EN 13537:2002. However, with regard to the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, no instrument or test method has so far been established to give a direct measurement. In this paper, we report on a novel supine sweating fabric manikin system for directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags. Eleven sleeping bags were tested using the manikin under the isothermal condition, namely, both the mean skin temperature of the manikin and that of the environment were controlled to be the same at 35 °C, with the wind speed and ambient relative humidity at 0.3 m s −1 and 50%, respectively. The results showed that the novel supine sweating fabric manikin is reproducible and accurate in directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, and the measured evaporative resistance can be combined with thermal insulation to calculate the moisture permeability index of sleeping bags

  2. Comparison of fabric skins for the simulation of sweating on thermal manikins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelblen, Barbara; Psikuta, Agnes; Bogdan, Anna; Annaheim, Simon; Rossi, René M.

    2017-09-01

    Sweating is an important thermoregulatory process helping to dissipate heat and, thus, to prevent overheating of the human body. Simulations of human thermo-physiological responses in hot conditions or during exercising are helpful for assessing heat stress; however, realistic sweating simulation and evaporative cooling is needed. To this end, thermal manikins dressed with a tight fabric skin can be used, and the properties of this skin should help human-like sweat evaporation simulation. Four fabrics, i.e., cotton with elastane, polyester, polyamide with elastane, and a skin provided by a manikin manufacturer (Thermetrics) were compared in this study. The moisture management properties of the fabrics have been investigated in basic tests with regard to all phases of sweating relevant for simulating human thermo-physiological responses, namely, onset of sweating, fully developed sweating, and drying. The suitability of the fabrics for standard tests, such as clothing evaporative resistance measurements, was evaluated based on tests corresponding to the middle phase of sweating. Simulations with a head manikin coupled to a thermo-physiological model were performed to evaluate the overall performance of the skins. The results of the study showed that three out of four evaluated fabrics have adequate moisture management properties with regard to the simulation of sweating, which was confirmed in the coupled simulation with the head manikin. The presented tests are helpful for comparing the efficiency of different fabrics to simulate sweat-induced evaporative cooling on thermal manikins.

  3. Measurements of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating thermal manikin: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Faming

    2017-01-01

    Evaporative resistance has been widely used to describe the evaporative heat transfer property of clothing. It is also a critical variable in heat stress models for predicting human physiological responses in various environmental conditions. At present, sweating thermal manikins provide a fast and cost-effective way to determine clothing evaporative resistance. Unfortunately, the measurement repeatability and reproducibility of evaporative resistance are rather low due to the complicated moisture transfer processes through clothing. This review article presents a systematical overview on major influential factors affecting the measurement precision of clothing evaporative resistance measurements. It also illustrates the state-of-the-art knowledge on the development of test protocol to measure clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. Some feasible and robust test procedures for measurement of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating manikin are described. Recommendations on how to improve the measurement accuracy of clothing evaporative resistance are addressed and expected future trends on development of advanced sweating thermal manikins are finally presented. PMID:28566566

  4. Effect of sweating set rate on clothing real evaporative resistance determined on a sweating thermal manikin in a so-called isothermal condition (T manikin = T a = T r).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui; Shi, Wen; Song, Guowen

    2016-04-01

    The ASTM F2370 (2010) is the only standard with regard to measurement of clothing real evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. However, the sweating set-point is not recommended in the standard. In this study, the effect of sweating rate on clothing real evaporative resistance was investigated on a 34-zone "Newton" sweating thermal manikin in a so-called isothermal condition (T manikin = T a = T r). Four different sweating set rates (i.e., all segments had a sweating rate of 400, 800, 1200 ml/hr ∙ m(2), respectively, and different sweating rates were assigned to different segments) were applied to determine the clothing real evaporative resistance of five clothing ensembles and the boundary air layer. The results indicated that the sweating rate did not affect the real evaporative resistance of clothing ensembles with the absence of strong moisture absorbent layers. For the clothing ensemble with tight cotton underwear, a sweating rate of lower than 400 ml/hr ∙ m(2) is not recommended. This is mainly because the wet fabric "skin" might not be fully saturated and thus led to a lower evaporative heat loss and thereby a higher real evaporative resistance. For vapor permeable clothing, the real evaporative resistance determined in the so-called isothermal condition should be corrected before being used in thermal comfort or heat strain models. However, the reduction of wet thermal insulation due to moisture absorption in different test scenarios had a limited contribution to the effect of sweating rate on the real evaporative resistance.

  5. Effects of fabric thickness and material on apparent 'wet' conductive thermal resistance of knitted fabric 'skin' on sweating manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Lai, Dandan; Shi, Wen; Fu, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Currently, no published standard and research work have addressed the basic requirements on knitted fabric 'skin' on sweating manikins. In this study, we performed 252 experiments to investigate the influence of fabric thickness and material on the apparent 'wet' conductive (or effective) thermal resistance of the fabric 'skin' using a 'Newton' manikin. Four types of cotton fabric 'skin' (fabric thickness: 0.38, 0.54, 0.92 and 1.43mm) and three types of polyester fabric 'skin' (fabric thickness: 0.41, 0.54 and 1.0mm) were selected and their 'wet' conductive thermal resistance was determined. Empirical equations were also developed for each fabric 'skin' to predict wet fabric 'skin' surface temperatures. It was found that both fabric thickness and material significantly affected the apparent 'wet' conductive thermal resistance. Clothing total evaporative resistance determined using thin fabric 'skin' (e.g., CO1, CO2) was normally lower than that determined using thick fabric 'skin' (e.g., CO4). Besides, synthetic fabric 'skin' tended to have a larger apparent 'wet' conductive thermal resistance than the cotton fabric 'skin' due to a smaller amount of moisture contained. Hence, there is a great need to standardize the fabric 'skin' to eliminate the influence of fabric 'skin' on the measurement of clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Comparative Introduction on Sweating Thermal Manikin “Newton” and “Walter”

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Faming

    2008-01-01

    Recently, thermal manikins are frequently used for testing and product development by sports science and human excises field, by the building industry and by the automobile industry for evaluation of the performance of heating and ventilation systems. Multisegments thermal manikin “Newton” and onesegment thermal manikin “Walter” was described in the paper. The thermal insulation and moisture vapor resistance was briefly introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of thos...

  7. A thermal manikin with human thermoregulatory control: implementation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2012-09-01

    Tens of different sorts of thermal manikins are employed worldwide, mainly in the evaluation of clothing thermal insulation and thermal environments. They are regulated thermally using simplified control modes. This paper reports on the implementation and validation of a new thermoregulatory control mode for thermal manikins. The new control mode is based on a multi-segmental Pierce (MSP) model. In this study, the MSP control mode was implemented, using the LabVIEW platform, onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'Therminator'. The MSP mode was then used to estimate the segmental equivalent temperature (t(eq)) along with constant surface temperature (CST) mode under two asymmetric thermal conditions. Furthermore, subjective tests under the same two conditions were carried out using 17 human subjects. The estimated segmental t(eq) from the experiments with the two modes and from the subjective assessment were compared in order to validate the use of the MSP mode for the estimation of t(eq). The results showed that the t(eq) values estimated by the MSP mode were closer to the subjective mean votes under the two test conditions for most body segments and compared favourably with values estimated by the CST mode.

  8. Determination of clothing evaporative resistance on a sweating thermal manikin in an isothermal condition: heat loss method or mass loss method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2011-08-01

    This paper addresses selection between two calculation options, i.e heat loss option and mass loss option, for thermal manikin measurements on clothing evaporative resistance conducted in an isothermal condition (T(manikin) = T(a) = T(r)). Five vocational clothing ensembles with a thermal insulation range of 1.05-2.58 clo were selected and measured on a sweating thermal manikin 'Tore'. The reasons why the isothermal heat loss method generates a higher evaporative resistance than that of the mass loss method were thoroughly investigated. In addition, an indirect approach was applied to determine the amount of evaporative heat energy taken from the environment. It was found that clothing evaporative resistance values by the heat loss option were 11.2-37.1% greater than those based on the mass loss option. The percentage of evaporative heat loss taken from the environment (H(e,env)) for all test scenarios ranged from 10.9 to 23.8%. The real evaporative cooling efficiency ranged from 0.762 to 0.891, respectively. Furthermore, it is evident that the evaporative heat loss difference introduced by those two options was equal to the heat energy taken from the environment. In order to eliminate the combined effects of dry heat transfer, condensation, and heat pipe on clothing evaporative resistance, it is suggested that manikin measurements on the determination of clothing evaporative resistance should be performed in an isothermal condition. Moreover, the mass loss method should be applied to calculate clothing evaporative resistance. The isothermal heat loss method would appear to overestimate heat stress and thus should be corrected before use.

  9. Application of a Sweating Manikin Controlled by a Human Physiological Model and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Lustbader, J.

    2006-11-01

    Discusses two applications of NREL's suite of thermal comfort tools: one to assess impact of an automotive ventilated seat on comfort and fuel economy, and another to evaluate liquid cooling garments for NASA spacesuits.

  10. Training approaches for the deployment of a mechanical chest compression device: a randomised controlled manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Keith; Velho, Rochelle M; Quinn, Tom; Devrell, Anne; Lall, Ranjit; Orriss, Barry; Yeung, Joyce; Perkins, Gavin D

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of training strategy on team deployment of a mechanical chest compression device. Randomised controlled manikin trial. Large teaching hospital in the UK. Twenty teams, each comprising three clinicians. Participating individuals were health professionals with intermediate or advanced resuscitation training. Teams were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either standard mechanical chest compression device training or pit-crew device training. Training interventions lasted up to 1 h. Performance was measured immediately after training in a standardised simulated cardiac arrest scenario in which teams were required to deploy a mechanical chest compression device. Primary outcome was chest compression flow fraction in the minute preceding the first mechanical chest compression. Secondary outcomes included cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality and mechanical device deployment metrics, and non-technical skill performance. Outcomes were assessed using video recordings of the test scenario. In relation to the primary outcome of chest compression flow fraction in the minute preceding the first mechanical chest compression, we found that pit-crew training was not superior to standard training (0.76 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.79) vs 0.77 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.82), mean difference -0.01 (95% CI -0.06 to 0.03), P=0.572). There was also no difference between groups in performance in relation to any secondary outcome. Pit-crew training, compared with standard training, did not improve team deployment of a mechanical chest device in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. ISRCTN43049287; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. The Inflatable Mini Anne® Manikin May be Used as an Inexpensive Alternative to a Standard Life-size Resuscitation Manikin During Instructor-led BLS/AED Training - A Randomized Controlled Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Camilla; Cordsen, Anna-Sophie N; Hoe, Masja B

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The inflatable and inexpensive Mini Anne® resuscitation manikin is widely used with a self-instruction video and allows dissemination of BLS/AED skills to large groups. The learning outcome following instructor-led BLS/AED training using a Mini Anne® compared to a standard life...... using the Mini Anne® manikin was not significantly different compared with training on a standard life-size manikin. The Mini Anne® manikin may be used as an inexpensive alternative to a standard life-size resuscitation manikin.Author Disclosures: C. Bang: None. A.N. Cordsen: None. M.B. Hoe: None. S...

  12. What's Sweat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body breaks down protein.) The sweat leaves your skin through tiny holes called pores. When the sweat hits the air, the air makes it evaporate (this means it turns from a liquid to a vapor). As the sweat evaporates off your skin, you cool down. Sweat is a great cooling ...

  13. The thermal insulation difference of clothing ensembles on the dry and perspiration manikins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaohong, Zhou; Chunqin, Zheng; Yingming, Qiang; Holmér, Ingvar; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev

    2010-01-01

    There are about a hundred manikin users around the world. Some of them use the manikin such as 'Walter' and 'Tore' to evaluate the comfort of clothing ensembles according to their thermal insulation and moisture resistance. A 'Walter' manikin is made of water and waterproof breathable fabric 'skin', which simulates the characteristics of human perspiration. So evaporation, condensation or sorption and desorption are always accompanied by heat transfer. A 'Tore' manikin only has dry heat exchange by conduction, radiation and convection from the manikin through clothing ensembles to environments. It is an ideal apparatus to measure the thermal insulation of the clothing ensemble and allows evaluation of thermal comfort. This paper compares thermal insulation measured with dry 'Tore' and sweating 'Walter' manikins. Clothing ensembles consisted of permeable and impermeable clothes. The results showed that the clothes covering the 'Walter' manikin absorbed the moisture evaporated from the manikin. When the moisture transferred through the permeable clothing ensembles, heat of condensation could be neglected. But it was observed that heavy condensation occurred if impermeable clothes were tested on the 'Walter' manikin. This resulted in a thermal insulation difference of clothing ensembles on the dry and perspiration manikins. The thermal insulation obtained from the 'Walter' manikin has to be modified when heavy condensation occurs. The modified equation is obtained in this study

  14. Thermal Manikins & Clothing Biophysics Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Five biophysical evaluation chambers containing fully sensored, articulated, moveable copper manikins, and other metallic models of feet and hands are available for...

  15. Simulating Physiological Response with a Passive Sensor Manikin and an Adaptive Thermal Manikin to Predict Thermal Sensation and Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, John P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chaney, Larry [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hepokoski, Mark [ThermoAnalytics Inc.; Curran, Allen [ThermoAnalytics Inc.; Burke, Richard [Measurement Technology NW; Maranville, Clay [Ford Motor Company

    2015-04-14

    Reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort can be difficult to obtain within automotive environments, especially under transient and asymmetric heating and cooling scenarios. Evaluation of HVAC system performance in terms of comfort commonly requires human subject testing, which may involve multiple repetitions, as well as multiple test subjects. Instrumentation (typically comprised of an array of temperature sensors) is usually only sparsely applied across the human body, significantly reducing the spatial resolution of available test data. Further, since comfort is highly subjective in nature, a single test protocol can yield a wide variation in results which can only be overcome by increasing the number of test replications and subjects. In light of these difficulties, various types of manikins are finding use in automotive testing scenarios. These manikins can act as human surrogates from which local skin and core temperatures can be obtained, which are necessary for accurately predicting local and whole body thermal sensation and comfort using a physiology-based comfort model (e.g., the Berkeley Comfort Model). This paper evaluates two different types of manikins, i) an adaptive sweating thermal manikin, which is coupled with a human thermoregulation model, running in real-time, to obtain realistic skin temperatures; and, ii) a passive sensor manikin, which is used to measure boundary conditions as they would act on a human, from which skin and core temperatures can be predicted using a thermophysiological model. The simulated physiological responses and comfort obtained from both of these manikin-model coupling schemes are compared to those of a human subject within a vehicle cabin compartment transient heat-up scenario.

  16. Combined short- and long-axis ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization is superior to conventional techniques: A cross-over randomized controlled manikin trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Takeshita

    Full Text Available Visualizing the needle tip using the short-axis (SA ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization approach can be challenging. It has been suggested to start the process with the SA approach and then switch to the long-axis (LA; however, to our knowledge, this combination has not been evaluated. We compared the combined short- and long-axis (SLA approach with the SA approach in a manikin study.We performed a prospective randomized controlled cross-over study in an urban emergency department and intensive care unit. Resident physicians in post-graduate years 1-2 performed a simulated ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein puncture using the SA and SLA approaches on manikins. Twenty resident physicians were randomly assigned to two equal groups: (1 one group performed punctures using the SA approach followed by SLA; and (2 the other performed the same procedures in the opposite order. We compared the success rate and procedure duration for the two approaches. Procedural success was defined as insertion of the guide-wire into the vein while visualizing the needle tip at the time of anterior wall puncture, without penetrating the posterior wall.Six resident physicians (30% performed both approaches successfully, while 12 (60% performed the SLA approach, but not the SA, successfully. Those who performed the SA approach successfully also succeeded with the SLA approach. Two resident physicians (10% failed to perform both approaches. The SLA approach had a significantly higher success rate than the SA approach (P < 0.001. The median (interquartile range procedure duration was 59.5 [46.0-88.5] seconds and 45.0 [37.5-84.0] seconds for the SLA and SA approaches, respectively. The difference of the duration between the two procedures was 15.5 [0-28.5] seconds. There was no significant difference in duration between the two approaches (P = 0.12.Using the SLA approach significantly improved the success rate of internal jugular vein puncture performed by

  17. the comfort, measured by means of a sweating manikin (waltertm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    INTRODUCTION. Comfort is an important consideration when selecting clothing to purchase or wear, the requirements varying greatly depending upon ..... Research Journal 40:553-558. GERICKE, A. & VAN DER POL, J. 2010. A comparative study of regenerated bamboo, cotton and viscose rayon fabrics. Part 1: Selected ...

  18. Manikin Testing on LASA Suit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durnford, W; Potter, P

    2006-01-01

    As part of a BL2 with the Directorate of Aerospace Engineering Support DAES, DRDC Toronto required testing to be conducted on a thermal immersion manikin to evaluate the thermal resistance of the NBC...

  19. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Jun-Nian; Sui, Jian-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and diagnosed as a low-grade hidradenocarcinoma. We presented a very good result of chemotherapy in the treatment of this rare malignant disease. It demonstrates that adjunct chemotherapy is effective to control the condition of malignant sweat-gland carcinomas patient.

  20. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and diagnosed as a low-grade hidradenocarcinoma. We presented a very good result of chemotherapy in the treatment of this rare malignant disease. It demonstrates that adjunct chemotherapy is effective to control the condition of malignant sweat-gland carcinomas patient.

  1. Development of MATLAB Scripts for the Calculation of Thermal Manikin Regional Resistance Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A software tool has been developed via MATLAB® scripts to reduce the amount of repetitive and time-consuming calculations that are...the evaporative resistance of clothing using a sweating manikin. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2010. 3. ISO 9920. Ergonomics of...producing heat at the rate of 58 W/m2) comfortable in an environment at 21°C, air movement 0.1 m/s, or roughly the insulation of a heavy business suit

  2. Sweat control in male by the use of alunogen and cypripedium pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of my study is to investigate upon the quality and quantity of the free fatty acids secreted by apocrine glands, as chief index to determine the real efficacy of a new model of antiperspirant-deodorant, that interferes directly with apocrine glands (by reducing drastically the secretion of free fatty acids and indirectly with eccrine glands, by minimising the salted water secretion. I created an innovative cosmetic formula that comprises the Alunogen, idest the heptadecahydrated form of aluminium sulphate, since the generic aluminium sulphate has been recently accused of the onset of the Alzheimer’s disease, when penetrating the epidermis, although definitive scientific proof is difficult to establish due to the lack of longitudinal studies, and therefore could be banished in the very next future. The formula comprises also the concrète of Cypripedium Pubescens (Lady’s slipper which contains, inter alia, the cypripedin, a quinine-analog, endowed by anticholinergic activities, that can be reputed useful as astringent agent with regards to eccrine glands, synergically to the action upon apocrine glands performed by alunogen. I recruited 11 young men, 11 bricklayers that customarily have to work 9 hours pro day after the hot summer sun and assert without doubt to sweat copiously, in order to carry out my experience.

  3. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperhidrosis is a condition in which the production of sweat is abnormally increased. No objective criteria for the diagnosis of hyperhidrosis exist, mainly because reference intervals for normal physiological sweat production at rest are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The main objective...... of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... derived from a review of data on hyperhidrosis published between 1980 and 2013. RESULTS: Approximately 90% of the controls had axillary and palmar sweat production rates of below 100 mg/5 min. In all except one of the axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis studies reviewed, average sweat production exceeded...

  4. Breathing thermal manikin for indoor environment assessment: Important characteristics and requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2003-01-01

    Recently breathing thermal manikins have been developed and used for indoor environment measurement, evaluation and optimization as well as validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions of airflow around a human body. Advances in the assessment of occupants¿ thermal comfort...... and perceived air quality by means of breathing thermal manikins have been made as well. In order to perform accurate measurements and realistic evaluation and assessment, the design and characteristics of a manikin must comply with certain requirements. The most important of these, such as number, size...... and shape of body segments, control mode, breathing simulation, etc. are discussed and specified in this paper....

  5. Breathing thermal manikins for indoor environment assessment: important characteristics and requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    Recently breathing thermal manikins have been developed and used for indoor environment measurement, evaluation and optimization as well as validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions of airflow around a human body. Advances in the assessment of occupants¿ thermal comfort...... and perceived air quality by means of breathing thermal manikins have been made as well. In order to perform accurate measurements and realistic evaluation and assessment, the design and characteristics of a manikin must comply with certain requirements. The most important of these, such as number, size...... and shape of body segments, control mode, breathing simulation, etc. are discussed and specified in this paper....

  6. Plasma, oral fluid and sweat wipe ecstasy concentrations in controlled and real life conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samyn, N; De Boeck, G; Wood, M; Lamers, CTJ; De Waard, D; Brookhuis, KA; Verstraete, AG; Riedel, WJ

    2002-01-01

    In a double-blind placebo controlled study on psychomotor skills important for car driving (Study 1), a 75 mg dose of 3,4methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was administered orally to 12 healthy Volunteers who were known to be recreational MDMA-users. Toxicokinetic data were gathered by analysis of

  7. Generation of Boundary Manikin Anthropometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Karen S.; Margerum, Sarah; Barr, Abbe; Ferrer, Mike A.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop 3D digital boundary manikins that are representative of the anthropometry of a unique population. These digital manikins can be used by designers to verify and validate that the components of the spacesuit design satisfy the requirements specified in the Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) document. Currently, the HSIR requires the suit to accommodate the 1st percentile American female to the 99th percentile American male. The manikin anthropometry was derived using two methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Whole Body Posture Based Analysis (WBPBA). PCA is a statistical method for reducing a multidimensional data set by using eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The goal is to create a reduced data set that encapsulates the majority of the variation in the population. WBPBA is a multivariate analytical approach that was developed by the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) to identify the extremes of the population for a given body posture. WBPBA is a simulation-based method that finds extremes in a population based on anthropometry and posture whereas PCA is based solely on anthropometry. Both methods yield a list of subjects and their anthropometry from the target population; PCA resulted in 20 female and 22 male subjects anthropometry and WBPBA resulted in 7 subjects' anthropometry representing the extreme subjects in the target population. The subjects anthropometry is then used to 'morph' a baseline digital scan of a person with the same body type to create a 3D digital model that can be used as a tool for designers, the details of which will be discussed in subsequent papers.

  8. Vulvar sweat gland carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, M R; Goellner, J R; Wolfe, J T; Su, W P

    1985-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinomas constitute less than 10% of all malignant tumors of the vulva, including those associated with extramammary Paget's disease (EPD). The histopathologic diagnosis of vulvar sweat gland carcinomas is difficult because of their rarity; their resemblance to metastatic carcinomas of the internal female genitalia, kidneys, and other sites; and their diversity of microscopic appearances. We report five examples of vulvar sweat gland carcinomas, two of which were associated with EPD. The other tumors included one example each of ductal eccrine adenocarcinoma, eccrine porocarcinoma, and clear cell hidradenocarcinoma. The clinical behavior of these neoplasms is correlated with their histologic types; we also discuss differential diagnosis and treatment recommendations.

  9. Botulinum toxin abolishes sweating via impaired sweat gland responsiveness to exogenous acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, M; Davis, S L; Cui, J; Low, D A; Keller, D M; Crandall, C G

    2009-10-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTX) disrupts neurotransmitter release from cholinergic nerves. The effective duration of impaired sweat secretion with BTX is longer relative to that of impaired muscle contraction, suggesting different mechanisms in these tissues. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that BTX is capable of altering sweating by reducing the responsiveness of the sweat gland to acetylcholine. BTX was injected into the dorsal forearm skin of healthy subjects at least 3 days before subsequent assessment. On the day of the experiment, intradermal microdialysis probes were placed within the BTX-treated area and in an adjacent untreated area. Incremental doses of acetylcholine were administered through the microdialysis membranes while the sweat rate (protocol 1; n = 8) or a combination of sweat rate and skin blood flow (protocol 2; n = 8) were assessed. A relative absence of sweating was observed at the BTX site for both protocols (protocol 1: 0.05 +/- 0.09 mg cm(-2) min(-1); protocol 2: 0.03 +/- 0.04 mg cm(-2) min(-1), both at the highest dose of acetylcholine), while the sweat rate increased appropriately at the control sites (protocol 1: 0.90 +/- 0.46 mg cm(-2) min(-1); protocol 2: 1.07 +/- 0.67 mg cm(-2) min(-1)). Cutaneous vascular conductance increased to a similar level at both the BTX and control sites. These results demonstrate that BTX is capable of inhibiting sweat secretion by reducing the responsiveness of the sweat gland to acetylcholine, while not altering acetylcholine-mediated cutaneous vasodilatation.

  10. The effects of changes to the ERC resuscitation guidelines on no flow time and cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality: a randomised controlled study on manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, H; Kuisma, M; Uusaro, A

    2007-11-01

    The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines changed in 2005. We investigated the impact of these changes on no flow time and on the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Simulated cardiac arrest (CA) scenarios were managed randomly in manikins using ERC 2000 or 2005 guidelines. Pairs of paramedics/paramedic students treated 34 scenarios with 10min of continuous ventricular fibrillation. The rhythm was analysed and defibrillation shocks were delivered with a semi-automatic defibrillator, and breathing was assisted with a bag-valve-mask; no intravenous medication was given. Time factors related to human intervention and time factors related to device, rhythm analysis, charging and defibrillation were analysed for their contribution to no flow time (time without chest compression). Chest compression quality was also analysed. No flow time (mean+/-S.D.) was 66+/-3% of CA time with ERC 2000 and 32+/-4% with ERC 2005 guidelines (PERC 2000) versus 107+/-4s (ERC 2005) during 600-s scenarios (P=0.237). Device factor interventions took longer using ERC 2000 guidelines: 290+/-19s versus 92+/-15s (PERC 2005 guidelines (808+/-92s versus 458+/-90s, P<0.001), but the quality of CPR did not differ between the groups. The use of a single shock sequence with guidelines 2005 has decreased the no flow time during CPR when compared with guidelines 2000 with multiple shocks.

  11. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichkov, Igor; Daskalakis, Theodoros; Rankin, Linda; Divino, Celia

    2004-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the skin adnexa that can occur in a variety of locations. It is a slow-growing tumor that metastasizes early and often. The rarity of this tumor has led to a relative lack of adequate evidence with regard to treating this entity. Recent advances in immunohistochemical staining have better defined this tumor and have aided in diagnosing its subtypes though histologic grade and presence of regional lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis. These are the best indicators for prognosis and management currently available. Indications for sentinel node biopsy are currently not well defined. Because of the poor prognosis of high-grade sweat gland carcinoma, clinicians should be aware of this entity and be prepared to treat aggressively. Management of sweat gland carcinoma is difficult because extensive study into both surgical and nonsurgical treatment has not been done. We present a case of sweat gland carcinoma of the lower extremity and a review of the clinicopathologic literature of these rare neoplasms, including diagnosis and surgical management.

  13. Effect of temperature difference between manikin and wet fabric skin surfaces on clothing evaporative resistance: how much error is there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Clothing evaporative resistance is one of the inherent factors that impede heat exchange by sweating evaporation. It is widely used as a basic input in physiological heat strain models. Previous studies showed a large variability in clothing evaporative resistance both at intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory testing. The errors in evaporative resistance may cause severe problems in the determination of heat stress level of the wearers. In this paper, the effect of temperature difference between the manikin nude surface and wet textile skin surface on clothing evaporative resistance was investigated by both theoretical analysis and thermal manikin measurements. It was found that the temperature difference between the skin surface and the manikin nude surface could lead to an error of up to 35.9% in evaporative resistance of the boundary air layer. Similarly, this temperature difference could also introduce an error of up to 23.7% in the real clothing total evaporative resistance (R ( et_real ) < 0.1287 kPa m(2)/W). Finally, it is evident that one major error in the calculation of evaporative resistance comes from the use of the manikin surface temperature instead of the wet textile fabric skin temperature.

  14. A Real-Time Wireless Sweat Rate Measurement System for Physical Activity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueck, Andrew; Iftekhar, Tashfin; Stannard, Alicja B; Yelamarthi, Kumar; Kaya, Tolga

    2018-02-10

    There has been significant research on the physiology of sweat in the past decade, with one of the main interests being the development of a real-time hydration monitor that utilizes sweat. The contents of sweat have been known for decades; sweat provides significant information on the physiological condition of the human body. However, it is important to know the sweat rate as well, as sweat rate alters the concentration of the sweat constituents, and ultimately affects the accuracy of hydration detection. Towards this goal, a calorimetric based flow-rate detection system was built and tested to determine sweat rate in real time. The proposed sweat rate monitoring system has been validated through both controlled lab experiments (syringe pump) and human trials. An Internet of Things (IoT) platform was embedded, with the sensor using a Simblee board and Raspberry Pi. The overall prototype is capable of sending sweat rate information in real time to either a smartphone or directly to the cloud. Based on a proven theoretical concept, our overall system implementation features a pioneer device that can truly measure the rate of sweat in real time, which was tested and validated on human subjects. Our realization of the real-time sweat rate watch is capable of detecting sweat rates as low as 0.15 µL/min/cm², with an average error in accuracy of 18% compared to manual sweat rate readings.

  15. Heat removal using microclimate foot cooling: a thermal foot manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, John W; Demes, Robert; Endrusick, Thomas L; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Montain, Scott J

    2014-04-01

    It has been proposed that microclimate cooling systems exploit the peripheral extremities because of more efficient heat transfer. The purpose of this study was to quantify, using a patented microclimate cooling technique, the heat transfer from the plantar surface of the foot for comparison to other commonly cooled body regions. A military boot was fitted with an insole embedded with a coiled, 1.27 m length of hollow tubing terminating in inlet and outlet valves. A thermal foot manikin with a surface temperature of 34 degrees C was placed in the boot and the valves were connected to a system that circulated water through the insole at a temperature of 20 degrees C and flow rate of 120 ml x min(-1). The manikin foot served as a constant heat source to determine heat transfer provided by the insole. Testing was done with the foot model dry and sweating at a rate of 500 ml x h(- 1) x m(-2). Climatic chamber conditions were 30 degrees C with 30% RH. Heat loss was approximately 4.1 +/- 0.1 and approximately 7.7 +/- 0.3 W from the dry and sweating foot models, respectively. On a relative scale, the heat loss was 3.0 W and 5.5 W per 1% (unit) body surface area, respectively, for the dry and sweating conditions. The relative heat loss afforded by plantar foot cooling was similar compared to other body regions, but the absolute amount of heat removal is unlikely to make an impact on whole body heat balance.

  16. [Models and manikins in dental education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, J S; Vega, J M; Calatayud, J; Manso, F J

    1991-01-01

    Different available types of dental models and manikin used for preclinical odontological education are analyzed. On the basis of their composition are classified in biological, artificial, and mixed models. According to their usage, those ones are classified in demonstration, exploration, and working models. Each of them are studied, remarkable aspects in odontological education are emphasized.

  17. Electrical measurement of sweat activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronstad, Christian; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Gjein, Gaute E; Fosse, Erik; Krogstad, Anne-Lene

    2008-01-01

    A multichannel logger for long-term measurements of sweat activity is presented. The logger uses skin surface electrodes for unipolar admittance measurements in the stratum corneum. The logger is developed with emphasis on clinical use. The portability of the logger enables recording of sweat activity under circumstances such as daily errands, exercise and sleep. Measurements have been done on 24 healthy volunteers during relaxation and exercise with heart rate monitoring. Recordings of sweat activity during sleep have been done on two healthy subjects. Early results show good agreement with the literature on sweating physiology and electrodermal activity. Results are presented showing measurements related to physical exercise, dermatomes, distribution of sweat glands and sympathetic activity. This study examines the normal sweating patterns for the healthy population, and we present results with the first 24 healthy volunteers. Comparing these results with similar measurements on hyperhidrosis patients will make it possible to find the most useful parameters for diagnosis and treatment evaluation

  18. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Xia Wang; Hai-Yan Wang; Jun-Nian Zheng; Jian-Chao Sui

    2014-01-01

    Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and ...

  19. Sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pragya A; Rathod, Kirti M; Chaudhary, Arvind H; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2013-10-01

    Sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor particularly over scalp. They have potential to be benign as well as distant metastasis. Usually presents with papules or nodules. Ulcerative morphology is uncommon. Wide surigical excision with regional lymph not dissection is the treatment of choice. A 42-year-old female with sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp is reported with cervical lymph node involvement.

  20. Sweat Gland Adenocarcinoma of Scalp

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Pragya A; Rathod, Kirti M; Chaudhary, Arvind H; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2013-01-01

    Sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor particularly over scalp. They have potential to be benign as well as distant metastasis. Usually presents with papules or nodules. Ulcerative morphology is uncommon. Wide surigical excision with regional lymph not dissection is the treatment of choice. A 42-year-old female with sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp is reported with cervical lymph node involvement.

  1. Sweating dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinn, L; Schrag, A; Viswanathan, R; Lees, A; Quinn, N; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence and nature of sweating disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and investigated their correlation with other clinical features and with Quality of Life (QoL) measures. A questionnaire on symptoms and consequences of sweating dysfunction was

  2. Deformation of a sound field caused by a manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinrich, Søren G.

    1981-01-01

    around the head at distances of 1 cm to 2 m, measured from the tip of the nose. The signals were pure tones at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kHz. It was found that the presence of the manikin caused changes in the SPL of the sound field of at most ±2.5 dB at a distance of 1 m from the surface of the manikin....... Only over an interval of approximately 20 ° behind the manikin (i.e., opposite the sound source) did the manikin cause much larger changes, up to 9 dB. These changes are caused by destructive interference between sounds coming from opposite sides of the manikin. In front of the manikin, the changes...

  3. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols.

  4. Sweat production during global heating and during isometric exercise in people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Lee, Scott; Patterson, Chris; Cole, Melissa; Stewart, Brian

    2005-11-01

    While sweat production in response to heat is impaired in people with diabetes, sweat production has not been examined during isometric exercise. Eight subjects with type 2 diabetes and 9 control subjects exerted a fatiguing isometric contraction of the handgrip muscles at a tension of 40% of the maximum voluntary strength (MVC) after exposure to a 32 deg C environment for 30 min. compared to 10 controls and 10 subjects with diabetes exposed to a 39 deg C environment. Sweat was impaired to all areas of the body during heat exposure in patients with diabetes under both environmental conditions. For example, on the chest, the average sweat rates after exposure to the 32 deg environment was 259.2 +/- 55.2 nanoliters/min in control subjects and 198.3 +/- 46.2 nanoliters/min for subjects with diabetes. Compared to the 32 deg C environment, control subjects increased sweat in all 4 areas proportionally more than subjects with diabetes. Sudomotor rhythm was present in sweat in control subjects at a rate of repetition of 11 and 50 seconds but almost absent in subjects with diabetes. During exercise, sweat rates slowly increased from the beginning to the end of the exercise. But the head of the subjects with diabetes showed hypersweating while the other areas showed diminished sweating compared to control subjects. Thus some of the impairment in sweating may be due to central mechanisms associated with heat sensitivity or in the hypothalamus and not to the sweat glands themselves.

  5. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  6. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  7. Evaluating local and overall thermal comfort in buildings using thermal manikins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, E.

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation methods of human thermal comfort that are based on whole-body heat balance with its surroundings may not be adequate for evaluations in non-uniform thermal conditions. Under these conditions, the human body's segments may experience a wide range of room physical parameters and the evaluation of the local (segmental) thermal comfort becomes necessary. In this work, subjective measurements of skin temperature were carried out to investigate the human body's local responses due to a step change in the room temperature; and the variability in the body's local temperatures under different indoor conditions and exposures as well as the physiological steady state local temperatures. Then, a multi-segmental model of human thermoregulation was developed based on these findings to predict the local skin temperatures of individuals' body segments with a good accuracy. The model predictability of skin temperature was verified for steady state and dynamic conditions using measured data at uniform neutral, cold and warm as well as different asymmetric thermal conditions. The model showed very good predictability with average absolute deviation ranged from 0.3-0.8 K. The model was then implemented onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'THERMINATOR' to adjust the segmental skin temperature set-points based on the indoor conditions. This new control for the manikin was experimentally validated for the prediction of local and overall thermal comfort using the equivalent temperature measure. THERMINATOR with the new control mode was then employed in the evaluation of localized floor-heating system variants towards maximum energy efficiency. This aimed at illustrating a design strategy using the thermal manikin to find the optimum geometry and surface area of a floor-heater for a single seated person. Furthermore, a psychological comfort model that is based on local skin temperature was adapted for the use with the model of human

  8. The impact of chest compression rates on quality of chest compressions : a manikin study

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Richard A.; Soar, Jasmeet; Davies, Robin P.; Akhtar, Naheed; Perkins, Gavin D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose\\ud Chest compressions are often performed at a variable rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The effect of compression rate on other chest compression quality variables (compression depth, duty-cycle, leaning, performance decay over time) is unknown. This randomised controlled cross-over manikin study examined the effect of different compression rates on the other chest compression quality variables.\\ud Methods\\ud Twenty healthcare professionals performed two minutes of co...

  9. Perioral gustatory sweating: case report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayser, S.C.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Presentation of a case of perioral Frey syndrome. DESIGN: Case report. SUBJECT: A 72-year-old woman with hyperhidrosis around the mouth and chin. RESULTS: This patient suffered from bilateral perioral gustatory sweating following a mandibular osteotomy; such a case has not previously been

  10. Do elephants need to sweat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the elephant does not secrete sweat, can its thick skin allow adequate water evaporation for thermoregulation in hot con- ditions? An answer to this question is sought from measure- ments of water loss from elephant skin now reported. Most observations were made on the ear which Wright (1984) has suggested plays an ...

  11. The Force-Displacement Relationship in Commonly Used Resuscitation Manikins: Not Very Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob E; Stærk, Mathilde; Løfgren, Bo

    2017-01-01

    of the sternum of the manikin. The testing machine applied a constant growing force downwards on the manikin chest while recording the force-displacement relationship. The test was stopped when either the manikin was nearly fully compressed or the displacement exceeded 7 cm. On manikins with adjustable......Introduction: Manikins are widely used for CPR training and designed to simulate a human in cardiac arrest. Previous studies show a non-linear force-displacement relationship in the human chest. This may not be the case for resuscitation manikins. The aim of this study was to investigate the force......-displacement relationship in commonly used resuscitation manikins.Methods: Commonly used infant and adult manikins for resuscitation training were included in the study. Manikins were tested by placing them in a material testing machine (ProLine Z050, Zwick/Roell, Ulm, Germany). A piston was placed on lower half...

  12. Relationship between osmotic pressure of the blood and secretion of sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuori, A.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments with cats show that the thermic secretion of sweat represents a specific case of a general law: The central nervous apparatus that controls the secretion of sweat begins to function when the osmotic pressure of the blood drops below normal.

  13. A Simple and Valid Method to Determine Thermoregulatory Sweating Threshold and Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    therefore, preferred for sweating threshold temperature and sensitivity analysis (32). Volunteers spit into a cup during data collection to avoid spurious...MA, Stephenson LA. Control of sweating during the human menstrual cycle. Eur J Appl Physiol 58: 890–895, 1989. 21. Kondo N, Shibasaki M, Aoki K, Koga

  14. Natural convection heat transfer coefficient for newborn baby - Thermal manikin assessed convective heat loses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Ziemowit; Rojczyk, Marek

    2017-11-01

    The energy balance and heat exchange for newborn baby in radiant warmer environment are considered. The present study was performed to assess the body dry heat loss from an infant in radiant warmer, using copper cast anthropomorphic thermal manikin and controlled climate chamber laboratory setup. The total body dry heat losses were measured for varying manikin surface temperatures (nine levels between 32.5 °C and 40.1 °C) and ambient air temperatures (five levels between 23.5 °C and 29.7 °C). Radiant heat losses were estimated based on measured climate chamber wall temperatures. After subtracting radiant part, resulting convective heat loses were compared with computed ones (based on Nu correlations for common geometries). Simplified geometry of newborn baby was represented as: (a) single cylinder and (b) weighted sum of 5 cylinders and sphere. The predicted values are significantly overestimated relative to measured ones by: 28.8% (SD 23.5%) for (a) and 40.9% (SD 25.2%) for (b). This showed that use of adopted general purpose correlations for approximation of convective heat losses of newborn baby can lead to substantial errors. Hence, new Nu number correlating equation is proposed. The mean error introduced by proposed correlation was reduced to 1.4% (SD 11.97%), i.e. no significant overestimation. The thermal manikin appears to provide a precise method for the noninvasive assessment of thermal conditions in neonatal care.

  15. Thermal influence on palmar sweating and mental influence on generalized sweating in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T

    1975-01-01

    Sweat rates on the forearm and on the palm were simultaneously recorded by resistance hygrometry and the mode of sweating in these areas in response to thermal and non-thermal stimuli were compared with each other. In Series A, periodic infrared irradiation (1 min on, 1 min off) was done to the back of the trunk, and reflex responses in sweat rate were recorded on both test areas. A high correlation was noted between the mean changes in the palmar sweat rate and those in the forearm one during the irradiation cycle in a majority of cases. However the magnitude of the sweat response was much less on the palm than on the forearm. These observations reveal that the central mechanism of palmar sweating may be affected to some extent by the thermoregulatory mechanism. Series B was concerned with the pattern of response in forearm sweating to various non-thermal stimuli. Careful observations showed that the forearm sweating responded diversely to various mental stimuli, unlike the palmar sweating whose response was always an increase. Mental arithmetic, mental testing and physical exercise caused an immediate increase in the palmar sweating but often elicited a transient decrease in the forearm sweating, whereas pain, noise, and emotional stimuli consistently provoked an increase of sweating on the forearm as well as on the palm. These observations suggest that the activities of higher centers, presumably involving neocortex and limbic cortex, exert various influences on the central mechanisms of palmar and generalized sweating.

  16. [Treatment of hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salava, Alexander; Jousimaa, Jukkapekka

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis can be localized or generalized and may cause the patient significant discomfort. Localized hyperhidrosis is usually primary, often begins in adolescence and is partly based on genetic dispositions. As a rule it does not necessitate investigations for secondary causes (e.g. endocrine or neurologic conditions). Generalized hyperhidrosis is commonly associated with environmental or lifestyle factors, and sometimes physiological factors. In new-onset generalized sweating of unclear origin, it may be appropriate to consider secondary causes (underlying diseases, medications, infections). Relatively effective symptomatic treatments are available in localized hyperhidrosis. The treatment of generalized hyperhidrosis is almost always directed against the underlying factors.

  17. Effect of heat acclimation on sweat minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinevere, Troy D; Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lukaski, Henry C; Sawka, Michael N

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the impact of 10 d of exercise-heat acclimation on sweat mineral concentrations. Eight male subjects walked on a treadmill at 3.5 mph, 4% grade for 100 continuous minutes or until rectal temperature reached 39.5 degrees C on 10 consecutive days in an environmental chamber set at 45 degrees C, 20% relative humidity. Arm sweat samples were collected during the first 30 min of exercise-heat stress on days 1 and 10 using a polyethylene arm glove. Final core temperature and HR values were significantly lower (P sweating rates increased by approximately 6% (P = 0.12). Sweat sodium concentration on day 10 (36.22 +/- 7.22 mM) was significantly lower than day 1 (54.49 +/- 16.18 mM) (P Sweat mineral concentrations of calcium (approximately 29%), copper (approximately 50%), and magnesium (approximately 43%) were also significantly lower on day 10 versus day 1 of heat acclimation (P sweat iron (approximately 75%; P = 0.07) and zinc (approximately 23%; P = 0.10) concentrations were observed from day 1 to day 10. The estimated hourly sweat mineral losses (arm concentration x whole-body sweat rate) were reduced for calcium (approximately 27%), copper (approximately 46%), and magnesium (approximately 42%) (P iron (75%) or zinc (approximately 16%) (P > 0.05), from day 1 to day 10. Exercise-heat acclimation conserves arm sweat mineral concentrations and possibly whole-body sweat losses of calcium, copper, and magnesium, and may reduce sweat iron and zinc concentrations.

  18. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  19. Measurement of Personal Exposure Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this paper personal exposure measurements are performed by means of the Breathing Thermal Manikin. Contaminant concentration is measured in a number of locations in the breathing zone and in the inhaled air. Two cases are investigated: exposure to different contaminant sources in a displacement...

  20. Placement of the Left Side AED Pad is Poor: Training on the Left Compared to the Right Side of a Manikin Does Not Improve Pad Placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Mathilde; Bødtker, Henrik; Rahbek, Søren

    2015-01-01

    participating in a first aid course were randomized to learn automated external defibrillation sitting on the left or right side of a manikin during AED training. After course completion participants operated a training AED (Lifepak® CR-T AED Trainer, PhysioControl) and placed AED pads according to instructions...... to reach the left mid-axillary line. In addition, the left arm of the victim may hamper access to the left lateral side of the thorax.Hypothesis: Training automated external defibrillation sitting on the left side of a manikin improves AED pad placement compared to sitting to the right.Methods: Laypeople...... from the AED. Pads were placed on an anatomically realistic male resuscitation torso with arms (AMBU® Man, AMBU). Participants were instructed to sit on the same side of the manikin as trained. The distance from the center of AED pads to the recommended pad position was measured.Results: In total, 30...

  1. In vivo sweat film layer thickness measured with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonathan, E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available s Centre form the f th s pr t fi d id Keywords: Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography; Human sweat secretion; Sweat gland; Sweat duct; Hyperhidrosis growing list of triggers include cancer, glucose control disorder, mental stress, social..., that is, the gland, duct and pore(s). However, due to a slow imaging time, COCT is largely restricted to morphometry of human tissue and thickness measurement of biologic and biologic samples [12,13]. ARTICLE IN PRESS Fourier-domain optical coherence...

  2. Endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy for women: effect on compensatory sweat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Paula Loureiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Plantar hyperhidrosis is present in 50% of patients with hyperhidrosis. Thoracic sympathectomy is an important tool for the treatment of this condition, which is successful in about 60% of patients. For the remaining patients, lumbar sympathectomy is the procedure of choice. As new minimally invasive techniques have been developed, a significant demand for this type of access has led to its adaptation to the lumbar sympathectomy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy in controlling plantar hyperhidrosis and its effects on compensatory sweat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty female patients with persistent plantar hyperhidrosis after thoracic sympathectomy were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to laparoscopic retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy (Group A or no surgical intervention (Group B - control groups. Quality-of-life modifications were assessed by specific questionnaires before and after surgery. In the same manner, direct sweat measurements were also performed pre- and post-intervention by evaluating trans-epidermal water loss. Despite the lack of intervention, the control group was evaluated at similar timepoints. RESULTS: In Group A, no major complications occurred in the peri-operative period. During the immediate post-operative period, three patients (20% experienced prolonged pain (more than ten days. Eight patients suffered from worsened compensatory sweating (53.3%. In Group A, after lumbar sympathectomy, the quality of life significantly improved (p<0.05, intra-group comparison beyond that of the control group (p<0.05, inter-group comparison. Also, lumbar sympathectomy resulted in significantly lower values of foot sweat (pre- vs. post-operative periods, p<0.05; Group A vs. Group B, p<0.05. These patients also developed higher values of sweat measurements on specific points of their dorsal and abdominal regions after the procedure (p<0

  3. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    OpenAIRE

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitore...

  4. Comfort, measured by means of a sweating manikin (Walter (TM)), of clothing containing different fibre combinations : A preliminary investigation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Anton F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available consistent nor large, and appeared to be related to differences in the fabric structural parameters. Nevertheless, the ensembles comprising the different underwear, namely cotton or wool/nylon, differed consistently, with the thermal and water vapour...

  5. Pengembangan Pintu Air Irigasi Pintar berbasis Arduino untuk Daerah Irigasi Manikin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folkes Eduward Laumal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, irrigation watergates placed in the Manikin Irrigation Area is supporting tools for agricultural activities that implement a primary–secondary–tertiary channel system. Manikin irrigation watergate is made of iron plates with the certain size which is operated by a move up/down or rotation. This mechanism has led the dissatisfaction service problems in farmers. This study has developed smart irrigation watergate based on Arduino by replacing the lifter/rotator part using DC motor that works automatically based on the Real-time Clock sensor. This sensor sends the data time to Arduino and used as the reference to open or close the watergate. The study used a design method includes interconnecting realtime clock sensors and Arduino, build the programming control, build the DC system on watergates and interconnection to control systems and testing. The test results show that the irrigation watergate moves up and move down every 2 hours based on the data time from the real-time clock, works with a 12-hour time format and operating on 2.7-ampere current.

  6. Effect of Sweating on Insulation of Footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    1998-01-01

    The study aimed to find out the influence of sweating on footwear insulation with a thermal foot model. Simultaneously, the influence of applied weight (35 kg), sock, and steel toe cap were studied. Water to 3 sweat glands was supplied with a pump at the rate of 10 g/hr in total. Four models of boots with steel toe caps were tested. The same models were manufactured also without steel toe. Sweating reduced footwear insulation 19-25% (30-37% in toes). During static conditions, only a minimal amount of sweat evaporated from boots. Weight affected sole insulation: Reduction depended on compressibility of sole material. The influence of steel toe varied with insulation. The method of thermal foot model appears to be a practical tool for footwear evaluation.

  7. Detection of subclinical autonomic neuropathy in constipated patients using a sweat test.

    OpenAIRE

    Altomare, D; Pilot, M A; Scott, M; Williams, N; Rubino, M; Ilincic, L; Waldron, D

    1992-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic constipation may be the result of an autonomic neuropathy. This hypothesis was tested in 23 constipated patients and 17 age matched controls, using the acetylcholine sweat spot test devised to test autonomic integrity in diabetes. Acetylcholine (0.01%) was injected in the dorsum of the foot painted with a mixture of starch and iodine. Active sweat glands appeared on the surface of the skin as small black dots which were photographed and counted, using a grid with 60 subarea...

  8. Sweat gland carcinoma with lung metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Bahl Amit; Sharma D; Julka P; Das Anup; Rath G

    2006-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor. The tumor has propensity to spread to lymph nodes and distant metastases has been reported. Their exact incidence in the Indian setting is not known. Aspects related to treatment are also not clearly defined. Though surgery forms the initial treatment approach, adjuvant treatment has not been properly explored. We report here a case of sweat gland carcinoma with bilateral lung metastases.

  9. Sweat gland carcinoma with lung metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Amit; Sharma, D N; Julka, P K; Das, Anup; Rath, G K

    2006-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor. The tumor has propensity to spread to lymph nodes and distant metastases has been reported. Their exact incidence in the Indian setting is not known. Aspects related to treatment are also not clearly defined. Though surgery forms the initial treatment approach, adjuvant treatment has not been properly explored. We report here a case of sweat gland carcinoma with bilateral lung metastases.

  10. Sweat gland carcinoma with lung metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Amit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor. The tumor has propensity to spread to lymph nodes and distant metastases has been reported. Their exact incidence in the Indian setting is not known. Aspects related to treatment are also not clearly defined. Though surgery forms the initial treatment approach, adjuvant treatment has not been properly explored. We report here a case of sweat gland carcinoma with bilateral lung metastases.

  11. Evidence for β-adrenergic modulation of sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Shitara, Yosuke; Fujii, Naoto; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Kondo, Narihiko

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the β-adrenergic contribution to sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males. Nine habitually trained and 11 untrained males performed incremental cycling until exhaustion (20 W/min). Bilateral forearm sweat rates (ventilated capsule) were measured at two skin sites that were transdermally administered via iontophoresis with either 1% propranolol (Propranolol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) or saline (Control). The sweat rate was evaluated as a function of both relative (percentage of maximum workload) and absolute exercise intensities. The sweat rate at the Propranolol site was lower than the control during exercise at 80 (0.57 ± 0.21 and 0.45 ± 0.19 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 for Control and Propranolol, respectively) and 90% (0.74 ± 0.22 and 0.65 ± 0.17 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , respectively) of maximum workload in trained males (all P 0.05). At the same absolute intensity, higher sweat rates on the control site were observed in trained males relative to the untrained during exercise at 160 (0.23 ± 0.20 and 0.04 ± 0.05 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 for trained and untrained, respectively) and 180 W (0.40 ± 0.20 and 0.13 ± 0.13 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , respectively) (all P 0.05). We show that the β-adrenergic mechanism does modulate sweating during exercise at a submaximal high relative intensity in habitually trained males. The β-adrenergic mechanism may in part contribute to the greater sweat production in habitually trained males than in untrained counterparts during exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrated for the first time that the β-adrenergic mechanism does modulate sweating (i.e., β-adrenergic sweating) during exercise using a localized β-adrenoceptor blockade in humans in vivo. β-Adrenergic sweating was evident in habitually trained individuals during exercise at a submaximal high relative intensity (80-90% maximal work). This observation advances

  12. Evaluation of coverall field dry aerosol decontamination methods using a manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagley, J M; Paschold, H; Engler, J M

    2017-07-01

    A full-size manikin dressed in fire-resistant coveralls coated in 120 g of sodium bicarbonate was randomly given one of three treatments for dry aerosol decontamination. The three treatments were high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuum, a commercially available air shower, and the no treatment control. Immediately after the treatment, the coveralls were doffed and an air sample was taken in the breathing zone of the manikin to estimate airborne total and respirable dust concentrations to an unprotected worker post decontamination. Each treatment was applied four times for a total of 12 trials. Using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with alpha =.05 and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference multiple comparison post-test, it was determined that HEPA vacuuming was not significantly different from the air shower for respirable dust, but only the air shower was significantly better than no decontamination (p =.037). For total dust, HEPA was not significantly different from the air shower, but both were significantly better than no treatment (p =.007, p =.004, respectively).

  13. Exercise-induced trace mineral element concentration in regional versus whole-body wash-down sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Stofan, John R; Lukaski, Henry C; Horswill, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Simultaneous whole-body wash-down (WBW) and regional skin surface sweat collections were completed to compare regional patch and WBW sweat calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Athletes (4 men, 4 women) cycled in a plastic open-air chamber for 90 min in the heat. Before exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer (covered in plastic) were washed with deionized water. After the onset of sweating, sterile patches were attached to the forearm, back, chest, forehead, and thigh and removed on saturation. After exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer were washed with 5 L of 15-mM ammonium sulfate solution to collect all sweat minerals and determine the volume of unevaporated sweat. Control trials were performed to measure mineral contamination in regional and WBW methods. Because background contamination in the collection system was high for WBW Mn, Fe, and Zn, method comparisons were not made for these minerals. After correction for minimal background contamination, WBW sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 44.6 ± 20.0, 9.8 ± 4.8, and 0.125 ± 0.069 mg/L, respectively, and 5-site regional (weighted for local sweat rate and body surface area) sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 59.0 ± 15.9, 14.5 ± 4.8, and 0.166 ± 0.031 mg/L, respectively. Five-site regional [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] overestimated WBW by 32%, 48%, and 33%, respectively. No individual regional patch site or 5-site regional was significantly correlated with WBW sweat [Ca] (r = -.21, p = .65), [Mg] (r = .49, p = .33), or [Cu] (r = .17, p = .74). In conclusion, regional sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] are not accurate surrogates for or significantly correlated with WBW sweat composition.

  14. Sweat test for cystic fibrosis: Wearable sweat sensor vs. standard laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hoon; Thaxton, Abigail; Jeong, In Cheol; Kim, Kain; Sosnay, Patrick R; Cutting, Garry R; Searson, Peter C

    2018-03-23

    Sweat chloride testing for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) involves sweat induction, collection and handling, and measurement in an analytical lab. We have developed a wearable sensor with an integrated salt bridge for real-time measurement of sweat chloride concentration. Here, in a proof-of-concept study, we compare the performance of the sensor to current clinical practice in CF patients and healthy subjects. Sweat was induced on both forearms of 10 individuals with CF and 10 healthy subjects using pilocarpine iontophoresis. A Macroduct sweat collection device was attached to one arm and sweat was collected for 30 min and then sent for laboratory analysis. A sensor was attached to the other arm and the chloride ion concentration monitored in real time for 30 min using a Bluetooth transceiver and smart phone app. Stable sweat chloride measurements were obtained within 15 min following sweat induction using the wearable sensor. We define the detection time as the time at which the standard deviation of the real-time chloride ion concentration remained below 2 mEq/L for 5 min. The sweat volume for sensor measurements at the detection time was 13.1 ± 11.4 μL (SD), in many cases lower than the minimum sweat volume of 15 μL for conventional testing. The mean difference between sweat chloride concentrations measured by the sensor and the conventional laboratory practice was 6.2 ± 9.5 mEq/L (SD), close to the arm-to-arm variation of about 3 mEq/L. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the two measurements was 0.97 highlighting the excellent agreement between the two methods. A wearable sensor can be used to make real-time measurements of sweat chloride within 15 min following sweat induction, requiring a small sweat volume, and with excellent agreement to standard methods. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple cystic sweat gland tumors in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Nadine; Lockworth, Cynthia R; Zhang, Fanmao; Lee, Mong-Hong; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Tsai, Kenneth Y; Hamir, Amir N

    2012-02-01

    Here we describe gross and microscopic sweat gland tumors found in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer, which had transforming growth factor α under the control of mouse mammary tumor virus promoter (MMTV-TGFα). Initially, 20% of the mice in the colony were affected. Cystic lesions formed on the phalanges, palmar surfaces of the metacarpals, and plantar surfaces of the metatarsals. The lesions were multifocal and nonulcerated with straw-colored fluid, ranging in size from 1 to 30 mm at the largest dimension. The colony was monitored for 6 mo; during that time, the prevalence of lesions increased to 52% of the mice. Histologically, in most cases the cyst walls were lined by 1 or 2 layers of normal-appearing epithelial cells that resembled basal cells, indicating adenoma. However, 2 cysts from 2 different mice had papillary proliferative projections and extensive disorganized glandular structures that protruded into the cyst cavities, indicating adenocarcinoma. In these 2 cases, the neoplastic cells revealed architectural and cytologic atypia with rare mitoses. Similar findings have previously been observed in sweat gland tumors; however, multiple sweat-gland tumors have not been reported in mice.

  16. A COMPARATIVE HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE SWEAT GLAND OF CATTLE (B. INDICUS AND YAK (P. POEPHAGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Das

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yak and cattle are the species of different habitats, but are of the same genus Bos. In order to adapt to different habitats some changes may occur in cellular organizations, sweat gland morphology being one of the part of this cellular organization. The skin samples were collected from six adult nondescript male cattle and yak from five different anatomical regions viz., neck, dewlap, abdomen, back and prepuce. Sweat glands appeared tubular consisting of a secretary coil which was embedded in the dermis in cattle. In yak, the glands were saccular in the neck and dewlap regions and tubular in other regions. The sweat gland number (1729±3.44 in cattle was almost three times higher (P<0.01 than yak (615.82±3.44.Highest number of sweat gland population was found in back (1563.24±5.44 and lowest in abdomen (900.26±5.44 in both the species. Descending order of sweat gland number was detected in dewlap, neck and prepuce respectively in both the species. In cattle the sweat gland diameter was significantly (32.78±0.38 µm higher as compared to yak (27.68±0.38 ìm. The sweat gland number and nuclear diameter in cattle was more than yak. Acidophilic secretory granules of the glands were numerous in the supra-nuclear cytoplasm in case of cattle. These results suggest the hyper activity of sweat gland in controlling the thermo dynamics in cattle as compared to yak.

  17. Normal and PPP-affected palmoplantar sweat gland express neuroendocrine markers chromogranins and synaptophysin differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagforsen, Eva; Michaëlsson, Gerd; Stridsberg, Mats

    2010-11-01

    Earlier findings indicate the acrosyringium as the target for the inflammation in the chronic and intensely inflammatory skin disease palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). The sweat gland apparatus seems to be an immune-competent structure that probably contributes to the defence of the skin. Furthermore, the sweat gland and duct may be a hitherto unrecognized neuroendocrine organ because it expresses cholineacetyl-transferase and acetylcholinesterase, nicotinic receptors, beta-adrenergic and angiotensin receptors. The aim of this study was to obtain further information about neuroendocrine properties of the sweat gland apparatus by examining the expression of common neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin and chromogranins A and B in healthy palmar skin and in PPP skin. Synaptophysin and chromogranins were expressed in the sweat glands and ducts with some variation in the pattern and intensity of the expression. In PPP skin the expression differed, being higher and lower, depending on the part of the sweat duct. Chromogranins were further expressed in the epidermis, endothelium and inflammatory cells, but its intensity was weaker in epidermis than in the sweat gland apparatus. In most cases, chromogranins in epidermis in involved PPP were weakly expressed compared to healthy controls. The presence of synaptophysin and chromogranins in palmoplantar skin may have marked neuroendocrine effects, and the palmoplantar skin is likely to have important neuroimmuno-endocrine properties. Moreover, the altered chromogranin expression in PPP skin might influence both the neuroendocrine and neuroimmunologic properties of palmoplantar skin in these patients. These results indicate important neuroendocrine properties of the palmoplantar skin.

  18. Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is Comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L. D.; Løfgren, Bo; Jessen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study.......Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study....

  19. Malignant sweat gland tumors: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenn, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Sweat gland carcinomas represent an important and somewhat contentious group of tumors in diagnostic skin pathology. Although their overall incidence is rare, they show a wide range of histologic features, and reliable classification is often challenging. Awareness and recognition of these tumors is, however, important as they may be associated with significant morbidity and even disease-related mortality, especially if left untreated. According to their behavior, sweat gland carcinomas are traditionally separated into tumors with low-grade and high-grade malignant behavior. This article is aimed at increasing awareness and providing an overview of malignant sweat gland tumors with emphasis on recently reported and novel findings and diagnostically challenging and potentially underrecognized entities. It further aims to illustrate the wide morphologic range of these tumors and provides a discussion of the relevant immunohistochemistry, disease-specific behavior, and differential diagnosis.

  20. Night sweats: it may be hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murday, H K M; Rusli, F D; Blandy, C; Vollenhoven, B

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this case report is to show that hemochromatosis can present, unusually, with night sweats. At presentation, hemochromatosis often tends to have non-specific symptoms, making it easy to misdiagnose, especially if it presents with rare symptoms. Misdiagnosis of hemochromatosis can lead to lethal outcomes, given it can cause multiple organ dysfunctions if left untreated and hence the need to identify it early on. The case we present is a 41-year-old woman with previously undiagnosed hemochromatosis complaining of night sweats. She thought she was menopausal. The diagnosis of hemochromatosis was made solely on investigations given that she did not have any other symptoms other than night sweats. Her serum iron concentrations were within the normal range due to menstruation. It is uncommon for women to present with symptoms of hemochromatosis during their reproductive life since their iron concentration is kept within normal range through monthly menstrual bleeding.

  1. Real-time sweat analysis via alternating current conductivity of artificial and human sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengchen; Alomari, Mahmoud; Sahin, Bunyamin; Snelgrove, Samuel E.; Edwards, Jeffrey; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2015-03-01

    Dehydration is one of the most profound physiological challenges that significantly affects athletes and soldiers if not detected early. Recently, a few groups have focused on dehydration detection using sweat as the main biomarker. Although there are some proposed devices, the electrical and chemical characteristics of sweat have yet to be incorporated into the validations. In this work, we have developed a simple test setup to analyze artificial sweat that is comprised the main components of human sweat. We provide theoretical and experimental details on the electrical and chemical behavior of the artificial sweat for various concentration values within a temperature range of 5 °C to 50 °C. We have also developed an efficient sweat collecting and detection system based on 3D printing. Human studies were conducted and this particular protocol has shown that dehydration starts to take effect as early as 40 min into the physical activity if there is no fluid intake during the exercise. We believe that our device will lead to developing viable real-time sweat analysis systems.

  2. Excretion of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A; Smith, Michael L

    2008-01-30

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration's proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean+/-S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85+/-0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for 4 weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from seven subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 microg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for 4 weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test.

  3. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration’s proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean ± S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85 ± 0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for four weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from 7 subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 μg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for four weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test. PMID:17481836

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Personal Exposure Assessment Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Mikael K.

    2009-01-01

    The present work deals with the investigation of uncertainties related to personal exposure assessment using a breathing thermal manikin subject to a partly uniform velocity field in a wind channel. Several parameters are investigated: velocity level, thermal manikin heat flux, Archimedes number...

  5. Interpersonal Transport of Expiratory Aerosols among Three Manikins in a Full-Scale Test Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    installed to induce fresh air without generating sensible drafts in an occupied zone with fully mixing flow. The exposures of two target manikins to aerosols exhaled by one susceptible manikin were measured. Tracer gas N2O was used to simulate droplet nuclei. Comparisons on different mutual distances were...

  6. Measuring the human body's microclimate using a thermal manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, C; Maempel, S; Kornadt, O

    2014-12-01

    The human body is surrounded by a microclimate, which results from its convective release of heat. In this study, the air temperature and flow velocity of this microclimate were measured in a climate chamber at various room temperatures, using a thermal manikin simulating the heat release of the human being. Different techniques (Particle Streak Tracking, thermography, anemometry, and thermistors) were used for measurement and visualization. The manikin surface temperature was adjusted to the particular indoor climate based on simulations with a thermoregulation model (UCBerkeley Thermal Comfort Model). We found that generally, the microclimate is thinner at the lower part of the torso, but expands going up. At the head, there is a relatively thick thermal layer, which results in an ascending plume above the head. However, the microclimate shape strongly depends not only on the body segment, but also on boundary conditions: The higher the temperature difference between the surface temperature of the manikin and the air temperature, the faster the airflow in the microclimate. Finally, convective heat transfer coefficients strongly increase with falling room temperature, while radiative heat transfer coefficients decrease. The type of body segment strongly influences the convective heat transfer coefficient, while only minimally influencing the radiative heat transfer coefficient. The findings of this study generate a better understanding of the human body’s microclimate, which is important in fields such as thermal comfort, HVAC, or indoor air quality. Additionally, the measurements can be used by CFD users for the validation of their simulations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland: Report of a case

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi HM

    2001-01-01

    A case of pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland is reported here. The histopathologic report confirmed the diagnosis. Pleomorphic adenoma is most common in salivary glands but very rare in sweat glands. Pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland and the similar tumors of eccring sweat gland are described that bear a striking resemblance to pleomorphic adenomas of salivary gland. Upon closer examination, the tumor contained areas of apocrine decapitation secretory activity , and primitive hair follicles ...

  8. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production: new data and review of hyperhidrosis data for 1980-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus; Carlsen, Berit C

    2015-10-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a condition in which the production of sweat is abnormally increased. No objective criteria for the diagnosis of hyperhidrosis exist, mainly because reference intervals for normal physiological sweat production at rest are unknown. The main objective of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results derived from a review of data on hyperhidrosis published between 1980 and 2013. Approximately 90% of the controls had axillary and palmar sweat production rates of below 100 mg/5 min. In all except one of the axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis studies reviewed, average sweat production exceeded 100 mg/5 min. A sweat production rate of 100 mg/5 min as measured by gravimetric testing may be a reasonable cut-off value for distinguishing axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis from normal physiological sweat production. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Histamine Modulates Sweating and Affects Clinical Manifestations of Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aya; Tani, Saki; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Many factors such as food or environmental allergens, bacteria, fungi, and mental stress aggravate the condition of atopic dermatitis (AD) eczema. Sweating can also exacerbate AD, and patients are aware of that. In the past, it has been reported that contamination of skin surface antigens by sweat induces acute allergic reactions and that sweating functions of AD patients via axonal reflexes are decreased. Histamine demonstrably inhibits acetylcholine-induced sweating in both mice and humans via histamine H1 receptor-mediated signaling. In sweat glands, acetylcholine inactivates glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a kinase involved in endocytosis and secretion, whereas simultaneous stimulation with histamine activates GSK3β and inhibits sweat secretion. Thus, histamine might be involved in the mechanism of abnormal skin dryness in patients with AD via decreasing sweat secretion. On another front, some patients secrete sweat normally. Patients with regular sweating are prone to develop skin disorders such as papules or erythema by residual sweat left on the skin surface. Patients with decreased sweating are prone to develop disorders characterized by xerosis, lichenoid changes, prurigo by elevated skin temperature, skin dryness, and compromised skin conditions. Careful inspection of skin manifestations provides a good indication of a patient's ability to sweat. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. p53 mutations in sweat gland carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, W; Peraud, A; Wozniak, L; Ohgaki, H

    1998-05-04

    Sweat gland carcinomas are rare skin tumours and little is known about their etiology and molecular basis. In this study, we analyzed p53 mutations in 16 sweat gland carcinomas with different histologic types, including 2 spiradenocarcinomas, 1 composed adnexal carcinoma, 5 porocarcinomas, 2 eccrine hidradenocarcinomas, 2 syringocystadenocarcinomas, 1 sclerosing sweat gland carcinoma, 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 1 cylindrocarcinoma and 1 apocrine adenocarcinoma. Single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses followed by direct DNA sequencing revealed that 5 carcinomas (31%) contained a p53 mutation, 4 of which were G:C-->A:T transition mutations and 1 of which was a deletion. Three G:C-->A:T mutations were located at dipyrimidine sequences on the antisense strand (2 spiradenocarcinomas, 1 eccrine hidradenocarcinoma), suggesting that UV light may play a role in the development of sweat gland carcinomas. In 2 spiradenocarcinomas, p53 mutations were present in the carcinoma but not in the adenoma portions, suggesting that p53 mutations may be associated with malignant progression in these rare adnexal tumours.

  11. Malignant sweat gland tumours: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, José C; Calonje, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous adnexal tumours can be a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. This is particularly true in the case of tumours with sweat gland differentiation, due to a large number of rare entities, a multiplicity of names to designate the same neoplasms and consequent lack of consensus regarding their classification and nomenclature. In the traditional view, sweat gland tumours were divided into eccrine and apocrine. However, this has been challenged in recent years, and in fact many of these tumours may have both eccrine and apocrine variants. Some display more complex features and defy classification, due to the presence of other lines of differentiation, namely follicular and/or sebaceous (in the case of apocrine tumours, due to the close embryological relationship between apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands). The present paper reviews and updates the basic concepts regarding the following malignant sweat gland tumours: apocrine carcinoma, porocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma and related entities, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, digital papillary adenocarcinoma, primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and primary cutaneous signet ring cell carcinoma. Particular emphasis is put in recent findings that may have implications in the diagnosis and management of these tumours. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Sweat gland carcinomas of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, A; Requena, L

    2008-02-01

    Sweat gland carcinomas are rare malignant tumors of the skin. The well-defined entities porocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma, mucinous eccrine carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma are described. The article summarizes essential clinical, prognostic and histopathological findings of these tumors and takes in focus special recommendations for dermatologists and surgeons to plan biopsies and operations.

  13. A portable optical human sweat sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-omari, Mahmoud; Liu, Gengchen; Mueller, Anja; Mock, Adam; Ghosh, Ruby N.; Smith, Kyle; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-11-01

    We describe the use of HNQ (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or Lawsone) as a potential sweat sensor material to detect the hydration levels of human beings. We have conducted optical measurements using both artificial and human sweat to validate our approach. We have determined that the dominant compound that affects HNQ absorbance in artificial sweat is sodium. The presence of lactate decreases the reactivity of HNQ while urea promotes more interactions of sodium and potassium ions with HNQ. The interactions between the hydroxyl group of HNQ and the artificial sweat components (salts, lactic acid, and urea) were investigated comprehensively. We have also proposed and developed a portable diode laser absorption sensor system that converts the absorbance at a particular wavelength range (at 455 ± 5 nm, where HNQ has an absorbance peak) into light intensity measurements via a photocell. The absorbance intensity values obtained from our portable sensor system agrees within 10.4% with measurements from a laboratory based ultraviolet-visible spectrometer. Findings of this research will provide significant information for researchers who are focusing on real-time, in-situ hydration level detection.

  14. Skin Tattoos Alter Sweat Rate and Na+ Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie Joe; Hanisko, Joseph Michael; Aho, Kyle Mathiew

    2017-07-01

    The popularity of tattoos has increased tremendously in the last 10 yr particularly among athletes and military personnel. The tattooing process involves permanently depositing ink under the skin at a similar depth as eccrine sweat glands (3-5 mm). The purpose of this study was to compare the sweat rate and sweat Na concentration of tattooed versus nontattooed skin. The participants were 10 healthy men (age = 21 ± 1 yr), all with a unilateral tattoo covering a circular area at least 5.2 cm. Sweat was stimulated by iontophoresis using agar gel disks impregnated with 0.5% pilocarpine nitrate. The nontattooed skin was located contralateral to the position of the tattooed skin. The disks used to collect sweat were composed of Tygon® tubing wound into a spiral so that the sweat was pulled into the tubing by capillary action. The sweat rate was determined by weighing the disk before and after sweat collection. The sweat Na concentration was determined by flame photometry. The mean sweat rate from tattooed skin was significantly less than nontattooed skin (0.18 ± 0.15 vs 0.35 ± 0.25 mg·cm·min; P = 0.001). All 10 participants generated less sweat from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin and the effect size was -0.79. The mean sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin was significantly higher than nontattooed skin (69.1 ± 28.9 vs 42.6 ± 15.2 mmol·L; P = 0.02). Nine of 10 participants had higher sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin, and the effect size was 1.01. Tattooed skin generated less sweat and a higher Na concentration than nontattooed skin when stimulated by pilocarpine iontophoresis.

  15. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ikue; Dufresne, Raymond; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare, low-grade, cutaneous neoplasm that may be associated with invasive mucinous carcinoma. Tumors typically present as slow-growing, flesh-colored, nonspecific papules or nodules that favor the eyelids in older individuals. Histologic examination usually reveals basaloid nodules composed of cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, with focal mucin production and occasional glandular structures. Definitive diagnosis requires immunohistochemical staining. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinomas have been noted to stain positively with neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin and chromogranins as well as cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin CAM 5.2, epithelial membrane antigen, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Complete excision with close follow-up is important given EMPSGC's association with invasive mucinous carcinoma. Mohs micrographic surgery is an appropriate choice for treatment. We report 2 cases of EMPSGC presenting on the eyelids in a 72-year-old woman and a 74-year-old man.

  16. A curious case of sweating blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Saugato; Surana, Trupti; De, Abhishek; Nag, Falguni

    2013-11-01

    Hematohidrosis is a very rare condition in which an individual sweats blood. It may occur in an individual who is suffering from extreme levels of stress. Various causative factors have been suggested like component of systemic disease, vicarious menstruation, excessive exertion, psychogenic, and unknown causes. Fear and intense mental contemplation are the most frequent causes. It may also occur in bleeding disorders. We here report a case where bloody sweat was discharged from the forehead, face, and body episodically in a 12-year-old healthy girl with no bleeding disorder or any other underlying cause. All investigations done were within normal limits, except low intelligent quotient and loss of insight. The patient was given atropine sulphate transdermal patch with marked improvement in severity.

  17. A curious case of sweating blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saugato Biswas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematohidrosis is a very rare condition in which an individual sweats blood. It may occur in an individual who is suffering from extreme levels of stress. Various causative factors have been suggested like component of systemic disease, vicarious menstruation, excessive exertion, psychogenic, and unknown causes. Fear and intense mental contemplation are the most frequent causes. It may also occur in bleeding disorders. We here report a case where bloody sweat was discharged from the forehead, face, and body episodically in a 12-year-old healthy girl with no bleeding disorder or any other underlying cause. All investigations done were within normal limits, except low intelligent quotient and loss of insight. The patient was given atropine sulphate transdermal patch with marked improvement in severity.

  18. Voice advisory manikin versus instructor facilitated training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Høiby, Pernilla; Rasmussen, Maria B

    2008-01-01

    individual training. AIMS: To compare a VAM (ResusciAnne CPR skills station, Laerdal Medical A/S, Norway) with IF training in CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) in terms of skills retention after 3 months. METHODS: Forty-three second year medical students were included and CPR performance (ERC Guidelines......BACKGROUND: Training of healthcare staff in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is time-consuming and costly. It has been suggested to replace instructor facilitated (IF) training with an automated voice advisory manikin (VAM), which increases skill level by continuous verbal feedback during...... for Resuscitation 2005) was assessed in a 2 min test before randomisation to either IF training in groups of 8 or individual VAM training. Immediately after training and after 3 months, CPR performance was assessed in identical 2 min tests. Laerdal PC Skill Reporting System 2.0 was used to collect data. To quantify...

  19. Thirty Years of Sweat Chloride Testing at One Referral Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethéa Guimarães Faria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo conduct a descriptive analysis of the sweat test (ST, associating ST results with epidemiological data, CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations and reasons to indicate the ST, as well as correlating sweat sodium and sweat chloride concentrations in subjects.MethodsRetrospective survey and descriptive analysis of 5,721 ST at a university referral center.ResultsThe inclusion of the subjects was based on clinical data related with cystic fibrosis (CF phenotype. The samples were grouped by (i sweat chloride concentrations (mEq/L: <30: 3,249/5,277 (61.6%; ≥30 to <60: 1,326/5,277 (25.1%; ≥60: 702/5,277 (13.3% and (ii age: (Group A––GA 0 to <6 months; (Group B––GB ≥6 months to <18 years; (Group C––GC ≥18 years. Digestive symptoms showed higher prevalence ratio for the CF diagnosis as well as association between younger age and higher values of sweat chloride, sweat sodium, and chloride/sodium ratio. The indication of ST due to respiratory symptoms was higher in GB and associated with greater age, lower values of sweat chloride, sweat sodium, and chloride/sodium ratio. There was higher prevalence of ST with sweat chloride levels <30 mEq/L in GB, ≥60 mEq/L in GC, and with borderline level in GB. There was positive correlation between sweat sodium and sweat chloride. Sweat chloride/sweat sodium and sweat sodium–sweat chloride indexes showed association with sex, reason for ST indication, and CFTR mutations. Sex alters some values presented in the ST. The number of ST/year performed before and after the newborn screening implementation was the same; however, we observed a higher number of borderlines values. A wide spectrum of CFTR mutation was found. Severe CFTR mutations and F508del/F508del genotype were associated with highest probability of ST chloride levels ≥60 mEq/L, and the absence of CFTR mutations identified was associated with borderline ST and respiratory symptoms

  20. Evaluation of the Efficiency of Liquid Cooling Garments using a Thermal Manikin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Endrusick, Thomas; Gonzalez, Julio; Laprise, Brad; Teal, Walter; Santee, William; Kolka, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    .... personal protective equipment), and environmental conditions. Thermal manikins (TM) have been used to evaluate the performance of LCG systems and to determine the amount of heat that a LCG can extract from a TM...

  1. Pengembangan Pintu Air Irigasi Pintar Berbasis Arduino untuk Daerah Irigasi Manikin

    OpenAIRE

    Laumal, Folkes Eduward; Hattu, Edwin P; Nope, Kusa B. N

    2017-01-01

    In general, irrigation watergates placed in the Manikin Irrigation Area is supporting tools for agricultural activities that implement a primary–secondary–tertiary channel system. Manikin irrigation watergate is made of iron plates with the certain size which is operated by a move up/down or rotation. This mechanism has led the dissatisfaction service problems in farmers. This study has developed smart irrigation watergate based on Arduino by replacing the lifter/rotator part using DC motor t...

  2. Pengembangan Pintu Air Irigasi Pintar berbasis Arduino untuk Daerah Irigasi Manikin

    OpenAIRE

    Folkes Eduward Laumal; Edwin P. Hattu; Kusa B. N. Nope

    2017-01-01

    In general, irrigation watergates placed in the Manikin Irrigation Area is supporting tools for agricultural activities that implement a primary–secondary–tertiary channel system. Manikin irrigation watergate is made of iron plates with the certain size which is operated by a move up/down or rotation. This mechanism has led the dissatisfaction service problems in farmers. This study has developed smart irrigation watergate based on Arduino by replacing the lifter/rotator part using DC motor t...

  3. Comparative Assessment of Torso and Seat Mounted Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Horizontal Impulse Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Research Device (LARD) instrumented manikins were used in this test program to simulate human response. Data collection on the HIA consisted of manikin...microseconds, the user can freeze objects in motion, eliminate blur, and bring out the image detail needed for successful motion analysis. The camera...not run due to the unavailability of the Neck Protection Device (NPD). Cells MN and ON (no seat cushion), and Cells X and Y (no helmet) were not

  4. Nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase modulate β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; McNeely, Brendan D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-02-15

    β-Adrenergic receptor agonists such as isoproterenol induce cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in humans, but the mechanisms underpinning this response remain unresolved. Using intradermal microdialysis, we evaluated the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating elicited by administration of isoproterenol. We show that while NOS contributes to β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation, COX restricts cutaneous vasodilatation. We also show that combined inhibition of NOS and COX augments β-adrenergic sweating These new findings advance our basic knowledge regarding the physiological control of cutaneous blood flow and sweating, and provide important and new information to better understand the physiological significance of β-adrenergic receptors in the skin. β-Adrenergic receptor agonists such as isoproterenol can induce cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in humans, but the mechanisms underpinning this response remain unresolved. We evaluated the hypotheses that (1) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contributes to β-adrenergic cutaneous vasodilatation, whereas cyclooxygenase (COX) limits the vasodilatation, and (2) COX contributes to β-adrenergic sweating. In 10 young males (25 ± 5 years), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated at four intradermal forearm skin sites infused with (1) lactated Ringer solution (control), (2) 10 mm N ω -nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA), a non-specific NOS inhibitor, (3) 10 mm ketorolac, a non-specific COX inhibitor, or (4) a combination of l-NNA and ketorolac. All sites were co-administered with a high dose of isoproterenol (100 μm) for 3 min to maximally induce β-adrenergic sweating (β-adrenergic sweating is significantly blunted by subsequent activations). Approximately 60 min after the washout period, three incremental doses of isoproterenol were co-administered (1, 10 and 100 μm each for 25 min). Increases in CVC induced

  5. Testing in artificial sweat - Is less more? Comparison of metal release in two different artificial sweat solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midander, Klara; Julander, Anneli; Kettelarij, Jolinde; Lidén, Carola

    2016-11-01

    Metal release from materials immersed in artificial sweat can function as a measure of potential skin exposure. Several artificial sweat models exist that, to various degree, mimic realistic conditions. Study objective was to evaluate metal release from previously examined and well characterized materials in two different artificial sweat solutions; a comprehensive sweat model intended for use within research, based on the composition of human sweat; and the artificial sweat, EN1811, intended for testing compliance with the nickel restriction in REACH. The aim was to better understand whether there are advantages using either of the sweat solutions in bio-elution testing of materials. Metal release in two different artificial sweat solutions was compared for discs of a white gold alloy and two hard metals, and a rock drilling insert of tungsten carbide at 1 h, 24 h, 1 week and 1 month. The released amount of metal was analysed by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Similar levels of released metals were measured from test materials in the two different artificial sweat solutions. For purposes in relation to legislations, it was concluded that a metal release test using a simple artificial sweat composition may provide results that sufficiently indicate the degree of metal release at skin contact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Corrosion behavior of nickel-containing alloys in artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, J P

    1988-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of various nickel-containing alloys was measured in artificial sweat (perspiration) using the Tafel extrapolation method. It was found that Ni, CuNi 25 (coin alloy), NiAl (colored intermetallic compounds), WC + Ni (hard metal), white gold (jewelry alloy), FN42 and Nilo Alby K (controlled expansion alloys), and NiP (electroless nickel coating) are in an active state and dissolve readily in oxygenated artificial sweat. By contrast, austenitic stainless steels, TiC + Mo2C + Ni (hard metal), NiTi (shape-memory alloy), Hastelloy X (superalloy), Phydur (precipitation hardening alloy), PdNi and SnNi (nickel-containing coatings) are in a passive state but may pit under certain conditions. Cobalt, Cr, Ti, and some of their alloys were also investigated for the purpose of comparison. Cobalt and its alloys have poor corrosion resistance except for Stellite 20. Chromium and high-chromium ferritic stainless steels have a high pitting potential but the latter are susceptible to crevice corrosion. Ti has a pitting potential greater than 3 V. Comparison between the in vitro measurements of the corrosion rate of nickel-based alloys and the clinical observation of the occurrence of contact dermatitis is discussed.

  7. Human communication of emotion via sweat : How specific is it? (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, M.A.M.; Toet, A.; Duinkerken, R.; Groot, J. de; Kaldewaij, A.; Hout, M.A. van den; et al

    2011-01-01

    Females evaluate ambiguous facial expression – morphed between happy and fearful – faces as more fearful when exposed to fear sweat as compared to control odor (Zhou & Chen, 2009). We investigated the specificity of this effect, i.e. whether processing of fearful faces is affected specifically by

  8. Role of Sweat in Accumulation of Orally Administered Griseofulvin in Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vinod P.; Epstein, William L.; Riegelman, Sidney

    1974-01-01

    Griseofulvin, an orally effective antimicrobial agent, appears in the stratum corneum within 4-8 h after oral administration. Griseofulvin distribution was found to be highest in the outermost layers of the stratum corneum (level I, 20.8±1.5 ng/mg) and lowest inside (level II, 10.0±1.5; level III, 7.5±2.2 ng/mg). In order to study the precise mechanism of griseofulvin transfer to stratum corneum, the role of sweat in the accumulation of griseofulvin was considered. Heat-induced total body sweating decreased the mean stratum corneum concentration of griseofulvin by 55%, and 200-300 ng of griseofulvin accumulated per ml of sweat. A silicone hydrophobic resin was used to differentiate between “wash-off” and carrier properties of sweat for griseofulvin. Prevention of transepidermal water and sweat loss by (a) topical application of formaldehyde-releasing cream to one palm, (b) occlusion by a 2 × 2-cm patch on one arm, and (c) wearing a rubber glove for 24 h, showed a lower griseofulvin concentration when compared to control areas in the same subjects. The results of the gloved hand experiment show that a complete equilibrium is established at all three levels of stratum corneum, thereby removing the reversed gradient. These results support the hypothesis that a “wick effect” is responsible for the observed reversed drug gradient within the stratum corneum. The results of the experiments suggest that sweat and transepidermal fluid loss play an important role in griseofulvin transfer in stratum corneum. PMID:4830229

  9. Pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland: Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi HM

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland is reported here. The histopathologic report confirmed the diagnosis. Pleomorphic adenoma is most common in salivary glands but very rare in sweat glands. Pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland and the similar tumors of eccring sweat gland are described that bear a striking resemblance to pleomorphic adenomas of salivary gland. Upon closer examination, the tumor contained areas of apocrine decapitation secretory activity , and primitive hair follicles indicating cutaneous rather than mucosal origin. One year follow-up examination has revealed no evidence of recurrence.

  10. Sweat iron and zinc losses during prolonged exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuisseau, Keith C; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Haymes, Emily M; Sharp, Regina G

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 2-hour exercise bout on sweat iron and zinc concentrations and losses in males and females. Nine male and 9 female recreational cyclists exercised at approximately 50% VO(2peak) in a temperate environment (Ta = 23 degrees C, RH = 51%). Sweat samples were collected for 15 min during each of four 30-min exercise bouts. No significant differences were observed between males' and females' sweat iron or zinc concentrations or losses. Sweat iron concentrations decreased significantly between 60 and 90 min of exercise. Sweating rates increased significantly from 30 to 60 min and remained constant during the second hour. Sweat iron losses were significantly lower during the second hour (0.042 mg/m2/h) than the first hour of exercise (0.060 mg/m2/h). Sweat zinc concentrations also decreased significantly over the 2-hour exercise bout. Dietary intakes of iron and zinc were not significantly correlated to sweat iron and zinc concentrations. Sweat iron and zinc losses during 2 hours of exercise represented 3% and 1% of the RDA for iron and 9% and 8% of the RDA for zinc for men and women, respectively. These results suggest a possible iron conservation that prevents excessive iron loss during prolonged exercise.

  11. Decreased sweating in seven patients with Laron syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Price, D A; Savage, M O

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sweat secretion was reduced in patients with GH deficiency and increased during GH treatment, indicating an influence of GH on sweat gland function. Thus, patients with GH deficiency have impaired thermoregulation. We report on sweat secretion rates (SSRs) in seven......). These observations further supported the hypothesis that sweat gland function in humans is under the influence of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I axis. It remains to be seen whether the decrease in SSR also leads to altered thermoregulation in patients with Laron syndrome....

  12. Update on Malignant Sweat Gland Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Michiel P J; Brenn, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Malignant sweat gland tumors are rare cutaneous neoplasms, traditionally separated according to their behavior into low- and high-grade malignant. There is significant morphologic overlap, and outright malignant tumors may show relatively bland histologic features. They may, therefore, be mistaken easily for benign neoplasms. Recognition of these tumors and accurate diagnosis is important for early treatment to prevent aggressive behavior and adverse outcome. This article provides an overview of 4 important entities with emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls, differential diagnosis and recent developments. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma, and spiradenocarcinoma are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Mucinous sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, P L; Herwig, M C; Holz, F G; Loeffler, K U

    2016-09-01

    A 52-year-old patient presented with a painless nodular tumor of the upper left eyelid, which was first noticed 6 months prior to the initial presentation. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the excised tumor revealed a mucinous sweat gland carcinoma. This very rare neoplasm (1/150,000 skin lesions) is located within the ocular adnexa in 40 % of cases. If completely excised the prognosis is usually good; however, due to the histological similarity to metastases of an adenocarcinoma, a hitherto unknown primary tumor at another site should be excluded.

  14. Utilizing a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus and Space Suit Ventilation Loop to Evaluate Carbon Dioxide Washout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; Korona, Adam; Kanne, Bryan; McMillin, Summer; Paul, Thomas; Norcross, Jason; Alonso, Jesus Delgado; Swickrath, Mike

    2015-01-01

    NASA is pursuing technology development of an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) which is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a pressure garment system and a portable life support subsystem (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. One of the key functions of the ventilation system is to remove and control the carbon dioxide (CO2) delivered to the crewmember. Carbon dioxide washout is the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the space suit helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the crew member. CO2 washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and robust designs that are insensitive to human variabilities in a space suit. A suited manikin test apparatus (SMTA) was developed to augment testing of the PLSS ventilation loop in order to provide a lower cost and more controlled alternative to human testing. The CO2 removal function is performed by the regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) within the PLSS ventilation loop and its performance is evaluated within the integrated SMTA and Ventilation Loop test system. This paper will provide a detailed description of the schematics, test configurations, and hardware components of this integrated system. Results and analysis of testing performed with this integrated system will be presented within this paper.

  15. Evaluation of the Megaduct sweat collector for mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, M R; Ely, B R; Chinevere, T D; Lacher, C P; Lukaski, H C; Cheuvront, S N

    2012-03-01

    Accurate measurement of sweat mineral loss is important for whole body mineral balance estimates and dietary reference intake formulation. Currently, common localized sweat collection methods such as the pouch and patch techniques may be limited by skin encapsulation and/or hidromeiosis, which may alter sweat mineral concentrations. The design of the newly developed Megaduct sweat collector may avoid these possible limitations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Megaduct sweat collector for mineral analysis. Megaduct sweat collectors were affixed to ten volunteers on the final day of a heat acclimation protocol; collection time, sweat volume, and mineral concentrations of calcium, copper, iron, potassium, sodium, and zinc were measured. Megaduct filling required a collection period of 62 ± 3 min due to a small collection surface (22.1 cm(2)). The mineral content of the sweat was 0.3 ± 0.1 mmol L(-1), 1.5 ± 1.5 µmol L(-1), 8.5 ± 2.1 mmol L(-1), 43.2 ± 15.0 mmol L(-1), and 10.1 ± 5.7 µmol L(-1) for Ca, Cu, K, Na, and Zn, respectively. The Megaduct sweat collector appears to avoid skin encapsulation and hidromeiosis, and captures sweat with similar mineral concentrations as reported in the literature for pouches. However, the filling time of the Megaduct (>60 min) may not capture possible changes in sweat mineral concentrations that are documented to occur in as little as 15 to 30 min.

  16. Multi-window PIV measurements around a breathing manikin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, David

    2005-11-01

    The presented work includes multi-scale measurements via a stereo article Image Velocimetry (PIV) system to view a pair of two-component windows of dissimilar scale using a varied focal length. These measurements are taken in the breathing zone of an isothermal breathing manikin (from mouth) in an environmental chamber of average office cubicle dimensions without ventilation and are analogous to an oscillatory jet. From these phase-averaged measurements, we can extract information concerning length scales, turbulence quantities and low dimensional information in order to both determine correlation between data at different length scales as well as continuing research in exposure assessment for the indoor environment. In this talk we will present these turbulence quantities and interpret their influence on the breathing zone. While the largest scale is that of the room itself, we find that the relevant spatial scales associated with the breathing zone are much lower in magnitude. In future experiments, we will expand the multi window PIV technique to include PIV window configured to obtain scales of order the cubicle simultaneously with those of the breathing zone. This will aid in our understanding of the combined impact of these multiple scales on occupant exposure in the indoor environment.

  17. p53 expression in sweat gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, W; Woźniak, L

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed the expression of p53 in 74 cutaneous adnexal tumors, with enhancement of the detection by incubation of the slides in the microwave. The immunostaining in benign tumors was almost uniformly negative as we found p53-positivity only in one poroma, one nodular hidradenoma, and one case of syringocystadenoma papilliferum (amongst 13 spiradenomas, 9 cylindromas, 12 nodular hidradenomas, 7 poromas, 6 syringomas, 7 syringocystadenomas papilliferum, 2 papillary tubular adenomas and 4 chondroid syringomas). These results contrasted with the widespread p53 overexpression, which was revealed in the sweat gland carcinomas. All spiradenocarcinomas (3), malignant nodular hidradenoma (1), apocrine hidradenocarcinoma (1), and malignant syringoadenoma (1) showed a strong reaction to anti-p53 antibody. Two of three eccrine hidradenocarcinomas, and two of three porocarcinomas presented p53 overexpression, whereas in one case of malignant cylindroma and adenoid cystic carcinoma we did not find p53-positivity. The results of the study indicate an important role, that p53 protein plays in the malignant sweat gland tumors in comparison to their benign counterparts, but reveal that its overexpression may also occur in the reactive and benign neoplastic processes.

  18. The impact of chest compression rates on quality of chest compressions - a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Richard A; Soar, Jasmeet; Davies, Robin P; Akhtar, Naheed; Perkins, Gavin D

    2012-03-01

    Chest compressions are often performed at a variable rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The effect of compression rate on other chest compression quality variables (compression depth, duty-cycle, leaning, performance decay over time) is unknown. This randomised controlled cross-over manikin study examined the effect of different compression rates on the other chest compression quality variables. Twenty healthcare professionals performed 2 min of continuous compressions on an instrumented manikin at rates of 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 min(-1) in a random order. An electronic metronome was used to guide compression rate. Compression data were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA and are presented as mean (SD). Non-parametric data was analysed by Friedman test. At faster compression rates there were significant improvements in the number of compressions delivered (160(2) at 80 min(-1) vs. 312(13) compressions at 160 min(-1), P<0.001); and compression duty-cycle (43(6)% at 80 min(-1) vs. 50(7)% at 160 min(-1), P<0.001). This was at the cost of a significant reduction in compression depth (39.5(10)mm at 80 min(-1) vs. 34.5(11)mm at 160 min(-1), P<0.001); and earlier decay in compression quality (median decay point 120 s at 80 min(-1) vs. 40s at 160 min(-1), P<0.001). Additionally not all participants achieved the target rate (100% at 80 min(-1) vs. 70% at 160 min(-1)). Rates above 120 min(-1) had the greatest impact on reducing chest compression quality. For Guidelines 2005 trained rescuers, a chest compression rate of 100-120 min(-1) for 2 min is feasible whilst maintaining adequate chest compression quality in terms of depth, duty-cycle, leaning, and decay in compression performance. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of the Guidelines 2010 recommendation for deeper and faster chest compressions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber an...

  20. Sweat gland function as a measure of radiation change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigott, K.H.; Dische, S.; Saunders, M.I.; Vojnovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotherapy may result in dryness of the skin even when no other change can be detected. We describe a system for recording the electrical conductance of skin as a measure of sweat gland function. In 22 normal volunteers close agreement was obtained between measurements obtained from comparable sites on both sides of the chest. Measurements were subsequently made in 38 patients treated by radiotherapy to one side of the chest for tumours of the breast or lung using one of five different fractionation schedules. Simultaneous readings were obtained from both sides of the chest with the non irradiated side acting as a control. A dose response relationship was demonstrated: five patients who received the equivalent total dose of 15 Gy in 2-Gy fractions showed no change in conductance. Sixteen out of 23 who received an equivalent total dose of 42-46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions had a greater than 22% reduction in mean skin conductance compared with that of the control areas despite the skin appearing normal in the large majority. Marked changes in skin conductance were seen after higher total doses. In a prospective study 18 women receiving breast irradiation underwent weekly readings during treatment. A mean reduction of 40% in skin conductance was noted by the end of the second week of treatment prior to any clinical evidence of radiation change. Skin conductance returned to normal in 44% of patients by 6 months. In the remainder, those patients who showed the greatest reduction in skin conductance during treatment demonstrated the least recovery. Changes in sweat gland function can be detected and quantified in skin which may otherwise appear normal. Differences may so be demonstrated between areas treated using different fractionation schedules and the method may be applied to the detection during radiotherapy of unusually sensitive patient. (author)

  1. Electrophysiology of Muscle Fatigue in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Manikin Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Vázquez, Carlos; De Blas, Gemma; García-Canas, Pablo; Del Carmen Gasco-García, María

    2018-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation requires the provider to adopt positions that could be dangerous for his or her spine, specifically affecting the muscles and ligaments in the lumbar zone and the scapular spinal muscles. Increased fatigue caused by muscular activity during the resuscitation could produce a loss of quality and efficacy, resulting in compromising resuscitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maximum time a rescuer can perform uninterrupted chest compressions correctly without muscle fatigue. This pilot study was performed at Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) with the population recruited following CONSORT 2010 guidelines. From the 25 volunteers, a total of 14 students were excluded because of kyphoscoliosis (4), lumbar muscle pain (1), anti-inflammatory treatment (3), or not reaching 80% of effective chest compressions during the test (6). Muscle activity at the high spinal and lumbar (L5) muscles was assessed using electromyography while students performed continuous chest compressions on a ResusciAnne manikin. The data from force exerted were analyzed according to side and muscle groups using Student's t test for paired samples. The influence of time, muscle group, and side was analyzed by multivariate analyses ( p ≤ .05). At 2 minutes, high spinal muscle activity (right: 50.82 ± 9.95; left: 57.27 ± 20.85 μV/ms) reached the highest values. Activity decreased at 5 and 15 minutes. At 2 minutes, L5 activity (right: 45.82 ± 9.09; left: 48.91 ± 10.02 μV/ms) reached the highest values. After 5 minutes and at 15 minutes, activity decreased. Fatigue occurred bilaterally and time was the most important factor. Fatigue began at 2 minutes. Rescuers exert muscular countervailing forces in order to maintain effective compressions. This imbalance of forces could determine the onset of poor posture, musculoskeletal pain, and long-term injuries in the rescuer.

  2. [Efficacy of sweat-antigen-inactivating skin care products on itching of patients with atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Hajime; Takahagi, Shunsuke; Mihara, Shoji; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Kaori; Hide, Michihiro; Suzuki, Shigeru; Kanatani, Hirotoshi; Yano, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    Many patients with atopic dermatitis showed immediate-type hypersensitivity against sweat antigen. Therefore, to deal with sweating is important to prevent itching and aggravations of dermatitis of patient with atopic dermatitis. We had searched a substance that inactivated sweat antigen adopting histamine release test. And we found that tannic acid which selected by screening various natural products inactivated sweat antigen. We evaluate skin care products (spray, after-bathing water and aerosol-spray) containing tannic acid for patients with atopic dermatitis. We administered in a tannic acid-containing spray and after-bathing water on 17 patients with atopic dermatitis. After treatment, total clinical assessment score and itching in the afternoon had significantly decreased from that on day 0. To evaluate the effect of tannic acid containing-aerosol spray on itching of patients with AD, we assessed symptoms of atopic dermatitis patients who used a tannic acid containing-aerosol spray every day for 4 weeks in a cross-over, double-blind study. Clinical severity of atopic dermatitis and degrees of itching in daily life of patients were evaluated by physicians and patients themselves, respectively. Degrees of itching in morning and those at night were significantly more largely improved by the use of tannic acid-containing aerosol spray than those by the use of placebo control aerosol spray. The overall efficacy of tannic acid-containing aerosol sprays was also significantly higher than those of tannic acid free spray. Sweat antigen inactivating skin care products may be effective to reduce itching of patients with atopic dermatitis.

  3. Measurement and prediction of indoor air quality using a breathing thermal manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2007-01-01

    The analyses performed in this paper reveal that a breathing thermal manikin with realistic simulation of respiration including breathing cycle, pulmonary ventilation rate, frequency and breathing mode, gas concentration, humidity and temperature of exhaled air and human body shape and surface...... temperature is sensitive enough to perform reliable measurement of characteristics of air as inhaled by occupants. The temperature, humidity, and pollution concentration in the inhaled air can be measured accurately with a thermal manikin without breathing simulation if they are measured at the upper lip...... at a distance of breathing, especially of exhalation, is needed for studying the transport of exhaled air between occupants. A method...

  4. Influence of geometry of thermal manikins on concentration distribution and personal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2007-01-01

    at a distance of air parameters. Proper simulation of breathing, especially of exhalation, is needed for studying the transport of exhaled air between occupants. A method......The analyses performed in this paper reveal that a breathing thermal manikin with realistic simulation of respiration including breathing cycle, pulmonary ventilation rate, frequency and breathing mode, gas concentration, humidity and temperature of exhaled air and human body shape and surface...... temperature is sensitive enough to perform reliable measurement of characteristics of air as inhaled by occupants. The temperature, humidity, and pollution concentration in the inhaled air can be measured accurately with a thermal manikin without breathing simulation if they are measured at the upper lip...

  5. Skin-interfaced systems for sweat collection and analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungil; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Baker, Lindsay B; Rogers, John A

    2018-02-01

    Recent interdisciplinary advances in materials, mechanics, and microsystem designs for biocompatible electronics, soft microfluidics, and electrochemical biosensors establish the foundations for emerging classes of thin, skin-interfaced platforms capable of capturing, storing, and performing quantitative, spatiotemporal measurements of sweat chemistry, instantaneous local sweat rate, and total sweat loss. This review summarizes scientific and technical progress in this area and highlights the implications in real time and ambulatory modes of deployment during physical activities across a broad range of contexts in clinical health, physiology research, fitness/wellness, and athletic performance.

  6. Metronome improves compression and ventilation rates during CPR on a manikin in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Karl B; Stickney, Ronald E; Gallison, Leanne; Smith, Robert E

    2010-02-01

    We hypothesized that a unique tock and voice metronome could prevent both suboptimal chest compression rates and hyperventilation. A prospective, randomized, parallel design study involving 34 pairs of paid firefighter/emergency medical technicians (EMTs) performing two-rescuer CPR using a Laerdal SkillReporter Resusci Anne manikin with and without metronome guidance was performed. Each CPR session consisted of 2 min of 30:2 CPR with an unsecured airway, then 4 min of CPR with a secured airway (continuous compressions at 100 min(-1) with 8-10 ventilations/min), repeated after the rescuers switched roles. The metronome provided "tock" prompts for compressions, transition prompts between compressions and ventilations, and a spoken "ventilate" prompt. During CPR with a bag/valve/mask the target compression rate of 90-110 min(-1) was achieved in 5/34 CPR sessions (15%) for the control group and 34/34 sessions (100%) for the metronome group (pmetronome or control group during CPR with a bag/valve/mask. During CPR with a bag/endotracheal tube, the target of both a compression rate of 90-110 min(-1) and a ventilation rate of 8-11 min(-1) was achieved in 3/34 CPR sessions (9%) for the control group and 33/34 sessions (97%) for the metronome group (pMetronome use with the secured airway scenario significantly decreased the incidence of over-ventilation (11/34 EMT pairs vs. 0/34 EMT pairs; pmetronome was effective at directing correct chest compression and ventilation rates both before and after intubation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lack of harmonization in sweat testing for cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Christiansen, Anne; Nybo, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Sweat testing is used in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Interpretation of the sweat test depends, however, on the method performed since conductivity, osmolality and chloride concentration all can be measured as part of a sweat test. The aim of this study...... fibrosis. Because diagnosing cystic fibrosis is a combined effort between local pediatric departments, biochemical and genetic departments and cystic fibrosis centers, a national harmonization is necessary to assure correct clinical use....... a normal and grey zone or a pathological value. Cut-off values for normal, grey and pathological areas were like the reference intervals inconsistent. Conclusion. There is inconsistent use of NPU codes, reference intervals and interpretation of sweat conductivity used in the process of diagnosing cystic...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: cold-induced sweating syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition CISS CNTF receptor-related disorders Crisponi syndrome Sohar-Crisponi syndrome ... of cardiotrophin-like cytokine, a second ligand for ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, leads to cold-induced sweating syndrome in ...

  9. Cystic fibrosis with normal sweat chloride concentration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Filho Luiz Vicente Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease usually diagnosed by abnormal sweat testing. We report a case of an 18-year-old female with bronchiectasis, chronic P. aeruginosa infection, and normal sweat chloride concentrations who experienced rapid decrease of lung function and clinical deterioration despite treatment. Given the high suspicion ofcystic fibrosis, broad genotyping testing was performed, showing a compound heterozygous with deltaF508 and 3849+10kb C->T mutations, therefore confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Although the sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, alternative diagnostic tests such as genotyping and electrophysiologic measurements must be performed if there is suspicion of cystic fibrosis, despite normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

  10. Decreased sweating in seven patients with Laron syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Price, D A; Savage, M O

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sweat secretion was reduced in patients with GH deficiency and increased during GH treatment, indicating an influence of GH on sweat gland function. Thus, patients with GH deficiency have impaired thermoregulation. We report on sweat secretion rates (SSRs) in seven...... patients with Laron syndrome, measured by pilocarpine iontophoresis. The patients had significantly lower SSRs than healthy children matched for sex and pubertal stage (P ...). These observations further supported the hypothesis that sweat gland function in humans is under the influence of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I axis. It remains to be seen whether the decrease in SSR also leads to altered thermoregulation in patients with Laron syndrome....

  11. \\'Sweat Equity\\': Women\\'s Participation in Subsidised Housing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The notion of \\"sweat equity\\" has been promoted as an integral part of subsidised housing in South African Housing policy. It\\'s tougher for females, though. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 58-64 ...

  12. Trapped sweat in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Reimel, Adam J; Sopeña, Bridget C; Barnes, Kelly A; Nuccio, Ryan P; De Chavez, Peter John D; Stofan, John R; Carter, James M

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: (1) trapped sweat (TS) in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss (SL) estimates during a laboratory-based basketball simulation protocol; (2) the impact of exercise intensity, body mass, age, and SL on TS; and (3) TS during on-court training to assess the ecological validity of the laboratory-based results. Twenty-four recreational/competitive male basketball players (23 ± 10 years, 77.0 ± 16.7 kg) completed three randomized laboratory-based trials (Low, Moderate, and High intensity) consisting of 150-min intermittent exercise. Eighteen elite male players (23 ± 4 years, 92.0 ± 20.6 kg) were observed during coach-led, on-court training. Nude and clothed body mass were measured pre and postexercise to determine TS. Data are mean ± SD. There was a significant effect of intensity on SL and TS ( P  < 0.001, Lowsweat and TS was 0.11 ± 0.15 kg (8.0 ± 5.1% SL). During Moderate, subjects lost 1.60 ± 0.56 kg sweat and TS was 0.21 ± 0.21 kg (11.6 ± 6.3% SL). During High, subjects lost 2.12 ± 0.66 kg sweat and TS was 0.38 ± 0.28 kg (16.0 ± 7.4% SL). Multiple regression and partial correlation analysis suggested TS was significantly related to SL ( P  < 0.0001; partial r  = 0.81-0.89), whereas the contributions of body mass ( P  = 0.22-0.92) and age ( P  = 0.29-0.44) were not significant. TS during on-court training was 0.35 ± 0.36 kg, which was associated with a 14.1 ± 11.5% underestimation in SL, and was not statistically different than laboratory-based results ( P  = 0.59). Clothed body mass measurements should be used with caution, as TS is highly variable and can cause a significant underestimation in SL in athletes with high sweating rates. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological

  13. A little CFTR goes a long way: CFTR-dependent sweat secretion from G551D and R117H-5T cystic fibrosis subjects taking ivacaftor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Char

    Full Text Available To determine if oral dosing with the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770, Kalydeco improves CFTR-dependent sweating in CF subjects carrying G551D or R117H-5T mutations, we optically measured sweat secretion from 32-143 individually identified glands in each of 8 CF subjects; 6 F508del/G551D, one G551D/R117H-5T, and one I507del/R117H-5T. Two subjects were tested only (- ivacaftor, 3 only (+ ivacaftor and 3 (+/- ivacaftor (1-5 tests per condition. The total number of gland measurements was 852 (- ivacaftor and 906 (+ ivacaftor. A healthy control was tested 4 times (51 glands. For each gland we measured both CFTR-independent (M-sweat and CFTR-dependent (C-sweat; C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevated [cAMP]i while blocking muscarinic receptors. Absent ivacaftor, almost all CF glands produced M-sweat on all tests, but only 1/593 glands produced C-sweat (10 tests, 5 subjects. By contrast, 6/6 subjects (113/342 glands produced C-sweat in the (+ ivacaftor condition, but with large inter-subject differences; 3-74% of glands responded with C/M sweat ratios 0.04%-2.57% of the average WT ratio of 0.265. Sweat volume losses cause proportionally larger underestimates of CFTR function at lower sweat rates. The losses were reduced by measuring C/M ratios in 12 glands from each subject that had the highest M-sweat rates. Remaining losses were estimated from single channel data and used to correct the C/M ratios, giving estimates of CFTR function (+ ivacaftor  = 1.6%-7.7% of the WT average. These estimates are in accord with single channel data and transcript analysis, and suggest that significant clinical benefit can be produced by low levels of CFTR function.

  14. The physiological effects of dehydration caused by sweat loss. [athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, S.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanisms of fluid loss in the human body while sweating due to physical exercise are discussed. Trained and untrained persons were examined and compared. Since sweat is hypotonous, a disruption in the hydrosalinic balance occurs; the consequences of this finding, also pertaining to the fluid and electrolytic substitution, are presented. Further explanations on the problem of dehydration refer to reactions of individual organ systems, to alterations in bodily capabilities as well as to questions relating to sex and age.

  15. Meet TOM - the world's first open chest paediatric/adult manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Ann

    2016-07-20

    Aged 15, TOM is a model patient. He has suffered more than his fair share of life-threatening events and never complains. But then TOM is not your average sick teenager - he is the world's first open chest paediatric/adult manikin.

  16. Utility of Low Fidelity Manikins for Learning High Quality Chest Compressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, Meenakshi; Rawekar, Alka; Jose, Sujo; Chaudhari, Umesh; Nanoti, Girish

    2018-03-01

    Primarily, to measure the adequacy of chest compression depth after training on low fidelity manikins and secondarily to assess the comparative experience of the learners on high fidelity and low fidelity simulators. An observational cohort study in which seventy-two first year postgraduate students underwent a Basic Life Support (BLS) workshop conducted by AHA accredited BLS trainers and they were then required to perform on a high fidelity manikin to objectively record the quality of their performance. There were 34 (47.22%) male and 38 (52.77%) female participants. CPR skills, as judged by checklist of sequential actions and visual inspection during the BLS training on low fidelity simulators (LFS) were correctly performed by majority (95.89%) participants. However, none of the participants could achieve the recommended depth for high quality chest compressions. The participants' perception of degree of realism and their practical experience on both the types of manikins were similar. Low fidelity manikins are useful for training CPR in sequential manner but fail to impart quality of chest compressions as per AHA recommendations.

  17. Manikin-Based Size-Resolved Penetrations of CE-marked Filtering Facepiece Respirators.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Serfozo, N.; Ondráček, Jakub; Otáhal, P.; Lazaridis, M.; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2017), s. 965-974 ISSN 1545-9624 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 - HEXACOMM Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : size-resolved penetration * manikin-based study * CE-marked respirator Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2016

  18. Distributing personal resuscitation manikins in an untrained population: how well are basic life support skills acquired?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Isbye, Dan Lou; Lippert, Freddy

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-instruction with a DVD and a simple personal manikin is an effective alternative to traditional basic life support (BLS) courses. Objective To evaluate the effect of distributing DVD training kits to untrained laypersons. BLS skills were compared according to 2005 guidelines...

  19. The Importance of a Thermal Manikin as Source and Obstacle in Full-Scale Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    boundary conditions in experiments with the indoor environment. In other words, how will people influence the surroundings instead of how will the surroundings influence people? The use of thermal manikins in an experiment will of course take both situations into account, however, in some experiments...

  20. Comparative Assessment of Torso and Seat Mounted Restraint Systems using Manikins on the Vertical Deceleration Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Photography .............................................................................. 12 6.0 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN...displacement versus time, force (load) versus time, and acceleration versus time. 5.7 High Speed Video and Photography Two Phantom Miro-3 High-Speed...angles relative to the manikin as shown in Figure 8. The Phantom Micro line is a compact, light-weight, rugged family of cameras targeted at

  1. Wearable Sweat Rate Sensors for Human Thermal Comfort Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2018-01-19

    We propose watch-type sweat rate sensors capable of automatic natural ventilation by integrating miniaturized thermo-pneumatic actuators, and experimentally verify their performances and applicability. Previous sensors using natural ventilation require manual ventilation process or high-power bulky thermo-pneumatic actuators to lift sweat rate detection chambers above skin for continuous measurement. The proposed watch-type sweat rate sensors reduce operation power by minimizing expansion fluid volume to 0.4 ml through heat circuit modeling. The proposed sensors reduce operation power to 12.8% and weight to 47.6% compared to previous portable sensors, operating for 4 hours at 6 V batteries. Human experiment for thermal comfort monitoring is performed by using the proposed sensors having sensitivity of 0.039 (pF/s)/(g/m 2 h) and linearity of 97.9% in human sweat rate range. Average sweat rate difference for each thermal status measured in three subjects shows (32.06 ± 27.19) g/m 2 h in thermal statuses including 'comfortable', 'slightly warm', 'warm', and 'hot'. The proposed sensors thereby can discriminate and compare four stages of thermal status. Sweat rate measurement error of the proposed sensors is less than 10% under air velocity of 1.5 m/s corresponding to human walking speed. The proposed sensors are applicable for wearable and portable use, having potentials for daily thermal comfort monitoring applications.

  2. Wearing graduated compression stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation but not sweating during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Nikawa, Toshiya; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-05-01

    The activation of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating are essential to the regulation of core temperature during exercise in the heat. We assessed the effect of graduated compression induced by wearing stockings on cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during exercise in the heat (30°C). On two separate occasions, nine young males exercised for 45 min or until core temperature reached ~1.5°C above baseline resting while wearing either (1) stockings causing graduated compression (graduate compression stockings, GCS), or (2) loose-fitting stockings without compression (Control). Forearm vascular conductance was evaluated by forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) divided by mean arterial pressure to estimate cutaneous vasodilation. Sweat rate was estimated using the ventilated capsule technique. Core and skin temperatures were measured continuously. Exercise duration was similar between conditions (Control: 42.2 ± 3.6 min vs. GCS: 42.2 ± 3.6 min, P  = 1.00). Relative to Control, GCS increased forearm vascular conductance during the late stages (≥30 min) of exercise (e.g., at 40 min, 15.6 ± 5.6 vs. 18.0 ± 6.0 units, P  = 0.01). This was paralleled by a greater sensitivity (23.1 ± 9.1 vs. 32.1 ± 15.0 units°C -1 , P  = 0.043) and peak level (14.1 ± 5.1 vs. 16.3 ± 5.7 units, P  = 0.048) of cutaneous vasodilation as evaluated from the relationship between forearm vascular conductance with core temperature. However, the core temperature threshold at which an increase in forearm vascular conductance occurred did not differ between conditions (Control: 36.9 ± 0.2 vs. GCS: 37.0 ± 0.3°C, P  = 0.13). In contrast, no effect of GCS on sweating was measured (all P  > 0.05). We show that the use of GCS during exercise in the heat enhances cutaneous vasodilation and not sweating. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American

  3. Indirect measurements of sweat electrolyte concentration in the laboratory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeley, M.; Woolf, D.; Heeley, A.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To investigate whether analytical methods based on the colligative physical chemical properties of ions or solutes in sweat are less effective than the specific measurement of electrolytes in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF).
METHODS—A single sweat sample was collected (Macroduct) from each of 211 infants and children, of whom 57 had CF, for the measurment of sodium, chloride, osmolality, and conductivity.
RESULTS—The ranges within which CF and non-CF individual values overlapped (equivocal ranges), were wider for sodium and osmolality measurement than for chloride or conductivity. Neither of the latter two measurements provided a discriminatory advantage over the other. The utilisation of broadly based age related ranges for non-CF control subjects served to improve the discriminatory power of all four measurements to an extent that, in this cohort, both chloride and conductivity provided complete discrimination.
CONCLUSION—Sweat conductivity is as effective as chloride measurement in the laboratory diagnosis of CF.

 PMID:10799439

  4. Heat--sweat--dehydration--rehydration: a praxis oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, F

    1991-01-01

    In any situation where heat production as a result of physical exercise exceeds heat elimination from the body by radiation and convection, the body will depend on sweat secretion and evaporation for its thermoregulation. Sweat secretion will reach maximal levels at high energy expenditures in the heat but will be limited when exercising in the cold climate. Athletes and their coaches should understand some of the principles of thermoregulation in order to make an adequate decision about optimal fluid and carbohydrate replacement in a specific situation. In general it is advised that the carbohydrate content of rehydration drinks should be low (max 80 g l-1) when sweat loss is maximal, may be intermediate when both carbohydrate availability and moderate dehydration influence performance (up to 110 g l-1), and may be maximal (up to 160 g l-1) when the sweat loss is minimized and carbohydrate is the major determinant of the rate of fatigue development. Sodium should be added to rehydration drinks in order to maximize fluid and carbohydrate absorption. A range of electrolyte values for replacement of sweat induced losses, based on whole body wash down procedure is presented.

  5. Early-stage mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizawa T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Nizawa1, Toshiyuki Oshitari1, Ryuta Kimoto1, Fusae Kajita1, Jiro Yotsukura1, Kaoru Asanagi1, Takayuki Baba1, Yoko Takahashi2, Takashi Oide2, Takako Kiyokawa2, Takashi Kishimoto2, Shuichi Yamamoto11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Chiba, JapanAbstract: We present the findings of an early-stage primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma in the lower eyelid of a Japanese patient. The patient was a 73-year-old man who had had a nodule on the left lower eyelid for two years. He was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of a swollen chalazion. The clinical and histopathological records were reviewed and the mass was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography excluded systemic metastases. After the histopathological findings, a complete surgical excision of the margins of the adenocarcinoma was performed, with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. After the final histopathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with a primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the left eyelid. Six months after the surgery, no recurrence has been observed. Because the appearance of mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the eyelid is quite variable, the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathological examination. A complete surgical excision is recommended.Keywords: complete surgical excision, eyelid, initial stage, mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma

  6. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results. Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions. Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  7. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  8. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Abdurrahman Erdem; Karataş-Torun, Nimet; Maslak, İbrahim Cemal; Bingöl, Ayşen; Alper, Özgül M

    2017-01-01

    Başaran AE, Karataş-Torun N, Maslak İC, Bingöl A, Alper ÖM. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 68-70. A 5-month-old patient presented with complaints of fever and cough. He was hospitalized with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and pseudo-Bartter's syndrome. Patient was further investigated for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The chloride (Cl) level in sweat was determined within the normal range (25.1 mmol/L, 20.3 mmol/L). CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator gene; NM_000492.2) genotyping results were positive for p.E92K; p.F1052V mutations. The patient was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. In our patient, with features of CF and normal sweat test, mutation analysis was helpful for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

  9. Clinicopathologic characteristics of 12 patients with vulvar sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin Lin; Wu, Ling Ying; Zhang, Hong Tu; Lv, Ne Nan; Huang, Ying; Yu, Gau Zhi

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this article was to evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics, therapy, and prognostic factors of vulvar sweat gland carcinoma. Clinical and pathologic data for 12 patients with vulvar sweat gland carcinoma treated at our institution from January 1958 to April 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 12 cases, 7 cases were vulvar sweat gland carcinoma, 3 cases were vulvar Paget disease with underlying sweat gland adenocarcinoma, 1 case was vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma, and 1 case was adenoid cystic carcinoma of the vulvar sweat gland. Two patients were treated with simple vulvar tumor excision at other medical institutions without adjuvant therapy. Among the other 10 patients, 6 underwent radical vulvectomy; 3, wide local excision of the vulva; and 1, a simple vulvectomy. For 5 of the 12 patients, bilateral or unilateral inguinal lymph nodes excision and biopsy were performed. For 1 patient with bulky inguinal lymph nodes, only a biopsy was performed, and the patient received radiotherapy after vulvar surgery. A follow-up for 11 patients was conducted until death or April 1, 2009. Five of the 11 patients had recurrences after primary treatment. For 2 of these patients, recurrence was local 6 and 48 months after treatment. For 3 patients, distant metastasis was found 18, 5, and 31 months after surgery at our institution. Five of 11 patients died, 1 of whom died of irrelevant disease and 4 of tumor progression. The total survival periods of the 4 patients who died of tumor progression were 24, 36, 44, and 203 months. The other 6 patients have survived for more than 5 years without local failure. In total, there are 7 patients who have survived for 5 years or more. Vulvar sweat gland carcinoma is a very rare entity. Surgery is the primary treatment modality, and the function of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is uncertain. The vulvar tumor size and inguinal lymph nodes metastasis will influence the prognosis, with pathologic differentiation and

  10. MANIKIN DEMONSTRATION IN TEACHING CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF POSTPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE: A COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathi Mangalam Saraswathi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Even though there are many innovative methods to make classes more interesting and effective, in my department, topics are taught mainly by didactic lectures. This study attempts to compare the effectiveness of manikin demonstration and didactic lectures in teaching conservative management of post-partum haemorrhage. OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of manikin demonstration and didactic lectures in teaching conservative management of postpartum haemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is an observational study. Eighty four ninth-semester MBBS students posted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College, Kottayam were selected. They were divided into 2 groups by lottery method. Pre-test was conducted for both groups. Group A was taught by manikin demonstration. Group B was taught by didactic lecture. Feedback response from the students collected after demonstration class was analysed. Post-test was conducted for both the groups after one week. Gain in knowledge of both the groups were calculated from pre-test and post-test scores and compared by Independent sample t test. RESULTS The mean gain in knowledge in group A was 6.4 when compared to group B which is 4.3 and the difference was found to be statistically significant. All of the students in group A felt satisfied and more confident after the class and wanted more topics to be taken by demonstration. CONCLUSION Manikin demonstration class is more effective in teaching conservative management of post-partum haemorrhage and this method can be adopted to teach similar topics in clinical subjects.

  11. Hydrochromic conjugated polymers for human sweat pore mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joosub; Pyo, Minkyeong; Lee, Sang-hwa; Kim, Jaeyong; Ra, Moonsoo; Kim, Whoi-Yul; Park, Bum Jun; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Man

    2014-04-29

    Hydrochromic materials have been actively investigated in the context of humidity sensing and measuring water contents in organic solvents. Here we report a sensor system that undergoes a brilliant blue-to-red colour transition as well as 'Turn-On' fluorescence upon exposure to water. Introduction of a hygroscopic element into a supramolecularly assembled polydiacetylene results in a hydrochromic conjugated polymer that is rapidly responsive (polymer. As a result, the sensor can be used to construct a precise map of active sweat pores on fingertips. The sensor technology, developed in this study, has the potential of serving as new method for fingerprint analysis and for the clinical diagnosis of malfunctioning sweat pores.

  12. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  13. Recurrent endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Patrick O; de Vinck, David; Waldorf, Heidi A; Phelps, Robert G

    2007-12-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor that most commonly involves the eyelid of elderly women. Morphologically and immunohistochemically, it is analogous to endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast and mammary solid papillary carcinoma; also, like the analogous breast lesion, there is an often associated invasive mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. We describe the case of a 65-year-old woman with endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid that recurred 3 years after an apparently complete excision.

  14. Sunscreen Use and Sweat Production in Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Aburto Corona, Jorge Alberto; Aragón Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Context: Sunscreen lotions are important to protect the skin during outdoor exercise, but they may interfere with sweating. Objective: To measure the effect of two different water-resistant sunscreen products on local sweat production in men and women exercising in the heat, and to compare it with the expected inhibition resulting from the use of an antiperspirant. Design: Randomized Crossover Study Design. Setting: Exercise in the heat (30.2 ± 0.4°C d.b. and 58 ± 4.3% r.h, mean ± ...

  15. Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoji, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Suzuki, Y

    1998-11-01

    Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog are not connected morphologically with the lobules of the circumanal glands. However, an apparent functional association has been demonstrated and it is possible that the apocrine sweat glands might serve as excretory ducts for degenerated polyhedral cells of the circumanal glands. In this study, we examined the ultrastructure of the apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog in an effort to define more precisely the relationship between the apocrine sweat glands and the circumanal glands. Paraffin sections stained with azan and sections after immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against actin were examined by light microscopy. Samples fixed by aldehyde perfusion were examined with the electron microscope. Diameters of apocrine sweat glands and height of cells in the secretory epithelium varied considerably. Immunohistochemical staining for actin was weakly positive in the supranuclear regions of secretory cells and very intense in myoepithelial cells. In secretory cells, the endoplasmic reticulum was well-developed. Multivesicular bodies were abundant and were discharged into lumens. Apocrine secretion and exocytosis were observed at luminal surfaces of secretory cells. There were three types of large granule in the cytoplasm: giant mitochondria without cristae; membrane-enclosed globules with or without myelin-like contents; and electron-dense, homogeneous, globular structures. Luminal surfaces were always covered with microvilli, and extensive folding of the cell membrane was found in basal regions. Bundles of actin filaments were dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. In the lumens of apocrine tubules, we observed shed secretory cells with well-preserved normal fine structures. We also noted the differentiation of secretory cells that was due to cell renewal. Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog appear to be more active than those on the general body surface in

  16. Wearable technologies for sweat rate and conductivity sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Salvo, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Wearable sensors present a new frontier in the development of monitoring techniques. They are of great importance in sectors such as sports and healthcare, as they permit the continuous monitoring of physiological and biological elements, such as ECG and human sweat. Until recently, this could only be carried out in specialized laboratories in the presence of cumbersome, and usually, expensive devices. Sweat monitoring sensors integrated onto textile substrates are not only part of a new field of work but, they also represent the first attempt to implement such an

  17. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  18. Sweating response to passive stretch of the calf muscle during activation of forearm muscle metaboreceptors in heated humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Ichinose, Masashi; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Koga, Shunsaku; Miwa, Mikio; Kondo, Narihiko

    2014-05-15

    Activation of muscle metaboreceptors and mechanoreceptors has been shown to independently influence the sweating response, while their integrative control effects remain unclear. We examined the sweating response when the two muscle receptors are concurrently activated in different limbs, as well as the blood pressure response. In total, 27 young males performed passive calf muscle stretches (muscle mechanoreceptor activation) for 30 s in a semisupine position with and without postisometric handgrip exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI, muscle metaboreceptor activation) at exercise intensities of 35 and 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) under hot conditions (ambient temperature, 35°C, relative humidity, 50%). Passive calf muscle stretching alone increased the mean sweating rate significantly on the forehead, chest, and thigh (SRmean) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), but not the heart rate (HR), from prestretching levels by 0.04 ± 0.01 mg·cm(2)·min(-1), 4.0 ± 1.3 mmHg (P 0.05), respectively. The SRmean and MAP during PEMI were significantly higher than those at rest. The passive calf muscle stretch during PEMI increased MAP significantly by 3.4 ± 1.0 and 2.0 ± 0.7 mmHg for 35 and 50% of MVC, respectively (P muscle receptors in different limbs differ and that the influence of calf muscle mechanoreceptor activation alone on the sweating response disappears during forearm muscle metaboreceptor activation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Crying for a Vision: The Native American Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Brubaker, Michael; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Brotherton, Dale; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Conwill, William; Grayshield, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The Native American sweat lodge ceremony or sweat therapy is being used increasingly in various medical, mental health, correctional, and substance abuse treatment centers serving both Native and non-Native clients. This article explores the sweat lodge ceremony's background, elements of Native American spirituality, origin story, cultural…

  20. Sweat it Out : Johannes de Gorter and Sudorifics in the Dutch Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Today, many go for a run, cover themselves under blankets, or sit in the sauna believing that they can ‘sweat out’ the common cold. Whereas modern medicine has falsified the efficacy of sweating as treatment, this paper considers the development of medical research about sweating in the early modern

  1. Comparative study of cocoa-sweat and that of pure honey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... on another clean container where the cocoa-sweat was collected. Immediately after collection, the Cocoa–sweat was filtered using a two fold of cheese cloth to remove any debris and immediately dehydrated by boiling, to avoid fermentation. Using different time limits (30, 20, and 10 min), 1 L of the sweat ...

  2. Sweating, thirst perception and plasma electrolyte composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise induces sweating and subsequently electrolyte loss and thirst but there is little documented on post exercise thirst perception in women of varying body mass indices. 40 apparently healthy young women (19-25years) in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle were used in this study. On the days scheduled for ...

  3. Social polymorphism in the sweat beeLasioglossum(Evylaeus)calceatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, P J; Field, J

    Temperate-zone socially polymorphic sweat bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) are ideal model systems for elucidating the origins of eusociality, a major evolutionary transition. Bees express either social or solitary behaviour in different parts of their range, and social phenotype typically correlates with season length. Despite their obvious utility, however, socially polymorphic sweat bees have received relatively little attention with respect to understanding the origins of eusociality. Lasioglossum ( Evylaeus ) calceatum is a widespread sweat bee that is thought to be socially polymorphic, with important potential as an experimental model species. We first determined the social phenotype of L. calceatum at three sites located at different latitudes within the UK. We then investigated sociality in detail across two years at the southernmost site. We found that L. calceatum exhibits latitudinal social polymorphism within the UK; bees were solitary at our two northern sites but the majority of nests were social at our southern site. Sociality in the south was characterised by a relatively small mean of two and 3.5 workers per nest in each year, respectively, and a small to medium mean caste-size dimorphism of 6.6 %. Foundresses were smaller in our more northern and high altitude populations. Sociality is clearly less specialised than in some closely related obligately social species but probably more specialied than other polymorphic sweat bees. Our research provides a starting point for future experimental work to investigate mechanisms underlying social polymorphism in L . calceatum .

  4. Cranium eroding sweat gland carcinoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.; Karadeniz, A. N.; Aksu, G.; Guveli, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare tumors. Eccrine sweat gland carcinomas are also very rare, with only about 200 cases reported in the world literature and only one of them was eroding the cranium. Treatment modalities of these carcinomas are not well known. Case report. Our patient was 47 years old female. Since 1989, she was operated on six times because of the tumour relapses. After each operation, the pathological results were: sweat gland adenoma, sweat gland tumour, cylindroma, turban tumour, malign cylindiroma. That was her seventh relapse. On examination, a lesion of the size 10 x 6 cm was observed in the left parietal region. Computed tomography showed the lesion had the size of 11 x 5 cm, and was destroying the tabula externa, diploic region and tabula. The tumour was invading the dura and causing periost reaction. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy treatment was planned because of malign transformation and risk of recurrence. Conclusions. Only one case with cranium erosion was reported in literature. In our case, also intracranial extension of the tumor was observed. (author)

  5. The sweating sickness in England | Sloan | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease I-vas characterized by headache, pain in the chest, and profuse sweating, and frequently proved fatal within 24 hours. It can be distinguished from plague, malaria, and typhus, all of which were prevalent in the 161h century, and was probably not influenza but anoTher virus infection which has not reappeared ...

  6. DEET Insect Repellent: Effects on Thermoregulatory Sweating and Physiological Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    from the ratio of actual (saturated dew- point within the ventilated capsule, Ps, dpl ) to saturated skin vapor pressures (Ps,sk) in relation to ambient...vapor pressure (Pw) as: w = [Ps, dpl - Pw]/[Ps,sk - Pw] (Gonzalez and Cena 1985). Local sweating measure were begun after 10-min of standing in the

  7. Do elephants need to sweat? | Wright | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adequate rate of evaporative water loss is considered essential for the maintenance of thermal balance in the elephant in warm climatic conditions. Histological studies have failed to reveal the existence of sweat glands in elephant skin. Transepidermal water-loss rate has been measured and shown to be sufficiently ...

  8. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H; Matsumoto, M; Murai, N; Nakamachi, T; Hannibal, J; Fahrenkrug, J; Hashimoto, H; Watanabe, H; Sueki, H; Honda, K; Miyazaki, A; Shioda, S

    2017-02-01

    Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exhibits pleiotropic functions that are mediated via its receptors [PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and VPAC2R]. Although some studies have suggested a role for PACAP in the skin and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression and localization of PACAP and its receptors in mouse and human eccrine sweat glands. We injected PACAP subcutaneously into the footpads of mice and used the starch-iodine test to visualize sweat-secreting glands. Immunostaining showed PACAP and PAC1R expression by secretory cells from mouse and human sweat glands. PACAP immunoreactivity was also localized in nerve fibres around eccrine sweat glands. PACAP significantly promoted sweat secretion at the injection site, and this could be blocked by the PAC1R-antagonist PACAP6-38. VIP, an agonist of VPAC1R and VPAC2R, failed to induce sweat secretion. This is the first report demonstrating that PACAP may play a crucial role in sweat secretion via its action on PAC1R located in eccrine sweat glands. The mechanisms underlying the role of PACAP in sweat secretion may provide new therapeutic options to combat sweating disorders. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Results from Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus with a Space Suit Ventilation Test Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer; Vonau, Walt; Kanne, Bryan; Korona, Adam; Swickrath, Mike

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) to meet the needs of a new NASA advanced space suit. The PLSS is one of the most critical aspects of the space suit providing the necessary oxygen, ventilation, and thermal protection for an astronaut performing a spacewalk. The ventilation subsystem in the PLSS must provide sufficient carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and ensure that the CO2 is washed away from the oronasal region of the astronaut. CO2 washout is a term used to describe the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the astronaut. Accumulation of CO2 in the helmet or throughout the ventilation loop could cause the suited astronaut to experience hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide in the blood). A suited manikin test apparatus (SMTA) integrated with a space suit ventilation test loop was designed, developed, and assembled at NASA in order to experimentally validate adequate CO2 removal throughout the PLSS ventilation subsystem and to quantify CO2 washout performance under various conditions. The test results from this integrated system will be used to validate analytical models and augment human testing. This paper presents the system integration of the PLSS ventilation test loop with the SMTA including the newly developed regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine component used for CO2 removal and tidal breathing capability to emulate the human. The testing and analytical results of the integrated system are presented along with future work.

  10. Methods of evaluating protective clothing relative to heat and cold stress: thermal manikin, biomedical modeling, and human testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Catherine; Blanchard, Laurie A; Cadarette, Bruce S; Endrusick, Thomas L; Xu, Xiaojiang; Berglund, Larry G; Sawka, Michael N; Hoyt, Reed W

    2011-10-01

    Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to clothing and equipment designed to protect individuals from chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive hazards. The materials used to provide this protection may exacerbate thermal strain by limiting heat and water vapor transfer. Any new PPE must therefore be evaluated to ensure that it poses no greater thermal strain than the current standard for the same level of hazard protection. This review describes how such evaluations are typically conducted. Comprehensive evaluation of PPE begins with a biophysical assessment of materials using a guarded hot plate to determine the thermal characteristics (thermal resistance and water vapor permeability). These characteristics are then evaluated on a thermal manikin wearing the PPE, since thermal properties may change once the materials have been constructed into a garment. These data may be used in biomedical models to predict thermal strain under a variety of environmental and work conditions. When the biophysical data indicate that the evaporative resistance (ratio of permeability to insulation) is significantly better than the current standard, the PPE is evaluated through human testing in controlled laboratory conditions appropriate for the conditions under which the PPE would be used if fielded. Data from each phase of PPE evaluation are used in predictive models to determine user guidelines, such as maximal work time, work/rest cycles, and fluid intake requirements. By considering thermal stress early in the development process, health hazards related to temperature extremes can be mitigated while maintaining or improving the effectiveness of the PPE for protection from external hazards.

  11. Quality of closed chest compression on a manikin in ambulance vehicles and flying helicopters with a real time automated feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havel, Christof; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Trimmel, Helmut; Malzer, Reinhard; Haugk, Moritz; Richling, Nina; Riedmüller, Eva; Sterz, Fritz; Herkner, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Automated verbal and visual feedback improves quality of resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and was proven to increase short-term survival. Quality of resuscitation may be hampered in more difficult situations like emergency transportation. Currently there is no evidence if feedback devices can improve resuscitation quality during different modes of transportation. To assess the effect of real time automated feedback on the quality of resuscitation in an emergency transportation setting. Randomised cross-over trial. Medical University of Vienna, Vienna Municipal Ambulance Service and Helicopter Emergency Medical Service Unit (Christophorus Flugrettungsverein) in September 2007. European Resuscitation Council (ERC) certified health care professionals performing CPR in a flying helicopter and in a moving ambulance vehicle on a manikin with human-like chest properties. CPR sessions, with real time automated feedback as the intervention and standard CPR without feedback as control. Quality of chest compression during resuscitation. Feedback resulted in less deviation from ideal compression rate 100 min(-1) (9+/-9 min(-1), pautomated feedback improves certain aspects of CPR quality in flying helicopters and moving ambulance vehicles. The effect of feedback guidance was most pronounced for chest compression rate. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  13. Determination of different recreational drugs in sweat by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GC/MS): Application to drugged drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Stefano; Mortali, Claudia; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Berretta, Paolo; Zaami, Simona

    2016-09-10

    A procedure based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been developed for the determination of most commonly used drugs of abuse in sweat of drivers stopped during roadside controls. DrugWipe 5A sweat screening device was used to collect sweat by a specific pad rubbed gently over forehead skin surface. The procedure involved an acid hydrolysis, a HS-SPME extraction for drugs of abuse but Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which was directly extracted in alkaline medium HS-SPME conditions, a GC separation of analytes by a capillary column and MS detection by electron impact ionisation. The method was linear from the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 50ng drug per pad (r(2)≥0.99), with an intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy always less than 15% and an analytical recovery between 95.1% and 102.8%, depending on the considered analyte. Using the validated method, sweat from 60 apparently intoxicated drivers were found positive to one or more drugs of abuse, showing sweat patches testing as a viable economic and simple alternative to conventional (blood and/or urine) and non conventional (oral fluid) testing of drugs of abuse in drugged drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... controlled with estrogen replacement therapy. Hot flashes during natural or treatment-related menopause can be controlled with estrogen replacement ... been studied in the treatment of hot flashes. Treatments that help patients cope with stress and anxiety may help manage hot flashes. Treatments ...

  15. Airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around a thermal manikin - Impact of specific personal and indoor environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Tham, Kwok Wai; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    , and ventilation flow considerably affected airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around the thermal manikin. Under the specific set of conditions studied, the most favorable airflow patterns in preventing the feet pollution from reaching the breathing zone was transverse flow from the front......This study presents a summary of experimental measurements on the airflow characteristics and pollution distribution around a non-breathing thermal manikin. The two objectives are: (1) to examine the extent to which personal (body posture, clothing insulation, table positioning) and environmental...... pollutants under factors that influence the CBL. The results show that the CBL generated by the thermal manikin influenced the airflow characteristics and pollution distribution in the breathing zone. Parameters such as room air temperature, body posture, clothing insulation, table positioning...

  16. A new suction mask to reduce leak during neonatal resuscitation: a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Laila; Maxfield, Dominic A; Dawson, Jennifer A; Kamlin, C Omar F; McGrory, Lorraine; Thio, Marta; Donath, Susan M; Davis, Peter G

    2016-09-01

    Leak around the face mask is a common problem during neonatal resuscitation. A newly designed face mask using a suction system to enhance contact between the mask and the infant's face might reduce leak and improve neonatal resuscitation. The aim of the study is to determine whether leak is reduced using the suction mask (Resusi-sure mask) compared with a conventional mask (Laerdal Silicone mask) in a manikin model. Sixty participants from different professional categories (neonatal consultants, fellows, registrars, nurses, midwives and students) used each face mask in a random order to deliver 2 min of positive pressure ventilation to a manikin. Delivered airway pressures were measured using a pressure line. Inspiratory and expiratory flows were measured using a flow sensor, and expiratory tidal volumes and mask leaks were derived from these values. A median (IQR) leak of 12.1 (0.6-39.0)% was found with the conventional mask compared with 0.7 (0.2-4.6)% using the suction mask (p=0.002). 50% of the participants preferred to use the suction mask and 38% preferred to use the conventional mask. There was no correlation between leak and operator experience. A new neonatal face mask based on the suction system reduced leak in a manikin model. Clinical studies to test the safety and effectiveness of this mask are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. A new method of artificial latent fingerprint creation using artificial sweat and inkjet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook; Hong, Ingi; Han, Aleum; Seo, Jin Yi; Namgung, Juyoung

    2015-12-01

    In order to study fingerprinting in the field of forensic science, it is very important to have two or more latent fingerprints with identical chemical composition and intensity. However, it is impossible to obtain identical fingerprints, in reality, because fingerprinting comes out slightly differently every time. A previous research study had proposed an artificial fingerprint creation method in which inkjet ink was replaced with amino acids and sodium chloride solution: the components of human sweat. But, this method had some drawbacks: divalent cations were not added while formulating the artificial sweat solution, and diluted solutions were used for creating weakly deposited latent fingerprint. In this study, a method was developed for overcoming the drawbacks of the methods used in the previous study. Several divalent cations were added in this study because the amino acid-ninhydrin (or some of its analogues) complex is known to react with divalent cations to produce a photoluminescent product; and, similarly, the amino acid-1,2-indanedione complex is known to be catalyzed by a small amount of zinc ions to produce a highly photoluminescent product. Also, in this study, a new technique was developed which enables to adjust the intensity when printing the latent fingerprint patterns. In this method, image processing software is used to control the intensity of the master fingerprint patterns, which adjusts the printing intensity of the latent fingerprints. This new method opened the way to produce a more realistic artificial fingerprint in various strengths with one artificial sweat working solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of Indoor Air Quality by Means of a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    When a person is located in a contaminant field with significant gradients the contaminant distribution is modified locally due to the entrainment and transport of room air in the human convective boundary layer as well as due to the effect of the person acting as an obstacle to the flow field, etc....... The local modification of the concentration distribution may affect the personal exposure significantly and, thus, the indoor air quality actually experienced. In this paper measurements of indoor air quality by means of a Breathing Thermal Manikin (BTM) are presented....

  19. A comparison of four techniques of emergency transcricoid oxygenation in a manikin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salah, Nazar

    2012-02-01

    Cricothyroidotomy is the final rescue maneuver in difficult airway management. We compared 4 techniques of oxygenation via the cricothyroid membrane in a manikin. The techniques were wire guided, trocar, cannula with jet ventilation, and blade technique (scalpel with endotracheal tube). In the wire-guided group, the time taken to ventilation was slower on all attempts, and there were no successful attempts in <40 seconds. There were no differences between the other groups at any time. Time to ventilation improved with repetition in all groups. Skills were retained at 1 month.

  20. CFD Modeling of Thermal Manikin Heat Loss in a Comfort Evaluation Benchmark Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Håkan O.; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2007-01-01

    for comfort evaluation. The main idea is to focus on people. It is the comfort requirements of occupants that decide what thermal climate that will prevail. It is therefore important to use comfort simulation methods that originate from people, not just temperatures on surfaces and air.......Computer simulated persons (CSPs) today are different in many ways, reflecting various software possibilities and limitations as well as different research interest. Unfortunately, too few of the theories behind thermal manikin simulations are available in the public domain. Many researchers...

  1. A comparison of four techniques of emergency transcricoid oxygenation in a manikin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salah, Nazar

    2010-04-01

    Cricothyroidotomy is the final rescue maneuver in difficult airway management. We compared 4 techniques of oxygenation via the cricothyroid membrane in a manikin. The techniques were wire guided, trocar, cannula with jet ventilation, and blade technique (scalpel with endotracheal tube). In the wire-guided group, the time taken to ventilation was slower on all attempts, and there were no successful attempts in <40 seconds. There were no differences between the other groups at any time. Time to ventilation improved with repetition in all groups. Skills were retained at 1 month.

  2. A case of endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inozume, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Harada, Kazutoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Shibagaki, Naotaka; Katoh, Ryohei; Shimada, Shinji

    2012-05-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC), which is an uncommon sweat gland tumor with a predilection for the eyelids, is morphologically analogous to solid papillary carcinoma of the breast. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a subcutaneous tumor of the upper cheek. The pathological findings for this patient were compatible with those of reported cases of EMPSGC, and p63 staining revealed partial microinvasion into the dermis. On the basis of these findings, the patient was diagnosed with EMPSGC. It is reported that EMPSGC is a precursor of invasive mucinous carcinoma of the skin. Therefore, this patient was treated and followed up as if he had mucinous carcinoma of the skin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a case from Japan. © 2012 The Authors. Pathology International © 2012 Japanese Society of Pathology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Topics in histopathology of sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews several topics regarding sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms. First, the clinicopathological characteristics of poroid neoplasms are summarized. It was recently reported that one-fourth of poroid neoplasms are composite tumors and one-fourth are apocrine type lesions. Recent progress in the immunohistochemical diagnosis of sweat gland neoplasms is also reviewed. CD117 can help to distinguish sweat gland or sebaceous tumors from other non-Merkel cell epithelial tumors of the skin. For immunohistochemical differential diagnosis between sweat gland carcinoma (SGC) other than primary cutanesous apocrine carcinoma and skin metastasis of breast carcinoma (SMBC), a panel of antibodies may be useful, including p63 (SGC + , SMBC - ), CK5/6 (SGC + , SMBC - ), podoplanin (SGC + , SMBC - ) and mammaglobin (SGC - , SMBC + ). Comparison of antibodies used for immunohistochemical diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma (SC) suggests that adipophilin has the highest sensitivity and specificity. Some authors have found that immunostaining for survivin, androgen receptor and ZEB2/SIP1 has prognostic value for ocular SC, but not extraocular SC. In situ SC is rare, especially extraocular SC, but there have been several recent reports that actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease are the source of invasive SC. Finally, based on recent reports, classification of sebaceous neoplasms into three categories is proposed, which are sebaceoma (a benign neoplasm with well-defined architecture and no atypia), borderline sebaceous neoplasm (low-grade SC; an intermediate tumor with well-defined architecture and nuclear atypia) and SC (a malignant tumor with invasive growth and evident nuclear atypia). © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonia; Thiagalingam, Sureka; Zembowicz, Artur; Hatton, Mark P

    2008-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman was examined for a 4-mm bluish nodule in the left upper eyelid. The lesion was excised and pathology showed it to be endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma with positive margins. She underwent Mohs surgery and reconstruction of the resulting defect. Clinicians should be aware of this entity given its association with invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma, a locally aggressive tumor with metastatic potential.

  5. Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma, a Histological Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Brett, Mary Anne; Salama, Samih; Gohla, Gabriella; Alowami, Salem

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare adnexal tumor of the skin with low-grade cytological features and neuroendocrine differentiation. It has a predilection for the skin of the eyelid, but has also been reported in the face and rarely extra-facial locations. The tumor is seen more frequently in women and on average affects the elderly. It is histologically and immunohistochemically analogous to solid papillary carcinoma of the breast/endocrine ductal carcinoma in...

  6. Epidemiology and Prognosis of Primary Periocular Sweat Gland Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Meredith S; Yin, Vivian T; Ivan, Doina; Allen, Richard C; Carter, Keith D; Esmaeli, Bita; Shriver, Erin M

    To characterize the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of patients with sweat gland carcinoma of the periocular region. To review the pathologic classification scheme, compare the clinical behavior between subtypes, and discuss treatment recommendations for periocular sweat gland carcinomas. Retrospective study from 2 tertiary centers, which are part of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Oncology Database. Twenty-two patients, of whom 13 (59%) were female, were included in the study. The median age was 69 years. The median follow-up time was 23 months. Twenty (91%) patients had lesions that were slow growing and were present for several months to years before diagnosis. Presentation was varied, and pathology included mucinous carcinoma (7; 32%), microcystic adnexal carcinoma (4; 18%), endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (4; 18%), eccrine carcinoma (2; 9%), apocrine carcinoma (2; 9%), poorly differential adnexal carcinoma (2; 9%), and hidroadenocarcinoma (1; 5%). Microcystic adnexal carcinoma tended to present with the largest tumor dimension (range: 25-32 mm) and mucinous carcinoma the smallest (range: 5-13 mm). Treatments included Mohs micrographic excision in 10 patients (45.5%), wide local excision in 10 patients (45.5%), and orbital exenteration in 2 patients (9%). No lesions ≤T2b (by AJCC 7th edition classification for eyelid carcinomas) had local recurrence or nodal metastasis. No patients had distant metastasis. Sweat gland carcinomas tend to grow slowly and be present for several months to years before diagnosis. Overall, microcystic adnexal carcinoma subtype showed more aggressive clinical behavior than mucinous subtypes. Eyelid carcinomas AJCC category T2b or less were associated with better outcomes.

  7. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  8. SOX10 immunohistochemistry in sweat ductal/glandular neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassarino, David S; Su, Albert; Robbins, Bruce A; Altree-Tacha, David; Ra, Seong

    2017-06-01

    SOX10 is a newer Schwannian and melanocytic marker that has generated great interest for its relative sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of neural crest-derived tumors. Previous studies with SOX10 have shown positive immunohistochemical expression in cutaneous eccrine glands and negative expression in eccrine ducts, apocrine glands and hair follicles. Thus, we hypothesized that some sweat gland tumors of presumed eccrine origin would be positive for SOX10, whereas apocrine-derived sweat gland tumors would not. A mouse monoclonal anti-SOX10 (clone BC34: Biocare Medical; Concord, California) immunohistochemical antibody was performed on various sweat gland tumors and basal cell carcinoma. SOX10 showed positivity in spiradenomas (13/13), cylindromas (9/10), hidradenoma papilliferum (10/10), syringocystadenoma papilliferum (8/10), apocrine adenomas (8/10), and negativity in poromas (0/12), syringomas (0/10), and basal cell carcinomas (0/13). There was mixed staining of hidradenomas (6/15). SOX10 immunohistochemistry may be of utility in distinguishing some of the varying adnexal tumors from each other, and from basal cell carcinoma (BCC), but given the staining of both apocrine and eccrine tumors, does not seem to provide information as to their origins as either eccrine or apocrine tumors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Metastatic apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in a terrier dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Reza, Kheirandish; Shahriar, Dabiri; Omid, Azari; Daruoosh, Vosoogh; Nasrin, Askari

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the clinical and pathological aspects of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with distant metastasis in an aged dog. A 7-year-old male terrier dog was referred to small animal hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with a 5.5×3.5 centimeter pedunculated mass on its head near left auricular region which had been progressively growing since three months ago. The radiography showed no local and distant metastasis. Surgical excision and histological evaluation was done. Histologically, the mass was composed of epithelial cells arranged in glandular and solid patterns. The morphologic findings suggested either a primary or metastatic apocrine-gland carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were intensely positive for cytokeratin 7 and 20 and negative for S100 protein. On the basis of histopathological and clinical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a malignant apocrine gland tumor, arising from apocrine sweat glands of the skin. Local tumor recurrence with anorexia and weight loss was reported by the owner nine month later. Severe submandibular and prescapular lymphadenomegaly was noted in clinical examination. Several large pulmonary nodules were noted in chest radiographs resembling mediastinal lymph node metastasis. Second surgery and chemotherapy was rejected by the owner due to grave prognosis of the patient. The animal was died 45 days later due to respiratory complications. Tumors of apocrine sweat glands are relatively uncommon in dogs whereas apocrine gland adenocarcinoma with distant metastasis is extremely rare.

  10. Checking the sealing of fuel elements by helium sweating - case of the reactors G2 (1960); Controle de l'etancheite des elements combustibles par ressuage d'helium - cas du reacteur G2 (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B.; D' Orival, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Choumoff, S. [Compagnie Francaise Thomson-Houston, 75 - Paris (France)

    1960-07-01

    The G2 slug is a welded, hermetically sealed unit; the seal is checked by placing the fuel element in a helium atmosphere under pressure, then measuring the quantity of helium it releases in a vessel under vacuum. The theoretical aspect and the conditions of industrial application are reviewed, and the installations described. (author) [French] La cartouche G2 se presente comme un ensemble soude, hermetique; le controle d'etancheite s'effectue en immergeant l'element combustible dans une atmosphere d'helium sous pression puis en mesurant la quantite d'helium qu'il restitue dans une enceinte sous vide. L'aspect theorique et les conditions d'exploitation industrielle sont evoques et les installations decrites. (auteur)

  11. Laboratory performance of sweat conductivity for the screening of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Ronda F; Jolly, Lisa; Massie, John; Scott, Sue; Wiley, Veronica C; Metz, Michael P; Mackay, Richard J

    2018-03-28

    There are several complementary English-language guidelines for the performance of the sweat chloride test. These guidelines also incorporate information for the collection of conductivity samples. However, recommendations for the measurement and reporting of sweat conductivity are less clear than for sweat chloride. The aim of the study was to develop an understanding of the testing and reporting practices of sweat conductivity in Australasian laboratories. A survey specifically directed at conductivity testing was sent to the 12 laboratories registered with the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs. Nine (75%) laboratories participated in the survey, seven of whom used Wescor Macroduct® for collecting sweat and the Wescor SWEAT·CHEK™ for conductivity testing, and the remaining two used the Wescor Nanoduct®. There was considerable variation in frequency and staffing for this test. Likewise, criteria about which patients it was inappropriate to test, definitions of adequate collection sweat rate, cutoffs and actions recommended on the basis of the result showed variations between laboratories. Variations in sweat conductivity testing and reporting reflect many of the same issues that were revealed in sweat chloride test audits and have the potential to lead to uncertainty about the result and the proper action in response to the result. We recommend that sweat testing guidelines should include clearer statements about the use of sweat conductivity.

  12. 3D modeling and characterization of a calorimetric flow rate sensor for sweat rate sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, Ahmed Tashfin; Ho, Jenny Che-Ting; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2017-03-01

    Sweat-based physiological monitoring has been intensively explored in the last decade with the hopes of developing real-time hydration monitoring devices. Although the content of sweat (electrolytes, lactate, urea, etc.) provides significant information about the physiology, it is also very important to know the rate of sweat at the time of sweat content measurements because the sweat rate is known to alter the concentrations of sweat compounds. We developed a calorimetric based flow rate sensor using PolydimethylSiloxane that is suitable for sweat rate applications. Our simple approach on using temperature-based flow rate detection can easily be adapted to multiple sweat collection and analysis devices. Moreover, we have developed a 3D finite element analysis model of the device using COMSOL Multiphysics™ and verified the flow rate measurements. The experiment investigated flow rate values from 0.3 μl/min up to 2.1 ml/min, which covers the human sweat rate range (0.5 μl/min-10 μl/min). The 3D model simulations and analytical model calculations covered an even wider range in order to understand the main physical mechanisms of the device. With a verified 3D model, different environmental heat conditions could be further studied to shed light on the physiology of the sweat rate.

  13. Regional brain responses associated with thermogenic and psychogenic sweating events in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michael J; Trevaks, David; Taylor, Nigel A S; McAllen, Robin M

    2015-11-01

    Sweating events occur in response to mental stress (psychogenic) or with increased body temperature (thermogenic). We previously found that both were linked to activation of common brain stem regions, suggesting that they share the same output pathways: a putative common premotor nucleus was identified in the rostral-lateral medulla (Farrell MJ, Trevaks D, Taylor NA, McAllen RM. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 304: R810-R817, 2013). We therefore looked in higher brain regions for the neural basis that differentiates the two types of sweating event. Previous work has identified hemispheric activations linked to psychogenic sweating, but no corresponding data have been reported for thermogenic sweating. Galvanic skin responses were used to measure sweating events in two groups of subjects during either psychogenic sweating (n = 11, 35.3 ± 11.8 yr) or thermogenic sweating (n = 11, 34.4 ± 10.2 yr) while regional brain activation was measured by BOLD signals in a 3-Tesla MRI scanner. Common regions activated with sweating events in both groups included the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, insula, premotor cortex, thalamus, lentiform nuclei, and cerebellum (P(corrected) thermogenic than with psychogenic sweating events. However, a discrete cluster of activation in the anterior hypothalamus/preoptic area was seen only with thermogenic sweating events. These findings suggest that the expected association between sweating events and brain regions implicated in "arousal" may apply selectively to psychogenic sweating; the neural basis for thermogenic sweating events may be subcortical. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Comparisons of eccrine sweat gland anatomy in genetic, chromosomal, and other diseases, and a suggested procedure for use of sweat gland measurements in differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankle, W R; Azen, S P; Landing, B H

    1982-04-01

    Statistical analysis of the dimensions of microdissected eccrine sweat glands (duct length, coil volume, ratio of coil volume to duct length, and axis ratio of coil) was performed for several diseases (cystic fibrosis of the pancreas, Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, tetralogy of Fallot, chronic renal disease, and trisomies 13, 18, and 21) using both individual and grouped age-matched control patients. Duct length, coil volume, and the ratio of the two all rise with age. Eccrine gland duct length was found to be significantly large in tetralogy of Fallot and Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and small in chronic renal disease (less so in males than in females, trisomy 13 and trisomy 18). Secretory coil volume was significantly smaller than normal in trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and in chronic renal disease, and the ratio of coil volume to duct length was low in trisomy 21 and chronic renal disease. The shape of the secretory coil (axis ratio) was possibly abnormal in trisomy 13. Gland dimensions were normal for cystic fibrosis. Using the multivariate procedure of discriminant analysis, it was found that sweat gland measures significantly contributed to the differentiation of diseases, after adjustments were made for variations in age-at-death. This suggested the possibility that criteria for distinction of clinically similar genetic, metabolic, or chromosomal diseases by study of the anatomic properties of eccrine glands obtained by skin biopsy could be developed. A procedure of analysis comparing the "percentage of normal" of gland dimensions for each disease to control values, and thereby differentiating disease categories on the basis of the "percentage of normal" values, is presented.

  15. Influence of chest compression rate guidance on the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed on manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, H; Silfvast, T; Turpeinen, A; Kiviniemi, V; Uusaro, A

    2009-04-01

    The adequate chest compression rate during CPR is associated with improved haemodynamics and primary survival. To explore whether the use of a metronome would affect also chest compression depth beside the rate, we evaluated CPR quality using a metronome in a simulated CPR scenario. Forty-four experienced intensive care unit nurses participated in two-rescuer basic life support given to manikins in 10min scenarios. The target chest compression to ventilation ratio was 30:2 performed with bag and mask ventilation. The rescuer performing the compressions was changed every 2min. CPR was performed first without and then with a metronome that beeped 100 times per minute. The quality of CPR was analysed with manikin software. The effect of rescuer fatigue on CPR quality was analysed separately. The mean compression rate between ventilation pauses was 137+/-18compressions per minute (cpm) without and 98+/-2cpm with metronome guidance (pmetronome (pmetronome guidance (p=0.09). The total number of chest compressions performed was 1022 without metronome guidance, 42% at the correct depth; and 780 with metronome guidance, 61% at the correct depth (p=0.09 for difference for percentage of compression with correct depth). Metronome guidance corrected chest compression rates for each compression cycle to within guideline recommendations, but did not affect chest compression quality or rescuer fatigue.

  16. Evaluation of an electrically heated vest (EHV) using a thermal manikin in cold environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Lee, Hansup

    2010-01-01

    We studied the heating efficiency of an electrically heated vest (EHV), its relationship to the microclimate temperature distribution in a three-layer clothing ensemble, and the effect of an EHV on the clothing's total thermal insulation by both theoretical analysis and thermal manikin measurements. The heat losses at different ambient conditions and heating states were recorded and the heating efficiency of the EHV was calculated. It was found that the EHV can alter the microclimatic temperature distribution of the three-layer clothing ensemble. The EHV can provide an air temperature of 34 degrees C around the manikin's torso skin. The highest temperature on the outside surface of the EHV was around 38 degrees C, which indicates that it is safe for the consumer. The higher the heating temperature, the lower the heating efficiency obtained. This was due to much more heat being lost to the environment, and hence, the heat gain from the EHV was smaller. The heating efficiency decreased from 55.3% at 0 degrees C to 27.4% at -10 degrees C when the heating power was set at 13 W. We suggest adjusting the heating power to 5 W (step 1) at an ambient temperature of 0 degrees C, while at -10 degrees C using 13 W (step 3) to provide the consumer a thermal comfort condition.

  17. An assessment of the realism of digital human manikins used for simulation in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nérot, Agathe; Skalli, Wafa; Wang, Xuguang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the accuracy of the joint centres of the manikins generated by RAMSIS and Human Builder (HB), two digital human modelling (DHM) systems widely used in industry for virtual ergonomics simulation, was investigated. Eighteen variously sized females and males were generated from external anthropometric dimensions and six joint centres (knee, hip and four spine joints) were compared with their anatomic locations obtained from the three-dimensional reconstructed bones from a low-dose X-ray system. Both RAMSIS and HB could correctly reproduce external anthropometric dimensions, while the estimation of internal joint centres location presented an average error of 27.6 mm for HB and 38.3 mm for RAMSIS. Differences between both manikins showed that a more realistic kinematic linkage led to better accuracy in joint location. This study opens the way to further research on the relationship between the external body geometry and internal skeleton in order to improve the realism of the internal skeleton of DHMs, especially for a biomechanical analysis requiring information of joint load and muscle force estimation. This study assessed two digital human modelling (DHM) systems widely used in industry for virtual ergonomics. Results support the need of a more realistic human modelling, especially for a biomechanical analysis and a standardisation of DHMs.

  18. Neck sweat gland cancer hemorrhage. Case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Przemysław; Górnicka, Barbara; Górnicki, Krzysztof; Kołodziejczak, Małgorzata; Siekierski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a case of an 87-year-old female patient who was admitted for an emergency operation due to massive hemorrhage of an ulceration localized on a huge neck tumor. Post-interventional diagnosis indicated hidradenocarcinoma. Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare skin neoplasm. It can coincide with adenoma, may develop through its malignant transformation or develop as a malignant tumor from the beginning. It may be found in all dermal localizations. It may develop metastases or appear in the diffuse form. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed obtaining a surgical margin, completed with excision of local lymph nodes and multiple layer suturing. Due to lack of the patient's consent, she has not been qualified for adjuvant therapy. Control examination 6 and 12 months later showed no signs of local recurrence or lymph node metastasis. Surgical excision of apocrine hidradenocarcinoma with a surgical margin could present a good therapeutic effect in spite of lack of adjuvant therapy.

  19. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2014.

  20. Correlation between subjective assessments of local thermal discomfort and thermal manikin measurements in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Jama, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    participated, each being exposed to the same three temperature conditions during simulated 7-hour transatlantic flights. The assessments indicate that an air temperature increase in the middle of a 7-hour flight period followed by a decrease before landing might be preferred. A comparison be-tween manikin...

  1. Interaction effects of radiation and convection measured by a thermal manikin wearing protective clothing with different radiant properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Wang, X.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E. den; Griefahn, B.; Holmér, I.; Meinander, H.; Richards, M.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the EU funded research project THERMPROTECT ('Thermal properties of protective clothing and their use') this paper deals with manikin experiments on the effects of heat radiation at different wind speeds, considering aspects related to the reflectivity of the clothing. A heated thermal

  2. Improvement of diabetic autonomic gustatory sweating by botulinum toxin type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restivo, D A; Lanza, S; Patti, F; Giuffrida, S; Marchese-Ragona, R; Bramanti, P; Palmeri, A

    2002-12-24

    Fourteen diabetic subjects with gustatory sweating were treated by intracutaneous injections of botulinum toxin type A into the affected facial skin areas. In all subjects, sweating (measured by Minor starch iodine test) ceased within 4 days, with the maximal follow-up time lasting 24 weeks. This therapeutic approach, which could be used to reduce the severity of diabetic gustatory sweating, appears to be long lasting, adverse effect free, and minimally invasive.

  3. Comparative study of cocoa-sweat and that of pure honey | Taiga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cocoa-sweat concentrated for 20 and 30 min had higher fructose content of 9.31 and 9.46% respectively, as against 3.41% of pure honey. From the sensory evaluation tests, the cocoa-sweat concentrated for 20 and 30 min were highly acceptable with mean values if 27.3 and 28.8 respectively, as compared to the sweat ...

  4. A brief review of different types of sweat-gland carcinomas in the eyelid and orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Ge, Shengfang; Fan, Xianqun

    2013-01-01

    Sweat-gland carcinoma is a rare cutaneous appendage malignant tumor. Primary sweat-gland cancer can arise in the eyelid and orbit and is extremely rare. It has been classified into different types, and is usually locally recurrent after surgery. The tumors also appear in the orbit, which is characterized by metastasis. Therefore, great attention should be paid to the development of sweat-gland carcinomas. Specifically, our report briefly reviews the types of sweat-gland carcinomas that occur in the eyelid and orbit according to pathological classifications.

  5. A wearable multisensing patch for continuous sweat monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasova, Salzitsa; Crewther, Blair; Bembnowicz, Pawel; Curto, Vincenzo; Ip, Henry Md; Rosa, Bruno; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2017-07-15

    In sport, exercise and healthcare settings, there is a need for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of biomarkers to assess human performance, health and wellbeing. Here we report the development of a flexible microfluidic platform with fully integrated sensing for on-body testing of human sweat. The system can simultaneously and selectively measure metabolite (e.g. lactate) and electrolytes (e.g. pH, sodium) together with temperature sensing for internal calibration. The construction of the platform is designed such that continuous flow of sweat can pass through an array of flexible microneedle type of sensors (50µm diameter) incorporated in a microfluidic channel. Potentiometric sodium ion sensors were developed using a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) functional membrane deposited on an electrochemically deposited internal layer of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymer. The pH sensing layer is based on a highly sensitive membrane of iridium oxide (IrOx). The amperometric-based lactate sensor consists of doped enzymes deposited on top of a semipermeable copolymer membrane and outer polyurethane layers. Real-time data were collected from human subjects during cycle ergometry and treadmill running. A detailed comparison of sodium, lactate and cortisol from saliva is reported, demonstrating the potential of the multi-sensing platform for tracking these outcomes. In summary, a fully integrated sensor for continuous, simultaneous and selective measurement of sweat metabolites, electrolytes and temperature was achieved using a flexible microfluidic platform. This system can also transmit information wirelessly for ease of collection and storage, with the potential for real-time data analytics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polymorphous sweat gland carcinoma: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Addie; Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Emanuel, Patrick O; Vidimos, Allison; Billings, Steven D

    2016-07-01

    Polymorphous sweat gland carcinoma (PSGC) is a rare adnexal neoplasm with characteristic variegated histopathologic findings and low-grade clinical behavior. First described in 1994, only 11 cases have been reported in the literature. It is named for the multiplicity of architectural patterns that may be present: solid, tubular, trabecular, pseudopapillary and cylindromatous. Owing to the multiple architectural patterns, the differential diagnosis is broad, including metastatic adenocarcinoma and other adnexal neoplasms with ductular differentiation. We present two new cases of PSGC and review the literature on this rare tumor. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

  8. A retrospective study of 44 canine apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Simko, Elemir; Wilcock, Brian P.; Yager, Julie A.

    2003-01-01

    Apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas (AACs) are relatively uncommon skin tumors in dogs. Little prognostic or behavioral information has been published for these tumors. In this retrospective study, 44 AACs from diagnostic archives were reexamined and clinical postexcisional follow-ups for 25 of the 44 cases were obtained by a survey. There were 28 out of 44 (65.9%) AACs that invaded the capsule, stroma, or both, 5 of 44 (11.4%) invaded blood vessels and stroma, and 1 out of 25 (4%) had dista...

  9. Metastatic apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in a terrier dog

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtardanesh Baharak; Kheirandish Reza; Dabiri Shahriar; Azari Omid; Vosoogh Daruoosh; Askari Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the clinical and pathological aspects of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with distant metastasis in an aged dog. A 7-year-old male terrier dog was referred to small animal hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with a 5.5×3.5 centimeter pedunculated mass on its head near left auricular region which had been progressively growing since three months ago. The radiography showed no local and distant metastasis. Surgical excision and histological evaluation was don...

  10. Laypersons may learn basic life support in 24min using a personal resuscitation manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan Lou; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    -55 years) without previous BLS-training were allocated into two groups: one group received 24 min of instruction using a DVD-based instruction tool on a big screen combined with a BLS self-training device, Laerdal MiniAnne manikin (MAM), before taking home the instruction material for subsequent self...... the total score. Assessment of breathing was performed significantly more often in the 6 HR-group (91% versus 72%, P=0.03). In the MAM-group, average inflation volume and chest compression depth were significantly higher (844 mL versus 524 mL, P=0.006, and 45 mm versus 39 mm, P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: When...

  11. Disseminating cardiopulmonary resuscitation training by distributing 35,000 personal manikins among school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Rasmussen, Lars S; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because most cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by lay persons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mass distribution of CPR instructional materials among schoolchildren. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: We distributed 35,002 resuscitation manikins to pupils (12 to 14 years of age) at 806 primary schools. Using the enclosed 24-minute instructional DVD, they trained in CPR and subsequently used the kit to train family and friends (second tier). They completed a questionnaire on who had trained...... in CPR using the kit. Teachers also were asked to evaluate the project. The incidence of bystander CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the months following the project was compared with the previous year. In total, 6947 questionnaires (19.8%) were returned. The 6947 kits had been used to train 17...

  12. Exposure Control Indoors with Wearable Personal Exhaust Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Barova, Maria I.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    in a full-scale test room furnished as a double bed hospital room. A breathing thermal manikin with a realistic free convection flow around the body and breathing cycle was used to mimic a sick doctor. A second thermal manikin and a heated dummy were used to resemble two lying patients. The air exhaled...... engineering control method that can reduce the spread of pathogen laden air from sick occupants in densely occupied spaces, i.e. cinemas, public transportation, office buildings etc....

  13. Dermoscopic features of endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa-Murakami, Yoshie; Kono, Michihiro; Yokota, Kenji; Inaba, Hiroko; Fukumoto, Takaya; Akiyama, Masashi

    2018-03-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is very rare, with only 61 cases reported to date. EMPSGC is considered to be a low-grade carcinoma of sweat gland origin. Dermoscopic findings of EMPSGC have not been previously reported. We report the first case of a man with EMPSGC, featuring dermoscopic findings. Dermoscopic examinations of the present EMPSGC lesion revealed tumor cell proliferation that appeared as pink ovoid nests and elongated epidermis that resembled a whitish-pink network. Another characteristic finding of the present lesion was the large red/blue globules in pink ovoid nests in the tumor. Those reflected lacunae containing secretory fluid with red blood cells. We think that the large red/blue globules in pink ovoid nests in our case could be a characteristic dermoscopic finding specific to EMPSGC. We dermatologists encounter many "pink nodules" at out-patient clinics. The present dermoscopic findings may be useful for the differential diagnosis of EMPSGC. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma: An Uncommon Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ahmara G; Chan, Audrey A; Mihm, Martin C; Yu, Jenny Y

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare, often underrecognized, low-grade sweat gland carcinoma of the skin of the eyelid. To date, only 20 cases of this carcinoma have been reported, most frequently in Caucasian females with an average age of 70 years. Although the diagnosis is primarily made with immunohistochemical stain, compared to endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ, clinical detection serves as a potentially curative treatment. Further, its benign appearance clinically makes this tumor often misdiagnosed and undertreated. This disease commonly presents in Caucasian women of advanced age, aiding in the diagnosis of this tumor, which presents an even more critical diagnosis in a patient with a rare presentation. In the available literature, we could find no case of EMPSGC in younger African American women. The following case is the first case presented in the literature. Here, we present a case of an atypical presentation of the tumor in a young African American female, as well as a review of literature on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of EMPSGC.

  15. Primary sweat gland carcinosarcoma of the scrotal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Pan, Chin-Chen; Huang, William Ji-Sien; Murphy, George F

    2004-11-01

    Carcinosarcoma is a biphasic tumor composed of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal elements. Although the tumors have been reported in different locations, they rarely occur in the skin and have not been reported in the skin of external genitalia. We present such a case in a 71-year-old Taiwanese man. He had had a long-term indolent nodule on scrotal skin, but it enlarged rapidly in 2 weeks. Wide excision of the tumor was performed. The pathologic examination revealed a sweat gland carcinosarcoma consisting of admixed mucin-producing adenocarcinoma and solid spindle cell sarcoma. The two components exhibited contrasting immunohistochemical profiles with the epithelial component diffusely positive for epithelial markers and S-100 protein, while the sarcomatous component positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin but negative for epithelial markers and S-100 protein. The immunoreactivity for S-100 protein in the epithelial component supports sweat gland origin. The tumor behaved aggressively. Local recurrence and distant metastases to lungs and brain occurred 6 months and 18 months later. The patient died of the disease 20 months after the initial diagnosis.

  16. Cocoa pulp juice (sweatings) as a potential raw material for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa sweatings is a very interesting by-product of cocoa production and it forms the substrate for microbial growth during the fermentation process. Most of the sweatings go to waste during the processing of the cocoa beans and this has led to its utilization as a potential raw material for the development of soft drink to ...

  17. Lactate and ammonia concentration in blood and sweat during incremental cycle ergometer exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Mook, GA; Gips, CH; Verkerke, GJ

    It is known that the concentrations of ammonia and lactate in blood increase during incremental exercise. Sweat also contains lactate and ammonia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological response of lactate and ammonia in plasma and sweat during a stepwise incremental cycle

  18. Sweat : Materiality and Fluidity of Perspiration in in Eighteenth-Century Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    How can a bodily excretion like sweat, often accompanied with a stench or associated with anxiety and distress, enrich our view of the history of science? This paper argues that following the fluid and flow of sweat has in fact particular advantages, because it provides a unique perspective by

  19. Does attenuated skin blood flow lower sweat rate and the critical environmental limit for heat balance during severe heat exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Matthew N; Gagnon, Daniel; Crandall, Craig G; Jay, Ollie

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does attenuated skin blood flow diminish sweating and reduce the critical environmental limit for heat balance, which indicates maximal heat loss potential, during severe heat stress? What is the main finding and its importance? Isosmotic hypovolaemia attenuated skin blood flow by ∼20% but did not result in different sweating rates, mean skin temperatures or critical environmental limits for heat balance compared with control and volume-infusion treatments, suggesting that the lower levels of skin blood flow commonly observed in aged and diseased populations may not diminish maximal whole-body heat dissipation. Attenuated skin blood flow (SkBF) is often assumed to impair core temperature (T c ) regulation. Profound pharmacologically induced reductions in SkBF (∼85%) lead to impaired sweating, but whether the smaller attenuations in SkBF (∼20%) more often associated with ageing and certain diseases lead to decrements in sweating and maximal heat loss potential is unknown. Seven healthy men (28 ± 4 years old) completed a 30 min equilibration period at 41°C and a vapour pressure (P a ) of 2.57 kPa followed by incremental steps in P a of 0.17 kPa every 6 min to 5.95 kPa. Differences in heat loss potential were assessed by identifying the critical vapour pressure (P crit ) at which an upward inflection in T c occurred. The following three separate treatments elicited changes in plasma volume to achieve three distinct levels of SkBF: control (CON); diuretic-induced isosmotic dehydration to lower SkBF (DEH); and continuous saline infusion to maintain SkBF (SAL). The T c , mean skin temperature (T sk ), heart rate, mean laser-Doppler flux (forearm and thigh; LDF mean ), mean local sweat rate (forearm and thigh; LSR mean ) and metabolic rate were measured. In DEH, a 14.2 ± 5.7% lower plasma volume resulted in a ∼20% lower LDF mean in perfusion units (PU) (DEH, 139 ± 23 PU; CON, 176 ± 22 PU; and SAL

  20. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required...... and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression....... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exhibits pleiotropic functions that are mediated via its receptors [PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and VPAC2R]. Although some studies have suggested a role for PACAP in the skin...

  1. Evaporimeter and Bubble-Imaging Measures of Sweat Gland Secretion Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyeon Kim

    Full Text Available Beta-adrenergically-stimulated sweat rates determined by evaporimetry or by sweat bubble imaging are useful for measuring CFTR function because they provide a near-linear readout across almost the full range of CFTR function. They differentiate cystic fibrosis (CF subjects from CF carriers and carriers from controls. However, evaporimetry, unlike bubble imaging, appears to be unable to detect improved levels of CFTR function in G551D subjects taking the CFTR modulator ivacaftor. Here, we quantify the sensitivity of evaporimetry and bubble imaging methods for assessing low levels of CFTR-dependent sweat rates. To establish sensitivity, we did dose-ranging studies using intradermally injected [cAMP]i-elevating cocktails. We reduced isoproterenol/aminophylline levels while maintaining a high level of atropine to block muscarinic elevation of [Ca2+]i. We stimulated the same sets of glands for both assays and recorded responses for 20 min. In response to a 3-log dilution of the stimulating cocktail (0.1%, bubble responses were detected in 12/12 tests (100%, with 49% ± 3% of glands secreting to produce an aggregate volume of 598 nl across the 12, 20-min tests. This was ~5% of the response to full cocktail. Evaporimetry detected responses in 3/12 (25% tests with an aggregate secretion volume of 175 nl. After stimulation with a still more dilute cocktail (0.03%, bubble imaging detected 15 ± 13% of glands secreting at a rate ~0.9% of the response to full cocktail, while zero responding was seen with evaporimetry. The bubble imaging method detected secretion down to aggregate rates of <0.2 nl/(cm2·min, or ~1/30th of the average basal transepithelial water loss (TEWL in the test subject of 4 g/m2·hr or 6.7 nl/(cm2·min. The increased sensitivity of bubble imaging may be required to detect small but physiologically important increases in secretion rates produced by CFTR modulators.

  2. The interactive contributions of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase and nitric oxide synthase to sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jeffrey C; Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-06-15

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contributes to sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation during exercise in the heat. Similarly, reports show that Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activation can modulate sweating and microvascular circulation. In light of the fact that NO can activate Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, we evaluated whether there is an interaction between Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase and NOS in the regulation of heat loss responses during an exercise-induced heat stress. We demonstrate that Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase and NOS do not synergistically influence local forearm sweating during moderate intensity (fixed rate of metabolic heat production of 500 W) exercise in the heat (35°C). Conversely, we show an interactive role between NOS and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in the modulation of cutaneous vasodilatation. These findings provide novel insight regarding the mechanisms underpinning the control of sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation during exercise in the heat. Given that ouabain may be prescribed as a cardiac glycoside in clinical settings, potential heat loss impairments with ouabain administration should be explored. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) contributes to the heat loss responses of sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation. Given that NO can activate Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, which also contributes to sweating and microvasculature regulation, we evaluated the separate and combined influence of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase and NOS on sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation. Thirteen young (23±3 years) males performed two 30 min semi-recumbent cycling bouts in the heat (35°C) at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (500 W) followed by 20 and 40 min recoveries, respectively. Local sweat rate (LSR) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were measured at four forearm skin sites continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with either: (1) lactated Ringer solution (Control); (2) 6 mᴍ ouabain (Ouabain), a Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase inhibitor; (3) 10 mᴍ l-N(G) -nitroarginine methyl ester (l

  3. An Appropriate Compression Pace is Important for Securing the Quality of Hands-only CPR : A manikin study

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ishikawa, Masami; Ouhara, Kazuhisa; Oue, Kana; Yoshinaka, Taiga; Kurihara, Hidemi; Irifune, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    It is important to implement good quality chest compressions for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This manikin study examined the effects of different compression rates on chest compression depth variables using a metronome sound guide. Fifty sixth-year dentistry students participated in the study. Each participant performed CPR at 3 different compression rates, 110, 100, and 90 compressions per min (pace-110-g, pace-100-g, and pace-90-g) for 2 consecutive one-minute sets with a ten-secon...

  4. Optimal Chest Compression Rate and Compression to Ventilation Ratio in Delivery Room Resuscitation: Evidence from Newborn Piglets and Neonatal Manikins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solevåg, Anne Lee; Schmölzer, Georg M.

    2017-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) influences survival and neurologic outcomes after delivery room (DR) CPR. High quality chest compressions (CC) improve cerebral and myocardial perfusion. Improved myocardial perfusion increases the likelihood of a faster ROSC. Thus, optimizing CC quality may improve outcomes both by preserving cerebral blood flow during CPR and by reducing the recovery time. CC quality is determined by rate, CC to ventilation (C:V) ratio, and applied force, which are influenced by the CC provider. Thus, provider performance should be taken into account. Neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend a 3:1 C:V ratio. CCs should be delivered at a rate of 90/min synchronized with ventilations at a rate of 30/min to achieve a total of 120 events/min. Despite a lack of scientific evidence supporting this, the investigation of alternative CC interventions in human neonates is ethically challenging. Also, the infrequent occurrence of extensive CPR measures in the DR make randomized controlled trials difficult to perform. Thus, many biomechanical aspects of CC have been investigated in animal and manikin models. Despite mathematical and physiological rationales that higher rates and uninterrupted CC improve CPR hemodynamics, studies indicate that provider fatigue is more pronounced when CC are performed continuously compared to when a pause is inserted after every third CC as currently recommended. A higher rate (e.g., 120/min) is also more fatiguing, which affects CC quality. In post-transitional piglets with asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest, there was no benefit of performing continuous CC at a rate of 90/min. Not only rate but duty cycle, i.e., the duration of CC/total cycle time, is a known determinant of CC effectiveness. However, duty cycle cannot be controlled with manual CC. Mechanical/automated CC in neonatal CPR has not been explored, and feedback systems are under-investigated in this

  5. Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma, a Histological Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Mary Anne; Salama, Samih; Gohla, Gabriella; Alowami, Salem

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare adnexal tumor of the skin with low-grade cytological features and neuroendocrine differentiation. It has a predilection for the skin of the eyelid, but has also been reported in the face and rarely extra-facial locations. The tumor is seen more frequently in women and on average affects the elderly. It is histologically and immunohistochemically analogous to solid papillary carcinoma of the breast/endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ with a nodular, solid, papillary, and/or cribriforming architecture, neuroendocrine differentiation, and mucin production. Since it was first described by Flieder et al. in 1997, less than 60 cases have been reported in literature. We describe the morphological and immunohistochemical features of another case with a review of the common histological differential diagnoses and emphasize the salient features that help distinguish this rare neoplasm.

  6. Sweat gland tumor (Eccrine Porocarcinoma of scalp: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Roshani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine Porocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm arising from sweat glands. It was first described by Pinkus and Mehregan as ′Epidermotropic eccrine carcinoma′. It may occur de novo or as a malignant transformation of an eccrine poroma. It is commonly found in older age group and in the lower extremities. Clinically, it may present as a verrucous plaque, polypoid growth or an ulcerative lesion of long duration. Local recurrence and metastasis to skin, lymphnodes, viscera, and bone may occur. Treatment is wide local excision. Metastatic lesions can be treated with chemotherapy. We report a case of eccrine porocarcinoma of the scalp in a 50 years old female who presented to us with a bosselated, firm, painless, non-tender, freely mobile swelling over left fronto-parietal region of 12 years duration. It was excised and histopathological diagnosis was Eccrine Porocarcinoma. In literature, scalp porocarcinoma is a very rare tumor.

  7. Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma, a Histological Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Brett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC is a rare adnexal tumor of the skin with low-grade cytological features and neuroendocrine differentiation. It has a predilection for the skin of the eyelid, but has also been reported in the face and rarely extra-facial locations. The tumor is seen more frequently in women and on average affects the elderly. It is histologically and immunohistochemically analogous to solid papillary carcinoma of the breast/endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ with a nodular, solid, papillary, and/or cribriforming architecture, neuroendocrine differentiation, and mucin production. Since it was first described by Flieder et al. in 1997, less than 60 cases have been reported in literature. We describe the morphological and immunohistochemical features of another case with a review of the common histological differential diagnoses and emphasize the salient features that help distinguish this rare neoplasm.

  8. A retrospective study of 44 canine apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Elemir; Wilcock, Brian P; Yager, Julie A

    2003-01-01

    Apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas (AACs) are relatively uncommon skin tumors in dogs. Little prognostic or behavioral information has been published for these tumors. In this retrospective study, 44 AACs from diagnostic archives were reexamined and clinical postexcisional follow-ups for 25 of the 44 cases were obtained by a survey. There were 28 out of 44 (65.9%) AACs that invaded the capsule, stroma, or both, 5 of 44 (11.4%) invaded blood vessels and stroma, and 1 out of 25 (4%) had distant metastases. The presence or absence of stromal and vascular invasion was predicted by clinical examination with more than 80% accuracy. Postexcisional median survival of dogs with AACs was 30 mo at the time of survey. Determination of a correlation between histological features and malignant behavior of AACs was compromised by the low number of cases with clinical AAC-related problems; however, it appears that intravascular invasion is an important indicator of potential systemic metastases.

  9. The roles of KCa, KATP, and KV channels in regulating cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jeffrey C; Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; McNeely, Brendan D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-05-01

    We recently showed the varying roles of Ca 2+ -activated (K Ca ), ATP-sensitive (K ATP ), and voltage-gated (K V ) K + channels in regulating cholinergic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in normothermic conditions. However, it is unclear whether the respective contributions of these K + channels remain intact during dynamic exercise in the heat. Eleven young (23 ± 4 yr) men completed a 30-min exercise bout at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) followed by a 40-min recovery period in the heat (35°C, 20% relative humidity). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and local sweat rate were assessed at four forearm skin sites perfused via intradermal microdialysis with: 1 ) lactated Ringer solution (control); 2 ) 50 mM tetraethylammonium (nonspecific K Ca channel blocker); 3 ) 5 mM glybenclamide (selective K ATP channel blocker); or 4 ) 10 mM 4-aminopyridine (nonspecific K V channel blocker). Responses were compared at baseline and at 10-min intervals during and following exercise. K Ca channel inhibition resulted in greater CVC versus control at end exercise ( P = 0.04) and 10 and 20 min into recovery (both P exercise (all P ≤ 0.04), and 10 min into recovery ( P = 0.02). No differences in CVC were observed with K V channel inhibition during baseline ( P = 0.15), exercise (all P ≥ 0.06), or recovery (all P ≥ 0.14). With the exception of K V channel inhibition augmenting sweating during baseline ( P = 0.04), responses were similar to control with all K + channel blockers during each time period (all P ≥ 0.07). We demonstrated that K Ca and K ATP channels contribute to the regulation of cutaneous vasodilation during rest and/or exercise and recovery in the heat. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Polymorphous Sweat Gland Carcinoma: An Immunohistochemical and Molecular Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Shira; Aguilera-Barrantes, Irene; Giorgadze, Tamara; Šteiner, Petr; Grossmann, Petr; Suster, Saul

    2018-03-06

    Polymorphous sweat gland carcinoma is an uncommon low-grade malignant adnexal tumor with a marked predilection for the distal extremities. Histologically, the lesions are characterized by a cellular proliferation showing a combination of growth patterns, including trabecular, solid, tubular, cribriform, or adenoid cystic and pseudopapillary. The immunohistochemical and molecular profile of these tumors has not yet been properly addressed. We have studied 3 cases of polymorphous sweat gland carcinoma using a broad panel of immunohistochemical markers including cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CK5/6, MOC31, p40, p63, p16, chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, MIB-1, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor, BER-EP4, smooth muscle actin, epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, CD117, S100 protein, HBME-1, DOG1, vimentin, and mammaglobin. We also examined for the MYB-NFIB fusion by fluorescent in situ hybridization (ISH) and for human papilloma virus by ISH. Our studies show that cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CK5/6, p40, p63, p16, chromogranin, and CD56 stains were positive in all 3 cases. All 3 cases were negative for MYB-NFIB fusion by fluorescent ISH which rules out adenoid cystic carcinoma. DNA ISH studies for high-risk human papilloma virus were negative in all cases. MIB-1 proliferation index was very high (30%-70% nuclear positivity), supporting a malignant phenotype. The positivity for chromogranin and CD56 suggests partial neuroendocrine differentiation. The differential diagnosis includes metastases from internal malignancies, basal cell carcinoma, and other benign and malignant adnexal neoplasms such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, ductal eccrine carcinoma, and microcystic carcinoma. Positivity for p16 in combination with chromogranin and CD56 may be potentially good markers for differentiating this tumor from other adnexal tumors.

  11. SWEAT: Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Dries; Benninga, Harm-Jan; Diaz Schümmer, Carlos; Donnerer, Julia; Fischer, Georg; Henriksen, Marie; Hippert Ferrer, Alexandre; Jamali, Maryam; Marinaci, Stefano; Mould, Toby JD; Phelan, Liam; Rosker, Stephanie; Schrenker, Caroline; Schulze, Kerstin; Emanuel Telo Bordalo Monteiro, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    To study how the water cycle changes over time, satellite and airborne remote sensing missions are typically employed. Over the last 40 years of satellite missions, the measurement of true water inventories stored in sea and land ice within the cryosphere have been significantly hindered by uncertainties introduced by snow cover. Being able to determine the thickness of this snow cover would act to reduce such error, improving current estimations of hydrological and climate models, Earth's energy balance (albedo) calculations and flood predictions. Therefore, the target of the SWEAT (Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry) mission is to directly measure the surface Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on sea and land ice within the polar regions above 60°and below -60° latitude. There are no other satellite missions currently capable of directly measuring SWE. In order to achieve this, the proposed mission will implement a novel combination of Ka- and Ku-band radioaltimeters (active microwave sensors), capable of penetrating into the snow microstructure. The Ka-band altimeter (λ ≈ 0.8 cm) provides a low maximum snow pack penetration depth of up to 20 cm for dry snow at 37 GHz, since the volume scattering of snow dominates over the scattering caused by the underlying ice surface. In contrast, the Ku-band altimeter (λ ≈ 2 cm) provides a high maximum snowpack penetration depth of up to 15 m in high latitudes regions with dry snow, as volume scattering is decreased by a factor of 55. The combined difference in Ka- and Ku-band signal penetration results will provide more accurate and direct determination of SWE. Therefore, the SWEAT mission aims to improve estimations of global SWE interpreted from passive microwave products, and improve the reliability of numerical snow and climate models.

  12. Evaluation of artificial sweat in athletes with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, R C; Bishop, P A; Yang, Z; Pritchett, K L; Green, J M; Katica, C P; Del Pozzi, A T

    2010-05-01

    Athletes with spinal cord injury often experience high heat storage due to reduced sweating capacity below the spinal injury. Spray bottle (SB) may be used to apply mist for evaporative cooling during breaks in competitions. This study examined the efficacy of SB during rest breaks. Seven participants, four female and three males, (mean +/- SD age 24 +/- 4.1 year, weight 56.2 +/- 7.0 kg, upper-body VO(2) peak 2.4 +/- 0.6 l/min) volunteered for the study. Participants were paraplegic athletes (T3-T12/L1) with both complete and incomplete lesions. Participants arm-cranked using a ramp protocol in an environment of 21 +/- 1.5 degrees C and 55 +/- 3% rh once using a SB during 1-min rest between 7-min stages of increasing intensity and once without the SB (CON). Mean total work was similar (p = 0.86) for the SB and CON (2495.7 +/- 914.6 vs. 2407.1 +/- 982.3 kJ, respectively). Likewise, the mean work times were similar between trials (27 +/- 6 and 26 +/- 7 min for SB and CON, respectively). Furthermore, there were no significant differences detected between trials for skin temperature, rectal temperature, esophageal temperature (p > 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences detected between trials for RPE (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the application of artificial sweat via SB was ineffective in attenuating the onset of uncompensable heat strain during high-intensity arm exercise in a comfortable environment.

  13. Dermodialysis – Could sweating treatments for chronic renal failure substantially and feasibly improve outcomes in developing and even developed world contexts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Vance

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In end-stage kidney disease, in the absence of renal replacement therapies such as hemodialysis and continuous peritoneal dialysis, there are high enough amounts of urea and other molecules transferred from the bloodstream into perspiration/sweat for them to crystalize out and deposit on the skin as ‘uremic frost’. The use of sweating as the vehicle for removing from the body molecules normally removed in the urine was identified some decades ago, with successes such as reducing blood urea concentrations from 105 to 75 mg/dl over 7 days with little suggestion of a plateau having been reached at the end of the experiment then, eliminating uremic pruritis, and achieving compliance with fluid intake restrictions and the resultant optimization of blood pressure. However, the evolution of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis displaced interest in exploring sweating methods properly. There are large fractions of the population of the Developing World that do not have access to hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, and where even diagnosed chronic renal failure goes untreated until the concomitant early death results. The hypothesis of this paper is that the use of dermodialytic methodologies involving the use of personal environmental control of temperature and humidity (and incorporating special clothing and/or chambers in conjunction with low-intensity moderate-duration physical exercise, to stimulate sweating and remove that sweat, would clearly be substantially beneficial to not only the many chronic renal failure patients in the Developing World who would otherwise have no treatment at all, but also to those in the Developed World by way of delaying or reducing the need for hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, or even merely by improving the inherent shortcomings of these treatments. The dermodialytic clothing and chambers required are described in some preliminary detail and could be provided at relatively very low and very affordable

  14. The voice advisory manikin (VAM): an innovative approach to pediatric lay provider basic life support skill education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Robert Michael; Donoghue, Aaron; Myklebust, Helge; Srikantan, Shoba; Byrne, Amy; Priest, Marc; Zoltani, Zombor; Helfaer, Mark A; Nadkarni, Vinay

    2007-10-01

    To determine the efficacy of immediate, standardized, corrective audio feedback training as supplied by the voice advisory manikin (VAM) compared to high quality standardized instructor feedback training for the initial acquisition of 1-rescuer lay provider pediatric BLS skills. Lay care providers of hospitalized children 8-18 years were randomized to VAM (n=23) or standardized human instruction (SHI, n=27) training in one-rescuer pediatric BLS. After an identical video/instructor introduction to CPR and 20 min of training in their respective group, quantitative CPR psychomotor skill data was recorded during 3-min CPR testing epochs. All manikins used in training and testing sessions were identical in outside appearance and feel of doing CPR. The primary outcome measure was CPR psychomotor skill success defined prospectively as 70% correct chest compressions (CC) and ventilations (V). Subjects not attaining these success goals retrained for 5 min in their respective training group and were retested. Data analysis using student t-test and chi2-tests as appropriate. VAM trainees delivered more total CC/min (58.7+/-7.9 versus 47.6+/-10.5, pvoice advisory manikin (VAM) can improve initial pediatric basic life support skill acquisition for lay providers even when compared to one-on-one, standardized instructor-led training.

  15. Eccrine sweat contains IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuju Dai

    Full Text Available Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal. Eccrine sweat was collected from the arms of healthy volunteers after exercise, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the sweat were quantified by ELISA. We detected the presence of IL-1α, IL-1β, and high levels of IL-31 in sweat samples. To investigate whether sweat activates keratinocytes, normal human keratinocytes were stimulated with concentrated sweat. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK signaling in sweat-stimulated keratinocytes. Real-time PCR using total RNA and ELISA analysis of supernatants showed the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-1β by sweat. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-1R antagonist blocked sweat-stimulated cytokine production and signal activation, indicating that bioactive IL-1 is a major factor in the activation of keratinocytes by sweat. Moreover, IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator that activates keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokine, CCL2. Sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and does not come into contact with keratinocytes in normal skin. However, in skin with a defective cutaneous barrier, such as atopic dermatitis-affected skin, sweat cytokines can directly act on epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in their activation. In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal.

  16. Sweat gland regeneration after burn injury: is stem cell therapy a new hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuiping; Chen, Yan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-05-01

    Stem cells are the seeds of tissue repair and regeneration and a promising source for novel therapies. The skin of patients with an extensive deep burn injury is repaired by a hypertrophic scar without regeneration of sweat glands and therefore loses the function of perspiration. Stem cell therapy provides the possibility of sweat gland regeneration. In particular, recent studies have reported the reprogramming of mesenchymal stromal cells into sweat gland-like (SGL) cells. We present an overview of recent researches into sweat gland regeneration with stem cells. Difficulties of sweat gland regeneration after deep burns have been elaborated. The advantage and disadvantage of several stem cell types in sweat gland regeneration have been discussed. Additionally, the possible mechanisms for reprogramming stem cells to SGL cells are summarized. A brief discussion on clinical application of stem cell-derived SGL cells is also presented. This review may possibly provide some implications for sweat gland regeneration. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimal chest compression rate in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective, randomized crossover study using a manikin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Hwa; Ryu, Ji Ho; Min, Mun Ki; Kim, Yong In; Park, Maeng Real; Yeom, Seok Ran; Han, Sang Kyoon; Park, Seong Wook

    2016-08-01

    When performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the 2010 American Heart Association guidelines recommend a chest compression rate of at least 100 min, whereas the 2010 European Resuscitation Council guidelines recommend a rate of between 100 and 120 min. The aim of this study was to examine the rate of chest compression that fulfilled various quality indicators, thereby determining the optimal rate of compression. Thirty-two trainee emergency medical technicians and six paramedics were enrolled in this study. All participants had been trained in basic life support. Each participant performed 2 min of continuous compressions on a skill reporter manikin, while listening to a metronome sound at rates of 100, 120, 140, and 160 beats/min, in a random order. Mean compression depth, incomplete chest recoil, and the proportion of correctly performed chest compressions during the 2 min were measured and recorded. The rate of incomplete chest recoil was lower at compression rates of 100 and 120 min compared with that at 160 min (P=0.001). The numbers of compressions that fulfilled the criteria for high-quality CPR at a rate of 120 min were significantly higher than those at 100 min (P=0.016). The number of high-quality CPR compressions was the highest at a compression rate of 120 min, and increased incomplete recoil occurred with increasing compression rate. However, further studies are needed to confirm the results.

  18. Novel Visual Nasogastric Tube Insertion System: A Feasibility and Efficiency Study in a Manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaoya; Xie, Juan; Wu, Jinxing; Guo, Rui; Ma, Wenwen; Xu, Gang; Yang, Min; Deng, Huisheng

    2016-01-01

    Background . Conventional nasogastric tube placement is an essential clinical procedure; however, complications may arise from blind manipulation. We tested the feasibility and efficiency of a visual nasogastric tube insertion system (VNGS) using a manikin. Methods . A microimaging fiber (0.8 mm) was integrated into the nasogastric tube to create the VNGS. Twenty inexperienced physicians were enrolled and assigned to the visual or conventional group. Each physician performed 10 repeated nasogastric tube insertions with visual guidance or the conventional method; another 20 inexperienced medical students received nasogastric tube insertion training using visual guidance or the conventional method. Results . The nasogastric tube successfully reached the stomach and the narrow anatomic structures were visualized with the VNGS. Time required for insertion was significantly shorter in the visual group compared to the conventional group (22.56 ± 3.08 versus 37.30 ± 4.12 seconds, P Tube misplacement was observed in 19/100 cases (19%) in the conventional group; no misplacement was observed in the visual group. Less mucosal damage was noted in the visual group (3.43 ± 1.63 versus 9.86 ± 2.31 cm 2 ). Medical students performed better NGT insertions (shorter insertion time and less procedure-related complications) after undergoing the visual guidance training. Conclusions . The VNGS may provide a new technique for nasogastric tube insertion applicable to clinical use or simulation training.

  19. Tracheal intubation by inexperienced medical residents using the Airtraq and Macintosh laryngoscopes--a manikin study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, Chrisen H

    2006-11-01

    The Airtraq laryngoscope is a novel intubation device that may possess advantages over conventional direct laryngoscopes for use by personnel that are infrequently required to perform tracheal intubation. We conducted a prospective study in 20 medical residents with little prior airway management experience. After brief didactic instruction, each participant took turns performing laryngoscopy and intubation using the Macintosh (Welch Allyn, Welch Allyn, NY) and Airtraq (Prodol Ltd. Vizcaya, Spain) devices, in 3 laryngoscopy scenarios in a Laerdal Intubation Trainer (Laerdal, Stavanger, Norway) and 1 scenario in a Laerdal SimMan manikin (Laerdal, Kent, UK). They then performed tracheal intubation of the normal airway a second time to characterize the learning curve. In all scenarios tested, the Airtraq decreased the duration of intubation attempts, reduced the number of optimization maneuvers required, and reduced the potential for dental trauma. The residents found the Airtraq easier to use in all scenarios compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope. The Airtraq may constitute a superior device for use by personnel infrequently required to perform tracheal intubation.

  20. Feasibility of Augmented Reality in Clinical Simulations: Using Google Glass With Manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaballout, Basil; Molloy, Margory; Vaughn, Jacqueline; Brisson Iii, Raymond; Shaw, Ryan

    2016-03-07

    Studies show that students who use fidelity-based simulation technology perform better and have higher retention rates than peers who learn in traditional paper-based training. Augmented reality is increasingly being used as a teaching and learning tool in a continual effort to make simulations more realistic for students. The aim of this project was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of using augmented reality via Google Glass during clinical simulation scenarios for training health science students. Students performed a clinical simulation while watching a video through Google Glass of a patient actor simulating respiratory distress. Following participation in the scenarios students completed two surveys and were questioned if they would recommend continued use of this technology in clinical simulation experiences. We were able to have students watch a video in their field of vision of a patient who mimicked the simulated manikin. Students were overall positive about the implications for being able to view a patient during the simulations, and most students recommended using the technology in the future. Overall, students reported perceived realism with augmented reality using Google Glass. However, there were technical and usability challenges with the device. As newer portable and consumer-focused technologies become available, augmented reality is increasingly being used as a teaching and learning tool to make clinical simulations more realistic for health science students. We found Google Glass feasible and acceptable as a tool for augmented reality in clinical simulations.

  1. The response of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to two components of human sweat, ammonia and L-lactic acid, in an olfactometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braks, M.A.H.; Meijerink, J.; Takken, W.

    2001-01-01

    In an olfactometer study on the response of the anthropophilic malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera, Culicidae) to human sweat it was found that freshly collected sweat, mostly of eccrine origin, was attractive, but that incubated sweat was significantly more attractive than fresh sweat.

  2. A brief review of different types of sweat-gland carcinomas in the eyelid and orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leilei Zhang, Shengfang Ge, Xianqun Fan Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Sweat-gland carcinoma is a rare cutaneous appendage malignant tumor. Primary sweat-gland cancer can arise in the eyelid and orbit and is extremely rare. It has been classified into different types, and is usually locally recurrent after surgery. The tumors also appear in the orbit, which is characterized by metastasis. Therefore, great attention should be paid to the development of sweat-gland carcinomas. Specifically, our report briefly reviews the types of sweat-gland carcinomas that occur in the eyelid and orbit according to pathological classifications. Keywords: spiroma, syringomatous carcinoma, mucinous eccrine carcinoma, clear-cell eccrine gland carcinoma, eccrine porocarcinoma, orbit

  3. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  4. Iron, copper and zinc concentrations in human sweat and plasma; the effect of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoma, O I; Reilly, T; MacLaren, D; Halliwell, B

    1988-09-30

    The effect of 30 or 40 min hard exercise on a cycle ergometer upon plasma concentrations of zinc, iron and copper in twelve healthy male athletes was studied. Sweat samples were also collected from different body sites and analyzed for these metals. The metal content of sweat from different body sites varied, as did the sweating rates of different subjects. Pre-exercise plasma iron concentrations in 10 of the 12 subjects were within the normal range, but at least 4 subjects had sub-normal plasma zinc whereas six had plasma copper levels above normal. The effects of exercise on plasma metal concentrations varied from subject to subject; no general conclusions could be drawn about the biological significance of loss of metals in sweat in relation to whole body metal metabolism. It is suggested that a mild acute phase response may account for lowered zinc and raised copper in the plasma of athletes.

  5. A brief review of different types of sweat-gland carcinomas in the eyelid and orbit

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Leilei; Ge, Shengfang; Fan, Xianqun

    2013-01-01

    Leilei Zhang, Shengfang Ge, Xianqun Fan Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Sweat-gland carcinoma is a rare cutaneous appendage malignant tumor. Primary sweat-gland cancer can arise in the eyelid and orbit and is extremely rare. It has been classified into different types, and is usually locally recurrent after surgery. The tumors also appear in the orbit, which is characterized by metastasis. Therefore, gre...

  6. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P shell emulsion across treatment or week (P < 0.05). The decreasing trend of SE prevalence obtained over the study period indicate that refrigeration is effective at inhibiting SE growth. These results indicate that egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. The Influences of Sweating by Training Load or Heat on Skin Potential

    OpenAIRE

    宮崎, 順史; 椎原, 康史; 中宮, 敏之; 岡, 浩一朗; 山本, 正彦; 児玉, 昌久

    1997-01-01

    To access the influence of thermal sweating on skin potential activity (SPA), SPAs under heat circumstances and during running exercise were measured by ambulatory SPA measurement system (C-SPA). Exposure to heat first lowered the SPAs. Then the burst of SPRs by sweating gradually elevated SPAs. The progress of SPA during training load was almost the same as in case of heat. About 30 minutes after the heat or training, the SPA recovered the previous level, suggesting the polarization of elect...

  8. Revisiting sweat chloride test results based on recent guidelines for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagaduan, Jayson V; Ali, Mahesheema; Dowlin, Michael; Suo, Liye; Ward, Tabitha; Ruiz, Fadel; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2018-03-01

    Recent sweat chloride guidelines published by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation changed the intermediate sweat chloride concentration range from 40-59 mmol/L to 30-59 mmol/L for age > 6 months. We wanted to know how this new guideline would impact detection of cystic fibrosis among patients who previously had sweat tests done at Texas Children's Hospital. We revisited sweat chloride test results (n = 3012) in the last 5 years at Texas Children's Hospital based on the new guidelines on diagnosis of cystic fibrosis from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. We identified 125 patients that would be reclassified in the intermediate sweat chloride value with the new guidelines that were classified as "unlikely to have CF" in the previous guidelines. 8 (32%) patients with CFTR gene testing were positive for CFTR gene mutation(s). 4 (50%) of these patients were identified to have 2 CFTR mutations. One had variant combination that was reported to cause CF but all were diagnosed with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome. Our findings concur with the new CF diagnosis guidelines that changing the intermediate cut-off to 30-59 mmol/L sweat chloride concentration in combination with CFTR genetic analysis enhances the probability of identifying individuals that have risk of developing CF or have CF and enables for earlier therapeutic intervention.

  9. Eccrine Sweat Glands are Major Contributors to Reepithelialization of Human Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittié, Laure; Sachs, Dana L.; Orringer, Jeffrey S.; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are skin-associated epithelial structures (appendages) that are unique to some primates including humans and are absent in the skin of most laboratory animals including rodents, rabbits, and pigs. On the basis of the known importance of other skin appendages (hair follicles, apocrine glands, and sebaceous glands) for wound repair in model animals, the present study was designed to assess the role of eccrine glands in the repair of wounded human skin. Partial-thickness wounds were generated on healthy human forearms, and epidermal repair was studied in skin biopsy samples obtained at precise times during the first week after wounding. Wound reepithelialization was assessed using immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted 3-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo wounded skin samples. Our data demonstrate a key role for eccrine sweat glands in reconstituting the epidermis after wounding in humans. More specifically, i) eccrine sweat glands generate keratinocyte outgrowths that ultimately form new epidermis; ii) eccrine sweat glands are the most abundant appendages in human skin, outnumbering hair follicles by a factor close to 3; and iii) the rate of expansion of keratinocyte outgrowths from eccrine sweat glands parallels the rate of reepithelialization. This novel appreciation of the unique importance of eccrine sweat glands for epidermal repair may be exploited to improve our approaches to understanding and treating human wounds. PMID:23159944

  10. Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bisphenol A (BPA is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA.

  11. Thermogenic and psychogenic recruitment of human eccrine sweat glands: Variations between glabrous and non-glabrous skin surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Moreira, Christiano A; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2017-04-01

    Human eccrine sweat-gland recruitment and secretion rates were investigated from the glabrous (volar) and non-glabrous hand surfaces during psychogenic (mental arithmetic) and thermogenic stimuli (mild hyperthermia). It was hypothesised that these treatments would activate glands from both skin surfaces, with the non-thermal stimulus increasing secretion rates primarily by recruiting more sweat glands. Ten healthy men participated in two seated, resting trials in temperate conditions (25-26°C). Trials commenced under normothermic conditions during which the first psychogenic stress was applied. That was followed by passive heating (0.5°C mean body temperature elevation) and thermal clamping, with a second cognitive challenge then applied. Sudomotor activity was evaluated from both hands, with colourimetry used to identify activated sweat glands, skin conductance to determine the onset of precursor sweating and ventilated sweat capsules to measure rates of discharged sweating. From glandular activation and sweat rate data, sweat-gland outputs were derived. These psychogenic and thermogenic stimuli activated sweat glands from both the glabrous and non-glabrous skin surfaces, with the former dominating at the glabrous skin and the latter at the non-glabrous surface. Indeed, those stimuli individually accounted for ~90% of the site-specific maximal number of activated sweat glands observed when both stimuli were simultaneously applied. During the normothermic psychological stimulation, sweating from the glabrous surface was elevated via a 185% increase in the number of activated glands within the first 60s. The hypothetical mechanism for this response may involve the serial activation of additional eccrine sweat glands during the progressive evolution of psychogenic sweating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nasogastric tube placement with video-guided laryngoscope: A manikin simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xiao-Lun; Yeh, Li-Chun; Jin, Yau-Dung; Chen, Chun-Chih; Lee, Ming-Ho; Huang, Ping-Wun

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate video-guided laryngoscopy for nasogastric tube placement. This was an observational comparative study performed in a hospital. The participants included volunteers from the medical staff (physicians and nurses) experienced with nasogastric intubation, and non-medical staff (medical students, pharmacists and emergent medical technicians) with knowledge of nasogastric intubation but lacking procedural experience. Medical and non-medical hospital staff performed manual, laryngoscope-assisted and video-guided laryngoscope nasogastric intubation both in the presence and in the absence of an endotracheal tube, using a manikin. Nasogastric intubation times were compared between groups and methods. Using the video-guided laryngoscope resulted in a significantly shorter intubation time compared to the other 2 methods, both with and without an endotracheal tube, for the medical and non-medical staff alike (all p guided laryngoscope without endotracheal intubation, direct laryngoscope with endotracheal intubation and video-guided laryngoscope with endotracheal intubation compared to manual intubation without endotracheal intubation (0.49, 0.63 and 0.72 vs. 5.63, respectively, p ≤ 0.008). For non-medical staff, nasogastric intubation time was significantly shorter using video-guided laryngoscope without endotracheal intubation, direct laryngoscope with endotracheal intubation and video-guided laryngoscope with endotracheal intubation compared to manual intubation without endotracheal intubation (1.67, 1.58 and 0.95 vs. 6.9, respectively, p ≤ 0.002). And mean nasogastric intubation time for video-guided laryngoscope endotracheal intubation was significantly shorter for medical staff than for non-medical staff (0.49 vs. 1.67 min, respectively, p = 0.041). Video-guided laryngoscope reduces nasogastric intubation time compared to manual and direct laryngoscope intubation, which promotes a consistent technique when performed by

  13. Fluid replacement modulates oxidative stress- but not nitric oxide-mediated cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Brendan D; Meade, Robert D; Fujii, Naoto; Seely, Andrew J E; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-12-01

    The roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) activation in regulating cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during prolonged (≥60 min) exercise are currently unclear. Moreover, it remains to be determined whether fluid replacement (FR) modulates the above thermoeffector responses. To investigate, 11 young men completed 90 min of continuous moderate intensity (46% V̇o 2peak ) cycling performed at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production of 600 W (No FR condition). On a separate day, participants completed a second session of the same protocol while receiving FR to offset sweat losses (FR condition). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and local sweat rate (LSR) were measured at four intradermal microdialysis forearm sites perfused with: 1 ) lactated Ringer (Control); 2 ) 10 mM N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, NOS inhibition); 3 ) 10 mM ascorbate (nonselective antioxidant); or 4 ) 4.34 nM losartan (AT 1 R inhibition). Relative to Control (71% CVC max at both time points), CVC with ascorbate (80% and 83% CVC max ) was elevated at 60 and 90 min of exercise during FR (both P 0.31). In both conditions, CVC was reduced at end exercise with l-NAME (60% CVC max ; both P 0.19). LSR did not differ between sites in either condition (all P > 0.10). We conclude that NOS regulates cutaneous vasodilation, but not sweating, irrespective of FR, and that ROS influence cutaneous vasodilation during prolonged exercise with FR. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Increase in dermcidin-derived peptides in sweat of patients with atopic eczema caused by a humorous video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Dermcidin (DCD)-derived peptide is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the sweat glands. However, the levels of DCD-derived peptide in sweat were decreased in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The effect of viewing a humorous video on the levels of DCD-derived peptide was studied. Twenty patients with AE viewed an 87-min humorous video (Modern Times, featuring Charlie Chaplin). Just before and immediately after viewing, sweat was collected, and the levels of DCD-derived peptide and total protein in sweat were measured. Viewing a humorous video increased the levels of DCD-derived peptide without affecting the levels of total protein in sweat. Viewing a humorous video increased DCD-derived peptide in sweat of patients with AE, and thus, it may be helpful in the treatment of skin infection of AE.

  15. Epidermal Microfluidic Electrochemical Detection System: Enhanced Sweat Sampling and Metabolite Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Aida; Kim, Jayoung; Kurniawan, Jonas F; Sempionatto, Juliane R; Moreto, Jose R; Tang, Guangda; Campbell, Alan S; Shin, Andrew; Lee, Min Yul; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Joseph

    2017-12-22

    Despite tremendous recent efforts, noninvasive sweat monitoring is still far from delivering its early analytical promise. Here, we describe a flexible epidermal microfluidic detection platform fabricated through hybridization of lithographic and screen-printed technologies, for efficient and fast sweat sampling and continuous, real-time electrochemical monitoring of glucose and lactate levels. This soft, skin-mounted device judiciously merges lab-on-a-chip and electrochemical detection technologies, integrated with a miniaturized flexible electronic board for real-time wireless data transmission to a mobile device. Modeling of the device design and sweat flow conditions allowed optimization of the sampling process and the microchannel layout for achieving attractive fluid dynamics and rapid filling of the detection reservoir (within 8 min from starting exercise). The wearable microdevice thus enabled efficient natural sweat pumping to the electrochemical detection chamber containing the enzyme-modified electrode transducers. The fabricated device can be easily mounted on the epidermis without hindrance to the wearer and displays resiliency against continuous mechanical deformation expected from such epidermal wear. Amperometric biosensing of lactate and glucose from the rapidly generated sweat, using the corresponding immobilized oxidase enzymes, was wirelessly monitored during cycling activity of different healthy subjects. This ability to monitor sweat glucose levels introduces new possibilities for effective diabetes management, while similar lactate monitoring paves the way for new wearable fitness applications. The new epidermal microfluidic electrochemical detection strategy represents an attractive alternative to recently reported colorimetric sweat-monitoring methods, and hence holds considerable promise for practical fitness or health monitoring applications.

  16. Cation transport by sweat ducts in primary culture. Ionic mechanism of cholinergically evoked current oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, I; Pedersen, P S

    1990-01-01

    1. The coiled reabsorptive segment of human sweat ducts was cultured in vitro. Cells were then harvested and plated onto a dialysis membrane which was glued over a hole in a small disc. Cultures were maintained in a low serum, hormone-supplemented medium that allowed the cells to grow to confluency....... The disc was then placed as a partition between two compartments of a miniature Ussing chamber. The chamber was mounted on the stage of an inverted microscope and intracellular potentials were recorded under transepithelial open-circuit or voltage clamp conditions. All values are given as means +/- S.......E.M. and n refers to the number of preparations or duct cells. 2. Under control conditions, the cultured epithelia developed mucosa-negative transepithelial potentials (Vt) ranging from -2.5 to -38 mV (-13.5 +/- 1.5 mV, n = 36). The basolateral membrane potential (Vb) was -39.4 +/- 0.7 mV (n = 50 cells...

  17. Comparing McGRATH® MAC, C-MAC®, and Macintosh Laryngoscopes Operated by Medical Students: A Randomized, Crossover, Manikin Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungju Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the McGRATH MAC would decrease the time of intubation compared to C-MAC for novices. Thirty-nine medical students who had used the Macintosh blade to intubate a manikin fewer than 3 times were recruited. The participants performed sequential intubations on the manikin in two simulated settings that included a normal airway and a difficult airway (tongue edema. The intubation time, success rate of intubation, Cormack-Lehane grade at laryngoscopy, and difficulty using the device were recorded. Each participant was asked to identify the device that was most useful. The intubation time decreased significantly and by a similar amount to the McGRATH MAC and C-MAC compared to the Macintosh blade (P<0.001 and P=0.017, resp.. In the difficult airway, the intubation times were similar among the three devices. The McGRATH MAC and C-MAC significantly increased the success rate of intubation, improved the Cormack-Lehane grade, and decreased the difficulty score compared to the Macintosh blade in both airway settings. The majority of participants selected the McGRATH MAC as the most useful device. The McGRATH MAC and C-MAC may offer similar benefits for intubation compared to the Macintosh blade in normal and difficult airway situations.

  18. Comparing McGRATH® MAC, C-MAC®, and Macintosh Laryngoscopes Operated by Medical Students: A Randomized, Crossover, Manikin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myungju; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that the McGRATH MAC would decrease the time of intubation compared to C-MAC for novices. Thirty-nine medical students who had used the Macintosh blade to intubate a manikin fewer than 3 times were recruited. The participants performed sequential intubations on the manikin in two simulated settings that included a normal airway and a difficult airway (tongue edema). The intubation time, success rate of intubation, Cormack-Lehane grade at laryngoscopy, and difficulty using the device were recorded. Each participant was asked to identify the device that was most useful. The intubation time decreased significantly and by a similar amount to the McGRATH MAC and C-MAC compared to the Macintosh blade (P Cormack-Lehane grade, and decreased the difficulty score compared to the Macintosh blade in both airway settings. The majority of participants selected the McGRATH MAC as the most useful device. The McGRATH MAC and C-MAC may offer similar benefits for intubation compared to the Macintosh blade in normal and difficult airway situations. PMID:27703983

  19. Mask leak increases and minute ventilation decreases when chest compressions are added to bag ventilation in a neonatal manikin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Mark B; Shah, Dharmesh; Hinder, Murray; Klimek, Jan; Marceau, James; Wright, Audrey

    2014-05-01

    To determine changes in respiratory mechanics when chest compressions are added to mask ventilation, as recommended by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) guidelines for newborn infants. Using a Laerdal Advanced Life Support leak-free baby manikin and a 240-mL self-inflating bag, 58 neonatal staff members were randomly paired to provide mask ventilation, followed by mask ventilation with chest compressions with a 1:3 ratio, for two minutes each. A Florian respiratory function monitor was used to measure respiratory mechanics, including mask leak. The addition of chest compressions to mask ventilation led to a significant reduction in inflation rate, from 63.9 to 32.9 breaths per minute (p mask leak of 6.8% (p mask ventilation, in accordance with the ILCOR guidelines, in a manikin model is associated with a significant reduction in delivered ventilation and increase in mask leak. If similar findings occur in human infants needing an escalation in resuscitation, there is a potential risk of either delay in recovery or inadequate response to resuscitation. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Administration of prostacyclin modulates cutaneous blood flow but not sweating in young and older males: roles for nitric oxide and calcium-activated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Notley, Sean R; Minson, Christopher T; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-11-01

    In young adults, cyclooxygenase (COX) contributes to the heat loss responses of cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating, and this may be mediated by prostacyclin-induced activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels. This prostacyclin-induced response may be diminished in older relative to young adults because ageing is known to attenuate COX-dependent heat loss responses. We observed that, although prostacyclin does not mediate sweating in young and older males, it does modulate cutaneous vasodilatation, although the magnitude of increase is similar between groups. We also found that, although NOS and KCa channels contribute to prostacyclin-induced cutaneous vasodilatation in young males, these contributions are diminished in older males. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms governing heat loss responses and suggest that the age-related diminished COX-dependent heat loss responses reported in previous studies may be a result of the reduced COX-derived production of prostanoids (e.g., prostacyclin) rather than the decreased sensitivity of prostanoid receptors. Cyclooxygenase (COX) contributes to the regulation of cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating; however, the mechanism(s) underpinning this response remain unresolved. We hypothesized that prostacyclin (a COX-derived product) may directly mediate cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating through nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels in young adults. However, these responses would be diminished in older adults because ageing attenuates COX-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating. In young (25 ± 4 years) and older (60 ± 6 years) males (nine per group), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated at four intradermal forearm skin sites: (i) control; (ii) 10 mm N G -nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA), a non-specific NOS inhibitor; (iii) 50 mm tetraethylammonium (TEA), a non-specific KCa channel

  1. Administration of prostacyclin modulates cutaneous blood flow but not sweating in young and older males: roles for nitric oxide and calcium‐activated potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Notley, Sean R.; Minson, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Key points In young adults, cyclooxygenase (COX) contributes to the heat loss responses of cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating, and this may be mediated by prostacyclin‐induced activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and calcium‐activated potassium (KCa) channels.This prostacyclin‐induced response may be diminished in older relative to young adults because ageing is known to attenuate COX‐dependent heat loss responses.We observed that, although prostacyclin does not mediate sweating in young and older males, it does modulate cutaneous vasodilatation, although the magnitude of increase is similar between groups.We also found that, although NOS and KCa channels contribute to prostacyclin‐induced cutaneous vasodilatation in young males, these contributions are diminished in older males.Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms governing heat loss responses and suggest that the age‐related diminished COX‐dependent heat loss responses reported in previous studies may be a result of the reduced COX‐derived production of prostanoids (e.g., prostacyclin) rather than the decreased sensitivity of prostanoid receptors. Abstract Cyclooxygenase (COX) contributes to the regulation of cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating; however, the mechanism(s) underpinning this response remain unresolved. We hypothesized that prostacyclin (a COX‐derived product) may directly mediate cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating through nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and calcium‐activated potassium (KCa) channels in young adults. However, these responses would be diminished in older adults because ageing attenuates COX‐dependent cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating. In young (25 ± 4 years) and older (60 ± 6 years) males (nine per group), cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated at four intradermal forearm skin sites: (i) control; (ii) 10 mm N G‐nitro‐l‐arginine (l‐NNA), a non‐specific NOS inhibitor; (iii) 50

  2. Feasibility and normal values of an integrated conductivity (Nanoduct™) sweat test system in healthy newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Claudia E; Schindler, Matthias; Mazur, Agnieszka; Malzacher, Andreas; Hornung, René; Barben, Juerg

    2017-07-01

    Nanoduct™ is a simple and practical sweat analysis system measuring conductivity in situ. It requires only three microlitres of sweat, making it especially applicable to newborns. We measured conductivity in 260 healthy term infants at the age of four days, and again at four weeks to determine the proportion of successful tests, test duration, and normal values for sweat conductivity in newborns. Sufficient sweat was collected in 159/260 of four-day olds (61%), and in 225/239 of four-week olds (94%). Mean (sd) test duration was 27 (5) and 25 (5) min. Mean (sd, range) conductivity was 53mmol/l (16, 8-114) at age four days, and 36 (9, 12-64) at four weeks. Determination of sweat conductivity using Nanoduct™ cannot be recommended for four-day old newborns. However, at the age of four weeks the success rate is high (94%), and conductivity values at that age are comparable to older healthy children. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry and blushing (anger and happiness is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  4. Acquisition and retention of basic life support skills in an untrained population using a personal resuscitation manikin and video self-instruction (VSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Isbye, Dan Lou

    2010-01-01

    Video-based self-instruction (VSI) with a 24-min DVD and a personal resuscitation manikin solves some of the barriers associated with traditional basic life support (BLS) courses. No accurate assessment of the actual improvement in skills after attending a VSI course has been determined...

  5. The Impact of Learning Style on Healthcare Providers' Preference for Voice Advisory Manikins versus Live Instructors in Basic Life Support Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiovanni, Lisa Marie

    2013-01-01

    The American Heart Association's HeartCode[TM] Healthcare Provider (HCP) Basic Life Support (BLS) e-learning program with voice-advisory manikins was implemented in an acute care hospital as the only teaching method offered for BLS certification. On course evaluations, healthcare provider staff commented that the VAM technology for skills practice…

  6. Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma of the Eyelid Associated With Mucinous Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Norman C; Proia, Alan D; Lo, Christopher

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma, a rare, low-grade neoplasm with predilection for the eyelids, has been posited as a precursor to invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and its concurrence with mucinous adenocarcinoma have received little attention in the ophthalmic literature. The combination of the 2 histologic patterns parallels endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast and its transition to Type B invasive mucinous carcinoma. The authors describe a 59-year-old man who developed a tumor of the right upper eyelid showing endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma in the outer dermis and extensive mucinous carcinoma in the deeper tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positivity for endocrine markers chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, estrogen, and progesterone in each histologic component of the tumor. This research was conducted in conformity with the Helsinki Declaration and HIPPA regulations.

  7. Hydration, sweat and thermoregulatory responses to professional football training in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; McCall, Allan; Coutts, Aaron James; Peiffer, Jeremiah John

    2012-01-01

    AbstThis study examined the relationship between intensity of training and changes in hydration status, core temperature, sweat rate and composition and fluid balance in professional football players training in the heat. Thirteen professional football players completed three training sessions; "higher-intensity" (140 min; HI140), "lower-intensity" (120 min; LI120) and "game-simulation" (100 min; GS100). Movement demands were measured by Global Positioning System, sweat rate and concentration were determined from dermal patches and body mass change. Despite similar environmental conditions (26.9 ± 0.1 °C and 65.0 ± 7.0% relative humidity [Rh]), higher relative speeds (m · min(-1)) and increased perceptions of effort and thermal strain were observed in HI140 and GS100 compared with LI120 (P football training to account for differences in sweat rate and electrolyte losses in response to intensity and overall activity within a session.

  8. Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis by suction-curettage of sweat glands*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Rebeca Maffra; Luz, Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Suction curettage is a dermatologic surgery technique for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis, which is becoming more popular. Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the current technique of removal of axillary sweat glands, and evaluate its efficacy and safety. Conclusion: Suction-curettage of sweat glands is a minimally invasive surgical technique that is easy to perform, safe, has high rates of success and relatively few side-effects. It is generally well tolerated by patients and requires shorter time away from daily activities, when compared with other surgical modalities. PMID:25387499

  9. Association of sweat chloride concentration at time of diagnosis and CFTR genotype with mortality and cystic fibrosis phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Edward F; Velentgas, Priscilla; Swenson, Anna J; Goss, Christopher H

    2015-09-01

    The extent to which sweat chloride concentration predicts survival and clinical phenotype independently of CFTR genotype in cystic fibrosis is not well understood. We analyzed the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry data using Cox regression to examine the relationship between sweat chloride concentration (Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical evaluation of the Nanoduct sweat test system in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis after newborn screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, Annette; Dompeling, Edward; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Arets, HGM; Tiddens, Harm; Loeber, Gerard; Dankert-Roelse, Jeannette

    After a positive newborn screening test for cystic fibrosis (CF), a sweat test is performed to confirm the diagnosis. The success rate of the generally acknowledged methods (Macroduct/Gibson and Cooke) in newborns varies between 73 and 99 %. The Nanoduct sweat test system is easier to perform and

  11. [Extramammary Paget's disease of the scrotum with underlying sweat gland adenocarcinoma: a report of six cases with literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hua; Han, Hui; Zhou, Fang-Jian; Li, Yong-Hong; Qin, Zi-Ke; Liu, Zhuo-Wei

    2009-08-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) of the scrotum with sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor. This study was to summarize the clinicopathologic characteristics of scrotum Paget's disease with underlying sweat gland adenocarcinoma, and analyze the treatment outcome. Clinical data of six scrotum Paget's disease patients with sweat gland adenocarcinoma, treated in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from 1964 to 2004, were analyzed with literature review. The typical manifestation of scrotum Paget's disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma was eczematoid-like skin changes. All patients underwent primary lesion resection plus uni-inguinal lymphadenectomy, one patient underwent rectus abdominis pedicle flap transplantation. Three patients died of tumor at 15, 26, 38 months after operation, respectively. Other three patients were followed up for 48, 50, 55 months, respectively, and were alive without tumor. The primary lesion resection plus uni-inguinal lymphadenectomy is the major treatment for scrotum Paget's disease with underlying sweat gland adenocarcinoma.

  12. Tropical Malaysians and temperate Koreans exhibit significant differences in sweating sensitivity in response to iontophoretically administered acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Bae, Jun-Sang; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Yang, Hun-Mo; Min, Young-Ki

    2009-03-01

    Natives of the tropics are able to tolerate high ambient temperatures. This results from their long-term residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. This study was designed to compare the peripheral mechanisms of thermal sweating in tropical natives with that of their temperate counterparts. Fifty-five healthy male subjects including 20 native Koreans who live in the temperate Korean climate (Temperate-N) and 35 native tropical Malaysian men that have lived all of their lives in Malaysia (Tropical-N) were enrolled in this study after providing written informed consent to participate. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with 10% acetylcholine (ACh) was used to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, and oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The sweat onset time of AXR (nicotinic-receptor-mediated) was 56 s shorter in the Temperate-N than in the Tropical-N subjects ( P oral temperature, and 0.62°C higher resting forearm skin temperature compared to the Tropical-N subjects ( P oral temperature, but increased skin temperature near where the ACh was administered, in both groups. These results suggest that suppressed thermal sweating in the Tropical-N subjects was, at least in part, due to suppressed sweat gland sensitivity to ACh through both recruitment of active sweat glands and the sweat gland output per each gland. This physiological trait guarantees a more economical use of body fluids, thus ensuring more efficient protection against heat stress.

  13. An appropriate compression pace is important for securing the quality of hands-only CPR--a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ishikawa, Masami; Ouhara, Kazuhisa; Oue, Kana; Yoshinaka, Taiga; Kurihara, Hidemi; Irifune, Masahiro

    2014-09-01

    It is important to implement good quality chest compressions for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This manikin study examined the effects of different compression rates on chest compression depth variables using a metronome sound guide. Fifty sixth-year dentistry students participated in the study. Each participant performed CPR at 3 different compression rates, 110, 100, and 90 compressions per min (pace-110-g, pace-100-g, and pace-90-g) for 2 consecutive one-minute sets with a ten-second break between the sets. The percentage of compressions deeper than 5 cm at pace-110-g decreased significantly from 22.1 ± 4.7% in the first set to 16.7 ± 4.4%* in the second set (*p CPR.

  14. C-MAC compared with direct laryngoscopy for intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilization: A manikin trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smereka, Jacek; Ladny, Jerzy R; Naylor, Amanda; Ruetzler, Kurt; Szarpak, Lukasz

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare C-MAC videolaryngoscopy with direct laryngoscopy for intubation in simulated cervical spine immobilization conditions. The study was designed as a prospective randomized crossover manikin trial. 70 paramedics with immobilization (Scenario A); manual inline cervical immobilization (Scenario B); cervical immobilization using cervical extraction collar (Scenario C). Scenario A: Nearly all participants performed successful intubations with both MAC and C-MAC on the first attempt (95.7% MAC vs. 100% C-MAC), with similar intubation times (16.5s MAC vs. 18s C-MAC). Scenario B: The results with C-MAC were significantly better than those with MAC (pimmobilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of non-invasive respiratory support on oropharyngeal temperature and humidity: a neonatal manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Calum T; Kortekaas, Rebecca; Dawson, Jennifer A; Manley, Brett J; Owen, Louise S; Davis, Peter G

    2016-05-01

    Heating and humidification of inspired gases is routine during neonatal non-invasive respiratory support. However, little is known about the temperature and humidity delivered to the upper airway. The International Standards Organization (ISO) specifies that for all patients with an artificial airway humidifiers should deliver ≥33 g/m(3) absolute humidity (AH). We assessed the oropharyngeal temperature and humidity during different non-invasive support modes in a neonatal manikin study. Six different modes of non-invasive respiratory support were applied at clinically relevant settings to a neonatal manikin, placed in a warmed and humidified neonatal incubator. Oropharyngeal temperature and relative humidity (RH) were assessed using a thermohygrometer. AH was subsequently calculated. Measured temperature and RH varied between devices. Bubble and ventilator continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) produced temperatures >34°C and AH >38 g/m(3). Variable flow CPAP resulted in lower levels of AH than bubble or ventilator CPAP, and AH decreased with higher gas flow. High-flow (HF) therapy delivered by Optiflow Junior produced higher AH with higher gas flow, whereas with Vapotherm HF the converse was true. Different non-invasive devices deliver inspiratory gases of variable temperature and humidity. Most AH levels were above the ISO recommendation; however, with some HF and variable flow CPAP devices at higher gas flow this was not achieved. Clinicians should be aware of differences in the efficacy of heating and humidification when choosing modes of non-invasive respiratory support. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Mass-casualty triage training for international healthcare workers in the Asia-Pacific region using manikin-based simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Dale S; Berg, Benjamin W; Ikegami, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    More than half of the world's disasters occur in the Asia-Pacific region. A simulation-based exercise to teach healthcare workers prehospital triage, tagging, and treatment methods was used to link disaster management theory to practice with a student-centered, hands-on educational activity. Various strategies for teaching disaster health education have been advocated, and best-practice disaster education models continue to be sought. A manikin-based, primary triage and treatment course was adapted for international healthcare providers in the Asia-Pacific region using symbolic representations of triage categories and physical findings. The pedagogical construct that was used was an interactive, formative assessment in which faculty members mediated learner information gathering and interpretation during four simulation scenarios. After establishing a multi-casualty disaster context, a wireless, audience response system anonymously collected learner responses to four clinical situations: (1) leg wound (hemorrhagic shock/immediate); (2) chest wound (tension pneumothorax/immediate); (3) head wound (traumatic brain injury/expectant); and (4) limb trauma (leg fracture/delayed). There were 182 healthcare providers from eight Asia-Pacific countries (including the US) that participated in four simulation seminars. The simulation sessions were successfully tailored to groups of learners that varied in size and professional composition. Expectant and delayed triage categories posed the greatest challenge to learners. In one of two groups that were queried, learner self-confidence in applying principles of triage and treatment improved significantly. At the conclusion of the simulation sessions, learners strongly agreed that manikin-based simulation improved their understanding of triage, and should be used to teach principles of primary triage and treatment. Simulation training represents an opportunity to engage learners regardless of language and cultural barriers

  17. Perineural growth of benign cutaneous sweat gland tumors: a hitherto unrecognized phenomenon unassociated with malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzar, Boštjan; Shanesmith, Rebecca; Calonje, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous intraneural reactive epithelial proliferations mimicking malignancy include epithelial sheath neuroma, re-excision perineural invasion and reactive neuroepithelial aggregates. Nevertheless, intraneural growth of benign sweat gland tumors has not been reported before. To report a predominantly intraneural proliferation of morphologically bland sweat gland tumors, describe their clinicopathological features and correlate them with survival. We analyzed a spiradenoma and a hidradenoma with a prominent intraneural growth, occurring on the back of the 19-year-old woman and on the arm of the 53-year-old woman. Both lesions presented as a painful and slightly raised papule. After complete excision, an uneventful clinical course was observed during the follow-up period of 52 and 54 months. Pathologically, the most striking feature was an almost exclusive intraneural growth within the peripheral nerves of the deep dermis and subcutis. We report for the first time the predominantly intraneural growth of benign sweat gland tumors. Although their histogenesis is unknown, perineural displacement due to previous surgery or trauma, as well as development from intraneural embryological epithelial remnants remains possibilities. Long-term follow-up of our patients suggests that intraneural growth of otherwise bland sweat gland tumors does not signify malignancy. Complete excision appears to be sufficient treatment procedure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Possible biphasic sweating response during short-term heat acclimation protocol for tropical natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Machado-Moreira, Christiano Antônio; Vimieiro-Gomes, Ana Carolina; Silami-Garcia, Emerson; Lima, Nilo Resende Viana; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sweat loss response during short-term heat acclimation in tropical natives. Six healthy young male subjects, inhabitants of a tropical region, were heat acclimated by means of nine days of one-hour heat-exercise treatments (40+/-0 degrees C and 32+/-1% relative humidity; 50% (.)VO(2peak) on a cycle ergometer). On days 1 to 9 of heat acclimation whole-body sweat loss was calculated by body weight variation corrected for body surface area. On days 1 and 9 rectal temperature (T(re)) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) every 4 minutes. Heat acclimation was confirmed by reduced HR (day 1 rest: 77+/-5 b.min(-1); day 9 rest: 68+/-3 b.min(-1); day 1 final exercise: 161+/-15 b.min(-1); day 9 final exercise: 145+/-11 b.min(-1), p0.05) of the protocol. These findings are consistent with the heat acclimation induced adaptations and suggest a biphasic sweat response (an increase in the sweat rate in the middle of the protocol followed by return to initial values by the end of it) during short-term heat acclimation in tropical natives.

  19. Determination of silver nanoparticle release from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulthong, Kornphimol; Srisung, Sujittra; Boonpavanitchakul, Kanittha; Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong; Maniratanachote, Rawiwan

    2010-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been used in numerous commercial products, including textiles, to prevent bacterial growth. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern that exposure to these nanoparticles may cause potential adverse effects on humans as well as the environment. This study determined the quantity of silver released from commercially claimed nanosilver and laboratory-prepared silver coated fabrics into various formulations of artificial sweat, each made according to AATCC, ISO and EN standards. For each fabric sample, the initial amount of silver and the antibacterial properties against the model Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria on each fabric was investigated. The results showed that silver was not detected in some commercial fabrics. Furthermore, antibacterial properties of the fabrics varied, ranging from 0% to greater than 99%. After incubation of the fabrics in artificial sweat, silver was released from the different fabrics to varying extents, ranging from 0 mg/kg to about 322 mg/kg of fabric weight. The quantity of silver released from the different fabrics was likely to be dependent on the amount of silver coating, the fabric quality and the artificial sweat formulations including its pH. This study is the unprecedented report on the release of silver nanoparticles from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat. This information might be useful to evaluate the potential human risk associated with the use of textiles containing silver nanoparticles.

  20. Determination of silver nanoparticle release from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been used in numerous commercial products, including textiles, to prevent bacterial growth. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern that exposure to these nanoparticles may cause potential adverse effects on humans as well as the environment. This study determined the quantity of silver released from commercially claimed nanosilver and laboratory-prepared silver coated fabrics into various formulations of artificial sweat, each made according to AATCC, ISO and EN standards. For each fabric sample, the initial amount of silver and the antibacterial properties against the model Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria on each fabric was investigated. The results showed that silver was not detected in some commercial fabrics. Furthermore, antibacterial properties of the fabrics varied, ranging from 0% to greater than 99%. After incubation of the fabrics in artificial sweat, silver was released from the different fabrics to varying extents, ranging from 0 mg/kg to about 322 mg/kg of fabric weight. The quantity of silver released from the different fabrics was likely to be dependent on the amount of silver coating, the fabric quality and the artificial sweat formulations including its pH. This study is the unprecedented report on the release of silver nanoparticles from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat. This information might be useful to evaluate the potential human risk associated with the use of textiles containing silver nanoparticles. PMID:20359338

  1. Determination of silver nanoparticle release from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulthong Kornphimol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silver nanoparticles have been used in numerous commercial products, including textiles, to prevent bacterial growth. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern that exposure to these nanoparticles may cause potential adverse effects on humans as well as the environment. This study determined the quantity of silver released from commercially claimed nanosilver and laboratory-prepared silver coated fabrics into various formulations of artificial sweat, each made according to AATCC, ISO and EN standards. For each fabric sample, the initial amount of silver and the antibacterial properties against the model Gram-positive (S. aureus and Gram-negative (E. coli bacteria on each fabric was investigated. The results showed that silver was not detected in some commercial fabrics. Furthermore, antibacterial properties of the fabrics varied, ranging from 0% to greater than 99%. After incubation of the fabrics in artificial sweat, silver was released from the different fabrics to varying extents, ranging from 0 mg/kg to about 322 mg/kg of fabric weight. The quantity of silver released from the different fabrics was likely to be dependent on the amount of silver coating, the fabric quality and the artificial sweat formulations including its pH. This study is the unprecedented report on the release of silver nanoparticles from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat. This information might be useful to evaluate the potential human risk associated with the use of textiles containing silver nanoparticles.

  2. Is sweat chloride predictive of severity of cystic fibrosis lung disease assessed by chest computed tomography?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, Daan; Zitter, David; Bronsveld, Inez; Tiddens, Harm

    BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by a marked heterogeneity. Sweat chloride-level is a functional marker of the CF Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) protein and could be an important predictor of later disease severity. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis children from

  3. Skin-Attachable, Stretchable Electrochemical Sweat Sensor for Glucose and pH Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Yun; Hong, Soo Yeong; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; Park, Heun; Jin, Sang Woo; Lee, Geumbee; Oh, Ju Hyun; Lee, Hanchan; Lee, Sang-Soo; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2018-04-11

    As part of increased efforts to develop wearable healthcare devices for monitoring and managing physiological and metabolic information, stretchable electrochemical sweat sensors have been investigated. In this study, we report on the fabrication of a stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor for detecting glucose and pH in sweat. A patterned stretchable electrode was fabricated via layer-by-layer deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on top of patterned Au nanosheets (AuNS) prepared by filtration onto stretchable substrate. For the detection of glucose and pH, CoWO 4 /CNT and polyaniline/CNT nanocomposites were coated onto the CNT-AuNS electrodes, respectively. A reference electrode was prepared via chlorination of silver nanowires. Encapsulation of the stretchable sensor with sticky silbione led to a skin-attachable sweat sensor. Our sensor showed high performance with sensitivities of 10.89 μA mM -1 cm -2 and 71.44 mV pH -1 for glucose and pH, respectively, with mechanical stability up to 30% stretching and air stability for 10 days. The sensor also showed good adhesion even to wet skin, allowing the detection of glucose and pH in sweat from running while being attached onto the skin. This work suggests the application of our stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor to health management as a high-performance healthcare wearable device.

  4. Mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the eyelid - current knowledge of a rare tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Avichai; Segal, Nili; Gal, Andrew; Tumuluri, Krishna

    2010-12-01

    To review the medical literature on mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the eyelid (MSA) and present two new cases. Details of published case reports and small series (between 1971-2010) were evaluated and summarized including two patients diagnosed and treated at our institution. Data regarding age, gender, ethnicity, precise location, clinical presentation, treatment and follow up of each patient were collected. 25 reports describing 55 patients were found in the medical literature. The mean age was 61.3 years (30-87), 22(59%) were male and 28(80%) were Caucasian. In 23(44.2%) patients the lesion was in the lower lid, in 20(38.5%) in the upper lid, in 3(5.7%) involving both lids and in 6(11.6%) in a canthus. In 12(21.8%) patients a lesion with a benign diagnosis was previously excised from the same location. In 2 of them histological re-examination resulted in a diagnosis of MSA. Intraorbital involvement was found in 2(3.6%) patients. Regional lymph node metastasis was found in 2(4.4%) patients. Surgical excision was the treatment of choice using Mohs' micrographic-controlled excision technique in recent years. Radiotherapy was applied to 2 patients with clinical resolution in 1. Recurrence of the tumor was reported in 14(30%) patients. MSA is a rare tumor of the eyelid with no clinically distinguishing features. It should be suspected particularly with recurrent eyelid lesions and must be differentiated from metastatic disease. The tumor may extend into the orbit and metastasize regionally. Surgical removal with continued regular follow-up examination is the treatment of choice.

  5. Treatment of gustatory sweating with low-dose botulinum toxin A: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Merete; Max Thorsen, Niels; Bardow, Allan; Dalager, Torben; Eckhart Thomsen, Carsten; Regeur, Lisbeth

    2006-06-01

    Frey's syndrome, gustatory sweating in the preauricular area, is an unpleasant phenomenon occurring during meals after surgery on the parotid gland. Recently, botulinum toxin A (BTX) has been shown to reduce the symptoms, but the variation in the reported doses is large. To quantify the effect of treatment with low-dose BTX in a case of Frey's syndrome over a period of 6 months. A 56-year-old woman was treated with 10 U Botox given as 20 single, intracutaneous injections of 0.5 U, one for each cm(2), 3 years after resection of the parotid gland. Before treatment and repeatedly during the 6-month period, the sweating was rated subjectively on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) and by a severity index, and objectively by assessment of the extent of the involved skin area using Minor's iodine-starch test, staining the area of sweating dark. The treatment decreased the involved area from 20 to 5 cm(2) and the VAS ratings from 98 to 8 mm. The index showed that treatment affected the sweating intensity, not the frequency. After the 6-month period the patient was still satisfied, but the involved skin area had increased; however, not entirely to pretreatment values. The effect of BTX injections for gustatory sweating obtained in this case was comparable to results reported using higher doses. Low doses of BTX can therefore be used in the treatment of Frey's syndrome, but studies to clarify the dose-response relationship, in terms of both time-course and obtained effect, are needed.

  6. Karyotyping, dermatoglyphic, and sweat pore analysis of five families affected with ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Manpreet; Kale, Alka D; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2012-09-01

    Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia is a genetic recessive trait characterized by hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. The affected individual show characteristic physiognomy like protruded forehead, depressed nasal bridge, periorbital wrinkling, protruded lips, etc. There is marked decrease in sweat and salivary secretion. Due to skin involvement palm and sole ridge patterns are disrupted. In this study an attempt has been made to classify the affected members according to the degree of penetrance by pedigree analysis and also study karyotyping for cytogenetics, dermatoglyphic analysis for the various ridge patterns and variations in the number of sweat glands by sweat pore analysis in affected individuals. A total of five families who were affected with ectodermal dysplasia were considered. Pedigree analysis was drawn up to three generation by obtaining history. Dermatoglyphics and sweat pore analysis was done by obtaining palm and finger print impression using stamp pad ink. Karyotyping was done by collecting 3-5 ml peripheral blood. Karyotyping was prepared using lymphocyte culture. Chromosomes were examined at 20 spreads selected randomly under ×100 magnification. Results were analyzed by calculating mean values and percentage was obtained. Karyotyping did not show any abnormalities, dermatoglyphic analysis and sweat pore counts showed marked variations when compared with normal. Moreover, pedigree analysis confirmed the status of the disease as that of the recessive trait. Large number of affected patients needs to be evaluated for dermatoglypic analysis. Genetic aspect of the disease needs to be looked into the molecular level in an attempt to locate the gene locus responsible for ectodermal dysplasia and its manifestation.

  7. A comparison of a fiberoptic stylet and a bougie as adjuncts to direct laryngoscopy in a manikin-simulated difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, George; Law, J Adam; McCrossin, Chris; Vu, Mark; Leblanc, Derek; Gao, Jun

    2007-12-01

    We compare the effectiveness of an endotracheal tube introducer ("bougie") with a new fiberoptic stylet as an adjunct to direct laryngoscopy in facilitating simulated difficult tracheal intubation in a manikin. Inexperienced laryngoscopists were recruited for this randomized, crossover study. After brief training, participants were randomized to first use either the bougie or fiberoptic stylet as an adjunct to direct laryngoscopy for attempted tracheal intubation of a manikin presenting a fixed, simulated, Cormack-Lehane grade IIIA view. Two attempts at tracheal intubation were allowed, each limited to 60 seconds. The participant then crossed over and used the other device. The same procedure was then repeated on a second manikin presenting a simulated Cormack-Lehane grade IIIB view. Primary outcomes were time to tracheal intubation and successful endotracheal tube placement. One hundred three study participants performed a total of 533 tracheal intubations for evaluation. For the Cormack-Lehane grade IIIA view, correct placement of the endotracheal tube was achieved in 101 (98%) of the fiberoptic stylet-facilitated and all 103 (100%) of the bougie-facilitated tracheal intubations. The time to successful tracheal intubation was similar for both devices (difference in mean time 1.8 seconds; 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.5 to 6.1 seconds). In the Cormack-Lehane grade IIIB view manikin, use of the fiberoptic stylet significantly increased success rate (fiberoptic stylet 98% versus bougie 9%), and a trend was observed toward a decrease in the mean time required for successful tracheal intubation compared to the bougie (fiberoptic stylet 31.0 seconds versus bougie 45.6 seconds; difference in mean time -14.6 seconds; 95% CI -31.4 to 2.3 seconds). In a manikin model, with inexperienced clinicians, both the bougie and the fiberoptic stylet were effective in facilitating tracheal intubation of a simulated Cormack-Lehane grade IIIA view. For a Cormack-Lehane IIIB view, the

  8. Quantification of sweat secretion in focal axillary hyperhidrosis related to area and time: the hyperhidrosis area and secretion index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmer, Friedrich A

    2015-11-01

    Severity of focal axillary hyperhidrosis (FAH) hitherto is estimated semiquantitatively by weighting the secreted sweat with the sweating area visualized by iodine starch test. In this study, we quantified secretion (mg/cm(2) per min) simply by estimating the sweating area morphometrically via point counting. We have named the numeric value obtained the hyperhidrosis area and secretion index (HASI). In 183 patients (146 women, 37 men) with focal axillary hyperhidrosis, seen in a city hospital outpatient clinic, sweat secretion was assessed by gravimetry and the area of Minor's iodine-starch test determined by point counting. Values were analyzed with respect to gender, age, and body surface area. HASI values, combined for both axillae, ranged from 0.21 to 22.8 mg/cm(2) per minute with only minor gender differences. Men had larger sweating areas than women did. The comparison of left to right side axillae did not disclose substantial differences. No correlation was found between age and HASI values. A subgroup analysis of 91 patients showed a good correlation of HASI values with body surface area. HASI allows for a quantification of sweat secretion per time interval and area unit, thus facilitating pre- and post-test assessment of sweat intensity as well as a comparison between the results of different studies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Clinicopathologic characteristics of extramammary Paget's disease of the scrotum associated with sweat gland adenocarcinoma-a clinical retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Dai, Hong; Jin, Mulan; Zhao, Yantian

    2011-04-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease of the scrotum with sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor. This study aims to summarize the clinicopathologic characteristics related to the prognosis of scrotal Paget's disease with underlying sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Clinical datum of four patients with scrotal Paget's disease with sweat gland carcinoma, treated in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital from 2002 to 2009 was analyzed, and a literature review was conducted. The typical manifestation of scrotal Paget's disease with sweat gland carcinoma was eczematoid-like skin lesions. All patients underwent primary lesion resection plus inguinal lymphadenectomy. Three patients had inguinal lymph metastasis. One of them developed distant metastases in bone and bone marrow and died of metastatic carcinoma. The dead patient had higher serum carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) level, Her-2 overexpression and shorter disease course than the other patients. The other patients were observed for at least 3 years, and lived without tumor. Scrotal Paget's disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma may be prone to inguinal lymph node and bone metastasis. Serum CEA level, Her-2 overexpression, dermis and lymphovascular invasion may be associated with the prognosis of scrotal Paget's disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma. The primary lesion resection plus inguinal lymphadenectomy is the major treatment for scrotal Paget's disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma. The effect of combination chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic extramammary Paget's disease remains to be proven by prolonged follow-up and wide experience. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Accumulation of FDG in axillary sweat glands in hyperhidrosis: a pitfall in whole-body PET examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, H. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Celsing, F. [Department of Haematology and Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ingvar, M. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, S. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Karolinska Pharmacy, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, S.A. [Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-03-27

    A diabetic male with severe autonomic neuropathy and recently discovered Hodgkin`s disease demonstrated bilateral uptake of [2-{sup 18}F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in the axillary sweat glands during profuse sweating caused by hypoglycaemia at positron emission tomography examination. It is not yet clear whether the sweating interfered with the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Regardless of the cause or mechanism for the uptake, the finding is clinically relevant. A bilateral symmetrical accumulation of FDG in the axillae of a tumour patient does not necessarily indicate malignant involvement of the lymph nodes. (orig.) With 1 fig., 9 refs.

  11. Segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin: A method for correcting errors due to incomplete contact of the body with a surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Janieas, N.R.D.J.; Silva, M.C.G.

    2004-01-01

    The segmental equivalent temperature determined by means of a thermal manikin is often correlated with the local thermal sensation of people and is used for indoor environment assessment. It is also used to assess performance of heated/cooled/ventilated car seats, etc. However, the body...... of the thermal manikins used at present is not as flexible as the human body and is divided into body segments with a surface area that differs from that of the human body in contact with a surface. The area of the segment in contact with a surface will depend on the shape and flexibility of the surface....... This will affect the accuracy in determination of the segmental equivalent temperature, and will result in incorrect assessment. This paper presents a method for correction of the segmental equivalent temperature for the above effects. Improvement in determination of the segmental equivalent temperature...

  12. Airtraq Laryngoscope Versus the Conventional Macintosh Laryngoscope During Pediatric Intubation Performed by Nurses: A Randomized Crossover Manikin Study With Three Airway Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarpak, Łukasz; Karczewska, Katarzyna; Czyżewski, Łukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Kurowski, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    We hypothesized that the Airtraq laryngoscope (Airtraq LLC, Bonita Springs, Fla) is beneficial for intubation of pediatric manikins while performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the Macintosh (MAC) laryngoscope (HEINE Optotechnik, Munich, Germany) and Airtraq in 3 simulated CPR scenarios. A randomized crossover simulation trial was designed. Eighty-three nurses intubated the trachea of a PediaSIM CPR training manikin (FCAE HealthCare, Sarasota, Fla) using the MAC and Airtraq in a normal airway scenario, normal airway with chest compression scenario, and difficult airway with chest compression scenario. The participants were directed to perform a maximum of 3 attempts in each scenario. The success rate, time to intubation, Cormack & Lehane grade, dental compression, and the ease of intubation were measured. All participants performed successful intubation with the Airtraq in all 3 scenarios. In all scenarios, the success rate was significantly higher and the time to intubation was significantly shorter with the Airtraq than with the MAC. Glottic visualization using the Cormack-Lehane scale was also better when using Airtraq in all scenarios. In this manikin study, we found that the Airtraq can be used successfully for the intubation of pediatric manikins with normal and difficult airways by medical staff without previous experience in pediatric intubation. Moreover, intubation can be achieved without interrupting chest compression. The use of the Airtraq compared with the MAC led to faster time to intubation. Nevertheless, we recommend that the performance of the Airtraq and the MAC during CPR should be further evaluated in a clinical setting.

  13. Evaluating the impact of breed, pregnancy, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Preston, W D; Joseph, S R; LaPlace, L; Hillman, P E; Gebremedhin, K G; Lee, C N; Collier, R J

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregnancy, breed, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate (SR) of hair sheep. St. Croix White (STX; = 9) and Dorper × STX (DRPX; = 9) ewes (3.6 yr of age) were evaluated over 4 d at 126 d of gestation (PREG) and over 4 d at 46 d postpartum (OPEN) in the shade and sun and in the morning (AM; 0900 to 1200 h) and afternoon (PM; 1300 to 1600 h) after a 20 min acclimation to each condition on each day. Data loggers recorded vaginal temperature (VT) at 10-min intervals for 96 h. Rectal temperature (RT) was measured using a digital veterinary thermometer, and respiration rate (RR) was measured as breaths per minute (bpm). Sweating rate was calculated from measured air properties passing over a shaved (300 cm) and unshaved area of the ewes' body using a portable calorimeter. Data were analyzed using GLM procedures of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) with breed, pregnancy status, sun exposure, and time of day as main effects. Mean temperature, relative humidity, temperature-humidity index, wind speed, and solar radiation on the days of data collection were 28.2°C, 82.8%, 80.3, 4.2 km/h, and 237.5 W/m, respectively. There was no difference ( > 0.10) in RT, RR, and SR between DRPX and STX ewes. The PREG ewes had lower RT ( 0.10) in RT. There was no difference in SR ( > 0.10) between the shaved and unshaved area of the ewe. The DRPX ewes had higher ( 0.10). Hair coat did not have an influence on the SR of the ewes, and PREG ewes appeared to use increased respiration as opposed to sweating to help control RT. The narrower range of body temperature, measured as VT, of PREG compared to OPEN ewes may be a protective mechanism for the developing fetus.

  14. Effect of one-rescuer compression/ventilation ratios on cardiopulmonary resuscitation in infant, pediatric, and adult manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikantan, Shoba Krishnan; Berg, Robert A; Cox, Tim; Tice, Lisa; Nadkarni, Vinay M

    2005-05-01

    Optimal chest compression to ventilation ratio (C:V) for one-rescuer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is not known, with current American Heart Association recommendations 3:1 for newborns, 5:1 for children, and 15:2 for adults. C:V ratios influence effectiveness of CPR, but memorizing different ratios is educationally cumbersome. We hypothesized that a 10:2 ratio might provide adequate universal application for all age arrest victims. Clinical study. Tertiary care children's hospital. Thirty-five health care providers. Thirty-five health care providers performed 5-min epochs of one-rescuer CPR at C:V ratios of 3:1, 5:1, 10:2, and 15:2 in random order on infant, pediatric, and adult manikins. Compressions were paced at 100/min by metronome. The number of effective compressions and ventilations delivered per minute was recorded by a trained basic life support instructor. Subjective assessments of fatigue (self-report) and exertion (change in rescuer pulse rate compared with baseline) were assessed. Analysis was by repeated measures analysis of variance and paired Student's t-test. Effective infant compressions per minute did not differ by C:V ratio, but ventilations per minute were greater at 3:1 vs. 5:1, 10:2, and 15:2 (p 15:2 (p CPR (p metronome-paced, one-rescuer CPR. Low ratios of 3:1, 5:1, and 10:2 favor ventilation, and high ratios of 15:2 favor compression, especially in adult manikins. Rescuers subjectively preferred C:V ratios of 10:2 and 15:2 over 3:1 or 5:1. Infant CPR caused less exertion and subjective fatigue than pediatric or adult CPR technique, without significant difference by C:V ratio. We speculate that a universal 10:2 C:V ratio for one-rescuer layperson CPR is physiologically reasonable but warrants further study with particular attention to educational value and technique retention.

  15. Metastatic Invasive Sweat Gland Adenocarcinoma of the Hand with Upper Limb Amputation/Shoulder Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capildeo, Kavi

    2015-01-01

    Summary: A rare case of metastatic invasive sweat gland adenocarcinoma of hand in a 78-year-old woman is presented. From this analysis of the available literature, it seems that these rare primary tumors of the hand are aggressive tumors with little known about their biological behavior. Fluoropyrimidines, taxanes, and cisplatin have been reported to be active agents for metastatic sweat gland carcinomas. Further, these tumors have historically been considered radioresistant, but responses to radiation have been documented in the setting of recurrent disease, and the use of adjuvant radiotherapy has been advocated for tumors at high risk of local recurrence. We advocate an aggressive approach of high amputation and axillary lymph node dissection with adjuvant treatment using chemotherapy as the mainstay with close follow-up for metastases. PMID:26495225

  16. Cutaneous Sweat Gland Carcinomas with Basaloid Differentiation: An Update with Emphasis on Differential Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flux, Katharina; Brenn, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    This article focuses on primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinomas with basaloid differentiation, including cribriform apocrine carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, and digital papillary adenocarcinoma. These tumors are rare and pose a significant diagnostic challenge. Their clinical presentation is nonspecific and there is significant overlap of their histologic features. Confident diagnosis is necessary because their clinical behavior ranges from indolent, nonrecurring, nonmetastasizing tumors to those with potential for disseminated disease and mortality. They should be separated from cutaneous metastases of primary visceral adenocarcinomas. Salient features of these rare entities are discussed with emphasis on distinguishing features and diagnostic clues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood, sweat, and tears: a review of the hematophagous, sudophagous, and lachryphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, David; Goddard, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    Although adult Lepidoptera are not often considered medically relevant, some butterflies and moths are notorious for their consumption of mammalian body fluids. These Lepidoptera can be blood-feeding (hematophagous), tear-feeding (lachryphagous), or sweat-feeding (we use the term "sudophagous"). Blood-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed piercing the skin of their hosts during feeding, while tear-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed frequenting the eyes of hosts in order to directly obtain lachrymal fluid. These behaviors have negative human health implications and some potential for disease transmission. In this study, articles concerning feeding behavior of blood, sweat, and tear-feeding Lepidoptera were reviewed, with emphasis on correlations between morphological characters and feeding behaviors. Harmful effects and vector potential of these Lepidoptera are presented and discussed. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. A comparison of fingerprint sweat corrosion of different alloys of brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Stephanie; Bond, John W

    2013-01-01

    Fingerprint sweat from 40 donors was deposited onto samples of five α and α + β phase brasses, comprising five alloys with different copper and zinc concentrations, two of which also had the addition of small concentrations of lead. Visual grading of the visibility of the corrosion revealed that brasses with the least amount of zinc produced the most visible and fully formed fingerprints from the most donors. Consideration of previously reported mechanisms for the corrosion of brass suggests red copper (I) oxide as a likely corrosion product for low zinc brasses, and a consideration of the color, composition, and solubility of fingerprint sweat corrosion products suggests that copper (I) oxide produces good contrast and visibility with the brass substrate. Scanning electron microscope images of the corrosion of all five alloys confirmed the enhanced contrast between corroded and uncorroded areas for low zinc alloys. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. [Clinical manifestations and treatment of sweat gland carcinoma--analysis of 22 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, H Z

    1988-11-01

    Twenty-two patients with sweat gland carcinoma treated during the past 8 years are reported. They constitute 4.4% of malignant lesions of the skin during the same period. Of these 22 patients, 2 were apocrine gland carcinoma, 15 eccrine carcinoma, 4 hidradenocarcinoma and 1 cylindroma. In 11 patients with distant metastasis, 90.9% had lymphatic metastasis and 36.3% had blood metastasis. Vascular disseminations were mainly to the bone, lung and skin in order of incidence. Sweat gland carcinoma is rare and of low malignancy with evident tendency of recurrence. Prognosis was mainly related to the presence of distant metastasis. It is believed that the enlarged local resection should be given to patients without metastasis. On the other hand, local resection plus regional dissection should be performed on patients with metastasis. Post-operative irradiation may be helpful to prevent distant metastasis.

  20. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. International standards for computers/manikins; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Computer manikin ni kansuru kokusai hyojun kikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Through the development of computer manikins (CM) which assess human adaptability to products and environments, a draft for international standardization was worked out to propose to ISO. A draft for the international standardization was presented to ISO through a development of `a structure model` changing based on human attributes, a study of `a motion model` enabling changes in posture and movement, a study of `an evaluation model` evaluating attainment ranges and ecodynamic loads, and a development of `computer functions` realizing the above-mentioned functions. The development of CM having the following characteristics: a function to reproduce `the structure model` based on the ISO7250 human body dimensional measuring values which were regulated in items for the human body dimensional measuring, a function to change posture/movement based on the joint movable range data, a function to evaluate geometrical human adaptability such as attainment ranges. As a plug-in to Autodesk Mechanical Desktop 2.0, the above-mentioned functions were realized, and the modular structure platform was constructed which enables the wide-range cross-industry option and functional expansion by the advance of CM. 7 refs., 41 figs., 18 tabs.

  1. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of Sweat Gland of Caruncle: A Unique Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anuradha; Nagpal, R C; Harsh, Meena; Bahadur, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SP) is a rare benign hamartomatous malformation of skin which arises from apocrine or eccrine sweat glands. Skin of the head and neck is the usual site for this but rarely involves the eyelids. It is also called as a childhood tumor since it usually appears at birth or during puberty. The diagnosis is confirmed on histopathological examination after surgical excision. We are first to report a case of SP involving the caruncle in an elderly female.

  2. Mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid: diagnostic and prognostic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoguet, Ambika; Warrow, David; Milite, James; McCormick, Steven A; Maher, Elizabeth; Della Rocca, Robert; Della Rocca, David; Goldbaum, Andrew; Milman, Tatyana

    2013-03-01

    To describe the clinical and pathologic characteristics of mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid and to determine whether neuroendocrine differentiation is of prognostic significance. Retrospective interventional case series. Search of the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary pathology database between 1990 and 2011 identified 16 patients with mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma. Clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on all identified cases. The patients presented with vascularized, focally cystic, nonulcerated eyelid margin lesions. Histopathologic evaluation showed that 4 lesions (25%) had a cystic, papillary, and solid growth pattern with an in situ component, 7 (44%) were pure invasive mucinous carcinomas, and 5 (31%) demonstrated both growth patterns. Immunohistochemical analysis of 15 tumors showed that pure cystic/papillary lesions had a significantly greater percentage of synaptophysin-immunoreactive cells (P = .036). There was no significant difference in the number of neuroendocrine markers expressed or in the intensity of immunostaining among the 3 different growth patterns. Re-excision for margin clearance was performed in 8 of 13 cases (61.5%). Two of 13 lesions recurred (15%); 1 of these was an in situ tumor with cystic morphology and neuroendocrine differentiation and the other was pure invasive mucinous carcinoma. None of the lesions metastasized. Mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma pathologically represents a continuum, from an in situ lesion to a classic, invasive mucinous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation can be observed in all lesions and does not appear to have a prognostic significance, arguing against the utility of immunohistochemical subtyping of mucinous sweat gland carcinomas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of hypohydration on postsynaptic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Six, Ashley; Moyen, Nicole E; Satterfield, Alf Z; Ganio, Matthew S

    2017-05-01

    Hypohydration decreases cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during heat stress, but it is unknown if these decrements are from postsynaptic (i.e., sweat gland/blood vessel) alterations. The purpose of this study was to determine if hypohydration affects postsynaptic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses. Twelve healthy men participated in euhydrated (EU) and hypohydrated (HY) trials, with hypohydration induced via fluid restriction and passive heat stress. Changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; % max ) in response to incremental intradermal infusion of the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and the endothelium-dependent vasodilator methacholine chloride (MCh) were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. Local sweat rate (LSR) was simultaneously assessed at the MCh site via ventilated capsule. At the end of the last dose, maximal CVC was elicited by delivering a maximal dose of SNP (5 × 10 -2 M) for 30 min to both sites with simultaneous local heating (~44°C) at the SNP site. The concentration of drug needed to elicit 50% of the maximal response (log EC 50 ) was compared between hydration conditions. The percent body mass loss was greater with HY vs. EU (-2.2 ± 0.7 vs. -0.1 ± 0.7%, P 0.05). In conclusion, hypohydration attenuated endothelium-dependent CVC but did not affect endothelium-independent CVC or LSR responses. These data suggest that reductions in skin blood flow accompanying hypohydration can be partially attributed to altered postsynaptic function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Epidemiological and histopathological analysis of 40 apocrine sweat gland carcinomas in dogs: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Kycko Anna; Jasik Agnieszka; Bocian Łukasz; Otrocka-Domagała Iwona; Mikiewicz Mateusz; Śmiech Anna; Łopuszyński Wojciech; Dolka Izabella; Nowak Marcin; Madej Janusz A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (ASGCs) are malignant neoplasms of dogs and other animals, rarely reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to summarise the occurrence of this cancer in a population of dogs in Poland between 2009 and 2014 with regards to histological features and body location of the tumours, as well as age, sex and breed of the cancer-affected dogs.

  5. Epidemiological and histopathological analysis of 40 apocrine sweat gland carcinomas in dogs: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kycko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (ASGCs are malignant neoplasms of dogs and other animals, rarely reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to summarise the occurrence of this cancer in a population of dogs in Poland between 2009 and 2014 with regards to histological features and body location of the tumours, as well as age, sex and breed of the cancer-affected dogs.

  6. Sweat conductivity and coulometric quantitative test in neonatal cystic fibrosis screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Mouseline Torquato; Magdalena, Neiva Isabel Rodrigues; Cat, Mônica Nunes Lima; Watanabe, Alexandra Mitiru; Rosário Filho, Nelson Augusto

    2015-01-01

    To compare the results obtained with the sweat test using the conductivity method and coulometric measurement of sweat chloride in newborns (NBs) with suspected cystic fibrosis (CF) in the neonatal screening program. The sweat test was performed simultaneously by both methods in children with and without CF. The cutoff values to confirm CF were >50 mmol/L in the conductivity and >60 mmol/L in the coulometric test. There were 444 infants without CF (185 males, 234 females, and 24 unreported) submitted to the sweat test through conductivity and coulometric measurement simultaneously, obtaining median results of 32 mmol/L and 12 mmol/L, respectively. For 90 infants with CF, the median values of conductivity and coulometric measurement were 108 mmol/L and 97 mmol/L, respectively. The false positive rate for conductivity was 16.7%, and was higher than 50 mmol/L in all patients with CF, which gives this method a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 93.8-97.8), specificity of 96.2% (95% CI: 93.8-97.8), positive predictive value of 83.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.1), negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 90.5-109.4), and 9.8% accuracy. The correlation between the methods was r=0.97 (p>0.001). The best suggested cutoff value was 69.0 mmol/L, with a kappa coefficient=0.89. The conductivity test showed excellent correlation with the quantitative coulometric test, high sensitivity and specificity, and can be used in the diagnosis of CF in children detected through newborn screening. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of age on histological parameters of the sweat glands of Nellore cattle

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    Mara Regina Bueno de Mattos Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sweat glands are important in thermoregulation of cattle in a warm environment as they help dissipate heat through evaporation. Studies on gland histology are important to define its secretion potential and the capacity of perspiration and heat removal. The objective of this study was to determine, by histomorphometry, glandular epithelium height, the depth of the gland, length of the glandular portion and number of glands per cm2 of the sweat glands of the three age groups of Nellore cattle. Thirty females were used in this study. They were equally divided into calves, heifers and cows. Histological sections were obtained and analyzed by digital images in Trinocular BX40 Olympus microscope coupled to an Oly - 200 camera, connected to a computer. The images were obtained with microscope with 2x, 4x, 10x and 40x magnification objectives. The measurements were performed using HL Image 97 program. The height of glandular epithelium, depth of the glands, length and density of the glandular portion per cm2 , were all analyzed. The calves showed greater height of the glandular epithelium than heifers (P = 0.0024, and cows (P = 0.0191. The depth of the gland was not influenced by age. Cows had higher length of secretory portion than heifers (P = 0.0379 and calves (P = 0.0077. Heifers had a greater number of sweat glands per cm2 of skin than cows (P = 0.023. In cattle, the height of glandular epithelium and the density decreases as animals get older. On the other hand, the length of the secretor portion increases but with no changes in the depth of the sweat glands

  8. Tactile cues significantly modulate the perception of sweat-induced skin wetness independently of the level of physical skin wetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2015-06-01

    Humans sense the wetness of a wet surface through the somatosensory integration of thermal and tactile inputs generated by the interaction between skin and moisture. However, little is known on how wetness is sensed when moisture is produced via sweating. We tested the hypothesis that, in the absence of skin cooling, intermittent tactile cues, as coded by low-threshold skin mechanoreceptors, modulate the perception of sweat-induced skin wetness, independently of the level of physical wetness. Ten males (22 yr old) performed an incremental exercise protocol during two trials designed to induce the same physical skin wetness but to induce lower (TIGHT-FIT) and higher (LOOSE-FIT) wetness perception. In the TIGHT-FIT, a tight-fitting clothing ensemble limited intermittent skin-sweat-clothing tactile interactions. In the LOOSE-FIT, a loose-fitting ensemble allowed free skin-sweat-clothing interactions. Heart rate, core and skin temperature, galvanic skin conductance (GSC), and physical (w(body)) and perceived skin wetness were recorded. Exercise-induced sweat production and physical wetness increased significantly [GSC: 3.1 μS, SD 0.3 to 18.8 μS, SD 1.3, P 0.05). However, the limited intermittent tactile inputs generated by the TIGHT-FIT ensemble reduced significantly whole-body and regional wetness perception (P < 0.01). This reduction was more pronounced when between 40 and 80% of the body was covered in sweat. We conclude that the central integration of intermittent mechanical interactions between skin, sweat, and clothing, as coded by low-threshold skin mechanoreceptors, significantly contributes to the ability to sense sweat-induced skin wetness. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Prostacyclin does not affect sweating but induces skin vasodilatation to a greater extent in older versus younger women: roles of NO and KCachannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; McNeely, Brendan D; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? It remains unknown whether ageing modulates prostacyclin-induced cutaneous vasodilatation in women. What is the main finding and its importance? Prostacyclin induced cutaneous vasodilatation, albeit the magnitude of increase at lower concentrations of prostacyclin was greater in older relative to young women. This response was associated with greater contributions of nitric oxide synthase and calcium-activated potassium channels. Our results suggest that administration of prostacyclin might be an effective therapy to reverse microvascular hypoperfusion, especially in older women. We previously reported that prostacyclin induces cutaneous vasodilatation but not sweating in younger and older men. Furthermore, we demonstrated that nitric oxide synthase and calcium-activated potassium (K Ca ) channels contribute to the prostacyclin-induced cutaneous vasodilatation in younger men, although these contributions are diminished in older men. Given that the effects of ageing might differ between men and women, the above results cannot simply be applied to women. In this study, cutaneous vascular conductance and sweat rate were evaluated in younger (mean ± SD, 22 ± 3 years old) and older (55 ± 7 years old) women (10 per group) at four intradermal forearm skin sites treated as follows: (i) lactated Ringer solution without any drug (control); (ii) 10 mm N G -nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA), a non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor; (iii) 50 mm tetraethylammonium (TEA), a non-specific K Ca channel blocker; or (iv) 10 mm l-NNA plus 50 mm TEA. All four sites were co-administered with prostacyclin in an incremental manner (0.04, 0.4, 4, 40 and 400 μm, each for 25 min). Surprisingly, increases in cutaneous vascular conductance in response to 0.04-4 μm prostacyclin were greater in older relative to younger women (all P ≤ 0.05), and these age-related differences were diminished when both l-NNA and TEA were

  10. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Is Associated with Terminal Differentiation of Epidermis and Eccrine Sweat Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Sup; Kim, Hyung Won; Kim, Chang Deok; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Jin Woon; Jung, Sunggyun; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Ko, Young-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Background Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) participates in various biological activities, including the regulation of epidermal barrier homeostasis, inflammation, pain perception, and melanosome transfer in the skin. Objective To evaluate the basic physiological role of PAR-2 in skin. Methods We investigated PAR-2 expression in human epidermis, skin tumors, and cultured epidermal cells using western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Additionally, we examined the effect of the PAR-2 agonist, SLIGRL-NH2, on cultured keratinocytes. Results Strong PAR-2 immunoreactivity was observed in the granular layer of normal human skin and the acrosyringium of the eccrine sweat glands. In contrast, weak PAR-2 immunoreactivity was seen in the granular layer of callused skin and in the duct and gland cells of the eccrine sweat glands. Interestingly, PAR-2 immunoreactivity was very weak or absent in the tumor cells of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and syringoma. PAR-2 was detected in primary keratinocytes and SV-40T-transformed human epidermal keratinocytes (SV-HEKs), an immortalized keratinocyte cell line, but not in SCC12 cells. SV-HEKs that were fully differentiated following calcium treatment displayed higher PAR-2 expression than undifferentiated SV-HEKs. Treatment of cultured SV-HEKs with PAR-2 agonist increased loricrin and filaggrin expression, a terminal differentiation marker. Conclusion Our data suggest that PAR-2 is associated with terminal differentiation of epidermis and eccrine sweat glands. PMID:26273149

  11. KIT (CD117) Expression in Benign and Malignant Sweat Gland Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Haruto; Daa, Tsutomu; Kashima, Kenji; Arakane, Motoki; Urabe, Shogo; Yoshikawa, Yasuji; Gamachi, Ayako; Yokoyama, Shigeo

    2015-12-01

    KIT (CD117, c-kit) is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the tumorigenesis of several neoplasms. KIT is expressed by the secretory cells of normal sweat glands. We studied the KIT expression and KIT mutational status in various benign and malignant tumors of eccrine and apocrine glands. We included a total of 108 cases comprising 10 benign and 6 malignant sweat gland tumors, and KIT expression was immunohistochemically detected (positive rate): 10 syringomas (0%), 8 poromas (25%), 20 mixed tumors (40%), 21 spiradenomas (43%), 1 cylindroma (0%), 5 hidradenomas (40%), 7 syringocystadenoma papilliferum cases (0%), 1 papillary hidradenoma (100%), 2 tubulopapillary hidradenomas (50%), 8 hidrocystomas (29%), 2 adenoid cystic carcinomas (100%), 5 porocarcinomas (20%), 6 apocrine carcinomas (33%), 10 extramammary Paget diseases (30%), 1 spiradenocarcinoma (100%), and 1 syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum (0%). Most KIT-positive cells were luminal cells, arising from glandular structures. We performed polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism for detecting KIT mutational status. All cases showed no mutations at hot spots for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17). KIT mutation does not seem to be mechanism for KIT expression, but the expression may be from native sweat glands.

  12. Diagnostic utility of direct immunofluorescence findings around hair follicles and sweat glands in immunobullous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Julia S; Camilleri, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Inherent to some immunobullous disorders is potential for intraepidermal or dermal-epidermal junction fragility, a phenomenon that may compromise biopsy specimen integrity and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) interpretation. In these situations, cutaneous adnexal structures (e.g. hair follicles, sweat apparatus) usually remain intact. Whether periadnexal DIF findings are reliable in diagnosing immunobullous conditions is unknown. We evaluated 56 cutaneous specimens with diagnostic immunoglobulin (Ig) deposition patterns that contained adnexal structures. In a corollary study, we examined 145 hematoxylin-eosin-stained frozen specimens to determine biopsy factors associated with the presence of adnexal structures. Periadnexal DIF findings offered diagnostic sensitivity in conditions with linear or cell-surface Ig deposition or lupus band. Periadnexal DIF findings were unreliable in dermatitis herpetiformis. Biopsy specimens from scalp and genitalia were most likely to contain folliculosebaceous units and sweat duct apparatus, respectively. Relative depth of biopsy correlated directly with the likelihood of identifying sweat duct apparatus but not folliculosebaceous units. Periadnexal DIF findings may add diagnostic sensitivity in DIF evaluation of pemphigoid, pemphigus and lupus erythematosus. Pathologists can guide clinicians to biopsy certain anatomic sites and to obtain sufficient biopsy depth to increase the probability of capturing adnexal structures and, therefore, diagnostic yield from DIF specimens. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Men Smelling Women: Null Effects of Exposure to Ovulatory Sweat on Men's Testosterone

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    James R. Roney

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Males of many species, humans included, exhibit rapid testosterone increases after exposure to conspecific females. Female chemical stimuli are sufficient to trigger these responses in many nonhuman species, which raises the possibility of similar effects in humans. Recently, Miller and Maner (2010 reported that smelling T-shirts worn by women near ovulation can trigger testosterone responses in men; however, men were aware that they were smelling women's scents, and thus mental imagery associated with that knowledge may have contributed to the hormone responses. Here, we collected axillary sweat samples from women on days near ovulation. In a crossover design, men who were not explicitly aware of the specific stimuli smelled the sweat samples in one session and water samples in a second session. There were no differences in testosterone responses across the experimental conditions. Our null findings suggest that the relevant chemical signal is not found in axillary sweat, and/or that knowledge of the stimulus source is necessary for hormone responses. These results thus suggest boundary conditions for the effects reported in Miller and Maner (2010, and recommend further research to define the precise circumstances under which men's testosterone may respond to chemosensory cues from women.

  14. Prediction of mean skin temperature for use as a heat strain scale by introducing an equation for sweating efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, H.; Kuwabara, K.; Hamada, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The present paper made the heat balance equation (HBE) for nude or minimally clad subjects a linear function of mean skin temperature ( t sk) by applying new equations for sweating efficiency ( η sw) and thermoregulatory sweat rate ( S wR). As the solution of the HBE, the equation predicting t sk was derived and used for a heat strain scale of subjects. The η sw was proportional to the reciprocal of S w/ E max ( S w, sweat rate; E max maximum evaporative capacity) and the S wR was proportional to t sk with a parameter of the sweating capacity of the subject. The errors of predicted t sk from observations due to the approximation of η sw were examined based on experimental data conducted on eight young male subjects. The value of errors of t sk was -0.10 ± 0.42 °C (mean ± sample standard deviation (SSD)). We aim to apply the predicted t sk of a subject at a level of sweating capacity as a heat strain scale of a function of four environmental factors (dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, radiation, and air velocity) and three human factors (metabolic rate, sweating capacity, and clothing (≤0.2clo)).

  15. Nanoduct Sweat Conductivity Measurements in 2664 Patients: Relationship to Age, Arterial Blood Gas, Serum Electrolyte Profiles and Clinical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Rabia Gonul; Aydemir, Gokhan; Akcan, Abdullah Baris; Paketci, Cem; Karaoglu, Abdulbaki; Aydinoz, Secil; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Background The Nanoduct® device has acceptable diagnostic accuracy, but there is not enough systematic data supporting its usage in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods A retrospective review of patients with an indication for the sweat test was conducted. The conductivity test was repeated in patients who had values higher than 60 mmol/L, and they were referred for sweat chloride measurements. Associations between sweat conductivity measurements and age, gender, (pH, HCO3, pCO2, Na, K, Cl), family history, consanguinity, indications for the test and number of hospitalization were studied. Results Among 2,664 patients, 16 children had sweat conductivity values higher than 80. The median age of patients diagnosed with CF was 4 months old. Age, pH, HCO3, Na, Cl, K and the sweat conductivity test were statistically related (P conductivity test and the sweat test. Conclusions Patients suspected to have CF can be screened using the Nanoduct® conductivity device in non-qualified centers. PMID:23390474

  16. Absence of arterial baroreflex modulation of skin sympathetic activity and sweat rate during whole-body heating in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. E.; Cui, J.; Crandall, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    1. Prior findings suggest that baroreflexes are capable of modulating skin blood flow, but the effects of baroreceptor loading/unloading on sweating are less clear. Therefore, this project tested the hypothesis that pharmacologically induced alterations in arterial blood pressure in heated humans would lead to baroreflex-mediated changes in both skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) and sweat rate. 2. In seven subjects mean arterial blood pressure was lowered (approximately 8 mmHg) and then raised (approximately 13 mmHg) by bolus injections of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, respectively. Moreover, in a separate protocol, arterial blood pressure was reduced via steady-state administration of sodium nitroprusside. In both normothermia and heat-stress conditions the following responses were monitored: sublingual and mean skin temperatures, heart rate, beat-by-beat blood pressure, skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry), local sweat rate and SSNA (microneurography from peroneal nerve). 3. Whole-body heating increased skin and sublingual temperatures, heart rate, cutaneous blood flow, sweat rate and SSNA, but did not change arterial blood pressure. Heart rate was significantly elevated (from 74 +/- 3 to 92 +/- 4 beats x min(-1); P baroreflex function in these subjects. 4. Neither SSNA nor sweat rate was altered by rapid (bolus infusion) or sustained (steady-state infusion) changes in blood pressure regardless of the thermal condition. 5. These data suggest that SSNA and sweat rate are not modulated by arterial baroreflexes in normothermic or moderately heated individuals.

  17. A Method for Teaching the Modeling of Manikins Suitable for Third-Person 3-D Virtual Worlds and Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick V. Flor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Worlds have the potential to transform the way people learn, work, and play. With the emerging fields of service science and design science, professors and students at universities are in a unique position to lead the research and development of innovative and value-adding virtual worlds. However, a key barrier in the development of virtual worlds—especially for business, technical, and non-artistic students—is the ability to model human figures in 3-D for use as avatars and automated characters in virtual worlds. There are no articles in either research or teaching journals which describe methods that non-artists can use to create 3-D human figures. This paper presents a repeatable and flexible method I have taught successfully to both artists and business students, which allows them to quickly model human-like figures (manikins that are sufficient for prototype purposes and that allows students and researchers alike to explore the development of new kinds of virtual worlds.

  18. Influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of bag-mask ventilation in a neonatal manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deindl, Philipp; O'Reilly, Megan; Zoller, Katharina; Berger, Angelika; Pollak, Arnold; Schwindt, Jens; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical face mask with an air cushion rim might be placed accidentally in a false orientation on the newborn's face or filled with various amounts of air during neonatal resuscitation. Both false orientation as well as variable filling may reduce a tight seal and therefore hamper effective positive pressure ventilation (PPV). We aimed to measure the influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of PPV. Twenty neonatal staff members delivered PPV to a modified, leak-free manikin. Resuscitation parameters were recorded using a self-inflatable bag PPV with an Intersurgical anatomical air cushion rim face mask (IS) and a size 0/1 Laerdal round face mask. Three different positions of the IS were tested: correct position, 90° and 180° rotation in reference to the midline of the face. IS masks in each correct position on the face but with different inflation of the air cushion (empty, 10, 20 and 30 mL). Mask leak was similar with mask rotation to either 90° or 180° but significantly increased from 27 (13-73) % with an adequate filled IS mask compared to 52 (16-83) % with an emptied air cushion rim. Anatomical-shaped face mask had similar mask leaks compared to round face mask. A wrongly positioned anatomical-shaped mask does not influence mask leak. Mask leak significantly increased once the air cushion rim was empty, which may cause failure in mask PPV.

  19. Expression of S100 protein family members in normal skin and sweat gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Okano, Shinji; Takahara, Masakazu; Chiba, Takahito; Tu, Yating; Oda, Yoshinao; Furue, Masutaka

    2013-06-01

    Despite our growing knowledge regarding the biology of S100 family proteins in cancers and internal diseases, limited data are available with their distribution in normal skin and in sweat gland tumors. To study the expression and distribution pattern of multiple S100 proteins in normal skin and in the tumors of sweat glands. Immunohistological staining was performed using S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A7, S100A8/9, S100A11, and S100P in 41 cases of various kinds of sweat gland tumors and in 13 cases of normal skin. In normal skin, S100A2, S100A6, S100A7, and S100P staining were observed in the sweat glands. S100A2 positively stained in the outer layer of the eccrine duct. S100A6 immunolabeling was observed in the secretory portion of the eccrine gland. Myoepithelial cells of the apocrine gland were positive for S100A2 and S100A6. S100A7 was positive in the acrosyringium, ductal, and secretory portions of the eccrine gland and in the inner layer of the apocrine gland. Intense S100P staining was detected in the inner layer of the acrosyringium and eccrine ducts. Langerhans cells and melanocytes showed strong immunoreactivity to S100A4. Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) expressed S100A7 and S100P with partial S100A6 and S1004 staining. Eccrine poroma expressed S100A2 and S100A7 with partial labeling with S100A6. Syringoma expressed S100A2, S1007, and S100P. Apocrine hidrocystoma expressed S100A2 with partial S100A6 and S100A7 immunoreactivity. Syringocystadenoma papilliferum expressed S100A2, S100A6, S100A7, and S100P. S100A2, S100A6, S100A7, and S100P proteins are specifically involved in structure-related distribution and are potentially useful for differential diagnoses of sweat gland tumors. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential Analysis of Thunderstorm Occurrence Using SWEAT Method at Meteorology Station Sultan Iskandar Muda

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    Ulfah Kurnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu hal penting dalam mengutamakan keselamatan penerbangan ialah informasi meteorologi yang tepat dan akurat terutama mengenai kondisi cuaca buruk seperti thunderstorm. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan prakiraan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm, sehingga pihak maskapai penerbangan dapat menyesuaikan prosedur keselamatan baik pada saat take off, on the route, maupun landing. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisis data radiosonde pada 2 (dua musim, yaitu musim kemarau dan musim hujan untuk memprakirakan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm selama periode April-Desember 2016 dan Januari-Maret 2017. Data radiosonde tersebut diperoleh dari Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda yang telah diukur setiap dua kali dalam satu hari. Waktu pengukurannya ialah pada pukul 00Z dan pukul 12Z. Dengan menggunakan Software Rawinsonde Observation (RAOB versi 5.7, dilakukan pengolahan data radiosonde sehingga diperoleh informasi parameter atmosfer seperti temperatur, titik embun, dan kecepatan angin. Parameter atmosfer tersebut dapat digunakan untuk memprakirakan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm selama dua belas jam kedepan, yaitu dengan menggunakan metode SWEAT (Severe Weather Threat sehingga diperoleh SWEAT Indeks untuk setiap pengukuran radiosonde. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan, diketahui SWEAT Indeks untuk wilayah Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda berkisar antara 39,8 - 355,4. Hasil analisis metode SWEAT diverifikasi dengan data aktual (data synop yang diamati di Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda dan diketahui persentase kesesuaian antara data prakiraan dengan kondisi aktual yaitu 58,62-66,67%.   One of the most important things in aviation safety is the accurate information of meteorology especially on bad weather conditions as thunderstorm. Therefore, need to forecast about potential occurrence of thunderstorm, so the airlines can adjust safety aviation when take of, an the route, and landing. In this research was analysis of

  1. Tick resistance and heat tolerance characteristics in cattle. III. Sweating rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle in a sustainable tropical livestock should be heat tolerant and resistant to ticks. The relationship between Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus infestation and sweating rate, an important heat tolerance characteristic, was studied in six Nellore and four Holstein steers of seven-month-old. They were artificial infested (a.i. with 10,000 (Holstein and 20,000 (Nellore larvae in 16/Apr/2011. In days 20, 23 and 24 after the infestation, the 10 bigger females ticks found in whole animal were weighed and put in a chamber (27 oC and 80% RH, weighing the egg mass of each female tick fourteen days after. The sweating rate (SRskin, measured by Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method, in a shaved area of shoulder skin was evaluated in 14/Apr (2 days before the a.i. and in 05/May (19 days after a.i.. In 14/Apr the Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method was done on the coat not shaved (SRcoat. The sweating rate was measured in the afternoon (from 2 P.M., after 30 minutes of direct sunlight, on April. On May, the animals remained 60 minutes in direct sunlight because this day was colder. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Data from the steers’ sweating rate were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using SRskin as dependent variable and breed and sampling date as independent variables. For SRcoat breed was the independent variable. Nellore, a tropical cattle breed, had higher SRskin (1,000.82 ± 64.59 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than Holstein (620.45 ± 79.10 g m-2 h-1. SRskin was higher on May (1,187.33 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than on April (433.93 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1. The correlation between the two different measurements of SR was positive and significant (r= 0,545, P<0,01, Pearson correlation. But in SRcoat the breed effect disappeared because the Holstein SRcoat increased (Holstein: 884.95 ± 472.12 g m-2 h-1 and Nellore: 1,060.72 ± 318.21 g m-2 h-1

  2. Clinicopathologic characteristics of extramammary Paget’s disease of the scrotum associated with sweat gland adenocarcinoma—a clinical retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Dong; Dai, Hong; Jin, Mulan; Zhao, Yantian

    2011-01-01

    Extramammary Paget’s disease of the scrotum with sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor. This study aims to summarize the clinicopathologic characteristics related to the prognosis of scrotal Paget’s disease with underlying sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Clinical datum of four patients with scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland carcinoma, treated in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital from 2002 to 2009 was analyzed, and a literature review was conducted. The typical manifestation of scro...

  3. Sex differences in amino acids lost via sweating could lead to differential susceptibilities to disturbances in nitrogen balance and collagen turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, R H; Sparkes, D L; Dascombe, B J; Stevens, C J; Murphy, G R; Macdonald, M M; Gottfries, J; Gottfries, C-G; Roberts, T K

    2017-08-01

    Fluid collected during sweating is enriched with amino acids derived from the skin's natural moisturising factors and has been termed "faux" sweat. Little is known about sex differences in sweat amino acid composition or whether faux sweat amino acid losses affect nitrogen balance. Faux sweat collected by healthy adults (n = 47) after exercise, and at rest by chronic fatigue patients, was analysed for amino acid composition. Healthy females had higher total amino acid concentrations in sweat (10.5 ± 1.2 mM) compared with healthy males (6.9 ± 0.9 mM). Females had higher levels of 13 amino acids in sweat including serine, alanine and glycine. Higher hydroxyproline and proline levels suggested greater collagen turnover in females. Modelling indicated that with conservative levels of exercise, amino acid losses in females via faux sweat were triple than those predicted for urine, whereas in males they were double. It was concluded that females were more susceptible to key amino acid loss during exercise and/or hot conditions. Females reporting chronic fatigue had higher levels of methionine in faux sweat than healthy females. Males reporting chronic fatigue had higher levels of numerous amino acids in faux sweat compared to healthy males. Higher amino acid loss in faux sweat associated with chronic fatigue could contribute to a hypometabolic state. Depending on activity levels, climatic conditions and gender, amino acid losses in sweat and skin leachate could influence daily protein turnover where periods of continuously high turnover could lead to a negative net nitrogen balance.

  4. The effect of a standardised source of divided attention in airway management: A randomised, crossover, interventional manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottengeier, Johannes; Petzoldt, Marlen; Jess, Nikola; Moritz, Andreas; Gall, Christine; Schmidt, Joachim; Breuer, Georg

    2016-03-01

    Dual-tasking, the need to divide attention between concurrent tasks, causes a severe increase in workload in emergency situations and yet there is no standardised training simulation scenario for this key difficulty. We introduced and validated a quantifiable source of divided attention and investigated its effects on performance and workload in airway management. A randomised, crossover, interventional simulation study. Center for Training and Simulation, Department of Anaesthesiology, Erlangen University Hospital, Germany. One hundred and fifty volunteer medical students, paramedics and anaesthesiologists of all levels of training. Participants secured the airway of a manikin using a supraglottic airway, conventional endotracheal intubation and video-assisted endotracheal intubation with and without the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), which served as a quantifiable source of divided attention. Primary endpoint was the time for the completion of each airway task. Secondary endpoints were the number of procedural mistakes made and the perceived workload as measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's task load index (NASA-TLX). This is a six-dimensional questionnaire, which assesses the perception of demands, performance and frustration with respect to a task on a scale of 0 to 100. All 150 participants completed the tests. Volunteers perceived our test to be challenging (99%) and the experience of stress and distraction true to an emergency situation (80%), but still fair (98%) and entertaining (95%). The negative effects of divided attention were reproducible in participants of all levels of expertise. Time consumption and perceived workload increased and almost half the participants make procedural mistakes under divided attention. The supraglottic airway technique was least affected by divided attention. The scenario was effective for simulation training involving divided attention in acute care medicine. The significant effects

  5. Performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during prolonged basic life support in military medical university students: A manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Zhuo, Chao-Nan; Zhang, Lei; Gong, Yu-Shun; Yin, Chang-Lin; Li, Yong-Qin

    2015-01-01

    The quality of chest compressions can be significantly improved after training of rescuers according to the latest national guidelines of China. However, rescuers may be unable to maintain adequate compression or ventilation throughout a response of average emergency medical services because of increased rescuer fatigue. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in training of military medical university students during a prolonged basic life support (BLS). A 3-hour BLS training was given to 120 military medical university students. Six months after the training, 115 students performed single rescuer BLS on a manikin for 8 minutes. The qualities of chest compressions as well as ventilations were assessed. The average compression depth and rate were 53.7±5.3 mm and 135.1±15.7 compressions per minute respectively. The proportion of chest compressions with appropriate depth was 71.7%±28.4%. The average ventilation volume was 847.2±260.4 mL and the proportion of students with adequate ventilation was 63.5%. Compared with male students, significantly lower compression depth (46.7±4.8 vs. 54.6±4.8 mm, P<0.001) and adequate compression rate (35.5%±26.5% vs. 76.1%±25.1%, P<0.001) were observed in female students. CPR was found to be related to gender, body weight, and body mass index of students in this study. The quality of chest compressions was well maintained in male students during 8 minutes of conventional CPR but declined rapidly in female students after 2 minutes according to the latest national guidelines. Physical fitness and rescuer fatigue did not affect the quality of ventilation.

  6. WT1 expression in endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma: a study of 13 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Wonwoo; Salomão, Diva R

    2014-10-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC), a low-grade sweat gland carcinoma with a predilection for the eyelids, often shows areas of benign eccrine cysts, atypical intracystic proliferation and associated mucinous carcinoma, suggesting tumor progression. Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) protein, a transcription factor, is overexpressed in many tumors and plays a role in oncogenesis. A computer-based search for tumors diagnosed between 1989 and 2009 was conducted. Clinical data were obtained from pathology reports and patient records. Biopsies were reviewed for histologic features. Immunostaining was performed for WT1, chromogranin, synaptophysin, estrogen receptor (ER), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (P-CEA), cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and MIB-1. Eight women and five men (mean age: 61.2 years; range: 40-77 years) presented with slow-growing eyelid nodules. Cases of EMPSGC were characterized by the presence of dermal nodules with various growth patterns. Adjacent eccrine cysts were present in five patients, atypical epithelial proliferation within the cyst wall in four patients, and an associated mucinous carcinoma in one patient. All tumors were positive for WT1, CK7, ER, P-CEA and EMA and negative for CK20. Tumors were positive for synaptophysin in 12 cases and chromogranin in nine cases. The MIB-1 proliferation index was low in most cases. No WT1 staining was observed in the overlying epidermis, adnexal structures or areas of benign eccrine cyst. WT1 expression was observed in areas of atypical epithelial proliferation, and the neoplastic cells. The present study shows WT1 expression in the neoplastic epithelial cells of EMPSGC, areas of atypical intraductal proliferations, and mucinous carcinoma. The absence of WT1 expression in areas of benign eccrine cyst and cutaneous sweat glands suggests WT1 upregulation plays a role in tumor cell proliferation and progression of EMPSGC. © 2014 The International

  7. Contamination of clothing and other items by sweat during exercise 201Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoo, Shigeki; Niio, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Tomoaki; Miyashita, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    We measured the radioactivity on patient's upper and lower garments, towels, broad sashes for the bust, and electrodes contaminated by sweat due to exercise 201 Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. In measuring activity, a scintillation survey meter adjusted to the energy of 201 Tl was used. In measuring the radioactivity of clothing, more than 4 Bq/cm 2 was considered to be a significant level of contamination. We detected contamination in 30% of upper garments and towels, 19% of broad sashes, 8% of lower garments and 4% of electrodes. Among these materials, several items of clothing and other items showed contamination exceeding 40 Bq/cm 2 . Towels were remarkably contaminated, with one towel showing a maximum contamination level of 420 Bq/cm 2 . Examinations done by exercise 201 Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy often result in the contamination of clothing and other items through sweating. This contamination is especially common in summer, particularly in upper garments and towels. The contamination ratio for towels was over 50%. The contamination ratio increased as the level of exercise became more difficult. When the exercise load was more than 100 W, the contamination ratio was 50%. In cases of extreme contamination, images of contaminated upper garments could be obtained by the scintigraphy camera. The areas of high activity on the images seemed to correspond to areas of the body where sweating was profuse. Based on these results, we should pay close attention to the handling of clothing and other items used in exercise testing by 201 Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and the points used in measuring contaminated clothing and other items after testing. (author)

  8. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohe, Shuichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yanai, Hirotsugu [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Komai, Yoshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Omachi, Taichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Nakamura, Naohiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ohsugi, Haruyuki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki [Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ueno, Hiroo, E-mail: hueno@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan)

    2015-10-23

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. - Highlights: • The acral epithelium have two types of stem cells. • Lgr6-positive cells are rapid-cycling, short-term stem cells. • Bmi1-positive cells are slow-cycling stem cells that act as reserver stem cells. • Lgr5 may be a useful sweat gland marker in mice.

  9. Reversed cellular polarity in primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma: A study on tight junction protein expression in sweat gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yusuke; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2017-04-01

    Primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma (PCMC) is a rare sweat gland tumor characterized by the presence of abundant mucin around the tumor islands, but the molecular mechanisms for this structure are not well elucidated. Because mucin is epithelial in nature, it is likely to be produced by epithelial tumor cells, not by surrounding stromal cells. We hypothesized that the abundant mucin is a result of reversed cellular polarity of the tumor. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an immunohistological study to investigate expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and ZO-1 in PCMC, as well as in normal sweat glands and other sweat gland tumors. Dot-like or linear expression of TJ proteins was observed at ductal structures of sweat glands, and ductal or cystic structures of related tumors. In PCMC, however, TJ protein expression was clearly visible at the edges of tumor cell islands. This study provides evidence to show that the characteristic histological structure of PCMC is caused by inverse polarization of the tumor cells, and that TJ proteins are useful markers of ductal differentiation in sweat gland tumors. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Evaluation of fluid intake, weight loss and sweat rate in young triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Sellés López de Castro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Triathlon is an endurance sport comprising three disciplines: swimming, cycling and running. It is necessary to purpose guidelines in order to avoid dehydration during training or competition and keep good hydration before, during and after physical activity. The aim of this study is to evaluation of fluid intake, weight loss and sweat rate in young triathletes, during different trainings.Material and Methods: A descriptive-observational study in 14 triathletes (7 boys and 7 girls during a session of swimming, other session of cycling, another session of running. Fluid intake, weight loss, % of total body water, % dehydration and sweat rate, were assessed. Triathletes drank water in their drums of 750 ml and urine measurement was performed in containers.Results: The results of our study following the next order: swimming, cycling and running. Water intake 2.66±1.94ml/min, 7.91±7.69ml/min y 7.08±4.13ml/min in boys and 3.43±1.53ml/min, 6.39±5.36ml/min y 8.33±2.74ml/min in girls; weight loss 0.83±0.5kg, 0.47±0.3kg y 0.98±0.4kg in boys and 0.79±0.3kg, 0.47±0.58kg y 0.28±0.21kg in girls; and sweating rate 4.44±4.9ml/ min, 11.81±6.46ml/min y 5.29±3.13ml/min in boys and 3.89±2.4ml/min, 4.69±4.20ml/min and 7.96±5.06ml/min in girls.Conclusions: The percentage of body water and dehydration, loss of weight and sweat rate were compared with other studies and it´s shown that our results are lower than others studies, being below the recommendations of liquid intake in athletes.

  11. A suitability study of the fission product phantom and the bottle manikin absorption phantom for calibration of in vivo bioassay equipment for the DOELAP accreditation testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, P.C.; Lynch, T.P.

    1991-08-01

    Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) conducted an intercomparison study of the Fission Product phantom and the bottle manikin absorption (BOMAB) phantom for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the consistency of calibration response of the two phantoms and their suitability for certification and use under a planned bioassay laboratory accreditation program. The study was initiated to determine calibration factors for both types of phantoms and to evaluate the suitability of their use in DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) round-robin testing. The BOMAB was found to be more appropriate for the DOELAP testing program. 9 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  12. The Effect of Instructional Method on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skill Performance: A Comparison Between Instructor-Led Basic Life Support and Computer-Based Basic Life Support With Voice-Activated Manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Sands, Cathy; Brahn, Pamela; Graves, Kristal

    2015-01-01

    Validating participants' ability to correctly perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills during basic life support courses can be a challenge for nursing professional development specialists. This study compares two methods of basic life support training, instructor-led and computer-based learning with voice-activated manikins, to identify if one method is more effective for performance of CPR skills. The findings suggest that a computer-based learning course with voice-activated manikins is a more effective method of training for improved CPR performance.

  13. 'Sweat Equity' _

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    headed .... flats and the average cost of housing in self—built housing was 5.2% compared to 4.3% in state—built flats or an aver- ..... The fact that women preferred to carry on with their informal sector activities and child care rather than partic-.

  14. The friction sweat test as a new method for detecting facial anhidrosis in patients with Horner's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M L

    1989-10-15

    Forty-eight patients with Horner's syndrome documented by cocaine test were examined with the friction sweat test, a method of detecting a mild sweating asymmetry using alcohol and a standard office prism bar. In all but one patient, the results of the friction test corresponded with the results predicted by the history, physical examination, and Paredrine testing, or with the results of a starch-iodine sweat test. The test is a quick, simple, and reproducible procedure that allows a more accurate determination of the location of the Horner's syndrome at the initial office visit, and therefore assists in determining what tests need to be performed in the further examination of the patient.

  15. Treatment of Sweat gland carcinoma with Topical Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic therapy: An effective treatment method to improve surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xian; Yang, Yadong; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wensheng; Song, Yanying; Zeng, Yongfang; Yang, Yunchuan; Zhang, Xingcun; Li, Guoling; Gao, Yang; Lu, Yuangang

    2017-03-01

    Sweat gland carcinoma is an extremely rare skin cancer, which is hard to diagnose and completely resect without causing functional and cosmetic problems. Moreover, the high rate of recurrence is hard to handle in the treatment of sweat gland carcinoma. Photodynamic therapy is a novel treatment protocol which can selectively destroy tumor cells with good functional and cosmetic outcomes. This is a case about a 53 years old patient with sweat gland carcinoma on his right foot, which received surgery and photodynamic therapy. There is no recurrence one year after treatment of surgery and photodynamic therapy. Excision combined with photodynamic therapy during operation is a promising strategy towards tumors which are hard to resect thoroughly and have a high risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunohistological Expression of p16INK4a is Commonly Present Both in Benign and Malignant Sweat Gland Neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Jun; Kaku, Yumiko; Ichiki, Toshio; Eto, Ayaka; Maemura, Hiromi; Otsuka, Akiko; Nakaie, Risa; Kitagawa, Noriko; Morioka, Yuka; Matsuda, Tomoyo; Yoshida, Maiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-12-01

    The expression of p16INK4a has been reported to be a significant marker for malignant transformation of epidermal tumors. However, little is known about sweat gland tumors. We examined the immunohistological expression of p16INK4a in benign and malignant sweat gland tumors. The ductal and acrosyringial portion of normal eccrine glands were positively stained with p16INK4a while it was negative in the normal epidermis. Moderate to strong expression of p16INK4a was found in 16 of 17 eccrine poromas, 4 of 5 hidradenomas, 3 of 3 syringocystadenoma papilliferums, 2 of 2 mixed tumors, and 3 of 3 syringomas. The p16INK4a expression was observed focally or diffusely in 4 of 4 porocarcinomas, 4 of 4 apocrine carcinomas and 12 of 17 extramammary Paget's diseases. We conclude that the p16INK4a expression is not a good marker for dictating malignant transformation of sweat gland tumors.

  17. Basic life support training into cardiac rehabilitation programs: A chance to give back. A community intervention controlled manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Salvado, Violeta; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Peña-Gil, Carlos; Neiro-Rey, Carmen; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2018-03-12

    Early basic life support is crucial to enhance survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest but rates remain low, especially in households. High-risk groups' training has been advocated, but the optimal method is unclear. The CArdiac REhabilitation and BAsic life Support (CAREBAS) project aims to compare the effectiveness of two basic life support educational strategies implemented in a cardiac rehabilitation program. A community intervention study including consecutive patients enrolled on an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program after acute coronary syndrome or revascularization was conducted. A standard basic life support training (G-Stan) and a novel approach integrating cardiopulmonary resuscitation hands-on rolling refreshers (G-CPR) were randomly assigned to each group and compared. Basic life support performance was assessed by means of simulation at baseline, following brief instruction and after the 2-month program. 114 participants were included and 108 completed the final evaluation (G-Stan:58, G-CPR:50). Basic life support performance was equally poor at baseline and significantly improved following a brief instruction. A better skill retention was found after the 2-month program in G-CPR, significantly superior for safety and sending for an automated external defibrillator. Confidence and self-perceived preparation were also significantly greater in G-CPR after the program. Integrating cardiopulmonary resuscitation hands-on rolling refreshers in the training of an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program is feasible and improves patients' skill retention and confidence to perform a basic life support sequence, compared to conventional training. Exporting this formula to other programs may result in increased numbers of trained citizens, enhanced social awareness and bystander resuscitation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Validated gas chromatographic-negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometric method for delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in sweat patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeshi; Wtsadik, Abraham; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Fortner, Neil; Takeichi, Sanae; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2004-11-01

    A sensitive gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC/MS-NICI) method was developed and validated for the measurement of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in human sweat patches. THC-d(0) and THC-d(3) were added to worn blank sweat patches (PharmChek; PharmChem Incorporated) and extracted with 3 mL of methanol-0.2 mol/L sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0, 3:1 by volume) on a reciprocating shaker at ambient temperature for 30 min. Extracted solution (2 mL) was diluted with 8 mL of 0.1 mol/L sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5) and extracted by use of solid-phase extraction columns (CleanScreen; United Chemical Technologies). Dried extracts were derivatized with trifluoroacetic acid and analyzed with an Agilent 6890 gas chromatograph interfaced with an Agilent 5973 mass selective detector operated in NICI-selected ion-monitoring mode. The lower limits of detection and quantification for THC in human sweat were 0.2 and 0.4 ng/patch, respectively. The calibration curve was linear from 0.4 to 10 ng/patch (R(2) >0.995). Overall recovery of THC from blank worn patches to which 0.6, 4.0, and 8.0 ng of THC had been added was 44-46%. Assay imprecision, expressed as CV, was THC quantification. This GC/MS-NICI assay for THC in human sweat provides adequate sensitivity and performance characteristics for analyzing THC in sweat patches and meets the requirements of the proposed Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration's guidelines for sweat testing.

  19. Sweat testing for the detection of atomoxetine from paediatric patients with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: application to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchei, Emilia; Papaseit, Esther; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Bilbao, Amaia; Farré, Magí; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2013-03-01

    Atomoxetine (ATX) is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved since 2002 for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults as an alternative treatment to methylphenidate. Within the framework of a project evaluating the use of alternative biological matrices for therapeutic monitoring of psychoactive drugs in paediatric and non-paediatric individuals, the excretion of ATX and its principal metabolites has been recently studied in oral fluid and hair. The aim of this study was to describe the excretion profile of ATX and its metabolites 4-hydroxyatomoxetine (4-OH-ATX) and N-desmethylatomoxetine (N-des-ATX) in sweat following the administration of different dosage regimens (60, 40, 35, and 18 mg/day) of ATX to six paediatric patients. Sweat patches were applied to the back of each participant and removed at timed intervals. ATX and its metabolites were measured in patches using a previously validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. Independently from the administered dose, ATX appeared in the sweat patches 1 h post administration and reached its maximum concentration generally at 24 h. Peak ATX concentrations ranged between 2.31 and 40.4 ng/patch and did not correlate with the administered drug dose, or with body surface area. Total ATX excreted in sweat ranged between 0.008 and 0.121 mg, corresponding to 0.02 and 0.3% of the administered drug. Neither 4-OH-ATX, nor N-des-ATX was detected in either of the collected sweat patches. Measuring ATX in sweat patches can provide information on cumulative drug use from patch application until removal. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Effect of botulinum toxin concentration on reduction in sweating: a randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rystedt, Alma; Karlqvist, Mattias; Bertilsson, Maria; Naver, Hans; Swartling, Carl

    2013-11-01

    Dose-response studies of botulinum toxin for reduction of sweating are sparse in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate concentrations of Botox®, Dysport®, Xeomin® and NeuroBloc®, respectively, in order to achieve the greatest reduction in sweating, thus reducing the costs and increasing the safety of treatment. Four concentrations of each product were investigated. Intradermal injections of all products and concentrations were applied to the backs of 20 consenting subjects, in a randomized, double-blind manner. Areas of anhidrotic and hypohidrotic skin were measured with an iodine-starch test after 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Optimal concentrations were found to be 25 U/ml for Botox and Xeomin, approximately 100 U/ml for Dysport, and 50 U/ml for NeuroBloc. When comparing the mean anhidrotic area per unit for 100 U/ml of each product, the calculated dose conversion ratios were 1:1.6:1.2:1.3 (Botox:Dysport:Xeomin:NeuroBloc). If, instead, the optimal concentration for each product was compared, the dose conversion ratios were 1:4.8:1.3:2.2. Thus, it is crucial to consider botulinum toxin concentration in a treatment regimen.

  1. Malignant sweat gland tumor presenting as an unusual dural-based lesion: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Shun; Chang, Kung-Chao; Chen, Hsing-Hong; Sze, Chun-I

    2010-09-01

    Malignant sweat gland tumors are rare neoplasms with high recurrence and metastasis rates of over 50%. Clinically, they are often either not diagnosed or diagnosed improperly and are encountered as a histological surprise. Herein, we report a 50-year-old woman who suffered from chronic headaches and a left-side limping gait. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a T1 and T2 heterogeneous intense dural-based lesion at right-frontal convexity. The pathological diagnosis of papillary meningioma was rendered at the time. Because there was no evidence of residual tumor, tumor recurrence, or distant metastases during the three-year follow-up, the clinician believed questioning the initial diagnosis was warranted. After pathological review, the final diagnosis was low-grade hidradenocarcinoma. A review of the literature suggests this is the first reported case of dural-based hidradenocarcinoma with local brain invasion. Given the lack of scalp or skull bone involvement, we speculated that the tumor may have arisen from ectopic sweat gland cells entrapped in the dural mater.

  2. Managing a Rare Malignant Sweat Gland Tumor Invading the Brain: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannatha, Aniruddha Tekkatte; Khan, Mansoor A; Karanth, Shrithi; Srikantha, Umesh; Varma, Ravi; Mahadevan, Anita

    2016-02-01

    Malignant sweat gland adnexal tumors are rare with an incidence of 0.001%. Of these, clear cell hidradenocarcinoma is an extremely uncommon subtype that accounts for 6% of malignant eccrine sweat gland tumors. They occur commonly in the head, neck, and extremities. Although they have a propensity for local recurrence, intracranial extension with brain invasion is extremely rare. We report a 76-year-old man with a large, recurring, ulcerated, fungating scalp swelling of 14 years who presented with focal seizures and drowsiness. Neuroimaging revealed a massive tumor arising from the scalp to invade the left parietal lobe and extending to the right side with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus. The overlying parietal bone was lytic with a "moth-eaten" appearance. He underwent wide excision of the scalp lesion, near-total cerebral tumor decompression followed by titanium mesh cranioplasty, rotation flap reconstruction of the scalp, and adjuvant radiotherapy to the skull vault. Histopathology revealed clear cell hidradenocarcinoma. Whole-body positron emission tomography scan did not reveal any other lesion. At 24 months' follow-up, he remains recurrence free. We report a rare indolent case of clear cell hidradenocarcinoma invading the brain, which was managed with near-total decompression and adjuvant radiotherapy. Intracranial extension in such aggressive tumors poses challenges in management, and regular neuroimaging surveillance is advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endocannabinoids regulate growth and survival of human eccrine sweat gland-derived epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czifra, Gabriella; Szöllősi, Attila G; Tóth, Balázs I; Demaude, Julien; Bouez, Charbel; Breton, Lionel; Bíró, Tamás

    2012-08-01

    The functional existence of the emerging endocannabinoid system (ECS), one of the new neuroendocrine players in cutaneous biology, is recently described in the human skin. In this study, using human eccrine sweat gland-derived immortalized NCL-SG3 model cells and a wide array of cellular and molecular assays, we investigated the effects of prototypic endocannabinoids (anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol) on cellular functions. We show here that both endocannabinoids dose-dependently suppressed proliferation, induced apoptosis, altered expressions of various cytoskeleton proteins (e.g., cytokeratins), and upregulated lipid synthesis. Interestingly, as revealed by specific agonists and antagonists as well as by RNA interference, neither the metabotropic cannabinoid receptors (CB) nor the "ionotropic" CB transient receptor potential ion channels, expressed by these cells, mediated the cellular actions of the endocannabinoids. However, the endocannabinoids selectively activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Finally, other elements of the ECS (i.e., enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids) were also identified on NCL-SG3 cells. These results collectively suggest that cannabinoids exert a profound regulatory role in the biology of the appendage. Therefore, from a therapeutic point of view, upregulation of endocannabinoid levels might help to manage certain sweat gland-derived disorders (e.g., tumors) characterized by unwanted growth.

  4. An analysis on the rates and regulation of insensible water loss through the eccrine sweat glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeje, A; Koon, D

    1989-12-07

    An analysis is presented on insensible water loss from the human body at rest through exposed skin surfaces into still air. Possible sites of moisture release are identified as the stratum corneum of the skin, free surfaces of dilute sweat liquids perpetually present in the microscopic ducts of a large population of eccrine sweat glands, and moist microvillous processes which line part of the periductal surfaces in the glands, particularly in the helical coils within the stratum spinosum of the epidermis. Water supply to the sites involves transepidermal migration across skin tissue layers, secretion and partial reabsorption of solutes and water within eccrine glands, and transport across periductal lining of eccrine glands from the surrounding connective tissues respectively. Evaporation and gas phase diffusion within eccrine ducts were modelled. Basal loss rates of water (as regulated by the ambient temperature and relative humidity and by aspects of the anatomy of and physiological factors for eccrine glands, the epidermis and the dermis) were calculated at between 1 and 20 g hr-1 at an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60% as an example. Such rates are significant fractions of experimental values for insensible water loss rates reported at between 4 and 35 g hr-1 in air at 22-30 degrees C and a relative humidity of 30-60%.

  5. [Contribution of monoclonal antibody D 47 in the study of sweat gland pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitakis, J; Schmitt, D; Thivolet, J

    1985-01-01

    D 47 is a monoclonal antibody (IgG2) reacting with a surface antigen of cortical thymocytes. On normal human skin, D 47 was found to react with a cytoplasmic antigen of the cells of the secretory portion of eccrine sweat glands (ESG). No reactivity with D 47 is detected on the excretory part of ESG, on apocrine glands and all other cutaneous structures. In this work we studied through an indirect immunofluorescence method on frozen skin sections the reactivity pattern of D 47 on a group of epithelial skin tumours of certain or alleged glandular differentiation. These consisted of: eccrine spiradenoma (ES, 1 case); chondroid syringoma (CS, 1 case); syringomas of the eyelid (1 case); clear-cell hidradenocarcinoma (1 case); eccrine porocarcinoma (1 case); naevus sebaceus of Jadassohn (2 cases, one of which associated to a syringocystadenoma papilliferum); clear-cell acanthoma (1 case); extramammary Paget's disease (3 cases); basal-cell epithelioma (2 cases). D 47 yielded in a strong labelling of a significant proportion of cells in the cases of ES and CS, while on the remaining tumours, apart from normal ESG occasionally present in the peritumoral connective tissue, no reactivity was seen. From this study it becomes clear that D 47 represents an immunohistologic marker of eccrine-secretory differentiation and that it can be applied in the investigation of the differentiation and of the differential diagnosis of sweat-gland neoplasms.

  6. Portable Chronic Alcohol Consumption Monitor in Human Sweat through Square-Wave Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, David; Muthukumar, Sriram; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Prasad, Shalini

    2017-09-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a significant financial and physical burden in the United States each year. Alcohol consumption monitors focus on establishing a state of intoxication, not assessing a user's health risks as a function of consumed alcohol. This work demonstrates a biosensor for a chronic alcohol consumption monitor through the electrochemical detection of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in human sweat using square-wave voltammetry (SWV). A novel affinity assay was demonstrated in which monoclonal antibodies were chemically coabsorbed onto a gold electrode surface in parallel with thiolated charge transfer molecule. Concentration-dependent EtG binding was detected by measuring a reduction in the charge transfer of the sensor, manifesting as a current response during SWV measurement. A companion compact electronic reader was constructed, demonstrating comparable sensitivity to a conventional lab instrument. Both tools demonstrated a limit of detection of 0.1 µg/L and a linear dynamic range of 0.1-100 µg/L corresponding to the physiologically relevant range of EtG expression in human sweat. This device can address the need for a chronic alcohol consumption monitor toward establishing a user's long-term consumption habits to assess the risk of developing specific diseases and conditions associated with regular alcohol consumption, through integration with existing technologies.

  7. Impact of blanching, sweating and drying operations on pungency, aroma and color of Piper borbonense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, M; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Méot, J M; Boulanger, R; Bohuon, P

    2017-03-15

    Low pungency, high aromatic potential and red color, give to Piper borbonense its originality when compared to Piper nigrum. Effects of blanching, sweating and drying on these characteristics were assessed. The three operations had no impact on the concentration of piperine and essential oil but affected the composition of essential oil slightly and considerably affected the color of the pepper. The "wet process", including blanching, sweating and drying, had the largest impact on the composition of aroma, increasing para-cymene content by 89% and reducing safrole content by 33% in dried pepper compared to fresh. Blanching increased the drying rate thus reducing drying time. Drying had a major impact on color, which changed from red to brown. The biggest differences observed led to reductions of 2.2, 7.9 and 8.4units in L ∗ , a ∗ and b ∗ values, when chromatic values measured in fresh pepper were compared to those of dried pepper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polarizable crystals in apocrine sweat gland tumors: A series of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gina; Gardner, Jerad M; Shalin, Sara C

    2017-08-01

    Polarizable calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals have been well documented in breast biopsies, generally associated with benign apocrine metaplasia. In contrast, polarizable crystals are only rarely reported in skin adnexal neoplasms. We report 3 different cases of sweat gland tumors with polarizable crystals morphologically suggestive of CaOx: 1 apocrine hidrocystoma and 2 tubular apocrine adenomas. The histologic features were examined in 3 cases. Clinical presentation summary included 2 males and 1 female, ages 53 to 74 years, with lesions located on the left cheek, inferior vertex scalp and the left eyebrow. All 3 cases showed polarizable, geometric, plate-like and fractured, colorless crystals within the lumens of the neoplasm. Of note, these crystals were seen only on the toluidine blue-stained section of Case #1, but were not present on the corresponding permanent section. We hypothesize that polarizable crystals may be present in sweat gland neoplasms more often than previously documented, but that they may often dissolve with routine processing, accounting for their rare visibility. We highlight this rare finding, and suggest that it may be underreported. We only noted this finding in benign apocrine tumors; further investigation would be necessary to determine whether these crystals are also seen in other cutaneous adnexal neoplasms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Electrochemical behaviour of titanium coated stainless steel by r.f. sputtering in synthetic sweat solutions for electrode applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, C.; Vaz, F.; Barbosa, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The r.f. sputtering technique was used to deposit titanium thin films on stainless steel substrates, aiming at the application of the coated samples as skin contact materials for 'dry' active electrodes. In this work the electrochemical behaviour of the coated samples was investigated in synthetic sweat solutions and their performance was compared with that of uncoated stainless steel and bulk titanium. The characterisation of the samples was carried out by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy. The coated samples displayed corrosion resistance values in synthetic sweat solutions much higher than stainless steel samples and of the same order of the values measured for bulk titanium in the same conditions

  10. Evaluation of a novel noninvasive continuous core temperature measurement system with a zero heat flux sensor using a manikin of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Ivo F; Perl, Thorsten; Bauer, Martin; Bräuer, Anselm

    2015-02-01

    Reliable continuous perioperative core temperature measurement is of major importance. The pulmonary artery catheter is currently the gold standard for measuring core temperature but is invasive and expensive. Using a manikin, we evaluated the new, noninvasive SpotOn™ temperature monitoring system (SOT). With a sensor placed on the lateral forehead, SOT uses zero heat flux technology to noninvasively measure core temperature; and because the forehead is devoid of thermoregulatory arteriovenous shunts, a piece of bone cement served as a model of the frontal bone in this study. Bias, limits of agreements, long-term measurement stability, and the lowest measurable temperature of the device were investigated. Bias and limits of agreement of the temperature data of two SOTs and of the thermistor placed on the manikin's surface were calculated. Measurements obtained from SOTs were similar to thermistor values. The bias and limits of agreement lay within a predefined clinically acceptable range. Repeat measurements differed only slightly, and stayed stable for hours. Because of its temperature range, the SOT cannot be used to monitor temperatures below 28°C. In conclusion, the new SOT could provide a reliable, less invasive and cheaper alternative for measuring perioperative core temperature in routine clinical practice. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate these results.

  11. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis with chloride meter (Sherwood M926S chloride analyzer®) and sweat test analysis system (CFΔ collection system®) compared to the Gibson Cooke method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiralioğlu, Nagehan; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Doğru, Deniz; Kiper, Nural

    2016-01-01

    Sweat test with Gibson Cooke (GC) method is the diagnostic gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF). Recently, alternative methods have been introduced to simplify both the collection and analysis of sweat samples. Our aim was to compare sweat chloride values obtained by GC method with other sweat test methods in patients diagnosed with CF and whose CF diagnosis had been ruled out. We wanted to determine if the other sweat test methods could reliably identify patients with CF and differentiate them from healthy subjects. Chloride concentration was measured with GC method, chloride meter and sweat test analysis system; also conductivity was determined with sweat test analysis system. Forty eight patients with CF and 82 patients without CF underwent the sweat test, showing median sweat chloride values 98.9 mEq/L with GC method, 101 mmol/L with chloride meter, 87.8 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. In non-CF group, median sweat chloride values were 16.8 mEq/L with GC method, 10.5 mmol/L with chloride meter, and 15.6 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. Median conductivity value was 107.3 mmol/L in CF group and 32.1 mmol/L in non CF group. There was a strong positive correlation between GC method and the other sweat test methods with a statistical significance (r=0.85) in all subjects. Sweat chloride concentration and conductivity by other sweat test methods highly correlate with the GC method. We think that the other sweat test equipments can be used as reliably as the classic GC method to diagnose or exclude CF.

  12. Treatment of synchronous mucinous carcinoma and endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma with Mohs' micrographic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannous, Zeina S; Avram, Mathew M; Zembowicz, Artur; Mihm, Martin C; Liteplo, Merrill; Kwan, Theodore; Olbricht, Suzanne M

    2005-03-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma is a very rare cutaneous tumor that has been reported only in three patients previously. We report a case of an endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma associated with mucinous carcinoma treated by Mohs' micrographic surgery. The purpose of this report is to test the utility of Mohs' micrographic surgery in the treatment of mucinous carcinomata. A 79-year-old female with a 2-year history of four lesions of biopsy-proven endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinomas and mucinous carcinoma was treated with Mohs' micrographic surgery. Three of the lesions were completely cleared by Mohs' micrographic surgery. The fourth lesion, in the right lateral canthus, was not cleared by the Mohs' technique because of its location within the orbit and the difficulty of retraction of the globe for appropriate visualization and excision. The patient underwent wide excision of the remaining orbital tumor and reconstruction, which was successfully accomplished. The patient did not experience a recurrence in any of her four lesions over a 2-year follow-up period. Mohs' micrographic surgery is an appropriate treatment for mucinous carcinomata, including endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma.

  13. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Storteboom, T. T. R.; Mulder, A. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Rottier, B. L.; Kema, I. P.

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis

  14. Night sweats, sleep disturbance, and depression associated with diminished libido in late menopausal transition and early postmenopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Susan D.; Newton, Katherine M.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Grothaus, Lou C.; Ehrlich, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of depression, sleep disturbance and menopausal symptoms with diminished libido. Study Design Data from a 2001-2002 baseline survey of 341 peri- and postmenopausal women, ages 45-55, participating in a randomized trial was analyzed. Eligibility included at least two hot flashes and/or night sweats per day and no hormone therapy for at least the prior 3 months. The survey evaluated sexual function, depression, sleep and vasomotor symptoms. We examined the association between these factors, using multivariate regression models. Results Of 341 women, 64% had diminished libido, 18% had moderate-severe depression, and 43% had poor sleep quality. Women averaged 4.6 hot flashes and 1.9 night sweats per day. Depressive symptoms (P=0.003), poor sleep (P=0.02), and night sweats (P=0.04), were significantly associated with diminished libido. Conclusions Factors associated with diminished libido in midlife are complex but include depression, disturbed sleep and night sweats, all common symptoms of the menopausal transition and early menopause. PMID:17547910

  15. Sweat rate and fluid intake in young elite basketball players on the FIBA Europe U20 Championship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukasinović-Vesić, Milica; Andjelković, Marija; Stojmenović, Tamara; Dikić, Nenad; Kostić, Marija; Curcić, Djordje

    2015-12-01

    Previous investigations in many sports indicated that continued exercise, especially in hot environments, can cause high sweat rate and huge water and electrolyte losses, thus impairing the performance of athletes. Most these studies were conducted during training sessions, but rarely during an official competition. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine pre- and post-competition hydration, fluid intake and sweat loss of young elite basketball players during the FIBA Europe U20 Championship. The study included 96 basketball male players, (19 ± 0.79 years) of eight national teams. Ambient temperature was 30 ± 2°C, humidity 55 ± 4% and the mean playing time in game 18.8 ± 10.5 min. The following parameters related to hydration status were measured: fluid intake, urine output, sweat rate, percent of dehydration, urine parameters (specific gravity, color and osmolarity), body mass and body surface area. We found that the mean fluid intake was 1.79 ± 0.8 L/h, sweat rate 2.7 ± 0.9 L/h, urine output 55 ± 61 mL and the percentage of dehydration 0.99 ± 0.7%. According to urine osmolarity more than 75% of players were dehydrated before the game and the process continued during the game. The difference in body mass (0.9 ± 0.7 kg) before and after the game was statistically significant. There were statistically significant correlations between the sweat rate and fluid intake, urine osmolarity, body mass loss, body surface area and percentage of dehydration. Fluid intake correlated with the percentage of dehydration, body mass loss, urine specific gravity and urine color. The sweat rate, which varied between the teams, was the highest for centers when this parameter was calculated on the effective time in game. Most of the athletes start competition dehydrated, fail to compensate sweat loss during the game and continue to be dehydrated, regardless what kind of drink was used. These results suggest that hydration strategies must be carefully taken into

  16. Sweat rate and fluid intake in young elite basketball players on the FIBA Europe U20 Championship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović-Vesić Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Previous investigations in many sports indicated that continued exercise, especially in hot environments, can cause high sweat rate and huge water and electrolyte losses, thus impairing the performance of athletes. Most these studies were conducted during training sessions, but rarely during an official competition. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine pre- and post-competition hydration, fluid intake and sweat loss of young elite basketball players during the FIBA Europe U20 Championship. Methods. The study included 96 basketball male players, (19 ± 0.79 years of eight national teams. Ambient temperature was 30 ± 2ºC, humidity 55 ± 4% and the mean playing time in game 18.8 ± 10.5 min. The following parameters related to hydration status were measured: fluid intake, urine output, sweat rate, percent of dehydration, urine parameters (specific gravity, color and osmolarity, body mass and body surface area. Results. We found that the mean fluid intake was 1.79 ± 0.8 L/h, sweat rate 2.7 ± 0.9 L/h, urine output 55 ± 61 mL and the percentage of dehydration 0.99 ± 0.7%. According to urine osmolarity more than 75% of players were dehydrated before the game and the process continued during the game. The difference in body mass (0.9 ± 0.7 kg before and after the game was statistically significant. There were statistically significant correlations between the sweat rate and fluid intake, urine osmolarity, body mass loss, body surface area and percentage of dehydration. Fluid intake correlated with the percentage of dehydration, body mass loss, urine specific gravity and urine color. The sweat rate, which varied between the teams, was the highest for centers when this parameter was calculated on the effective time in game. Conclusion. Most of the athletes start competition dehydrated, fail to compensate sweat loss during the game and continue to be dehydrated, regardless what kind of drink was used. These results

  17. Hidradenocarcinoma: A Rare Sweat Gland Neoplasm Presenting as Small Turban Tumor of the Scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asati, Dinesh P; Brahmachari, Swagata; Kudligi, Chandramohan; Gupta, Chandramohan

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  18. A case of histiocytoid variant eccrine sweat gland carcinoma of the orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Min; Kim, Jeong Won; Oh, Dong-Eun

    2011-02-01

    A 79-year-old male presented with left ocular pain. Evisceration and silicone ball implantation were performed after a diagnosis of phthisis. He returned six weeks later because of left facial erythematous swelling, tenderness, mild fever, chills and cough. His condition was diagnosed as orbital cellulitis. Despite two weeks of empirical antibiotic therapy, the symptoms worsened. A subsequent orbital computed tomography scan revealed enhanced soft tissue infiltrations in his left orbit and eyelid. Biopsy showed a diffusely infiltrating tumor of signet ring cell cytology. A systemic evaluation revealed multiple bone metastases. Based on this evidence, the patient was diagnosed with a very rare case of histiocytoid variant eccrine sweat gland carcinoma with multiple bone metastases.

  19. Hidradenocarcinoma: A rare sweat gland neoplasm presenting as small turban tumor of the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh P Asati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  20. Prerenal azotemia from excessive sweating in an adult with a cystic fibrosis gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, S V; Flume, P A; Stenbit, A E; Ullian, M E

    2011-07-01

    We present the case of a 58-year-old male with chronic kidney disease who was admitted to the hospital multiple times with extracellular fluid volume depletion and prerenal azotemia. Some episodes were associated with gastrointestinal fluid losses and others with profuse diaphoresis in the absence of gastrointestinal fluid losses. At the age of 57 years, a common cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein mutation and a family history of cystic fibrosis were documented. We hypothesize that the abnormal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator resulted in repeated bouts of excessive sweating, extracellular fluid volume depletion, and acute renal failure. This case is unique because of the prolonged period of time over which multiple documented episodes of prerenal acute renal failure occurred and because of the onset of the episodes in adulthood.

  1. Apocrine Sweat Gland Ductal Adenoma with Sebaceous Differentiation in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Michishita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old male, Border Collie, developed a firm mass, measuring approximately 1 cm in diameter, in the left buccal skin. Histologically, the mass was composed of ductal structures lined by bilayered luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells along with a few nests of sebaceous cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the luminal epithelial tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK, CAM5.2 and CK19 but not for CK14 or p63. In contrast, the basaloid tumor cells were positive for CK14, p63, and αSMA but not for CK19 or CAM5.2. CK8 expression was observed in both luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells. The tumor cells with sebaceous differentiation were positive for CK14 but not for the other markers. This is the first case of an apocrine sweat gland ductal adenoma with sebaceous differentiation occurring in the buccal skin of a dog.

  2. Neoplasms of the apocrine sweat glands in 44 dogs and 10 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaher, K M; Anderson, W I; Scott, D W

    1990-10-20

    Neoplasms of the apocrine sweat glands accounted for 2.0 per cent and 3.6 per cent, respectively, of all canine and feline skin neoplasms diagnosed during a period of three years. They occurred in dogs from six to 17 years of age of both sexes, and golden retrievers appeared to be predisposed; they occurred in cats from six to 17 years of age and there were no breed or sex predilections. In both species, the neoplasms were usually solitary and occurred anywhere on the body; they were nearly always carcinomas and histologically were usually of the solid type. There were no clinical measurements that made it possible to distinguish reliably between benign and malignant lesions. No distant metastases were recorded, even though 22.5 per cent of the canine carcinomas had invaded the lymphatic system.

  3. A device to improve the Schleger and Turner method for sweating rate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco; Alves, Alexandre; Infante, Paulo; Titto, Evaldo A. L.; Baccari, Flávio; Almeida, J. A. Afonso

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a device developed to improve the functionality, accuracy and precision of the original technique for sweating rate measurements proposed by Schleger and Turner [Schleger AV, Turner HG (1965) Aust J Agric Res 16:92-106]. A device was built for this purpose and tested against the original Schleger and Turner technique. Testing was performed by measuring sweating rates in an experiment involving six Mertolenga heifers subjected to four different thermal levels in a climatic chamber. The device exhibited no functional problems and the results obtained with its use were more consistent than with the Schleger and Turner technique. There was no difference in the reproducibility of the two techniques (same accuracy), but measurements performed with the new device had lower repeatability, corresponding to lower variability and, consequently, to higher precision. When utilizing this device, there is no need for physical contact between the operator and the animal to maintain the filter paper discs in position. This has important advantages: the animals stay quieter, and several animals can be evaluated simultaneously. This is a major advantage because it allows more measurements to be taken in a given period of time, increasing the precision of the observations and diminishing the error associated with temporal hiatus (e.g., the solar angle during field studies). The new device has higher functional versatility when taking measurements in large-scale studies (many animals) under field conditions. The results obtained in this study suggest that the technique using the device presented here could represent an advantageous alternative to the original technique described by Schleger and Turner.

  4. Diagnostic significance of the myoepithelial cells in the benign and malignant sweat gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemat, W; Kordek, R; Woźniak, L

    1996-01-01

    We studied the presence of myoepithelial cells (MCs) in the benign and malignant sweat gland adenomas by immunostaining with antibody to alpha-smooth muscle actin. We found peripheral arrangement of MCs in the neoplastic nests in cutaneous cylindromas (9), spiradenomas (13), syringoadenomas (7), and one case of adenoid cystic carcinoma. Dispersed MCs were identified in some cases of nodular hidradenoma (7/13) and malignant portion of spiradenocarcinoma (2/3). The remnants of the peripheral arrangement of MCs were retained in the benign part in cylindrocarcinoma and every case of spiradenocarcinoma, likewise in composed malignant adnexoma (malignisation within cylindroma/spiradenoma). We could not find MCs in papillary eccrine adenoma (2), poromas (7) and porocarcinomas (3), syringomas (6), chondroid syringomas (3), malignant nodular hidradenoma (1) and malignant portion of syringoadenoma (1). In one of three cases of eccrine hidradenocarcinoma focal myoepithelial differentiation could be identified at the periphery of the epithelial nests. These results confirm heterogeneity of the differentiation in sweat gland tumors, emphasizing the validity of division of those tumors into those with the differentiation towards secretory and ductal portion of the gland. The former group demonstrates the variability of arrangement of myoepithelial cells depending on the degree of dedifferentiation of the developing carcinoma. These cells may be replaced by outgrowing tumor, but may also accompany the neoplastic growth. Less significant is the presence of the MCs in the adenomas with ductal differentiation, which either in benign and malignant tumors may be lacking. The variability of MCs occurrence in cutaneous adenomas and carcinomas precludes its significance as a solitary factor in the differentiation between benign and malignant proliferations.

  5. 24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric K. O'Neal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8 after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C. Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass were significantly greater (p < 0.001 than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL. Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL. Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG = 1.018 ± 0.008 with no changes (p = 0.33 at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004 at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007, who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses.

  6. Immunohistochemical distinction of primary sweat gland carcinoma and metastatic breast carcinoma: can it always be accomplished reliably?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentrikoski, Mark J; Wick, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    Even with adequate history, the distinction of cutaneous metastatic breast carcinoma from primary sweat gland carcinoma can be difficult. Although previous studies have attempted to separate these tumors with various immunohistochemical panels, those series have been limited by small numbers of patients as well as the inclusion of benign sweat gland tumors. In this analysis, stains for p63, CK5/6, and D2-40 were included, as well as GATA3 and mammaglobin, in an evaluation of 21 primary sweat gland carcinomas and 33 examples of cutaneous metastatic breast carcinoma. Immunoreactivity for p63, CK5/6, D2-40, GATA3, and mammaglobin was respectively observed in 81%, 71%, 52%, 71%, and 5% of sweat gland carcinomas compared with 6%, 6%, 6%, 91%, and 45% of metastatic breast carcinomas. These differences were statistically significant for p63, CK5/6, and D2-40. For the diagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma, GATA3 was the most sensitive marker (91%), but its sensitivity was substantially lower. Mammaglobin was 95% specific for breast carcinoma but again suffered from limited sensitivity (45%) in this context. These data suggest that p63 and CK5/6 are specific determinants for sweat gland carcinoma in the stated setting. In the absence of those analytes, metastatic breast carcinoma cannot always be identified to the exclusion of a primary tumor. This diagnostic scenario continues to require the procurement of a detailed clinical history regarding the number and duration of skin lesions in any given case. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  7. Study of sample preparation for quantitative analysis of amino acids in human sweat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Povedano, M M; Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2016-01-01

    The determination of physiological levels of amino acids is important to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases and nutritional status of individuals. Amino acids are frequently determined in biofluids such as blood (serum or plasma) and urine; however, there are less common biofluids with different concentration profiles of amino acids that could be of interest. One of these biofluids is sweat that can be obtained in a non-invasive manner and is characterized by low complex composition. The analysis of amino acids in human sweat requires the development of sample preparation strategies according to the sample matrix and small collected volume. The influence of sample preparation on the quantitative analysis of amino acids in sweat by LC-MS/MS has been assessed through a comparison between two strategies: dilution of sweat and centrifugal microsolid-phase extraction (c-μSPE). In both cases, several dilution factors were assayed for in-depth knowledge of the matrix effects, and the use of c-μSPE provided the best results in terms of accuracy. The behavior of the target analytes was a function of the dilution factor, thus providing a pattern for sample preparation that depended on the amino acid to be determined. The concentration of amino acids in sweat ranges between 6.20 ng mL(-1) (for homocysteine) and 259.77 µg mL(-1) (for serine) with precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, within 1.1-21.4%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of only T3 and T3-T4 sympathectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis regarding treatment effect and compensatory sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuncu, Gökhan; Turk, Figen; Ozturk, Gökhan; Atinkaya, Cansel

    2013-08-01

    Patients diagnosed with axillary hyperhidrosis can face psychosocial issues that can ultimately hinder their quality of life both privately and socially. The routine treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis is T3-T4 sympathectomy, but compensatory sweating is a serious side effect that is commonly seen with this approach. This study was designed to evaluate whether a T3 sympathectomy was effective for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis and whether this treatment led to less compensatory sweating than T3-T4 sympathectomies among our 60-patient population. One hundred and twenty endoscopic thoracic sympathectomies were performed on 60 patients who had axillary hyperhidrosis. The sympathectomies were accomplished by means of a single-lumen endotracheal tube and a single port. The axillary hyperhidrosis patients were randomly divided into two groups with 17 patients in Group 1 undergoing T3-T4 sympathectomies and 43 in Group 2 undergoing only T3 sympathectomies. We analysed the data associated with the resolution of axillary hyperhidrosis, the degree of patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome and the quality of life in parallel with compensatory sweating after the procedure as reported by the patient and confirmed by the examiner. Moreover, the results were compared statistically. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups based on age (P=0.56), gender (P=0.81), duration of the surgery (P=0.35) or postoperative satisfaction levels (P=0.45). However, the incidence and degree of compensatory sweating were lower in the T3 group than the T3-T4 group at the 1-year follow-up (P=0.008). T3 sympathectomy was as effective as T3-T4 sympathectomy for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis based on the patients' reported postoperative satisfaction, and the T3 group demonstrated lower compensatory sweating at the 1-year follow-up.

  9. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in the detection of early metastasis from sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Paul N; Fullen, Douglas R; Lowe, Lori; Paulino, Augusto; Biermann, J Sybil; Sondak, Vernon K; Su, Lyndon D

    2003-05-01

    Several subtypes of sweat gland carcinoma have been found to demonstrate a propensity to metastasize systemically and to regional lymph nodes. The predictive value and benefit of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy have been established in numerous other malignancies, but to the authors' knowledge there is little literature published to date regarding the use of SLN biopsy in patients with sweat gland carcinoma. In the current study, the authors demonstrated the utility of SLN biopsy in detecting subclinical metastases of sweat gland carcinoma, which may result in early treatment. The authors identified five patients with malignant eccrine tumors in whom SLN biopsy was performed at the study institution. Clinical and histopathologic data were reviewed. The five study cases included two cases of aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (both occurring on upper extremity digits), two cases of hidradenocarcinoma (occurring on the knee and foot, respectively), and an eccrine carcinoma (occurring on the scalp). In each biopsy-established case, there was no clinical evidence of metastatic disease, and a wide local excision or amputation was performed with concurrent SLN biopsy. Four of 18 SLNs in 3 of the 5 patients (60%) were found to be positive for metastatic carcinoma, as identified in hematoxylin and eosin stains and/or cytokeratin immunohistochemical stains. All three lymph node-positive patients subsequently underwent regional lymphadenectomy and were found to have no evidence of additional metastases. The results of the current study demonstrate that SLN biopsy detects subclinical metastases from sweat gland carcinomas to regional lymph nodes. SLN mapping and biopsy at the time of resection can provide useful information with which to guide early treatment. Further studies are necessary to determine whether this procedure results in a survival benefit in patients with sweat gland carcinomas. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11328

  10. Clinicopathologic characteristics of extramammary Paget’s disease of the scrotum associated with sweat gland adenocarcinoma—a clinical retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Extramammary Paget’s disease of the scrotum with sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor. This study aims to summarize the clinicopathologic characteristics related to the prognosis of scrotal Paget’s disease with underlying sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Clinical datum of four patients with scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland carcinoma, treated in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital from 2002 to 2009 was analyzed, and a literature review was conducted. The typical manifestation of scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland carcinoma was eczematoid-like skin lesions. All patients underwent primary lesion resection plus inguinal lymphadenectomy. Three patients had inguinal lymph metastasis. One of them developed distant metastases in bone and bone marrow and died of metastatic carcinoma. The dead patient had higher serum carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA level, Her-2 overexpression and shorter disease course than the other patients. The other patients were observed for at least 3 years, and lived without tumor. Scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma may be prone to inguinal lymph node and bone metastasis. Serum CEA level, Her-2 overexpression, dermis and lymphovascular invasion may be associated with the prognosis of scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma. The primary lesion resection plus inguinal lymphadenectomy is the major treatment for scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma. The effect of combination chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic extramammary Paget’s disease remains to be proven by prolonged follow-up and wide experience.

  11. Consistency between Sweat Rate and Wet Bulb Globe Temperature for the Assessment of Heat Stress of People Working Outdoor in Arid and Semi-arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Heidari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat stress is common among workers in arid and semi-arid areas. In order to take every preventive measure to protect exposed workers against heat-related disorders, it is crucial to choose an appropriate index that accurately relates environmental parameters to physiological responses. Objective: To investigate the consistency between 2 heat stress and strain indices, ie, sweat rate and wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT, for the assessment of heat stress of people working outdoor in arid and semi-arid regions in Iran. Methods: During spring and summer, 136 randomly selected outdoor workers were enrolled in this study. Using a defined protocol, the sweat rate of these workers was measured 3 times a day. Simultaneously, the environmental parameters including WBGT index were recorded for each working station. Results: The level of agreement between sweat rate and WBGT was poor (κ<0.2. Based on sweat rate, no case exceeding the reference value was observed during the study. WBGT overestimated the heat stress in outdoor workers compared to sweat rate. Conclusion: It seems that the sweat rate standards may need some modifications related to real condition of work in arid and semi-arid regions in Iran. Moreover, it seems that judging workers solely based on monitoring their sweat rate in such regions, can probably result in underestimation of heat stress.

  12. A randomised crossover comparison of manikin ventilation through Soft Seal®, i-gel™ and AuraOnce™ supraglottic airway devices by surf lifeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelborg, K; Al-Mashhadi, R H; Nielsen, L H; Dalgas, C; Mortensen, M B; Løfgren, B

    2014-04-01

    Forty surf lifeguards attempted to ventilate a manikin through one out of three supraglottic airways inserted in random order: the Portex® Soft Seal®; the Intersurgical® i-gel™; and the Ambu® AuraOnce™. We recorded the time to ventilate and the proportion of inflations that were successful, without and then with concurrent chest compressions. The mean (SD) time to ventilate with the Soft Seal, i-gel and AuraOnce was 35.2 (7.2)s, 15.6 (3.3)s and 35.1 (8.5) s, respectively, p surf lifeguards. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Evaluation of Frova, single-use intubation introducer, in a manikin. Comparison with Eschmann multiple-use introducer and Portex single-use introducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzovic, I; Latto, I P; Wilkes, A R; Hall, J E; Mapleson, W W

    2004-08-01

    In a randomised cross-over study, 48 anaesthetists attempted to place a Frova single-use introducer, an Eschmann multiple-use introducer and a Portex single-use introducer in the trachea of a manikin set up to simulate a grade 3 laryngoscopic view. The anaesthetists were blinded to success (tracheal placement) or failure (oesophageal placement). Successful placement (proportion, 95% confidence interval) of either the Frova introducer (65%, 50-77%) or the Eschmann introducer (60%, 46-73%) was significantly more likely than with the Portex introducer (8%, 3-20%). There were no significant differences between the success rates for the Frova and the Eschmann introducers. A separate experiment revealed that the peak force exerted by the Frova and Portex introducers was two to three times greater than that which could be exerted by the Eschmann introducer, p < 0.0001, indicating that the single-use introducers are more likely to cause tissue trauma during placement.

  14. Comparison of the conventional CMAC and the D-blade CMAC with the direct laryngoscopes in simulated cervical spine injury-a manikin study

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    Divya Jain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CMAC videolaryngoscope has recently been introduced for videoscope guided intubation. The aim of our study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of the conventional blade and the angulated D blade of the CMAC videolaryngoscope with the direct laryngoscopes in simulated cervical spine injury patients on the airway manikin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following power analysis, 33 resident doctors were enrolled to perform endotracheal intubation using all the 4 different laryngoscopes namely the Macintosh laryngoscope, McCoy laryngoscope, conventional CMAC videolaryngoscope and the D blade of the CMAC videolaryngoscopes on the airway manikin in simulated cervical spine injury. The demographic variables of the resident doctors were recorded. The outcomes measured included vocal cord visualization (Cormack-Lehane grading, time taken to intubate, number of attempts for successful intubation and optimizing maneuvers required. RESULTS: The use of indirect videolaryngoscopes resulted in better glottic visualization in comparison to the direct laryngoscopes (CL-I in 20/33 (60.6% in the Macintosh group, 24/33 (72.7% in McCoy group, 30/33 in (90.9% in Vlc group and 32/33 (96.9% in Vld group. The time taken to intubate averaged to 15.54 ± 2.6 in Macintosh group, 18.90 ± 4.47 in McCoy group, 20.21 ± 7.9 in Vlc group and 27.42 ± 9.09 in Vld group. The 1st attempt intubation success rate was 84.8% (Macintosh, 72.7% (McCoy, 90.9% (Vlc and, 78.7% (Vld. CONCLUSIONS: The overall performance of the conventional CMAC blade proved to be the best when compared with the D-blade CMAC, Macintosh blade and the McCoy blade for intubation in simulated cervical spine patients by anesthesia residents.

  15. New approach for cystic fibrosis diagnosis based on chloride/potassium ratio analyzed in non-invasively obtained skin-wipe sweat samples by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurč, Pavol; Foret, František; Pokojová, Eva; Homola, Lukáš; Skřičková, Jana; Herout, Vladimír; Dastych, Milan; Vinohradská, Hana; Kubáň, Petr

    2017-05-01

    A new approach for sweat analysis used in cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis is proposed. It consists of a noninvasive skin-wipe sampling followed by analysis of target ions using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection (C4D). The skin-wipe sampling consists of wiping a defined skin area with precleaned cotton swab moistened with 100 μL deionized water. The skin-wipe sample is then extracted for 3 min into 400 μL deionized water, and the extract is analyzed directly. The developed sampling method is cheap, simple, fast, and painless, and can replace the conventional pilocarpine-induced sweat chloride test commonly applied in CF diagnosis. The aqueous extract of the skin-wipe sample content is analyzed simultaneously by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection using a double opposite end injection. A 20 mmol/L L-histidine/2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and 2 mmol/L 18-crown-6 at pH 6 electrolyte can separate all the major ions in less than 7 min. Skin-wipe sample extracts from 30 study participants-ten adult patients with CF (25-50 years old), ten pediatric patients with CF (1-15 years old), and ten healthy control individuals (1-18 years old)-were obtained and analyzed. From the analyzed ions in all samples, a significant difference between chloride and potassium concentrations was found in the CF patients and healthy controls. We propose the use of the Cl - /K + ratio rather than the absolute Cl - concentration and a cutoff value of 4 in skin-wipe sample extracts as an alternative to the conventional sweat chloride analysis. The proposed Cl - /K + ion ratio proved to be a more reliable indicator, is independent of the patient's age, and allows better differentiation between non-CF individuals and CF patients having intermediate values on the Cl - sweat test. Figure New approach for cystic fibrosis diagnosis based on skin-wipe sampling of forearm and analysis of ionic content (Cl - /K + ratio) in

  16. 78 FR 21818 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Methylone Into Schedule I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... hyperthermia, seizures, hyponatremia, bruxism, sweating, hypertension, tachycardia, headache, palpitations... departments of individuals exposed to methylone with symptoms that include tachycardia, headache, palpitations... medical use, classification of methylone as a Schedule I controlled substance was appropriate. Another...

  17. Taxa de sudação e parâmetros histológicos de bovinos submetidos ao estresse calórico Sweat rate and histological parameters of cattle submitted to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se o pelame, a taxa de sudação e os parâmetros histológicos de 71 bovinos F2 (½ Gir x ½ Holandês, 39 machos e 32 fêmeas, entre 14 e 20 meses de idade, submetidos a condições de termoneutralidade (22ºC e 70% de umidade relativa - UR e ao estresse calórico (42ºC e 60% UR. Os tratamentos foram realizados nas estações de verão e inverno em câmara bioclimática. O comprimento dos pelos e a espessura da capa foram maiores no inverno que no verão, sendo de 1,58 e 1,04cm e 5,31 e 3,91mm, respectivamente (PCoat thickness, sweat rate, and histological parameters were characterized in 39 males and 32 females crossbred cattle (½ Holstein x ½ Gir, averaging 14 to 20 months of age, submitted to thermoneutrality (22ºC and 70% of relative humidity - RH and heat stress (42ºC and 60% RH in summer and winter in a climatic chamber. Fur length and coat thickness were significantly higher in summer than winter, 1.58 and 1.04cm and 5.31 and 3.91mm, respectively (P<0.05. Skin histology showed that sweat gland area and distance of gland to epithelium was shorter in summer than in winter, 2,589 and 4,051µm and 294 and 344µm, respectively (P<0.05. It was concluded that the season influenced the coat thickness, the sweat glands disposal and activity to maximize thermic homeostasis control.

  18. Evaluation of atomic layer deposited alumina as a protective layer for domestic silver articles: Anti-corrosion test in artificial sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suk Won; Han, Gwon Deok; Choi, Hyung Jong; Prinz, Fritz B.; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of alumina fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a protective coating for silver articles against the corrosion caused by body contact. An artificial sweat solution was used to simulate body contact. ALD alumina layers of varying thicknesses ranging from 20 to 80 nm were deposited on sputtered silver samples. The stability of the protective layer was evaluated by immersing the coated samples in the artificial sweat solution at 25 and 35 °C for 24 h. We confirmed that a sufficiently thick layer of ALD alumina is effective in protecting the shape and light reflectance of the underlying silver, whereas the uncoated bare silver is severely degraded by the artificial sweat solution. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used for in-depth analyses of the chemical stability of the ALD-coated silver samples after immersion in the sweat solution.

  19. Estradiol rapidly induces the translocation and activation of the intermediate conductance calcium activated potassium channel in human eccrine sweat gland cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W

    2009-02-01

    Steroid hormones target K+ channels as a means of regulating electrolyte and fluid transport. In this study, ion transporter targets of Estradiol (E2) were investigated in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

  20. Cholinesterase activity in blood and pesticide presence in sweat as biomarkers of children`s environmental exposure to crop protection chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak

    2015-09-01

    Altogether, the study indicated that cholinesterase activity is a sensitive marker of the children’s environmental exposure to pesticides, whereas sweat patches are useful devices for collecting samples to be analysed for the presence of the pesticides.

  1. Sweat chloride and immunoreactive trypsinogen in infants carrying two CFTR mutations and not affected by cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Carlo; Tridello, Gloria; Tamanini, Anna; Assael, Baroukh M

    2017-07-01

    Newborns with raised immunotrypsinogen levels who have non-pathological sweat chloride values and carry two cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator ( CFTR ) mutations of which at least one is not acknowledged to be cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing are at risk of developing clinical manifestations consistent with CFTR-related disorders or even CF. It is not known whether newborns with similar genotypes and normal immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) may share the same risk. This study found that newborns with these characteristics and normal IRT have lower sweat chloride values than those with raised IRT (p=0.007). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. [Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma. three case reports with a brief review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, A; Mentzel, T; Requena, L

    2014-09-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPS) is a rare low-grade sweat gland carcinoma with an infiltrating growth pattern. It occurs mostly in women and shows a predilection for the periorbital region. Histopathologically, the tumor shows analogous features to endocrine ductal carcinoma/solid papillary carcinoma of the breast and shares some clinical and morphological similarities with primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin. The tumor is characterized by large monomorphous epithelial cells with little nuclear pleomorphism and only a few mitotic figures. The solid cystic tumor shows mucin-filled small cystic spaces, cribriform areas and expresses the neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin, chromogranin and neuron-specific enolase with varying staining intensities. The tumor cells are also positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors. We present three cases of this rare tumor with typical clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, give a short summary of the literature and discuss the most relevant differential diagnoses.

  3. Women's collective constructions of embodied practices through memory work: Cartesian dualism in memories of sweating and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Val; Harden, Angela; Johnson, Katherine; Reavey, Paula; Strange, Vicki; Willig, Carla

    2004-03-01

    The research presented in this paper uses memory work as a method to explore six women's collective constructions of two embodied practices, sweating and pain. The paper identifies limitations in the ways in which social constructionist research has theorized the relationship between discourse and materiality, and it proposes an approach to the study of embodiment which enjoins, rather than bridges, the discursive and the non-discursive. The paper presents an analysis of 25 memories of sweating and pain which suggests that Cartesian dualism is central to the women's accounts of their experiences. However, such dualism does not operate as a stable organizing principle. Rather, it offers two strategies for the performance of a split between mind and body. The paper traces the ways in which dualism can be both functional and restrictive, and explores the tensions between these two forms. The paper concludes by identifiying opportunities and limitations associated with memory work as a method for studying embodiment.

  4. Exercise- and methylcholine-induced sweating responses in older and younger men: effect of heat acclimation and aerobic fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Y.; Havenith, George; Kenney, W. Larry; Loomis, Joseph L.; Buskirk, Elsworth R.

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of aging and aerobic fitness on exercise- and methylcholine-induced sweating responses during heat acclimation. Five younger [Y group - age: 23+/-1 (SEM) years; maximal oxygen consumption (V.O2max): 47+/-3 ml.kg-1.min-1], four highly fit older (HO group - 63+/-3 years; 48+/-4 ml.kg-1.min-1) and five normally fit older men (NO group - 67+/-3 years; 30+/-1 ml.kg-1.min-1) who were matched for height, body mass and percentage fat, were heat acclimated by daily cycle exercise ( 35% V.O2max for 90 min) in a hot (43°C, 30% RH) environment for 8 days. The heat acclimation regimen increased performance time, lowered final rectal temperature (Tre) and percentage maximal heart rate (%HRmax), improved thermal comfort and decreased sweat sodium concentration similarly in all groups. Although total body sweating rates (M.sw) during acclimation were significantly greater in the Y and HO groups than in the NO group (Pexercise) values, compared to the other groups (PHO>NO, and on the forearm Y=HO>NO. No group differences were observed for activated sweat gland density at any site. The SGO at the respective sites increased in the post-acclimation test regardless of group (Pexercised at the same relative exercise intensity. Furthermore, the changes induced by acclimation appear associated with an age-related decrease in V.O2max. However methylcholine-activated SGO and the magnitude of improvement of SGO with acclimation are related not only to V.O2max but also to aging, suggesting that sensitivity to cholinergic stimulation decreases with aging.

  5. Influence of serotonergic/noradrenergic gene polymorphisms on nausea and sweating induced by milnacipran in the treatment of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Higuchi, Hitoshi Takahashi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Hisashi Higuchi1, Hitoshi Takahashi2, Mitsuhiro Kamata3, Keizo Yoshida41Department of Psychiatry, St. Marianna University, School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Yuri-Kumiai General Hospital, Yuri-Honjo, Akita, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Aichi, JapanAbstract: The present study was conducted to find out the predictors of side effects such as nausea and excessive sweating induced by milnacipran, a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Both clinical characteristics prior to the treatment and gene polymorphisms such as serotonin transporter (5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR, a variable number of tandem repeats in the second intron of the 5-HTT gene (5-HTTVNTR, 5-HT2A receptor gene (5-HT2A G-1438A, a TPH gene polymorphism in intron 7 (TPH A218C, norepinephrine transporter (NET gene polymorphism in the promoter region (NET T-182C and in the exon 9 (NET G1287A, a variable number of tandem repeats in the promoter region of monoamine oxidase A, were items to be assessed in this study. Ninety-six patients with major depressive disorder were treated with milnacipran. Side effects were assessed at 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of treatment with Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser side effects scale. The results showed that no gene polymorphisms included in this study affected the susceptibility of nausea and excessive sweating induced by milnacipran. Patients with older age are more likely to develop excessive sweating than others. The major limitation of this study is a small sample size. Further studies with larger populations and more kinds of gene polymorphisms should be needed to see if specific gene polymorphisms determine the susceptibility of side effects induced by milnacipran. Keywords: milnacipran, nausea, excessive sweating, gene polymorphisms

  6. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, J; Storteboom, T T R; Mulder, A M; de Jong, W H A; Rottier, B L; Kema, I P

    2015-07-01

    Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis of both chloride and sodium in small volumes of sweat. Precision, linearity and limit of detection of an in-house developed IC/HPLC method were established. Method comparison between the newly developed IC/HPLC method and the traditional Chlorocounter was performed, and trueness was determined using Passing Bablok method comparison with external quality assurance material (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia). Precision and linearity fulfill criteria as established by UK guidelines are comparable with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods. Passing Bablok analysis demonstrated excellent correlation between IC/HPLC measurements and external quality assessment target values, for both chloride and sodium. With a limit of quantitation of 0.95 mmol/L, our method is suitable for the analysis of small amounts of sweat and can thus be used in combination with the Macroduct collection system. Although a chromatographic application results in a somewhat more expensive test compared to a Chlorocounter test, more accurate measurements are achieved. In addition, simultaneous measurements of sodium concentrations will result in better detection of false positives, less test repeating and thus faster and more accurate and effective diagnosis. The described IC/HPLC method, therefore, provides a precise, relatively cheap and easy-to-handle application for the analysis of both chloride and sodium in sweat. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Effect of prolonged administration of clenbuterol on airway reactivity and sweating in horses with inflammatory airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer R; Boston, Raymond C; Abraham, Getu; Bauquier, Sebastien H; Soma, Lawrence R; Nolen-Walston, Rose D

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether prolonged administration of clenbuterol results in tachyphylaxis, specifically regarding its bronchoprotective properties and effect on sweating in horses. 8 Thoroughbreds with inflammatory airway disease. In a crossover design, horses received clenbuterol (0.8 μg/kg, p.o., q 12 h) or placebo for 21 days, with a washout period of ≥ 30 days between the 2 treatments. Airway reactivity was evaluated by use of flowmetric plethysmography and histamine broncho-provocation before (day 0; baseline) and every 7 days after the start of treatment. Sweat function was evaluated via response to epinephrine administered ID before and every 10 days after the start of treatment. The concentration of histamine required to increase total airway obstruction by 35% (PC35) was significantly reduced during treatment with clenbuterol (mean change, 11.5 mg/mL), compared with during administration of the placebo (mean change, -1.56 mg/mL), with a peak effect at 14 days. Tachyphylaxis was evident by day 21, with 7 of 8 horses having a PC35 below the baseline value (mean change, -0.48 mg/mL), which returned to baseline values during the washout period. No effect of clenbuterol was seen in sweat response to epinephrine administration. Clenbuterol initially reduced airway sensitivity to inhaled histamine, but tachyphylaxis that resulted in increased airway reactivity was evident by day 21. Although no effects on sweating were detected, the technique may not have been sensitive enough to identify subtle changes. Prolonged administration of clenbuterol likely results in a clinically important reduction in its bronchodilatory effects.

  8. A Case of Primary Signet-Ring Cell/Histiocytoid Carcinoma of the Eyelid: Immunohistochemical Comparison With the Normal Sweat Gland and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaya, Mai; Uehara, Takeshi; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Momose, Masanobu; Honda, Takayuki; Ota, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell/histiocytoid carcinomas of the eyelid are extremely rare tumors considered to originate from sweat glands. Here, we report the case of a 72-year-old man diagnosed with primary signet-ring cell/histiocytoid carcinoma of the eyelid and present immunohistochemical analyses of the eyelid apocrine gland (Moll gland) and apocrine and eccrine sweat glands of perineum and axilla. Widespread infiltration of tumor cells with signet-ring cell or histiocytoid appearance was obser...

  9. Cathepsin D is present in human eccrine sweat and involved in the postsecretory processing of the antimicrobial peptide DCD-1L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechle, Daniel; Flad, Thomas; Cansier, Alexander; Steffen, Heiko; Schittek, Birgit; Tolson, Jonathan; Herrmann, Timo; Dihazi, Hassan; Beck, Alexander; Mueller, Gerhard A; Mueller, Margret; Stevanovic, Stefan; Garbe, Claus; Mueller, Claudia A; Kalbacher, Hubert

    2006-03-03

    The protein pattern of healthy human eccrine sweat was investigated and 10 major proteins were detected from which apolipoprotein D, lipophilin B, and cathepsin D (CatD) were identified for the first time in human eccrine sweat. We focused our studies on the function of the aspartate protease CatD in sweat. In vitro digestion experiments using a specific fluorescent CatD substrate showed that CatD is enzymatically active in human sweat. To identify potential substrates of CatD in human eccrine sweat LL-37 and DCD-1L, two antimicrobial peptides present in sweat, were digested in vitro with purified CatD. LL-37 was not significantly digested by CatD, whereas DCD-1L was cleaved between Leu(44) and Asp(45) and between Leu(29) and Glu(30) almost completely. The DCD-1L-derived peptides generated in vitro by CatD were also found in vivo in human sweat as determined by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) mass spectrometry. Furthermore, besides the CatD-processed peptides we identified additionally DCD-1L-derived peptides that are generated upon cleavage with a 1,10-phenanthroline-sensitive carboxypeptidase and an endoprotease. Taken together, proteolytic processing generates 12 DCD-1L-derived peptides. To elucidate the functional significance of postsecretory processing the antimicrobial activity of three CatD-processed DCD-1L peptides was tested. Whereas two of these peptides showed no activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, one DCD-1L-derived peptide showed an even higher activity against Escherichia coli than DCD-1L. Functional analysis indicated that proteolytic processing of DCD-1L by CatD in human sweat modulates the innate immune defense of human skin.

  10. Pre-game hydration status, sweat loss, and fluid intake in elite Brazilian young male soccer players during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Rafael P; Mündel, Toby; Natali, Antonio J; Bara Filho, Mauricio G; Alfenas, Rita C G; Lima, Jorge R P; Belfort, Felipe G; Lopes, Priscila R N R; Marins, João C B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the pre-game hydration status and fluid balance of elite young soccer players competing in a match played in the heat (temperature 31.0 ± 2.0 ° C, relative humidity 48.0 ± 5.0%) for an official Brazilian soccer competition. Fluid intake was measured during the match, as were urine specific gravity and body mass before and after the game to estimate hydration status. Data were obtained from 15 male players (age 17.0 ± 0.6 years, height 1.78 ± 0.06 m, mass 65.3 ± 3.8 kg); however, data are only analysed for 10 players who completed the full game. The mean (± s) sweat loss of players amounted to 2.24 ± 0.63 L, and mean fluid intake was 1.12 ± 0.39 L. Pre-game urine specific gravity was 1.021 ± 0.004, ranging from 1.010 to 1.025. There was no significant correlation between sweat loss and fluid intake (r = 0.504, P = 0.137) or between urine specific gravity and fluid intake (r = -0.276, P = 0.440). We conclude that young, native tropical soccer players started the match hypohydrated and replaced about 50% of the sweat lost. Thus, effective strategies to improve fluid replacement are needed for players competing in the heat.

  11. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001-100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours.

  12. Reduced expression of dermcidin, a peptide active against propionibacterium acnes, in sweat of patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Arai, Satoru; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-09-01

    Dermcidin (DCD), an antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria such as Propionibacterum acnes, is expressed constitutively in sweat in the absence of stimulation due to injury or inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between DCD expression and acne vulgaris associated with P. acnes. The antimicrobial activity of recombinant full-length DCD (50 μg/ml) was 97% against Escherichia coli and 100% against Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial activity against P. acnes ranged from 68% at 50 μg/ml DCD to 83% at 270 μg/ml DCD. DCD concentration in sweat from patients with acne vulgaris (median 9.8 μg/ml, range 6.9-95.3 μg/ml) was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (median 136.7 μg/ml, range 45.4-201.6 μg/ml) (p = 0.001). DCD demonstrated concentration-dependent, but partial, microbicidal activity against P. acnes. These results suggest that reduced DCD concentration in sweat in patients with inflammatory acne may permit proliferation of P. acnes in pilosebaceous units, resulting in progression of inflammatory acne.

  13. Head and neck sweat gland adenocarcinoma: A population-based perspective of a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Aykut A; Patel, Varesh R; Chung, Sei Y; Zhou, Albert H; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2017-12-01

    Head and neck sweat gland adenocarcinoma (HNSGA) is an extremely rare malignancy. We present the first population-based analysis regarding this entity. Retrospective population-based analysis. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry from 2000 to 2013, we extracted 627 cases of HNSGA. Data were analyzed for incidence trends, demographic and clinicopathologic traits, and predictors of disease-specific survival (DSS). The majority HNSGA cases were white, male, and 60 to 79 years old. The incidence was 0.036 per 100,000 people. Tumors most often presented as localized disease and histological grade II/III. The skin of the face was the most common primary site (43.4%), followed by the scalp and neck (31.6%). Overall 5-, 10-, and 20-year DSS were 94.6%, 89.6%, and 79.8%, respectively. Ethnicity did not affect survival, whereas a younger age at diagnosis and female sex conferred an advantage at 10 years (P = 0.0386) and 5 years (P = 0.0191), respectively. The origin of the HNSGA (apocrine vs. eccrine) did not affect outcomes. Regional and distant disease predicted worse DSS at 5, 10, and 20 years (P = 0.0026, P tumor grade, greater extent of invasion, and primary site of the scalp or neck. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2757-2762, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. A case of canine apocrine sweat gland adenoma, clear cell variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibe, K; Uchida, K; Itoh, T; Tateyama, S

    2005-03-01

    A cutaneous mass at the base of the retroauricular region of a 4-year-old, female Golden Retriever was examined pathologically. Histologically, the mass formed multiple nodules consisting of a proliferation of large clear cells with abundant cytoplasm. Mitotic figures among the neoplastic cells were very sparse. The large clear cells were intensely positive for cytokeratins (AE1/AE4, cytokeratin 8 and 18) and moderately positive for lysozyme and contained periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules in the cytoplasm. In addition, small flat cells lined the islands of neoplastic large clear cells, and these were strongly positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and some were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE4), suggesting they were myoepithelial cells. No local recurrence or metastasis has been recognized during the 18 months since surgical excision. On the basis of these findings, the present tumor was diagnosed as apocrine sweat gland adenoma, clear cell variant. There have been few previous reports of canine apocrine adenomas showing a clear cell morphology.

  15. Apocrine adenomyoepithelioma--a rare but distinctive primary sweat gland neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater Marco, Vicente

    2012-07-01

    Adenomyoepithelioma is a rare, microscopically distinctive tumor of the skin. This article explores an example that presented in the inguinal area in a 29-year-old woman, mimicking adenopathy. Histopathologically, the tumor included two different areas: a cystic area consisting of tubules and glands in hyalinized stroma and a solid area showing marked myoepithelial proliferation. The diagnosis of adenomyoepithelioma was confirmed by the presence of a biphasic immunoprofile, with expression of cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen in the glandular epithelium and with expression of vimentin and smooth muscle actin in the myoepithelial cells. An interesting novel finding was the expression of claudin-10 by myoepithelial cells, which to date has not been reported in the literature. The absence of metaplastic changes in the tumor stroma is crucial in the differential diagnosis with apocrine mixed tumor. Given that soft tissue adenomyoepithelioma is a benign tumor believed to originate from conventional sweat glands, its classification as a cutaneous myoepithelial neoplasm seems reasonable. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Cutaneous invasive micropapillary carcinoma of probable apocrine sweat gland origin in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Yukino; Yoshimura, Hisashi; Nakahira, Rei; Michishita, Masaki; Ohkusu-Tsukada, Kozo; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2011-07-01

    An invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMC) occurred in the buccal skin of an 18-year-old female cat. Histologically, the tumor had a honeycomb pattern characterized by clusters of neoplastic epithelial cells that were surrounded by empty clear spaces and lined with fibrocollagenous stroma. On immunohistochemistry, the neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin (clone CAM5.2; pancytokeratin, clone AE1/AE3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) but negative for cytokeratin 14, vimentin, S100, smooth muscle actin, and p63. The CEA-positive staining reaction was present along the outermost rim of the neoplastic cell clusters consistent with an "inside-out" immunoreactivity pattern. Examination of the tumor cells by electron microscopy revealed microvilli on the outermost rim of neoplastic cells that were directed toward the surrounding vacant space. Based on histomorphological characteristics, the neoplasm was defined as an IMC of "pure-type." The location site and immunohistochemical features suggest the tumor was most likely derived from the apocrine sweat glands in the buccal skin.

  17. Primary cutaneous secretory carcinoma: A previously overlooked low-grade sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno

    2018-03-01

    Twelve cases of primary cutaneous secretory carcinoma (PCSC) have been published, 9 showing ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, a characteristic finding shared with secretory breast carcinoma and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. A 34-year-old female presented a solitary nodule on the right groin. Biopsy revealed a secretory carcinoma staining positive with CK7, CAM5.2, mammaglobulin and S100 and negative with GATA3, CK20, podoplanin, calponin and CDX2. ETV6-NTRK3 was demonstrated by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PCSC is a rare neoplasm, described in the skin in 2009, that affects more frequently females with a mean age of 42.3 years and it is most commonly located in axilla. Histopathologically, these tumor cells are characterized by bubbly eosinophilic secretions diastase-resistant and bland nuclei and they are arranged in various growth patterns, including microcystic, tubular, solid and papillary. S100, mammoglobin and CK7 are usually positive. We review the main histopathological features to rule out histopathologic mimics such as breast metastasis, salivary tumors, cribriform carcinoma and primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma. GATA3 negative staining, as in our case, can help to rule out breast metastasis. Moreover, long-term benign follow up (144 months) in this case as well as follow-up data on outcomes from literature review support that PCSC is a low-grade sweat gland carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The use of heterospecific scent marks by the sweat bee Halictus aerarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Goulson, Dave; Fujisaki, Kenji

    2007-12-01

    To forage effectively amongst flowers, some bee species utilize olfactory cues left by previous visitors in addition to direct assessment of visual cues to identify rewarding flowers. This ability can be more advantageous if the bees can recognize and use scent marks left by heterospecifics, not just marks left by members of their own species. We conducted field experiments to investigate whether the sweat bee Halictus aerarius avoids visiting flowers of trailing water willow Justicia procumbens emptied by other bee species. We found that H. aerarius rejected the flowers visited by both heterospecifics and conspecifics. They also rejected visited flowers artificially replenished with nectar. Our results demonstrate that social bees outside the Apidae can detect marks left on flowers by heterospecifics but that (on this plant species) they are unable to discriminate against flowers by directly detecting nectar volume. H. aerarius exhibited different rejection rates according to the identity of the previous bee species. We suggest that the frequency of rejection responses may depend on the amount of chemical substances left by the previous bee. In general, the use of scent marks left by previous visitors is almost certainly advantageous, enabling foragers to avoid flowers with depleted nectar levels and thereby improving their foraging efficiency.

  19. Cross-disciplinary thermoregulation and sweat analysis laboratory experiences for undergraduate Chemistry and Exercise Science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Gregory; Taylor, Nichole; Glen, Mary; Tomlin, Dona; Gaul, Catherine A

    2011-06-01

    Cross-disciplinary (CD) learning experiences benefit student understanding of concepts and curriculum by offering opportunities to explore topics from the perspectives of alternate fields of study. This report involves a qualitative evaluation of CD health sciences undergraduate laboratory experiences in which concepts and students from two distinct disciplines [chemistry (CHEM) and exercise physiology (EPHE)] combined to study exercise thermoregulation and sweat analysis. Twenty-eight senior BSc Kinesiology (EPHE) students and 42 senior BSc CHEM students participated as part of their mutually exclusive, respective courses. The effectiveness of this laboratory environment was evaluated qualitatively using written comments collected from all students as well as from formal focus groups conducted after the CD laboratory with a representative cohort from each class (n = 16 CHEM students and 9 EPHE students). An open coding strategy was used to analyze the data from written feedback and focus group transcripts. Coding topics were generated and used to develop five themes found to be consistent for both groups of students. These themes reflected the common student perceptions that the CD experience was valuable and that students enjoyed being able to apply academic concepts to practical situations as well as the opportunity to interact with students from another discipline of study. However, students also reported some challenges throughout this experience that stemmed from the combination of laboratory groups from different disciplines with limited modification to the design of the original, pre-CD, learning environments. The results indicate that this laboratory created an effective learning opportunity that fostered student interest and enthusiasm for learning. The findings also provide information that could inform subsequent design and implementation of similar CD experiences to enhance engagement of all students and improve instructor efficacy.

  20. A randomised crossover comparison of mouth-to-face-shield ventilation and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation by surf lifeguards in a manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelborg, K; Bjørnshave, K; Mortensen, M B; Espeseth, E; Wolff, A; Løfgren, B

    2014-07-01

    Thirty surf lifeguards (mean (SD) age: 25.1 (4.8) years; 21 male, 9 female) were randomly assigned to perform 2 × 3 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a manikin using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (AMBU LifeKey) and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (Laerdal Pocket Mask). Interruptions in chest compressions, effective ventilation (visible chest rise) ratio, tidal volume and inspiratory time were recorded. Interruptions in chest compressions per cycle were increased with mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (mean (SD) 8.6 (1.7) s) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (6.9 (1.2) s, p < 0.0001). The proportion of effective ventilations was less using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (199/242 (82%)) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (239/240 (100%), p = 0.0002). Tidal volume was lower using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (mean (SD) 0.36 (0.20) l) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (0.45 (0.20) l, p = 0.006). No differences in inspiratory times were observed between mouth-to-face-shield ventilation and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation. In conclusion, mouth-to-face-shield ventilation increases interruptions in chest compressions, reduces the proportion of effective ventilations and decreases delivered tidal volumes compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. An analysis of the efficacy of bag-valve-mask ventilation and chest compression during different compression-ventilation ratios in manikin-simulated paediatric resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, S B; Tibballs, J

    2000-01-01

    The ideal chest compression and ventilation ratio for children during performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has not been determined. The efficacy of chest compression and ventilation during compression ventilation ratios of 5:1, 10:2 and 15:2 was examined. Eighteen nurses, working in pairs, were instructed to provide chest compression and bag-valve-mask ventilation for 1 min with each ratio in random on a child-sized manikin. The subjects had been previously taught paediatric CPR within the last 3 or 5 months. The efficacy of ventilation was assessed by measurement of the expired tidal volume and the number of breaths provided. The rate of chest compression was guided by a metronome set at 100/min. The efficacy of chest compressions was assessed by measurement of the rate and depth of compression. There was no significant difference in the mean tidal volume or the percentage of effective chest compressions delivered for each compression-ventilation ratio. The number of breaths delivered was greatest with the ratio of 5:1. The percentage of effective chest compressions was equal with all three methods but the number of effective chest compressions was greatest with a ratio of 5:1. This study supports the use of a compression-ventilation ratio of 5:1 during two-rescuer paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  2. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part II: effects of wind and body movement on local insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Zhang, Chengjiao; Shi, Wen

    2015-10-01

    Part II of this two-part series study was focused on examining the effects of wind and body movement on local clothing thermal insulation. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., 1, 2, or 3 layers) were selected for this study. Local thermal insulation with different air velocities (0.15, 1.55, and 4.0 m/s) and walking speeds (0, 0.75, and 1.17 m/s) were investigated on a thermal manikin. Empirical equations for estimating local resultant clothing insulation as a function of local insulation, air velocity, and walking speed were developed. The results showed that the effects of wind and body movement on local resultant thermal resistance are complex and differ distinctively among different body parts. In general, the reductions of local insulation with wind at the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were greater than those at the lower leg and back, and the changes at the body extremity such as the forearm, thigh, and lower leg were higher than such immobile body parts as the chest and back. In addition, the wind effect interacted with the walking effect. This study may have important applications in human local thermal comfort modeling and functional clothing design.

  3. Clothing resultant thermal insulation determined on a movable thermal manikin. Part I: effects of wind and body movement on total insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Wang, Faming; Wan, Xianfu; Song, Guowen; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Chengjiao

    2015-10-01

    In this serial study, 486 thermal manikin tests were carried out to examine the effects of air velocity and walking speed on both total and local clothing thermal insulations. Seventeen clothing ensembles with different layers (i.e., one, two, or three layers) were selected for the study. Three different wind speeds (0.15, 1.55, 4.0 m/s) and three levels of walking speed (0, 0.75, 1.2 m/s) were chosen. Thus, there are totally nine different testing conditions. The clothing total insulation and local clothing insulation at different body parts under those nine conditions were determined. In part I, empirical equations for estimating total resultant clothing insulation as a function of the static thermal insulation, relative air velocity, and walking speed were developed. In part II, the local thermal insulation of various garments was analyzed and correction equations on local resultant insulation for each body part were developed. This study provides critical database for potential applications in thermal comfort study, modeling of human thermal strain, and functional clothing design and engineering.

  4. Evaluation of intubation using the Airtraq or Macintosh laryngoscope by anaesthetists in easy and simulated difficult laryngoscopy--a manikin study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maharaj, C H

    2006-05-01

    The Airtraq Laryngoscope is a novel intubation device which allows visualisation of the vocal cords without alignment of the oral, pharyngeal and tracheal axes. We compared the Airtraq with the Macintosh laryngoscope in simulated easy and difficult laryngoscopy. Twenty-five anaesthetists were allowed up to three attempts to intubate the trachea in each of three laryngoscopy scenarios using a Laerdal Intubation Trainer followed by five scenarios using a Laerdal SimMan Manikin. Each anaesthetist then performed tracheal intubation of the normal airway a second time to characterise the learning curve. In the simulated easy laryngoscopy scenarios, there was no difference between the Airtraq and the Macintosh in success of tracheal intubation. The time taken to intubate at the end of the protocol was significantly lower using the Airtraq (9.5 (6.7) vs. 14.2 (7.4) s), demonstrating a rapid acquisition of skills. In the simulated difficult laryngoscopy scenarios, the Airtraq was more successful in achieving tracheal intubation, required less time to intubate successfully, caused less dental trauma, and was considered by the anaesthetists to be easier to use.

  5. Child endotracheal intubation with a Clarus Levitan fiberoptic stylet vs Macintosh laryngoscope during resuscitation performed by paramedics: a randomized crossover manikin trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarpak, Lukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Czyzewski, Lukasz; Kurowski, Andrzej; Bogdanski, Lukasz; Zasko, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    The main cause of cardiac arrest in pediatric patients is respiratory failure. To test the ability of paramedics to intubate the trachea of a child by means of the standard Macintosh [MAC] laryngoscope vs the Clarus Leviatan fiberoptic stylet (FPS) during 3-airway scenarios. This was a randomized crossover manikin study involving 89 paramedics. The participants performed tracheal intubations using the MAC laryngoscope and the Clarus Leviatan FPS in 3 pediatric airway scenarios: scenario A, normal airway without chest compression (CC); scenario B, normal airway with CC; and scenario C, difficult airway with CC. A total of 89 paramedics participated in this study. In scenario A, the FPS maintained a better success rate at first attempt (97.8% vs 88.9%; P=.73) and time required to intubate (17 [interquartile range, 15-21) seconds vs 18 [interquartile range, 16-22] seconds; P=.67) when compared with MAC. In scenarios B and C, the results with FPS were significantly better than those with MAC (P<.05) for all analyzed variables. This study suggested that the FPS could be used as an option for airway management even for paramedics with little experience. Future studies should explore the efficacy of FPS in pediatric clinical emergency settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multipotent nestin-positive stem cells reside in the stroma of human eccrine and apocrine sweat glands and can be propagated robustly in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Nagel

    Full Text Available Human skin harbours multiple different stem cell populations. In contrast to the relatively well-characterized niches of epidermal and hair follicle stem cells, the localization and niches of stem cells in other human skin compartments are as yet insufficiently investigated. Previously, we had shown in a pilot study that human sweat gland stroma contains Nestin-positive stem cells. Isolated sweat gland stroma-derived stem cells (SGSCs proliferated in vitro and expressed Nestin in 80% of the cells. In this study, we were able to determine the precise localization of Nestin-positive cells in both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands of human axillary skin. We established a reproducible isolation procedure and characterized the spontaneous, long-lasting multipotent differentiation capacity of SGSCs. Thereby, a pronounced ectodermal differentiation was observed. Moreover, the secretion of prominent cytokines demonstrated the immunological potential of SGSCs. The comparison to human adult epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs revealed differences in protein expression and differentiation capacity. Furthermore, we found a coexpression of the stem cell markers Nestin and Iα6 within SGSCs and human sweat gland stroma. In conclusion the initial results of the pilot study were confirmed, indicating that human sweat glands are a new source of unique stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential, high proliferation capacity and remarkable self renewal. With regard to the easy accessibility of skin tissue biopsies, an autologous application of SGSCs in clinical therapies appears promising.

  7. Electrical double layer modulation of hybrid room temperature ionic liquid/aqueous buffer interface for enhanced sweat based biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Badrinath; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2018-08-03

    We have investigated the role of kosmotropic anionic moieties and chaotropic cationic moieties of room temperature hydrophilic ionic liquids in enhancing the biosensing performance of affinity based immunochemical biosensors in human sweat. Two ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM[BF 4 ]) and choline dihydrogen phosphate (Choline[DHP]) were investigated in this study with Choline[DHP] being more kosmotropic in nature having a more protein stabilizing effect based on the hofmeister series. Non-faradaic interfacial charge transfer has been employed as the mechanism for evaluating the formation and the biosensing of capture probe antibodies in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs)/aqueous human sweat interface. The charge of the ionic moieties were utilized to form compact electrical double layers around the antibodies for enhancing the stability of the antibody capture probes, which was evaluated through zeta potential measurements. The zeta potential measurements indicated stability of antibodies due to electrostatic repulsion of the RTIL charged moieties encompassing the antibodies, thus preventing any aggregation. Here, we report for the first time of non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy equivalent circuit model analysis for analyzing and interpreting affinity based biosensing at hybrid electrode/ionic liquid-aqueous sweat buffer interface guided by the choice of the ionic liquid. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cortisol two commonly occurring biomarkers in human sweat were evaluated using this method. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained using both ionic liquids for IL-6 was 0.2 pg mL -1 with cross-reactivity studies indicating better performance of IL-6 detection using Choline[DHP] and no response to cross-reactive molecule. The LOD of 0.1 ng/mL was achieved for cortisol and the cross-reactivity studies indicated that cortisol antibody in BMIM[BF 4 ] did not show any signal response to cross-reactive molecules

  8. Usefulness of monoclonal antibody HIK1083 specific for gastric O-glycan in differentiating cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Miwako; Nakayama, Jun; Nishizawa, Tomoko; Ishida, Akiko; Ishii, Keiko; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Saida, Toshiaki

    2007-10-01

    Distinguishing cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinoma can be problematic in some cases, especially with a single lesion. Previously we showed that a monoclonal antibody HIK1083 directed to alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans expressed in gastric gland mucin reacts to gastric cancer cells. By contrast, it was reported that immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer and primary sweat gland carcinoma. Here, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans and CK20 in 7 primary sweat gland carcinomas, 7 cutaneous metastases of gastric cancer, and 21 cutaneous metastases of other origin including breast, lung, colorectum, prostate, thyroid and pancreas using HIK1083 and CK20-specific Ks 20.8 antibodies and then assessed the usefulness of these antibodies in distinguishing cutaneous metastases of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinoma and other cutaneous metastatic tumors. Both alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans and CK20 were positive in 5 of 7 cases of cutaneous metastases of gastric cancer, while neither alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans nor CK20 were detected in any of the primary sweat gland carcinomas. By contrast, alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans was not detected in any of the cutaneous metastases other than that of gastric cancer, whereas CK20 was detected in cutaneous metastases of colorectal cancer (2/2), breast cancer (2/13), and lung adenocarcinoma (1/3). These findings indicate that immunohistochemistry using HIK1083 antibody is superior to immunohistochemistry for CK20 in distinguishing cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinomas and other cutaneous metastases.

  9. Cutaneous vascular and sweating responses to intradermal administration of prostaglandin E1 and E2 in young and older adults: a role for nitric oxide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Singh, Maya Sarah; Halili, Lyra; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-06-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) contributes to cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses; however, the mechanisms underpinning these responses remain unknown. We hypothesized that prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and E2 (PGE2) (COX-derived vasodilator products) directly mediate cutaneous vasodilation and sweating through nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent mechanisms in young adults. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this response is diminished in older adults, since aging attenuates COX-dependent cutaneous vasodilation and sweating. In 9 young (22 ± 5 yr) and 10 older (61 ± 6 yr) adults, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated at four intradermal forearm skin sites receiving incremental doses (0.05, 0.5, 5, 50, 500 μM each for 25 min) of PGE1 or PGE2 with and without coadministration of 10 mM N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine, a nonspecific NOS inhibitor. N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine attenuated PGE1-mediated increases in CVC at all concentrations in young adults, whereas it reduced PGE2-mediated increases in CVC at lower concentrations (0.05-0.5 μM) in older adults (all P 0.05). Neither PGE1 nor PGE2 increased sweat rate at any of the administered concentrations for either the young or older adults (all P > 0.05). We show that although cutaneous vascular responsiveness to PGE1 and PGE2 is similar between young and older adults, the cutaneous vasodilator response is partially mediated through NOS albeit via low-to-high concentrations of PGE1 in young adults and low concentrations of PGE2 in older adults, respectively. We also show that in both young and older adults, PGE1 and PGE2 do not increase sweat rate under normothermic conditions. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Prediction of risk of depressive symptoms in menopausal women based on hot flash and sweating symptoms: a multicentre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng YW

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yanwei Zheng,1 Yibei Zhou,1 Jiangshan Hu,1 Jieping Zhu,2 Qi Hua,3 Minfang Tao1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital East Branch, 3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, International Peace Maternal and Child Health Hospital of the China Welfare Institute, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Objective: The present study aimed to develop a symptom-based (namely, hot flashes and sweating scoring system for predicting the risk of depressive symptoms in menopausal women via a multicentre cross-sectional survey. Methods: The data examined in the present study were obtained from 1,004 women aged 40–60 years who underwent physical examination at A Hospital. The basic information was obtained using a questionnaire-based survey. A self-rating depression scale was used to obtain the depressive symptom scores, while the Kupperman Menopausal Index was used to obtain the scores for the frequency of hot flashes and sweating. A logistic regression model was also established. The resulting β coefficient was employed to calculate and predict the risk of depressive symptoms in these women and a risk scoring system was established. The scoring system was validated using samples from 2 other centers (validation sample 1: B Hospital, 440 women; validation sample 2: C Hospital, 247 women. Results: The scoring system developed to predict the risk of depressive symptoms in menopausal women was based on hot flash and sweating symptoms and associated with menopausal status, hot flash scores, education level (high school education and below and being diabetic. The scoring system yielded a total score of 0–54 points. For women in the study sample, the area under the curve (AUC of depressive symptom risk score was 0.750 (95% CI, 0.708–0.793. Validation sample 1 had an AUC of 0.731 (95% CI, 0.667–0.794, while

  11. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma: report of two cases of an under-recognized malignant neoplasm and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Catharine A; Torgersen, Antonia; Ross, Jonathan J; Ironside, James W; Biswas, Asok

    2013-02-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare low-grade sweat gland carcinoma with a strong predilection to the eyelid region. It is histologically analogous to endocrine ductal carcinoma/solid papillary carcinoma of the breast and is characterized by a multinodular solid cystic mucinous tumor with immunoreactivity to neuroendocrine markers. Only 20 cases of this unusual tumor have been reported. We present the clinical and histopathologic findings of 2 new cases of EMPSGC and review the relevant literature. The histological differential diagnosis is discussed and attention drawn to the role of immunohistochemistry in clarifying the nosological position of EMPSGC within the spectrum of cutaneous mucinous neoplasms.

  12. Comparison of the Glidescope®, flexible fibreoptic intubating bronchoscope, iPhone modified bronchoscope, and the Macintosh laryngoscope in normal and difficult airways: a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Adrian; Mar Fan, Gabriel

    2014-02-28

    Smart phone technology is becoming increasingly integrated into medical care.Our study compared an iPhone modified flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope as an intubation aid and clinical teaching tool with an unmodified bronchoscope, Glidescope® and Macintosh laryngoscope in a simulated normal and difficult airway scenario. Sixty three anaesthesia providers, 21 consultant anaesthetists, 21 registrars and 21 anaesthetic nurses attempted to intubate a MegaCode Kelly™ manikin, comparing a normal and difficult airway scenario for each device. Primary endpoints were time to view the vocal cords (TVC), time to successful intubation (TSI) and number of failed intubations with each device. Secondary outcomes included participant rated device usability and preference for each scenario. Advantages and disadvantages of the iPhone modified bronchoscope were also discussed. There was no significant difference in TVC with the iPhone modified bronchoscope compared with the Macintosh blade (P = 1.0) or unmodified bronchoscope (P = 0.155). TVC was significantly shorter with the Glidescope compared with the Macintosh blade (P iPhone (P iPhone bronchoscope TSI was significantly longer than all other devices (P iPhone modified bronchoscope compared with the registrars. Although more difficult to use, similar proportions of consultants (14/21), registrars (15/21) and nurses (15/21) indicated that they would be prepared to use the iPhone modified bronchoscope in their clinical practice. The Glidescope was rated easiest to use (P iPhone modified bronchoscope, in its current configuration, was found to be more difficult to use compared with the Glidescope® and unmodified bronchoscope; however it offered several advantages for teaching fibreoptic intubation technique when video-assisted bronchoscopy was unavailable.

  13. A comparison of the Airtraq®, McGrath®, and Macintosh laryngoscopes for difficult paediatric intubation: A manikin study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Owada

    Full Text Available The efficacy of devices for difficult intubation in paediatric patients, especially with a Cormack-Lehane grade 4 view, has yet to be established. We compared intubating parameters among three devices (the Airtraq®, McGrath®, and Macintosh laryngoscopes.This study is a randomised cross-over trial. Participants were 20 anaesthetists. Each device was tested three times using a paediatric manikin with a Cormack-Lehane grade 4 view. The order to use each device was randomised by a computer-generated random sequence. The primary endpoint was the rate of successful intubation. Secondary endpoints included the time taken to intubate, percentage of glottic opening score, and severity of potential dental trauma.The successful intubation rates of the Airtraq®, McGrath®, and Macintosh laryngoscopes were 100%, 72%, and 45%, respectively. The risk ratio of the success rates of Airtraq® compared with McGrath® and Macintosh laryngoscopes were 1.40 (95% CI; 1.19-1.64, P < 0.001 and 2.22 (95% CI; 1.68-2.94, P < 0.001, respectively. The modified Cormack-Lehane grade and percentage of the glottic opening score were better for the Airtraq® than for the other devices. The dental trauma score was lower for the Airtraq® than for the other devices. There were no significant differences in the intubation time among the groups.The Airtraq® had higher success rate, had better visibility, and was associated with less dental trauma than the other devices in a difficult paediatric intubation model with a Cormack-Lehane grade 4 view.

  14. A comparison of the Airtraq®, McGrath®, and Macintosh laryngoscopes for difficult paediatric intubation: A manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owada, Gen; Mihara, Takahiro; Inagawa, Gaku; Asakura, Ayako; Goto, Takahisa; Ka, Koui

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of devices for difficult intubation in paediatric patients, especially with a Cormack-Lehane grade 4 view, has yet to be established. We compared intubating parameters among three devices (the Airtraq®, McGrath®, and Macintosh laryngoscopes). This study is a randomised cross-over trial. Participants were 20 anaesthetists. Each device was tested three times using a paediatric manikin with a Cormack-Lehane grade 4 view. The order to use each device was randomised by a computer-generated random sequence. The primary endpoint was the rate of successful intubation. Secondary endpoints included the time taken to intubate, percentage of glottic opening score, and severity of potential dental trauma. The successful intubation rates of the Airtraq®, McGrath®, and Macintosh laryngoscopes were 100%, 72%, and 45%, respectively. The risk ratio of the success rates of Airtraq® compared with McGrath® and Macintosh laryngoscopes were 1.40 (95% CI; 1.19-1.64, P Cormack-Lehane grade and percentage of the glottic opening score were better for the Airtraq® than for the other devices. The dental trauma score was lower for the Airtraq® than for the other devices. There were no significant differences in the intubation time among the groups. The Airtraq® had higher success rate, had better visibility, and was associated with less dental trauma than the other devices in a difficult paediatric intubation model with a Cormack-Lehane grade 4 view.

  15. Comparing the performance of traditional direct laryngoscope with three indirect laryngoscopes: A prospective manikin study in normal and difficult airway scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jiann-Ruey; Chong, Chee-Fah; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wang, Tzong-Luen; Lin, Chiu-Mei; Chang, Shi-Chuan

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of three indirect laryngoscopes, Truview EVO2 laryngoscope, Clarus Levitan fiberoptic stylet and AirwayScope AWS, in comparison with direct Macintosh laryngoscope (ML) when performed in normal and difficult airway scenarios. This prospective comparative study recruited 30 emergency physicians familiar with direct laryngoscopic intubation. Intubations were performed on manikin and were repeated twice for both scenarios. The primary end points were intubation time and rate of failed intubation. Glottis visualization was graded on Cormack and Lehane score and VAS. In normal airway scenario: AWS had shortest intubation time (6.0 s) followed by ML (8.7 s); VAS score of ML and AWS was lower (easier to use) than the other two devices; Cormack and Lehane score was similar for all devices. In difficult airway scenario: AWS had shortest intubation time (5.9 s); VAS score of AWS was lower than the other three devices; TVL, FOS, AWS had better Cormack and Lehane score than ML. Intubation time, rate of failed intubation, and Cormack and Lehane score were similar between attempts in both scenarios. Learning effect was significant in FOS in both scenarios and in TVL in normal airway scenario. AWS performed best in normal and difficult airways. ML performed better than TVL and FOS in normal airways. Performances of ML, TVL and FOS were similar in difficult airways. Skills with AWS could be mastered rapidly. TVL and FOS required more practice to gain expertise. © 2011 The Authors. EMA © 2011 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  16. E-O technique is superior to E-C technique in manikins during single person bag mask ventilation performed by novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Krishna, Rohith; Chaudhuri, Souvik; Tim, Thomas Joseph; Shwethapriya, Rao

    2014-06-01

    Conventional E-C technique of mask holding is unreliable during single person bag mask ventilation (BMV) due mainly to leak around the mask and inexperience of the persons. In this manikin study, conventional E-C technique was compared with E-O technique during single person BMV both with experienced (n = 50) and novice (n = 50) volunteers. The E-O technique involved encircling the mask neck with the web between thumb and index finger while the other digits provided chin lift. Two independent observers recorded the chest expansion as 1 (nil), 2 (minimal), 3 (moderate) and 4 (good). For analysis ideal and average chest expansion were clubbed as acceptable. E-C technique in experienced volunteers showed acceptable results in 49 (31 + 18) occasions, while with novices acceptable is 39 (17 + 22). With E-O technique, expansion was acceptable in 47 (38 + 9) experienced volunteers, and acceptable in 46 (32 + 14) novices. (P = 0.003). In cross over analysis for experienced volunteers, similar chest expansion was obtained on 30 occasions with both techniques, E-C better than E-O on 8 and E-O better than E-C on 12 occasions. Novices had comparable results on 17 occasions, E-C better than E-O on 8 and E-O better than E-C on 25 occasions (P = 0.016). The conventionally taught E-C technique of single person BMV provides acceptable chest expansion on most occasions with experienced operators than novices. Novices should use E-O technique as the first choice for single person BMV. Both techniques may be used interchangeably when one fails.

  17. Immunocytochemical demonstration of intermediate filament proteins, S-100 protein and CEA in apocrine sweat glands and apocrine gland derived lesions of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, L; Rabanal, R M; Fondevila, D; Prats, N

    1990-09-01

    The presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), intermediate filament proteins and S-100 protein in normal and pathological canine apocrine sweat glands was investigated, using a standard immunoperoxidase technique. The normal apocrine sweat glands showed a constant immunoreactivity in all the cases studied. The cells of the acini and of the ducts only reacted with the antikeratin antibody. The myoepithelial cells reacted positively with the antisera antikeratin and anti protein S-100. Epithelial cells of apocrine cysts, sweat gland adenomas and sweat gland carcinomas showed the same immunoreaction than normal apocrine cells. Proliferating myoepithelial cells were also positive for vimentin. In two out of three adenocarcinomas a positive reaction with the anti CEA could be detected in the glandular cells. This can be due to the presence in glandular cells of CEA or of Nonspecific Crossreacting Antigen (NCA). These findings indicate that demonstration of keratin is a useful aid in the detection of apocrine gland derived lesions in the dog. Similarly, S-100 protein is a marker for myoepithelial cells. Further research is necessary to investigate the expression of CEA in canine tumours.

  18. Metal ion release and surface composition of the Cu 18Ni 20Zn nickel silver during 30 days immersion in artificial sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošev, Ingrid; Kosec, Tadeja

    2007-11-01

    In order to study nickel ion release associated with nickel allergy, Cu-18Ni-20Zn nickel-silver alloy was immersed in artificial sweat and Ringer physiological solution for 30 days. Dissolution of metal ions was measured as a function of time, and the characteristics of the solid surface layer formed after 30 days were studied by SEM/EDS and XPS. The dissolution of nickel prevails over dissolution of copper and zinc. Nickel release in artificial sweat is approximately 10 times higher than in Ringer physiological solution and in both solutions the nickel release exceeds 0.5 μg cm -2 week -1, the threshold above which the allergy is triggered. Evidence of selective nickel dissolution is reported. The composition of the surface layer formed in artificial sweat and in Ringer physiological solution differs in the content of nickel and chlorine. In artificial sweat, the major constituents of the surface layer are dominantly oxides, Cu 2O and ZnO, with traces of chlorine. In Ringer physiological solution, the composition of the surface layer changes to a mixture of oxides, chlorides and/or oxychlorides. Two components peaks were detected in the Cl 2p 3/2 peak; however, it was not possible to distinguish the exact nature of the chloride compound formed. The mechanism of nickel release is discussed as a function of the composition of the solution.

  19. Night sweats, sleep disturbance, and depression associated with diminished libido in late menopausal transition and early postmenopause: baseline data from the Herbal Alternatives for Menopause Trial (HALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Susan D; Newton, Katherine M; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Grothaus, Lou C; Ehrlich, Kelly

    2007-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association of depression, sleep disturbance, and menopausal symptoms with diminished libido. Data from a 2001-2002 baseline survey of 341 peri- and postmenopausal women, aged 45-55 years, participating in a randomized trial, was analyzed. Eligibility included at least 2 hot flashes and/or night sweats per day and no hormone therapy for at least the prior 3 months. The survey evaluated sexual function, depression, sleep, and vasomotor symptoms. We examined the association between these factors, using multivariate regression models. Of 341 women, 64% had diminished libido, 18% had moderate to severe depression, and 43% had poor sleep quality. Women averaged 4.6 hot flashes and 1.9 night sweats per day. Depressive symptoms (P = .003), poor sleep (P = .02), and night sweats (P = .04) were significantly associated with diminished libido. Factors associated with diminished libido in midlife are complex but include depression, disturbed sleep, and night sweats, all common symptoms of the menopausal transition and early menopause.

  20. NKCC1 and NHE1 are abundantly expressed in the basolateral plasma membrane of secretory coil cells in rat, mouse, and human sweat glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Lene Niemann; Prætorius, Jeppe; Nielsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    1 (NHE1) protein has been localized to both the duct and secretory coil of human sweat duct; however, the NHE1 abundance in the duct was not compared with that in the secretory coil. The aim of this study was to test whether mRNA encoding NKCC1, NKCC2, and Na(+)-coupled acid-base transporters...... and the corresponding proteins are expressed in rodent sweat glands and, if expressed, to determine the cellular and subcellular localization in rat, mouse, and human eccrine sweat glands. NKCC1 mRNA was demonstrated in rat palmar tissue, including sweat glands, using RT-PCR, whereas NKCC2 mRNA was absent. Also, NHE1 m...... palmar skin by immunoblotting, whereas NKCC2, NHE2, and NHE3 proteins were not detected. Immunohistochemistry was performed using sections from rat, mouse, and human palmar tissue. Immunoperoxidase labeling revealed abundant expression of NKCC1 and NHE1 in the basolateral domain of secretory coils of rat...

  1. Treatment of Sweating, Hot Flushing and Sleep ‎Disturbance in Peri and Post Menopausal ‎Women with Oral Pometone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milal Muhammad Al- Jeborry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, are very common during the menopausal transition. One of the important alternative treatments is foods or supplements enriched with phytoestrogens. Aim of the study To assess the efficacy, safety and acceptability of pometone supplements for reducing sweating, hot flushes and sleep disturbance in peri and postmenopausal women. Methods This cross sectional randomized clinical therapeutic trail involved 44 peri and postmenopausal women. All patients took oral pometone capsule 500mg twice daily for one month period. Result The mean of hot flush, sweating score before treatment was 8.11±1.72. After four weeks of treatment, it became 1.36 ±2.10; P value was < 0.0001. The mean of sleep disturbance score before treatment was 4.40±3.03. After four weeks of treatment, it become 1.22 ±1.80 ; P value was  < 0.0001 . No side effect was reported during the course of this study. Conclusion Pometone is effective, safe and cheep treatment to reduce hot flushes , night sweat and sleep disturbance in peri and postmenopausal women

  2. Apocrine sweat gland carcinoma: initial evaluation, staging, and response monitoring using 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmandeep; Sharma, Punit; Suman Kc, Sudhir; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-05-01

    Primary apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (PASGCs) are rare tumors, commonly located in the axilla. Metastases are common and confer poor prognosis. Given the rarity of these tumors, there is limited knowledge regarding its diagnosis and management. Here we show 18F-FDG PET/CT images of a 61-year-old man with PASGCs of the left axilla. PET/CT confirmed the diagnosis as primary axillary malignancy with nodal, pulmonary, and skeletal metastases. Another interesting finding in this case was the presence of FDG-avid calcified metastatic lymph nodes during the initial evaluation. Follow-up PET/CT showed progression of the disease. FDG PET/CT seems to be a promising tool in the management of PASGCs.

  3. Evaluation of a minimally invasive system for measuring glucose area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance tests: usefulness of sweat monitoring for precise measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Yushi; Hashimoto, Naoko; Ogawa, Wataru; Hamaguchi, Tomoya; Matsuo, Toshihiro; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Tomita, Koji; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Kaneto, Hideaki; Kosugi, Keisuke; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Hiromu; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2013-05-01

    We developed a system for measuring glucose area under the curve (AUC) using minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Sweat contamination during interstitial fluid glucose (IG) extraction affects the accuracy of glucose AUC measurement, because this technology uses extracted sodium ion levels as an internal standard. Therefore, we developed a sweat monitoring patch to reduce this effect and investigated its efficacy in volunteers undergoing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). Fifty diabetes mellitus inpatients and 10 healthy subjects undergoing the 75 g OGTT were included. Two sites on the forearm were pretreated with microneedle arrays, then hydrogels for interstitial fluid extraction were placed on the treated sites. Simultaneously, hydrogels for sweat monitoring were placed on untreated sites near the treated sites. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h to calculate reference AUC values. Using MIET, IG AUC was calculated from extracted glucose and sodium ion levels after attachment of the hydrogel for 2 h. Good correlation between IG AUC measurements using MIET and reference AUCs measured using PG levels was confirmed over a wide AUC range (202-610 mg/h/dl) after correction for the sweat-induced error detected by the hydrogel patches on the nonpretreated skin. Strong correlation between IG AUC and peak glucose levels indicates that glucose spikes can be easily detected by this system. We confirmed the effectiveness of a sweat monitoring patch for precise AUC measurement using MIET. This novel, easy-to-use system has potential for glucose excursion evaluation in daily clinical practice. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. A case of primary signet-ring cell/histiocytoid carcinoma of the eyelid: immunohistochemical comparison with the normal sweat gland and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaya, Mai; Uehara, Takeshi; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Momose, Masanobu; Honda, Takayuki; Ota, Hiroyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Primary signet-ring cell/histiocytoid carcinomas of the eyelid are extremely rare tumors considered to originate from sweat glands. Here, we report the case of a 72-year-old man diagnosed with primary signet-ring cell/histiocytoid carcinoma of the eyelid and present immunohistochemical analyses of the eyelid apocrine gland (Moll gland) and apocrine and eccrine sweat glands of perineum and axilla. Widespread infiltration of tumor cells with signet-ring cell or histiocytoid appearance was observed in his left eyelid, orbit, and periocular lesion. Tumor cells expressed mucins and showed immunoreactivity that was similar to that of the Moll gland: MUC6(+), GlcNAcα1→4Gal→R(-), MUC2(-), MUC5AC(-), GCDFP15(+), CD15(+), S100(-), CK7(+), CK20(-), ER(+), PgR (+), HER2(-), E-cadherin(+), p63(-), PSA(-), and TTF-1(-). The tumor cells differed from those of perineal and axillary apocrine and eccrine sweat glands, which were MUC6(-). The Moll gland was ER(-) and PgR(-), whereas perineal and axillar apocrine sweat glands were ER(+) and PgR(+), and perineal and axillary eccrine sweat glands were ER(+) and PgR(-). The tumor showed characteristics similar to that of the eyelid Moll gland, which is demonstrated to be an apocrine gland with a protein expression distinct from that of other apocrine glands. MUC6 and GCDFP15 expression are useful in identifying the Moll gland immunophenotype and GCDFP15, ER and PgR expression are useful in distinguishing primary eyelid signet-ring/histocytoid carcinoma from gastrointestinal malignancies.

  5. Comparison of only T3 and T3–T4 sympathectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis regarding treatment effect and compensatory sweating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuncu, Gökhan; Turk, Figen; Ozturk, Gökhan; Atinkaya, Cansel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Patients diagnosed with axillary hyperhidrosis can face psychosocial issues that can ultimately hinder their quality of life both privately and socially. The routine treatment for axillary hyperhidrosis is T3–T4 sympathectomy, but compensatory sweating is a serious side effect that is commonly seen with this approach. This study was designed to evaluate whether a T3 sympathectomy was effective for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis and whether this treatment led to less compensatory sweating than T3–T4 sympathectomies among our 60-patient population. METHODS One hundred and twenty endoscopic thoracic sympathectomies were performed on 60 patients who had axillary hyperhidrosis. The sympathectomies were accomplished by means of a single-lumen endotracheal tube and a single port. The axillary hyperhidrosis patients were randomly divided into two groups with 17 patients in Group 1 undergoing T3–T4 sympathectomies and 43 in Group 2 undergoing only T3 sympathectomies. We analysed the data associated with the resolution of axillary hyperhidrosis, the degree of patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome and the quality of life in parallel with compensatory sweating after the procedure as reported by the patient and confirmed by the examiner. Moreover, the results were compared statistically. RESULTS No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups based on age (P = 0.56), gender (P = 0.81), duration of the surgery (P = 0.35) or postoperative satisfaction levels (P = 0.45). However, the incidence and degree of compensatory sweating were lower in the T3 group than the T3–T4 group at the 1-year follow-up (P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS T3 sympathectomy was as effective as T3–T4 sympathectomy for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis based on the patients’ reported postoperative satisfaction, and the T3 group demonstrated lower compensatory sweating at the 1-year follow-up. PMID:23644731

  6. Manikin Testing on LASA Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-16

    environmental sensors were either attached to a hanging frame or the flotation frame to provide the environmental temperature. A wave generator consisting...results of the ACE extreme cold weather garments, LASA immersion suit, and modified current flyer’s coverall immersion suit in stil air and 40 cm

  7. Influence of Body Mass Index on Compensatory Sweating in Patients after Thoracic Sympathectomy due to Palmar Hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosz, Lukasz; Cwalina, Natalia; Stefaniak, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    Background  Thoracic sympathectomy (TS) is one of the most effective methods of treatment of primary hyperhidrosis. One of the side effects of this procedure is compensatory sweating (CS). Objective  The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of body mass index (BMI) on CS in patients after TS due to palmar hyperhidrosis. Methods  Data from 157 patients with palmar hyperhidrosis who underwent TS were collected. The patients were subsequently divided in two groups according to their initial BMI: group A, BMI hyperhidrosis were taken from the patients' bodies prior to surgery, as well as 3 and 12 months after TS. Results  Average palmar hyperhidrosis levels before the surgery did not differ significantly between the two groups (238.65 vs. 190.15; p  = 0.053). A statistically significant decrease in palmar hyperhidrosis was noted in both groups, both 3 and 12 months after surgery (238.65 vs. 11.86 vs. 13.5; p  < 0.05, and 190.15 vs. 16.67 vs. 11.81; p  < 0.05, respectively). The intensity of sweating over the abdomino-lumbar area differed significantly between the groups before the surgery, both in subjective (1.71 vs. 3.61; p  < 0.05) and objective (13.57 vs. 35.95; p  < 0.05) evaluations. Three months after surgical intervention, an intensification of CS was observed in both the groups; however, no statistically significant differences were observed between the two sets of patients (VAS: 4.58 vs. 5.16; p  = 0.38; gravimetry: 33.87 vs. 53.89; p  = 0.12). Twelve months after TS, CS was higher in the group with an initial BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 , both in subjective and objective evaluations (3.23 vs. 4.94; p  = 0.03 and 18.08 vs. 80.21; p  = 0.026, respectively). Conclusion  Patients with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 experience more severe CS after TS, both in subjective and objective evaluations. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Super-Absorbent Polymer Valves and Colorimetric Chemistries for Time-Sequenced Discrete Sampling and Chloride Analysis of Sweat via Skin-Mounted Soft Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bong; Zhang, Yi; Won, Sang Min; Bandodkar, Amay J; Sekine, Yurina; Xue, Yeguang; Koo, Jahyun; Harshman, Sean W; Martin, Jennifer A; Park, Jeong Min; Ray, Tyler R; Crawford, Kaitlyn E; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Jungil; Pitsch, Rhonda L; Grigsby, Claude C; Strang, Adam J; Chen, Yu-Yu; Xu, Shuai; Kim, Jeonghyun; Koh, Ahyeon; Ha, Jeong Sook; Huang, Yonggang; Kim, Seung Wook; Rogers, John A

    2018-02-02

    This paper introduces super absorbent polymer valves and colorimetric sensing reagents as enabling components of soft, skin-mounted microfluidic devices designed to capture, store, and chemically analyze sweat released from eccrine glands. The valving technology enables robust means for guiding the flow of sweat from an inlet location into a collection of isolated reservoirs, in a well-defined sequence. Analysis in these reservoirs involves a color responsive indicator of chloride concentration with a formulation tailored to offer stable operation with sensitivity optimized for the relevant physiological range. Evaluations on human subjects with comparisons against ex situ analysis illustrate the practical utility of these advances. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Aspects of tests and assessment of filtering materials used for respiratory protection against bioaerosols. Part II: sweat in the environment, microorganisms in the form of a bioaerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata; Brochocka, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The second part of the article presents the results of a study of antimicrobial activity of filter nonwovens with an addition of biocides, as a function of the presence of sweat in the environment and the method of microbe deposition on a nonwoven in the form of a liquid and a bioaerosol. At the same time, the filtration efficiency of nonwovens against microorganisms in the form of a bioaerosol was tested with the dynamic method. The results showed that the addition of sweat on the surface of a nonwoven resulted in an insignificant decrease of biological activity that still remained high. Moreover, an active nonwoven showed biostatic and biocidal activity only when microbes were deposited on the surface in the form of a solution. The nonwoven did not show any biological activity after deposition of microorganisms with the dynamical method in the form of a bioaerosol.

  10. Social-Organization Shift in the Sweat Bee, Lasioglossum baleicum (Hymenoptera, Halictidae), Corresponds to Changes in Foraging Activity of the Predatory Ant Tetramorium tsushimae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yagi, Norihiro; Hasegawa, Eisuke

    2011-01-01

    Ecological factors, such as predation pressure or survival rate, affect social structure (e.g., gyny or founding modes) in social insects. Multiple females may cooperatively found a nest under severe ecological conditions. In bivoltine sweat-bees, most nests in the first reproductive period include a single female, but nest organization changes to cooperative in the second period. This fact predicts low predation pressures during the first period. However, few studies have examined correspond...

  11. CD34-positive stromal cells and alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive stromal cells in the tumor capsule of skin sweat gland neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hirofumi; Enzan, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Eriko; Moriki, Toshiaki; Toi, Makoto; Zhang, Yanhu

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate the roles of CD34-positive stromal cells and alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive stromal cells at the tumor border of skin sweat gland neoplasms, we examined expression of stromal cell markers in the tumor capsule of 19 skin sweat gland neoplasms (16 mixed tumors of the skin and three nodular hidradenomas) using monoclonal antibodies to CD34, CD31, cytokeratin 14 (CK14), alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) and high molecular weight caldesmon (HCD). We regarded CD34-positive, CD31-, CK14-, ASMA- and HCD-negative stromal cells to be CD34-positive stromal cells, and ASMA-positive, HCD-, CK14-, CD34- and CD31-negative stromal cells to be ASMA-positive stromal cells. CD34-positive stromal cells were detected in the tumor capsule of all 19 of the tumors examined. In nine of the 16 mixed tumors (56%) and all of the three nodular hidradenomas, ASMA-positive stromal cells were detected at the immediate inner side of the CD34-positive stromal cell layers. These results indicate that cellular components in the tumor capsules of mixed tumors of the skin and nodular hidradenomas are CD34-positive stromal cells and ASMA-positive stromal cells, and suggest that stromal cells of these two cell types are associated with tumor capsule formation of skin sweat gland neoplasms.

  12. Specificity of granular IgM deposition in folliculosebaceous units and sweat gland apparatus in direct immunofluorescence (DIF) of lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbendary, Amira; Zhou, Cheng; Valdebran, Manuel; Yu, Yan; Gad, AbdAllah; Kwon, Eun Ji; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis of lupus erythematosus (LE) in direct immunofluorescence testing is based on the finding of positive immunofluorescence at the dermoepidermal junction (DEJ). We sought to evaluate the sensitivity of IgM deposition at the DEJ and adnexal structures in the diagnosis of lupus erythematosus. We conducted a retrospective study of 100 previously diagnosed cases of lupus erythematosus and 158 cases of other immune-mediated dermatosis. Deposition of IgG, IgM, IgA, and C3 at the DEJ, follicular units, and sweat glands were recorded. Presence or absence of adnexal structures was documented. The immunoreactant deposition was documented as linear, coarse granular, or stippled. The most frequently deposited immunoreactant in lupus erythematosus cases was IgM along the DEJ and stromal-epithelial junction of hair follicles and sweat glands. IgM deposition along the stromal-epithelial junction of hair follicles and sweat glands was strongly associated with a diagnosis of lupus erythematosus compared with other immune-mediated diseases collectively (P value < .001). The pattern of IgM in lupus and dermatomyositis is granular, in contrast to the linear deposition in the other disorders evaluated. This was a retrospective study of archived material. Granular IgM deposition at the stromal-epithelial junction of cutaneous adnexal structures suggests a diagnosis of lupus erythematosus or dermatomyositis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Jewellery: alloy composition and release of nickel, cobalt and lead assessed with the EU synthetic sweat method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Curtis; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Maibach, Howard; Lundgren, Lennart; Lidén, Carola

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have shown nickel and cobalt release from jewellery by using spot tests, but the metal composition of jewellery is largely unknown. To evaluate the metal composition of a large worldwide sample of mainly inexpensive jewellery items, and investigate the release of nickel, cobalt and lead from a subsample by using EN 1811:1998-required methods. A total of 956 metallic jewellery components were examined with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. A subsample of 96 jewellery items purchased in the United States were investigated for nickel, cobalt and lead release by the use of artificial sweat immersion and plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Eighteen elements were detected. The 10 most frequently occurring were, in order of frequency, copper, iron, zinc, nickel, silver, chromium, tin, manganese, lead, and cobalt. Release of nickel was noted from 79 of the 96 US samples (0.01-98 µg/cm(2) /week), release of cobalt from 35 samples (0.02-0.5 µg/cm(2) /week), and release of lead from 37 samples (0.03-2718 µg/cm(2) /week). We present here a comprehensive list of the most frequently encountered metals in jewellery and fashion accessories. Different allergenic and non-allergenic metals are utilized. We also report the frequent release of nickel, cobalt and lead from these objects, despite legislative restrictions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Hot Flush Behavior Scale: a measure of behavioral reactions to menopausal hot flushes and night sweats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Myra S; Ayers, Beverley; Smith, Melanie

    2011-11-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of nonmedical treatments for menopausal hot flushes (HF) and night sweats (NS) and some evidence that cognitive behavioral interventions reduce their impact. However, the behavioral component of HF/NS is underresearched. This article describes the development of the Hot Flush Behavior Scale (HFBehS), a measure of the behavioral strategies that women use in response to HF/NS, and reports on the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the scale. Behavioral items were generated from the empirical literature and qualitative studies based on in-depth interviews, with the aim of reflecting common behaviors related to HF/NS. A total of 140 women who had HF/NS completed the initial measure. Principal components analyses were applied to the data, with orthogonal rotation, to determine the most coherent and interpretable solution. Exploratory factor analysis culminated in an 11-item measure comprising three dimensions: behavioral avoidance, practical cooling behaviors, and positive behavioral strategies. The Hot Flush Beliefs Scale subscales had reasonable internal consistency, with α values ranging from 0.59 to 0.76. Validity was supported through correlations with measures of HF/NS problem rating and frequency and cognitive measures (HF/NS beliefs). Preliminary analysis of the HFBehS reveals it to be a psychometrically sound instrument. The HFBehS is grounded in women's experiences and can be used as a measure of behavioral reactions to HF/NS as well as enabling more rigorous evaluation of psychological interventions.

  15. A manufactu(RED) ethics: labor, HIV, and the body in Lesotho's "sweat-free" garment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Nora J

    2014-12-01

    Employing mostly women and producing for major U.S. labels, Lesotho's primarily foreign-owned garment industry undertook efforts to become "sweat-free" in 2006; simultaneously, it also began producing for the Product(RED) campaign. This article explores the parameters and ethical challenges of an industry-wide, public-private partnership providing HIV prevention and treatment services in this industry. Here, HIV services are intimately bound up in emerging patterns of humanitarian consumption and the production of an ethical industry. Within this ethical production zone, all is not what it seems: Labor violations persist, workers confront occupational hazards, and an elaborate theatrics of ethical practice plays out on the factory floor during routine inspections. This article explores the place and purpose of HIV treatment in the context of such humanitarian fetishism, highlighting the uses to which worker bodies are put and the conceptions of bodily well-being that prevail in these new "moral" economies. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  16. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic profiling and chemometric interpretation of the volatile profiles of sweat in knit fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, A Paulina; McQueen, Rachel H; Nam, Seo Lin; Harynuk, James J

    2017-03-01

    Human axillary sweat is a poorly explored biofluid within the context of metabolomics when compared to other fluids such as blood and urine. In this paper, we explore the volatile organic compounds emitted from two different types of fabric samples (cotton and polyester) which had been worn repeatedly during exercise by participants. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) were employed to profile the (semi)volatile compounds on the fabric. Principal component analysis models were applied to the data to aid in visualizing differences between types of fabrics, wash treatment, and the gender of the subject who had worn the fabric. Statistical tools included with commercial chromatography software (ChromaTOF) and a simple Fisher ratio threshold-based feature selection for model optimization are compared with a custom-written algorithm that uses cluster resolution as an objective function to maximize in a hybrid backward-elimination forward-selection approach for optimizing the chemometric models in an effort to identify some compounds that correlate to differences between fabric types. The custom algorithm is shown to generate better models than the simple Fisher ratio approach. Graphical Abstract A route from samples and questions to data and then answers.

  17. Hot Flushes and Night Sweats in Midlife: Why do Some Women Have Them and Others do Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Pimenta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study investigated what predicts the occurrence of hot flushes (HF and night sweats (NS. A community sample of 992 women (42-60 years answered a questionnaire to collect socio-demographic, health and menopause-related, as well as lifestyle information. Depressive mood and stress, as well as HF and NS (in terms of presence, frequency and intensity, were also assessed. Structural equation modelling was used to build a structural model to predict the occurrence of both vasomotor symptoms. Results: Stress predicted NS (β =.154; p=.006, whereas depressive mood was linked to the occurrence of HF's (β =.149; p=.006. Being peri-menopausal and post-menopausal, among several other characteristics, were also significant predictors of the occurrence of both HF and NS. This study supports a distinguished influence of stress and depressive mood in NS and HF respectively, probably due to the nature of psychological symptoms. Moreover, significant associations between vasomotor symptoms and socio-demographic, health and menopause-related characteristics, and alcohol were confirmed.

  18. [Infrared sweat secretion stimulation as a means of homeostatic correction in patients with kidney dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrih, L A; Berezovs'kyĭ, V Ia; Dudar, I O

    2003-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory investigation was done on 40 patients with kidney disfunction (glomerulonefritis), treated by standard medicines with regulary infrared total body heating (from 15-20 to 40 min) daily during 10 days. Control group of 37 patients, was treated only by standard medicines. The thermochambers construction forces the possibility of normal temperature air breathing under the radial skin heating to 50-60 degrees C. It was shown, that hypertensions, dropsy manifestation and nitrogen contents in blood significantly decreased in comperison with the control group of patients. The positive effects in laboratory dates was shown in 65%; the subjective reports--in 100% patients. These data may be conformed to widley using infrared chamber procedures for combinative drugs and thermal treating patients with kidney disfunction.

  19. Case report of excessive hand sweating that alters blood sugar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Buller Viqueira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se da cuenta de un caso clínico que puede presentarse con frecuencia en atención primaria, aunque no se registran casos similares en la literatura. Se trata de una mujer con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus en tratamiento con insulina y con mala evolución según las hemoglobinas glicosiladas. Además del diagnóstico principal, también presenta hiperhidrosis palmo-plantar, lo que conducía a error en los controles glucémicos. Ello es de gran importancia, dado que se ajustaba tratamiento sin considerar que el control no se realizaba de forma adecuada. De este reporte se concluye la relevancia de tratar al paciente como tal y no como patologías individuales, así como la importancia del trabajo en equipo.

  20. Sit, step, sweat: longitudinal associations between physical activity patterns, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiles, S A; Lamers, F; Milaneschi, Y; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-06-01

    Physical inactivity has been identified as a risk factor for depression and, less often, as a long-term consequence of depression. Underexplored is whether similar bi-directional longitudinal relationships are observed for anxiety disorders, particularly in relation to three distinct indicators of activity levels - sports participation, general physical activity and sedentary behavior. Participants were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; N = 2932, 18-65 years old; 57% current anxiety or depressive disorder, 21% remitted disorder, 22% healthy controls). At baseline, 2, 4, and 6 years, participants completed a diagnostic interview and self-report questionnaires assessing psychopathology symptom severity, physical activity indicators, and sociodemographic and health covariates. Consistently across assessment waves, people with anxiety and/or depressive disorders had lower sports participation and general physical activity compared to healthy controls. Greater anxiety or depressive symptoms were associated with lower activity according to all three indicators. Over time, a diagnosis or greater symptom severity at one assessment was associated with poorer sports participation and general physical activity 2 years later. In the opposite direction, only low sports participation was associated with greater symptom severity and increased odds of disorder onset 2 years later. Stronger effects were observed for chronicity, with lower activity according to all indicators increasing the odds of disorder chronicity after 2 years. Over time, there seems to a mutually reinforcing, bidirectional relationship between psychopathology and lower physical activity, particularly low sports participation. People with anxiety are as adversely affected as those with depression.

  1. High Relative Expression of Pannexin 3 (PANX3) in an Axillary Sweat Gland Carcinoma With Osteosarcomatous Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Ryan C; Gardner, Jerad M; Shalin, Sara C; Ram, Roopa; Govindarajan, Rang; Montgomery, Corey O; Gilley, Jasen H; Nicholas, Richard W

    2016-11-01

    Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinomas (SGCs) are rare tumors that commonly involve axillae, have a high local recurrence rate, and rarely show sarcomatoid transformation. A 68-year-old man presented with rapid enlargement of a previously stable, asymptomatic pea-sized nodule in the left axilla. Initial excision (with positive surgical margins) at another institution showed characteristic histologic features of a high-grade osteosarcoma and molecular analysis using a 92-gene real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay confirmed a diagnosis of osteosarcoma with 96% certainty. Notably, the molecular assay demonstrated consistently high relative expression of pannexin 3 (PANX3), a gene involved in normal osteoblast differentiation which, when highly expressed, strongly predicts osteosarcoma per the assay's algorithm. However, on further histologic review, the tumor also contained focal cystic areas, nests, and ducts composed of malignant epithelial cells reminiscent of SGC; these areas directly transitioned into the osteosarcomatous component and were strongly positive for pancytokeratin, CK7, and p63. Within 2 weeks, the lesion recurred and grew rapidly, prompting complete resection, histologic sections of which showed high-grade osteosarcoma without residual epithelial elements. This is the fifth report, to our knowledge, of osteosarcomatous transformation in a SGC, and the only report to date including molecular data. This case demonstrates that osteosarcoma arising from a SGC has a similar molecular profile to de novo primary osteosarcoma of bone. It also emphasizes the importance of histopathologic findings as the established diagnostic gold standard and the need to interpret molecular results within the clinical context.

  2. Sweating under pressure: skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior may be illuminated by individual differences in skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) in the context of peer stress. Participants included 123 fifth and sixth graders (Mean age = 12.03 years, 50% females; 42% ethnic minorities). SCLR was assessed in the context of an ecologically relevant, lab-based peer-evaluative stress experience in preadolescence. As hypothesized, self-reported peer victimization was linked with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior, and SCLR consistently moderated these associations. Peer victimization was associated with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior among preadolescents who exhibited lower SCLR, but not among preadolescents who exhibited higher SCLR. Results suggest that promoting engagement with peer stress experiences and enhancing inhibitory control are potential intervention targets that may reduce externalizing behavior in the context of peer victimization (or reduce peer victimization among preadolescents who exhibit externalizing behavior). © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Multifunctional Nickel Phosphate Nano/Microflakes 3D Electrode for Electrochemical Energy Storage, Nonenzymatic Glucose, and Sweat pH Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanathan, N; Shao, Han; Razeeb, Kafil M

    2018-03-14

    Multifunctional, low-cost electrodes and catalysts are desirable for next-generation electrochemical energy-storage and sensor applications. In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of Ni 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ·8H 2 O nano/microflakes layer on nickel foam (NF) by a facile one-pot hydrothermal approach and investigate this electrode for multiple applications, including sweat-based glucose and pH sensor as well as hybrid energy-storage device, e.g., supercapattery. The electrode displays a specific capacity of 301.8 mAh g -1 (1552 F g -1 ) at an applied current of 5 mA cm -2 and can retain 84% of its initial capacity after 10 000 cycles. Furthermore, the supercapattery composed of Ni 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ·8H 2 O/NF as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode can offer a high specific energy of 33.4 Wh kg -1 with the power of 165.5 W kg -1 . As an electrocatalyst for nonenzymatic glucose sensor, Ni 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ·8H 2 O/NF shows an exceptional sensitivity (24.39 mA mM -1 cm -2 ) with a low detection limit of 97 nM (S/N = 3). Moreover, as a sweat-based pH sensor, the electrode is capable of detecting human sweat pH values ranging from 4 to 7. Therefore, this three-dimensional nanoporous Ni 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ·8H 2 O/NF electrode, due to its excellent electrochemical performance, can be successfully applied in electrochemical energy-storage and biosensor applications.

  4. [Atypical course of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma of the axilla : A very rare malignant tumor and its interdisciplinary treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauer, U; Lorenz, D; Sellei, R; Zoga, E; Braun, S

    2017-10-01

    We report on an atypical clinical course of a patient with the very rare diagnosis of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with lymphatic metastasis, a single metachronous distant metastasis and a now reached survival time of more than 4 years and give a review about the current literature. Only a very small number of cases have been described. The recommendations for diagnostics and treatment of this tumor, therefore, are not based on prospective randomized studies but upon case reports and on new immunohistochemical and genetic markers.

  5. Relationship between anxiety, depression and quality of life with the intensity of reflex sweating after thoracoscopic sympathectomy for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luciara Irene DE Nadai; Miranda, Eliana Cristina Martins; Toro, Ivan Felizardo Contrera; Mussi, Ricardo Kalaf

    2016-01-01

    to compare the intensity of reflex sweating with the degree of anxiety and its interference in the quality of life of patients undergoing Thoracoscopic (VATS) sympathectomy in the pre- and postoperative period. we evaluated 54 patients with a mean age of 26 years (16-49 years) undergoing sympathectomy in the R3-R4 level. We applied two questionnaires at three different times: "Quality of life in patients with primary hyperhidrosis" and "Scale for anxiety and depression". of the patients studied, 93% showed significant improvement in quality of life 30 days after surgery, the effects remaining after six months. There were no postoperative complications. The patient's level of anxiety is highly correlated with the intensity of reflex sweating after 30 and 180 days. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy improves quality of life of patients with primary hyperhidrosis, even with the emergence of reflex sweating. Anxiety directly relates to the intensity of reflex sweating, without compromising the degree of patient satisfaction. avaliar a intensidade de sudorese reflexa com o grau de ansiedade e sua interferência na qualidade de vida de indivíduos submetidos à simpatectomia por videotoracoscopia nos períodos pré e pós-operatório. foram avaliados 54 pacientes com média de idade de 26 anos (16 a 49 anos), submetidos à simpatectomia em nível R3-R4. Dois questionários foram aplicados em três momentos diferentes: "Qualidade de vida em pacientes com hiperidrose primária e "Escala para ansiedade e depressão". dos pacientes estudados, 93% mostrou melhora significativa na qualidade de vida após 30 dias da cirurgia, com os efeitos remanescentes após seis meses. Não houve complicações pós-operatórias. A análise mostrou que o nível de ansiedade do paciente é altamente correlacionado com a intensidade da sudorese reflexa após 30 e 180 dias. a simpatectomia torácica por videotoracoscopia melhora a qualidade de vida de pacientes com hiperidrose primária, mesmo com o

  6. Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  7. F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging of Eccrine Sweat Gland Carcinoma of the Scrotum with Extensive Regional and Distant Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Suk Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine carcinoma is an extremely rare malignant skin cancer arising from eccrine sweat glands with a high metastatic potential. It mainly occurs in the elderly, with equal incidence in both sexes. It usually spreads to regional lymph nodes, with liver, lungs, and bones being the most common sites of distant metastasis. Because of tumor rarity, little is known about the value of F18- FDG PET/CT in evaluating this disease. Our case report aims to increase current knowledge of F18- FDG PET/CT in eccrine sweat gland carcinoma as a noninvasive imaging tool for assessing the extension of the disease and detecting distant metastases. We reported a -96year-old man who presented with as lowly progressive, ill-margined erythematous papules and nodules with a crusted and eroded involving multiple sites of groin, scrotum, penis, left pelvic wall, left hip and left thigh for >3 years, which became extensive in the past 2 months. The histologic investigation confirmed the diagnosis of an eccrine carcinoma. He was performed F18- FDG PET/CT to further evaluate the lesions. FDG PET/ CT imaging revealed FDG uptake at the extensive skin lesion, involvement of lymph nodes, and multiple FDG-avid of liver, skeletal and lung metastases.

  8. F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging of Eccrine Sweat Gland Carcinoma of the Scrotum with Extensive Regional and Distant Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Suk

    2017-01-01

    Eccrine carcinoma is an extremely rare malignant skin cancer arising from eccrine sweat glands with a high metastatic potential. It mainly occurs in the elderly, with equal incidence in both sexes. It usually spreads to regional lymph nodes, with liver, lungs, and bones being the most common sites of distant metastasis. Because of tumor rarity, little is known about the value of F-18 FDG PET/CT in evaluating this disease. Our case report aims to increase current knowledge of F-18 FDG PET/CT in eccrine sweat gland carcinoma as a noninvasive imaging tool for assessing the extension of the disease and detecting distant metastases. We reported a 96-year-old man who presented with as lowly progressive, ill-margined erythematous papules and nodules with a crusted and eroded involving multiple sites of groin, scrotum, penis, left pelvic wall, left hip and left thigh for >3 years, which became extensive in the past 2 months. The histologic investigation confirmed the diagnosis of an eccrine carcinoma. He was performed F-18 FDG PET/CT to further evaluate the lesions. FDG PET/CT imaging revealed FDG uptake at the extensive skin lesion, involvement of lymph nodes, and multiple FDG-avid of liver, skeletal and lung metastases.

  9. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma: a study of three cases and CK8, CK18 and CD5/6 immunoexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Cassarino, David S

    2015-08-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma is a cutaneous adnexal tumor that is rarely reported in the literature. We identified only 29 previously reported cases. All these cases share some clinical morphologic and immunohistochemical features. Among the immunohistochemical markers, cytokeratins 5/6, 8 and 18 (CK5/6, CK8 and CK18) had not been previously studied in this tumor. Although studies with cytokeratin Cam5.2 exist, we know at present that this marker does not correspond to antibodies CK8/18, but rather to CK7 and CK8. We studied three examples of endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma with 18 immunostains. Our cases showed an immunoprofile CK8+, CK18+, CK5/6- (or only focally positive), CK7+, GCDFP-15+ (2 cases), estrogen receptor+, progesterone receptor+, HER2-, neuron-specific enolase + (2 cases), anti-synaptophysin+, chromogranin A +, CD56 variable (1 case +, 1 case-), CD57-, anti-human D2-40- (two cases), p63- or focally positive, smooth muscle actin + with variable pattern of expression and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain expressed in a peripheral discontinuous layer in some nodules, but absent in most. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport properties of fabrics under different sweat rate: Forced Flow Water Transport Tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K P M; Chau, K H; Kan, C W; Fan, J T

    2015-11-23

    The water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are critical to wear comfort, especially for sportswear and protective clothing. A new testing apparatus, namely Forced Flow Water Transport Tester (FFWTT), was developed for characterizing the transplanar and in-plane wicking properties of fabrics based on gravimetric and image analysis technique. The uniqueness of this instrument is that the rate of water supply is adjustable to simulate varying sweat rates with reference to the specific end-use conditions ranging from sitting, walking, running to other strenuous activities. This instrument is versatile in terms of the types of fabrics that can be tested. Twenty four types of fabrics with varying constructions and surface finishes were tested. The results showed that FFWTT was highly sensitive and reproducible in differentiating these fabrics and it suggests that water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are sweat rate-dependent. Additionally, two graphic methods were proposed to map the direction of liquid transport and its relation to skin wetness, which provides easy and direct comparison among different fabrics. Correlation analysis showed that FFWTT results have strong correlation with subjective wetness sensation, implying validity and usefulness of the instrument.

  11. Sweat test and cystic fibrosis: overview of test performance at public and private centers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidoni, Maria Fátima; Gomez, Carla Cristina Souza; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Ribeiro, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The sweat test (ST) measures chloride levels in sweat and is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the reliability of a ST depends on their being performed by experienced technicians and in accordance with strict guidelines. Our aim was to evaluate how sweat stimulation, sweat collection, and chloride measurement are performed at 14 centers (9 public centers and 5 private centers) that routinely perform STs in the state of São Paulo, which has the highest frequency of CF in Brazil. This was a cross-sectional cohort study, using a standardized questionnaire administered in loco to the staff responsible for conducting STs. No uniformity regarding the procedures was found among the centers. Most centers were noncompliant with the international guidelines, especially regarding the collection of sweat (the samples were insufficient in 10-50% of the subjects tested); availability of stimulation equipment (which was limited at 2 centers); modernity and certification of stimulation equipment (most of the equipment having been used for 3-23 years); and written protocols (which were lacking at 12 centers). Knowledge of ST guidelines was evaluated at only 1 center. Our results show that STs largely deviate from internationally accepted guidelines at the participating centers. Therefore, there is an urgent need for standardization of STs, training of qualified personnel, and acquisition/certification of suitable equipment. These are essential conditions for a reliable diagnosis of CF, especially with the increasing demand due to newborn screening nationwide, and for the assessment of a possible clinical benefit from the use of modulator drugs. O teste do suor (TS) mede os níveis de cloro no suor e é considerado o padrão ouro para o diagnóstico da fibrose cística (FC). Contudo, a confiabilidade do TS depende de sua realização por técnicos experientes e segundo diretrizes rígidas. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar como s

  12. [Effect of botulinum toxin type B on residual limb sweating and pain. Is there a chance for indirect phantom pain reduction by improved prosthesis use?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K-U; Kohl, M; Seifert, U; Schlereth, T

    2012-04-01

    Hyperhidrosis of a residual limb after amputation is one of the most common reasons for impaired prosthesis use and quality of life and affects 30-50% of all amputees causing skin irritation in about 25%. Thus the probability of residual limb pain increases in addition to an increased likelihood of phantom pain due to shorter duration of prothesis use. Development of both types of pain was studied following treatment of hyperhidrosis in 9 amputees. A total of 9 lower limb amputees received injections of 1750 units of botulinum toxin type B (BTX-B) for the treatment of hyperhidrosis of a residual limb (20 intracutaneous injections each). Prior to injections and 4 weeks and 3 months afterwards, patients rated the impairments regarding residual limb pain, phantom pain and sweating of the residual limb. Furthermore the duration of use of the prosthetic device and quality of life were rated on a numeric rating scale (NRS 0-10). Stump pain (n=9) was highly significantly reduced after 3 months (baseline: NRS 5; 4 weeks: NRS 4, p=0.109; 3 months: NRS 3, p=0.008) and also a tendency for phantom pain after 3 months (baseline NRS 5; 3 months: NRS 3; p=0.109). Sweating of the residual limb prior to BTX-B application was rated as a median 7 on the NRS scale with significant improvements after 4 weeks (NRS 3, p=0.027) and 3 months (NRS 3, p=0.020). Impaired duration of prothesis use improved from NRS 8 to NRS 2 (4 weeks; p=0.023) and NRS 3 (3 months; p=0.023) as well as the quality of life (p=0.016, p=0.023, respectively). Residual limb pain improved 3 months after intracutaneous, low-dose BTX-B in a trial with 9 patients and also phantom pain by tendency. Sweating of the residual limb was significantly reduced, probably thereby improving the duration of prothesis use. Larger studies should confirm these findings and conclusions.

  13. Monitoring of heavy metal levels in the major rivers and in residents' blood in Zhenjiang City, China, and assessment of heavy metal elimination via urine and sweat in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jianguo; Qiu, Wenhui; Xu, Bentuo; Xu, Hui; Tang, Chong

    2016-06-01

    The coastal areas of China face great challenges, owing to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the levels of heavy metals in the major rivers of Zhenjiang, one of the most important cities of the Yangtze River Delta in China. In addition, we measured heavy metal levels in the blood of 76 residents of Zhenjiang. The results suggest that the presence of heavy metals in the blood may threaten human health and the distribution appeared to correspond to most highly populated areas and/or areas with high traffic. We also found that the concentration of heavy metals in human blood showed an accumulation effect with increase in age. Moreover, the levels of most heavy metals were lower in participants who regularly exercised than in those who did not. We studied heavy metal levels in the urine and sweat of another 17 volunteers to monitor the elimination of bioaccumulated heavy metal. Heavy metals were found in the urine and sweat of all the 17 participants and were more concentrated in sweat. Induced micturition and sweating appear to be potential methods for the elimination of heavy metals from the human body.

  14. An immunohistochemical panel to differentiate metastatic breast carcinoma to skin from primary sweat gland carcinomas with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins-Raval, Marian; Chivukula, Mamatha; Tseng, George C; Jukic, Drazen; Dabbs, David J

    2011-08-01

    Approximately 25% of patients with breast cancer develop cutaneous metastases. Sweat gland carcinomas (SGCs) account for about 0.05% of all cutaneous neoplasms. Cutaneous metastases of breast carcinoma (CMBCs) (especially the ductal type) can be difficult to distinguish from SGCs. Treatment and prognoses for these 2 types of tumors differ radically, making accurate histologic diagnosis crucial. Although a few studies attempt to differentiate these entities employing immunohistochemical (IHC) studies (some of which we review here), to date, no panel of IHC stains exists, to our knowledge, to distinguish these entities. To devise a panel of IHC stains to distinguish CMBC from SGC. Twelve cases of ductal CMBCs (11 not otherwise specified type, and 1 basal phenotype), 11 cases of SGCs (5 eccrine carcinomas, 3 porocarcinomas, and 3 microcystic adnexal carcinomas), 2 benign sweat gland neoplasm cases, and 2 primary breast cancer cases were retrieved and analyzed with the following IHC panel: mammaglobin, gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP) 15, p63, basal cytokeratins (CK5, CK14, and CK17), androgen receptor, and PAX5. The p63 was only weakly expressed in 1 of 12 CMBC cases (8.3%), whereas it was strongly expressed in 10 of 11 SGC cases (90.9%) (P < .001). Basal cytokeratins demonstrated a similar immunoprofile in the SGC group, with 10 of 11 cases (90.9%) expressing all 3 markers, and a variable immunoprofile in the CMBC group with 0% (CK14) (P < .001) to 16.7% (2 of 12 cases; CK5 and CK17) (P < .001) expression. Mammaglobin was expressed in 8 of 12 cases (66.7%) of CMBC. Together, these 5 IHC stains were combined to make a panel that was 100% sensitive and 91% specific in distinguishing between CMBC and SGC.

  15. Controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Hriňáková, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The topic of my diploma thesis is controlling. The first part is theoretical where I describe the history, meaning and functions of controlling. After that I also specify the methods of strategical, operational and cost controlling. The practical part applied method of controlling to the selected company. The aim of this study is to determine the benefits of controlling for the company. At the operational level it describes the process of controlling in the firm and there are given suggestion...

  16. Non-destructive controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouvet, A.

    1978-01-01

    The non-destructive controls permit, while respecting their integrity, the direct and individual examination of parts or complete objects as they are manufactured, as well as to follow the evolution of their eventual defects while in operation. The choice of control methods depends on the manufacturing process and shapes of parts, on the physical properties of their components as well as the nature, position and size of the defects which are likely to be detected. Whether it is a question of controls by means of ionizing radiation, flux of neutrons, ultrasons, acoustic source, sweating, magnetoscopy. Foucault currents, thermography, detection of leaks or non-destructive metallography, each has a limited field of application such that they are less competitive than complementary [fr

  17. Google Glass for Residents Dealing With Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Arrest: A Randomized, Controlled, Simulation-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, David; Arnaud, Cécile; Guedj, Romain; Duguet, Alexandre; de Suremain, Nathalie; Petit, Arnaud

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether real-time video communication between the first responder and a remote intensivist via Google Glass improves the management of a simulated in-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest before the arrival of the ICU team. Randomized controlled study. Children's hospital at a tertiary care academic medical center. Forty-two first-year pediatric residents. Pediatric residents were evaluated during two consecutive simulated pediatric cardiopulmonary arrests with a high-fidelity manikin. During the second evaluation, the residents in the Google Glass group were allowed to seek help from a remote intensivist at any time by activating real-time video communication. The residents in the control group were asked to provide usual care. The main outcome measures were the proportion of time for which the manikin received no ventilation (no-blow fraction) or no compression (no-flow fraction). In the first evaluation, overall no-blow and no-flow fractions were 74% and 95%, respectively. During the second evaluation, no-blow and no-flow fractions were similar between the two groups. Insufflations were more effective (p = 0.04), and the technique (p = 0.02) and rate (p Google Glass group than in the control group. Real-time video communication between the first responder and a remote intensivist through Google Glass did not decrease no-blow and no-flow fractions during the first 5 minutes of a simulated pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest but improved the quality of the insufflations and chest compressions provided.

  18. Slowly-Developing Modifications in Cutaneous Circulatory Control,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    nwber) Skin blood flow, peripheral vasodilation, thermoregulatory "set-point", baroreflexes 20 A&STq ACT t’-rti5h am rvs sd flamwWV md Idf riy by block...e.g., exercise training , heat acclimation, menstrual cycle). Most of these factors change the threshold for vasodilation, but some also change the...ance training and heat acclimation. Long distance runners have lower thresholds for both sweating and shivering than do controls (1), and both endurance

  19. A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for women who have menopausal symptoms following breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1: Trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellier Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    of medical services measure at six months post-randomisation. Discussion MENOS 1 is the first randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for hot flushes and night sweats that measures both self-reported and physiologically indexed symptoms. The results will inform future clinical practice by developing an evidence-based, non-medical treatment, which can be delivered by trained health professionals. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13771934

  20. "Sweating meteorites"—Water-soluble salts and temperature variation in ordinary chondrites and soil from the hot desert of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Florian J.; Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Eggenberger, Urs

    2013-10-01

    The common appearance of hygroscopic brine ("sweating") on ordinary chondrites (OCs) from Oman during storage under room conditions initiated a study on the role of water-soluble salts on the weathering of OCs. Analyses of leachates from OCs and soils, combined with petrography of alteration features and a 11-month record of in situ meteorite and soil temperatures, are used to evaluate the role of salts in OC weathering. Main soluble ions in soils are Ca2+, SO42-, HCO3-, Na+, and Cl-, while OC leachates are dominated by Mg2+ (from meteoritic olivine), Ca2+ (from soil), Cl- (from soil), SO42- (from meteoritic troilite and soil), and iron (meteoritic). "Sweating meteorites" mainly contain Mg2+ and Cl-. The median Na/Cl mass ratio of leachates changes from 0.65 in soils to 0.07 in meteorites, indicating the precipitation of a Na-rich phase or loss of an efflorescent Na-salt. The total concentrations of water-soluble ions in bulk OCs ranges from 600 to 9000 μg g-1 (median 2500 μg g-1) as compared to 187-14140 μg g-1 in soils (median 1148 μg g-1). Soil salts dissolved by rain water are soaked up by meteorites by capillary forces. Daily heating (up to 66.3 °C) and cooling of the meteorites cause a pumping effect, resulting in a strong concentration of soluble ions in meteorites over time. The concentrations of water-soluble ions in meteorites, which are complex mixtures of ions from the soil and from oxidation and hydrolysis of meteoritic material, depend on the degree of weathering and are highest at W3. Input of soil contaminants generally dominates over the ions mobilized from meteorites. Silicate hydrolysis preferentially affects olivine and is enhanced by sulfide oxidation, producing local acidic conditions as evidenced by jarosite. Plagioclase weathering is negligible. After completion of troilite oxidation, the rate of chemical weathering slows down with continuing Ca-sulfate contamination.

  1. Residual Limb Hyperhidrosis and RimabotulinumtoxinB: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquina, Paul F; Perry, Briana N; Alphonso, Aimee L; Finn, Sacha; Fitzpatrick, Kevin F; Tsao, Jack W

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the use of rimabotulinumtoxinB (BoNT/B [Myobloc]) compared with placebo in treating hyperhidrosis in the residual limbs of individuals with amputation. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Military medical center. Male participants (N=9) with 11 major amputations of the lower limbs and who complained of excessive sweating in their residual limbs were enrolled in the study between September 24, 2008 to October 28, 2011. Participants' lower limbs were randomly assigned to receive injections of either BoNT/B (n=7) or placebo (n=4). BoNT/B. The primary efficacy variable was a minimum of 50% reduction in sweat production 4 weeks after the injection as measured via gravimetric sweat analysis after 10 minutes of physical exertion. Secondary analyses were performed on prosthetic function and pain. All volunteers (100%; 7) in the BoNT/B group achieved a minimum of 50% reduction in sweat production as compared with only 50% (2) in the placebo group. The percent reduction was significantly greater for the BoNT/B group than for the placebo group (-72.7%±15.7% vs -32.7%±39.2%; P.05 for both). BoNT/B successfully reduces sweat production in individuals with residual limb hyperhidrosis, but does not affect pain. No differences were found in perceived effect on prosthetic use between BoNT/B and placebo groups. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in the kindred of an infant with CFTR-related metabolic syndrome: importance of follow-up that includes monitoring sweat chloride concentrations over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sophia N; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Chin, Terry W; Do, Paul C M; Singh, Kathryn E; Randhawa, Inderpal

    2014-03-01

    Newly implemented newborn screening (NBS) programs in California have resulted in a large subset of patients in whom at least two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations are identified, but subsequent sweat chloride analysis reveals normal or indeterminate values. These patients are diagnosed with CFTR-Related Metabolic Syndrome (CRMS). However, the natural progression and management of these patients are not clearly understood and frequently after the age of 1-year these patients are lost to follow-up with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Centers. We present the first case of an infant who was referred to Miller Children's Hospital for a NBS positive for CF and subsequent discovery of identical mutations in six of his seven older brothers. Several siblings had positive sweat chloride results on repeat testing after the age of 3 years. We suggest the need for continued follow-up of CRMS in a CF center with diagnostic evaluation including repeat sweat chloride testing, beyond the currently recommended period. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Spiradenoma and cylindroma originate from the hair follicle bulge and not from the eccrine sweat gland: an immunohistochemical study with CD200 and other stem cell markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellheyer, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Spiradenoma and cylindroma have historically been described as sweat gland tumors and have often been considered to be of eccrine lineage. However, (a) associations with trichoepitheliomas in Brooke-Spiegler syndrome or with trichoepitheliomas and milia in Rasmussen syndrome, (b) neoplastic combinations with hair follicle tumors in solitary cases, and (c) anatomical considerations support a folliculosebaceous-apocrine lineage. Follicular stem cell markers may allow for further characterization of these neoplasms. A total of 97 tumors were examined for the expression pattern of follicular stem cell markers cytokeratin 15 (CK15), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 (PHLDA1), and CD200. The tumors were comprised of 27 spiradenomas, 30 cylindromas, 16 hidradenomas, 19 poromas, 4 dermal duct tumors and 1 hidroacanthoma simplex. All spiradenomas and cylindromas were CD200-positive whereas the other tumors classified as eccrine in lineage were all CD200-negative. CK15 also discriminated between spiradenomas and cylindromas and the remaining neoplasms but not to the degree of CD200. PHLDA1 and CK19 were noncontributory. It is concluded that both spiradenoma and cylindroma are not eccrine but follicular tumors. More specifically, it is proposed that both adnexal neoplasms are derived from the hair follicle bulge and as such represent one of the least differentiated follicular tumors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cytological features of malignant eccrine acrospiroma presenting as a soft tissue mass axilla: A rare sweat gland tumor with histologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pinki; Dixit, Alok; Chandra, Subrat; Tanwar, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    Malignant eccrine acrospiroma is an infrequent, highly malignant primary skin tumor derived from eccrine sweat glands. Though fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established diagnostic tool, but if a skin adnexal tumor or primary skin lesion is suspected clinically, the usual approach is biopsy due to easy accessibility. Being itself rare, cytologic features of this lesion is hardly encountered in case reports. As a result, very little is known about the appearance of adnexal tumors like malignant eccrine acrospiroma on fine-needle aspiration samples. A 50-year-old man presented with swelling in the left axilla, clinically suspected to be a soft tissue sarcoma. Fine-needle aspiration was advised, and a cytological diagnosis of malignant eccrine acrospiroma was rendered which was later confirmed on histological examination. Rapid, accurate diagnosis of these tumors is imperative as they have very poor prognosis and an aggressive course with recurrence and/or metastasis. FNAC plays a decisive and easy diagnostic modality in these unusual, rare cases of highly malignant primary skin tumor, and awareness of the lesions is indispensable in their management.

  5. The late Greco-Roman and Byzantine contribution towards the evolution of laboratory examinations of bodily excrement. Part 2: sputum, vomit, blood, sweat, autopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, Athanasios A; Goudas, Pavlos C

    2005-01-01

    Although the establishment of medical laboratory institutions was a continuous process that matured only after the 16th century, several attempts had already been made to attain a diagnosis by investigating bodily excrement. In the first part of our work, published in a previous issue of this journal, we presented data on urine, sperm, menses and stools. In this paper we present data on sputum, vomit, blood, sweat, and autopsies, thus completing the list of human materials used for laboratory examinations. All the data used are extracted from codices of Late Antiquity and Byzantium and translated by us. We did not study medical texts from the other great ancestors of Western medicine, namely Arabic and Jewish writings. From the texts cited, it is apparent that the lack of technological means was no obstacle for the doctor to create an "examinational" mind, i.e., to try to correlate the macroscopic findings in the excrement with the pathophysiological mechanism that induced them, solely with the use of the senses. This not only applies to the examination of urine, as is commonly assumed, but also to many other excrements of the upper and lower orifices of the body, as well as the human body as a whole.

  6. Blood, sweat and semen: the economy of axé and the response of Afro-Brazilian religions to HIV and AIDS in Recife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Luis Felipe; Oliveira, Cinthia; Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Murray, Laura; Parker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an ethnographic analysis of Afro-Brazilian religious responses to the HIV epidemic in Recife. Drawing on participant observation and in-depth interviews conducted with Afro-Brazilian religious leaders and public health officials, it highlights the importance of the axé--a mystical energy manipulated in religious rituals that is symbolically associated with blood, sweat and semen. In an analysis of the relationship formed between the state AIDS programme and Afro-Brazilian religious centres, we conclude that the recognition of native categories and their meanings is one of the key elements to a fruitful dialogue between public health programmes and religious leaders that in the case studied, resulted in the re-signification of cultural practices to prevent HIV. Although the Afro-Brazilian religious leaders interviewed tended to be more open about sexuality and condom promotion, stigma towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) was still present within the religious temples, yet appeared to be more centred upon the perception of HIV as negatively affecting followers' axé than judgement related to how one may have contracted the virus. We discuss the tensions between taking a more liberal and open stance on prevention, while also fostering attitudes that may stigmatise PLHIV, and make suggestions for improving the current Afro-Brazilian response to the epidemic.

  7. Temperature controlling cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kyoko.

    1995-01-01

    In a radiation protective cloth of the present invention, liquid channels made of a porous material which does not permeate liquid but permeate steams are formed, and a moisture absorbing cooling medium solution is flown to the channels to control temperature of a human body. Accordingly, the human body is cooled by the moisture absorbing cooling medium solution itself, and at the same time, sweat from the human body can be absorbed. If the liquid channels are composed of porous resin tubes or porous resin panels, those can be formed to clothes easily, and improve athletic performance since they are flexible. Further, use of an aqueous solution of lithium chloride, for example, as the moisture absorbing cooling medium solution, can provide merits of high moisture absorbing property, capability of dewatering by heating, and repeated use. (T.M.)

  8. Blood, sweat, tears and success of technology transfer long-term controlled-release of herbicides: Root-growth-inhibiting biobarrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Voris, P.; Cataldo, D.A.; Burton, F.G.; Skeins, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Through the unique combination of polymers with a herbicidally active dinitroaniline, a cylinderical pellet (9mm long and 9mm in diameter) was developed that continuously releases a herbicide for a period of up to 100 years. Equilibrium concentration of the herbicide in soil adjacent to the pellet and the bioactive lifetime of the device cam be adjusted by changing the size of the pellet; the type of polymer; the type, quality, and quantity of carrier; and/or the concentration and type of dinitroaniline used. Commercial products that have been developed under a Federal Technology Transfer Program that utilize this technology include: (1) ROOT-SHIELD, a root repelling sewer gasket for concrete, clay, and PVC sewer lines, (2) BIOBARRIER, a spun-bonded polypropylene geotextile fabric developed to prevent root growth from invading septic tanks; penetrating under roadways, and along the edge of sidewalks, airport runways, and tennis courts, and for landscaped areas; and (3) ROOT-GUARD, a plastic drip irrigation emitter designed to protect buried drip irrigation systems from being plugged by roots. 17 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  9. A randomized controlled trial on 2 simulation-based training methods in radiology: effects on radiologic technology student skill in assessing image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist, Jan B; Nilsson, Tore A; Hedman, Leif R; Desser, Terry S; Dev, Parvati; Johansson, Magnus; Youngblood, Patricia L; Cheng, Robert P; Gold, Garry E

    2013-12-01

    A simulator for virtual radiographic examinations was developed. In the virtual environment, the user can perform and analyze radiographic examinations of patient models without the use of ionizing radiation. We investigated if this simulation technique could improve education of radiology technology students. We compared student performance in the assessment of radiographic image quality after training with a conventional manikin or with the virtual radiography simulator. A randomized controlled experimental study involving 31 first-year radiology technology students was performed. It was organized in 4 phases as follows: (I) randomization to control or experimental group based on the results of an anatomy examination; (II) proficiency testing before training; (III) intervention (control group, exposure and analysis of radiographic images of the cervical spine of a manikin; experimental group, exposure and analysis of the cervical spine images in the virtual radiography simulator); and (IV) proficiency testing after training. The experimental group showed significantly higher scores after training compared with those before training (P effect analysis revealed a significant difference between the control and experimental groups regarding proficiency change (P = 0.01). Virtual radiographic simulation is an effective tool for learning image quality assessment. Simulation can therefore be a valuable adjunct to traditional educational methods and reduce exposure to x-rays and tutoring time.

  10. CO2 Washout Capability with Breathing Manikin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as...

  11. Modelo simulador para treinamento de punção transpedicular em vertebroplastia percutânea Manikin-type training simulator model for transpedicular puncture in percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitamar Abdala

    2007-08-01

    manikin with an ethyl-vinyl-acetate lining so that direct visualization was not possible. A theoretical course was given to six trainees in radiology and neuroradiology who have tested the models with respect to parameters of similarity with the reality, performing 30 transpedicular punctures in three series of ten punctures a day, with one-week interval between the series. RESULTS: Each student performed 30 transpedicular punctures; however, eight of these punctures were disregarded because of manufacturing defects of the dummies observed during the procedures. Similarity data forms were filled in by all of the trainees following the procedures, with 100% of positive answers as regards the models similarity with the human body. CONCLUSION: It was possible to develop a training model for transpedicular puncture with a satisfactory degree of similarity with the human body, constituting an appropriate tool for training in vertebroplasty.

  12. Behavioural responses of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to components of human breath, sweat and urine depend on mixture composition and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y T; Smallegange, R C; VAN Loon, J J A; Takken, W

    2011-09-01

    Host-seeking behaviour of the anthropophilic malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is mediated predominantly by olfactory cues. Several hundreds of odour components have been identified from human emanations, but only a few have been proven to act as attractants or synergists in the host-seeking behaviour of female An. gambiae. In previous work, aromatics, alcohols and ketones in human odours were found to elicit electrophysiological activity in antennal olfactory neurons of female An. gambiae. However, the behavioural effects of these compounds have not been investigated. In this study, behavioural responses of female An. gambiae to components of human breath, urine and sweat at a series of concentrations, or a single concentration in the case of acetone, were examined in combination with ammonia and L-lactic acid in a dual-choice olfactometer. The results showed that at specific concentrations 4-ethylphenol, indole, 3-methyl-1-butanol and two ketones inhibited the attractive effect of a mixture of ammonia and lactic acid. Acetone on its own was not attractive; however, when combined with lactic acid, the binary mixture was attractive. When combined with ammonia, acetone inhibited the attractiveness exerted by ammonia alone. Dodecanol and dimethyldisulphide did not affect the attraction exerted by ammonia and lactic acid at any of the concentrations tested. By contrast, a human-specific armpit odour, 7-octenoic acid, augmented the attraction exerted by the combination of ammonia and lactic acid at a specific dosage. © 2010 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Development of a standardized pulse-controlled ergometry test for diagnosing and investigating cholinergic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altrichter, Sabine; Salow, Julia; Ardelean, Elena; Church, Martin K; Werner, Andreas; Maurer, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Cholinergic urticaria (CholU) is a common condition in which active or passive warming leads to development of pinpoint wheals, flares and itch. To develop a standardized protocol for diagnosing CholU and measuring trigger thresholds, independent of patients' fitness levels. Ten CholU patients and matched healthy controls underwent pulse-controlled incremental ergometry for 30 min (stationary bicycle) increasing their pulse rate by 15 beats every 5 min. Non-invasive, heat-flux double-sensor and conventional electronic thermometers measured core and skin surface temperatures from which mean body temperature (MBT) was calculated. The time of onset of sweating (starch-iodine test) and symptoms (whealing) were recorded. All individuals completed the ergometry protocol without difficulty. All CholU patients but no controls developed wheals. The time to whealing correlated inversely with disease severity. In four patients MBT increased <0.5°C and in two whealing occurred at a temperature lower than at the start of exercise. Onset of symptoms correlated with the time of sweating. Pulse-controlled ergometry is sensitive and specific for diagnosing CholU and investigating trigger thresholds and disease mechanisms. Our results refute the hypothesis that a rise in MBT is the critical trigger for CholU while sweating appears to have the central role. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating the Effects of Aluminum-Containing and Non-Aluminum Containing Deodorants on Axillary Skin Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Lucy, E-mail: Lucy.lewis@curtin.edu.au [Centre for Nursing Research, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); School of Nursing and Midwifery Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Carson, Sharron [Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); Bydder, Sean [Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia (Australia); Athifa, Mariyam [School of Nursing and Midwifery Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Williams, Anne M. [School of Nursing and Midwifery Curtin University, Perth (Australia); School of Nursing and Midwifery, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Bremner, Alexandra [School of Population Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Deodorant use during radiation therapy for breast cancer has been controversial as there are concerns deodorant use may exacerbate axillary skin toxicity. The present study prospectively determined the use of both aluminum-containing and non aluminum containing deodorants on axillary skin toxicity during conventionally fractionated postoperative radiation therapy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: This 3-arm randomized controlled study was conducted at a single center, tertiary cancer hospital between March 2011 and April 2013. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 experimental groups (aluminum-containing deodorant and soap or non–aluminum containing deodorant and soap) or a control group (soap). A total of 333 participants were randomized. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate and compare the odds of experiencing high levels of sweating and skin toxicity in each of the deodorant groups to the odds in the control group. The study evaluated a range of endpoints including objective measurements of axilla sweating, skin toxicity, pain, itch and burning. Quality of life was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Results: Radiation characteristics were similar across all groups. Patients in the deodorant groups did not report significantly different ratings for axillary pain, itch, or burning compared with the control group. Patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant group experienced significantly less sweating than the control; the odds of their sweating being barely tolerable and frequently or always interfering with their daily activities was decreased by 85% (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.91). Conclusions: We found no evidence that the use of either aluminum-containing or non–aluminum containing deodorant adversely effects axillary skin reaction during conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer. Our analysis also suggests patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant arm had

  15. Evaluating the effects of aluminum-containing and non-aluminum containing deodorants on axillary skin toxicity during radiation therapy for breast cancer: a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lucy; Carson, Sharron; Bydder, Sean; Athifa, Mariyam; Williams, Anne M; Bremner, Alexandra

    2014-11-15

    Deodorant use during radiation therapy for breast cancer has been controversial as there are concerns deodorant use may exacerbate axillary skin toxicity. The present study prospectively determined the use of both aluminum-containing and non aluminum containing deodorants on axillary skin toxicity during conventionally fractionated postoperative radiation therapy for breast cancer. This 3-arm randomized controlled study was conducted at a single center, tertiary cancer hospital between March 2011 and April 2013. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 experimental groups (aluminum-containing deodorant and soap or non-aluminum containing deodorant and soap) or a control group (soap). A total of 333 participants were randomized. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate and compare the odds of experiencing high levels of sweating and skin toxicity in each of the deodorant groups to the odds in the control group. The study evaluated a range of endpoints including objective measurements of axilla sweating, skin toxicity, pain, itch and burning. Quality of life was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Radiation characteristics were similar across all groups. Patients in the deodorant groups did not report significantly different ratings for axillary pain, itch, or burning compared with the control group. Patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant group experienced significantly less sweating than the control; the odds of their sweating being barely tolerable and frequently or always interfering with their daily activities was decreased by 85% (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.91). We found no evidence that the use of either aluminum-containing or non-aluminum containing deodorant adversely effects axillary skin reaction during conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer. Our analysis also suggests patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant arm had significantly less sweating without increased symptoms of

  16. Evaluating the Effects of Aluminum-Containing and Non-Aluminum Containing Deodorants on Axillary Skin Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Lucy; Carson, Sharron; Bydder, Sean; Athifa, Mariyam; Williams, Anne M.; Bremner, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Deodorant use during radiation therapy for breast cancer has been controversial as there are concerns deodorant use may exacerbate axillary skin toxicity. The present study prospectively determined the use of both aluminum-containing and non aluminum containing deodorants on axillary skin toxicity during conventionally fractionated postoperative radiation therapy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: This 3-arm randomized controlled study was conducted at a single center, tertiary cancer hospital between March 2011 and April 2013. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 experimental groups (aluminum-containing deodorant and soap or non–aluminum containing deodorant and soap) or a control group (soap). A total of 333 participants were randomized. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate and compare the odds of experiencing high levels of sweating and skin toxicity in each of the deodorant groups to the odds in the control group. The study evaluated a range of endpoints including objective measurements of axilla sweating, skin toxicity, pain, itch and burning. Quality of life was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Results: Radiation characteristics were similar across all groups. Patients in the deodorant groups did not report significantly different ratings for axillary pain, itch, or burning compared with the control group. Patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant group experienced significantly less sweating than the control; the odds of their sweating being barely tolerable and frequently or always interfering with their daily activities was decreased by 85% (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.91). Conclusions: We found no evidence that the use of either aluminum-containing or non–aluminum containing deodorant adversely effects axillary skin reaction during conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer. Our analysis also suggests patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant arm had

  17. Single-sector thermophysiological human simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psikuta, Agnieszka; Richards, Mark; Fiala, Dusan

    2008-01-01

    Thermal sweating manikins are used to analyse the heat and mass transfer phenomena in the skin–clothing–environment system. However, the limiting factor of present thermal manikins is their inability to simulate adequately the human thermal behaviour, which has a significant effect on the clothing microenvironment. A mathematical model of the human physiology was, therefore, incorporated into the system control to simulate human thermoregulatory responses and the perception of thermal comfort over a wide range of environmental and personal conditions. Thereby, the computer model provides the physiological intelligence, while the hardware is used to measure the required calorimetric states relevant to the human heat exchange with the environment. This paper describes the development of a single-sector thermophysiological human simulator, which consists of a sweating heated cylinder 'Torso' coupled with the iesd-Fiala multi-node model of human physiology and thermal comfort. Validation tests conducted for steady-state and, to some extent, transient conditions ranging from cold to hot revealed good agreement with the corresponding experimental results obtained for semi-nude subjects. The new coupled system enables overall physiological and comfort responses, health risk and survival conditions to be predicted for adult humans for various scenarios

  18. Rain, Sun, Soil, and Sweat: A Consideration of Population Limits on Rapa Nui (Easter Island before European Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric O. Puleston

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The incongruity between the small and apparently impoverished Rapa Nui population that early European travelers encountered and the magnificence of its numerous and massive stone statues has fed a deep fascination with the island. Ethnographic and archaeological evidence suggest that the indigenous population was previously greater than the estimated 1,500–3,000 individuals observed by visitors in the eighteenth century. Our goal was to determine the maximum population that might have lived on the island by estimating its agricultural productivity in the time before European contact. To determine the agricultural potential of the island we sampled soils and established six weather stations in diverse contexts and recorded data over a 2-year period. We find that the island is wetter on average than previously believed. We also find that rainfall and temperature respond linearly to elevation, but a spatial model of precipitation requires correction for a rain shadow effect. We adapted to Rapa Nui an island-wide spatial model designed to identify agriculturally viable zones elsewhere in Polynesia. Based on functions relating climate and substrate age to measurements of soil base saturation, we identified 3,134 ha that were suitable for traditional dryland sweet potato cultivation, or about 19% of the 164 km2 island. We used a nutrient-cycling model to estimate yields. Modeled yields are highly sensitive to nitrogen (N inputs and reliable estimates of these rates are unavailable, requiring us to bracket the rate of N inputs. In the case of low N availability, yields under continuous cultivation were very small, averaging 1.5 t/ha of wet sweet potato tuber. When the N fixation rate was quadrupled sustainable yields increased to 5.1 t/ha. In each N scenario we used a model of food-limited demography to examine the consequences of altering agricultural practices, the labor supply, the ability of the population to control its fertility, and the

  19. Sweat pore reactivity as a surrogate measure of sympathetic nervous system activity in trauma-exposed individuals with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familoni, Babajide O; Gregor, Kristin L; Dodson, Thomas S; Krzywicki, Alan T; Lowery, Bobby N; Orr, Scott P; Suvak, Michael K; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2016-09-01

    Stress analysis by FLIR (forward-looking infrared) evaluation (SAFE) has been demonstrated to monitor sweat pore activation (SPA) as a novel surrogate measure of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in a normal population. SNS responses to a series of 15 1-s, 82 dB, white noise bursts were measured by skin conductance (SC) and SAFE monitoring of SPA on the fingers (FiP) and face (FaP) in 10 participants with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 16 trauma-exposed participants without PTSD (Mage  = 48.92 ± 12.00 years; 26.9% female). Within participants, SC and FiP responses across trials were strongly correlated (r = .92, p < .001). Correlations between SC and FaP (r = .76, p = .001) and between FiP and FaP (r = .47, p = .005) were smaller. The habituation of SNS responses across the 15 trials was substantial (SC: d = -2.97; FiP: d = -2.34; FaP: d = -1.02). There was a strong correlation between habituation effects for SC and FiP (r = .76, p < .001), but not for SC and FaP (r = .15, p = .45) or FiP and FaP (r = .29, p = .16). Participants with PTSD showed larger SNS responses to the first loud noise than those without PTSD. PTSD reexperiencing symptoms assessed by the PTSD Checklist on the day of testing were associated with the SNS responses to the first loud noise measured by SC (d = 1.19) and FiP (d = .99), but not FaP (d = .10). This study confirms convergence of SAFE and SC as valid measures of SNS activity. SAFE FiP and SC responses were highly predictive of self-rated PTSD reexperiencing symptoms. SAFE may offer an attractive alternative for applications in PTSD and similar populations. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Trace Mineral Losses in Sweat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinevere, Troy D; McClung, James P; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2007-01-01

    Copper, iron and zinc are nutritionally essential trace minerals that confer vital biological roles including the maintenance of cell structure and integrity, regulation of metabolism, immune function...

  1. Performance assessment of a ventilated mattress for pollution control of the bed microenvironment in healthcare facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kokora, Monika

    2015-01-01

    . Full-scale experiments were conducted in a climate chamber furnished as a two-bed hospital patient room. A thermal manikin and two heated dummies were used to simulate two lying patients and a standing doctor. The bed with the thermal manikin had the ventilated mattress (VM). The tracer gases CO2 and N...

  2. Treatment of Palmar Hyperhidrosis with Tap Water Iontophoresis: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Single-Blind, and Parallel-Designed Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Hun; Kim, Tae Han; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Ai Young

    2017-01-01

    Background Palmar hyperhidrosis is a common disorder of excessive sweating. A number of studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of iontophoresis in the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis. However, controlled clinical studies on iontophoresis for palmar hyperhidrosis have been limited. Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of iontophoresis in the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis with a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, and parallel-designed study. Methods Twenty nine pati...

  3. The Tulip GT® airway versus the facemask and Guedel airway: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers in anaesthetised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, A; Robinson, P N; Hasan, M

    2016-03-01

    We performed a randomised, controlled, cross-over study of lung ventilation by Basic Life Support-trained providers using either the Tulip GT® airway or a facemask with a Guedel airway in 60 anaesthetised patients. Successful ventilation was achieved if the provider produced an end-tidal CO2 > 3.5 kPa and a tidal volume > 250 ml in two of the first three breaths, within 60 sec and within two attempts. Fifty-seven (95%) providers achieved successful ventilation using the Tulip GT compared with 35 (58%) using the facemask (p Tulip GT and facemask, the mean (SD) end-tidal CO2 was 5.0 (0.7) kPa vs 2.5 (1.5) kPa, tidal volume was 494 (175) ml vs 286 (186) ml and peak inspiratory pressure was 18.3 (3.4) cmH2 O vs 13.6 (7) cmH2 O respectively (all p Tulip GT airway. These results are similar to a previous manikin study using the same protocol, suggesting a close correlation between human and manikin studies for this airway device. We conclude that the Tulip GT should be considered as an adjunct to airway management both within and outside hospitals when ventilation is being undertaken by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Method for Estimating Evaporative Potential (IM/CLO) from ASTM Standard Single Wind Velocity Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Introduction .................................................................................................................. 2 Methods...testing. 2 INTRODUCTION Sweating thermal manikins have long been used to provide biophysical measures of clothing and equipment worn by the...AW, Gonzalez JA, and Xu X. Ebola response: Modeling the risk of heat stress from personal protective clothing. PLoS ONE 10(11), e0143461, 2015. 16

  5. Effectiveness of feedback with a smartwatch for high-quality chest compressions during adult cardiac arrest: A randomized controlled simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chiwon; Lee, Juncheol; Oh, Jaehoon; Song, Yeongtak; Chee, Youngjoon; Lim, Tae Ho; Kang, Hyunggoo; Shin, Hyungoo

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for using smartwatches with a built-in accelerometer as feedback devices for high-quality chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported the effects of this feedback on chest compressions in action. A randomized, parallel controlled study of 40 senior medical students was conducted to examine the effect of chest compression feedback via a smartwatch during cardiopulmonary resuscitation of manikins. A feedback application was developed for the smartwatch, in which visual feedback was provided for chest compression depth and rate. Vibrations from smartwatch were used to indicate the chest compression rate. The participants were randomly allocated to the intervention and control groups, and they performed chest compressions on manikins for 2 min continuously with or without feedback, respectively. The proportion of accurate chest compression depth (≥5 cm and ≤6 cm) was assessed as the primary outcome, and the chest compression depth, chest compression rate, and the proportion of complete chest decompression (≤1 cm of residual leaning) were recorded as secondary outcomes. The proportion of accurate chest compression depth in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (64.6±7.8% versus 43.1±28.3%; p = 0.02). The mean compression depth and rate and the proportion of complete chest decompressions did not differ significantly between the two groups (all p>0.05). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation-related feedback via a smartwatch could provide assistance with respect to the ideal range of chest compression depth, and this can easily be applied to patients with out-of-hospital arrest by rescuers who wear smartwatches.

  6. 17beta-estradiol rapidly mobilizes intracellular calcium from ryanodine-receptor-gated stores via a PKC-PKA-Erk-dependent pathway in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W

    2008-09-01

    We describe a novel rapid non-genomic effect of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signalling in the eccrine sweat gland epithelial cell line NCL-SG3. E2 had no observable effect on basal [Ca2+]i, however exposure of cells to E2 in the presence of the microsomal Ca2+ ATPase pump inhibitor, thapsigargin, produced a secondary, sustained increase in [Ca2+]i compared to thapsigargin treatment alone, where cells responded with a transient single spike-like increase in [Ca2+]i. The E2-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was not dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and was completely abolished by ryanodine (100 microM). The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 (1 microM) prevented the E2-induced effects suggesting a role for the estrogen receptor in the release of [Ca2+]i from ryanodine-receptor-gated stores. The E2-induced effect on [Ca2+]i could also be prevented by the protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta)-specific inhibitor rottlerin (10 microM), the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3\\

  7. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, M. A.; Chaney, L.; Rugh, J. P.

    2015-04-30

    Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation. An advanced thermal test manikin was used to assess a zonal approach to climate control. In addition, vehicle thermal analysis was used to support testing by exploring thermal load reduction strategies, evaluating occupant thermal comfort, and calculating EV range impacts. Through stationary cooling tests and vehicle simulations, a zonal cooling configuration demonstrated range improvement of 6%-15%, depending on the drive cycle. A combined cooling configuration that incorporated thermal load reduction and zonal cooling strategies showed up to 33% improvement in EV range.

  8. Exercise, performance and temperature control: temperature regulation during exercise and implications for sports performance and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, S M; Vroman, N B

    1985-01-01

    Thermoregulation is an important consideration not only for athletic performance but also for the safety of the athlete. This article presents a broad overview of the mechanisms by which body heat is dissipated in an individual exercising in a hot environment. Particularly emphasised are more recent views of body heat loss mechanisms and the influences of non-thermal inputs, such as effects due to changing blood volume or blood flow distribution. During exercise in a hot environment, metabolic heat produced by the exercising muscles is transported by the circulating blood to the surface of the body where it is released to the environment, either by radiation and convection or by evaporation of sweat. The primary drives for both the increased skin blood flow and increased body sweating are the thermal inputs which are sensed by receptors in the deep body core, with a lesser drive from skin receptors. These thermal signals are integrated in the hypothalamus and proper heat loss responses are effected. When exercise is prolonged, however, and body rehydration is not adequate, the total blood volume may be compromised. In addition, as the core temperature increases during exercise, larger proportions of the blood volume are distributed to the cutaneous vessels, thus effectively reducing cardiac return and central blood volume. During severe exercise, a reduction in cardiac filling may result in a fall in central venous pressure and stimulate baroreceptor vasoconstrictor reflexes. As discussed below, the outputs from these baroreceptors compete with and modify the thermal drives for both the control of the skin blood flow and control of the sweat glands. The effect of high ambient temperatures on exercise performance is most evident in prolonged submaximal exercise. Normally, maximal exercise performance is not altered by high temperatures unless the individual has an elevated deep body temperature before the start of the exercise task. However, submaximal exercise

  9. Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S P; Yang, F Q; Tsim, Karl W K

    2006-08-28

    Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease. As the rarity and upstanding curative effects of natural Cordyceps, several mycelial strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured in large quantities by fermentation technology, and they are commonly sold as health food products in Asia. In addition, some substitutes such as Cordyceps militaris also have been used and adulterants also confused the market. Therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Herein, markers and analytical methods for quality control of Cordyceps were reviewed and discussed.

  10. Desempenho reprodutivo, características do pelame e taxa de sudação em vacas da raça Braford Effects of hair coat traits and sweating rate on reproductive performance of Braford cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Abaker Bertipaglia

    2008-09-01

    ção de bovinos da raça Braford no Brasil.This study aimed to evaluate the effects of hair coat traits (thickness (T, reflectance (R, length (L, diameter (D and number of hairs per unit area (N and sweating rate (SR on calving interval (CI, n = 423 and days to calving (DC, n = 1202 of Braford cows raised in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Data were analyzed by least squares and the model for CI included the effects of age class of cow, genetic group, sire and regression on R, T, L, N, D and SR. For days to calving the following effects were considered: R, T, L, N, D, TS divided in classes; regressions on genetic group, age at the beginning of breeding season and sire. Variance and covariance components were estimated by REML. Hair coat traits and SR traits were not statistically significant for CI, but the SR effect was statistically significant on DC. The heritability estimates were practically null for CI and DC and ranged from 0.08 to 0.30 for adaptive characteristics (T = 0.16 ± 0.09; L = 0.18 ± 0.09; N = 0.08 ± 0.06; D = 0.12 ± 0.07; R = 0.30 ± 0.12; SR = 0.10 ± 0.06. Overall, estimates of genetic correlations between pair of traits (hair coat, sweating rate, CI and DC were characterized by high standard errors. Additional data is required to obtain accurate estimates of genetic correlations among hair coat traits, sweating rate and reproductive performance of Braford cows in Brazil.

  11. A hybrid simulator model for the control of catastrophic external junctional haemorrhage in the military environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverplats, Katarina; Jonsson, Anders; Lundberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Catastrophic haemorrhage from extremity injuries has for a long time been the single most common cause of preventable death in the military environment. The effective use of extremity tourniquets has increased the survival of combat casualties, and exsanguination from isolated limb injuries is no longer the most common cause of death. Today, the most common cause of potentially preventable death is haemorrhage from the junctional zones, i.e. the most proximal part of the extremities, not amenable to standard tourniquets. Different training techniques to control catastrophic haemorrhage have been used by the Swedish Armed Forces in the pre-deployment training of physicians, nurses and medics for many years. The training techniques include different types of human patient simulators such as moulage patients and manikins. Preferred training conditions for the control of catastrophic haemorrhage include a high degree of realism, in combination with multiple training attempts. This report presents a new hybrid training model for catastrophic external junctional haemorrhage control. It offers a readily reproducible, simple and inexpensive opportunity to train personnel to deal with life threatening catastrophic junctional haemorrhage. In particular, this model offers an opportunity for non-medical military personnel in Sweden to practice control of realistic catastrophic haemorrhage, with multiple training attempts.

  12. Biodynamic Assessment of the THOR-K Manikin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    previously completed to evaluate the sideward impact forces occurring at the crew seat occupant’s shoulder and hip . However, even though the side...operates on the principle of differential gas pressures acting on both surfaces of a thrust piston in a closed 24 inch diameter cylinder. The impact...acceleration occurs at the beginning of the experiment as stored high-pressure air is allowed to impinge on the back-side surface of the thrust piston

  13. Manikin for assessment of MP3 player exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary personal stereo players are compact, easy to use, and provide intense, high-quality sound that can be heard anywhere anytime. The players are reasonable in price, and have become very popular among children and adolescents. Little is known about listening habits among children and ad...

  14. Simulation of Human Respiration with Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik

    The human respiration contains carbon dioxide, bioeffluents, and perhaps virus or bacteria. People may also indulge in activities that produce contaminants, as for example tobacco smoking. For these reasons, the human respiration remains one of the main contributors to contamination of the indoor...

  15. Adapting the ADAM Manikin Technology for Injury Probability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-19

    Fractures of the Femoral Neck. Orthop Clin North Am, 5(4), 713-27 (1974 Oct). 408. Jenkins, N.H. The Unstable Colles ’ Fracture. J Hand Surg [Br], 14(2), 149...Joints. AMRL-TR-71-29 Paper No. 15, December 1971. 654. Overgaard, S., Solgaard, S. Osteoarthritis After Colles ’ Fracture. Orthopedics, 12(3), 413-6 (1989...Fatal 2-3 Leg Lower Multiple lj I Fatal 9 T-06 Fracture 7 Major 2-3 Los Upper Amu ’on 6 Fatal 4 T-06 Cord lnj Fractura /Consus I Fatal 3 LAg Upper

  16. Advanced Dynamic Anthropomorphic Manikin (ADAM) Final Design Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    14A. S CONT3 ,I MIJ3SO CM B[.8 1’I V, (At) Parity - 0 7 PNF .S MSI3SN No - next checx YSET V2, TSURCTL Set odd parity 1{RA. S CONT311 MUJ3SN CMPL.B I...Word length = 5 ? BNE3.S MU31.36 No - check 6 BS[’I C,, TCERCIL Set word length at 5 B!I𔃽’"T t6, T3i:RCTL I:FA. S CONT3 ] 3 MU3136 CMFI.E I$36,(A6) Word

  17. The effect of anesthesia on body temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Rainer

    2010-06-01

    The human thermoregulatory system usually maintains core body temperature near 37 degrees C. This homeostasis is accomplished by thermoregulatory defense mechanisms such as vasoconstriction and shivering or sweating and vasodilatation. Thermoregulation is impaired during general anesthesia. Suppression of thermoregulatory defense mechanisms during general anesthesia is dose dependant and mostly results in perioperative hypothermia. Several adverse effects of hypothermia have been identified, including an increase in postoperative wound infection, perioperative coagulopathy and an increase of postoperative morbid cardiac events. Perioperative hypothermia can be avoided by warming patients actively during general anesthesia. Fever is a controlled increase of core body temperature. Various causes of perioperative fever are given. Fever is usually attenuated by general anesthesia. Typically, patients develop a fever of greater magnitude in the postoperative phase. Postoperative fever is fairly common. The incidence of fever varies with type and duration of surgery, patient's age, surgical site and preoperative inflammation.

  18. Impact of sport drinks on sweat composition

    OpenAIRE

    Muraro, Marcela; Zuliani, Claudio; Nesterenko, Ekaterina; Coyle, Shirley; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Warrington, Giles; Matzeu, Giusy; Costa, Ernane; Diamond, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In sport science it is well known that individual diet has an important role in affecting a person’s performance [1]. In this regard, in the last 10-20 years energy and sport drinks have become increasingly popular among elite and amateur athletes. The worldwide consumption of energy drinks increased in 2006 to 906 million gallons [2]. Just in Brazil, from 2008 to 2010, the production of energy drinks doubled [3]. A possible reason for their popularity is that they claim to help...

  19. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis and Nutrition Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition View more Partner Message ...

  20. A New Movement Breaks a Sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Discusses new organizations which monitor production of apparel and other items under possible sweatshop conditions in the context of institutional policies concerning production of licensed products with college/university logos (such as sweatshirts). Reviews controversy concerning the competing organizations, the Fair Labor Association, and the…