WorldWideScience

Sample records for sweat

  1. Sweating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sweat when you are hot, but once you hit puberty, you will also sweat when you are ... gov) | HHS Nondiscrimination Notice Español | Tagalog | Français | Deutsch | 繁體ä¸æ–‡ | Рус ...

  2. What's Sweat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body breaks down protein.) The sweat leaves your skin through tiny holes called pores. When the sweat hits the air, the air makes it evaporate (this means it turns from a liquid to a vapor). As the sweat evaporates off your skin, you cool down. Sweat is a great cooling ...

  3. Diagnosing night sweats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthon J; Bond, Michael M; Yates, Scott W

    2003-03-01

    Night sweats are a common outpatient complaint, yet literature on the subject is scarce. Tuberculosis and lymphoma are diseases in which night sweats are a dominant symptom, but these are infrequently found to be the cause of night sweats in modern practice. While these diseases remain important diagnostic considerations in patients with night sweats, other diagnoses to consider include human immunodeficiency virus, gastroesophageal reflux disease, obstructive sleep apnea, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, and several less common diseases. Antihypertensives, antipyretics, other medications, and drugs of abuse such as alcohol and heroin may cause night sweats. Serious causes of night sweats can be excluded with a thorough history, physical examination, and directed laboratory and radiographic studies. If a history and physical do not reveal a possible diagnosis, physicians should consider a purified protein derivative, complete blood count, human immunodeficiency virus test, thyroid-stimulating hormone test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate evaluation, chest radiograph, and possibly chest and abdominal computed tomographic scans and bone marrow biopsy.

  4. Immunohistochemical sweat gland profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E; Delvenne, Philippe; Quatresooz, Pascale; Humbert, Philippe; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. Some immunohistochemical markers are expected to distinguish the sweat gland types in their secretory and excretory parts. This study used two sets of antibodies. The first panel was composed of antibodies directed to well-defined sweat gland structures. The molecular targets included the low-molecular-weight cytokeratins CAM 5.2, the S100-B protein, the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). A second exploratory panel of antibodies targeted syndecan-1 (CD138), NKI-C3 (CD63), and CD68. They were used to disclose some undescribed antigen expressions in human sweat glands. The first set of antibodies confirmed previous findings. The immunoreactivities of the three sweat gland types were similar in the excretory ducts. By contrast, they were distinguished in the deeper coiled secretory portions of the glands. Clues supporting their distinction and probably their functional activity were obtained by immunohistochemistry using the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 antibodies. The immunoreactivity to the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 possibly help identifying apoeccrine sweat glands or a peculiar functional activity of eccrine sweat glands. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have this type are otherwise healthy. In medical terminology, the word “primary” means that the cause is not another medical condition. Secondary hyperhidrosis In medical terminology, “secondary” means that the excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) has ...

  6. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrical measurement of sweat activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronstad, Christian; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Gjein, Gaute E; Fosse, Erik; Krogstad, Anne-Lene

    2008-01-01

    A multichannel logger for long-term measurements of sweat activity is presented. The logger uses skin surface electrodes for unipolar admittance measurements in the stratum corneum. The logger is developed with emphasis on clinical use. The portability of the logger enables recording of sweat activity under circumstances such as daily errands, exercise and sleep. Measurements have been done on 24 healthy volunteers during relaxation and exercise with heart rate monitoring. Recordings of sweat activity during sleep have been done on two healthy subjects. Early results show good agreement with the literature on sweating physiology and electrodermal activity. Results are presented showing measurements related to physical exercise, dermatomes, distribution of sweat glands and sympathetic activity. This study examines the normal sweating patterns for the healthy population, and we present results with the first 24 healthy volunteers. Comparing these results with similar measurements on hyperhidrosis patients will make it possible to find the most useful parameters for diagnosis and treatment evaluation

  8. Sweating dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinn, L; Schrag, A; Viswanathan, R; Lees, A; Quinn, N; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence and nature of sweating disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and investigated their correlation with other clinical features and with Quality of Life (QoL) measures. A questionnaire on symptoms and consequences of sweating dysfunction was

  9. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  10. Interstellar Sweat Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. H.; Becker, R. E.; O'Donnell, D. J.; Brody, A. R.

    So, you have just launched aboard the Starship, headed to an exoplanet light years from Earth. You will spend the rest of your natural life on this journey in the expectation and hope that your grandchildren will arrive safely, land, and build a new settlement. You will need to govern the community onboard the Starship. This system of governance must meet unique requirements for participation, representation, and decision-making. On a spaceship that can fly and operate by itself, what will the crewmembers do for their generations in transit? Certainly, they will train and train again to practice the skills they will need upon arrival at a new world. However, this vicarious practice neither suffices to prepare the future pioneers for their destiny at a new star nor will it provide them with the satisfaction in their own work. To hone the crewmembers' inventive and technical skills, to challenge and prepare them for pioneering, the crew would build and expand the interstellar ship in transit. This transstellar ``sweat equity'' gives a stake in the enterprise to all the people, providing meaningful and useful activity to the new generations of crewmembers. They build all the new segments of the vessel from raw materials - including atmosphere - stored on board. Construction of new pressure shell modules would be one option, but they also reconstruct or fill-in existing pressurized volumes. The crew makes new life support system components and develops new agricultural modules in anticipation of their future needs. Upon arrival at the new star or planet, the crew shall apply these robustly developed skills and self-sufficient spirit to their new home.

  11. Hot Flashes amd Night Sweats (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview ... quality of life in many patients with cancer. Hot flashes and night sweats may be side effects ...

  12. Why Do I Sweat So Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & ... perfectly normal to sweat. Sweating plays an important health role because it helps maintain body temperature by cooling us down. When we're hot ...

  13. Urea transporters and sweat response to uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Raymond W; Bailey, James L; Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-06-01

    In humans, urea is excreted in sweat, largely through the eccrine sweat gland. The urea concentration in human sweat is elevated when compared to blood urea nitrogen. The sweat urea nitrogen (UN) of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) is increased when compared with healthy humans. The ability to produce sweat is maintained in the overwhelming majority of ESRD patients. A comprehensive literature review found no reports of sweat UN neither in healthy rodents nor in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this study measured sweat UN concentrations in healthy and uremic rats. Uninephrectomy followed by renal artery ligation was used to remove 5/6 of renal function. Rats were then fed a high-protein diet to induce uremia. Pilocarpine was used to induce sweating. Sweat droplets were collected under oil. Sweat UN was measured with a urease assay. Serum UN was measured using a fluorescent ortho-pthalaldehyde reaction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was accomplished with a horseradish peroxidase and diaminobenzidine technique. Sweat UN in uremic rats was elevated greater than two times compared to healthy pair-fed controls (220 ± 17 and 91 ± 15 mmol/L, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between male and female uremic sweat UN (279 ± 38 and 177 ± 11 mmol/L, respectively.) IHC shows, for the first time, the presence of the urea transporters UT-B and UT-A2 in both healthy and uremic rat cutaneous structures. Future studies will use this model to elucidate how rat sweat UN and other solute excretion is altered by commonly prescribed diuretics. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... 100 mg/5 min. CONCLUSIONS: A sweat production rate of 100 mg/5 min as measured by gravimetric testing may be a reasonable cut-off value for distinguishing axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis from normal physiological sweat production....

  15. Sweat function in the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markendeya Nirmala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction, an early manifestation of diabetic neuropathy, presents with altered sweating patterns, leading to dryness and fissuring. We conducted a study to assess the sweat function in the diabetic foot and to determine the interrelation between the duration of diabetes, sensation, fissuring, and sweating. Methods: The sweat function was assessed in 30 diabetic patients, 28 of whom had fissuring of the feet, using Ninhydrin impregnated discs. Results: There was a significant association between fissuring and sensation, but not between the duration of diabetes and fissuring and between loss of sweating and fissuring. In 18 patients (60% there was impairment or absence of sweating in the presence of normal sensation. Conclusion: Although fissuring increases with long-standing diabetes and sweating is reduced in diabetic patients with fissures on the foot, the correlation between these entities was not statistically significant. Since 60% patients had altered sweating in the presence of normal sensations, the sweat test can be used as an early indicator of diabetic neuropathy.

  16. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  17. Effect of Sweating on Insulation of Footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    1998-01-01

    The study aimed to find out the influence of sweating on footwear insulation with a thermal foot model. Simultaneously, the influence of applied weight (35 kg), sock, and steel toe cap were studied. Water to 3 sweat glands was supplied with a pump at the rate of 10 g/hr in total. Four models of boots with steel toe caps were tested. The same models were manufactured also without steel toe. Sweating reduced footwear insulation 19-25% (30-37% in toes). During static conditions, only a minimal amount of sweat evaporated from boots. Weight affected sole insulation: Reduction depended on compressibility of sole material. The influence of steel toe varied with insulation. The method of thermal foot model appears to be a practical tool for footwear evaluation.

  18. Integrated sudomotor axon reflex sweat stimulation for continuous sweat analyte analysis with individuals at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonner, Zachary; Wilder, Eliza; Gaillard, Trudy; Kasting, Gerald; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2017-07-25

    Eccrine sweat has rapidly emerged as a non-invasive, ergonomic, and rich source of chemical analytes with numerous technological demonstrations now showing the ability for continuous electrochemical sensing. However, beyond active perspirers (athletes, workers, etc.), continuous sweat access in individuals at rest has hindered the advancement of both sweat sensing science and technology. Reported here is integration of sudomotor axon reflex sweat stimulation for continuous wearable sweat analyte analysis, including the ability for side-by-side integration of chemical stimulants & sensors without cross-contamination. This integration approach is uniquely compatible with sensors which consume the analyte (enzymatic) or sensors which equilibrate with analyte concentrations. In vivo validation is performed using iontophoretic delivery of carbachol with ion-selective and impedance sensors for sweat analysis. Carbachol has shown prolonged sweat stimulation in directly stimulated regions for five hours or longer. This work represents a significant leap forward in sweat sensing technology, and may be of broader interest to those interested in on-skin sensing integrated with drug-delivery.

  19. Sweat test for cystic fibrosis: Wearable sweat sensor vs. standard laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Hoon; Thaxton, Abigail; Jeong, In Cheol; Kim, Kain; Sosnay, Patrick R; Cutting, Garry R; Searson, Peter C

    2018-03-23

    Sweat chloride testing for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) involves sweat induction, collection and handling, and measurement in an analytical lab. We have developed a wearable sensor with an integrated salt bridge for real-time measurement of sweat chloride concentration. Here, in a proof-of-concept study, we compare the performance of the sensor to current clinical practice in CF patients and healthy subjects. Sweat was induced on both forearms of 10 individuals with CF and 10 healthy subjects using pilocarpine iontophoresis. A Macroduct sweat collection device was attached to one arm and sweat was collected for 30 min and then sent for laboratory analysis. A sensor was attached to the other arm and the chloride ion concentration monitored in real time for 30 min using a Bluetooth transceiver and smart phone app. Stable sweat chloride measurements were obtained within 15 min following sweat induction using the wearable sensor. We define the detection time as the time at which the standard deviation of the real-time chloride ion concentration remained below 2 mEq/L for 5 min. The sweat volume for sensor measurements at the detection time was 13.1 ± 11.4 μL (SD), in many cases lower than the minimum sweat volume of 15 μL for conventional testing. The mean difference between sweat chloride concentrations measured by the sensor and the conventional laboratory practice was 6.2 ± 9.5 mEq/L (SD), close to the arm-to-arm variation of about 3 mEq/L. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the two measurements was 0.97 highlighting the excellent agreement between the two methods. A wearable sensor can be used to make real-time measurements of sweat chloride within 15 min following sweat induction, requiring a small sweat volume, and with excellent agreement to standard methods. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A portable optical human sweat sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-omari, Mahmoud; Liu, Gengchen; Mueller, Anja; Mock, Adam; Ghosh, Ruby N.; Smith, Kyle; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-11-01

    We describe the use of HNQ (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or Lawsone) as a potential sweat sensor material to detect the hydration levels of human beings. We have conducted optical measurements using both artificial and human sweat to validate our approach. We have determined that the dominant compound that affects HNQ absorbance in artificial sweat is sodium. The presence of lactate decreases the reactivity of HNQ while urea promotes more interactions of sodium and potassium ions with HNQ. The interactions between the hydroxyl group of HNQ and the artificial sweat components (salts, lactic acid, and urea) were investigated comprehensively. We have also proposed and developed a portable diode laser absorption sensor system that converts the absorbance at a particular wavelength range (at 455 ± 5 nm, where HNQ has an absorbance peak) into light intensity measurements via a photocell. The absorbance intensity values obtained from our portable sensor system agrees within 10.4% with measurements from a laboratory based ultraviolet-visible spectrometer. Findings of this research will provide significant information for researchers who are focusing on real-time, in-situ hydration level detection.

  1. The sweating foot: local differences in sweat secretion during exercise-induced hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Caldwell, Joanne N; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2006-10-01

    Little is known regarding local differences in foot sweat secretion. Since such information is important to our understanding of sweat gland control for thermoregulatory modeling and for the design of footwear we explored this topic. Local sweat rates were investigated across core temperatures from 37-39 degrees C, achieved using endogenous (cycling) and exogenous heat (water-perfusion garment: 46 degrees C). Six healthy adults (three men, three women) performed one-legged, incremental cycling in a heated, climate-controlled chamber (36 degrees C, 60% relative humidity). Sweat rates were measured at the forehead and stationary (left) foot (capsules 3.16 cm2): three dorsal sites (base of toes, second metatarsal, and mid point), the lateral, and the central plantar surfaces. Terminal core temperatures ranged between 38.3-39.1 oC, with peak heart rates of 155-187 bpm. Most foot sweat rates were < 50% of that observed at the forehead: dorsal 1 (38%); dorsal 2 (54%); dorsal 3 (37%); lateral (24%); and plantar surfaces (18%). When averaged across the trial, local sweat rates were: 2.61 (forehead); 0.98 (dorsal 1); 1.39 (dorsal 2); 0.95 (dorsal 3); 0.62 (lateral); and 0.47 mg cm2 2 min-1 (plantar). Two key observations emerged. First, sweat secretion from the experimental foot averaged 30 ml x h(-1), peaking in the last 5 min at 50 ml x h(-1). Second, approximately 70% of the measured sweat flow emanated from the upper skin surfaces, with only 30% coming from the plantar surface.

  2. Skin Tattoos Alter Sweat Rate and Na+ Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie Joe; Hanisko, Joseph Michael; Aho, Kyle Mathiew

    2017-07-01

    The popularity of tattoos has increased tremendously in the last 10 yr particularly among athletes and military personnel. The tattooing process involves permanently depositing ink under the skin at a similar depth as eccrine sweat glands (3-5 mm). The purpose of this study was to compare the sweat rate and sweat Na concentration of tattooed versus nontattooed skin. The participants were 10 healthy men (age = 21 ± 1 yr), all with a unilateral tattoo covering a circular area at least 5.2 cm. Sweat was stimulated by iontophoresis using agar gel disks impregnated with 0.5% pilocarpine nitrate. The nontattooed skin was located contralateral to the position of the tattooed skin. The disks used to collect sweat were composed of Tygon® tubing wound into a spiral so that the sweat was pulled into the tubing by capillary action. The sweat rate was determined by weighing the disk before and after sweat collection. The sweat Na concentration was determined by flame photometry. The mean sweat rate from tattooed skin was significantly less than nontattooed skin (0.18 ± 0.15 vs 0.35 ± 0.25 mg·cm·min; P = 0.001). All 10 participants generated less sweat from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin and the effect size was -0.79. The mean sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin was significantly higher than nontattooed skin (69.1 ± 28.9 vs 42.6 ± 15.2 mmol·L; P = 0.02). Nine of 10 participants had higher sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin, and the effect size was 1.01. Tattooed skin generated less sweat and a higher Na concentration than nontattooed skin when stimulated by pilocarpine iontophoresis.

  3. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber an...

  4. The sweating sickness in England | Sloan | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An acute infect;ous fever, called the sweating sickness, broke out in England in five major epidemics in the years 1485, 1508, 1517, 1528 and 1551. Only one epidemic, that of 1528, spread also on the continent of Europe. The disease I-vas characterized by headache, pain in the chest, and profuse sweating, and frequently ...

  5. Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Sweat: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sears

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury exposures are ubiquitous. These toxic elements have no physiological benefits, engendering interest in minimizing body burden. The physiological process of sweating has long been regarded as “cleansing” and of low risk. Reports of toxicant levels in sweat were sought in Medline, Embase, Toxline, Biosis, and AMED as well as reference lists and grey literature, from inception to March 22, 2011. Of 122 records identified, 24 were included in evidence synthesis. Populations, and sweat collection methods and concentrations varied widely. In individuals with higher exposure or body burden, sweat generally exceeded plasma or urine concentrations, and dermal could match or surpass urinary daily excretion. Arsenic dermal excretion was severalfold higher in arsenic-exposed individuals than in unexposed controls. Cadmium was more concentrated in sweat than in blood plasma. Sweat lead was associated with high-molecular-weight molecules, and in an interventional study, levels were higher with endurance compared with intensive exercise. Mercury levels normalized with repeated saunas in a case report. Sweating deserves consideration for toxic element detoxification. Research including appropriately sized trials is needed to establish safe, effective therapeutic protocols.

  6. Computational estimation of decline in sweating in the elderly from measured body temperatures and sweating for passive heat exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Nomura, Tomoki; Laakso, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    Several studies reported the difference in heat tolerance between younger and older adults, which may be attributable to the decline in the sweating rate. One of the studies suggested a hypothesis that the dominant factor causing the decline in sweating was the decline in thermal sensitivity due to a weaker signal from the periphery to the regulatory centres. However, no quantitative investigation of the skin temperature threshold for activating the sweating has been conducted in previous studies. In this study, we developed a computational code to simulate the time evolution of the temperature variation and sweating in realistic human models under heat exposure, in part by comparing the computational results with measured data from younger and older adults. Based on our computational results, the difference in the threshold temperatures for activating the thermophysiological response, especially for sweating, is examined between older and younger adults. The threshold for activating sweating in older individuals was found to be about 1.5 °C higher than that in younger individuals. However, our computation did not suggest that it was possible to evaluate the central alteration with ageing by comparing the computation with the measurements for passive heat exposure, since the sweating rate is marginally affected by core temperature elevation at least for the scenarios considered here. The computational technique developed herein is useful for understanding the thermophysiological response of older individuals from measured data. (note)

  7. Cystic fibrosis with normal sweat chloride concentration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Filho Luiz Vicente Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease usually diagnosed by abnormal sweat testing. We report a case of an 18-year-old female with bronchiectasis, chronic P. aeruginosa infection, and normal sweat chloride concentrations who experienced rapid decrease of lung function and clinical deterioration despite treatment. Given the high suspicion ofcystic fibrosis, broad genotyping testing was performed, showing a compound heterozygous with deltaF508 and 3849+10kb C->T mutations, therefore confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Although the sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, alternative diagnostic tests such as genotyping and electrophysiologic measurements must be performed if there is suspicion of cystic fibrosis, despite normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

  8. \\'Sweat Equity\\': Women\\'s Participation in Subsidised Housing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The notion of \\"sweat equity\\" has been promoted as an integral part of subsidised housing in South African Housing policy. It\\'s tougher for females, though. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 58-64 ...

  9. Wearable Sweat Rate Sensors for Human Thermal Comfort Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2018-01-19

    We propose watch-type sweat rate sensors capable of automatic natural ventilation by integrating miniaturized thermo-pneumatic actuators, and experimentally verify their performances and applicability. Previous sensors using natural ventilation require manual ventilation process or high-power bulky thermo-pneumatic actuators to lift sweat rate detection chambers above skin for continuous measurement. The proposed watch-type sweat rate sensors reduce operation power by minimizing expansion fluid volume to 0.4 ml through heat circuit modeling. The proposed sensors reduce operation power to 12.8% and weight to 47.6% compared to previous portable sensors, operating for 4 hours at 6 V batteries. Human experiment for thermal comfort monitoring is performed by using the proposed sensors having sensitivity of 0.039 (pF/s)/(g/m 2 h) and linearity of 97.9% in human sweat rate range. Average sweat rate difference for each thermal status measured in three subjects shows (32.06 ± 27.19) g/m 2 h in thermal statuses including 'comfortable', 'slightly warm', 'warm', and 'hot'. The proposed sensors thereby can discriminate and compare four stages of thermal status. Sweat rate measurement error of the proposed sensors is less than 10% under air velocity of 1.5 m/s corresponding to human walking speed. The proposed sensors are applicable for wearable and portable use, having potentials for daily thermal comfort monitoring applications.

  10. Dynamic analysis of mental sweating of eccrine sweat gland of human fingertip by time-sequential piled-up en face optical coherence tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmi, Masato; Wada, Yuki

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate dynamic analysis of mental sweating for sound stimulus of a few tens of eccrine sweat glands by the time-sequential piled-up en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) images with the frame spacing of 3.3 sec. In the experiment, the amount of excess sweat can be evaluated simultaneously for a few tens of sweat glands by piling up of all the en face OCT images. Non-uniformity was observed in mental sweating where the amount of sweat in response to sound stimulus is different for each sweat gland. Furthermore, the amount of sweat is significantly increased in proportion to the strength of the stimulus.

  11. Trapped sweat in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Reimel, Adam J; Sopeña, Bridget C; Barnes, Kelly A; Nuccio, Ryan P; De Chavez, Peter John D; Stofan, John R; Carter, James M

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: (1) trapped sweat (TS) in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss (SL) estimates during a laboratory-based basketball simulation protocol; (2) the impact of exercise intensity, body mass, age, and SL on TS; and (3) TS during on-court training to assess the ecological validity of the laboratory-based results. Twenty-four recreational/competitive male basketball players (23 ± 10 years, 77.0 ± 16.7 kg) completed three randomized laboratory-based trials (Low, Moderate, and High intensity) consisting of 150-min intermittent exercise. Eighteen elite male players (23 ± 4 years, 92.0 ± 20.6 kg) were observed during coach-led, on-court training. Nude and clothed body mass were measured pre and postexercise to determine TS. Data are mean ± SD. There was a significant effect of intensity on SL and TS ( P  Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  13. Decreased thermal sweating of central sudomotor mechanism in African and Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Beom; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2018-05-01

    Tropical natives sweat less and preserve more body fluid than temperate natives, tolerating heat stress. However, the mechanisms involved in such sweating reduction have not been fully elucidated. We examined the sudomotor responses of men of African (n = 36) and Korean (n = 41) ancestry during hot water (43 °C) leg immersion (central sudomotor response). Correlations between mean body temperature, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and sweat rate were also examined. All procedures were done in an automated climate chamber. Local skin temperatures and BMR were measured and mean body temperature was calculated. Sweating activities which include evaporative loss rate, sweat onset time, sweat rate, sweat volume, and whole-body sweat loss volume were examined. In the heat load test, Africans showed lower mean body and local skin temperatures than Koreans before and after heating. Before and after heating, BMR declined significantly in Africans, while that of Koreans declined less. Local sweat onset time increased more in Africans than in Koreans. Local evaporative loss rate, local sweat volume, local sweat rate, and whole body sweat loss volume were reduced in Africans compared with Koreans. There were positive associations of mean body temperature and resting BMR with mean sweat rate. In conclusion, we observed a larger reduction of sudomotor activity in tropical Africans than in temperate Koreans, which was associated with their lower mean body temperature and lower resting BMR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  15. Sunscreen Use and Sweat Production in Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Aburto Corona, Jorge Alberto; Aragón Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Context: Sunscreen lotions are important to protect the skin during outdoor exercise, but they may interfere with sweating. Objective: To measure the effect of two different water-resistant sunscreen products on local sweat production in men and women exercising in the heat, and to compare it with the expected inhibition resulting from the use of an antiperspirant. Design: Randomized Crossover Study Design. Setting: Exercise in the heat (30.2 ± 0.4°C d.b. and 58 ± 4.3% r.h, mean ± ...

  16. Wearable technologies for sweat rate and conductivity sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Salvo, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Wearable sensors present a new frontier in the development of monitoring techniques. They are of great importance in sectors such as sports and healthcare, as they permit the continuous monitoring of physiological and biological elements, such as ECG and human sweat. Until recently, this could only be carried out in specialized laboratories in the presence of cumbersome, and usually, expensive devices. Sweat monitoring sensors integrated onto textile substrates are not only part of a new field of work but, they also represent the first attempt to implement such an

  17. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  18. Sweat chloride as a biomarker of CFTR activity: proof of concept and ivacaftor clinical trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Frank J; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L; Rowe, Steven M; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W; Hoch, Heather E; Heltshe, Sonya L; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Campbell, Preston W; Ashlock, Melissa A

    2014-03-01

    We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821} of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with aG551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing,and analysis was employed for the first time. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators.

  19. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is requir...

  20. Crying for a Vision: The Native American Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Brubaker, Michael; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Brotherton, Dale; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Conwill, William; Grayshield, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The Native American sweat lodge ceremony or sweat therapy is being used increasingly in various medical, mental health, correctional, and substance abuse treatment centers serving both Native and non-Native clients. This article explores the sweat lodge ceremony's background, elements of Native American spirituality, origin story, cultural…

  1. Effects of stimulation technique, anatomical region and time on human sweat lipid mediator profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few studies compare sampling protocol effect on sweat composition. Here we evaluate the impact of sweat stimulation mode and site of collection on lipid mediator composition. Sweat from healthy males (n = 7) was collected weekly for three weeks from the volar forearm following either pilocarpine ion...

  2. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a non-invasive approach for cutaneous research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat is a complex biological fluid with potential diagnostic value for the investigation of skin disorders. Previous efforts in sweat testing focused on analysis of small molecules and ions for forensic and diagnostic testing, but with advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques, there h...

  3. Sweat it Out : Johannes de Gorter and Sudorifics in the Dutch Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Today, many go for a run, cover themselves under blankets, or sit in the sauna believing that they can ‘sweat out’ the common cold. Whereas modern medicine has falsified the efficacy of sweating as treatment, this paper considers the development of medical research about sweating in the early modern

  4. Sweat loss prediction using a multi-model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Santee, William R

    2011-07-01

    A new multi-model approach (MMA) for sweat loss prediction is proposed to improve prediction accuracy. MMA was computed as the average of sweat loss predicted by two existing thermoregulation models: i.e., the rational model SCENARIO and the empirical model Heat Strain Decision Aid (HSDA). Three independent physiological datasets, a total of 44 trials, were used to compare predictions by MMA, SCENARIO, and HSDA. The observed sweat losses were collected under different combinations of uniform ensembles, environmental conditions (15-40°C, RH 25-75%), and exercise intensities (250-600 W). Root mean square deviation (RMSD), residual plots, and paired t tests were used to compare predictions with observations. Overall, MMA reduced RMSD by 30-39% in comparison with either SCENARIO or HSDA, and increased the prediction accuracy to 66% from 34% or 55%. Of the MMA predictions, 70% fell within the range of mean observed value ± SD, while only 43% of SCENARIO and 50% of HSDA predictions fell within the same range. Paired t tests showed that differences between observations and MMA predictions were not significant, but differences between observations and SCENARIO or HSDA predictions were significantly different for two datasets. Thus, MMA predicted sweat loss more accurately than either of the two single models for the three datasets used. Future work will be to evaluate MMA using additional physiological data to expand the scope of populations and conditions.

  5. Development of emotional sweating in the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, V A; Rutter, N

    1982-09-01

    Sweating from the palm and sole occurs independently of ambient temperature but is influenced by emotional factors. It thus provides a useful objective measure of emotional state. The development of this emotional sweating in the newborn was investigated by measuring palmar water loss and relating it to the infant's state of arousal. Although 433 individual measurements were made on 124 babies of gestational age 25 to 41 weeks and postnatal age 15 hours to 9 weeks. Palmar water loss was also recorded continuously in 22 infants undergoing heel prick for routine blood sampling. In babies of 37 weeks' gestation or more, there was a clear relationship between palmar water loss and arousal from the day of birth, and by the third week levels on vigorous crying were comparable with those of an anxious adult. Less mature babies did not show emotional sweating at birth; it was first seen at the equivalent of 36 to 37 weeks' gestation regardless of maturity. Continuous recordings confirmed the cross-sectional data and illustrated the abrupt nature of the response. Emotional sweating could be a useful tool for the assessment of emotional state of the newborn.

  6. The Sweat Lodge Ceremony in Challenge/Adventure Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, William J.; Smith, Thomas E.

    This paper advocates the potentials of "sweat lodge" rituals for adventure education programs. Historically, rituals and ceremonies have been instrumental in passing major philosophical and sociological paradigms from one generation to the next. However, there is little theory and research about how ritual and ceremony results in the…

  7. Cranium eroding sweat gland carcinoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.; Karadeniz, A. N.; Aksu, G.; Guveli, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare tumors. Eccrine sweat gland carcinomas are also very rare, with only about 200 cases reported in the world literature and only one of them was eroding the cranium. Treatment modalities of these carcinomas are not well known. Case report. Our patient was 47 years old female. Since 1989, she was operated on six times because of the tumour relapses. After each operation, the pathological results were: sweat gland adenoma, sweat gland tumour, cylindroma, turban tumour, malign cylindiroma. That was her seventh relapse. On examination, a lesion of the size 10 x 6 cm was observed in the left parietal region. Computed tomography showed the lesion had the size of 11 x 5 cm, and was destroying the tabula externa, diploic region and tabula. The tumour was invading the dura and causing periost reaction. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy treatment was planned because of malign transformation and risk of recurrence. Conclusions. Only one case with cranium erosion was reported in literature. In our case, also intracranial extension of the tumor was observed. (author)

  8. Do elephants need to sweat? | Wright | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adequate rate of evaporative water loss is considered essential for the maintenance of thermal balance in the elephant in warm climatic conditions. Histological studies have failed to reveal the existence of sweat glands in elephant skin. Transepidermal water-loss rate has been measured and shown to be sufficiently ...

  9. the comfort, measured by means of a sweating manikin (waltertm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    With the growing importance of clothing comfort in South African and overseas markets for locally produced clothing, the Council for. Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR) acquired an advanced sweating fabric manikin for measuring clothing comfort. This preliminary investigation covers the comfort related properties, as ...

  10. Sweating, thirst perception and plasma electrolyte composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirst is a perception, the subjective experience evoked by fluid deficits. Exercise induces sweating and subsequently electrolyte loss and thirst but there is little documented on post exercise thirst perception in women of varying body mass indices. 40 apparently healthy young women (19-25years) in the follicular phase of ...

  11. Sweat gland carcinoma in a two-month old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.L.M. de; Antoneli, C.B.G.; Novaes, P.E.R.S.; Saba, L.M.; Bianchi, A.

    1982-01-01

    A case is presented of a two-month old child, female, with a sweat gland carcinoma of the left palm. The rarity of this tumor in this age is commented and the national and international literature are reviewed. It is concluded that this is probably the first case in the age group. (M.A.) [pt

  12. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  13. A novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model with physiological functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Klaka

    Full Text Available Dysregulated human eccrine sweat glands can negatively impact the quality-of-life of people suffering from disorders like hyperhidrosis. Inability of sweating can even result in serious health effects in humans affected by anhidrosis. The underlying mechanisms must be elucidated and a reliable in vitro test system for drug screening must be developed. Here we describe a novel organotypic three-dimensional (3D sweat gland model made of primary human eccrine sweat gland cells. Initial experiments revealed that eccrine sweat gland cells in a two-dimensional (2D culture lose typical physiological markers. To resemble the in vivo situation as close as possible, we applied the hanging drop cultivation technology regaining most of the markers when cultured in its natural spherical environment. To compare the organotypic 3D sweat gland model versus human sweat glands in vivo, we compared markers relevant for the eccrine sweat gland using transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Comparing the marker profile, a high in vitro-in vivo correlation was shown. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3, Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1, calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A, and aquaporin-5 (AQP5 are found at significant expression levels in the 3D model. Moreover, cholinergic stimulation with acetylcholine or pilocarpine leads to calcium influx monitored in a calcium flux assay. Cholinergic stimulation cannot be achieved with the sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3 used as a sweat gland model system. Our results show clear benefits of the organotypic 3D sweat gland model versus 2D cultures in terms of the expression of essential eccrine sweat gland key regulators and in the physiological response to stimulation. Taken together, this novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model shows a good in vitro-in vivo correlation and is an appropriate alternative for screening of potential

  14. Body Odor Trait Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Perception of Sweat Biosamples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Olofsson, Jonas K; Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    Body odors are potent triggers of disgust and regulate social behaviors in many species. The role of olfaction in disgust-associated behaviors has received scant attention in the research literature, in part because olfactory disgust assessments have required laboratory testing with odors. We have devised the "Body Odor Disgust Scale" (BODS) to facilitate research on olfactory disgust. In this study, we evaluated whether individual differences in BODS scores would be associated with the perception of disgust for sweat samples in a laboratory setting. Results show that BODS was a strong predictor of disgust ratings of sweat samples even when controlling for general disgust sensitivity. In contrast, odor intensity ratings were unrelated to BODS scores. Our findings suggest that the BODS scores reflect body odor disgust perception. The BODS scale might facilitate research on olfactory disgust responses and associated behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Lack of harmonization in sweat testing for cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Christiansen, Anne; Nybo, Mads

    2014-01-01

    interpretation and referred literature. Results. 14 departments performed the sweat test. One department measured chloride and sodium concentration, while 13 departments measured conductivity. One department used a non-existing NPU code, two departments applied NPU codes inconsistent with the method performed......, four departments applied no NPU code and seven applied a correct NPU code. Ten of the departments measuring conductivity applied reference intervals. Nine departments measuring conductivity had recommendations of a normal area, a grey zone and a pathological value, while four departments only applied...... a normal and grey zone or a pathological value. Cut-off values for normal, grey and pathological areas were like the reference intervals inconsistent. Conclusion. There is inconsistent use of NPU codes, reference intervals and interpretation of sweat conductivity used in the process of diagnosing cystic...

  16. Expanded prediction equations of human sweat loss and water needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R R; Cheuvront, S N; Montain, S J; Goodman, D A; Blanchard, L A; Berglund, L G; Sawka, M N

    2009-08-01

    The Institute of Medicine expressed a need for improved sweating rate (msw) prediction models that calculate hourly and daily water needs based on metabolic rate, clothing, and environment. More than 25 years ago, the original Shapiro prediction equation (OSE) was formulated as msw (g.m(-2).h(-1))=27.9.Ereq.(Emax)(-0.455), where Ereq is required evaporative heat loss and Emax is maximum evaporative power of the environment; OSE was developed for a limited set of environments, exposures times, and clothing systems. Recent evidence shows that OSE often overpredicts fluid needs. Our study developed a corrected OSE and a new msw prediction equation by using independent data sets from a wide range of environmental conditions, metabolic rates (rest to losses were carefully measured in 101 volunteers (80 males and 21 females; >500 observations) by using a variety of metabolic rates over a range of environmental conditions (ambient temperature, 15-46 degrees C; water vapor pressure, 0.27-4.45 kPa; wind speed, 0.4-2.5 m/s), clothing, and equipment combinations and durations (2-8 h). Data are expressed as grams per square meter per hour and were analyzed using fuzzy piecewise regression. OSE overpredicted sweating rates (Pdata (21 males and 9 females; >200 observations). OSEC and PW were more accurate predictors of sweating rate (58 and 65% more accurate, Perror (standard error estimate<100 g.m(-2).h(-1)) for conditions both within and outside the original OSE domain of validity. The new equations provide for more accurate sweat predictions over a broader range of conditions with applications to public health, military, occupational, and sports medicine settings.

  17. Decreased sweating in seven patients with Laron syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Price, D A; Savage, M O

    1993-01-01

    patients with Laron syndrome, measured by pilocarpine iontophoresis. The patients had significantly lower SSRs than healthy children matched for sex and pubertal stage (P ...). These observations further supported the hypothesis that sweat gland function in humans is under the influence of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I axis. It remains to be seen whether the decrease in SSR also leads to altered thermoregulation in patients with Laron syndrome....

  18. Influence of sex and growth hormone deficiency on sweating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Nilsson, K O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1991-01-01

    Sweat secretion rate (SSR) was measured by the pilocarpine iontophoresis test in (a) 254 healthy children and adolescents (aged 6.0 to 19.2 years, mean age 11.2 years); in (b) 58 healthy adults (aged 20.4 to 75.2 years, mean age 37.6 years); and in (c) eight prepubertal patients with growth hormone...... (GH) deficiency (aged 4.2 to 13.5 years, mean age 8.9 years). Boys had higher median values for SSR than girls (pre-pubertal children: 92.7 vs 64.5 mg 30 min-1 pubertal children: 110.3 vs 73.1 mg 30 min-1), and men showed higher values than women (135.5 vs 49.2 mg 30 min-1). In addition, the change...... min-1). We conclude that (a) sweat secretion pattern in children shows a significant sex difference and (b) sweating in children is dependent on growth hormone....

  19. Sweat production during global heating and during isometric exercise in people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Lee, Scott; Patterson, Chris; Cole, Melissa; Stewart, Brian

    2005-11-01

    While sweat production in response to heat is impaired in people with diabetes, sweat production has not been examined during isometric exercise. Eight subjects with type 2 diabetes and 9 control subjects exerted a fatiguing isometric contraction of the handgrip muscles at a tension of 40% of the maximum voluntary strength (MVC) after exposure to a 32 deg C environment for 30 min. compared to 10 controls and 10 subjects with diabetes exposed to a 39 deg C environment. Sweat was impaired to all areas of the body during heat exposure in patients with diabetes under both environmental conditions. For example, on the chest, the average sweat rates after exposure to the 32 deg environment was 259.2 +/- 55.2 nanoliters/min in control subjects and 198.3 +/- 46.2 nanoliters/min for subjects with diabetes. Compared to the 32 deg C environment, control subjects increased sweat in all 4 areas proportionally more than subjects with diabetes. Sudomotor rhythm was present in sweat in control subjects at a rate of repetition of 11 and 50 seconds but almost absent in subjects with diabetes. During exercise, sweat rates slowly increased from the beginning to the end of the exercise. But the head of the subjects with diabetes showed hypersweating while the other areas showed diminished sweating compared to control subjects. Thus some of the impairment in sweating may be due to central mechanisms associated with heat sensitivity or in the hypothalamus and not to the sweat glands themselves.

  20. Laboratory performance of sweat conductivity for the screening of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Ronda F; Jolly, Lisa; Massie, John; Scott, Sue; Wiley, Veronica C; Metz, Michael P; Mackay, Richard J

    2018-03-28

    There are several complementary English-language guidelines for the performance of the sweat chloride test. These guidelines also incorporate information for the collection of conductivity samples. However, recommendations for the measurement and reporting of sweat conductivity are less clear than for sweat chloride. The aim of the study was to develop an understanding of the testing and reporting practices of sweat conductivity in Australasian laboratories. A survey specifically directed at conductivity testing was sent to the 12 laboratories registered with the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs. Nine (75%) laboratories participated in the survey, seven of whom used Wescor Macroduct® for collecting sweat and the Wescor SWEAT·CHEK™ for conductivity testing, and the remaining two used the Wescor Nanoduct®. There was considerable variation in frequency and staffing for this test. Likewise, criteria about which patients it was inappropriate to test, definitions of adequate collection sweat rate, cutoffs and actions recommended on the basis of the result showed variations between laboratories. Variations in sweat conductivity testing and reporting reflect many of the same issues that were revealed in sweat chloride test audits and have the potential to lead to uncertainty about the result and the proper action in response to the result. We recommend that sweat testing guidelines should include clearer statements about the use of sweat conductivity.

  1. Multidimensional Raman spectroscopic signature of sweat and its potential application to forensic body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Lednev, Igor K

    2012-03-09

    This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the potential of Raman microspectroscopy for nondestructive identification of traces of sweat for forensic purposes. Advanced statistical analysis of Raman spectra revealed that dry sweat was intrinsically heterogeneous, and its biochemical composition varies significantly with the donor. As a result, no single Raman spectrum could adequately represent sweat traces. Instead, a multidimensional spectroscopic signature of sweat was built that allowed for the presentation of any single experimental spectrum as a linear combination of two fluorescent backgrounds and three Raman spectral components dominated by the contribution from lactate, lactic acid, urea and single amino acids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Study on sweat gland regeneration induced by microenvironment of three-dimensional bioprinting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B; Xie, J F; Huang, S; Fu, X B

    2017-01-20

    Sweat glands are abundant in the body surface and essential for thermoregulation. Sweat glands fail to conduct self-repair in patients with large area of burn and trauma, and the body temperature of patients increases in hot climate, which may cause shock or even death. Now, co-culture system, reprogramming, and tissue engineering have made progresses in inducing sweat gland regeneration, but the inductive efficiency and duration need to be improved. Cellular microenvironment can regulate cell biological behavior, including cell migration and cell differentiation. This article reviews the studies of establishment of microenvironment in vitro by three-dimensional bioprinting technology to induce sweat gland regeneration.

  3. Comparison of fabric skins for the simulation of sweating on thermal manikins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelblen, Barbara; Psikuta, Agnes; Bogdan, Anna; Annaheim, Simon; Rossi, René M.

    2017-09-01

    Sweating is an important thermoregulatory process helping to dissipate heat and, thus, to prevent overheating of the human body. Simulations of human thermo-physiological responses in hot conditions or during exercising are helpful for assessing heat stress; however, realistic sweating simulation and evaporative cooling is needed. To this end, thermal manikins dressed with a tight fabric skin can be used, and the properties of this skin should help human-like sweat evaporation simulation. Four fabrics, i.e., cotton with elastane, polyester, polyamide with elastane, and a skin provided by a manikin manufacturer (Thermetrics) were compared in this study. The moisture management properties of the fabrics have been investigated in basic tests with regard to all phases of sweating relevant for simulating human thermo-physiological responses, namely, onset of sweating, fully developed sweating, and drying. The suitability of the fabrics for standard tests, such as clothing evaporative resistance measurements, was evaluated based on tests corresponding to the middle phase of sweating. Simulations with a head manikin coupled to a thermo-physiological model were performed to evaluate the overall performance of the skins. The results of the study showed that three out of four evaluated fabrics have adequate moisture management properties with regard to the simulation of sweating, which was confirmed in the coupled simulation with the head manikin. The presented tests are helpful for comparing the efficiency of different fabrics to simulate sweat-induced evaporative cooling on thermal manikins.

  4. A wearable multisensing patch for continuous sweat monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasova, Salzitsa; Crewther, Blair; Bembnowicz, Pawel; Curto, Vincenzo; Ip, Henry Md; Rosa, Bruno; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2017-07-15

    In sport, exercise and healthcare settings, there is a need for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of biomarkers to assess human performance, health and wellbeing. Here we report the development of a flexible microfluidic platform with fully integrated sensing for on-body testing of human sweat. The system can simultaneously and selectively measure metabolite (e.g. lactate) and electrolytes (e.g. pH, sodium) together with temperature sensing for internal calibration. The construction of the platform is designed such that continuous flow of sweat can pass through an array of flexible microneedle type of sensors (50µm diameter) incorporated in a microfluidic channel. Potentiometric sodium ion sensors were developed using a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) functional membrane deposited on an electrochemically deposited internal layer of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymer. The pH sensing layer is based on a highly sensitive membrane of iridium oxide (IrOx). The amperometric-based lactate sensor consists of doped enzymes deposited on top of a semipermeable copolymer membrane and outer polyurethane layers. Real-time data were collected from human subjects during cycle ergometry and treadmill running. A detailed comparison of sodium, lactate and cortisol from saliva is reported, demonstrating the potential of the multi-sensing platform for tracking these outcomes. In summary, a fully integrated sensor for continuous, simultaneous and selective measurement of sweat metabolites, electrolytes and temperature was achieved using a flexible microfluidic platform. This system can also transmit information wirelessly for ease of collection and storage, with the potential for real-time data analytics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

  6. Evaluating performance in sweat testing in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralica, Merica; Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2017-02-15

    Sweat test has a diagnostic role in evaluation of cystic fibrosis. Its performance includes sweat stimulation, collection and analysis. All listed may be sources of inconsistencies in everyday practice. The aim of this study was an evaluation of external quality assessment (EQA) of sweat chloride measurement including sweat test performance in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia. EQA for sweat chloride measurement was provided by Croatian Centre for Quality Assessment in Laboratory Medicine (CROQALM) in five consecutive exercises to medical biochemistry laboratories (MBL) that offered sweat testing. A questionnaire regarding all phases of testing was mailed to involved MBL (N = 10). Survey results were compared to current guidelines for sweat test performance. Reported results of EQA in 2015 exercises showed coefficients of variation (CV) from 28.9%, 29.0% to 35.3%, respectively. An introduction of uniform sweat chloride measurement protocol resulted in CV of 15.5% and 14.7% reported in following two exercises in 2016. All MBL included in this study replied to the questionnaire. Results reported by MBL indicated: lack of patient information policy (7/10), use of unacceptable electrodes (6/9), misuse of minimum of acceptable sweat weight (6/9), lack of internal quality assessment (5/9) and recommended reference ranges (5/9 and 4/9). Agreements to guidelines were found in approach to unsuitable patients (9/10) and sweat collection (8/9). Presented results indicate major weak points of current practice in sweat test performance in Croatian MBL and stress the need for its standardization on a national level.

  7. Relationship between osmotic pressure of the blood and secretion of sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuori, A.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments with cats show that the thermic secretion of sweat represents a specific case of a general law: The central nervous apparatus that controls the secretion of sweat begins to function when the osmotic pressure of the blood drops below normal.

  8. Lactate and ammonia concentration in blood and sweat during incremental cycle ergometer exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Mook, GA; Gips, CH; Verkerke, GJ

    It is known that the concentrations of ammonia and lactate in blood increase during incremental exercise. Sweat also contains lactate and ammonia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological response of lactate and ammonia in plasma and sweat during a stepwise incremental cycle

  9. Sweat : Materiality and Fluidity of Perspiration in in Eighteenth-Century Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    How can a bodily excretion like sweat, often accompanied with a stench or associated with anxiety and distress, enrich our view of the history of science? This paper argues that following the fluid and flow of sweat has in fact particular advantages, because it provides a unique perspective by

  10. Cocoa pulp juice (sweatings) as a potential raw material for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa sweatings is a very interesting by-product of cocoa production and it forms the substrate for microbial growth during the fermentation process. Most of the sweatings go to waste during the processing of the cocoa beans and this has led to its utilization as a potential raw material for the development of soft drink to ...

  11. Assessment of Correlation between Sweat Chloride Levels and Clinical Features of Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Manzoor A; Khan, Mosin S; Malik, Showkat A; Raina, Ab Hameed; Makhdoomi, Mudassir J; Bhat, Javed I; Mudassar, Syed

    2016-12-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder and the incidence of this disease is undermined in Northern India. The distinguishable salty character of the sweat belonging to individuals suffering from CF makes sweat chloride estimation essential for diagnosis of CF disease. The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the relationship of sweat chloride levels with clinical features and pattern of CF. A total of 182 patients, with clinical features of CF were included in this study for quantitative measurement of sweat chloride. Sweat stimulation and collection involved pilocarpine iontophoresis based on the Gibson and Cooks methodology. The quantitative estimation of chloride was done by Schales and Schales method with some modifications. Cystic Fibrosis Trans Membrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutation status was recorded in case of patients with borderline sweat chloride levels to correlate the results and for follow-up. Out of 182 patients having clinical features consistent with CF, borderline and elevated sweat chloride levels were present in 9 (5%) and 41 (22.5%) subjects respectively. Elevated sweat chloride levels were significantly associated with wheeze, Failure To Thrive (FTT), history of CF in Siblings, product of Consanguineous Marriage (CM), digital clubbing and steatorrhoea on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis only wheeze, FTT and steatorrhoea were found to be significantly associated with elevated sweat chloride levels (p<0.05). Among the nine borderline cases six cases were positive for at least two CFTR mutations and rest of the three cases were not having any mutation in CFTR gene. The diagnosis is often delayed and the disease is advanced in most patients at the time of diagnosis. Sweat testing is a gold standard for diagnosis of CF patients as genetic mutation profile being heterozygous and unlikely to become diagnostic test.

  12. SWEAT: Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Dries; Benninga, Harm-Jan; Diaz Schümmer, Carlos; Donnerer, Julia; Fischer, Georg; Henriksen, Marie; Hippert Ferrer, Alexandre; Jamali, Maryam; Marinaci, Stefano; Mould, Toby JD; Phelan, Liam; Rosker, Stephanie; Schrenker, Caroline; Schulze, Kerstin; Emanuel Telo Bordalo Monteiro, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    To study how the water cycle changes over time, satellite and airborne remote sensing missions are typically employed. Over the last 40 years of satellite missions, the measurement of true water inventories stored in sea and land ice within the cryosphere have been significantly hindered by uncertainties introduced by snow cover. Being able to determine the thickness of this snow cover would act to reduce such error, improving current estimations of hydrological and climate models, Earth's energy balance (albedo) calculations and flood predictions. Therefore, the target of the SWEAT (Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry) mission is to directly measure the surface Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on sea and land ice within the polar regions above 60°and below -60° latitude. There are no other satellite missions currently capable of directly measuring SWE. In order to achieve this, the proposed mission will implement a novel combination of Ka- and Ku-band radioaltimeters (active microwave sensors), capable of penetrating into the snow microstructure. The Ka-band altimeter (λ ≈ 0.8 cm) provides a low maximum snow pack penetration depth of up to 20 cm for dry snow at 37 GHz, since the volume scattering of snow dominates over the scattering caused by the underlying ice surface. In contrast, the Ku-band altimeter (λ ≈ 2 cm) provides a high maximum snowpack penetration depth of up to 15 m in high latitudes regions with dry snow, as volume scattering is decreased by a factor of 55. The combined difference in Ka- and Ku-band signal penetration results will provide more accurate and direct determination of SWE. Therefore, the SWEAT mission aims to improve estimations of global SWE interpreted from passive microwave products, and improve the reliability of numerical snow and climate models.

  13. Sweat gland function as a measure of radiation change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigott, K.H.; Dische, S.; Saunders, M.I.; Vojnovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    Radiotherapy may result in dryness of the skin even when no other change can be detected. We describe a system for recording the electrical conductance of skin as a measure of sweat gland function. In 22 normal volunteers close agreement was obtained between measurements obtained from comparable sites on both sides of the chest. Measurements were subsequently made in 38 patients treated by radiotherapy to one side of the chest for tumours of the breast or lung using one of five different fractionation schedules. Simultaneous readings were obtained from both sides of the chest with the non irradiated side acting as a control. A dose response relationship was demonstrated: five patients who received the equivalent total dose of 15 Gy in 2-Gy fractions showed no change in conductance. Sixteen out of 23 who received an equivalent total dose of 42-46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions had a greater than 22% reduction in mean skin conductance compared with that of the control areas despite the skin appearing normal in the large majority. Marked changes in skin conductance were seen after higher total doses. In a prospective study 18 women receiving breast irradiation underwent weekly readings during treatment. A mean reduction of 40% in skin conductance was noted by the end of the second week of treatment prior to any clinical evidence of radiation change. Skin conductance returned to normal in 44% of patients by 6 months. In the remainder, those patients who showed the greatest reduction in skin conductance during treatment demonstrated the least recovery. Changes in sweat gland function can be detected and quantified in skin which may otherwise appear normal. Differences may so be demonstrated between areas treated using different fractionation schedules and the method may be applied to the detection during radiotherapy of unusually sensitive patient. (author)

  14. Audit of sweat testing: a first report from Italian Cystic Fibrosis Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Natalia; Padoan, Rita; Raia, Valeria

    2008-09-01

    Cystic Fibrosis diagnosis is confirmed using sweat test. The aim of our study was to evaluate current techniques and methodologies in use at Italian CF Care Centres. A series of questions related to the performance of the sweat test was collected by all CF Care Centres in Italy. Answers were compared with UK and NCCLS guidelines. 39/41 Centres replied to the questionnaire. A good adherence to guidelines was registered for storing samples before analysis in 90.9%, while performing CF diagnosis by at least two sweat tests, and chloride analysis were reported respectively in 100% and 75.7% of Centres. Some inconsistencies were registered for minimum acceptable sweat quantity and time to collect sweat inadequate in respectively 42.5% and 24.2% of Centres, while performing quality control procedures and referring to an external quality assessment scheme were found inadequate in respectively 54.6% and 100%. 57.6% didn't provide any appropriate analytical ranges and only 15.1% of Centres offered proper information to patients/parents. A report form, including sweat quantity, reference ranges and interpretation, was adequate only for 9.4 up to 41.4% of CF Centres. Our study showed areas of inconsistencies in sweat testing current practices in Italy and highlights the need for evidence based national guidelines to improve practice and management strategies.

  15. Sweat: a sample with limited present applications and promising future in metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Bravo, A; Luque de Castro, M D

    2014-03-01

    Sweat is a biofluid with present scant use as clinical sample. This review tries to demonstrate the advantages of sweat over other biofluids such as blood or urine for routine clinical analyses and the potential when related to metabolomics. With this aim, critical discussion of sweat samplers and equipment for analysis of target compounds in this sample is made. Well established routine analyses in sweat as is that to diagnose cystic fibrosis, and the advantages and disadvantages of sweat versus urine or blood for doping control have also been discussed. Methods for analytes such as essential metals and xenometals, ethanol and electrolytes in sweat in fact constitute target metabolomics approaches or belong to any metabolomics subdiscipline such as metallomics, ionomics or xenometabolomics. The higher development of biomarkers based on genomics or proteomics as omics older than metabolomics is discussed and also the potential role of metabolomics in systems biology taking into account its emergent implementation. Normalization of the volume of sampled sweat constitutes a present unsolved shortcoming that deserves investigation. Foreseeable trends in this area are outlined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the impact of egg sweating on Salmonella Enteritidis penetration into shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Janet A; Curtis, Patricia A; Jones, Deana R; Anderson, Kenneth E

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevalence in eggs is a major concern to the egg industry. Some research has shown that egg sweating can increase Salmonella penetration into egg contents when refrigerated eggs are moved to a warmer temperature. This occurs when eggs are tempered before wash, to minimize thermal cracks. The effect of egg sweating on SE penetration into shell eggs over a 6 week storage period at 4°C was assessed. A 2 × 2 factorial of SE inoculation and egg sweating was utilized. Treatments included (SES) nalidixic acid (NA)-resistant SE inoculated and sweated, (SENS) NA-resistant SE inoculated and not sweated, (NSES) buffered peptone water (BPW) inoculated and sweated, and (NSENS) BPW inoculated and not sweated. Eggs were inoculated with 108 SE. Eggs formed condensation for approximately 17 min in a 32°C incubator. Shell rinse, shell emulsion, and egg contents were sampled then enumerated and assessed for prevalence of SE over a 6 wk storage period at 4°C. After wk 1, the SENS shell rinse had higher SE counts (0.32 log10 CFU/mL) than the other 3 treatments, where no SE was enumerated. A significant week by treatment interaction was found for the shell rinse SE detection (P egg shell rinse, shell emulsion, or egg contents. The SENS shell rinses had significantly higher SE prevalence than the SES rinses in weeks 1 (100% vs. 34.3%), 2 (57.6% vs. 22.2%), and 3 (38.2% vs. 11.1%) (P Egg sweating did not increase SE penetration into the shell emulsion across treatment or week (P egg sweating occurring under common US egg handling practices is not harmful to egg safety. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meyer

    Full Text Available The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac- and ammonia (NH3 and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men cycled in the heat (42ºC, 20% relative humidity at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject's lower back. During bout 1, sweat from girls and boys had higher Lac- concentrations (23.6 ± 1.2 and 21.2 ± 1.7 mM; P 0.05; r = -0.27. Sweat Lac- concentration dropped during exercise bout 2, reaching similar levels among all groups (overall mean = 13.7 ± 0.4 mM. Children had a higher sweat NH3 than adults during bout 1 (girls = 4.2 ± 0.4, boys = 4.6 ± 0.6, women = 2.7 ± 0.2, and men = 3.0 ± 0.2 mM; P < 0.05. This difference persisted through bout 2 only in females. On average, children's sweat pH was lower than that of adults (mean ± SEM, girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 5.0 ± 0.1, women = 6.2 ± 0.5, and men = 6.2 ± 0.4 for bout 1, and girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 6.5 ± 0.5, women = 5.2 ± 0.2, and men = 6.9 ± 0.4 for bout 2. This may have favored NH3 transport from plasma to sweat as accounted for by a significant correlation between sweat NH3 and H+ (r = 0.56. Blood pH increased from rest (mean ± SEM; 7.3 ± 0.02 to the end of exercise (7.4 ± 0.01 without differences among groups. These results, however, are representative of sweat induced by moderate exercise in the absence of acidosis.

  18. Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meyer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac- and ammonia (NH3 and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men cycled in the heat (42ºC, 20% relative humidity at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject's lower back. During bout 1, sweat from girls and boys had higher Lac- concentrations (23.6 ± 1.2 and 21.2 ± 1.7 mM; P 0.05; r = -0.27. Sweat Lac- concentration dropped during exercise bout 2, reaching similar levels among all groups (overall mean = 13.7 ± 0.4 mM. Children had a higher sweat NH3 than adults during bout 1 (girls = 4.2 ± 0.4, boys = 4.6 ± 0.6, women = 2.7 ± 0.2, and men = 3.0 ± 0.2 mM; P < 0.05. This difference persisted through bout 2 only in females. On average, children's sweat pH was lower than that of adults (mean ± SEM, girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 5.0 ± 0.1, women = 6.2 ± 0.5, and men = 6.2 ± 0.4 for bout 1, and girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 6.5 ± 0.5, women = 5.2 ± 0.2, and men = 6.9 ± 0.4 for bout 2. This may have favored NH3 transport from plasma to sweat as accounted for by a significant correlation between sweat NH3 and H+ (r = 0.56. Blood pH increased from rest (mean ± SEM; 7.3 ± 0.02 to the end of exercise (7.4 ± 0.01 without differences among groups. These results, however, are representative of sweat induced by moderate exercise in the absence of acidosis.

  19. In vivo sweat film layer thickness measured with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonathan, E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available s Centre form the f th s pr t fi d id Keywords: Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography; Human sweat secretion; Sweat gland; Sweat duct; Hyperhidrosis growing list of triggers include cancer, glucose control disorder, mental stress, social..., that is, the gland, duct and pore(s). However, due to a slow imaging time, COCT is largely restricted to morphometry of human tissue and thickness measurement of biologic and biologic samples [12,13]. ARTICLE IN PRESS Fourier-domain optical coherence...

  20. The response of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to two components of human sweat, ammonia and L-lactic acid, in an olfactometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braks, M.A.H.; Meijerink, J.; Takken, W.

    2001-01-01

    In an olfactometer study on the response of the anthropophilic malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera, Culicidae) to human sweat it was found that freshly collected sweat, mostly of eccrine origin, was attractive, but that incubated sweat was significantly more attractive than fresh sweat.

  1. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  2. Don't Sweat the Small Stuff: Food Allergy Sufferer Lives a Cautious but Normal Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Home Current issue contents Food allergy sufferer lives a cautious but normal life Follow us Don’t Sweat the Small Stuff Food allergy sufferer lives a cautious but normal life Anthony ...

  3. Use of dew-point hygrometry, direct sweat collection, and measurement of body water losses to determine sweating rates in exercising horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, J K; Geor, R J; McCutcheon, L J

    1997-02-01

    To compare dew-point hygrometry, direct sweat collection, and measurement of body water loss as methods for determination of sweating rate (SR) in exercising horses. 6 exercise-trained Thoroughbreds. SR was measured in 6 horses exercising at 40% of the speed that elicited maximum oxygen consumption for 45 km, with a 15-minute rest at the end of each 15-km phase. Each horse completed 2 exercise trials. Dew-point hygrometry, as a method of local SR determination, was validated in vitro by measurement of rate of evaporative water loss. During exercise, local SR was determined every 10 minutes by the following 2 methods: (1) dew-point hygrometry on the neck and lateral area of the thorax, and (2) on the basis of the volume of sweat collected from a sealed plastic pouch attached to the lateral area of the thorax. Mean whole body SR was calculated from total body water loss incurred during exercise. Evaporation rate measured by use of dew-point hygrometry was significantly correlated (r2 = 0.92) with the actual rate of evaporative water loss. There was a similar pattern of change in SR measured by dew-point hygrometry on the neck and lateral area of the thorax during exercise, with a significantly higher SR on the neck. The SR measured on the thorax by direct sweat collection and by dew-point hygrometry were of similar magnitude. Mean whole body SR calculated from total body water loss was not significantly different from mean whole body SR estimated from direct sweat collection or dew-point hygrometry measurements on the thorax. Dew-point hygrometry and direct sweat collection are useful methods for determination of local SR in horses during prolonged, steady-state exercise in moderate ambient conditions. Both methods of local SR determination provide an accurate estimated of whole body SR.

  4. Evidence for β-adrenergic modulation of sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Shitara, Yosuke; Fujii, Naoto; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Kondo, Narihiko

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the β-adrenergic contribution to sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males. Nine habitually trained and 11 untrained males performed incremental cycling until exhaustion (20 W/min). Bilateral forearm sweat rates (ventilated capsule) were measured at two skin sites that were transdermally administered via iontophoresis with either 1% propranolol (Propranolol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) or saline (Control). The sweat rate was evaluated as a function of both relative (percentage of maximum workload) and absolute exercise intensities. The sweat rate at the Propranolol site was lower than the control during exercise at 80 (0.57 ± 0.21 and 0.45 ± 0.19 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 for Control and Propranolol, respectively) and 90% (0.74 ± 0.22 and 0.65 ± 0.17 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , respectively) of maximum workload in trained males (all P 0.05). At the same absolute intensity, higher sweat rates on the control site were observed in trained males relative to the untrained during exercise at 160 (0.23 ± 0.20 and 0.04 ± 0.05 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 for trained and untrained, respectively) and 180 W (0.40 ± 0.20 and 0.13 ± 0.13 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , respectively) (all P 0.05). We show that the β-adrenergic mechanism does modulate sweating during exercise at a submaximal high relative intensity in habitually trained males. The β-adrenergic mechanism may in part contribute to the greater sweat production in habitually trained males than in untrained counterparts during exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrated for the first time that the β-adrenergic mechanism does modulate sweating (i.e., β-adrenergic sweating) during exercise using a localized β-adrenoceptor blockade in humans in vivo. β-Adrenergic sweating was evident in habitually trained individuals during exercise at a submaximal high relative intensity (80-90% maximal work). This observation advances

  5. Normative data on regional sweat-sodium concentrations of professional male team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Tiller, Nicholas B; Ramchandani, Girish; Jutley, Raj; Blow, Andrew; Tye, Jonny; Drury, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report normative data on regional sweat sweat-sodium concentrations of various professional male team-sport athletes, and to compare sweat-sodium concentrations among sports. Data to this effect would inform our understanding of athlete sodium requirements, thus allowing for the individualisation of sodium replacement strategies. Accordingly, data from 696 athletes (Soccer, n = 270; Rugby, n = 181; Baseball, n = 133; American Football, n = 60; Basketball, n = 52) were compiled for a retrospective analysis. Regional sweat-sodium concentrations were collected using the pilocarpine iontophoresis method, and compared to self-reported measures collected via questionnaire. Sweat-sodium concentrations were significantly higher ( p soccer (43.2 ± 12.0 mmol·L -1 ) or rugby (44.0 ± 12.1 mmol·L -1 ), but with no differences among the N.American or British sports. There were strong positive correlations between sweat-sodium concentrations and self-reported sodium losses in American football ( r s = 0.962, p soccer ( r s = 0.748, p strategies to meet the sodium demands of professional team-sport athletes. Moreover, these novel data suggest that self-reported measures of sodium loss might serve as an effective surrogate in the absence of direct measures; i.e., those which are more expensive or non-readily available.

  6. Human Elimination of Phthalate Compounds: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Lobo, Rebecca A.; Birkholz, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Background. Individual members of the phthalate family of chemical compounds are components of innumerable everyday consumer products, resulting in a high exposure scenario for some individuals and population groups. Multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated statistically significant exposure-disease relationships involving phthalates and toxicological studies have shown estrogenic effects in vitro. Data is lacking in the medical literature, however, on effective means to facilitate phthalate excretion. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for parent phthalate compounds as well as phthalate metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some parent phthalates as well as their metabolites were excreted into sweat. All patients had MEHP (mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) in their blood, sweat, and urine samples, suggesting widespread phthalate exposure. In several individuals, DEHP (di (2-ethylhexl) phthalate) was found in sweat but not in serum, suggesting the possibility of phthalate retention and bioaccumulation. On average, MEHP concentration in sweat was more than twice as high as urine levels. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may be useful to facilitate elimination of some potentially toxic phthalate compounds including DEHP and MEHP. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of accrued DEHP in the human body. PMID:23213291

  7. High follicle density does not decrease sweat gland density in Huacaya alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K E; Maloney, S K; Blache, D

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to high ambient temperatures, mammals lose heat evaporatively by either sweating from glands in the skin or by respiratory panting. Like other camelids, alpacas are thought to evaporate more water by sweating than panting, despite a thick fleece, unlike sheep which mostly pant in response to heat stress. Alpacas were brought to Australia to develop an alternative fibre industry to sheep wool. In Australia, alpacas can be exposed to ambient temperatures higher than in their native South America. As a young industry there is a great deal of variation in the quality and quantity of the fleece produced in the national flock. There is selection pressure towards animals with finer and denser fleeces. Because the fibre from secondary follicles is finer than that from primary follicles, selecting for finer fibres might alter the ratio of primary and secondary follicles. In turn the selection might alter sweat gland density because the sweat glands are associated with the primary follicle. Skin biopsy and fibre samples were obtained from the mid-section of 33 Huacaya alpacas and the skin sections were processed into horizontal sections at the sebaceous gland level. Total, primary, and secondary follicles and the number of sweat gland ducts were quantified. Fibre samples from each alpaca were further analysed for mean fibre diameter. The finer-fibred animals had a higher total follicle density (Palpacas with high follicle density should not be limited for potential sweating ability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermogenic and psychogenic recruitment of human eccrine sweat glands: Variations between glabrous and non-glabrous skin surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Moreira, Christiano A; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2017-04-01

    Human eccrine sweat-gland recruitment and secretion rates were investigated from the glabrous (volar) and non-glabrous hand surfaces during psychogenic (mental arithmetic) and thermogenic stimuli (mild hyperthermia). It was hypothesised that these treatments would activate glands from both skin surfaces, with the non-thermal stimulus increasing secretion rates primarily by recruiting more sweat glands. Ten healthy men participated in two seated, resting trials in temperate conditions (25-26°C). Trials commenced under normothermic conditions during which the first psychogenic stress was applied. That was followed by passive heating (0.5°C mean body temperature elevation) and thermal clamping, with a second cognitive challenge then applied. Sudomotor activity was evaluated from both hands, with colourimetry used to identify activated sweat glands, skin conductance to determine the onset of precursor sweating and ventilated sweat capsules to measure rates of discharged sweating. From glandular activation and sweat rate data, sweat-gland outputs were derived. These psychogenic and thermogenic stimuli activated sweat glands from both the glabrous and non-glabrous skin surfaces, with the former dominating at the glabrous skin and the latter at the non-glabrous surface. Indeed, those stimuli individually accounted for ~90% of the site-specific maximal number of activated sweat glands observed when both stimuli were simultaneously applied. During the normothermic psychological stimulation, sweating from the glabrous surface was elevated via a 185% increase in the number of activated glands within the first 60s. The hypothetical mechanism for this response may involve the serial activation of additional eccrine sweat glands during the progressive evolution of psychogenic sweating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Coastal Hydraulics: Simple Tools and Sweat Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, D.; Fertenbaugh, C.; Orou-Pete, S.; Mullen, A.; Smith, C.; Silliman, S. E.; Yalo, N.; Boukari, M.

    2009-12-01

    Field efforts are targeted at providing characterization of surface / subsurface interaction along coastal Benin as part of an overall research effort examining coastal hydrology and salt-water intrusion near the large urban center of Cotonou, Benin. Specifically, efforts at adapting an existing numerical model indicate substantial sensitivity of the model results to assumed conditions in a vast region of interconnected fresh-water / salt-water lagoons which are home to a distributed human population. Limits on funding for this project resulted in choice of a series of field techniques that focused predominantly on manual labor (truly sweat equity of undergraduate and graduate students from Benin and the United States) in order to characterize the shallow (less than 10 meters) hydrology and geochemistry of this coastal region. An integrated picture is therefore being developed through application of shallow geochemical analysis to depths less than 10 meters (collection of samples using a manual direct-push drilling method based on a Geoprobe® apparatus and chemical analyses of Cl, Na, Br, Fl, and conductivity performed using specific-ion electrodes), monitoring of the rate of advance of the direct-push to determine vertical distribution of sediment resistance, a home-made falling-head field permeameter to measure shallow (less than 2 meters) permeabilities, manually installed, multi-level piezometers at several points within Lake Nokoue (a large, shallow-water lake bordering Cotonou and the southern coast), and electrical resistivity imaging (using an entry-level resistivity assembly). All tests are performed by students and faculty from the U.S. and Benin, with plans in place for the Benin students to return multiple times per year to monitor changes at the field stations. Results to date have provided significant insight into spatial structure within the surface/subsurface that was not apparent in either satellite imagery or ground-level inspection of the region

  10. Sweat gland toxicity induced by bis (tributyltin) oxide: an ultrastructural and X-ray microanalysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, O. [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan, Kitakyushu (Japan). Dept. of Dermatology and Occupational Dermatopathology; Doi, Y.; Kudo, H.; Fujimoto, S. [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan, Kitakyushu (Japan). Dept. of Anatomy; Yoshizuka, M. [Kurume Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Anatomy

    2000-12-01

    Acute toxicity of bis (tributyltin) oxide in the sweat glands in the rat footpad was investigated by electron microscopy and an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. Male Wistar rats received an intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml/kg bis (tributyltin) oxide. After 6-8 h, swelling of mitochondria appeared in the secretory cells of the sweat glands. After 12 h, the secretory cells began to show intracytoplasmic edema. After 16-20 h, secretory cells in some sweat glands showed marked hydropic degeneration with swollen cytoplasm. Using X-ray microanalysis, tin peaks were preferentially obtained from the swollen mitochondria of the affected secretory cells. Mitochondria dysfunction due to the toxic effects of bis (tributyltin) oxide induced changes in the secretory cells of rat sweat glands contained three types of cells: degenerating dark cells, regenerating cells carrying injured mitochondria, and light cells which were morphologically very similar to the cells in the transitional portion of the sweat gland. These light cells appeared to differentiate into active secretory cells after settling down in the secretory portion. Based on these observations, we concluded that the cells in the transitional portion could play an important role at least as reserve cells against secretory cell toxicity. In association with the regenerating process of the damaged secretory portions, increased mitotic activities were seen in different areas of all the dermal sweat ducts. The above-mentioned morphological observations for cell damage and subsequent regeneration and renewal of secretory cells in sweat gland intoxication have not been reported so far. (orig.)

  11. IKLAN ANIMASI 3D POCARI SWEAT YOUTH SWEET BEAUTIFUL VERSI PINOKIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novianto Ari Wibowo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Iklan merupakan jembatan  yang menghubungkan antara perusahaan dengan konsumen. Saat ini belanja iklan di Indonesia kategori makanan dan minuman tergolong paling banyak mengeluarkan anggaran besar untuk iklan. Dari data yang di olah oleh AGB Nielsen Media Research Indonesia memperlihatkan bahwa kategori belanja iklan minuman lebih banyak peminat dibanding kategori makanan. Maka dari itu penulis lebih tertarik untuk membuat iklan kategori minuman, yaitu tentang minuman isotonic berjudul “Iklan Animasi 3D Pocari Sweat Youth Sweet Beautiful Versi Pinokio”. Berdasarkan Frontier Consulting Group Pocari Sweat terpilih menjadi Market Leader dan menjadi Top Brand Index selama 3 tahun terakhir. Penulis bertujuan menjadikan pocari sweat sebagai Market Leader di tahun berikutnya. Penulis membuat iklan animasi berbasis full 3D karena dalam pembuatan iklan animasi tidak membutuhkan model manusia sehingga lebih menghemat biaya dan waktu, karya yang penulis buat merupakan redesain yang menggabungkan antara iklan pocari sweat versi pinokio dan versi youth sweet beautiful yang diperankan oleh model cantik dan imut yang sampai sekarang iklan ini membius dan membuat penasaran masyarakat. Pembuatan iklan 3D dibutuhkan software-software untuk membangun sebuah karakter dan efek animasi, penulis menggunakan software 3D Max 2010 untuk karakter dan efek animasinya. Iklan Pocari Sweat merupakan iklan reminder dimana iklan ini membuat pocari sweat menjadi suatu kebutuhan bagi setiap orang dalam beraktifitas. Dalam berkreativitas membuat karya iklan animasi 3D lebih dianjurkan menggunakan software yang bersifat free atau open source agar karya yang kita komersilkan bebas dari biaya penggunaan software tersebut. Kata kunci : 3D, animasi, iklan, pocari sweat, redesign

  12. Is sweat chloride predictive of severity of cystic fibrosis lung disease assessed by chest computed tomography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudri, Daan; Zitter, David; Bronsveld, Inez; Tiddens, Harm

    2017-09-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by a marked heterogeneity. Sweat chloride-level is a functional marker of the CF Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) protein and could be an important predictor of later disease severity. In this retrospective analysis children from the Rotterdam CF clinic with available sweat chloride level at diagnosis and at least one routine spirometry-controlled volumetric chest CT scan in follow-up were included. CT scans were scored using the CF-CT scoring system (% of maximum). Associations between sweat chloride-levels and CF-CT scores were calculated using linear regression models, adjusting for age at sweat test and age at follow-up. Because structural lung damage develops over the course of many years, effect modification by the age at follow-up CT-scan was tested for by age-stratification. In 59 children (30 male) sweat chloride was measured at diagnosis (median age 0.5 years, range 0-13) and later chest CT performed (median age 14 years, range 6-18). Sweat chloride was associated with significantly higher CT-CT total score, bronchiectasis score, and mucus plugging score. Stratification for age at follow-up in tertiles showed this association remained only in the oldest age group (range 15-18 years). In that subgroup associations were found with all but one of the CF-CT subscores, as well as with all tested lung functions parameters. Sweat chloride-level is a significant predictor of CF lung disease severity as determined by chest CT and lung function. This association could only be demonstrated in children with follow-up to age 15 years and above. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry and blushing (anger and happiness is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  14. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  15. Feasibility and normal values of an integrated conductivity (Nanoduct™) sweat test system in healthy newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Claudia E; Schindler, Matthias; Mazur, Agnieszka; Malzacher, Andreas; Hornung, René; Barben, Juerg

    2017-07-01

    Nanoduct™ is a simple and practical sweat analysis system measuring conductivity in situ. It requires only three microlitres of sweat, making it especially applicable to newborns. We measured conductivity in 260 healthy term infants at the age of four days, and again at four weeks to determine the proportion of successful tests, test duration, and normal values for sweat conductivity in newborns. Sufficient sweat was collected in 159/260 of four-day olds (61%), and in 225/239 of four-week olds (94%). Mean (sd) test duration was 27 (5) and 25 (5) min. Mean (sd, range) conductivity was 53mmol/l (16, 8-114) at age four days, and 36 (9, 12-64) at four weeks. Determination of sweat conductivity using Nanoduct™ cannot be recommended for four-day old newborns. However, at the age of four weeks the success rate is high (94%), and conductivity values at that age are comparable to older healthy children. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tropical Malaysians and temperate Koreans exhibit significant differences in sweating sensitivity in response to iontophoretically administered acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Bae, Jun-Sang; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Yang, Hun-Mo; Min, Young-Ki

    2009-03-01

    Natives of the tropics are able to tolerate high ambient temperatures. This results from their long-term residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. This study was designed to compare the peripheral mechanisms of thermal sweating in tropical natives with that of their temperate counterparts. Fifty-five healthy male subjects including 20 native Koreans who live in the temperate Korean climate (Temperate-N) and 35 native tropical Malaysian men that have lived all of their lives in Malaysia (Tropical-N) were enrolled in this study after providing written informed consent to participate. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with 10% acetylcholine (ACh) was used to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, and oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The sweat onset time of AXR (nicotinic-receptor-mediated) was 56 s shorter in the Temperate-N than in the Tropical-N subjects ( P < 0.0001). The nicotinic-receptor-mediated sweating activity AXR (1), and the muscarinic-receptor-mediated sweating activity DIR, in terms of sweat volume, were 103% and 59% higher in the Temperate-N compared to the Tropical-N subjects ( P < 0.0001). The Temperate-N group also had a 17.8% ( P < 0.0001) higher active sweat gland density, 35.4% higher sweat output per gland, 0.24°C higher resting oral temperature, and 0.62°C higher resting forearm skin temperature compared to the Tropical-N subjects ( P < 0.01). ACh iontophoresis did not influence oral temperature, but increased skin temperature near where the ACh was administered, in both groups. These results suggest that suppressed thermal sweating in the Tropical-N subjects was, at least in part, due to suppressed sweat gland sensitivity to ACh through both recruitment of active sweat glands and the sweat gland output per each gland

  17. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Wingo, Jonathan E.; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Brothers, R. Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdial...

  18. Clinical evaluation of the Nanoduct sweat test system in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis after newborn screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, Annette; Dompeling, Edward; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Arets, HGM; Tiddens, Harm; Loeber, Gerard; Dankert-Roelse, Jeannette

    After a positive newborn screening test for cystic fibrosis (CF), a sweat test is performed to confirm the diagnosis. The success rate of the generally acknowledged methods (Macroduct/Gibson and Cooke) in newborns varies between 73 and 99 %. The Nanoduct sweat test system is easier to perform and

  19. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before...... and after weight loss. Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen age-matched nonobese women served as controls. The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...

  20. Late Lung Metastasis of a Primary Eccrine Sweat Gland Carcinoma 10 Years after Initial Surgical Treatment: The First Clinical Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Falkenstern-Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a high metastatic potential seen more commonly in elderly patients. The scalp is the most common site of occurrence and it usually spreads to regional lymph nodes. Liver, lungs, and bones are the most common sites of distant metastasis. Late lung metastasis of sweat gland adenocarcinoma after a time span of 5 years is extremely rare. Aim. We report a patient with late lung metastasis of a primary sweat gland carcinoma 10 years after initial surgical resection. Conclusion. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare cancers with a poor prognosis. Surgery in the form of wide local excision and lymph node dissection is the mainstay of treatment. Late pulmonary metastases with a latency of 10 years have never been reported in the literature. This is the first clinical documentation of late lung metastasis from sweat gland carcinoma with a latency period of 10 years.

  1. The Italian pilot external quality assessment program for cystic fibrosis sweat test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Marco; Floridia, Giovanna; Amato, Annalisa; Censi, Federica; Carta, Claudio; de Stefano, Maria Chiara; Ferrari, Gianluca; Tosto, Fabrizio; Capoluongo, Ettore; Caruso, Ubaldo; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Cirilli, Natalia; Corbetta, Carlo; Padoan, Rita; Raia, Valeria; Taruscio, Domenica

    2016-05-01

    Sweat chloride test is the gold standard test for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. In 2014 the Istituto Superiore di Sanità established the Italian pilot external quality assessment program for CF sweat test (IEQA-ST). Ten laboratories, included among the 33 Italian CF Referral Centers, were selected and enrolled on the basis of their attitude to perform sweat test (ST) analysis by using methods recommended by the Italian Guidelines. They received three different sweat-like samples (normal, borderline and pathologic chloride concentration), with mock clinical indications, for analysis according to routine procedures. Assessment, performed by a panel of experts, covered analytical performance, interpretation and reporting of results; categories of "poor" and "satisfactory" performance were not defined. All data were managed through a web utility. The program identified important areas of interest and, in some case, of concern. It is important to underline that results are referred to a small proportion, i.e. about 30%, of Italian laboratories performing CF ST in the context of the Referral Centers. Data collected highlight the importance of participation in EQA programs as it may improve laboratory/clinical performance; our study represents a model for the setting up of a large-scale EQA scheme for ST. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of the Sweat Lodge Ceremony on Dimensions of Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Jeannette Wagemakers; Moore, Kerrie

    2006-01-01

    The importance of traditional healing practices for First Nations people has created interest in traditional ceremonies, including sweat lodges, which are increasingly incorporated into programs serving Aboriginal people. Despite the fact that traditional healing practices have always been valued by Aboriginal people, there is virtually no…

  3. Skin-Attachable, Stretchable Electrochemical Sweat Sensor for Glucose and pH Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Yun; Hong, Soo Yeong; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; Park, Heun; Jin, Sang Woo; Lee, Geumbee; Oh, Ju Hyun; Lee, Hanchan; Lee, Sang-Soo; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2018-04-25

    As part of increased efforts to develop wearable healthcare devices for monitoring and managing physiological and metabolic information, stretchable electrochemical sweat sensors have been investigated. In this study, we report on the fabrication of a stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor for detecting glucose and pH in sweat. A patterned stretchable electrode was fabricated via layer-by-layer deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on top of patterned Au nanosheets (AuNS) prepared by filtration onto stretchable substrate. For the detection of glucose and pH, CoWO 4 /CNT and polyaniline/CNT nanocomposites were coated onto the CNT-AuNS electrodes, respectively. A reference electrode was prepared via chlorination of silver nanowires. Encapsulation of the stretchable sensor with sticky silbione led to a skin-attachable sweat sensor. Our sensor showed high performance with sensitivities of 10.89 μA mM -1 cm -2 and 71.44 mV pH -1 for glucose and pH, respectively, with mechanical stability up to 30% stretching and air stability for 10 days. The sensor also showed good adhesion even to wet skin, allowing the detection of glucose and pH in sweat from running while being attached onto the skin. This work suggests the application of our stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor to health management as a high-performance healthcare wearable device.

  4. Possible biphasic sweating response during short-term heat acclimation protocol for tropical natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Machado-Moreira, Christiano Antônio; Vimieiro-Gomes, Ana Carolina; Silami-Garcia, Emerson; Lima, Nilo Resende Viana; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sweat loss response during short-term heat acclimation in tropical natives. Six healthy young male subjects, inhabitants of a tropical region, were heat acclimated by means of nine days of one-hour heat-exercise treatments (40+/-0 degrees C and 32+/-1% relative humidity; 50% (.)VO(2peak) on a cycle ergometer). On days 1 to 9 of heat acclimation whole-body sweat loss was calculated by body weight variation corrected for body surface area. On days 1 and 9 rectal temperature (T(re)) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) every 4 minutes. Heat acclimation was confirmed by reduced HR (day 1 rest: 77+/-5 b.min(-1); day 9 rest: 68+/-3 b.min(-1); day 1 final exercise: 161+/-15 b.min(-1); day 9 final exercise: 145+/-11 b.min(-1), p0.05) of the protocol. These findings are consistent with the heat acclimation induced adaptations and suggest a biphasic sweat response (an increase in the sweat rate in the middle of the protocol followed by return to initial values by the end of it) during short-term heat acclimation in tropical natives.

  5. Human communication of emotion via sweat : How specific is it? (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, M.A.M.; Toet, A.; Duinkerken, R.; Groot, J. de; Kaldewaij, A.; Hout, M.A. van den; et al

    2011-01-01

    Females evaluate ambiguous facial expression – morphed between happy and fearful – faces as more fearful when exposed to fear sweat as compared to control odor (Zhou & Chen, 2009). We investigated the specificity of this effect, i.e. whether processing of fearful faces is affected specifically by

  6. Is sweat chloride predictive of severity of cystic fibrosis lung disease assessed by chest computed tomography?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, Daan; Zitter, David; Bronsveld, Inez; Tiddens, Harm

    BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by a marked heterogeneity. Sweat chloride-level is a functional marker of the CF Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) protein and could be an important predictor of later disease severity. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis children from

  7. Utility of No-Sweat Labels for Apparel Consumers: Profiling Label Users and Predicting Their Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Marsha A.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 547 of 2,000 consumers indicated consumer support for socially responsible purchasing. For 16%, "No-Sweat" labels indicating the working conditions of apparel makers were a strong purchasing influence. Women, especially unmarried females with lower educational attainment, were most likely to purchase clothing with No-Sweat…

  8. [Efficacy of sweat-antigen-inactivating skin care products on itching of patients with atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Hajime; Takahagi, Shunsuke; Mihara, Shoji; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Kaori; Hide, Michihiro; Suzuki, Shigeru; Kanatani, Hirotoshi; Yano, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    Many patients with atopic dermatitis showed immediate-type hypersensitivity against sweat antigen. Therefore, to deal with sweating is important to prevent itching and aggravations of dermatitis of patient with atopic dermatitis. We had searched a substance that inactivated sweat antigen adopting histamine release test. And we found that tannic acid which selected by screening various natural products inactivated sweat antigen. We evaluate skin care products (spray, after-bathing water and aerosol-spray) containing tannic acid for patients with atopic dermatitis. We administered in a tannic acid-containing spray and after-bathing water on 17 patients with atopic dermatitis. After treatment, total clinical assessment score and itching in the afternoon had significantly decreased from that on day 0. To evaluate the effect of tannic acid containing-aerosol spray on itching of patients with AD, we assessed symptoms of atopic dermatitis patients who used a tannic acid containing-aerosol spray every day for 4 weeks in a cross-over, double-blind study. Clinical severity of atopic dermatitis and degrees of itching in daily life of patients were evaluated by physicians and patients themselves, respectively. Degrees of itching in morning and those at night were significantly more largely improved by the use of tannic acid-containing aerosol spray than those by the use of placebo control aerosol spray. The overall efficacy of tannic acid-containing aerosol sprays was also significantly higher than those of tannic acid free spray. Sweat antigen inactivating skin care products may be effective to reduce itching of patients with atopic dermatitis.

  9. Karyotyping, dermatoglyphic, and sweat pore analysis of five families affected with ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Manpreet; Kale, Alka D; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2012-09-01

    Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia is a genetic recessive trait characterized by hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. The affected individual show characteristic physiognomy like protruded forehead, depressed nasal bridge, periorbital wrinkling, protruded lips, etc. There is marked decrease in sweat and salivary secretion. Due to skin involvement palm and sole ridge patterns are disrupted. In this study an attempt has been made to classify the affected members according to the degree of penetrance by pedigree analysis and also study karyotyping for cytogenetics, dermatoglyphic analysis for the various ridge patterns and variations in the number of sweat glands by sweat pore analysis in affected individuals. A total of five families who were affected with ectodermal dysplasia were considered. Pedigree analysis was drawn up to three generation by obtaining history. Dermatoglyphics and sweat pore analysis was done by obtaining palm and finger print impression using stamp pad ink. Karyotyping was done by collecting 3-5 ml peripheral blood. Karyotyping was prepared using lymphocyte culture. Chromosomes were examined at 20 spreads selected randomly under ×100 magnification. Results were analyzed by calculating mean values and percentage was obtained. Karyotyping did not show any abnormalities, dermatoglyphic analysis and sweat pore counts showed marked variations when compared with normal. Moreover, pedigree analysis confirmed the status of the disease as that of the recessive trait. Large number of affected patients needs to be evaluated for dermatoglypic analysis. Genetic aspect of the disease needs to be looked into the molecular level in an attempt to locate the gene locus responsible for ectodermal dysplasia and its manifestation.

  10. Accumulation of FDG in axillary sweat glands in hyperhidrosis: a pitfall in whole-body PET examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, H.; Celsing, F.; Ingvar, M.; Stone-Elander, S.; Larsson, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    A diabetic male with severe autonomic neuropathy and recently discovered Hodgkin's disease demonstrated bilateral uptake of [2- 18 F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in the axillary sweat glands during profuse sweating caused by hypoglycaemia at positron emission tomography examination. It is not yet clear whether the sweating interfered with the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Regardless of the cause or mechanism for the uptake, the finding is clinically relevant. A bilateral symmetrical accumulation of FDG in the axillae of a tumour patient does not necessarily indicate malignant involvement of the lymph nodes. (orig.)

  11. Oxidative stress does not influence local sweat rate during high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Robert D; Fujii, Naoto; Poirier, Martin P; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We evaluated whether oxidative stress attenuates the contribution of nitric oxide to sweating during high-intensity exercise. What is the main finding and its importance? In contrast to our previous report of an oxidative stress-mediated reduction in nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation in this cohort during intense exercise, we demonstrated no influence of local ascorbate administration on the sweating response during moderate- (∼51% peak oxygen uptake) or high-intensity exercise (∼72% peak oxygen uptake). These new findings provide important mechanistic insight into how exercise-induced oxidative stress impacts sudomotor activity. Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent sweating is diminished during high- but not moderate-intensity exercise. We evaluated whether this impairment stems from increased oxidative stress during high-intensity exercise. On two separate days, 11 young (24 ± 4 years) men cycled in the heat (35°C) at a moderate [500 W; 52 ± 6% peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak )] or high (700 W; 71 ± 5% V̇O2 peak ) rate of metabolic heat production. Each session included two 30 min exercise bouts separated by a 20 min recovery period. Local sweat rate was monitored at four forearm skin sites continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with the following: (i) lactated Ringer solution (Control); (ii) 10 mm ascorbate (Ascorbate; non-selective antioxidant); (iii) 10 mm N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor); or (iv) 10 mm ascorbate plus 10 mm l-NAME (Ascorbate + l-NAME). During moderate exercise, sweat rate was attenuated at the l-NAME and Ascorbate + l-NAME sites (both ∼1.0 mg min -1  cm -2 ; all P < 0.05) but not at the Ascorbate site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ; both P ≥ 0.28) in comparison to the Control site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ). However, no differences were observed between treatment sites (∼1.4 mg min -1  cm -2 ; P = 0

  12. A comparison of fingerprint sweat corrosion of different alloys of brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Stephanie; Bond, John W

    2013-01-01

    Fingerprint sweat from 40 donors was deposited onto samples of five α and α + β phase brasses, comprising five alloys with different copper and zinc concentrations, two of which also had the addition of small concentrations of lead. Visual grading of the visibility of the corrosion revealed that brasses with the least amount of zinc produced the most visible and fully formed fingerprints from the most donors. Consideration of previously reported mechanisms for the corrosion of brass suggests red copper (I) oxide as a likely corrosion product for low zinc brasses, and a consideration of the color, composition, and solubility of fingerprint sweat corrosion products suggests that copper (I) oxide produces good contrast and visibility with the brass substrate. Scanning electron microscope images of the corrosion of all five alloys confirmed the enhanced contrast between corroded and uncorroded areas for low zinc alloys. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Intra-individual biological variation in sweat chloride concentrations in CF, CFTR dysfunction, and healthy pediatric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Natalia; Raia, Valeria; Rocco, Ilaria; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Tosco, Antonella; Salvadori, Laura; Sepe, Angela Ornella; Buzzetti, Roberto; Minicuci, Nadia; Castaldo, Giuseppe

    2018-04-02

    The sweat test is one of the main diagnostic tools used in newborn screening programs and as a confirmatory test, in case of suspect of Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Since sweat chloride (Cl) concentration is also considered an appropriate parameter to explore the efficacy of CFTR modulators in clinical trials, it is crucial to evaluate the biological variability of this test in healthy and pathological conditions. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the intra-individual biological variability of sweat Cl, both in healthy individuals and CF patients and to assess its correlation with diet, season, and menstrual cycle. Thirty-five out of 36 selected subjects (6-18 years) were enrolled by 2 CF care centers and assigned to 3 cohorts: CF, CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) and healthy volunteers. Each participant was subjected to eight sweat tests in different conditions and time of the year. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effects models for repeated measures, taking also into account intra-individual correlations. We observed a high intra-individual variability of sweat Cl, with the lowest mean CV% values among CF patients (20.21 in CF, 29.74 in CFTR-RD, and 31.15 in healthy subjects). Gender and diet had no influence on sweat Cl variability, nor had pubertal age and menstrual phase. Results of this pilot study confirmed that sweat Cl variability is high in CF patients, although non-CF individuals displayed even higher mean CV% values. Season significantly influenced sweat test values only in CF patients, likely due to changes in their hydration status. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of Sweat Gland of Caruncle: A Unique Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anuradha; Nagpal, R C; Harsh, Meena; Bahadur, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SP) is a rare benign hamartomatous malformation of skin which arises from apocrine or eccrine sweat glands. Skin of the head and neck is the usual site for this but rarely involves the eyelids. It is also called as a childhood tumor since it usually appears at birth or during puberty. The diagnosis is confirmed on histopathological examination after surgical excision. We are first to report a case of SP involving the caruncle in an elderly female.

  15. Plasma Catecholamines, Sweat Electrolytes and Physiological Responses of Exercised Normal, Partial Anhidrotic and Anhidrotic Horses

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bashir; A. Rasedee

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Malaysia imports horses from temperate countries to develop equine sports in the country. Several of these horses developed partial and complete anhidrosis. Approach: Normal, partial anhidrotic and anhidrotic horses were exercised to determine their sweating and physiological responses to exercise. The heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature and blood samples were obtained before the horses were lunged at 10 km h-­1 for 1 h and at again at 15, 30, 45, 60 min and 24 ...

  16. Sweat conductivity and coulometric quantitative test in neonatal cystic fibrosis screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Mouseline Torquato; Magdalena, Neiva Isabel Rodrigues; Cat, Mônica Nunes Lima; Watanabe, Alexandra Mitiru; Rosário Filho, Nelson Augusto

    2015-01-01

    To compare the results obtained with the sweat test using the conductivity method and coulometric measurement of sweat chloride in newborns (NBs) with suspected cystic fibrosis (CF) in the neonatal screening program. The sweat test was performed simultaneously by both methods in children with and without CF. The cutoff values to confirm CF were >50 mmol/L in the conductivity and >60 mmol/L in the coulometric test. There were 444 infants without CF (185 males, 234 females, and 24 unreported) submitted to the sweat test through conductivity and coulometric measurement simultaneously, obtaining median results of 32 mmol/L and 12 mmol/L, respectively. For 90 infants with CF, the median values of conductivity and coulometric measurement were 108 mmol/L and 97 mmol/L, respectively. The false positive rate for conductivity was 16.7%, and was higher than 50 mmol/L in all patients with CF, which gives this method a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 93.8-97.8), specificity of 96.2% (95% CI: 93.8-97.8), positive predictive value of 83.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.1), negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 90.5-109.4), and 9.8% accuracy. The correlation between the methods was r=0.97 (p>0.001). The best suggested cutoff value was 69.0 mmol/L, with a kappa coefficient=0.89. The conductivity test showed excellent correlation with the quantitative coulometric test, high sensitivity and specificity, and can be used in the diagnosis of CF in children detected through newborn screening. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Oligonol supplementation modulates plasma volume and osmolality and sweating after heat load in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JeongBeom; Shin, YoungOh; Murota, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol that possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the effects of Oligonol supplementation on sweating response, plasma volume (PV), and osmolality (Osm) after heat load in human volunteers. We conducted a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants took a daily dose of 200 mg Oligonol or placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. As a heat load, half-body immersion into hot water (42°C±0.5°C for 30 min) was performed in an automated climate chamber. Tympanic and mean body temperature (Tty, mTb) and whole-body sweat loss volume (WBSLV) were measured. Changes in PV, Osm, and serum levels of aldosterone and sodium were analyzed. Oligonol intake attenuated increases in Tty, mTb, and WBSLV after heat load compared with the placebo (Pbody temperature and excessive sweating under heat load in healthy humans, but interpretation of the results requires caution due to the potent diuretic effect of Oligonol.

  18. The analysis of metabolites in human sweat: analytical methods and potential application to investigation of pressure ischaemia of soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R P; Polliack, A A; Bader, D L

    1994-01-01

    A straightforward technique was developed for sweat collection applicable to tissues subjected to external load without introducing distortion of underlying tissues, and for analysis of six metabolites in the collected sweat. Chloride was measured colorimetrically and lactate, urea and urate by enzymatic methods on a centrifugal analyser. Sodium and potassium were measured by flame photometry. The methods showed good precision, recovery and linearity. To assess the technique sweat was collected: (i) from the sacrum, ischium, forearm and calf in healthy individuals at 32 degrees C for 1 h; (ii) from the sacrum of healthy subjects at ambient temperature for 9 h; (iii) at ambient temperature from the sacrum of a patient with a history of pressure sores. Sweat rates were greater at the sacrum and ischium than the calf or forearm. There were differences in the concentrations of lactate and urea between sites but these were smaller when expressed as amount secreted. Sweat rates were significantly lower in groups (ii) and (iii), but sweat could be collected reliably. This technique has potential clinical application to the investigation of susceptibility to pressure sores.

  19. Human eccrine sweat gland cells turn into melanin-uptaking keratinocytes in dermo-epidermal skin substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher-Haberzeth, Sophie; Biedermann, Thomas; Pontiggia, Luca; Braziulis, Erik; Schiestl, Clemens; Hendriks, Bart; Eichhoff, Ossia M; Widmer, Daniel S; Meuli-Simmen, Claudia; Meuli, Martin; Reichmann, Ernst

    2013-02-01

    Recently, Biedermann et al. (2010) have demonstrated that human eccrine sweat gland cells can develop a multilayered epidermis. The question still remains whether these cells can fulfill exclusive and very specific functional properties of epidermal keratinocytes, such as the incorporation of melanin, a feature absent in sweat gland cells. We added human melanocytes to eccrine sweat gland cells to let them develop into an epidermal analog in vivo. The interaction between melanocytes and sweat gland-derived keratinocytes was investigated. The following results were gained: (1) macroscopically, a pigmentation of the substitutes was seen 2-3 weeks after transplantation; (2) we confirmed the development of a multilayered, stratified epidermis with melanocytes distributed evenly throughout the basal layer; (3) melanocytic dendrites projected to suprabasal layers; and (4) melanin was observed to be integrated into former eccrine sweat gland cells. These skin substitutes were similar or equal to skin substitutes cultured from human epidermal keratinocytes. The only differences observed were a delay in pigmentation and less melanin uptake. These data suggest that eccrine sweat gland cells can form a functional epidermal melanin unit, thereby providing striking evidence that they can assume one of the most characteristic keratinocyte properties.

  20. Nanoduct Sweat Conductivity Measurements in 2664 Patients: Relationship to Age, Arterial Blood Gas, Serum Electrolyte Profiles and Clinical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Rabia Gonul; Aydemir, Gokhan; Akcan, Abdullah Baris; Paketci, Cem; Karaoglu, Abdulbaki; Aydinoz, Secil; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Background The Nanoduct® device has acceptable diagnostic accuracy, but there is not enough systematic data supporting its usage in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods A retrospective review of patients with an indication for the sweat test was conducted. The conductivity test was repeated in patients who had values higher than 60 mmol/L, and they were referred for sweat chloride measurements. Associations between sweat conductivity measurements and age, gender, (pH, HCO3, pCO2, Na, K, Cl), family history, consanguinity, indications for the test and number of hospitalization were studied. Results Among 2,664 patients, 16 children had sweat conductivity values higher than 80. The median age of patients diagnosed with CF was 4 months old. Age, pH, HCO3, Na, Cl, K and the sweat conductivity test were statistically related (P conductivity test and the sweat test. Conclusions Patients suspected to have CF can be screened using the Nanoduct® conductivity device in non-qualified centers. PMID:23390474

  1. Wearing graduated compression stockings augments cutaneous vasodilation but not sweating during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Nikawa, Toshiya; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-05-01

    The activation of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating are essential to the regulation of core temperature during exercise in the heat. We assessed the effect of graduated compression induced by wearing stockings on cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during exercise in the heat (30°C). On two separate occasions, nine young males exercised for 45 min or until core temperature reached ~1.5°C above baseline resting while wearing either (1) stockings causing graduated compression (graduate compression stockings, GCS), or (2) loose-fitting stockings without compression (Control). Forearm vascular conductance was evaluated by forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) divided by mean arterial pressure to estimate cutaneous vasodilation. Sweat rate was estimated using the ventilated capsule technique. Core and skin temperatures were measured continuously. Exercise duration was similar between conditions (Control: 42.2 ± 3.6 min vs. GCS: 42.2 ± 3.6 min, P  = 1.00). Relative to Control, GCS increased forearm vascular conductance during the late stages (≥30 min) of exercise (e.g., at 40 min, 15.6 ± 5.6 vs. 18.0 ± 6.0 units, P  = 0.01). This was paralleled by a greater sensitivity (23.1 ± 9.1 vs. 32.1 ± 15.0 units°C -1 , P  = 0.043) and peak level (14.1 ± 5.1 vs. 16.3 ± 5.7 units, P  = 0.048) of cutaneous vasodilation as evaluated from the relationship between forearm vascular conductance with core temperature. However, the core temperature threshold at which an increase in forearm vascular conductance occurred did not differ between conditions (Control: 36.9 ± 0.2 vs. GCS: 37.0 ± 0.3°C, P  = 0.13). In contrast, no effect of GCS on sweating was measured (all P  > 0.05). We show that the use of GCS during exercise in the heat enhances cutaneous vasodilation and not sweating. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American

  2. Limited social plasticity in the socially polymorphic sweat bee Lasioglossum calceatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, P J; Field, J

    2018-01-01

    Eusociality is characterised by a reproductive division of labour, where some individuals forgo direct reproduction to instead help raise kin. Socially polymorphic sweat bees are ideal models for addressing the mechanisms underlying the transition from solitary living to eusociality, because different individuals in the same species can express either eusocial or solitary behaviour. A key question is whether alternative social phenotypes represent environmentally induced plasticity or predominantly genetic differentiation between populations. In this paper, we focus on the sweat bee Lasioglossum calceatum , in which northern or high-altitude populations are solitary, whereas more southern or low-altitude populations are typically eusocial. To test whether social phenotype responds to local environmental cues, we transplanted adult females from a solitary, northern population, to a southern site where native bees are typically eusocial. Nearly all native nests were eusocial, with foundresses producing small first brood (B1) females that became workers. In contrast, nine out of ten nests initiated by transplanted bees were solitary, producing female offspring that were the same size as the foundress and entered directly into hibernation. Only one of these ten nests became eusocial. Social phenotype was unlikely to be related to temperature experienced by nest foundresses when provisioning B1 offspring, or by B1 emergence time, both previously implicated in social plasticity seen in two other socially polymorphic sweat bees. Our results suggest that social polymorphism in L. calceatum predominantly reflects genetic differentiation between populations, and that plasticity is in the process of being lost by bees in northern populations. Phenotypic plasticity is thought to play a key role in the early stages of the transition from solitary to eusocial behaviour, but may then be lost if environmental conditions become less variable. Socially polymorphic sweat bees exhibit

  3. Potential Analysis of Thunderstorm Occurrence Using SWEAT Method at Meteorology Station Sultan Iskandar Muda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfah Kurnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu hal penting dalam mengutamakan keselamatan penerbangan ialah informasi meteorologi yang tepat dan akurat terutama mengenai kondisi cuaca buruk seperti thunderstorm. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan prakiraan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm, sehingga pihak maskapai penerbangan dapat menyesuaikan prosedur keselamatan baik pada saat take off, on the route, maupun landing. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisis data radiosonde pada 2 (dua musim, yaitu musim kemarau dan musim hujan untuk memprakirakan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm selama periode April-Desember 2016 dan Januari-Maret 2017. Data radiosonde tersebut diperoleh dari Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda yang telah diukur setiap dua kali dalam satu hari. Waktu pengukurannya ialah pada pukul 00Z dan pukul 12Z. Dengan menggunakan Software Rawinsonde Observation (RAOB versi 5.7, dilakukan pengolahan data radiosonde sehingga diperoleh informasi parameter atmosfer seperti temperatur, titik embun, dan kecepatan angin. Parameter atmosfer tersebut dapat digunakan untuk memprakirakan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm selama dua belas jam kedepan, yaitu dengan menggunakan metode SWEAT (Severe Weather Threat sehingga diperoleh SWEAT Indeks untuk setiap pengukuran radiosonde. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan, diketahui SWEAT Indeks untuk wilayah Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda berkisar antara 39,8 - 355,4. Hasil analisis metode SWEAT diverifikasi dengan data aktual (data synop yang diamati di Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda dan diketahui persentase kesesuaian antara data prakiraan dengan kondisi aktual yaitu 58,62-66,67%.   One of the most important things in aviation safety is the accurate information of meteorology especially on bad weather conditions as thunderstorm. Therefore, need to forecast about potential occurrence of thunderstorm, so the airlines can adjust safety aviation when take of, an the route, and landing. In this research was analysis of

  4. Tick resistance and heat tolerance characteristics in cattle. III. Sweating rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle in a sustainable tropical livestock should be heat tolerant and resistant to ticks. The relationship between Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus infestation and sweating rate, an important heat tolerance characteristic, was studied in six Nellore and four Holstein steers of seven-month-old. They were artificial infested (a.i. with 10,000 (Holstein and 20,000 (Nellore larvae in 16/Apr/2011. In days 20, 23 and 24 after the infestation, the 10 bigger females ticks found in whole animal were weighed and put in a chamber (27 oC and 80% RH, weighing the egg mass of each female tick fourteen days after. The sweating rate (SRskin, measured by Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method, in a shaved area of shoulder skin was evaluated in 14/Apr (2 days before the a.i. and in 05/May (19 days after a.i.. In 14/Apr the Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method was done on the coat not shaved (SRcoat. The sweating rate was measured in the afternoon (from 2 P.M., after 30 minutes of direct sunlight, on April. On May, the animals remained 60 minutes in direct sunlight because this day was colder. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Data from the steers’ sweating rate were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using SRskin as dependent variable and breed and sampling date as independent variables. For SRcoat breed was the independent variable. Nellore, a tropical cattle breed, had higher SRskin (1,000.82 ± 64.59 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than Holstein (620.45 ± 79.10 g m-2 h-1. SRskin was higher on May (1,187.33 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than on April (433.93 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1. The correlation between the two different measurements of SR was positive and significant (r= 0,545, P<0,01, Pearson correlation. But in SRcoat the breed effect disappeared because the Holstein SRcoat increased (Holstein: 884.95 ± 472.12 g m-2 h-1 and Nellore: 1,060.72 ± 318.21 g m-2 h-1

  5. Sex differences in amino acids lost via sweating could lead to differential susceptibilities to disturbances in nitrogen balance and collagen turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, R H; Sparkes, D L; Dascombe, B J; Stevens, C J; Murphy, G R; Macdonald, M M; Gottfries, J; Gottfries, C-G; Roberts, T K

    2017-08-01

    Fluid collected during sweating is enriched with amino acids derived from the skin's natural moisturising factors and has been termed "faux" sweat. Little is known about sex differences in sweat amino acid composition or whether faux sweat amino acid losses affect nitrogen balance. Faux sweat collected by healthy adults (n = 47) after exercise, and at rest by chronic fatigue patients, was analysed for amino acid composition. Healthy females had higher total amino acid concentrations in sweat (10.5 ± 1.2 mM) compared with healthy males (6.9 ± 0.9 mM). Females had higher levels of 13 amino acids in sweat including serine, alanine and glycine. Higher hydroxyproline and proline levels suggested greater collagen turnover in females. Modelling indicated that with conservative levels of exercise, amino acid losses in females via faux sweat were triple than those predicted for urine, whereas in males they were double. It was concluded that females were more susceptible to key amino acid loss during exercise and/or hot conditions. Females reporting chronic fatigue had higher levels of methionine in faux sweat than healthy females. Males reporting chronic fatigue had higher levels of numerous amino acids in faux sweat compared to healthy males. Higher amino acid loss in faux sweat associated with chronic fatigue could contribute to a hypometabolic state. Depending on activity levels, climatic conditions and gender, amino acid losses in sweat and skin leachate could influence daily protein turnover where periods of continuously high turnover could lead to a negative net nitrogen balance.

  6. A new method of artificial latent fingerprint creation using artificial sweat and inkjet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook; Hong, Ingi; Han, Aleum; Seo, Jin Yi; Namgung, Juyoung

    2015-12-01

    In order to study fingerprinting in the field of forensic science, it is very important to have two or more latent fingerprints with identical chemical composition and intensity. However, it is impossible to obtain identical fingerprints, in reality, because fingerprinting comes out slightly differently every time. A previous research study had proposed an artificial fingerprint creation method in which inkjet ink was replaced with amino acids and sodium chloride solution: the components of human sweat. But, this method had some drawbacks: divalent cations were not added while formulating the artificial sweat solution, and diluted solutions were used for creating weakly deposited latent fingerprint. In this study, a method was developed for overcoming the drawbacks of the methods used in the previous study. Several divalent cations were added in this study because the amino acid-ninhydrin (or some of its analogues) complex is known to react with divalent cations to produce a photoluminescent product; and, similarly, the amino acid-1,2-indanedione complex is known to be catalyzed by a small amount of zinc ions to produce a highly photoluminescent product. Also, in this study, a new technique was developed which enables to adjust the intensity when printing the latent fingerprint patterns. In this method, image processing software is used to control the intensity of the master fingerprint patterns, which adjusts the printing intensity of the latent fingerprints. This new method opened the way to produce a more realistic artificial fingerprint in various strengths with one artificial sweat working solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia A.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  8. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohe, Shuichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yanai, Hirotsugu [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Komai, Yoshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Omachi, Taichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Nakamura, Naohiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ohsugi, Haruyuki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki [Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ueno, Hiroo, E-mail: hueno@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan)

    2015-10-23

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. - Highlights: • The acral epithelium have two types of stem cells. • Lgr6-positive cells are rapid-cycling, short-term stem cells. • Bmi1-positive cells are slow-cycling stem cells that act as reserver stem cells. • Lgr5 may be a useful sweat gland marker in mice.

  9. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Shuichi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Komai, Yoshihiro; Omachi, Taichi; Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho; Nakamura, Naohiro; Ohsugi, Haruyuki; Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki; Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. - Highlights: • The acral epithelium have two types of stem cells. • Lgr6-positive cells are rapid-cycling, short-term stem cells. • Bmi1-positive cells are slow-cycling stem cells that act as reserver stem cells. • Lgr5 may be a useful sweat gland marker in mice.

  10. Contamination of clothing and other items by sweat during exercise 201Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoo, Shigeki; Niio, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Tomoaki; Miyashita, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    We measured the radioactivity on patient's upper and lower garments, towels, broad sashes for the bust, and electrodes contaminated by sweat due to exercise 201 Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. In measuring activity, a scintillation survey meter adjusted to the energy of 201 Tl was used. In measuring the radioactivity of clothing, more than 4 Bq/cm 2 was considered to be a significant level of contamination. We detected contamination in 30% of upper garments and towels, 19% of broad sashes, 8% of lower garments and 4% of electrodes. Among these materials, several items of clothing and other items showed contamination exceeding 40 Bq/cm 2 . Towels were remarkably contaminated, with one towel showing a maximum contamination level of 420 Bq/cm 2 . Examinations done by exercise 201 Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy often result in the contamination of clothing and other items through sweating. This contamination is especially common in summer, particularly in upper garments and towels. The contamination ratio for towels was over 50%. The contamination ratio increased as the level of exercise became more difficult. When the exercise load was more than 100 W, the contamination ratio was 50%. In cases of extreme contamination, images of contaminated upper garments could be obtained by the scintigraphy camera. The areas of high activity on the images seemed to correspond to areas of the body where sweating was profuse. Based on these results, we should pay close attention to the handling of clothing and other items used in exercise testing by 201 Tl myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and the points used in measuring contaminated clothing and other items after testing. (author)

  11. Electrochemical behaviour of brass in chloride solution concentrations found in eccrine fingerprint sweat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, John W., E-mail: jwb13@le.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, George Porter Building, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lieu, Elaine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Corrosion of brass in NaCl concentrations found in eccrine sweat was investigated. • Concentrations < 0.2 M produce a layer of mainly zinc oxide after 24 h. • A concentration of 0.2 M enables active corrosion of brass at room temperature. • 0.2 M NaCl gives both zinc and copper dissolution. • 24-h immersion of brass in 0.2 M NaCl gives an oxide film thickness of 1.3 nm. - Abstract: In this work, the corrosion properties of α phase brass immersed in concentrations of aqueous NaCl solutions that are typically found in eccrine fingerprint sweat and range between 0.01 M and 0.2 M have been analysed. Analysis methods employed were electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical profiling. For NaCl concentrations <0.2 M, active corrosion did not occur although, after a period of 24 h, a passivating layer of mainly zinc oxide formed. At a concentration of 0.2 M active corrosion did occur, with measured corrosion potentials consistent with both brass and copper dissolution. A 1 h contact time at this concentration (0.2 M) resulted in the formation of a zinc oxide passivating layer with the surface ratio of zinc oxide to copper oxide increasing with time. Film thickness was calculated to be of the order of 1.3 nm after 24 h contact. Formation of oxide layers on brass by fingerprint sweat as observed here may well have implications for the successful investigation of crime by the visualisation of corrosion fingerprint ridge patterns or the reduction of hospital environmental contamination by hand contact with brass objects such as door handles or taps.

  12. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Brothers, R Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdialysis membranes were placed in posterior forearm skin not covered by the suit to manipulate skin blood flow using vasoactive agents. Each site was instrumented for control of local temperature and measurement of local SR (capacitance hygrometry) and skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry). In protocol I, two sites received norepinephrine to reduce skin blood flow, while two sites received Ringer solution (control). All sites were maintained at 34°C. In protocol II, all sites received 28 mM sodium nitroprusside to equalize skin blood flow between sites before local cooling to 20°C (2 sites) or maintenance at 34°C (2 sites). In both protocols, individuals were then passively heated to increase core temperature ~1°C. Both decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature attenuated the slope of the SR to mean body temperature relationship (2.0 ± 1.2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.7 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased skin blood flow, P = 0.01; 1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 0.07 ± 0.05 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased local temperature, P = 0.02). Furthermore, local cooling delayed the onset of sweating (mean body temperature of 37.5 ± 0.4 vs. 37.6 ± 0.4°C, P = 0.03). These data demonstrate that local cooling attenuates sweating by independent effects of decreased skin blood flow and decreased local skin temperature.

  13. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for a facultatively eusocial sweat bee (Megalopta genalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapheim, Karen M; Pollinger, John P; Wcislo, William T; Wayne, Robert K

    2009-11-01

    We developed a library of twelve polymorphic di- and tri-nucleotide microsatellite markers for Megalopta genalis, a facultatively eusocial sweat bee. We tested each locus in a panel of 23 unrelated females and found 7-20 alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.65 to 0.96 and from 0.69 to 0.95 respectively. None of the loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions or was found to be in gametic disequilibrium. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of fluid intake, weight loss and sweat rate in young triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Sellés López de Castro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Triathlon is an endurance sport comprising three disciplines: swimming, cycling and running. It is necessary to purpose guidelines in order to avoid dehydration during training or competition and keep good hydration before, during and after physical activity. The aim of this study is to evaluation of fluid intake, weight loss and sweat rate in young triathletes, during different trainings.Material and Methods: A descriptive-observational study in 14 triathletes (7 boys and 7 girls during a session of swimming, other session of cycling, another session of running. Fluid intake, weight loss, % of total body water, % dehydration and sweat rate, were assessed. Triathletes drank water in their drums of 750 ml and urine measurement was performed in containers.Results: The results of our study following the next order: swimming, cycling and running. Water intake 2.66±1.94ml/min, 7.91±7.69ml/min y 7.08±4.13ml/min in boys and 3.43±1.53ml/min, 6.39±5.36ml/min y 8.33±2.74ml/min in girls; weight loss 0.83±0.5kg, 0.47±0.3kg y 0.98±0.4kg in boys and 0.79±0.3kg, 0.47±0.58kg y 0.28±0.21kg in girls; and sweating rate 4.44±4.9ml/ min, 11.81±6.46ml/min y 5.29±3.13ml/min in boys and 3.89±2.4ml/min, 4.69±4.20ml/min and 7.96±5.06ml/min in girls.Conclusions: The percentage of body water and dehydration, loss of weight and sweat rate were compared with other studies and it´s shown that our results are lower than others studies, being below the recommendations of liquid intake in athletes.

  15. 'Sweat Equity' _

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    headed .... flats and the average cost of housing in self—built housing was 5.2% compared to 4.3% in state—built flats or an aver- ..... The fact that women preferred to carry on with their informal sector activities and child care rather than partic-.

  16. Sweat testing for the detection of atomoxetine from paediatric patients with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: application to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchei, Emilia; Papaseit, Esther; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Bilbao, Amaia; Farré, Magí; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2013-03-01

    Atomoxetine (ATX) is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved since 2002 for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults as an alternative treatment to methylphenidate. Within the framework of a project evaluating the use of alternative biological matrices for therapeutic monitoring of psychoactive drugs in paediatric and non-paediatric individuals, the excretion of ATX and its principal metabolites has been recently studied in oral fluid and hair. The aim of this study was to describe the excretion profile of ATX and its metabolites 4-hydroxyatomoxetine (4-OH-ATX) and N-desmethylatomoxetine (N-des-ATX) in sweat following the administration of different dosage regimens (60, 40, 35, and 18 mg/day) of ATX to six paediatric patients. Sweat patches were applied to the back of each participant and removed at timed intervals. ATX and its metabolites were measured in patches using a previously validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. Independently from the administered dose, ATX appeared in the sweat patches 1 h post administration and reached its maximum concentration generally at 24 h. Peak ATX concentrations ranged between 2.31 and 40.4 ng/patch and did not correlate with the administered drug dose, or with body surface area. Total ATX excreted in sweat ranged between 0.008 and 0.121 mg, corresponding to 0.02 and 0.3% of the administered drug. Neither 4-OH-ATX, nor N-des-ATX was detected in either of the collected sweat patches. Measuring ATX in sweat patches can provide information on cumulative drug use from patch application until removal. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Measuring the thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of sleeping bags using a supine sweating fabric manikin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y S; Fan, Jintu

    2009-01-01

    For testing the thermal insulation of sleeping bags, standard test methods and procedures using heated manikins are provided in ASTM F1720-06 and EN 13537:2002. However, with regard to the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, no instrument or test method has so far been established to give a direct measurement. In this paper, we report on a novel supine sweating fabric manikin system for directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags. Eleven sleeping bags were tested using the manikin under the isothermal condition, namely, both the mean skin temperature of the manikin and that of the environment were controlled to be the same at 35 °C, with the wind speed and ambient relative humidity at 0.3 m s −1 and 50%, respectively. The results showed that the novel supine sweating fabric manikin is reproducible and accurate in directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, and the measured evaporative resistance can be combined with thermal insulation to calculate the moisture permeability index of sleeping bags

  18. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Shuichi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Komai, Yoshihiro; Omachi, Taichi; Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho; Nakamura, Naohiro; Ohsugi, Haruyuki; Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki; Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Hiroo

    2015-10-23

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An Intelligent FPGA Based Anti-Sweating System for Bed Sore Prevention in a Clinical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jaichandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed sores, a common problem among immobile patients occur as a result of continuous sweating due to increase in skin to bed surface temperature in patients lying on same posture for prolonged period. If left untreated, the skin can break open and become infected. Currently adopted methods for bed sores prevention include: use of two hourly flip chat for repositioning patient or use of air fluidized beds. However, the setbacks of these preventive measures include either use of costly equipment or wastage of human resources. This paper introduces an intelligent low cost FPGA based anti-sweating system for bed sores prevention in a clinical environment. The developed system consists of bed surface implanted temperature sensors interfaced with an FPGA chip for sensing the temperature change in patient’s skin to bed surface. Based on the temperature change, the FPGA chip select the - mode (heater/cooler and speed of the fan module. Furthermore, an alarm module was implemented to alert the nurse to reposition the patient only if patient’s skin to bed surface temperature exceeds a predefined threshold thereby saving human resources. By integrating the whole system into a single FPGA chip, we were able to build a low cost compact system without sacrificing processing power and flexibility.

  20. The Sweat Lodge Ceremony: A Healing Intervention for Intergenerational Trauma and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Naseba Marsh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Many traditional healers and Elders agree that strengthening cultural identity, incorporating traditional healing practices, and encouraging community integration can enhance and improve mental health and reduce substance use disorders (SUD in Indigenous populations. Despite the fact that traditional healing practices have always been valued by Indigenous Peoples, there is very little research on efficacy. Recent research by one of the authors in this group (T. Marsh has shown that the blending of Indigenous traditional healing practices and a Western treatment model, Seeking Safety, resulted in a reduction in intergenerational trauma (IGT symptoms and substance use disorders (SUD. This article focuses on the qualitative evidence concerning the impact of the traditional healing practices, specifically the sweat lodge ceremony. Participants reported an increase in spiritual and emotional well-being that they said was directly attributable to the ceremony. This study demonstrates that it would be beneficial to incorporate Indigenous traditional healing practices, including the sweat lodge ceremony, into Seeking Safety to enhance the health and well-being of Indigenous Peoples with IGT and SUD.

  1. Impact of blanching, sweating and drying operations on pungency, aroma and color of Piper borbonense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, M; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Méot, J M; Boulanger, R; Bohuon, P

    2017-03-15

    Low pungency, high aromatic potential and red color, give to Piper borbonense its originality when compared to Piper nigrum. Effects of blanching, sweating and drying on these characteristics were assessed. The three operations had no impact on the concentration of piperine and essential oil but affected the composition of essential oil slightly and considerably affected the color of the pepper. The "wet process", including blanching, sweating and drying, had the largest impact on the composition of aroma, increasing para-cymene content by 89% and reducing safrole content by 33% in dried pepper compared to fresh. Blanching increased the drying rate thus reducing drying time. Drying had a major impact on color, which changed from red to brown. The biggest differences observed led to reductions of 2.2, 7.9 and 8.4units in L ∗ , a ∗ and b ∗ values, when chromatic values measured in fresh pepper were compared to those of dried pepper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical behaviour of titanium coated stainless steel by r.f. sputtering in synthetic sweat solutions for electrode applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, C.; Vaz, F.; Barbosa, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The r.f. sputtering technique was used to deposit titanium thin films on stainless steel substrates, aiming at the application of the coated samples as skin contact materials for 'dry' active electrodes. In this work the electrochemical behaviour of the coated samples was investigated in synthetic sweat solutions and their performance was compared with that of uncoated stainless steel and bulk titanium. The characterisation of the samples was carried out by electrochemical techniques and scanning electron microscopy. The coated samples displayed corrosion resistance values in synthetic sweat solutions much higher than stainless steel samples and of the same order of the values measured for bulk titanium in the same conditions

  3. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis with chloride meter (Sherwood M926S chloride analyzer®) and sweat test analysis system (CFΔ collection system®) compared to the Gibson Cooke method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiralioğlu, Nagehan; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Doğru, Deniz; Kiper, Nural

    2016-01-01

    Sweat test with Gibson Cooke (GC) method is the diagnostic gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF). Recently, alternative methods have been introduced to simplify both the collection and analysis of sweat samples. Our aim was to compare sweat chloride values obtained by GC method with other sweat test methods in patients diagnosed with CF and whose CF diagnosis had been ruled out. We wanted to determine if the other sweat test methods could reliably identify patients with CF and differentiate them from healthy subjects. Chloride concentration was measured with GC method, chloride meter and sweat test analysis system; also conductivity was determined with sweat test analysis system. Forty eight patients with CF and 82 patients without CF underwent the sweat test, showing median sweat chloride values 98.9 mEq/L with GC method, 101 mmol/L with chloride meter, 87.8 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. In non-CF group, median sweat chloride values were 16.8 mEq/L with GC method, 10.5 mmol/L with chloride meter, and 15.6 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. Median conductivity value was 107.3 mmol/L in CF group and 32.1 mmol/L in non CF group. There was a strong positive correlation between GC method and the other sweat test methods with a statistical significance (r=0.85) in all subjects. Sweat chloride concentration and conductivity by other sweat test methods highly correlate with the GC method. We think that the other sweat test equipments can be used as reliably as the classic GC method to diagnose or exclude CF.

  4. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Storteboom, T. T. R.; Mulder, A. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Rottier, B. L.; Kema, I. P.

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis

  5. Latent heat loss and sweat gland histology of male goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, José Domingues Fontenele; Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The latent heat loss from the body surfaces of these ten undefined breed goats was measured using a ventilated capsule in sun and shade and in the three body regions (neck, flank and hindquarters). Skin samples from these three regions were histologically analyzed to relate the quantity of sweat glands, the area of sweat glands and the epithelium thickness of each of these regions to the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of the examined goats. The epithelium thickness that was measured varied significantly for body regions with different quantities and areas of sweat glands ( P < 0.01). Among the body regions that were examined, the samples from the neck demonstrated the highest epithelium thickness (16.23 ± 0.13 μm). However, the samples of sweat glands from the flank had the biggest area (43330.51 ± 778.71 μm2) and quantity per square centimeter (390 ± 9 cm-2). After the animals were exposed to sun, the flanks lost the greatest amount of heat by cutaneous evaporation (73.03 ± 1.75 W m-2) and possessed the highest surface temperatures (39.47 ± 0.18 °C). The histological characteristics may have influenced the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation that was observed in the flank region after the animals were exposed to sun.

  6. Use of dew-point detection for quantitative measurement of sweating rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengelmann, G. L.; Mckeag, M.; Rowell, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    A method of measuring sweat rate (SR) based on detection of dew point (DP) is proposed which has advantages that may be attractive to other laboratories concerned with recording SR from selected areas of skin. It is similar to other methods in that dry gas is passed through a capsule which isolates several square centimeters of skin surface. The difference is in the means of determining how much gaseous water is carried off in the effluent moist gas. The DP detector used is free of the drawbacks of previous devices. DP is obtained through the fundamental technique of determining the temperature at which condensate forms on a mirror. Variations in DP are tracked rapidly, and accurately (+ or - 0.8 C nominal, sensitivity + or - 0.05 C) over a wide range ( -40 C to +50 C) without measurable hysteresis. The detector asembly is rugged and readily opened for cleaning and inspection.

  7. Chemical Visualization of Sweat Pores in Fingerprints Using GO-Enhanced TOF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lesi; Xia, Meng-Chan; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhao, Ya-Bin; Li, Zhanping; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2017-08-15

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used in imaging of small molecules (SIMS was used to detect and image relatively high mass molecules such as poison, alkaloids (>600 Da) and controlled drugs, and antibiotics (>700 Da) in fingerprints. Detail features of fingerprints such as the number and distribution of sweat pores in a ridge and even the delicate morphology of one pore were clearly revealed in SIMS images of relatively high mass molecules. The detail features combining with identified chemical composition were sufficient to establish a human identity and link the suspect to a crime scene. The wide detectable mass range and high spatial resolution make GO-enhanced TOF-SIMS a promising tool in accurate and fast analysis of fingerprints, especially in fragmental fingerprint analysis.

  8. Flight performance in night-flying sweat bees suffers at low light levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Jamie Carroll; Coates, Melissa M; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2007-11-01

    The sweat bee Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), unlike most bees, flies in extremely dim light. And although nocturnal insects are often equipped with superposition eyes, which greatly enhance light capture, Megalopta performs visually guided flight with apposition eyes. We examined how light limits Megalopta's flight behavior by measuring flight times and corresponding light levels and comparing them with flight trajectories upon return to the nest. We found the average time to land increased in dim light, an effect due not to slow approaches, but to circuitous approaches. Some landings, however, were quite fast even in the dark. To explain this, we examined the flight trajectories and found that in dim light, landings became increasingly error prone and erratic, consistent with repeated landing attempts. These data agree well with the premise that Megalopta uses visual summation, sacrificing acuity in order to see and fly at the very dimmest light intensities that its visual system allows.

  9. Hidradenocarcinoma: A Rare Sweat Gland Neoplasm Presenting as Small Turban Tumor of the Scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asati, Dinesh P; Brahmachari, Swagata; Kudligi, Chandramohan; Gupta, Chandramohan

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  10. Hidradenocarcinoma: A rare sweat gland neoplasm presenting as small turban tumor of the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh P Asati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  11. Apocrine Sweat Gland Ductal Adenoma with Sebaceous Differentiation in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Michishita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old male, Border Collie, developed a firm mass, measuring approximately 1 cm in diameter, in the left buccal skin. Histologically, the mass was composed of ductal structures lined by bilayered luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells along with a few nests of sebaceous cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the luminal epithelial tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK, CAM5.2 and CK19 but not for CK14 or p63. In contrast, the basaloid tumor cells were positive for CK14, p63, and αSMA but not for CK19 or CAM5.2. CK8 expression was observed in both luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells. The tumor cells with sebaceous differentiation were positive for CK14 but not for the other markers. This is the first case of an apocrine sweat gland ductal adenoma with sebaceous differentiation occurring in the buccal skin of a dog.

  12. Study of sample preparation for quantitative analysis of amino acids in human sweat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Povedano, M M; Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2016-01-01

    The determination of physiological levels of amino acids is important to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases and nutritional status of individuals. Amino acids are frequently determined in biofluids such as blood (serum or plasma) and urine; however, there are less common biofluids with different concentration profiles of amino acids that could be of interest. One of these biofluids is sweat that can be obtained in a non-invasive manner and is characterized by low complex composition. The analysis of amino acids in human sweat requires the development of sample preparation strategies according to the sample matrix and small collected volume. The influence of sample preparation on the quantitative analysis of amino acids in sweat by LC-MS/MS has been assessed through a comparison between two strategies: dilution of sweat and centrifugal microsolid-phase extraction (c-μSPE). In both cases, several dilution factors were assayed for in-depth knowledge of the matrix effects, and the use of c-μSPE provided the best results in terms of accuracy. The behavior of the target analytes was a function of the dilution factor, thus providing a pattern for sample preparation that depended on the amino acid to be determined. The concentration of amino acids in sweat ranges between 6.20 ng mL(-1) (for homocysteine) and 259.77 µg mL(-1) (for serine) with precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, within 1.1-21.4%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric K. O'Neal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8 after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C. Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass were significantly greater (p < 0.001 than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL. Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL. Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG = 1.018 ± 0.008 with no changes (p = 0.33 at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004 at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007, who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses.

  14. Consistency between Sweat Rate and Wet Bulb Globe Temperature for the Assessment of Heat Stress of People Working Outdoor in Arid and Semi-arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Heidari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat stress is common among workers in arid and semi-arid areas. In order to take every preventive measure to protect exposed workers against heat-related disorders, it is crucial to choose an appropriate index that accurately relates environmental parameters to physiological responses. Objective: To investigate the consistency between 2 heat stress and strain indices, ie, sweat rate and wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT, for the assessment of heat stress of people working outdoor in arid and semi-arid regions in Iran. Methods: During spring and summer, 136 randomly selected outdoor workers were enrolled in this study. Using a defined protocol, the sweat rate of these workers was measured 3 times a day. Simultaneously, the environmental parameters including WBGT index were recorded for each working station. Results: The level of agreement between sweat rate and WBGT was poor (κ<0.2. Based on sweat rate, no case exceeding the reference value was observed during the study. WBGT overestimated the heat stress in outdoor workers compared to sweat rate. Conclusion: It seems that the sweat rate standards may need some modifications related to real condition of work in arid and semi-arid regions in Iran. Moreover, it seems that judging workers solely based on monitoring their sweat rate in such regions, can probably result in underestimation of heat stress.

  15. iNOS-dependent sweating and eNOS-dependent cutaneous vasodilation are evident in younger adults, but are diminished in older adults exercising in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; Alexander, Lacy M; Akbari, Pegah; Foudil-Bey, Imane; Louie, Jeffrey C; Boulay, Pierre; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contributes to sweating and cutaneous vasodilation during exercise in younger adults. We hypothesized that endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) mediate NOS-dependent sweating, whereas eNOS induces NOS-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in younger adults exercising in the heat. Further, aging may upregulate inducible NOS (iNOS), which may attenuate sweating and cutaneous vasodilator responses. We hypothesized that iNOS inhibition would augment sweating and cutaneous vasodilation in exercising older adults. Physically active younger (n = 12, 23 ± 4 yr) and older (n = 12, 60 ± 6 yr) adults performed two 30-min bouts of cycling at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). Sweat rate and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) were evaluated at four intradermal microdialysis sites with: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) nNOS inhibitor (nNOS-I, NPLA), 3) iNOS inhibitor (iNOS-I, 1400W), or 4) eNOS inhibitor (eNOS-I, LNAA). In younger adults during both exercise bouts, all inhibitors decreased sweating relative to control, albeit a lower sweat rate was observed at iNOS-I compared with eNOS-I and nNOS-I sites (all P exercise protocol (all P exercise bouts (all P > 0.05). We show that iNOS and eNOS are the main contributors to NOS-dependent sweating and cutaneous vasodilation, respectively, in physically active younger adults exercising in the heat, and that iNOS inhibition does not alter sweating or cutaneous vasodilation in exercising physically active older adults. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. A little CFTR goes a long way: CFTR-dependent sweat secretion from G551D and R117H-5T cystic fibrosis subjects taking ivacaftor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Char

    Full Text Available To determine if oral dosing with the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770, Kalydeco improves CFTR-dependent sweating in CF subjects carrying G551D or R117H-5T mutations, we optically measured sweat secretion from 32-143 individually identified glands in each of 8 CF subjects; 6 F508del/G551D, one G551D/R117H-5T, and one I507del/R117H-5T. Two subjects were tested only (- ivacaftor, 3 only (+ ivacaftor and 3 (+/- ivacaftor (1-5 tests per condition. The total number of gland measurements was 852 (- ivacaftor and 906 (+ ivacaftor. A healthy control was tested 4 times (51 glands. For each gland we measured both CFTR-independent (M-sweat and CFTR-dependent (C-sweat; C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevated [cAMP]i while blocking muscarinic receptors. Absent ivacaftor, almost all CF glands produced M-sweat on all tests, but only 1/593 glands produced C-sweat (10 tests, 5 subjects. By contrast, 6/6 subjects (113/342 glands produced C-sweat in the (+ ivacaftor condition, but with large inter-subject differences; 3-74% of glands responded with C/M sweat ratios 0.04%-2.57% of the average WT ratio of 0.265. Sweat volume losses cause proportionally larger underestimates of CFTR function at lower sweat rates. The losses were reduced by measuring C/M ratios in 12 glands from each subject that had the highest M-sweat rates. Remaining losses were estimated from single channel data and used to correct the C/M ratios, giving estimates of CFTR function (+ ivacaftor  = 1.6%-7.7% of the WT average. These estimates are in accord with single channel data and transcript analysis, and suggest that significant clinical benefit can be produced by low levels of CFTR function.

  17. Sweat conductivity and coulometric quantitative test in neonatal cystic fibrosis screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouseline Torquato Domingos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the results obtained with the sweat test using the conductivity method and coulometric measurement of sweat chloride in newborns (NBs with suspected cystic fibrosis (CF in the neonatal screening program. Methods: The sweat test was performed simultaneously by both methods in children with and without CF. The cutoff values to confirm CF were >50 mmol/L in the conductivity and >60 mmol/L in the coulometric test. Results: There were 444 infants without CF (185 males, 234 females, and 24 unreported submitted to the sweat test through conductivity and coulometric measurement simultaneously, obtaining median results of 32 mmol/L and 12 mmol/L, respectively. For 90 infants with CF, the median values of conductivity and coulometric measurement were 108 mmol/L and 97 mmol/L, respectively. The false positive rate for conductivity was 16.7%, and was higher than 50 mmol/L in all patients with CF, which gives this method a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 93.8–97.8, specificity of 96.2% (95% CI: 93.8–97.8, positive predictive value of 83.3% (95% CI: 74.4–91.1, negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 90.5–109.4, and 9.8% accuracy. The correlation between the methods was r = 0.97 (p > 0.001. The best suggested cutoff value was 69.0 mmol/L, with a kappa coefficient = 0.89. Conclusion: The conductivity test showed excellent correlation with the quantitative coulometric test, high sensitivity and specificity, and can be used in the diagnosis of CF in children detected through newborn screening. Resumo: Objetivo: Comparar os resultados obtidos no teste do suor pelo método da condutividade e a dosagem coulométrica de cloreto no suor em recém nascidos (RN suspeitos da triagem neonatal para fibrose cística (FC. Métodos: O teste do suor foi realizado simultaneamente pelos dois métodos em crianças com e sem FC. Os valores de corte para confirmar FC foram na condutividade > 50 mmol/L e no teste coulométrico > 60

  18. Cholinesterase activity in blood and pesticide presence in sweat as biomarkers of children`s environmental exposure to crop protection chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak

    2015-09-01

    Altogether, the study indicated that cholinesterase activity is a sensitive marker of the children’s environmental exposure to pesticides, whereas sweat patches are useful devices for collecting samples to be analysed for the presence of the pesticides.

  19. Estradiol rapidly induces the translocation and activation of the intermediate conductance calcium activated potassium channel in human eccrine sweat gland cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W

    2009-02-01

    Steroid hormones target K+ channels as a means of regulating electrolyte and fluid transport. In this study, ion transporter targets of Estradiol (E2) were investigated in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

  20. Evaluation of atomic layer deposited alumina as a protective layer for domestic silver articles: Anti-corrosion test in artificial sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suk Won; Han, Gwon Deok; Choi, Hyung Jong; Prinz, Fritz B.; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of alumina fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a protective coating for silver articles against the corrosion caused by body contact. An artificial sweat solution was used to simulate body contact. ALD alumina layers of varying thicknesses ranging from 20 to 80 nm were deposited on sputtered silver samples. The stability of the protective layer was evaluated by immersing the coated samples in the artificial sweat solution at 25 and 35 °C for 24 h. We confirmed that a sufficiently thick layer of ALD alumina is effective in protecting the shape and light reflectance of the underlying silver, whereas the uncoated bare silver is severely degraded by the artificial sweat solution. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used for in-depth analyses of the chemical stability of the ALD-coated silver samples after immersion in the sweat solution.

  1. Improvement of sweating model in 2-Node Model and its application to thermal safety for hot environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooka, Ryozo [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153 8505 (Japan); Minami, Yuriko [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Sakoi, Tomonori [International Young Researchers Empowerment Center, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan); Tsuzuki, Kazuyo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Rijal, H.B. [Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Recently, due to global warming and the heat-island effect, more and more people are exposed to the dangers of heat disorders. A hot thermal environment can be evaluated using various indices, such as new Standard Effective Temperature (SET{sup *}) using the 2-Node Model (2 NM), Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model, and so on. The authors aim to develop a safety evaluation approach for hot environments. Subject experiments are performed in a laboratory to comprehend the physiological response of the human body. The results are compared with the computed values from the 2 NM and PHS models, and improved the sweating model in 2 NM in order to take into account the relationship with metabolic rate. A demonstration is provided of using the new sweating model for evaluating thermal safety in a hot environment. (author)

  2. Sweat chloride and immunoreactive trypsinogen in infants carrying two CFTR mutations and not affected by cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Carlo; Tridello, Gloria; Tamanini, Anna; Assael, Baroukh M

    2017-07-01

    Newborns with raised immunotrypsinogen levels who have non-pathological sweat chloride values and carry two cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator ( CFTR ) mutations of which at least one is not acknowledged to be cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing are at risk of developing clinical manifestations consistent with CFTR-related disorders or even CF. It is not known whether newborns with similar genotypes and normal immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) may share the same risk. This study found that newborns with these characteristics and normal IRT have lower sweat chloride values than those with raised IRT (p=0.007). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Women's collective constructions of embodied practices through memory work: Cartesian dualism in memories of sweating and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Val; Harden, Angela; Johnson, Katherine; Reavey, Paula; Strange, Vicki; Willig, Carla

    2004-03-01

    The research presented in this paper uses memory work as a method to explore six women's collective constructions of two embodied practices, sweating and pain. The paper identifies limitations in the ways in which social constructionist research has theorized the relationship between discourse and materiality, and it proposes an approach to the study of embodiment which enjoins, rather than bridges, the discursive and the non-discursive. The paper presents an analysis of 25 memories of sweating and pain which suggests that Cartesian dualism is central to the women's accounts of their experiences. However, such dualism does not operate as a stable organizing principle. Rather, it offers two strategies for the performance of a split between mind and body. The paper traces the ways in which dualism can be both functional and restrictive, and explores the tensions between these two forms. The paper concludes by identifiying opportunities and limitations associated with memory work as a method for studying embodiment.

  4. Effect of Exercise-induced Sweating on facial sebum, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface pH in normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyu; Zhang, Guirong; Meng, Huimin; Li, Li

    2013-02-01

    Evidence demonstrated that sweat was an important factor affecting skin physiological properties. We intended to assess the effects of exercise-induced sweating on the sebum, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH of facial skin. 102 subjects (aged 5-60, divided into five groups) were enrolled to be measured by a combination device called 'Derma Unit SSC3' in their frontal and zygomatic regions when they were in a resting state (RS), at the beginning of sweating (BS), during excessive sweating (ES) and an hour after sweating (AS), respectively. Compared to the RS, SC hydration in both regions increased at the BS or during ES, and sebum increased at the BS but lower during ES. Compared to during ES, Sebum increased in AS but lower than RS. Compared to the RS, pH decreased in both regions at the BS in the majority of groups, and increased in frontal region during ES and in zygomatic region in the AS. There was an increase in pH in both regions during ES in the majority of groups compared to the BS, but a decrease in the AS compared to during ES. The study implies that even in summer, after we sweat excessively, lipid products should be applied locally in order to maintain stability of the barrier function of the SC. The study suggests that after a short term(1 h or less) of self adjustment, excessive sweat from moderate exercise will not impair the primary acidic surface pH of the facial skin. Exercise-induced sweating significantly affected the skin physiological properties of facial region. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, J; Storteboom, T T R; Mulder, A M; de Jong, W H A; Rottier, B L; Kema, I P

    2015-07-01

    Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis of both chloride and sodium in small volumes of sweat. Precision, linearity and limit of detection of an in-house developed IC/HPLC method were established. Method comparison between the newly developed IC/HPLC method and the traditional Chlorocounter was performed, and trueness was determined using Passing Bablok method comparison with external quality assurance material (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia). Precision and linearity fulfill criteria as established by UK guidelines are comparable with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods. Passing Bablok analysis demonstrated excellent correlation between IC/HPLC measurements and external quality assessment target values, for both chloride and sodium. With a limit of quantitation of 0.95 mmol/L, our method is suitable for the analysis of small amounts of sweat and can thus be used in combination with the Macroduct collection system. Although a chromatographic application results in a somewhat more expensive test compared to a Chlorocounter test, more accurate measurements are achieved. In addition, simultaneous measurements of sodium concentrations will result in better detection of false positives, less test repeating and thus faster and more accurate and effective diagnosis. The described IC/HPLC method, therefore, provides a precise, relatively cheap and easy-to-handle application for the analysis of both chloride and sodium in sweat. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Reduced expression of dermcidin, a peptide active against propionibacterium acnes, in sweat of patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Arai, Satoru; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-09-01

    Dermcidin (DCD), an antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria such as Propionibacterum acnes, is expressed constitutively in sweat in the absence of stimulation due to injury or inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between DCD expression and acne vulgaris associated with P. acnes. The antimicrobial activity of recombinant full-length DCD (50 μg/ml) was 97% against Escherichia coli and 100% against Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial activity against P. acnes ranged from 68% at 50 μg/ml DCD to 83% at 270 μg/ml DCD. DCD concentration in sweat from patients with acne vulgaris (median 9.8 μg/ml, range 6.9-95.3 μg/ml) was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (median 136.7 μg/ml, range 45.4-201.6 μg/ml) (p = 0.001). DCD demonstrated concentration-dependent, but partial, microbicidal activity against P. acnes. These results suggest that reduced DCD concentration in sweat in patients with inflammatory acne may permit proliferation of P. acnes in pilosebaceous units, resulting in progression of inflammatory acne.

  7. Pre-game hydration status, sweat loss, and fluid intake in elite Brazilian young male soccer players during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Rafael P; Mündel, Toby; Natali, Antonio J; Bara Filho, Mauricio G; Alfenas, Rita C G; Lima, Jorge R P; Belfort, Felipe G; Lopes, Priscila R N R; Marins, João C B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the pre-game hydration status and fluid balance of elite young soccer players competing in a match played in the heat (temperature 31.0 ± 2.0 ° C, relative humidity 48.0 ± 5.0%) for an official Brazilian soccer competition. Fluid intake was measured during the match, as were urine specific gravity and body mass before and after the game to estimate hydration status. Data were obtained from 15 male players (age 17.0 ± 0.6 years, height 1.78 ± 0.06 m, mass 65.3 ± 3.8 kg); however, data are only analysed for 10 players who completed the full game. The mean (± s) sweat loss of players amounted to 2.24 ± 0.63 L, and mean fluid intake was 1.12 ± 0.39 L. Pre-game urine specific gravity was 1.021 ± 0.004, ranging from 1.010 to 1.025. There was no significant correlation between sweat loss and fluid intake (r = 0.504, P = 0.137) or between urine specific gravity and fluid intake (r = -0.276, P = 0.440). We conclude that young, native tropical soccer players started the match hypohydrated and replaced about 50% of the sweat lost. Thus, effective strategies to improve fluid replacement are needed for players competing in the heat.

  8. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Anjan Panneer; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-03-21

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001-100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours.

  9. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001-100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours.

  10. Cation transport by sweat ducts in primary culture. Ionic mechanism of cholinergically evoked current oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, I; Pedersen, P S

    1990-01-01

    1. The coiled reabsorptive segment of human sweat ducts was cultured in vitro. Cells were then harvested and plated onto a dialysis membrane which was glued over a hole in a small disc. Cultures were maintained in a low serum, hormone-supplemented medium that allowed the cells to grow to confluency....... The disc was then placed as a partition between two compartments of a miniature Ussing chamber. The chamber was mounted on the stage of an inverted microscope and intracellular potentials were recorded under transepithelial open-circuit or voltage clamp conditions. All values are given as means +/- S.......E.M. and n refers to the number of preparations or duct cells. 2. Under control conditions, the cultured epithelia developed mucosa-negative transepithelial potentials (Vt) ranging from -2.5 to -38 mV (-13.5 +/- 1.5 mV, n = 36). The basolateral membrane potential (Vb) was -39.4 +/- 0.7 mV (n = 50 cells...

  11. Physiological variation as a mechanism for developmental caste-biasing in a facultatively eusocial sweat bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapheim, Karen M; Smith, Adam R; Ihle, Kate E; Amdam, Gro V; Nonacs, Peter; Wcislo, William T

    2012-04-07

    Social castes of eusocial insects may have arisen through an evolutionary modification of an ancestral reproductive ground plan, such that some adults emerge from development physiologically primed to specialize on reproduction (queens) and others on maternal care expressed as allo-maternal behaviour (workers). This hypothesis predicts that variation in reproductive physiology should emerge from ontogeny and underlie division of labour. To test these predictions, we identified physiological links to division of labour in a facultatively eusocial sweat bee, Megalopta genalis. Queens are larger, have larger ovaries and have higher vitellogenin titres than workers. We then compared queens and workers with their solitary counterparts-solitary reproductive females and dispersing nest foundresses-to investigate physiological variation as a factor in caste evolution. Within dyads, body size and ovary development were the best predictors of behavioural class. Queens and dispersers are larger, with larger ovaries than their solitary counterparts. Finally, we raised bees in social isolation to investigate the influence of ontogeny on physiological variation. Body size and ovary development among isolated females were highly variable, and linked to differences in vitellogenin titres. As these are key physiological predictors of social caste, our results provide evidence for developmental caste-biasing in a facultatively eusocial bee.

  12. Sweat control in male by the use of alunogen and cypripedium pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of my study is to investigate upon the quality and quantity of the free fatty acids secreted by apocrine glands, as chief index to determine the real efficacy of a new model of antiperspirant-deodorant, that interferes directly with apocrine glands (by reducing drastically the secretion of free fatty acids and indirectly with eccrine glands, by minimising the salted water secretion. I created an innovative cosmetic formula that comprises the Alunogen, idest the heptadecahydrated form of aluminium sulphate, since the generic aluminium sulphate has been recently accused of the onset of the Alzheimer’s disease, when penetrating the epidermis, although definitive scientific proof is difficult to establish due to the lack of longitudinal studies, and therefore could be banished in the very next future. The formula comprises also the concrète of Cypripedium Pubescens (Lady’s slipper which contains, inter alia, the cypripedin, a quinine-analog, endowed by anticholinergic activities, that can be reputed useful as astringent agent with regards to eccrine glands, synergically to the action upon apocrine glands performed by alunogen. I recruited 11 young men, 11 bricklayers that customarily have to work 9 hours pro day after the hot summer sun and assert without doubt to sweat copiously, in order to carry out my experience.

  13. Leucophora Satellite Flies (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) as Nest Parasites of Sweat Bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, C; Michelsen, V; Nieves-Aldrey, J L

    2015-08-01

    The biology of the 10 species of Leucophora (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) recorded in the Neotropics remains unknown. The large majority of the studied species so far are kleptoparasites of bees and wasps. Here, we report the first observations of Leucophora andicola (Bigot) and Leucophora peullae (Malloch) visiting the nests of ground-nesting sweat bees Corynura (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in Chilean Patagonia. Females of both species perch on small stones or sticks within a dense nest aggregation of the bees and then track pollen-loaded bees in flight with great precision, eventually following them into their nests. The overall behavior closely resembles that observed for many other species of the genus. Excavations of some bee nests returned only two dipteran puparia, possibly of Leucophora, suggesting a low parasitism rate. One male of L. peullae was also collected at the bee aggregation. This is the first report of host association for any Leucophora from the Neotropics and the first report of any anthomyiid fly associated with augochlorine bees.

  14. Does attenuated skin blood flow lower sweat rate and the critical environmental limit for heat balance during severe heat exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Matthew N; Gagnon, Daniel; Crandall, Craig G; Jay, Ollie

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does attenuated skin blood flow diminish sweating and reduce the critical environmental limit for heat balance, which indicates maximal heat loss potential, during severe heat stress? What is the main finding and its importance? Isosmotic hypovolaemia attenuated skin blood flow by ∼20% but did not result in different sweating rates, mean skin temperatures or critical environmental limits for heat balance compared with control and volume-infusion treatments, suggesting that the lower levels of skin blood flow commonly observed in aged and diseased populations may not diminish maximal whole-body heat dissipation. Attenuated skin blood flow (SkBF) is often assumed to impair core temperature (T c ) regulation. Profound pharmacologically induced reductions in SkBF (∼85%) lead to impaired sweating, but whether the smaller attenuations in SkBF (∼20%) more often associated with ageing and certain diseases lead to decrements in sweating and maximal heat loss potential is unknown. Seven healthy men (28 ± 4 years old) completed a 30 min equilibration period at 41°C and a vapour pressure (P a ) of 2.57 kPa followed by incremental steps in P a of 0.17 kPa every 6 min to 5.95 kPa. Differences in heat loss potential were assessed by identifying the critical vapour pressure (P crit ) at which an upward inflection in T c occurred. The following three separate treatments elicited changes in plasma volume to achieve three distinct levels of SkBF: control (CON); diuretic-induced isosmotic dehydration to lower SkBF (DEH); and continuous saline infusion to maintain SkBF (SAL). The T c , mean skin temperature (T sk ), heart rate, mean laser-Doppler flux (forearm and thigh; LDF mean ), mean local sweat rate (forearm and thigh; LSR mean ) and metabolic rate were measured. In DEH, a 14.2 ± 5.7% lower plasma volume resulted in a ∼20% lower LDF mean in perfusion units (PU) (DEH, 139 ± 23 PU; CON, 176 ± 22 PU; and SAL

  15. Flexible social organization and high incidence of drifting in the sweat bee, Halictus scabiosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Yuko; Perrin, Nicolas; Chapuisat, Michel

    2009-04-01

    The very diverse social systems of sweat bees make them interesting models to study social evolution. Here we focus on the dispersal behaviour and social organization of Halictus scabiosae, a common yet poorly known species of Europe. By combining field observations and genetic data, we show that females have multiple reproductive strategies, which generates a large diversity in the social structure of nests. A detailed microsatellite analysis of 60 nests revealed that 55% of the nests contained the offspring of a single female, whereas the rest had more complex social structures, with three clear cases of multiple females reproducing in the same nest and frequent occurrence of unrelated individuals. Drifting among nests was surprisingly common, as 16% of the 122 nests in the overall sample and 44% of the nests with complex social structure contained females that had genotypes consistent with being full-sisters of females sampled in other nests of the population. Drifters originated from nests with an above-average productivity and were unrelated to their nestmates, suggesting that drifting might be a strategy to avoid competition among related females. The sex-specific comparison of genetic differentiation indicated that dispersal was male-biased, which would reinforce local resource competition among females. The pattern of genetic differentiation among populations was consistent with a dynamic process of patch colonization and extinction, as expected from the unstable, anthropogenic habitat of this species. Overall, our data show that H. scabiosae varies greatly in dispersal behaviour and social organization. The surprisingly high frequency of drifters echoes recent findings in wasps and bees, calling for further investigation of the adaptive basis of drifting in the social insects.

  16. Socially induced brain development in a facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam R; Seid, Marc A; Jiménez, Lissette C; Wcislo, William T

    2010-07-22

    Changes in the relative size of brain regions are often dependent on experience and environmental stimulation, which includes an animal's social environment. Some studies suggest that social interactions are cognitively demanding, and have examined predictions that the evolution of sociality led to the evolution of larger brains. Previous studies have compared species with different social organizations or different groups within obligately social species. Here, we report the first intraspecific study to examine how social experience shapes brain volume using a species with facultatively eusocial or solitary behaviour, the sweat bee Megalopta genalis. Serial histological sections were used to reconstruct and measure the volume of brain areas of bees behaving as social reproductives, social workers, solitary reproductives or 1-day-old bees that are undifferentiated with respect to the social phenotype. Social reproductives showed increased development of the mushroom body (an area of the insect brain associated with sensory integration and learning) relative to social workers and solitary reproductives. The gross neuroanatomy of young bees is developmentally similar to the advanced eusocial species previously studied, despite vast differences in colony size and social organization. Our results suggest that the transition from solitary to social behaviour is associated with modified brain development, and that maintaining dominance, rather than sociality per se, leads to increased mushroom body development, even in the smallest social groups possible (i.e. groups with two bees). Such results suggest that capabilities to navigate the complexities of social life may be a factor shaping brain evolution in some social insects, as for some vertebrates.

  17. Cross-disciplinary thermoregulation and sweat analysis laboratory experiences for undergraduate Chemistry and Exercise Science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Gregory; Taylor, Nichole; Glen, Mary; Tomlin, Dona; Gaul, Catherine A

    2011-06-01

    Cross-disciplinary (CD) learning experiences benefit student understanding of concepts and curriculum by offering opportunities to explore topics from the perspectives of alternate fields of study. This report involves a qualitative evaluation of CD health sciences undergraduate laboratory experiences in which concepts and students from two distinct disciplines [chemistry (CHEM) and exercise physiology (EPHE)] combined to study exercise thermoregulation and sweat analysis. Twenty-eight senior BSc Kinesiology (EPHE) students and 42 senior BSc CHEM students participated as part of their mutually exclusive, respective courses. The effectiveness of this laboratory environment was evaluated qualitatively using written comments collected from all students as well as from formal focus groups conducted after the CD laboratory with a representative cohort from each class (n = 16 CHEM students and 9 EPHE students). An open coding strategy was used to analyze the data from written feedback and focus group transcripts. Coding topics were generated and used to develop five themes found to be consistent for both groups of students. These themes reflected the common student perceptions that the CD experience was valuable and that students enjoyed being able to apply academic concepts to practical situations as well as the opportunity to interact with students from another discipline of study. However, students also reported some challenges throughout this experience that stemmed from the combination of laboratory groups from different disciplines with limited modification to the design of the original, pre-CD, learning environments. The results indicate that this laboratory created an effective learning opportunity that fostered student interest and enthusiasm for learning. The findings also provide information that could inform subsequent design and implementation of similar CD experiences to enhance engagement of all students and improve instructor efficacy.

  18. Validity and reliability of a field technique for sweat Na+ and K+ analysis during exercise in a hot-humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Ungaro, Corey T; Barnes, Kelly A; Nuccio, Ryan P; Reimel, Adam J; Stofan, John R

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study compared a field versus reference laboratory technique for extracting (syringe vs. centrifuge) and analyzing sweat [Na(+)] and [K(+)] (compact Horiba B-722 and B-731, HORIBA vs. ion chromatography, HPLC) collected with regional absorbent patches during exercise in a hot-humid environment. Sweat samples were collected from seven anatomical sites on 30 athletes during 1-h cycling in a heat chamber (33°C, 67% rh). Ten minutes into exercise, skin was cleaned/dried and two sweat patches were applied per anatomical site. After removal, one patch per site was centrifuged and sweat was analyzed with HORIBA in the heat chamber (CENTRIFUGE HORIBA) versus HPLC (CENTRIFUGE HPLC). Sweat from the second patch per site was extracted using a 5-mL syringe and analyzed with HORIBA in the heat chamber (SYRINGE HORIBA) versus HPLC (SYRINGE HPLC). CENTRIFUGE HORIBA, SYRINGE HPLC, and SYRINGE HORIBA were highly related to CENTRIFUGE HPLC ([Na(+)]: ICC = 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively; [K(+)]: ICC = 0.87, 0.92, and 0.84, respectively), while mean differences from CENTRIFUGE HPLC were small but usually significant ([Na(+)]: 4.7 ± 7.9 mEql/L, -2.5 ± 9.3 mEq/L, 4.0 ± 10.9 mEq/L (all P CENTRIFUGE HPLC 95% of the time. The field (SYRINGE HORIBA) method of extracting and analyzing sweat from regional absorbent patches may be useful in obtaining sweat [Na(+)] when rapid estimates in a hot-humid field setting are needed.

  19. Validity and reliability of a field technique for sweat Na+ and K+ analysis during exercise in a hot‐humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Ungaro, Corey T.; Barnes, Kelly A.; Nuccio, Ryan P.; Reimel, Adam J.; Stofan, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study compared a field versus reference laboratory technique for extracting (syringe vs. centrifuge) and analyzing sweat [Na+] and [K+] (compact Horiba B‐722 and B‐731, HORIBA vs. ion chromatography, HPLC) collected with regional absorbent patches during exercise in a hot‐humid environment. Sweat samples were collected from seven anatomical sites on 30 athletes during 1‐h cycling in a heat chamber (33°C, 67% rh). Ten minutes into exercise, skin was cleaned/dried and two sweat patches were applied per anatomical site. After removal, one patch per site was centrifuged and sweat was analyzed with HORIBA in the heat chamber (CENTRIFUGE HORIBA) versus HPLC (CENTRIFUGE HPLC). Sweat from the second patch per site was extracted using a 5‐mL syringe and analyzed with HORIBA in the heat chamber (SYRINGE HORIBA) versus HPLC (SYRINGE HPLC). CENTRIFUGE HORIBA, SYRINGE HPLC, and SYRINGE HORIBA were highly related to CENTRIFUGE HPLC ([Na+]: ICC = 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively; [K+]: ICC = 0.87, 0.92, and 0.84, respectively), while mean differences from CENTRIFUGE HPLC were small but usually significant ([Na+]: 4.7 ± 7.9 mEql/L, −2.5 ± 9.3 mEq/L, 4.0 ± 10.9 mEq/L (all P CENTRIFUGE HPLC 95% of the time. The field (SYRINGE HORIBA) method of extracting and analyzing sweat from regional absorbent patches may be useful in obtaining sweat [Na+] when rapid estimates in a hot‐humid field setting are needed. PMID:24793982

  20. Characterization of X-linked Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia (XL-HED) Hair and Sweat Gland Phenotypes Using Phototrichogram Analysis and Live Confocal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kyle B.; Goodwin, Alice F.; Landan, Maya; Seidel, Kerstin; Tran, Dong-Kha; Hogue, Jacob; Chavez, Miquella; Fete, Mary; Yu, Wenli; Hussein, Tarek; Johnson, Ramsey; Huttner, Kenneth; Jheon, Andrew H.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED), which encompasses a large group of syndromes that share several phenotypic features such as missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XL-HED) is associated with mutations in ectodysplasin (EDA1). Hypohidrosis due to hypoplastic sweat glands and thin, sparse hair are phenotypic features that significantly affect the daily lives of XL-HED individuals and therefore require systematic analysis. We sought to determine the quality of life of individuals with XL-HED and to quantify sweat duct and hair phenotypes using confocal imaging, pilocarpine iontophoresis, and phototrichogram analysis. Using these highly sensitive and non-invasive techniques, we demonstrated that 11/12 XL-HED individuals presented with a complete absence of sweat ducts and that none produced sweat. We determined that the thin hair phenotype observed in XL-HED was due to multiple factors, such as fewer terminal hairs with decreased thickness and slower growth rate, as well as fewer follicular units and fewer hairs per unit. The precise characterization of XL-HED phenotypes using sensitive and non-invasive techniques presented in our study will improve upon larger genotype-phenotype studies and in the assessment of future therapies in XL-HED. PMID:23687000

  1. Determination of different recreational drugs in sweat by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GC/MS): Application to drugged drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Stefano; Mortali, Claudia; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Berretta, Paolo; Zaami, Simona

    2016-09-10

    A procedure based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been developed for the determination of most commonly used drugs of abuse in sweat of drivers stopped during roadside controls. DrugWipe 5A sweat screening device was used to collect sweat by a specific pad rubbed gently over forehead skin surface. The procedure involved an acid hydrolysis, a HS-SPME extraction for drugs of abuse but Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which was directly extracted in alkaline medium HS-SPME conditions, a GC separation of analytes by a capillary column and MS detection by electron impact ionisation. The method was linear from the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 50ng drug per pad (r(2)≥0.99), with an intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy always less than 15% and an analytical recovery between 95.1% and 102.8%, depending on the considered analyte. Using the validated method, sweat from 60 apparently intoxicated drivers were found positive to one or more drugs of abuse, showing sweat patches testing as a viable economic and simple alternative to conventional (blood and/or urine) and non conventional (oral fluid) testing of drugs of abuse in drugged drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells delivered in a microsphere-based engineered skin contribute to cutaneous wound healing and sweat gland repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Lu, Gang; Wu, Yan; Jirigala, Enhe; Xu, Yongan; Ma, Kui; Fu, Xiaobing

    2012-04-01

    Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can contribute to wound healing after skin injury. However, the role of BM-MSCs on repairing skin appendages in renewal tissues is incompletely explored. Moreover, most preclinical studies suggest that the therapeutic effects afforded by BM-MSCs transplantation are short-lived and relatively unstable. To assess whether engrafted bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via a delivery system can participate in cutaneous wound healing and sweat-gland repair in mice. For safe and effective delivery of BM-MSCs to wounds, epidermal growth factor (EGF) microspheres were firstly developed to both support cells and maintain appropriate stimuli, then cell-seeded microspheres were incorporated with biomimetic scaffolds and thus fabricated an engineered skin construct with epithelial differentiation and proliferative potential. The applied efficacy was examined by implanting them into excisional wounds on both back and paws of hind legs in mice. After 3 weeks, BM-MSC-engineered skin (EGF loaded) treated wounds exhibited accelerated healing with increased re-epithelialization rates and less skin contraction. Furthermore, histological and immunofluorescence staining analysis revealed sweat glands-like structures became more apparent in BM-MSC-engineered skin (EGF loaded) treated wounds but the number of implanted BM-MSCs were decreased gradually in later phases of healing progression. Our study suggests that BM-MSCs delivered by this EGF microspheres-based engineered skin model may be a promising strategy to repair sweat glands and improve cutaneous wound healing after injury and success in this study might provide a potential benefit for BM-MSCs administration clinically. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regional relation between skin blood flow and sweating to passive heating and local administration of acetylcholine in young, healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline J; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2013-04-01

    Regional variation in sweating over the human body is widely recognized yet variation in vasomotor responses and mechanisms causing this variation remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the relation between regional sweating rates (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) responses to thermal and pharmacological stimuli in young, healthy subjects. In nine subjects (23 ± 3 yr), intradermal microdialysis (MD) probes were inserted into the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back and perfused with lactated Ringer solution. RSR over each MD membrane were measured using ventilated capsules with a laser Doppler probe housed in each capsule for measurement of red cell flux (laser Doppler flux, LDF) as an index of SkBF. Subjects completed a whole body heating protocol to 1°C rise in oral temperature and an acetylcholine dose response (ACh 1 × 10(-7)-0.1 M; mean skin temperature 34°C). Maximal LDF were obtained at the end of both protocols (50 mM sodium nitroprusside).During heating RSR varied among sites (P back versus other sites (P back: r = 0.86 ± 0.04) but not latter stages of heating. No differences in RSR (P = 0.160) or SkBF (LDF, P = 0.841) were observed between sites during ACh perfusion. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in SkBF are necessary to initiate and increase sweating, but further rises in RSR are not fully dependent on SkBF in a dose-response manner. Furthermore, RSR cannot be explained by cholinergic sensitivity or variation in SkBF.

  4. Responses to hyperthermia. Optimizing heat dissipation by convection and evaporation: Neural control of skin blood flow and sweating in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline J; Johnson, John M

    2016-04-01

    Under normothermic, resting conditions, humans dissipate heat from the body at a rate approximately equal to heat production. Small discrepancies between heat production and heat elimination would, over time, lead to significant changes in heat storage and body temperature. When heat production or environmental temperature is high the challenge of maintaining heat balance is much greater. This matching of heat elimination with heat production is a function of the skin circulation facilitating heat transport to the body surface and sweating, enabling evaporative heat loss. These processes are manifestations of the autonomic control of cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor functions and form the basis of this review. We focus on these systems in the responses to hyperthermia. In particular, the cutaneous vascular responses to heat stress and the current understanding of the neurovascular mechanisms involved. The available research regarding cutaneous active vasodilation and vasoconstriction is highlighted, with emphasis on active vasodilation as a major responder to heat stress. Involvement of the vasoconstrictor and active vasodilator controls of the skin circulation in the context of heat stress and nonthermoregulatory reflexes (blood pressure, exercise) are also considered. Autonomic involvement in the cutaneous vascular responses to direct heating and cooling of the skin are also discussed. We examine the autonomic control of sweating, including cholinergic and noncholinergic mechanisms, the local control of sweating, thermoregulatory and nonthermoregulatory reflex control and the possible relationship between sudomotor and cutaneous vasodilator function. Finally, we comment on the clinical relevance of these control schemes in conditions of autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The roles of KCa, KATP, and KV channels in regulating cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jeffrey C; Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; McNeely, Brendan D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-05-01

    We recently showed the varying roles of Ca 2+ -activated (K Ca ), ATP-sensitive (K ATP ), and voltage-gated (K V ) K + channels in regulating cholinergic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in normothermic conditions. However, it is unclear whether the respective contributions of these K + channels remain intact during dynamic exercise in the heat. Eleven young (23 ± 4 yr) men completed a 30-min exercise bout at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) followed by a 40-min recovery period in the heat (35°C, 20% relative humidity). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and local sweat rate were assessed at four forearm skin sites perfused via intradermal microdialysis with: 1 ) lactated Ringer solution (control); 2 ) 50 mM tetraethylammonium (nonspecific K Ca channel blocker); 3 ) 5 mM glybenclamide (selective K ATP channel blocker); or 4 ) 10 mM 4-aminopyridine (nonspecific K V channel blocker). Responses were compared at baseline and at 10-min intervals during and following exercise. K Ca channel inhibition resulted in greater CVC versus control at end exercise ( P = 0.04) and 10 and 20 min into recovery (both P exercise (all P ≤ 0.04), and 10 min into recovery ( P = 0.02). No differences in CVC were observed with K V channel inhibition during baseline ( P = 0.15), exercise (all P ≥ 0.06), or recovery (all P ≥ 0.14). With the exception of K V channel inhibition augmenting sweating during baseline ( P = 0.04), responses were similar to control with all K + channel blockers during each time period (all P ≥ 0.07). We demonstrated that K Ca and K ATP channels contribute to the regulation of cutaneous vasodilation during rest and/or exercise and recovery in the heat. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Electrical double layer modulation of hybrid room temperature ionic liquid/aqueous buffer interface for enhanced sweat based biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Badrinath; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2018-08-03

    We have investigated the role of kosmotropic anionic moieties and chaotropic cationic moieties of room temperature hydrophilic ionic liquids in enhancing the biosensing performance of affinity based immunochemical biosensors in human sweat. Two ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM[BF 4 ]) and choline dihydrogen phosphate (Choline[DHP]) were investigated in this study with Choline[DHP] being more kosmotropic in nature having a more protein stabilizing effect based on the hofmeister series. Non-faradaic interfacial charge transfer has been employed as the mechanism for evaluating the formation and the biosensing of capture probe antibodies in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs)/aqueous human sweat interface. The charge of the ionic moieties were utilized to form compact electrical double layers around the antibodies for enhancing the stability of the antibody capture probes, which was evaluated through zeta potential measurements. The zeta potential measurements indicated stability of antibodies due to electrostatic repulsion of the RTIL charged moieties encompassing the antibodies, thus preventing any aggregation. Here, we report for the first time of non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy equivalent circuit model analysis for analyzing and interpreting affinity based biosensing at hybrid electrode/ionic liquid-aqueous sweat buffer interface guided by the choice of the ionic liquid. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cortisol two commonly occurring biomarkers in human sweat were evaluated using this method. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained using both ionic liquids for IL-6 was 0.2 pg mL -1 with cross-reactivity studies indicating better performance of IL-6 detection using Choline[DHP] and no response to cross-reactive molecule. The LOD of 0.1 ng/mL was achieved for cortisol and the cross-reactivity studies indicated that cortisol antibody in BMIM[BF 4 ] did not show any signal response to cross-reactive molecules

  7. 3D bioprinting matrices with controlled pore structure and release function guide in vitro self-organization of sweat gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nanbo; Huang, Sha; Yao, Bin; Xie, Jiangfan; Wu, Xu; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-03

    3D bioprinting matrices are novel platforms for tissue regeneration. Tissue self-organization is a critical process during regeneration that implies the features of organogenesis. However, it is not clear from the current evidences whether 3D printed construct plays a role in guiding tissue self-organization in vitro. Based on our previous study, we bioprinted a 3D matrix as the restrictive niche for direct sweat gland differentiation of epidermal progenitors by different pore structure (300-μm or 400-μm nozzle diameters printed) and reported a long-term gradual transition of differentiated cells into glandular morphogenesis occurs within the 3D construct in vitro. At the initial 14-day culture, an accelerated cell differentiation was achieved with inductive cues released along with gelatin reduction. After protein release completed, the 3D construct guide the self-organized formation of sweat gland tissues, which is similar to that of the natural developmental process. However, glandular morphogenesis was only observed in 300-μm-printed constructs. In the absence of 3D architectural support, glandular morphogenesis was not occurred. This striking finding made us to identify a previously unknown role of the 3D-printed structure in glandular tissue regeneration, and this self-organizing strategy can be applied to forming other tissues in vitro.

  8. Low-cost and reagent-free paper-based device to detect chloride ions in serum and sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Stefano; Fiore, Luca; Massoud, Renato; Cortese, Claudio; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Arduini, Fabiana

    2018-03-01

    The recent goal of sustainability in analytical chemistry has boosted the development of eco-designed analytical tools to deliver fast and cost-effective analysis with low economic and environmental impact. Due to the recent focus in sustainability, we report the use of low-cost filter paper as a sustainable material to print silver electrodes and to load reagents for a reagent-free electrochemical detection of chloride in biological samples, namely serum and sweat. The electrochemical detection of chloride ions was carried out by exploiting the reaction of the analyte (i.e. chloride) with the silver working electrode. During the oxidation wave in cyclic voltammetry the silver ions are produced, thus they react with chloride ions to form AgCl, while in the reduction wave, the following reaction occurs: AgCl + e - -->Ag + Cl - . These reactions at the electrode surface resulted in anodic/cathodic peaks directly proportional to the chloride ions in solution. Chloride ions were detected with the addition of only 10μL of the sample on the paper-based electrochemical cell, obtaining linearity up to 200mM with a detection limit equal to 1mM and relative standard deviation lower than 10%. The accuracy of the sensor was evaluated in serum and sweat samples, with percentage recoveries between 93 ± 10 and 108 ± 8%. Moreover, the results achieved with the paper-based device were positively compared with those obtained by using the gold standard method (Ion Selective Electrode) adopted in routine clinical analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluid replacement modulates oxidative stress- but not nitric oxide-mediated cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Brendan D; Meade, Robert D; Fujii, Naoto; Seely, Andrew J E; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-12-01

    The roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) activation in regulating cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during prolonged (≥60 min) exercise are currently unclear. Moreover, it remains to be determined whether fluid replacement (FR) modulates the above thermoeffector responses. To investigate, 11 young men completed 90 min of continuous moderate intensity (46% V̇o 2peak ) cycling performed at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production of 600 W (No FR condition). On a separate day, participants completed a second session of the same protocol while receiving FR to offset sweat losses (FR condition). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and local sweat rate (LSR) were measured at four intradermal microdialysis forearm sites perfused with: 1 ) lactated Ringer (Control); 2 ) 10 mM N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, NOS inhibition); 3 ) 10 mM ascorbate (nonselective antioxidant); or 4 ) 4.34 nM losartan (AT 1 R inhibition). Relative to Control (71% CVC max at both time points), CVC with ascorbate (80% and 83% CVC max ) was elevated at 60 and 90 min of exercise during FR (both P 0.31). In both conditions, CVC was reduced at end exercise with l-NAME (60% CVC max ; both P 0.19). LSR did not differ between sites in either condition (all P > 0.10). We conclude that NOS regulates cutaneous vasodilation, but not sweating, irrespective of FR, and that ROS influence cutaneous vasodilation during prolonged exercise with FR. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Graphene paper supported MoS2 nanocrystals monolayer with Cu submicron-buds: High-performance flexible platform for sensing in sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengyun; Dong, Shuang; Gui, Mengxi; Asif, Muhammad; Wang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Liu, Hongfang

    2018-02-15

    Flexible sweat biosensors are of considerable current interest for the development of wearable smart miniature devices. In this work, we report a novel type of flexible and electrochemical sweat platform fabricated by depositing Cu submicron buds on freestanding graphene paper (GP) carrying MoS 2 nanocrystals monolayer for bio-functional detection of glucose and lactate. Quantitative analysis of glucose and lactate was carried out by using amperometric i-t method. Linear ranges were obtained between 5 and 1775 μM for glucose and 0.01-18.4 mM for lactate, and their corresponding limits of detection were 500 nM and 0.1 μM, respectively. The platform demonstrates fast response, good selectivity, superb reproducibility and outstanding flexibility, which enable its use for monitoring glucose and lactate in human perspiration. The strategy of structurally integrating 3D transition metal, 0D transition metal sulfide and 2D graphene will provide new insight into the design of flexible electrodes for sweat glucose and lactate monitoring and a wider range of applications in biosensing, bioelectronics, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Wearable, Flexible, and Multifunctional Healthcare Device with an ISFET Chemical Sensor for Simultaneous Sweat pH and Skin Temperature Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Shogo; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji; Takei, Kuniharu

    2017-03-24

    Real-time daily healthcare monitoring may increase the chances of predicting and diagnosing diseases in their early stages which, currently, occurs most frequently during medical check-ups. Next-generation noninvasive healthcare devices, such as flexible multifunctional sensor sheets designed to be worn on skin, are considered to be highly suitable candidates for continuous real-time health monitoring. For healthcare applications, acquiring data on the chemical state of the body, alongside physical characteristics such as body temperature and activity, are extremely important for predicting and identifying potential health conditions. To record these data, in this study, we developed a wearable, flexible sweat chemical sensor sheet for pH measurement, consisting of an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) integrated with a flexible temperature sensor: we intend to use this device as the foundation of a fully integrated, wearable healthcare patch in the future. After characterizing the performance, mechanical flexibility, and stability of the sensor, real-time measurements of sweat pH and skin temperature are successfully conducted through skin contact. This flexible integrated device has the potential to be developed into a chemical sensor for sweat for applications in healthcare and sports.

  12. A manufactu(RED) ethics: labor, HIV, and the body in Lesotho's "sweat-free" garment industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Nora J

    2014-12-01

    Employing mostly women and producing for major U.S. labels, Lesotho's primarily foreign-owned garment industry undertook efforts to become "sweat-free" in 2006; simultaneously, it also began producing for the Product(RED) campaign. This article explores the parameters and ethical challenges of an industry-wide, public-private partnership providing HIV prevention and treatment services in this industry. Here, HIV services are intimately bound up in emerging patterns of humanitarian consumption and the production of an ethical industry. Within this ethical production zone, all is not what it seems: Labor violations persist, workers confront occupational hazards, and an elaborate theatrics of ethical practice plays out on the factory floor during routine inspections. This article explores the place and purpose of HIV treatment in the context of such humanitarian fetishism, highlighting the uses to which worker bodies are put and the conceptions of bodily well-being that prevail in these new "moral" economies. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  13. Cholinesterase activity in blood and pesticide presence in sweat as biomarkers of children`s environmental exposure to crop protection chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. On the contrary to the adult population exposed to pesticides, mostly on occupational basis, rural children are mostly exposed to pesticides deposited in the environment. However, even this constant, distributed in time exposure to low concentrations of pesticides may led to permanent health disorders and limit children’s harmonious development. Objective. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of aacetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE activity determination as a marker of children’s environmental exposure to pesticides. An additional aim was to evaluate the usefulness of sweat patches as a novel, non-invasive method of detection of pesticides in sweat as a measure of pesticide exposure. Materials and method. A total of 108 children living in areas of intense pesticide use, and as a control group, 92 children living in an agro-tourist area were enrolled in the study. The AChE and BuChE activity was assayed colorimetricaly in diluted whole blood or plasma, respectively. In addition, selected pesticides were measured by GC/MS analysis in samples of the subject’s sweat absorbed onto a sorbent. Results. The study demonstrated significantly lower AChE and BuChE activity, respectively, in the diluted whole blood and plasma of children exposed to pesticides, compared to the control group (p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively. The measured mean level of AChE activity was 241.63 ± 26.76 and 348.0±46.95 mU/µmolHb in the exposed and the control group, respectively, whereas the mean activity of BuChE was 424.1±81.1 and 458.6 ± 86.5 mmol/L/min. In addition, pesticide metabolites were detected in 19 (17.6% sweat samples collected from exposed children. Conclusions. Altogether, the study indicated that cholinesterase activity is a sensitive marker of the children’s environmental exposure to pesticides, whereas sweat patches are useful devices for collecting samples to be analysed for the

  14. Exploring the Q-marker of "sweat soaking method" processed radix Wikstroemia indica: Based on the "effect-toxicity-chemicals" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guo; Chen, Yun-Long; Li, Wei; Li, Lai-Lai; Wu, Zeng-Guang; Wu, Zi-Jun; Hai, Yue; Zhang, Si-Chao; Zheng, Chuan-Qi; Liu, Chang-Xiao; He, Xin

    2018-06-01

    Radix Wikstroemia indica (RWI), named "Liao Ge Wang" in Chinese, is a kind of toxic Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) commonly used in Miao nationality of South China. "Sweat soaking method" processed RWI could effectively decrease its toxicity and preserve therapeutic effect. However, the underlying mechanism of processing is still not clear, and the Q-markers database for processed RWI has not been established. Our study is to investigate and establish the quality evaluation system and potential Q-markers based on "effect-toxicity-chemicals" relationship of RWI for quality/safety assessment of "sweat soaking method" processing. The variation of RWI in efficacy and toxicity before and after processing was investigated by pharmacological and toxicological studies. Cytotoxicity test was used to screen the cytotoxicity of components in RWI. The material basis in ethanol extract of raw and processed RWI was studied by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. And the potential Q-markers were analyzed and predicted according to "effect-toxicity-chemical" relationship. RWI was processed by "sweat soaking method", which could preserve efficacy and reduce toxicity. Raw RWI and processed RWI did not show significant difference on the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect, however, the injury of liver and kidney by processed RWI was much weaker than that by raw RWI. The 20 compounds were identified from the ethanol extract of raw product and processed product of RWI using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS, including daphnoretin, emodin, triumbelletin, dibutyl phthalate, Methyl Paraben, YH-10 + OH and matairesinol, arctigenin, kaempferol and physcion. Furthermore, 3 diterpenoids (YH-10, YH-12 and YH-15) were proved to possess the high toxicity and decreased by 48%, 44% and 65%, respectively, which could be regarded as the potential Q-markers for quality/safety assessment of "sweat soaking method" processed RWI. A Q-marker database of processed RWI by "sweat soaking method" was established according to the results

  15. Distribuição regional do suor durante exercício progressivo até a fadiga Sweat regional distribution during progressive exercise until fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Ferreira Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da hipótese evolutiva de que a cabeça humana precisa ser resfriada de forma especial, o objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar se a sudorese seria maior na testa do que nas demais regiões do corpo durante o exercício progressivo até a fadiga (EPF. Em 17 voluntários (23 ± 2 anos, 76,93 ± 7,74 kg, 179 ± 7 cm e 1,9 ± 0,1 m² foram medidos a taxa de sudorese local (TSlocal, o número de glândulas de suor ativas (GSA e taxa de suor por GSA (TSlocal.GSA-1 em oito regiões do corpo (testa, costas, peito, braço, antebraço, mão, coxa e perna durante o EPF em cicloergômetro. A TSlocal da testa foi maior que todas as outras regiões e a TSlocal do peito foi maior apenas que a da coxa. O número de GSA da testa foi maior do que em todas as outras regiões, e a GSA da mão foi maior que do peito, braço, coxa e perna. A TSlocal.GSA-1 da testa foi maior do que as do braço, antebraço, mão e coxa, e a TSlocal.GSA-1 das costas e do peito foram maiores que do antebraço e mão. A produção de suor da parte superior do corpo (testa, costas, peito, braço, antebraço, mão foi maior que a inferior (coxa e perna. Concluiu-se que o EPF desencadeou um padrão de produção de suor maior na cabeça que pode estar relacionado à maior convecção nas regiões mais altas do corpo.Considering the hypothesis of human selective brain cooling during exercise should depend on greater sweating mechanism in the forehead. The purpose of this study was verify variations of sweat production between body regions during progressive exercise until fatigue (PEF. Seventeen subjects (23 ± 2 years old, 76.93 ± 7.74 kg, 179 ± 7 cm and 1.9 ± 0.1 m² volunteered for this study. Local sweat rate (STlocal, number of active sweat glands (ASG and sweat rate for ASG (STlocal.ASG-1 in eight body regions (forehead, back, chest, arm, forearm, hand, leg and calf were measured during PEF in cyclergometer. The STlocal of the forehead was higher than in all others

  16. Label retaining cells (LRCs with myoepithelial characteristic from the proximal acinar region define stem cells in the sweat gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Leung

    Full Text Available Slow cycling is a common feature shared among several stem cells (SCs identified in adult tissues including hair follicle and cornea. Recently, existence of unipotent SCs in basal and lumenal layers of sweat gland (SG has been described and label retaining cells (LRCs have also been localized in SGs; however, whether these LRCs possess SCs characteristic has not been investigated further. Here, we used a H2BGFP LRCs system for in vivo detection of infrequently dividing cells. This system allowed us to specifically localize and isolate SCs with label-retention and myoepithelial characteristics restricted to the SG proximal acinar region. Using an alternative genetic approach, we demonstrated that SG LRCs expressed keratin 15 (K15 in the acinar region and lineage tracing determined that K15 labeled cells contributed long term to the SG structure but not to epidermal homeostasis. Surprisingly, wound healing experiments did not activate proximal acinar SG cells to participate in epidermal healing. Instead, predominantly non-LRCs in the SG duct actively divided, whereas the majority of SG LRCs remained quiescent. However, when we further challenged the system under more favorable isolated wound healing conditions, we were able to trigger normally quiescent acinar LRCs to trans-differentiate into the epidermis and adopt its long term fate. In addition, dissociated SG cells were able to regenerate SGs and, surprisingly, hair follicles demonstrating their in vivo plasticity. By determining the gene expression profile of isolated SG LRCs and non-LRCs in vivo, we identified several Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP pathway genes to be up-regulated and confirmed a functional requirement for BMP receptor 1A (BMPR1A-mediated signaling in SG formation. Our data highlight the existence of SG stem cells (SGSCs and their primary importance in SG homeostasis. It also emphasizes SGSCs as an alternative source of cells in wound healing and their plasticity for

  17. Non-invasive diagnosis of sweat gland dysplasia using optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy in a family with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, M; Gauglitz, G G; Giehl, K; Braun-Falco, M; Schwaiger, H; Schauber, J; Ruzicka, T; Berneburg, M; von Braunmühl, T

    2016-04-01

    Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) is an inherited syndrome, which originates mainly from genetic alteration of the ectodysplasin A (EDA) gene. It regularly affects the adnexa of the skin which results in a characteristic phenotype of the patients including hypo- or anhidrosis leading to severe disturbances in the regulation of body temperature. To prevent the development of the symptoms in early childhood promising therapeutic approaches are currently under clinical investigation. In this context, timely diagnosis of this genetic syndrome is crucial. The purpose of our study was the investigation of modern non-invasive imaging methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in the immediate diagnosis of AED. We examined a 3-year-old boy with the suspicion for an AED syndrome and his family members with RCM and OCT to document presence and characteristic features of sweat glands in comparison to non-affected individuals. The patient and the affected brother showed significantly reduced sweat glands in the imaging compared to the controls. The genetic analysis revealed a mutation of the EDA gene for hemizygosity previously associated with AED and the mother was revealed as the conductor of the genetic alteration. With the help of non-invasive imaging, we were able to detect sweat gland dysplasia in the affected family members without performing a biopsy which led us to the diagnosis of an AED. The application of modern dermatological imaging techniques might serve as valuable supplementary tools in the immediate, non-invasive diagnosis of genetic syndromes especially in newborns when early therapeutic approaches are planned. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. Morphological dependency of cutaneous blood flow and sweating during compensable heat stress when heat-loss requirements are matched across participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Sean R; Park, Joonhee; Tagami, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-07-01

    Human heat loss is thought, in part, to be morphologically related. It was therefore hypothesized that when heat-loss requirements and body temperatures were matched, that the mass-specific surface area alone could significantly explain both cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses during compensable exercise. These thermoeffector responses were examined in 36 men with widely varying mass-specific surface areas (range, 232.3-292.7 cm(2)/kg), but of similar age, aerobic fitness, and adiposity. Subjects completed two trials under compensable conditions (28.1°C, 36.8% relative humidity), each involving rest (20 min) and steady-state cycling (45 min) at two matched metabolic heat-production rates (light, ∼135 W/m(2); moderate, ∼200 W/m(2)). Following equivalent mean body temperature changes, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance (r = 0.63 and r = 0.65) shared significant, positive associations with the mass-specific surface area during light work (P < 0.05), explaining ∼45% of the vasomotor variation. Conversely, during light and moderate work, whole body sweat rate, as well as local sweat rate and sudomotor sensitivity at three of four measured sites, revealed moderate, negative relationships with the mass-specific surface area (correlation coefficient range -0.37 to -0.73, P < 0.05). Moreover, those relationships could uniquely account for between 10 and 53% of those sweating responses (P < 0.05). Therefore, both thermoeffector responses displayed a significant morphological dependency in the presence of equivalent thermoafferent drive. Indeed, up to half of the interindividual variation in these effector responses could now be explained through morphological differences and the first principles governing heat transfer. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Phenological, but not social, variation associated with climate differences in a eusocial sweat bee, Halictus ligatus, nesting in southern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam H. Richards

    2015-03-01

    production within some nests, and high rates of independent nest founding by worker-sized females, suggesting that many worker-brood females overwinter. Overall, the distinctly warmer climate of St. Catharines compared to Victoria led to earlier nest initiation and lengthening of the flight season, but not to the predicted differences in colony social organisation or queen-worker reproductive skew. A second objective of our study was to assess how well pan trap collections capture important information about demographic and social parameters important in assessing social variability in sweat bees. Nest excavations and pan traps produced similar results, suggesting that pan traps are a good alternative when nest excavations are impossible.

  20. Sweating at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalaye, H.; Launay, J.P.

    1980-11-01

    Tests of penetration liquids normally used between 10 and 40 0 C have shown that the arrangement of operationaal conditions (penetration and revealing times) was not sufficient to maintain their sensitivity below 10 0 C, thereby confirming that this temperature is a limit below which such products cannot be employed. The results achieved with a penetrant and a tracer specially devised for low temperatures (SHERWIN B 305 + D100) are satisfactory between 0 0 C and 15 0 C [fr

  1. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport properties of fabrics under different sweat rate: Forced Flow Water Transport Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K. P. M.; Chau, K. H.; Kan, C. W.; Fan, J. T.

    2015-11-01

    The water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are critical to wear comfort, especially for sportswear and protective clothing. A new testing apparatus, namely Forced Flow Water Transport Tester (FFWTT), was developed for characterizing the transplanar and in-plane wicking properties of fabrics based on gravimetric and image analysis technique. The uniqueness of this instrument is that the rate of water supply is adjustable to simulate varying sweat rates with reference to the specific end-use conditions ranging from sitting, walking, running to other strenuous activities. This instrument is versatile in terms of the types of fabrics that can be tested. Twenty four types of fabrics with varying constructions and surface finishes were tested. The results showed that FFWTT was highly sensitive and reproducible in differentiating these fabrics and it suggests that water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are sweat rate-dependent. Additionally, two graphic methods were proposed to map the direction of liquid transport and its relation to skin wetness, which provides easy and direct comparison among different fabrics. Correlation analysis showed that FFWTT results have strong correlation with subjective wetness sensation, implying validity and usefulness of the instrument.

  2. Sweat test and cystic fibrosis: overview of test performance at public and private centers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidoni, Maria Fátima; Gomez, Carla Cristina Souza; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Ribeiro, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Ribeiro, José Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The sweat test (ST) measures chloride levels in sweat and is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the reliability of a ST depends on their being performed by experienced technicians and in accordance with strict guidelines. Our aim was to evaluate how sweat stimulation, sweat collection, and chloride measurement are performed at 14 centers (9 public centers and 5 private centers) that routinely perform STs in the state of São Paulo, which has the highest frequency of CF in Brazil. This was a cross-sectional cohort study, using a standardized questionnaire administered in loco to the staff responsible for conducting STs. No uniformity regarding the procedures was found among the centers. Most centers were noncompliant with the international guidelines, especially regarding the collection of sweat (the samples were insufficient in 10-50% of the subjects tested); availability of stimulation equipment (which was limited at 2 centers); modernity and certification of stimulation equipment (most of the equipment having been used for 3-23 years); and written protocols (which were lacking at 12 centers). Knowledge of ST guidelines was evaluated at only 1 center. Our results show that STs largely deviate from internationally accepted guidelines at the participating centers. Therefore, there is an urgent need for standardization of STs, training of qualified personnel, and acquisition/certification of suitable equipment. These are essential conditions for a reliable diagnosis of CF, especially with the increasing demand due to newborn screening nationwide, and for the assessment of a possible clinical benefit from the use of modulator drugs. O teste do suor (TS) mede os níveis de cloro no suor e é considerado o padrão ouro para o diagnóstico da fibrose cística (FC). Contudo, a confiabilidade do TS depende de sua realização por técnicos experientes e segundo diretrizes rígidas. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar como s

  3. Evaluating the impact of breed, pregnancy, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Preston, W D; Joseph, S R; LaPlace, L; Hillman, P E; Gebremedhin, K G; Lee, C N; Collier, R J

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pregnancy, breed, and hair coat on body temperature and sweating rate (SR) of hair sheep. St. Croix White (STX; = 9) and Dorper × STX (DRPX; = 9) ewes (3.6 yr of age) were evaluated over 4 d at 126 d of gestation (PREG) and over 4 d at 46 d postpartum (OPEN) in the shade and sun and in the morning (AM; 0900 to 1200 h) and afternoon (PM; 1300 to 1600 h) after a 20 min acclimation to each condition on each day. Data loggers recorded vaginal temperature (VT) at 10-min intervals for 96 h. Rectal temperature (RT) was measured using a digital veterinary thermometer, and respiration rate (RR) was measured as breaths per minute (bpm). Sweating rate was calculated from measured air properties passing over a shaved (300 cm) and unshaved area of the ewes' body using a portable calorimeter. Data were analyzed using GLM procedures of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) with breed, pregnancy status, sun exposure, and time of day as main effects. Mean temperature, relative humidity, temperature-humidity index, wind speed, and solar radiation on the days of data collection were 28.2°C, 82.8%, 80.3, 4.2 km/h, and 237.5 W/m, respectively. There was no difference ( > 0.10) in RT, RR, and SR between DRPX and STX ewes. The PREG ewes had lower RT ( ewes (38.5 ± 0.2 vs. 39.1 ± 0.2°C, 70.2 ± 3.1 vs. 88.3 ± 3.1 g⋅m⋅h, and 79.5 ± 2.2 vs. 72.1 ± 2.2 bpm, respectively). During the PM, RR, RT ( 0.10) in RT. There was no difference in SR ( > 0.10) between the shaved and unshaved area of the ewe. The DRPX ewes had higher ( ewes. The PREG ewes had higher ( ewes during the night time and lower VT than the OPEN ewes during the day time ( ewes had a greater ( ewes did (2.5 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.4°C, respectively), but there was no breed difference ( > 0.10). Hair coat did not have an influence on the SR of the ewes, and PREG ewes appeared to use increased respiration as opposed to sweating to help control RT. The narrower range of body

  4. Monitoring of heavy metal levels in the major rivers and in residents' blood in Zhenjiang City, China, and assessment of heavy metal elimination via urine and sweat in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jianguo; Qiu, Wenhui; Xu, Bentuo; Xu, Hui; Tang, Chong

    2016-06-01

    The coastal areas of China face great challenges, owing to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid industrialization and urbanization. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the levels of heavy metals in the major rivers of Zhenjiang, one of the most important cities of the Yangtze River Delta in China. In addition, we measured heavy metal levels in the blood of 76 residents of Zhenjiang. The results suggest that the presence of heavy metals in the blood may threaten human health and the distribution appeared to correspond to most highly populated areas and/or areas with high traffic. We also found that the concentration of heavy metals in human blood showed an accumulation effect with increase in age. Moreover, the levels of most heavy metals were lower in participants who regularly exercised than in those who did not. We studied heavy metal levels in the urine and sweat of another 17 volunteers to monitor the elimination of bioaccumulated heavy metal. Heavy metals were found in the urine and sweat of all the 17 participants and were more concentrated in sweat. Induced micturition and sweating appear to be potential methods for the elimination of heavy metals from the human body.

  5. "Sweating meteorites"—Water-soluble salts and temperature variation in ordinary chondrites and soil from the hot desert of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Florian J.; Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Eggenberger, Urs

    2013-10-01

    The common appearance of hygroscopic brine ("sweating") on ordinary chondrites (OCs) from Oman during storage under room conditions initiated a study on the role of water-soluble salts on the weathering of OCs. Analyses of leachates from OCs and soils, combined with petrography of alteration features and a 11-month record of in situ meteorite and soil temperatures, are used to evaluate the role of salts in OC weathering. Main soluble ions in soils are Ca2+, SO42-, HCO3-, Na+, and Cl-, while OC leachates are dominated by Mg2+ (from meteoritic olivine), Ca2+ (from soil), Cl- (from soil), SO42- (from meteoritic troilite and soil), and iron (meteoritic). "Sweating meteorites" mainly contain Mg2+ and Cl-. The median Na/Cl mass ratio of leachates changes from 0.65 in soils to 0.07 in meteorites, indicating the precipitation of a Na-rich phase or loss of an efflorescent Na-salt. The total concentrations of water-soluble ions in bulk OCs ranges from 600 to 9000 μg g-1 (median 2500 μg g-1) as compared to 187-14140 μg g-1 in soils (median 1148 μg g-1). Soil salts dissolved by rain water are soaked up by meteorites by capillary forces. Daily heating (up to 66.3 °C) and cooling of the meteorites cause a pumping effect, resulting in a strong concentration of soluble ions in meteorites over time. The concentrations of water-soluble ions in meteorites, which are complex mixtures of ions from the soil and from oxidation and hydrolysis of meteoritic material, depend on the degree of weathering and are highest at W3. Input of soil contaminants generally dominates over the ions mobilized from meteorites. Silicate hydrolysis preferentially affects olivine and is enhanced by sulfide oxidation, producing local acidic conditions as evidenced by jarosite. Plagioclase weathering is negligible. After completion of troilite oxidation, the rate of chemical weathering slows down with continuing Ca-sulfate contamination.

  6. A novel non-invasive electrochemical biosensing device for in situ determination of the alcohol content in blood by monitoring ethanol in sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Manso, J; González de Rivera, G; López-Colino, F; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-01-02

    A non-invasive, passive and simple to use skin surface based sensing device for determining the blood's ethanol content (BAC) by monitoring transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) is designed and developed. The proposed prototype is based on bienzyme amperometric composite biosensors that are sensitive to the variation of ethanol concentration. The prototype correlates, through previous calibration set-up, the amperometric signal generated from ethanol in sweat with its content in blood in a short period of time. The characteristics of this sensor device permit determination of the ethanol concentration in isolated and in continuous form, giving information of the BAC of a subject either in a given moment or its evolution during long periods of time (8h). Moreover, as the measurements are performed in a biological fluid, the evaluated individual is not able to alter the result of the analysis. The maximum limit of ethanol in blood allowed by legislation is included within the linear range of the device (0.0005-0.6 g L(-1)). Moreover, the device shows higher sensitivity than the breathalyzers marketed at the moment, allowing the monitoring of the ethanol content in blood to be obtained just 5 min after ingestion of the alcoholic drink. The comparison of the obtained results using the proposed device in the analysis of 40 volunteers with those provided by the gas chromatographic reference method for determination of BAC pointed out that there were no significant differences between both methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-help cognitive behavior therapy for working women with problematic hot flushes and night sweats (MENOS@Work): a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Claire; Griffiths, Amanda; Norton, Sam; Hunter, Myra S

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the efficacy of an unguided, self-help cognitive behavior therapy (SH-CBT) booklet on hot flush and night sweat (HFNS) problem rating, delivered in a work setting. Women aged 45 to 60 years, having 10 or more problematic HFNS a week, were recruited to a multicenter randomized controlled trial, via the occupational health/human resources departments of eight organizations. Participants were 1:1 randomized to SH-CBT or no treatment waitlist control (NTWC). The primary outcome was HFNS problem rating; secondary outcomes included HFNS frequency, work and social adjustment, sleep, mood, beliefs and behaviors, and work-related variables (absence, performance, turnover intention, and work impairment due to presenteeism). Intention-to-treat analysis was used, and between-group differences estimated using linear mixed models. A total of 124 women were randomly allocated to SH-CBT (n = 60) and NTWC (n = 64). 104 (84%) were assessed for primary outcome at 6 weeks and 102 (82%) at 20 weeks. SH-CBT significantly reduced HFNS problem rating at 6 weeks (SH-CBT vs NTWC adjusted mean difference, -1.49; 95% CI, -2.11 to -0.86; P work and social adjustment; sleep, menopause beliefs, HFNS beliefs/behaviors at 6 and 20 weeks; improved wellbeing and somatic symptoms and reduced work impairment due to menopause-related presenteeism at 20 weeks, compared with the NTWC. There was no difference between groups in other work-related outcomes. A brief, unguided SH-CBT booklet is a potentially effective management option for working women experiencing problematic HFNS.

  8. Sweat pore reactivity as a surrogate measure of sympathetic nervous system activity in trauma-exposed individuals with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familoni, Babajide O; Gregor, Kristin L; Dodson, Thomas S; Krzywicki, Alan T; Lowery, Bobby N; Orr, Scott P; Suvak, Michael K; Rasmusson, Ann M

    2016-09-01

    Stress analysis by FLIR (forward-looking infrared) evaluation (SAFE) has been demonstrated to monitor sweat pore activation (SPA) as a novel surrogate measure of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in a normal population. SNS responses to a series of 15 1-s, 82 dB, white noise bursts were measured by skin conductance (SC) and SAFE monitoring of SPA on the fingers (FiP) and face (FaP) in 10 participants with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 16 trauma-exposed participants without PTSD (Mage  = 48.92 ± 12.00 years; 26.9% female). Within participants, SC and FiP responses across trials were strongly correlated (r = .92, p < .001). Correlations between SC and FaP (r = .76, p = .001) and between FiP and FaP (r = .47, p = .005) were smaller. The habituation of SNS responses across the 15 trials was substantial (SC: d = -2.97; FiP: d = -2.34; FaP: d = -1.02). There was a strong correlation between habituation effects for SC and FiP (r = .76, p < .001), but not for SC and FaP (r = .15, p = .45) or FiP and FaP (r = .29, p = .16). Participants with PTSD showed larger SNS responses to the first loud noise than those without PTSD. PTSD reexperiencing symptoms assessed by the PTSD Checklist on the day of testing were associated with the SNS responses to the first loud noise measured by SC (d = 1.19) and FiP (d = .99), but not FaP (d = .10). This study confirms convergence of SAFE and SC as valid measures of SNS activity. SAFE FiP and SC responses were highly predictive of self-rated PTSD reexperiencing symptoms. SAFE may offer an attractive alternative for applications in PTSD and similar populations. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Do elephants need to sweat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1936) measured a daily water intake of about ISO f by his elephant of 3 672 kg under cool ... the edge and the remaining tissue is stiffened by outwardly directed delicate fIngers of .... sity Council for fInancial assistance. Figure 3 (upper) is ...

  10. Trace Mineral Losses in Sweat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinevere, Troy D; McClung, James P; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2007-01-01

    Copper, iron and zinc are nutritionally essential trace minerals that confer vital biological roles including the maintenance of cell structure and integrity, regulation of metabolism, immune function...

  11. 17beta-estradiol rapidly mobilizes intracellular calcium from ryanodine-receptor-gated stores via a PKC-PKA-Erk-dependent pathway in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W

    2008-09-01

    We describe a novel rapid non-genomic effect of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signalling in the eccrine sweat gland epithelial cell line NCL-SG3. E2 had no observable effect on basal [Ca2+]i, however exposure of cells to E2 in the presence of the microsomal Ca2+ ATPase pump inhibitor, thapsigargin, produced a secondary, sustained increase in [Ca2+]i compared to thapsigargin treatment alone, where cells responded with a transient single spike-like increase in [Ca2+]i. The E2-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was not dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and was completely abolished by ryanodine (100 microM). The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 (1 microM) prevented the E2-induced effects suggesting a role for the estrogen receptor in the release of [Ca2+]i from ryanodine-receptor-gated stores. The E2-induced effect on [Ca2+]i could also be prevented by the protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta)-specific inhibitor rottlerin (10 microM), the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3\\

  12. 'You know I've joined your club… I'm the hot flush boy': a qualitative exploration of hot flushes and night sweats in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eziefula, C U; Grunfeld, E A; Hunter, M S

    2013-12-01

    Hot flushes and night sweats are common amongst menopausal women, and psychological interventions for managing these symptoms have recently been developed for women. However, flushes in men with prostate cancer, which commonly occur following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), remain under-researched. This study is a qualitative exploration of flush-related cognitive appraisals and behavioural reactions reported by a sample of these men. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 men who were experiencing flushes after receiving ADT for prostate cancer. Framework analysis was used to generate and categorise emergent themes and explore associations between themes. Five main cognitive appraisals included the following: changes in oneself, impact on masculinity, embarrassment/social-evaluative concerns, perceived control and acceptance/adjustment. There were men who held beliefs about the impact of flushes on their perceptions of traditional gender roles, who experienced shame and embarrassment due to concerns about the salience of flushes and perceptions by others and who experienced feelings of powerlessness over flushes. Powerlessness was associated with beliefs about the potentially fatal consequences of discontinuing treatment. Two other dominant themes included awareness/knowledge about flushes and management strategies. Experiences of flushes appeared to be influenced by upbringing and general experiences of prostate cancer and ADT. The range of men's appraisals of, and reactions to, flushes generated from this qualitative exploration were broadly similar to those of menopausal women but differed in terms of the influence of masculinity beliefs. These findings could be used to inform future research and psychological interventions in this under-researched field. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Desempenho reprodutivo, características do pelame e taxa de sudação em vacas da raça Braford Effects of hair coat traits and sweating rate on reproductive performance of Braford cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Abaker Bertipaglia

    2008-09-01

    ção de bovinos da raça Braford no Brasil.This study aimed to evaluate the effects of hair coat traits (thickness (T, reflectance (R, length (L, diameter (D and number of hairs per unit area (N and sweating rate (SR on calving interval (CI, n = 423 and days to calving (DC, n = 1202 of Braford cows raised in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Data were analyzed by least squares and the model for CI included the effects of age class of cow, genetic group, sire and regression on R, T, L, N, D and SR. For days to calving the following effects were considered: R, T, L, N, D, TS divided in classes; regressions on genetic group, age at the beginning of breeding season and sire. Variance and covariance components were estimated by REML. Hair coat traits and SR traits were not statistically significant for CI, but the SR effect was statistically significant on DC. The heritability estimates were practically null for CI and DC and ranged from 0.08 to 0.30 for adaptive characteristics (T = 0.16 ± 0.09; L = 0.18 ± 0.09; N = 0.08 ± 0.06; D = 0.12 ± 0.07; R = 0.30 ± 0.12; SR = 0.10 ± 0.06. Overall, estimates of genetic correlations between pair of traits (hair coat, sweating rate, CI and DC were characterized by high standard errors. Additional data is required to obtain accurate estimates of genetic correlations among hair coat traits, sweating rate and reproductive performance of Braford cows in Brazil.

  14. No sweat: managing menopausal symptoms at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Martha; Riach, Kathleen; Kachouie, Reza; Jack, Gavin

    2017-09-01

    Menopause usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, a time when women are likely to be in the paid workforce. Most women have menopausal symptoms and these may impact on daytime function and work performance. This study examines the relationship between reproductive stage, menopausal symptoms and work, and advises how employers can best support menopausal women. An online and paper-based survey was completed in 2015-16 by 1092 women (22% response rate) aged 40 years plus employed in three hospitals in metropolitan Australia. Survey questions examined demographics, health and lifestyle variables, menopausal symptom reporting, and work-related variables. Reproductive stage was determined using modified STRAW +10 principal and descriptive criteria. Reproductive stage was not significantly associated with work engagement, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, work limitations and perceived supervisor support. Postmenopausal women had lower intention to leave their organizations than pre- and peri-menopausal women. While sleep problems were the most commonly reported menopausal symptom by peri-menopausal women, for postmenopausal women it was joint and muscular discomfort. Only hot flushes and vaginal dryness were significantly more frequent in peri- and post, compared to pre-menopausal women. In general, women rated their work performance as high and did not feel that menopausal symptoms impaired their work ability. Most women would appreciate greater organizational support, specifically temperature control, flexible work hours and information about menopause for employees and managers. Most women did not believe that menopausal symptoms negatively impacted on their work. Organizational changes may reduce the burden of menopausal symptoms in the workplace.

  15. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis and Nutrition Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Cystic Fibrosis Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition View more Partner Message ...

  16. A New Movement Breaks a Sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Discusses new organizations which monitor production of apparel and other items under possible sweatshop conditions in the context of institutional policies concerning production of licensed products with college/university logos (such as sweatshirts). Reviews controversy concerning the competing organizations, the Fair Labor Association, and the…

  17. THE FINGER-PRINT SWEAT TEST

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of European descent have varied from 1 : 1,000 to 1 : 10,000 ... test and nitrogen balance tests may as ist in the diagno is but ... Until recently, as a result of Farber's work,S the mo t .... Shwachman,12 may be used in the first year of life. Three.

  18. Sweat or no sweat: foreign workers in the garment industry in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade factory owners, in response to brand-name Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) parameters, have joined associations that verify (through a monitoring and audit system) that management does not exploit labour. There have been no reports of violations of codes of conduct concerning Malaysian workers but for foreign workers on contract there are certain areas that have been reported. These areas, including trade union membership, the withholding of workers' passports and unsuitable accommodation, generally escape notice because auditors who monitor factory compliance do not question the terms of contracts as long as they comply with national labour standards. This paper is based on research with foreign workers in Malaysia and argues that despite the success of the anti-sweatshop movement in a global context, the neo-liberal state in Malaysia continues to place certain restrictions on transnational labour migrants which breach garment industry codes of conduct. Available evidence does not support the assumption that CSR practices provide sufficient protection for both citizen and foreign workers on contract in the garment industry.

  19. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women with certain types of breast cancer. Opioids. Strong pain relievers given to some people with cancer. Tamoxifen. A drug used to treat breast cancer in both women and men. It is also used to prevent cancer in ...

  20. CSC9000T A Toll Bell to "Sweat Shops"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yuan

    2007-01-01

    @@ CRS:A New Requirement for All "We cannot simply consider doing business is making more money, that's a humiliation to human being." So said Muhammad Yunus, founder of Grameen Bank and who received Nobel Peace Prize 2006.

  1. Evolutionary history of nematodes associated with sweat bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Taylor, Douglas R

    2013-03-01

    Organisms that live in close association with other organisms make up a large part of the world's diversity. One driver of this diversity is the evolution of host-species specificity, which can occur via reproductive isolation following a host-switch or, given the correct circumstances, via cospeciation. In this study, we explored the diversity and evolutionary history of Acrostichus nematodes that are associated with halictid bees in North America. First, we conducted surveys of bees in Virginia, and found six halictid species that host Acrostichus. To test the hypothesis of cospeciation, we constructed phylogenetic hypotheses of Acrostichus based on three genes. We found Acrostichus puri and Acrostichus halicti to be species complexes comprising cryptic, host-specific species. Although several nodes in the host and symbiont phylogenies were congruent and tests for cospeciation were significant, the host's biogeography, the apparent patchiness of the association across the host's phylogeny, and the amount of evolution in the nematode sequence suggested a mixture of cospeciation, host switching, and extinction events instead of strict cospeciation. Cospeciation can explain the relationships between Ac. puri and its augochlorine hosts, but colonization of Halictus hosts is more likely than cospeciation. The nematodes are vertically transmitted, but sexual transmission is also likely. Both of these transmission modes may explain host-species specificity and congruent bee and nematode phylogenies. Additionally, all halictid hosts come from eusocial or socially polymorphic lineages, suggesting that sociality may be a factor in the suitability of hosts for Acrostichus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CSC9000T A Toll Bell to“Sweat Shops”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Deing a member of WTO doesn’t only mean having better opportunities in business,but also being responsible for the total welfare for the whole world. Chinese government expressed the Chinese care to environmental issues since 1992 Rio Earth Summit,and more than 150 NGOs are also mushrooming out of China,however CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility)is still something new to most companies in China. Environmental pollutions,factories of"sweatshops",low-wages, underaged workers,unsafe working conditions...After the crazy economic growth in 1990s,the Chinese enterprises,more or less,have begun to realize that an enterprise should be something more than a gold digger.Talking about social responsibilities,it seems textile industry needs a good thinking about the issue,since it offers jobs to 19.5 million employees.

  3. A measurement setup to test instruments for detecting sweat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaart, J.; Snoeren, R.J.L.R.; Li, R.; Zeiler, W.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal neutral zone is the temperature range in which the body can manipulate the heat balance of the body using only vasomotion to maintain thermal comfort. In a warm environment, vasodilation will allow blood and heat to spread over a larger surface area, increasing the heat loss through

  4. Trypanosome Mitochondrial Translation and Tetracycline: No Sweat about Tet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hashimi, Hassan; Kaltenbrunner, S.; Zíková, Alena; Lukeš, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2016), č. článku e1005492. E-ISSN 1553-7374 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-21974S; GA MŠk LL1205 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ribosomal subunit * protein synthesis * Escherichia coli * RNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.003, year: 2015

  5. Sweating away depression? The impact of intensive exercise on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchin, Ross; Linde, Jani; Blackhurst, Dee; Rauch, Hg Laurie; Schönbächler, Georg

    2016-08-01

    In periods of prolonged stress and pain the body produces endorphins to help endure pain. The PANIC system is built on the same pathways as the pain system and is characterized by behaviour that looks like depression. The term 'mental pain' in the context of feelings of loss is arguably justified in light of this relationship between the physical pain and social loss systems. It is reasonable to expect that endorphin release ameliorates depression. Moderately depressed males (n=30) were randomly assigned to one of three groups of varying exercise intensity. Each underwent a six-week exercise programme for three days per week, one hour per day. The HAM-D, MADRS, and ANPS were administered weekly and β-endorphin levels measured. Moderate- and high-intensity exercise improved depression levels, while very-low intensity exercise did not have as beneficial an effect. β-endorphin results were inconclusive. Participants showed a slight decrease in PANIC and FEAR, and increased SEEKING. The potential insensitivity of the assays that were utilized, and the known problems with measuring β-endorphins, may have contributed to the findings. The lack of a state measure of the basic emotion systems is problematic, as a trait measure has to be relied upon, and this likely affected the ability to accurately detect changes over time. The demonstrated improvements in depressive symptoms have important implications for the clinical treatment of patients despite the hypothesis that the PANIC system is involved in the genesis and maintenance of depression not having been conclusively confirmed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Beyond SWEAT: Developing Infrastructure in Stability and COIN Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    respecting their desire for self-determination. See Pressman , Jeffrey L. and Wildavsky, Aaron. Implementation. (Berkeley: University of California Press... Pressman , Jeffrey L. and Wildavsky, Aaron. Implementation. (Berkeley: University of California Press 1971). Sablan, Gregory. Developing

  7. What's the Big Sweat about Dehydration? (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... for Educators Search English Español Dehydration KidsHealth / For Kids / Dehydration Print en español ¿Por qué es tan ...

  8. Comparative study of cocoa-sweat and that of pure honey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... initiative and enterprise of Nigeria peasant farmers. The ... Babatunde, 2006), for Clarias catfish feeds (Hamzat et al., 2006), for cocoa .... Inaugural Lecture. Series 36, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Dubois S (1956). Spectrophotometer Method for Determination of Sugar and Related ...

  9. DNA barcoding a nightmare taxon: assessing barcode index numbers and barcode gaps for sweat bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jason

    2018-01-01

    There is an ongoing campaign to DNA barcode the world's >20 000 bee species. Recent revisions of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) for Canada and the eastern United States were completed using integrative taxonomy. DNA barcode data from 110 species of L. (Dialictus) are examined for their value in identification and discovering additional taxonomic diversity. Specimen identification success was estimated using the best close match method. Error rates were 20% relative to current taxonomic understanding. Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) assigned using Refined Single Linkage Analysis (RESL) and barcode gaps using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method were also assessed. RESL was incongruent for 44.5% of species, although some cryptic diversity may exist. Forty-three of 110 species were part of merged BINs with multiple species. The barcode gap is non-existent for the data set as a whole and ABGD showed levels of discordance similar to the RESL. The viridatum species-group is particularly problematic, so that DNA barcodes alone would be misleading for species delimitation and specimen identification. Character-based methods using fixed nucleotide substitutions could improve specimen identification success in some cases. The use of DNA barcoding for species discovery for standard taxonomic practice in the absence of a well-defined barcode gap is discussed.

  10. Sweat Rate Prediction Equations for Outdoor Exercise with Transient Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    AD] 15 Interchangeable variables gSL W/m2 Global solar load Direct weather station data; pyranometer values 25 Direct measurement from weather station... pyranometer (to measure short-wave radiation fluxes) and pyrgeometer (to measure long-wave radiation fluxes). Normally, the value of the solar load...as described below. During field operations, Rsol (W/m2) can be calculated from 0.835 ·ERF. If Rsol (in W/m2) is known by direct pyranometer mea

  11. Sweating with Peer Gynt. Performative exchange as a way of accessing scenographic action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid von Rosen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the rather complex notion of scenography in relation to historical research. Two performances of Henrik Ibsens’s Peer Gynt are presented as case studies with the aim of stimulating scenographic analyses of historical material. This approach does not dismiss the importance of the dramatic text, or the actors, or the various contexts in which the performances take place. On the contrary, I strongly believe that one always has to account for the multifarious complexity of a theatrical event. However, my research is guided by an interest in exploring ways of accessing long-past practices, forms and events, rather than relying on the assumption that one recovers something stable and fixed. What I claim is very simple: much more reliable knowledge can be produced by exploring, and working with traces from past events and theatrical processes. This approach can be associated with a current trend in theatre studies, in which “historical research has once more come to the fore” (Tessing Schneider & Skjoldager-Nielsen, 2011, 5 as well as an ethic of “being-with” the objects of investigation found in artistic research (e.g. Hannula 2008. On a general level, my approach can be associated with the affective turn in the humanities. Acknowledging corporeality, materiality and sensuousness, this turn also notices the importance of social aspects, transformation and critical development (Diprose, 2002; Meskimmon, 2011.   This study is mainly concerned with the question of how we can theorize, and play with the challenging difference between a performance that one has actually experienced, intellectually as well as physically, and a performance that is accessible only through traces and fragments. I raise this question both as an art history scholar and as a former professional classical and contemporary dancer. This means that I make use of my own experiences from the theatre – an approach that does not detract from the requirements of critical thinking and accuracy in scholarly research.

  12. Sweat the Small Stuff and You'll Come out Ahead: Marketing That Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    Argues that effective marketing is essential for community colleges to keep pace with a changing environment. Presents a broad definition of marketing that includes delivery of educational services and maintenance of a student-centered college environment. Reviews award-winning two-year college marketing strategies and outlines a step-by-step…

  13. "They Sweat for Science": The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and Self-Experimentation in American Exercise Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andi

    2015-08-01

    In many scientific fields, the practice of self-experimentation waned over the course of the twentieth century. For exercise physiologists working today, however, the practice of self-experimentation is alive and well. This paper considers the role of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and its scientific director, D. Bruce Dill, in legitimizing the practice of self-experimentation in exercise physiology. Descriptions of self-experimentation are drawn from papers published by members of the Harvard Fatigue Lab. Attention is paid to the ethical and practical justifications for self-experimentation in both the lab and the field. Born out of the practical, immediate demands of fatigue protocols, self-experimentation performed the long-term, epistemological function of uniting physiological data across time and space, enabling researchers to contribute to a general human biology program.

  14. Juvenile hormone levels reflect social opportunities in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Hymenoptera: Halictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam R; Kapheim, Karen M; Pérez-Ortega, Betzi; Brent, Colin S; Wcislo, William T

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of eusociality is hypothesized to have involved de-coupling parental care from reproduction mediated by changes in endocrine regulation. While data for obligately eusocial insects are consistent with this hypothesis, we lack information from species representative of the transition from solitary reproduction to eusociality. Here we report the first evidence for a link between endocrine processes and social behavior in a facultatively eusocial bee, Megalopta genalis (Halictidae). Using females that varied in social, reproductive, and ecological context, we measured juvenile hormone (JH), a major regulator of colony caste dynamics in other eusocial species. JH was low at adult emergence, but elevated after 10 days in all nesting females. Females reared in cages with ad lib nutrition, however, did not elevate JH levels after 10 days. All reproductive females had significantly more JH than all age-matched non-reproductive females, suggesting a gonadotropic function. Among females in established nests, JH was higher in queens than workers and solitary reproductives, suggesting a role for JH in social dominance. A lack of significant differences in JH between solitary reproductives and non-reproductive workers suggests that JH content reflects more than reproductive status. Our data support the hypothesis that endocrine modifications are involved in the evolutionary decoupling of reproductive and somatic effort in social insects. These are the first measurements of JH in a solitary-nesting hymenopteran, and the first to compare eusocial and solitary nesting individuals of the same species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Cryptic extended brood care in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiñones Paredes, Andres; Wcislo, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of different brood cell provisioning strategies, nest-making insects may differ in the extent to which adults regularly provide extended parental care to their brood beyond nest defense. Mass-provisioning species cache the entire food supply needed for larval development prior to the

  16. Cryptic extended brood care in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, A E; Wcislo, W T

    As a result of different brood cell provisioning strategies, nest-making insects may differ in the extent to which adults regularly provide extended parental care to their brood beyond nest defense. Mass-provisioning species cache the entire food supply needed for larval development prior to the oviposition and typically seal the brood cell. It is usually assumed that there is no regular contact between the adult(s) and brood. Here, we show that the bee, Megalopta genalis , expresses a form of cryptic brood care, which would not be observed during normal development. Following experimental injections of different provisioning materials into brood cells, foundresses reopened manipulated cells and the brood were aborted in some cases, implying that the foundresses assessed conditions within the cells. In aborted cells, foundresses sometimes laid a second egg after first removing dead larvae, previously stored pollen and contaminants. Our results show that hygienic brood care can be cryptic and hence may be more widespread than previously believed, lending support to the hypothesis that extended parental care is a preadaptation toward eusociality.

  17. Socially induced brain development in a facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam R.; Seid, Marc A.; Jiménez, Lissette C.; Wcislo, William T.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the relative size of brain regions are often dependent on experience and environmental stimulation, which includes an animal's social environment. Some studies suggest that social interactions are cognitively demanding, and have examined predictions that the evolution of sociality led to the evolution of larger brains. Previous studies have compared species with different social organizations or different groups within obligately social species. Here, we report the first intraspeci...

  18. Cryptic extended brood care in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis

    OpenAIRE

    Quiñones Paredes, Andres; Wcislo, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of different brood cell provisioning strategies, nest-making insects may differ in the extent to which adults regularly provide extended parental care to their brood beyond nest defense. Mass-provisioning species cache the entire food supply needed for larval development prior to the oviposition and typically seal the brood cell. It is usually assumed that there is no regular contact between the adult(s) and brood. Here, we show that the bee, Megalopta genalis, expresses a form of...

  19. Showers, sweating and suing: Legionnaires' disease and 'new' infections in Britain, 1977-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, John T; Worboys, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease is now routinely discussed as an 'emerging infectious disease' (EID) and is said to be one of the earliest such diseases to be recognised. It first appeared in 1976 and its cause was identified in 1977, the same year that Ebola fever, Hantaan virus and Campylobacter jejuni arrived. The designation of Legionnaires' disease as an EID was retrospective; it was not and could not be otherwise as the category only gained currency in the early 1990s. In this article we reflect on the changing medical understanding and social profile of Legionnaires' disease in the decade or so from its recognition to the creation of EIDs, especially its ambivalent position between public health and clinical medicine. However, we question any simple opposition, between public health experts who approached Legionnaires' disease as a new and worrying environmental threat that could be prevented, and clinicians who saw it as another cause of pneumonia that could be managed by improved diagnosis and treatment. We argue that in the British context of public spending cuts and the reform of public health, the category of 'new' diseases, in which Legionnaires' disease was central, was mobilised ahead of the EID lobby of the early 1990s, by interested groups in medicine to defend infectious diseases services.

  20. Producing a College Video: The Sweat (and Success) Is in the Details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces specifics related to production elements and message elements of college videos. Outlines aspects of lighting, audio, narration, backing music, and performance music. Discusses elements of pace, physical plant, people, and programs with regard to marketing. Suggests the goal is to create a unified vision to attract the target audience.…

  1. The Impact of Sweat Calcium Loss on Bone Health in Soldiers: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    Metabolic Status. Predicting decrements in physiological and cognitive performance. IOM, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. pp 352- 353... basketball players. The investigators were able to link decreases in total bone mineral content (6.1% overall, 10.5% in legs) to the high calcium...such information on physiologic measures into ongoing studies. Over the past 5 years there have been a few published descriptive studies (Lester et

  2. Case report of excessive hand sweating that alters blood sugar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Buller Viqueira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se da cuenta de un caso clínico que puede presentarse con frecuencia en atención primaria, aunque no se registran casos similares en la literatura. Se trata de una mujer con diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus en tratamiento con insulina y con mala evolución según las hemoglobinas glicosiladas. Además del diagnóstico principal, también presenta hiperhidrosis palmo-plantar, lo que conducía a error en los controles glucémicos. Ello es de gran importancia, dado que se ajustaba tratamiento sin considerar que el control no se realizaba de forma adecuada. De este reporte se concluye la relevancia de tratar al paciente como tal y no como patologías individuales, así como la importancia del trabajo en equipo.

  3. "Eating the Sweat from my Forehead": Farm Worker Narratives from South Africa's Apartheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Maria Young-Hauser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we draw on the life histories of farm workers living in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Subjectively interpreting their realities, the farm labourers narrated their experiences of living in the era before, during and after apartheid. The impacts of apartheid, carrying identification papers, for example, were experienced as peripheral with the most significant changes being the disruptions in their personal lives, such as a new farm owner who came to embody repression, authority, exploitation, but also paternalism and benevolence. The farm represented the space and place where complex interactions and unequal relationships between the worker and the farmer played out. The workers' narratives revealed deep-rooted connections to the land on which they lived, a land which did not belong to them. Land was for our research participants particularly important for animal husbandry, as a source of food and as a spiritual space of power where links and relationships to their ancestors were maintained and cultural practices took place. Subjugated knowledge, no formal education and farmers' paternalistic practices contributed to farm labourers' dependence on agrarian work and life on the farm. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1502308

  4. Advice for Fund Raisers: Know Your Donors and Never Let Them See You Sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The psychology behind getting the big gift and making "the ask" for it was a major topic at Fund Raising Day in New York 2008, which drew representatives from across the nonprofit world, including charities, hospitals, colleges, and museums. Laura Fredricks, who was vice president for philanthropy at Pace University from 2002 until earlier this…

  5. Visual summation in night-flying sweat bees: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Jamie Carroll; Greiner, Birgit; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2006-07-01

    Bees are predominantly diurnal; only a few groups fly at night. An evolutionary limitation that bees must overcome to inhabit dim environments is their eye type: bees possess apposition compound eyes, which are poorly suited to vision in dim light. Here, we theoretically examine how nocturnal bees Megalopta genalis fly at light levels usually reserved for insects bearing more sensitive superposition eyes. We find that neural summation should greatly increase M. genalis's visual reliability. Predicted spatial summation closely matches the morphology of laminal neurons believed to mediate such summation. Improved reliability costs acuity, but dark adapted bees already suffer optical blurring, and summation further degrades vision only slightly.

  6. Does the global economy mean more sweat? Trade, investment, migration and working hours in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Raess, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how international trade, investment and migration affect establishment-level standard weekly hours in Europe. These aspects of globalization have offsetting implications that make it unclear whether they spur, reduce or have little effect on standard hours. To explore these

  7. Media Research with a Galvanic Skin Response Biosensor: Some Kids Work Up a Sweat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.

    This study considers the galvanic skin response (GSR) of sixth-grade students (n=20) using print, video, and microcomputer segments. Subjects received all three media treatments, in randomized order. Data for analysis consisted of standardized test scores and GSR measures; a moderate positive relationship was shown between cumulative GSR and…

  8. Sweating under pressure: skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior may be illuminated by individual differences in skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) in the context of peer stress. Participants included 123 fifth and sixth graders (Mean age = 12.03 years, 50% females; 42% ethnic minorities). SCLR was assessed in the context of an ecologically relevant, lab-based peer-evaluative stress experience in preadolescence. As hypothesized, self-reported peer victimization was linked with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior, and SCLR consistently moderated these associations. Peer victimization was associated with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior among preadolescents who exhibited lower SCLR, but not among preadolescents who exhibited higher SCLR. Results suggest that promoting engagement with peer stress experiences and enhancing inhibitory control are potential intervention targets that may reduce externalizing behavior in the context of peer victimization (or reduce peer victimization among preadolescents who exhibit externalizing behavior). © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  9. Wearable Sensor System Powered by a Biofuel Cell for Detection of Lactate Levels in Sweat (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    impacted the trends of economic development in the last 20 years.30 If trends continue then development of self-powered sensing systems may have an impact...experiments were conducted with a three-electrode setup using a conventional potentiostat: Bi- ologic Model 1:VMP3 multichannel potentiostat/galvanostat. All...Potassium nitrate , methylene green zinc chloride double salt, urea, and tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis

  10. Sweating it Out: Facilitating Corrections and Parole in Canada Through Aboriginal Spiritual Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Milward

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal peoples continue to be subjected to drastic over-incarceration. Much of the existing literature explores contemporary adaptations of Aboriginal justice traditions that resemble restorative justice as a solution. There is by comparison a lack of literature that considers searching for solutions during the correctional phase of the justice system, after Aboriginal persons have already been convicted and imprisoned. The objective of this paper is to explore a number of reforms in order to better facilitate rehabilitation, reintegration, and parole for Aboriginal inmates. One is to invest greater resources into culturally sensitive programming that emphasizes spiritual healing for Aboriginal inmates. This is premised on the theme of “spend now, save later” with the idea that increasing the chances for Aboriginal re-integration may represent the better long term investment than simply warehousing large numbers of Aboriginal inmates year after year. Another problem is that many Aboriginal inmates are classified as higher security risks, which results in them being cut off from needed programming. The suggestion here is that criminal history as a static factor for determining security classifications may have little predictive value for the actual security risk posed by Aboriginal inmates, and therefore should be de-emphasized. Correctional Services of Canada should seriously consider developing an Aboriginal-specific classification scale that de-emphasizes criminal history, and emphasizes instead offender participation in culturally appropriate programs and spiritual healing, and behavioural progress while in prison. Risk assessment to re-offend for purposes of granting parole may also represent a form of systemic discrimination since criminal history represents a static factor that encumbers parole for many Aboriginal inmates. Risk assessment should instead emphasize dynamic risk factors by assessing Aboriginal participation in culturally appropriate programming, and attendant behaviourial progress while in prison. The difficult issue of Aboriginal gang activity can perhaps be dealt with through a more flexible system of risk assessment that gauges a willingness to reform and dissociate from the gang lifestyle rather than require Aboriginal inmates to endure nearly permanent penalties for past involvement. Finally, the paper will suggest that it is possible to overcome the political obstacles to implementing these reforms and obtain a political mandate to pursue them after the public is made aware of the benefits they offer. On continue à infliger des peines d’emprisonnement beaucoup trop sévères aux autochtones. Une grande partie des documents existants examinent des adaptations contemporaines des traditions autochtones en matière de justice qui proposent une forme de justice réparatrice comme solution. Par contre, trop peu de documents examinent la possibilité de rechercher des solutions pendant la phase correctionnelle du système de justice, après que les autochtones ont été reconnus coupables et incarcérés. Cet article examine un certain nombre de réformes en vue de faciliter la réhabilitation et la réintégration des détenus autochtones et leur libération conditionnelle. Nous devons en premier lieu consacrer davantage de ressources aux programmes qui tiennent compte des spécificités culturelles et mettent l’accent sur la guérison spirituelle des détenus autochtones. Cette approche repose sur le principe « dépenser maintenant – épargner plus tard » et sur l’idée selon laquelle accroître les chances de réintégration des autochtones représente peut-être un meilleur investissement à long terme qu’incarcérer ceux-ci en grand nombre année après année. Par ailleurs, le fait qu’un bon nombre d’autochtones soient considérés comme représentant un risque élevé pour la sécurité et ne puissent pour cette raison bénéficier des programmes dont ils ont besoin suscite une autre difficulté. Dans cet article, l’auteur avance que s’appuyer sur les antécédents criminels comme facteur statique pour déterminer les classifications de sécurité a peut-être peu de valeur prédictive en ce qui concerne le risque réel de sécurité posé par les détenus autochtones et, par conséquent, qu’on ne devrait plus leur accorder la priorité. Les Services correctionnels du Canada devraient envisager sérieusement de mettre au point une échelle de classification propre aux autochtones qui n’accorde plus la priorité aux antécédents judiciaires et met plutôt l’accent sur la participation du contrevenant à des programmes culturellement adéquats, sur la guérison spirituelle et sur les progrès comportementaux des autochtones pendant leur incarcération. L’évaluation du risque de récidive avant que ne soit accordée la libération conditionnelle peut également représenter une forme de discrimination systémique puisque les antécédents criminels représentent un facteur statique qui empêche de nombreux autochtones d’obtenir une libération conditionnelle. L’évaluation du risque devrait plutôt mettre l’accent sur les facteurs de risque dynamiques en tenant compte de la participation des autochtones à des programmes culturellement adéquats et des progrès comportementaux découlant de cette participation aux programmes pendant l’incarcération. La délicate question des activités de bandes criminelles autochtones pourrait être abordée dans le cadre d’un système plus souple d’évaluation du risque qui tient compte de la volonté de se réformer et de se dissocier du style de vie des gangs au lieu d’exiger que les détenus autochtones subissent des pénalités somme toute permanentes pour leur implication antérieure. Finalement, l’auteur laisse entendre qu’il est possible de surmonter les obstacles politiques à la mise en oeuvre de ces réformes et d’obtenir un mandat politique afin de donner suite à ces réformes une fois que le public aura été informé des avantages qu’elles offrent.

  11. Application of a Sweating Manikin Controlled by a Human Physiological Model and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Lustbader, J.

    2006-11-01

    Discusses two applications of NREL's suite of thermal comfort tools: one to assess impact of an automotive ventilated seat on comfort and fuel economy, and another to evaluate liquid cooling garments for NASA spacesuits.

  12. Plasma, oral fluid and sweat wipe ecstasy concentrations in controlled and real life conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samyn, N; De Boeck, G; Wood, M; Lamers, CTJ; De Waard, D; Brookhuis, KA; Verstraete, AG; Riedel, WJ

    2002-01-01

    In a double-blind placebo controlled study on psychomotor skills important for car driving (Study 1), a 75 mg dose of 3,4methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) was administered orally to 12 healthy Volunteers who were known to be recreational MDMA-users. Toxicokinetic data were gathered by analysis of

  13. A Comparative Introduction on Sweating Thermal Manikin “Newton” and “Walter”

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Faming

    2008-01-01

    Recently, thermal manikins are frequently used for testing and product development by sports science and human excises field, by the building industry and by the automobile industry for evaluation of the performance of heating and ventilation systems. Multisegments thermal manikin “Newton” and onesegment thermal manikin “Walter” was described in the paper. The thermal insulation and moisture vapor resistance was briefly introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of thos...

  14. Two patients with localised hyperhidrosis of the hand based on functional and structural abnormalities of sweat glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bjørn H; Lindahl, Kim H; Pallesen, Kristine A U

    2018-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl and a 30-year-old woman presented with localised hyperhidrosis on the dorsal hand and wrist, respectively, provoked by different stimuli such as physical activity and minor trauma to the skin. The skin was seemingly normal in both patients where an iodine-starch test revealed...... a well-demarcated area of hyperhidrosis. Following histopathological examination, the diagnosis was unilateral localised hyperhidrosis in both cases; one with normal histology and one with a nevus sudoriferous. Both patients were successfully treated with botulinum toxin type A. The 30-year-old woman...... additionally used low-dose propantheline bromide periodically and experienced long-term remission on this therapy. Hyperhidrosis may embarrass and interfere with patients' school and careers, and it is therefore important to tailor an effective individual treatment....

  15. Social skills training versus cognitive therapy for social anxiety disorder characterized by fear of blushing, trembling, or sweating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Voncken, M.

    2008-01-01

    Current interpersonal models suggest that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by interpersonal difficulties. Individuals with SAD and fear of showing bodily symptoms also suffer from interpersonal problems, such as not being open and avoidance of expressing insecurity. Training in social

  16. Rain, Sun, Soil, and Sweat: A Consideration of Population Limits on Rapa Nui (Easter Island before European Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric O. Puleston

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The incongruity between the small and apparently impoverished Rapa Nui population that early European travelers encountered and the magnificence of its numerous and massive stone statues has fed a deep fascination with the island. Ethnographic and archaeological evidence suggest that the indigenous population was previously greater than the estimated 1,500–3,000 individuals observed by visitors in the eighteenth century. Our goal was to determine the maximum population that might have lived on the island by estimating its agricultural productivity in the time before European contact. To determine the agricultural potential of the island we sampled soils and established six weather stations in diverse contexts and recorded data over a 2-year period. We find that the island is wetter on average than previously believed. We also find that rainfall and temperature respond linearly to elevation, but a spatial model of precipitation requires correction for a rain shadow effect. We adapted to Rapa Nui an island-wide spatial model designed to identify agriculturally viable zones elsewhere in Polynesia. Based on functions relating climate and substrate age to measurements of soil base saturation, we identified 3,134 ha that were suitable for traditional dryland sweet potato cultivation, or about 19% of the 164 km2 island. We used a nutrient-cycling model to estimate yields. Modeled yields are highly sensitive to nitrogen (N inputs and reliable estimates of these rates are unavailable, requiring us to bracket the rate of N inputs. In the case of low N availability, yields under continuous cultivation were very small, averaging 1.5 t/ha of wet sweet potato tuber. When the N fixation rate was quadrupled sustainable yields increased to 5.1 t/ha. In each N scenario we used a model of food-limited demography to examine the consequences of altering agricultural practices, the labor supply, the ability of the population to control its fertility, and the presence or absence of surplus production to support social inequalities. In the low-N case viable populations average approximately 3,500 individuals across all parameter combinations, vs. 17,500 in the high-N case, although sustainable populations in excess of 25,000 were possible under some assumptions.

  17. Comfort, measured by means of a sweating manikin (Walter (TM)), of clothing containing different fibre combinations : A preliminary investigation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Anton F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ), Holcombe and Hoschke (1983), Peirce and Rees (1946), Yoon and Buckley (1984), Holcombe (1984), Tyagi et al (2004), Das et al (2009), Gericke and Van Der Pol (2010), and Stoffberg et al (2015)). By far the majority of the researchers found fabric... the years on the water vapour resistance of fabrics of different fibre compositions, these including those by Peirce et al (1945), Mehta (1984), Tyagi et al (2004), Yoon and Buckley (1984), Kothari (2006), Mazzuchetti et al (2007), Das et al (2009) Lee...

  18. The Determination of Amino-acids in Human Sweat%人体汗液中氨基酸的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆鼎一; 程有庆

    1980-01-01

    @@人汗液是皮肤的排泄分泌物,它的主要成分有水、无机盐和有机物,其中包括微量的蛋白质及氨基酸。我们应用“DNS-氨基酸聚酰胺薄膜层析”的方法[1]对人体汗液中的氨基酸进行了定性和定量的分析,所得结果可供汗痕或生理研究的参考。DNS(Dansyl-Chloride即二甲基氨基萘磺酰氯)是一种荧光试剂,它能与大多数氨基酸进行反应生成各种衍生物,简称“DNS-氨基酸”。

  19. “Sunshine, sweat, and tears”: African-American ties to land and forests in the south

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Viniece. Jennings

    2017-01-01

    The Sustainable Forestry and African American Land Retention Program is a comprehensive effort to address the longstanding problem of under-participation of African Americans in forest management. This report describes the results of rapid appraisal baseline research for pilot projects in this program in three Southern States. The research used a carefully selected...

  20. Physical activity in healthy, older people. How many drops of sweat away from gain the health benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kujawska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging process leads to increased risk of functional impairments and diseases occurrence. Sedentary lifestyle is one of the main risk factors the occurrence of chronic disease such a diabetes and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, results of many studies showed that regular physical activity (PA and physical exercise (PE could decrease the risk of these hazards. Last decades were fruitful in developing evidence-based recommendations for physical activity and exercise in older people, therefore it is worth to examine dynamics of development and the similarities between different recommendations.  Material and methods: Articles in the EBSCO database have been analyzed using keywords: older people, physical exercise, physical activity, recommendations, aerobic training, resistance training. Results: Studies showed that people who were more active during lifetime, have greater self-efficacy, better physical and mental health status and in general higher satisfaction on the autumn of their life. Every analyzed recommendation underlies the negative consequences of sedentary activity, however, there is no evidence-based “cut-off” point. Similarly, there is not clear optimal “dose” of PA or PE to prescribe for older patients. Conclusions: It seems that undertaking light level of PA activity is more beneficial than none PA or sedentary lifestyle. The newest recommendations underlie the possibility of the existence of positive linear relationship between the level of PA and health benefits: every additional amount of time spent on PA during week could be related with additional health benefit

  1. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral; Oñorbe, Jose; Bullock, James S.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Elbert, Oliver D.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-10-01

    We present Feedback in Realistic Environment (FIRE)/GIZMO hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dark matter haloes, two each at the mass of classical dwarf galaxies (Mvir ≃ 1010 M⊙) and ultra-faint galaxies (Mvir ≃ 109 M⊙), and with two feedback implementations. The resulting central galaxies lie on an extrapolated abundance matching relation from M⋆ ≃ 106 to 104 M⊙ without a break. Every host is filled with subhaloes, many of which form stars. Each of our dwarfs with M⋆ ≃ 106 M⊙ has 1-2 well-resolved satellites with M⋆ = 3-200 × 103 M⊙. Even our isolated ultra-faint galaxies have star-forming subhaloes. If this is representative, dwarf galaxies throughout the Universe should commonly host tiny satellite galaxies of their own. We combine our results with the Exploring the Local Volume in Simulations (ELVIS) simulations to show that targeting ˜ 50 kpc regions around nearby isolated dwarfs could increase the chances of discovering ultra-faint galaxies by ˜35 per cent compared to random pointings, and specifically identify the region around the Phoenix dwarf galaxy as a good potential target. The well-resolved ultra-faint galaxies in our simulations (M⋆ ≃ 3-30 × 103 M⊙) form within Mpeak ≃ 0.5-3 × 109 M⊙ haloes. Each has a uniformly ancient stellar population ( > 10 Gyr) owing to reionization-related quenching. More massive systems, in contrast, all have late-time star formation. Our results suggest that Mhalo ≃ 5 × 109 M⊙ is a probable dividing line between haloes hosting reionization `fossils' and those hosting dwarfs that can continue to form stars in isolation after reionization.

  3. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a day can evaporate through the sweat glands. As the body becomes overheated, a person sweats, which ... begins to sweat on the palms and forehead, as well as the soles of the feet and ...

  4. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... half million eccrine sweat glands all over the body. They lie deep in the skin and are ... can evaporate through the sweat glands. As the body becomes overheated, a person sweats, which evaporates and ...

  5. Sweat it out? The effects of physical exercise on cognition and behavior in children and adults with ADHD : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Heijer, Anne E.; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W.; Thome, Johannes; Tucha, Oliver

    As attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed developmental disorders in childhood, effective yet safe treatment options are highly important. Recent research introduced physical exercise as a potential treatment option, particularly for children with

  6. Blood, sweat, tears and success of technology transfer long-term controlled-release of herbicides: Root-growth-inhibiting biobarrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Voris, P.; Cataldo, D.A.; Burton, F.G.; Skeins, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Through the unique combination of polymers with a herbicidally active dinitroaniline, a cylinderical pellet (9mm long and 9mm in diameter) was developed that continuously releases a herbicide for a period of up to 100 years. Equilibrium concentration of the herbicide in soil adjacent to the pellet and the bioactive lifetime of the device cam be adjusted by changing the size of the pellet; the type of polymer; the type, quality, and quantity of carrier; and/or the concentration and type of dinitroaniline used. Commercial products that have been developed under a Federal Technology Transfer Program that utilize this technology include: (1) ROOT-SHIELD, a root repelling sewer gasket for concrete, clay, and PVC sewer lines, (2) BIOBARRIER, a spun-bonded polypropylene geotextile fabric developed to prevent root growth from invading septic tanks; penetrating under roadways, and along the edge of sidewalks, airport runways, and tennis courts, and for landscaped areas; and (3) ROOT-GUARD, a plastic drip irrigation emitter designed to protect buried drip irrigation systems from being plugged by roots. 17 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Of faeces and sweat. How much a mouse is willing to run: having a hard time measuring spontaneous physical activity in different mouse sub-strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Coletti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has multiple beneficial effects in the physiology and pathology of the organism. In particular, we and other groups have shown that running counteracts cancer cachexia in both humans and rodents. The latter are prone to exercise in wheel-equipped cages even at advanced stages of cachexia. However, when we wanted to replicate the experimental model routinely used at the University of Rome in a different laboratory (i.e. at Paris 6 University, we had to struggle with puzzling results due to unpredicted mouse behavior. Here we report the experience and offer the explanation underlying these apparently irreproducible results. The original data are currently used for teaching purposes in undergraduate student classes of biological sciences.

  8. Blood, sweat and plaster casts: Reviewing the history, composition, and scientific value of the Raymond A. Dart Collection of African Life and Death Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, T M R; Billings, B K

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses the history, composition and scientific value of one of the most comprehensive facemask collections in Africa, the Raymond A. Dart Collection of African Life and Death Masks. Housed within the School of Anatomical Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa), it comprises 1110 masks (397 life, 487 death, 226 unknown). Life masks represent populations throughout Africa; death masks predominately southern Africa. Males preponderate by 75%. Recorded ages are error prone, but suggest most life masks are those of <35 year-olds, death masks of 36+ year-olds. A total of 241 masks have associated skeletons, 209 presenting a complete skull. Life masks date between 1927 and c.1980s, death masks 1933 and 1963. This historical collection presents uncanny associations with outmoded typological and evolutionary theories. Once perceived an essential scientific resource, performed craniofacial superimpositions identify the nose as the only stable feature maintained, with the remaining face best preserved in young individuals with minimal body fat. The facemask collection is most viable for teaching and research within the history of science, specifically physical anthropology, and presents some value to craniofacial identification. Future research will have to be conducted with appropriate ethical considerations to science and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Sweat, Skepticism, and Uncharted Territory: A Qualitative Study of Opinions on Data Sharing Among Public Health Researchers and Research Participants in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hate, Ketaki; Meherally, Sanna; Shah More, Neena; Jayaraman, Anuja; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael; Osrin, David

    2015-07-01

    Efforts to internalize data sharing in research practice have been driven largely by developing international norms that have not incorporated opinions from researchers in low- and middle-income countries. We sought to identify the issues around ethical data sharing in the context of research involving women and children in urban India. We interviewed researchers, managers, and research participants associated with a Mumbai non-governmental organization, as well as researchers from other organizations and members of ethics committees. We conducted 22 individual semi-structured interviews and involved 44 research participants in focus group discussions. We used framework analysis to examine ideas about data and data sharing in general; its potential benefits or harms, barriers, obligations, and governance; and the requirements for consent. Both researchers and participants were generally in favor of data sharing, although limited experience amplified their reservations. We identified three themes: concerns that the work of data producers may not receive appropriate acknowledgment, skepticism about the process of sharing, and the fact that the terrain of data sharing was essentially uncharted and confusing. To increase data sharing in India, we need to provide guidelines, protocols, and examples of good practice in terms of consent, data preparation, screening of applications, and what individuals and organizations can expect in terms of validation, acknowledgment, and authorship. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Application of Sweat Patch Screening for 16 Drugs and Metabolites Using a Fast and Highly Selective LC-MS/MS Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco A.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Greijdanus, Ben; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E. L.; Uges, Donald R. A.

    Background: To facilitate the monitoring of drug abuse by patients, a method was developed and validated for fast and highly selective screening for amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine,

  11. Monitoring of Bone Loss Biomarkers in Human Sweat: A Non-Invasive, Time Efficient Means of Monitoring Bone Resorption Markers under Micro and Partial Gravity Loading Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project was to validate the concept that the rate and extent of unloading-induced bone loss in humans can be assessed by monitoring the...

  12. Pesticide use within a pollinator-dependent crop has negative effects on the abundance and species richness of sweat bees, Lasioglossum spp., and on bumble bee colony growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are implicated in current bee declines. Wild bees that nest or forage within agroecosystems may be exposed to numerous pesticides applied throughout their life cycles, with potential additive or synergistic effects. In pollinator-dependent crops, pesticides may reduce bee populations, cre...

  13. 78 FR 57650 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... significant amount of sweat equity towards the development of the SHOP units. Sweat equity involves... SHOP funds together with the homebuyer's sweat equity and volunteer labor contributions significantly... sweat equity contribution must not be mortgaged or otherwise restricted upon future sale of the SHOP...

  14. Age-Related Changes in Children's Hedonic Response to Male Body Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Repacholi, Betty M.

    2003-01-01

    Examined children's and adolescents' ability to identify male sweat and other odors and their rating of odors for liking. Found that only female adolescents could identify and disliked male sweat. When cued about odor identity, both male and female adolescents disliked male sweat more than children. Concluded that dislike for male sweat odor may…

  15. Checking the sealing of fuel elements by helium sweating - case of the reactors G2 (1960); Controle de l'etancheite des elements combustibles par ressuage d'helium - cas du reacteur G2 (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B; D' Orival, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Choumoff, S [Compagnie Francaise Thomson-Houston, 75 - Paris (France)

    1960-07-01

    The G2 slug is a welded, hermetically sealed unit; the seal is checked by placing the fuel element in a helium atmosphere under pressure, then measuring the quantity of helium it releases in a vessel under vacuum. The theoretical aspect and the conditions of industrial application are reviewed, and the installations described. (author) [French] La cartouche G2 se presente comme un ensemble soude, hermetique; le controle d'etancheite s'effectue en immergeant l'element combustible dans une atmosphere d'helium sous pression puis en mesurant la quantite d'helium qu'il restitue dans une enceinte sous vide. L'aspect theorique et les conditions d'exploitation industrielle sont evoques et les installations decrites. (auteur)

  16. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more than two and a half million eccrine sweat glands all over the body. They lie deep ... to the surface by coiled tubes called ducts. Sweat (perspiration) is a liquid mixture made up of ...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnostic evaluation should include a newborn screening, a sweat chloride test, a genetic or carrier test, and ... vs. IRT-DNA States Newborn Screening for CF Sweat Test Life With CF X close Caring for ...

  18. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to maintain hydration. Any salt you lose in sweat can usually be made up with sports drinks ... unlocking your game power as food. When you sweat during exercise, it's easy to become overheated, headachy, ...

  19. Skin morphological changes in growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Merete Wolder; Thulesen, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the histomorphology of skin and its appendages, especially eccrine sweat glands, in patients with GH disorders, because reduced sweating ability in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with increased risk of hyperthermia under stressed conditions....

  20. Pilocarpine iontophoresis test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif; Nielsen, B

    1995-01-01

    The pilocarpine iontophoresis test (P-test) is used as a predictor of the capacity to produce sweat. Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of this test in 12 normal subjects on 10 consecutive days. Furthermore, we determined whether the P-test reflects whole-body and regional sweat secretion...... during exercise in the heat. Finally, we determined whether the P-test stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to maximal sweat secretion. Six growth hormone-deficient (GHD) patients who are known to have decreased sweating, and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. To induce maximal sweat secretion......, the patients exercised on a bicycle ergometer at a workload corresponding to 40% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). The 11 healthy subjects exercised at a workload of 150 W. All subjects exercised for 60 min in ambient air at 35 degrees C, with 50% relative humidity. The P-test showed a mean day...

  1. 障害者バドミントン選手の夏季練習時における発汗量・脱水率の実態調査

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 僚

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Humans sweat as a response to regulate body temperature, but only a few studies on the amount of both the variation in sweat rate and water consumption during badminton exercise have been conducted. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to survey changes in amount of water consumed, sweat rate and dehydration rate by handicapped badminton player during practice. Methods: The subjects were 24 competitive Asia-Olympic- or Japanese national level handicapped badminton player (18 m...

  2. Altered Olfactory Processing of Stress Related Body Odors and Artificial Odors in Patients with Panic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wintermann, Gloria-Beatrice; Donix, Markus; Joraschky, Peter; Gerber, Johannes; Petrowski, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with Panic Disorder (PD) direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD...

  3. Co-expression of Cholinergic and Noradrenergic Phenotypes in Human and Non-Human Autonomic Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Weihe, Eberhard; Schütz, Burkhard; Hartschuh, Wolfgang; Anlauf, Martin; Schäfer, Martin K.; Eiden, Lee E.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that the sympathetic innervation of the sweat glands is cholinergic in most mammalian species, and that during development, rodent sympathetic cholinergic sweat gland innervation transiently expresses noradrenergic traits. We show here that some noradrenergic traits persist in cholinergic sympathetic innervation of the sweat glands in rodents, but that lack of expression of the vesicular monoamine transporter renders these cells functionally non-noradrenergic. Adult hum...

  4. Evaluation of the Joint Service General Purpose Mask, XM50

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    and vision Trial 7 Trial 8 Trial 12 correction E-2 TRIAL 3299 7795 2079 Did not finish exercises. No No comment on sweat or No comment on sweat or...lhr 50 min playing time). Duringboth activities, slight Reported slight intermittent No comment on. swet or fogging with slight impact on fogging...right eye. During steam No comment on Mask was stationary. engine exercise, reported 4 sweat or fogging Reported that seal mask seal leakage at

  5. Human Water and Electrolyte Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, S. J; Cheuvront, S. N; Carter, R; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... Sweat losses, if not replaced, reduce body water volume and electrolyte content. Excessive body water or electrolyte losses can disrupt physiological homeostasis and threaten both health and performance...

  6. Identification and Isolation of Human Alarm Pheromones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Strey, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    .... Task I, Optimization of Sample Collection, focused on the collection of the putative alarm pheromone via axillary sweat samples obtained during reference (physical exercise) and arousal (skydive) conditions...

  7. Children: General Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Constipation Coughing Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test ECG (Electrocardiogram) EEG (Electroencephalogram) EMG (Electromyogram) Febrile Seizures Giving Opioid Prescription Pain Medicine: ...

  8. Metoclopramide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the jaw or neck speech problems depression thinking about harming or killing yourself fever muscle stiffness confusion fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat sweating restlessness nervousness or jitteriness ...

  9. Metoclopramide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the jaw or neck speech problems depression thinking about harming or killing yourself fever muscle stiffness confusion fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat sweating seizures rash hives swelling ...

  10. Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body's metabolism significantly, causing sudden weight loss, a rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, and nervousness ...

  11. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma--a case report with unusual in situ malignant changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Irhayim, B

    1984-05-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma is a rare tumour, the histogenesis of which has been much debated in the past. However, it is now considered a tumour of sweat gland origin. Presented herewith is a report of a case with unusual histological features of in situ malignant changes within sweat glands. These changes very closely simulate lobular cancerisation of the breast. On reviewing the English literature on the histopathology of sweat gland tumours, we have not found similar histological findings. These histological findings provide supportive evidence of the sweat gland origin of these tumours.

  12. Gênero na prática docente em educação física: "meninas não gostam de suar, meninos são habilidosos ao jogar"? Gender in physical education teaching practice: "girls don't like to sweat, boys are skilled in games?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Altmann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa como o gênero perpassa a prática docente em Educação Física, através da análise de questionários abertos, respondidos por professores/as de Educação Física de escolas públicas da Região Metropolitana de Campinas, São Paulo, em 2009. Os resultados foram problematizados a partir de dois eixos: planejamento e seleção de conteúdos; e conflitos aparentes e velados. As questões de gênero não são consensuais entre os/as docentes e foram consideradas por alguns/as no planejamento das aulas. Diferenças de desempenho de meninos e meninas nas práticas corporais aparecem como a principal fonte de conflitos e o aspecto mais considerado durante o planejamento. As aulas mistas podem problematizar concepções estereotipadas de feminino e de masculino, mostrando que nem todos os meninos se identificam com esportes e jogos coletivos e que meninas também sabem e gostam de jogar.This paper aims to analyze the way in which gender is related with physical educations class. This analysis was based on answers to open-ended questions by state school teachers from the metropolitan area of Campinas, São Paulo in 2009. The analysis contemplated two main points: the curriculum design and class content selected by the teachers; open and hidden conflicts. The teacher's views about gender showed to be varied and only some of them consider sex difference in curriculum design. Differences in the performance of boys and girls appear as the main source of conflicts. Mixed classes were seen to contribute for eliminating stereotypical views of femininity and masculinity and for showing that not all boys prefer team sports and that girls enjoy playing them as well.

  13. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Dalton

    Full Text Available Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120 rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  14. Chemosignals of stress influence social judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Pamela; Mauté, Christopher; Jaén, Cristina; Wilson, Tamika

    2013-01-01

    Human body odors have important communicative functions regarding genetic identity, immune fitness and general health, but an expanding body of research suggests they can also communicate information about an individual's emotional state. In the current study, we tested whether axillary odors obtained from women experiencing psychosocial stress could negatively influence personality judgments of warmth and competence made about other women depicted in video scenarios. 44 female donors provided three types of sweat samples: untreated exercise sweat, untreated stress sweat and treated stress sweat. After a 'washout' period, a commercial unscented anti-perspirant product was applied to the left axilla only to evaluate whether 'blocking' the stress signal would improve the social evaluations. A separate group of male and female evaluators (n = 120) rated the women in the videos while smelling one of the three types of sweat samples. Women in the video scenes were rated as being more stressed by both men and women when smelling the untreated vs. treated stress sweat. For men only, the women in the videos were rated as less confident, trustworthy and competent when smelling both the untreated stress and exercise sweat in contrast to the treated stress sweat. Women's social judgments were unaffected by sniffing the pads. The results have implications for influencing multiple types of professional and personal social interactions and impression management and extend our understanding of the social communicative function of body odors.

  15. Hydration: special issues for playing football in warm and hot environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirreffs, S M

    2010-10-01

    The high metabolic rates and body temperatures sustained by football players during training and matches causes sweating--particularly when in warm or hot environments. There is limited published data on the effects of this sweat loss on football performance. The limited information available, together with knowledge of the effects of sweat loss in other sports with skill components as well as endurance and sprint components, suggests that the effects of sweating will be similar as in these other activities. Therefore, the generalization that, on average, a body mass reduction equivalent to 2% should be the acceptable limit of sweat losses seems reasonable. This magnitude and more, of sweat loss is a common occurrence for some players. Sodium is the main electrolyte lost in sweat but there is large variability in sodium losses between players. However, the extent of sodium losses in some players may be such that its replacement is warranted for these players. Although football is a team sport, the great individual variability in sweat and electrolyte losses of players in the same training session or match dictates that individual monitoring to determine individual water and electrolyte requirements should be an essential part of a player's nutrition strategy. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Heat strain in protective clothing - challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kiekens, P.; Jayaraman, S.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to

  17. Heat strain in personal protective clothing: Challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to

  18. 21 CFR 350.50 - Labeling of antiperspirant drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: ‘dampness,’ ‘perspiration,’ ‘sweat,’ ‘sweating,’ or ‘wetness’] due to stress”. (3) For products that... this chapter for definition of bullet. (ii) The warning required by § 369.21 of this chapter for drugs...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... should include a newborn screening, a sweat chloride test, a genetic or carrier test, and a clinical evaluation at a CF Foundation- ... IRT-DNA States Newborn Screening for CF Sweat Test Life With CF X close Caring for a ...

  20. Transient post-exercise hyper-perspiration of forehead area | Reza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about sweating responses during exercise recovery is insufficient and mostly controversial. In the present study, particular attention is given to sweating behavior at forehead area immediately after exercise. Simultaneous changes of some underlying factors are also addressed. Eight healthy young males ...

  1. Biosensors and Your Health: What's Your Body Trying to Tell You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of California San Diego, is developing a flexible sensor that measures blood alcohol levels. It looks like a temporary tattoo. The sensor releases a sweat-promoting chemical into the skin and detects alcohol in the sweat. The sensor then sends the ...

  2. Growth hormone deficiency and hyperthermia during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif

    1995-01-01

    Sweat secretion is often disturbed in patients with GH secretory disorders. Hyperhidrosis is a classic feature of acromegaly, and it has recently been shown that GH-deficient patients exhibit decreased sweating capacity after pilocarpine stimulation of the skin. Thus, patients with GH-deficiency ...

  3. Hidradenocarcinoma eccrinale syringomatodes of the eyelid--case of a rare malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolina, Ziaja; Arkadiusz, Pogrzebielski; Jolanta, Orłowska-Heitzman; Bozena, Romanowska-Dixon

    2010-01-01

    Presentation of a case of very rare malignant tumor of eccrine sweat glands in the eyelid. A 44 years old man with a tumor of the upper left eyelid is presented. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare malignant tumors of the skin adnexa. Diagnosis of these carcinomas is difficult due to their infrequency.

  4. antibacterial activities of different brands of deodorants marketed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    sweating by affecting sweat glands. Antiperspirants are typically applied to the underarms, while deodorants may also be applied on the feet and other areas in the form of body sprays2. Human perspiration is largely odourless until it is fermented by bacteria that thrives in hot, humid environments3. The human underarm is ...

  5. AJESMS_ Vol 8 2010 August 15 2011

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Mereku

    2010-08-15

    Aug 15, 2010 ... further reduction in plasma volume during exercise. Recall that body water content regulates sweating, and sweating provides our best method of heat loss during exercise. So, adequate body water is essential to avoid heat injury; e.g., heat exhaustion or heat stroke (Convertino, 1991). Body water retention ...

  6. Evaluation of processed sweet potato-crayfish – soya bean and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained with diet 3 (sweat potato bambara groundnut mixture) and diet 5 (sweat potato soya bean mixture) compared favourably with the reference diet (Nutrend) in all the parameters examined except for corn starch (diet 7), which recorded lowest values although it contained higher carbohydrate and energy ...

  7. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma | Das | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma.

  8. Thermoregulatory efficiency is increased after heat acclimation in tropical natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Flávio C; Passos, Renata L F; Fonseca, Michele A; Oliveira, Kenya P M; Ferreira-Júnior, João B; Martini, Angelo R P; Lima, Milene R M; Guimarães, Juliana B; Baraúna, Valério G; Silami-Garcia, Emerson; Rodrigues, Luiz O C

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of heat acclimation on sweat rate redistribution and thermodynamic parameters, 9 tropical native volunteers were submitted to 11 days of exercise-heat exposures (40+/-0 degrees C and 45.1+/-0.2% relative humidity). Sudomotor function was evaluated by measuring total and local (forehead, chest, arm, forearm, and thigh) sweat rates, local sweat sodium concentration, and mean skin and rectal temperatures. We also calculated heat production (H), heat storage (S), heat exchange by radiation (R) and by convection (C), evaporated sweat (E(sw)), sweating efficiency (eta(sw)), skin wettedness (w(sk)), and the ratio between the heat storage and the sum of heat production and heat gains by radiation and convection (S/(H+R+C)). The heat acclimation increased the whole-body sweat rate and reduced the mean skin temperature. There were changes in the local sweat rate patterns: on the arm, forearm, and thigh it increased significantly from day 1 to day 11 (all p<0.05) and the sweat rates from the forehead and the chest showed a small nonsignificant increase (p=0.34 and 0.17, respectively). The relative increase of local sweat rates on day 11 was not different among the sites; however, when comparing the limbs (arm, forearm, and thigh) with the trunk (forehead and chest), there was a significant higher increase in the limbs (32+/-5%) in comparison to the trunk (11+/-2%, p=0.001). After the heat acclimation period we observed higher w(sk) and E(sw) and reduced S/(H+R+C), meaning greater thermoregulatory efficiency. The increase in the limb sweat rate, but not the increase in the trunk sweat rate, correlated with the increased w(sk), E(sw), and reduced S/(H+R+C) (p<0.05 to all). Altogether, it can be concluded that heat acclimation increased the limbs' sweat rates in tropical natives and that this increase led to increased loss of heat through evaporation of sweat and this higher sweat evaporation was related to higher thermoregulatory efficiency.

  9. The survey on Bacterial and fungi contamination of herbaceous distillates that distributed in Birjand city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khodadadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In order to best use from traditional medicine, world health organization suggested hygiene in making products and traditional healing method. Considering the great importance of different types of drug distillates and different uses of traditional & industrial, the amount of fungal and bacteria pollution in sweat chicory, Tp and forty traditional essences was studied in Birjand shops. Materials and Methods: In this method 30 sample of traditional and industrial sweat chicory, Tp and forty traditional was selected from Birjand city for bacterial (total coli form, fecal coli forms and fungal pollution and was transferred to laboratory and were analyzed according 7725-1 and 997 number standard of Iran. Results: Based on the results, in 1 case of TP and forty traditional essences fungus penicillium and sweat chicory aspergillus and penicillium fungi were isolated. In 80% TP and forty traditional essences & sweat chicory samples microbial pollution were detected and from these samples 20% sweat chicory and TP had coli form pollution & 20% TP and sweat chicory & forty traditional essences had fecal coli form pollution. 80% industrial samples of sweat chicory had microbial pollution and from these 100% had coli form pollution. Conclusion: According to the results, surveillance should be done more in various stages of preparation and distribution of these essences.

  10. Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma of the scalp: a classification conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc; Cassarino, David S; Shih, Hubert B; Abemayor, Elliot; St John, Maie

    2009-03-01

    The classification of malignant sweat gland lesions is complex. Traditionally, cutaneous sweat gland tumors have been classified by either eccrine or apocrine features. A case report of a 33-year-old Hispanic man with a left scalp mass diagnosed as a malignancy of adnexal origin preoperatively is discussed. After presentation at our multidisciplinary tumor board, excision with ipsilateral neck dissection was undertaken. Final pathology revealed an apocrine hidradenocarcinoma. The classification and behavior of this entity are discussed in this report. Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma can be viewed as an aggressive malignant lesion of cutaneous sweat glands on a spectrum that involves both eccrine and apoeccrine lesions.

  11. 75 FR 51264 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to LG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... granted GE, Whirlpool, Electrolux, Samsung, and Haier waivers on February 27, 2008 (73 FR 10425), May 5... control anti-sweat heater refrigerator-freezer products for compliance, marketing, or other purposes only...

  12. 75 FR 51262 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to GE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... GE, and which has since been prescribed for Whirlpool, Electrolux, Samsung and Haier refrigerators... its adaptive control anti-sweat heater refrigerator-freezer products for compliance, marketing, or...

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High-Frequency Chest Wall ... Care Guidelines Newborn Screening Clinical Care Guidelines Sweat Test Clinical Care Guidelines Infection Prevention and Control Care ...

  14. Assessment of Menopausal Symptoms During Perimenopause and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sweating; sleep disturbances; joint pains; and urogenital symptoms such as ... Sciences (SPSS) software version 17.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago,. IL, USA). Results are .... Council National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) identified that ...

  15. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA): Novel mutations of the TRKA (NTRK1) gene, a putative uniparental disomy, and a linkage of the mutant TRKA and PKLR genes in a family with CIPA and pyruvate kinase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Indo (Yasuhiro); S. Mardy (Sek); Y. Miura (Yuichi); A. Moosa (Allie); E.A.R. Ismail (Essam A.); E. Toscano (Ennio); G. Andria (Generoso); V. Pavone (Vito); D.L. Brown (Deborah); A.S. Brooks (Alice); F. Endo (Fumio); I. Matsuda (Ichiro)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractCongenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder characterized by recurrent episodic fever, anhidrosis (inability to sweat), absence of reaction to noxious stimuli, self-mutilating behavior, and mental retardation. The human TRKA gene

  16. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exhaustion symptoms include cool, moist, pale or flushed skin; headache; dizziness; weakness; feeling exhausted; heavy sweating; nausea; ... stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, dry skin; fainting; a rapid, weak pulse; rapid, shallow breathing; ...

  17. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cell division Cerebral aneurysm Cesarean section Components of skin Concussion Corneal injury Coronary artery disease Coughing Diabetes - ... Stroke - secondary to cardiogenic embolism Sun’s effect on skin Swallowing Sweating Tasting Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome ...

  18. Hyperhidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dark blue color wherever there is excess sweat. Paper test. Special paper is placed on the affected area to absorb ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  19. Estradiol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat and prevent hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) in women who ... in the container. It is most harmful to men and children. Do not let anyone else touch ...

  20. T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to elderly and are diagnosed with advanced stage disease. There is some evidence that AITL develops from an ongoing immune response potentially due to a latent viral infection (like Epstein-Barr virus). Initial symptoms often include fever, night sweats, ...

  1. Freezing supplied; Eiskalt versorgt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2013-11-01

    When people and building are sweating in the summer, air conditioners turn on anywhere - a new market for solar power. [German] Wenn Menschen und Gebaeude im Sommer schwitzen, springen ueberall Klimageraete an - ein neuer Markt fuer Sonnenstrom.

  2. A method for the measurement of physiologic evaporative water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-10-01

    The precise measurement of evaporative water loss is essential to an accurate evaluation of this avenue of heat loss in acute and chronic exposures to heat. In psychological studies, the quantitative measurement of palmar sweating plays an equally im...

  3. Graves' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones can produce a number of effects, including fever, profuse sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, delirium, severe weakness, seizures, markedly irregular heartbeat, yellow skin and eyes (jaundice), severe low blood pressure, ...

  4. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... butorphanol, any other medications, or benzethonium chloride (a preservative found in some medications and personal care products). ... voices that do not exist), fever, sweating, confusion, fast heartbeat, ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  5. Profile of genetic disorders prevalent in northeast region of Cairo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2012-02-04

    Feb 4, 2012 ... syndromes, multiple genetic disorders in the same individual or same family and homozygosity ...... array of hereditary eye disorders has been identified. These in- ..... of ED, decreased sweating was present in 92%, dry skin in.

  6. Weight loss - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are you fainting ? Do you have occasional uncontrollable hunger with palpitations , tremor, and sweating ? Have you had ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  7. Morphine Rectal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of lung function) or other breathing problems; prostatic hypertrophy (enlargement of a male reproductive gland); urethral stricture ( ... exist), fever, sweating, confusion, fast heartbeat, shivering, severe muscle stiffness or twitching, loss of coordination, nausea, vomiting, ...

  8. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may need more protein than less-active ... is just as important to unlocking your game power as food. When you sweat during exercise, it's ...

  9. Gas Gangrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editor & Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ... rate may increase (tachycardia), along with rapid breathing, sweating, paleness, and fever . If untreated, her condition can ...

  10. Identifying Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editor & Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ... birdbaths) and are attracted by bright colors and sweat. Bites result in stinging sensation followed by a ...

  11. Warning Signs of Heart Attack, Stroke and Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Heart.org CPR & ECC for Heart.org Shop for Heart.org Causes for Heart.org Advocate ... SIGNS may include breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea or lightheadedness. Learn more about heart attack ...

  12. Coronary Artery Dissection: Not Just a Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Heart.org CPR & ECC for Heart.org Shop for Heart.org Causes for Heart.org Advocate ... chest pain or pressure, shortness of breath, profuse sweating and dizziness. “Around 80 percent of the time, ...

  13. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staying asleep extreme changes in mood changes in personality depression increased sweating muscle weakness joint pain irregular ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  14. Bupropion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mood that changes from depressed to abnormally excited), schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... a part of the body loss of appetite weight loss constipation excessive sweating ringing in the ears changes ...

  15. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up with sports drinks or food eaten after exercise. Ditch Dehydration Speaking of dehydration , water is just ... game power as food. When you sweat during exercise, it's easy to become overheated, headachy, and worn ...

  16. Body Odor (For Young Men)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Odor Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 March 2017. + ... every guy has to deal with. What causes body odor? During puberty, your sweat glands become much more ...

  17. Topics in Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herbs/Dietary Supplements section in the PDQ health professional summary on Hot Flashes and Night Sweats for more information on flaxseed. Ginger Ginger is a root that is used in cooking and in some cultures to treat medical conditions ...

  18. Apoptosis induced by GanoPoly in human gastric cancer cell line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... ... cancer's active therapy. Key words: Apoptosis, polysaccharide, human gastric cancer cells. ... The active components of polysaccharides are all glucans, which have a ... for the treatment of alleviated fatigue, night sweating,.

  19. Case study: sarcoidosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment and the disease often regresses spontaneously, but a minority have potentially life-threatening progressive organ dysfunction; these patients need active management ... night sweats, weight loss or haemoptysis. .... metastatic cancer.

  20. Wei et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(5):127 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    AstragalosideIV was the active composition of Radix Astragali. ..... Radix Astragali has been used for the treatment of night sweats, deficiency of qi (e.g., fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite) and diarrhea. ... Cancer Metastasis Rev.

  1. Non-resolving pleural effusion in a patient with HIV infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    night sweats, cough and shortness of breath. The results of ... treatment,but he then developed a pleural effusion that ... lymphoma, mesothelioma and lung cancer seemed unlikely ... that two active antibiotics are used, which should have good.

  2. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis presenting with occipital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinically isolated or when a first-line treatment fails, another disease diagnosis should be considered. However, the cost .... night sweats, ... microscopy of an active chancre, VDRL and RPR test, enzyme immunoassay test for ... of cancer, other.

  3. Neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of neck pain is muscle strain or tension. Most often, everyday activities are to blame. Such ... of a heart attack , such as shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, vomiting, or arm or jaw pain. ...

  4. Penbutolol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tiredness headache difficulty sleeping sweating decreased sexual ability memory loss If you experience any of the following ... is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers (such ...

  5. Ribavirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulty concentrating difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep memory loss rash dry, irritated, or itchy skin sweating ... is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers (such ...

  6. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also have: Tender lymph nodes in the neck or armpits A sore throat that happens often Digestive issues, like irritable bowel syndrome Chills and night sweats Allergies and sensitivities to ...

  7. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sweat, and saliva red-orange (may stain contact lenses); can interfere with birth control pills. Many drug interactions. CAN MAC BE PREVENTED? The bacteria that cause MAC are very common. It is ...

  8. Living with Fibromyalgia, Drugs Approved to Manage Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects include nausea, dry mouth, sleepiness, constipation, decreased appetite, and increased sweating. Like some other antidepressants, Cymbalta may increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in people who ...

  9. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute types. Symptoms include Infections Fever Loss of appetite Tiredness Easy bruising or bleeding Swollen lymph nodes Night sweats Shortness of breath Pain in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother ...

  10. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Dowling-Degos disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be triggered by UV light, sweating, or friction on the skin. The pigmentation changes characteristic of ... A, Ruzicka T, Betz RC, Hanneken S. The First Report of KRT5 Mutation Underlying Acantholytic Dowling-Degos Disease ...

  12. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CF is a multistep process. A complete diagnostic evaluation should include a newborn screening, a sweat chloride ... a genetic or carrier test, and a clinical evaluation at a CF Foundation-accredited care center. Carrier ...

  13. Water and Electrolyte Needs for Football Training and Match-Play

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shirreffs, S. M; Sawka, M. N; Stone, M

    2006-01-01

    .... However, this limited information, together with knowledge of the effects of sweat loss in other sports with skill components as well as endurance and sprint components, suggests that the effects...

  14. July/August 2010. East and central African Journal of Surger

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    tingling) in her left hand of three years duration. The patient ... sensation and strength of median- features secondary to autonomic nerve ... and) including sensitivity to changes in temperature (particularly cold), r or changes in sweating pattern of ...

  15. Romiplostim Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called thrombopoietin receptor agonists. It works by causing the cells in ... back, neck, jaw, or stomach breaking out in cold sweat nausea lightheadedness slow or difficult speech dizziness ...

  16. Decreased Sudomotor Function is Involved in the Formation of Atopic Eczema in the Cubital Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Takahashi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that decreased sweating is a major source of water in the stratum corneum, and decreased sudomotor function may be involved in both the cause and aggravation of representative atopic eczema in the cubital fossa.

  17. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used for painful and enlarged lymph nodes. Blood transfusions or platelet transfusions may be required if blood ... unexplained fatigue, bruising, excessive sweating, or weight loss. Alternative ... Leukemia - chronic lymphocytic (CLL); Blood cancer - chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Bone marrow cancer - chronic ...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Mutations Personalized Medicine Types of CFTR Mutations DIAGNOSIS If you or your child has just been ... Diagnosing CF is a multistep process. A complete diagnostic evaluation should include a newborn screening, a sweat ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing CF is a multistep process. A complete diagnostic evaluation should include a newborn screening, a sweat ... GI Care Guidelines Antioxidants Clinical Care Guidelines Colorectal Cancer Screening Clinical Care Guidelines Enteral Tube Feeding Clinical ...

  20. Comparison of Physical Activity Among New United States Army Recruits and High School Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sarah B; Knapik, Joseph J; Darakjy, Salima; Morrison, Stephanie; Piskator, Gene; Jones, Bruce H

    2006-01-01

    .... Both groups were asked "On how many of the past 7 days did you exercise or participate in physical activity for at least 20 minutes that made you sweat and breathe hard, such as basketball, soccer...

  1. Alprazolam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to noise or light; change in sense of smell; sweating; difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep; difficulty ... rash yellowing of the skin or eyes depression memory problems confusion problems with speech unusual changes in ...

  2. Brexpiprazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It works by changing the activity of certain natural substances in the brain. ... and other signs of infection fever, sweating, confusion, fast or irregular ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  3. Duloxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by increasing the amounts of serotonin and norepinephrine, natural substances in the brain that help maintain mental ... weakness confusion flu-like symptoms fever, sweating, confusion, fast or ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  4. Tetrabenazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It works by changing the activity of certain natural substances in the brain that affect nerves and ... and call your doctor immediately: fever, sweating, confusion, fast or ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  5. Olanzapine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It works by changing the activity of certain natural substances in the brain. ... signs of infection excessive sweating muscle stiffness confusion fast or ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  6. Escitalopram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... works by increasing the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that helps maintain mental ... that do not exist (hallucinating) fever, sweating, confusion, fast or ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  7. Lurasidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It works by changing the activity of certain natural substances in the brain. ... and other signs of infection fever, sweating, confusion, fast or irregular ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  8. Safinamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... works by increasing the amount of dopamine (a natural substance that is needed to control movement) in ... are not real) agitation, hallucinations, fever, sweating, confusion, fast ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing CF is a multistep process. A complete diagnostic evaluation should include a newborn screening, a sweat chloride ... Your cystic fibrosis care team includes a group of CF health care professionals who partner with ...

  10. Eletriptan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signals from being sent to the brain, and blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... sweat difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, eyes, hands, feet, ankles, or ...

  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... DNA States Newborn Screening for CF Sweat Test Life With CF X close Caring for a Child ... because CF affects many aspects of your child’s life. Here you’ll find resources to help you ...

  12. The epidemic of Athens, 430 - 426 BC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-01-01

    Jan 1, 1998 ... the Peloponnesian War, caused the death of the great statesman, Pericles ..... apparently became extinct, like the English 'Sweating. Sickness' (1485 ... The possible transmission of disease to birds and animals of prey could ...

  13. The prevalence, clinical features, risk factors and outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %), neck stiffness 76 (69%) and weight loss 53 (48%). Factors independently associated with CM were male sex, headache, blurred vision and previous antifungal drug use. Night sweats and current use of anti-retroviral therapy were ...

  14. RUPTURE OF SINUS OF VALSALVA ANEURYSM: CASE REPORT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    jugular venous pressure (JVP), tender hepatomegaly, peripheral oedema, a thrill ... with colour flow mapping revealed a large aneurysm of the right sinus of ... A year later he presented with a febrile illness, weight loss, night sweats and was.

  15. Nutrition and Healthy Eating: How Much Water Should You Drink Each Day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body to function properly, you must replenish its water supply by consuming beverages and foods that contain water. ... makes you sweat, you need to drink extra water to cover the fluid loss. It's important to drink water before, during and ...

  16. Intensified tuberculosis case finding among hiv-infected individuals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    burden ... active TB (and in need of treatment) or being free of TB disease (and warranting ... following symptoms – current cough, fever, weight loss or night sweats (CFWS) .... and stand-alone HIV testing services. The WHO ...

  17. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... decisions about your health care. CF Genetics: The ... Diagnosing CF is a multistep process. A complete diagnostic evaluation should include a newborn screening, a sweat chloride ...

  18. Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the cancer has spread to the bones or bone marrow) weakness, numbness, inability to move a body part, or difficulty walking (if the cancer presses on the spinal cord) drooping eyelid, unequal pupils, sweating, and red ...

  19. Graves disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aimed at controlling your overactive thyroid. Medicines called beta-blockers are often used to treat symptoms of rapid heart rate, sweating, and anxiety until the hyperthyroidism is controlled. Hyperthyroidism is treated ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CFF Homepage Menu Search What Is CF? X close ABOUT CYSTIC FIBROSIS Learn about cystic fibrosis, a ... for CF Sweat Test Life With CF X close Caring for a Child With CF Raising a ...

  1. Anaesthetic Challenges In An Untreated Grave's Disease Parturient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    of heat and sweated excessively. There were associated ... diarrhoea and polyphagia with progressive weight loss. She did ... She had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of a male baby at home 3 years .... The conduction of tracheal anaesthesia ...

  2. Pop / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Dave Gahan "Paper Monsters", Paddy McAloon "I Trawl the Megahertz", Jukka Gustavson Organ Fusion Band "Between Fire And Ice", Tanel Ruben & Victoria "A Sentimental Call", Opiate "Sometimes", The Mooney Suzuki "Electric Sweat"

  3. Rickettsialpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 15 days after coming in contact with the bacteria. Other symptoms may include: Discomfort in bright light ( photophobia ) Fever and chills Muscle pain Rash that looks like chickenpox Sweating The rash is not painful and ...

  4. OTEH INJODEMAR 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Wage employment is primarily a relation of exchange; crudely put so much sweat for so much .... This definition does not suggest that trade unionism started in Nigeria in 1973; for even .... With the new salary structure, the minimum wage.

  5. Does interval laparoscopic sterilisation influence the risk of lower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, College of ... likely to plan condom use post sterilisation with insignificant risk of ..... Sweat et al.,[13] found condom social marketing (condom branding,.

  6. Your Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Hair KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Hair What's in this ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ...

  7. Nutrition in Cystic Fibrosis: Macro- and Micronutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, Johanna Hermiena

    2006-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-threatening autosomal recessive inherited disease in Caucasians, and is characterized by progressive lung disease, pancreatic insufficiency, malnutrition, hepatobiliary disease and elevated sweat electrolyte levels. The increased survival of CF patients

  8. Case Report: Locally advanced skin cancer in an albino, a treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Locally advanced skin cancer in an albino ... headache, anorexia, weight loss, night sweats, dizziness, change in ... This was the case with our patient, whose five ... We need more interventional studies in treatment of locally.

  9. Jellyfish stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Atlantic and Physalia utriculus in the Pacific). Sea nettle ( Chrysaora quinquecirrha ), one of the most common jellyfish ... nose and watery eyes Swallowing difficulty Sweating SEA NETTLE Mild skin rash (with mild stings) Muscle cramps ...

  10. Proceedings of Users’ Workshop on Combat Stress (6th) Held in San Antonio, Texas, on 30 November-4 December 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    drinkingi B. Differential Diagnosis: Possible alcohol withdrawal and impending DTs. Possible ulcer disease, gastritis, esophageal reflux , etc. A thorough...vasoconstriction, sweating, increased gastro -intestinal motility), musculoskeletal (increased tonicity and perfusion of blood to muscle) and glandular changes

  11. 1 effect and management of acute dichlorvos poisoning in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    effect and antidotal therapy of dichlorvos was studied in laboratory animals. The LD50 in rats was ... sweating, involuntary muscle contractions and burning sensations or actual burns .... by inhibiting the cholinesterase enzyme in mammalian.

  12. Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Siew-Yin; Wanga, Chung-Hsing; Lina, Wei-De; Tsaia, Fuu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndrome comprises a large, heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that are defined by primary defects in the development of 2 or more tissues derived from the embryonic ectoderm. The tissues primarily involved are the skin and its appendages (including hair follicles, eccrine glands, sebaceous glands, nails) and teeth. The clinical features include sparse hair, abnormal or missing teeth, and an inability to sweat due to lack of sweat glands. One such case report of ectodermal dysplasia is presented here.

  13. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arnab Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma. A relationship with diabetes mellitus could not be clearly established in this case.

  14. Phaeochromocytoma presenting with polyuria: an uncommon presentation of a rare tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Atapattu, N; Imalke, K A C P; Madarasinghe, M; Lamahewage, A; de Silva, K S H

    2014-01-01

    Summary Children rarely present with phaeochromocytoma. Their presentation differs from that of adults. The classic triad of sweating, headache and palpitation may not always present in children with phaeochromocytoma. In this study, we present a 6-year-old girl who came to us with polyuria and polydipsia for evaluation of suspected diabetes insipidus. She gave a clear history of increased sweating in the recent past. On clinical examination, she was noted to have high blood pressure. Subsequ...

  15. Advanced Fingerprint Analysis Project Fingerprint Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GM Mong; CE Petersen; TRW Clauss

    1999-10-29

    The work described in this report was focused on generating fundamental data on fingerprint components which will be used to develop advanced forensic techniques to enhance fluorescent detection, and visualization of latent fingerprints. Chemical components of sweat gland secretions are well documented in the medical literature and many chemical techniques are available to develop latent prints, but there have been no systematic forensic studies of fingerprint sweat components or of the chemical and physical changes these substances undergo over time.

  16. Acute Infectious Disease,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-23

    accelerated respiration. This tachypnia causes an exaggerated loss of carbon dioxide.3 The respiratory alkalosis that ensues is typically seen during all...with respiratory alkalosis . During periods of heat-induced tachypnia, U’. inorganic phosphates may virtually disappear for a time from urine and sweat...urine and sweat during the period when respiratory alkalosis and hyperventilation are taking place. On the other hand, losses of phosphate may be

  17. fluid and electrolyte balance during the comrades marathon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collapsed after running 19 miles and died the next day. In the Paris ... and a glass or cup of fluid = 200 m!. Blood was .... 8 hours. Average. 5100. 133. Water Deficit during the Race (Tables I - Ill). Those whose sweat loss was the greatest had the best in- takes. All of those who sweat loss exceeded 9 litres drank more than 4t ...

  18. Apocrine Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scalp: A Classification Conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Marc; Cassarino, David S.; Shih, Hubert B.; Abemayor, Elliot; John, Maie St.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The classification of malignant sweat gland lesions is complex. Traditionally, cutaneous sweat gland tumors have been classified by either eccrine or apocrine features. Methods A case report of a 33-year-old Hispanic man with a left scalp mass diagnosed as a malignancy of adnexal origin preoperatively is discussed. After presentation at our multidisciplinary tumor board, excision with ipsilateral neck dissection was undertaken. Results Final pathology revealed an apocrine hidrade...

  19. Clinical Evaluation of Perspiration Reducing Effects of a Kampo Formula, Shigyaku-san, on Palmoplantar Hidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumino Ninomiya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmoplantar hidrosis is common in patients who are susceptible to strains on the autonomic nervous system, and stress and mental strain have been proven to produce sweating in this population. Shigyaku-san (Sini san, TJ-35: Tsumura & Co. is effective for relieving stagnation of ‘liver Qi and vital energy’ in traditional Chinese medicine theory; this brings about improvement of palmoplantar hidrosis. The effect of Shigyaku-san on 40 patients was evaluated based on changes in palmoplantar sweat volume and skin temperature before and after stress loading. We also measured changes in the palmoplantar sweat volume and skin temperature due to stress load in 35 healthy controls who did not receive Shigyaku-san. Before treatment, the pre-stress sweat volume in patients was larger than that in healthy controls, however, after Shigyaku-san treatment, their pre-stress sweat volume decreased. With stress, the sweat volume increased in both patients and controls, but the net increase in the patients was larger than that in healthy controls. After Shigyaku-san treatment, the net increase of sweat volume due to stress was smaller than that of pretreatment, however, it did not show a significant difference with that of healthy controls. The palmoplantar skin temperature of the patients before treatment was lower than that of healthy controls. Palmoplantar skin temperature rose with stress loading in healthy controls, but decreased in pretreatment patients. Shigyaku-san treatment reduced the palmoplantar perspiration in palmoplantar hidrosis patients at rest and under stress. Furthermore, it also improved other serious complications, especially coldness of the extremities.

  20. Altered olfactory processing of stress-related body odors and artificial odors in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermann, Gloria-Beatrice; Donix, Markus; Joraschky, Peter; Gerber, Johannes; Petrowski, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Panic Disorder (PD) direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD. A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry) as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat) as non-fearful non-body odors. The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear-network which is associated with an increased severity of the psychopathology.

  1. Altered olfactory processing of stress-related body odors and artificial odors in patients with panic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria-Beatrice Wintermann

    Full Text Available Patients with Panic Disorder (PD direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD.A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat as non-fearful non-body odors.The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology.The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear-network which is associated with an increased severity of the

  2. Forearm cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses to whole body passive heat stress in young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, Nicole E; Anderson, Hannah M; Burchfield, Jenna M; Tucker, Matthew A; Gonzalez, Melina A; Robinson, Forrest B; Ganio, Matthew S

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare smokers and nonsmokers' sudomotor and cutaneous vascular responses to whole body passive heat stress. Nine regularly smoking (SMK: 29 ± 9 yr; 10 ± 6 cigarettes/day) and 13 nonsmoking (N-SMK: 27 ± 8 yr) males were passively heated until core temperature (TC) increased 1.5°C from baseline. Forearm local sweat rate (LSR) via ventilated capsule, sweat gland activation (SGA), sweat gland output (SGO), and cutaneous vasomotor activity via laser-Doppler flowmetry (CVC) were measured as mean body temperature increased (ΔTb) during passive heating using a water-perfused suit. Compared with N-SMK, SMK had a smaller ΔTb at the onset of sweating (0.52 ± 0.19 vs. 0.35 ± 0.14°C, respectively; P = 0.03) and cutaneous vasodilation (0.61 ± 0.21 vs. 0.31 ± 0.12°C, respectively; P body heating was higher in N-SMK vs. SMK (1.00 ± 0.13 vs. 0.79 ± 0.26 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.03), which was likely a result of higher SGO (8.94 ± 3.99 vs. 5.94 ± 3.49 μg·gland(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P = 0.08) and not number of SGA (104 ± 7 vs. 121 ± 9 glands/cm(2), respectively; P = 0.58). During whole body passive heat stress, smokers had an earlier onset for forearm sweating and cutaneous vasodilation, but a lower local sweat rate that was likely due to lower sweat output per gland. These data provide insight into local (i.e., forearm) thermoregulatory responses of young smokers during uncompensatory whole body passive heat stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Drug testing with alternative matrices II. Mechanisms of cocaine and codeine deposition in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R E; Höld, K M; Wilkins, D G; Rollins, D E; Cone, E J

    1999-10-01

    A 10-week inpatient study was performed to evaluate cocaine, codeine, and metabolite disposition in biological matrices collected from volunteers. An initial report described drug disposition in plasma, sebum, and stratum corneum collected from five African-American males. This report focuses on drug disposition in hair and sweat collected from the same five subjects. Following a three-week washout period, three doses of cocaine HCl (75 mg/70 kg, subcutaneous) and three doses of codeine SO4 (60 mg/70 kg, oral) were administered on alternating days in week 4 (low-dose week). The same dosing sequence was repeated in week 8 with doubled doses (high-dose week). Hair was collected by shaving the entire scalp once each week. Hair from the anterior vertex was divided into two portions. One portion was washed with isopropanol and phosphate buffer; the other portion was not washed. Hair was enzymatically digested, samples were centrifuged, and the supernatant was collected. Sweat was collected periodically by placing PharmChek sweat patches on the torso. Drugs were extracted from sweat patches with methanol/0.2 M sodium acetate buffer (75:25, v/v). Supernatants from hair digests, hair washes, and sweat patch extracts were processed by solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for cocaine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine, and metabolites. Cocaine and codeine were the primary analytes identified in sweat patches and hair. Drugs were detected in sweat within 8 h after dosing, and drug secretion primarily occurred within 24 h after dosing. No clear relationship was observed between dose and drug concentrations in sweat. Drug incorporation into hair appeared to be dose-dependent. Drugs were detected in hair within 1-3 days after the last drug administration; peak drug concentrations generally occurred in the following 1-2 weeks; thereafter, drug concentrations decreased. Solvent washes removed 50-55% of cocaine and codeine from hair collected 1

  4. Metabolite Biometrics for the Differentiation of Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Mindy E; Mathis, Adrianna I; Brunelle, Erica K; Halámková, Lenka; Halámek, Jan

    2018-04-17

    Sweat is a biological fluid present on the skin surface of every individual and is known to contain amino acids as well as other low molecular weight compounds. (1) Each individual is inherently different from one another based on certain factors including, but not limited to, his/her genetic makeup, environment, and lifestyle. As such, the biochemical composition of each person greatly differs. The concentrations of the biochemical content within an individual's sweat are largely controlled by metabolic processes within the body that fluctuate regularly based on attributes such as age, sex, and activity level. Therefore, the concentrations of these sweat components are person-specific and can be exploited, as presented here, to differentiate individuals based on trace amounts of sweat. For this concept, we analyzed three model compounds-lactate, urea, and glutamate. The average absorbance change from each compound in sweat was determined using three separate bioaffinity-based systems: lactate oxidase coupled with horseradish peroxidase (LOx-HRP), urease coupled with glutamate dehydrogenase (UR-GlDH), and glutamate dehydrogenase alone (GlDH). After optimization of a linear dependence for each assay to its respective analyte, analysis was performed on 50 mimicked sweat samples. Additionally, a collection and extraction method was developed and optimized by our group to evaluate authentic sweat samples from the skin surface of 25 individuals. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test was performed to demonstrate that these three single-analyte enzymatic assays were effectively used to identify each person in both sample sets. This novel sweat analysis approach is capable of differentiating individuals, without the use of DNA, based on the collective responses from the chosen metabolic compounds in sweat. Applications for this newly developed, noninvasive analysis can include the field of forensic science in order to differentiate between individuals as well

  5. Rapid stress system drives chemical transfer of fear from sender to receiver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper H B de Groot

    Full Text Available Humans can register another person's fear not only with their eyes and ears, but also with their nose. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to body odors from fearful individuals elicited implicit fear in others. The odor of fearful individuals appears to have a distinctive signature that can be produced relatively rapidly, driven by a physiological mechanism that has remained unexplored in earlier research. The apocrine sweat glands in the armpit that are responsible for chemosignal production contain receptors for adrenalin. We therefore expected that the release of adrenalin through activation of the rapid stress response system (i.e., the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system is what drives the release of fear sweat, as opposed to activation of the slower stress response system (i.e., hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. To test this assumption, sweat was sampled while eight participants prepared for a speech. Participants had higher heart rates and produced more armpit sweat in the fast stress condition, compared to baseline and the slow stress condition. Importantly, exposure to sweat from participants in the fast stress condition induced in receivers (N = 31 a simulacrum of the state of the sender, evidenced by the emergence of a fearful facial expression (facial electromyography and vigilant behavior (i.e., faster classification of emotional facial expressions.

  6. Four Cases of Atopic Dermatitis Complicated by Sjogren's Syndrome: Link between Dry Skin and Autoimmune Anhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Kitaba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report four adult cases of atopic dermatitis (AD complicated by Sjogren's syndrome (SS. The patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria for AD and SS. All cases showed persistent itchy dry skin and eczematous lesions complicated by sicca symptoms including dry eyes and dry mouth with moderate joint pain. One case manifested annular erythema and another manifested widespread discoid erythema. To investigate the underlying cause of dry skin in these cases, sweating function was evaluated using a quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test (QSART in which the axon reflex is stimulated by acetylcholine iontophoresis. The sweating latency time was significantly prolonged in eczematous skin of AD and AD/SS compared to normal controls. Axon reflex (AXR sweat volume was also significantly reduced in AD (normal and eczematous skin and AD/SS (normal and eczema compared to normal control. In contrast, the direct sweat volume of lesional or non-lesional AD skin induced by direct stimulation with acetylcholine was only slightly reduced compared to that in normal controls, but not in SS and lesional skin of AD/SS patients. These results suggest that the impaired sweat response in AD is attributable to an abnormal sudomotor axon reflex, which is accelerated and modulated when complicated by SS resulting in dry skin in the present cases.

  7. Wearable physiological systems and technologies for metabolic monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Brooks, George A; Klonoff, David C

    2018-03-01

    Wearable sensors allow continuous monitoring of metabolites for diabetes, sports medicine, exercise science, and physiology research. These sensors can continuously detect target analytes in skin interstitial fluid (ISF), tears, saliva, and sweat. In this review, we will summarize developments on wearable devices and their potential applications in research, clinical practice, and recreational and sporting activities. Sampling skin ISF can require insertion of a needle into the skin, whereas sweat, tears, and saliva can be sampled by devices worn outside the body. The most widely sampled metabolite from a wearable device is glucose in skin ISF for monitoring diabetes patients. Continuous ISF glucose monitoring allows estimation of the glucose concentration in blood without the pain, inconvenience, and blood waste of fingerstick capillary blood glucose testing. This tool is currently used by diabetes patients to provide information for dosing insulin and determining a diet and exercise plan. Similar technologies for measuring concentrations of other analytes in skin ISF could be used to monitor athletes, emergency responders, warfighters, and others in states of extreme physiological stress. Sweat is a potentially useful substrate for sampling analytes for metabolic monitoring during exercise. Lactate, sodium, potassium, and hydrogen ions can be measured in sweat. Tools for converting the concentrations of these analytes sampled from sweat, tears, and saliva into blood concentrations are being developed. As an understanding of the relationships between the concentrations of analytes in blood and easily sampled body fluid increases, then the benefits of new wearable devices for metabolic monitoring will also increase.

  8. Botulinum toxin therapy in Frey's syndrome: a retrospective study of 440 treatments in 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, S; Jerowski, M; Ludwig, L; Fischer-Krall, E; Beutner, D; Grosheva, M

    2017-04-01

    Frey's syndrome is characterised as sweating, redness and warmth of the parotideal area and is often treated with botulinum toxin A. The objective of this retrospective study was to prove whether the toxin dosage and time-to-treatment intervals change after repeated botulinum toxin injections. The charts of patients, who were treated for Frey's syndrome during the last 16 years, were assessed. Three brands of botulinum toxin A were available for therapy. The Minor test was used to confirm the sweating before each treatment and to determine the toxin dosage. Constant amount of botulinum toxin was injected per cm 2 of the affected area. Patients consulted our department for the next treatment as soon as they felt disturbed by recurring sweating and when the sweating was objectively evident in the Minor test. Time intervals between treatments and injected toxin dosages were assessed. In total, 100 patients received 440 treatments in 16 years. Repeated injections, median 4.0, were carried out in 70.5% of patients. Median time interval to the first injection was 2.8 years. Median time interval between treatments was 12.0 months and showed to be steady (anova, P = .49, F = 1.01). Duration of effect of botulinum toxin on Frey's syndrome was long-lasting and stable with no significantly different time intervals between treatments. The extent of the sweating area did not vary significantly after repeated treatments and required a constant dose of botulinum toxin A. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. FDTD computation of temperature elevation in the elderly for far-field RF exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Tomoki; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2014-01-01

    Core temperature elevation and perspiration in younger and older adults is investigated for plane-wave exposure at whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 0.4 W kg -1 . Numeric Japanese male model is considered together with a thermo-regulatory response formula proposed in the authors' previous study. The frequencies considered were at 65 MHz and 2 GHz where the total power absorption in humans becomes maximal for the allowable power density prescribed in the international guidelines. From the computational results used here, the core temperature elevation in the older adult model was larger than that in the younger one at both frequencies. The reason for this difference is attributable to the difference of sweating, which is originated from the difference in the threshold activating the sweating and the decline in sweating in the legs. (authors)

  10. Work strain in decontamination of hot cells, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Ikezawa, Yoshio

    1991-01-01

    In decontamination of hot cells, the workers should wear suitable protective clothing to protect them from internal exposure and skin contamination. But such protective clothing causes some work strain, especially heat-stress. As a simple method to evaluate quantitative work strain, we used sweat rates of the wearers. In the previous paper, sweat rates for workers with two types of protective clothing were reported. In the present paper, sweat rates under severer working conditions are measured for three types: (1) pressure ventilated blouse; (2) full-face mask and polyethylene coverall; (3) full-face mask and vinyl anorak. The measured values for 65 subjects widely scatter from 0.2 to 2.5 l/h for all the protective clothing. Based on these values, the effects of protective clothing and working conditions (ambient temperature and humidity) on work strain are discussed. (author)

  11. FDTD computation of temperature elevation in the elderly for far-field RF exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tomoki; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2014-03-01

    Core temperature elevation and perspiration in younger and older adults is investigated for plane-wave exposure at whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 0.4 W kg(-1). Numeric Japanese male model is considered together with a thermoregulatory response formula proposed in the authors' previous study. The frequencies considered were at 65 MHz and 2 GHz where the total power absorption in humans becomes maximal for the allowable power density prescribed in the international guidelines. From the computational results used here, the core temperature elevation in the older adult model was larger than that in the younger one at both frequencies. The reason for this difference is attributable to the difference of sweating, which is originated from the difference in the threshold activating the sweating and the decline in sweating in the legs.

  12. Development of an Analytical Protocol for Determination of Cyanide in Human Biological Samples Based on Application of Ion Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jaszczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and accurate ion chromatography (IC method with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD was proposed for the determination of cyanide ion in urine, sweat, and saliva samples. The sample pretreatment relies on alkaline digestion and application of Dionex OnGuard II H cartridge. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 1–100 μg/L for urine, 5–100 μg/L for saliva, and 3–100 μg/L for sweat samples with determination coefficients (R>0.992. Low detection limits (LODs in the range of 1.8 μg/L, 5.1 μg/L, and 5.8 μg/L for urine, saliva, and sweat samples, respectively, and good repeatability (CV < 3%, n=3 were obtained. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of human biological samples.

  13. Development of an Analytical Protocol for Determination of Cyanide in Human Biological Samples Based on Application of Ion Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Ewa; Ruman, Marek; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2017-01-01

    A simple and accurate ion chromatography (IC) method with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was proposed for the determination of cyanide ion in urine, sweat, and saliva samples. The sample pretreatment relies on alkaline digestion and application of Dionex OnGuard II H cartridge. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 1-100  μ g/L for urine, 5-100  μ g/L for saliva, and 3-100  μ g/L for sweat samples with determination coefficients ( R ) > 0.992. Low detection limits (LODs) in the range of 1.8  μ g/L, 5.1  μ g/L, and 5.8  μ g/L for urine, saliva, and sweat samples, respectively, and good repeatability (CV < 3%, n = 3) were obtained. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of human biological samples.

  14. The study of antibacterial activity and stability of dyed cotton fabrics modified with different forms of silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effect of colloidal silver nanoparticles and commercial RUCO-BAC AGP agent with silver chloride as an active component on antibacterial activity of dyed cotton fabrics. Cotton fabrics were dyed with vat dyes Bezanthren olive T and Bezanthren grey FFB. Antibacterial activity of silver loaded dyed cotton fabrics was tested against Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Unlike RUCO-BAC AGP synthesized silver nanoparticles deposited onto dyed cotton fabrics provided maximum bacteria reduction independently of applied dye. The stability of modified cotton fabrics was analyzed in artificial sweat at pH 5.5 and 8.0. Approximately the same amount of silver was released from differently modified cotton fabrics in artificial sweat. Larger amount of silver was released in the sweat at pH 8.0.

  15. Interaction between thermoregulation and osmoregulation in domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McKinley

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The ability to maintain core temperature as well as volume and composition of body fluids within narrow ranges is a major characteristic of mammals. Yet, the ability to maintain a stable core temperature often relies on physiological responses that perturb the stability of body fluids. A common thermoregulatory mechanism that affects body fluid homeostasis is evaporative cooling, by sweating and/or panting, to dissipate heat from the body when core temperature is elevated. However, these responses result in a reduction of total body water, thereby reducing blood volume and increasing the osmotic pressure of body fluids. While both panting and sweating are highly effective means of preventing core body temperature from increasing, unless the resultant body fluid losses are replaced (by intake of water, hypertonicity, hypovolemia, and circulatory collapse can ensue. Thus, physiological control mechanisms have evolved to limit thermoregulatory body fluid losses once they have become a liability and panting and sweating are inhibited. Thus, mammals will tolerate a higher core temperature to minimize further loss of body water. Osmoreceptors located within the lamina terminalis of the brain suppress panting and sweating when the effective osmotic pressure (tonicity increases. Selective brain cooling (SBC has been observed in several domesticated mammals when blood flowing to the brain in the carotid rete is cooled. Such SBC promotes reduced panting and sweating, thereby preserving body water. It is also notable that the behavioural response of drinking water can rapidly invoke panting and sweating that override osmoregulatory inhibitory influences on these responses. The preoptic region of the brain has an important role in osmoregulatory and thermoregulatory mechanisms.

  16. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Water and salt balance in young male football players in training during the holy month of Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirreffs, Susan M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess water and salt balance in young football players in training during Ramadan. Measurements were made in 92 young male football players before and during the month of Ramadan. Fifty-five participants were observing Ramadan fasting, while the other 37 participants were eating and drinking without restriction. In week 3 of Ramadan, water and salt balance measures were made during a training session of 60-70 min duration that was performed at an ambient temperature of 25-28 degrees C and relative humidity of 50-53%. Body mass was recorded before and after training. Fluid intake was assessed in non-fasting players by weighing drink bottles before and after training, and the volume of any urine output was recorded. Sweat composition was estimated from absorbent patches applied to four skin sites for the duration of training. Mean sweat loss of players amounted to 1.41 litres (s = 0.36) in fasting players and 1.61 litres (s = 0.51) in non-fasting players (P = 0.038). Mean fluid intake during training in non-fasting players was 1.92 litres (s = 0.66). Sweat sodium concentration was 20 mmol . l(-1) (s = 8) in fasting players and 17 mmol . l(-1) (s = 7) in non-fasting players, and total sweat sodium loss during training was 0.67 g (s = 0.41) and 0.65 g (s = 0.37) [corresponding to a salt loss of 1.7 g (s = 1.1) and 1.7 g (s = 0.9)] respectively, with no difference between fasting and non-fasting players. Sweat sodium loss was not related to estimated dietary sodium intake (r = -0.07). These descriptive data show large individual variations in all measured parameters with relatively little difference in sweat parameters between fasting and non-fasting individuals.

  18. Outdoor thermal physiology along human pathways: a study using a wearable measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayoshi, Makoto; Kanda, Manabu; Shi, Rui; de Dear, Richard

    2015-05-01

    An outdoor summer study on thermal physiology along subjects' pathways was conducted in a Japanese city using a unique wearable measurement system that measures all the relevant thermal variables: ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed ( U) and short/long-wave radiation ( S and L), along with some physio-psychological parameters: skin temperature ( T skin), pulse rate, subjective thermal sensation and state of body motion. U, S and L were measured using a globe anemo-radiometer adapted use with pedestrian subjects. The subjects were 26 healthy Japanese adults (14 males, 12 females) ranging from 23 to 74 years in age. Each subject wore a set of instruments that recorded individual microclimate and physiological responses along a designated pedestrian route that traversed various urban textures. The subjects experienced varying thermal environments that could not be represented by fixed-point routine observational data. S fluctuated significantly reflecting the mixture of sunlit/shade distributions within complex urban morphology. U was generally low within urban canyons due to drag by urban obstacles such as buildings but the subjects' movements enhanced convective heat exchanges with the atmosphere, leading to a drop in T skin. The amount of sweating increased as standard effective temperature (SET*) increased. A clear dependence of sweating on gender and body size was found; males sweated more than females; overweight subjects sweated more than standard/underweight subjects. T skin had a linear relationship with SET* and a similarly clear dependence on gender and body size differences. T skin of the higher-sweating groups was lower than that of the lower-sweating groups, reflecting differences in evaporative cooling by perspiration.

  19. Efecto de los métodos de cosecha y secado de la semilla de Brachiaria dictyoneura en su microflora y calidad (viabilidad y germinación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenne Jilliam M.

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de los métodos de cosecha con sudado (cosecha manual pila horizontal sometida a 3 días de sudado, cosecha manual pila vertical a 3 días, 6 días y 9 días de sudado, cosecha manual pila apretada a 3 días de sudado, sin sudado (cosecha manual sin sudado, cosecha con combinada y de la mezcla fungicida (Benlate + Difolatan sobre microflora, viabilidad y germinación de las semillas de Brachiaria dictyoneura. Para la determinación de la viabilidad se utilizó el método topográfico del tetrazolio, en las pruebas de germinación se utilizaron cuatro técnicas para romper latencia de las semillas (H20, H2S04, KN03 Y H2S04 + KN03.In this work, the effect of harvesting methods with sweating (manual harvesting horizontal pile exposed to 3 days sweating, manual harvesting vertical pile at 3,6 and 9 days sweating, manual harvesting disturbed pile at 3 days sweating; without sweating (manual harvest without sweating, combine harvesting and of a mixture of fungicides (Benlate and Difolatan on the microflora, viability and germination of the seeds of Brachiaria dictyoneura was evaluated. In order to determine the viability the topographical method of tetrazolium was used, in the germination test four methods to break latency of seeds were used H20, H2S04, KN03 and H2S04 + KN03.

  20. Development of an Analytical Protocol for Determination of Cyanide in Human Biological Samples Based on Application of Ion Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jaszczak, Ewa; Ruman, Marek; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2017-01-01

    A simple and accurate ion chromatography (IC) method with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was proposed for the determination of cyanide ion in urine, sweat, and saliva samples. The sample pretreatment relies on alkaline digestion and application of Dionex OnGuard II H cartridge. Under the optimized conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 1–100 μg/L for urine, 5–100 μg/L for saliva, and 3–100 μg/L for sweat samples with determination coefficients (R) > 0.992. Low detec...

  1. A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for women who have menopausal symptoms following breast cancer treatment (MENOS 1: Trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellier Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a group cognitive behavioural intervention to alleviate menopausal symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats in women who have had breast cancer treatment. Hot flushes and night sweats are highly prevalent but challenging to treat in this population. Cognitive behaviour therapy has been found to reduce these symptoms in well women and results of an exploratory trial suggest that it might be effective for breast cancer patients. Two hypotheses are tested: Compared to usual care, group cognitive behavioural therapy will: 1. Significantly reduce the problem rating and frequency of hot flushes and nights sweats after six weeks of treatment and at six months post-randomisation. 2. Improve mood and quality of life after six weeks of treatment and at six months post-randomisation. Methods/Design Ninety-six women who have completed their main treatment for breast cancer and who have been experiencing problematic hot flushes and night sweats for over two months are recruited into the trial from oncology and breast clinics in South East London. They are randomised to either six weekly group cognitive behavioural therapy (Group CBT sessions or to usual care. Group CBT includes information and discussion about hot flushes and night sweats in the context of breast cancer, monitoring and modifying precipitants, relaxation and paced respiration, stress management, cognitive therapy for unhelpful thoughts and beliefs, managing sleep and night sweats and maintaining changes. Prior to randomisation women attend a clinical interview, undergo 24-hour sternal skin conductance monitoring, and complete questionnaire measures of hot flushes and night sweats, mood, quality of life, hot flush beliefs and behaviours, optimism and somatic amplification. Post-treatment measures (sternal skin conductance and questionnaires are collected six to eight weeks later and follow-up measures (questionnaires and a use

  2. SLURP1 is a late marker of epidermal differentiation and is absent in Mal de Meleda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favre, Bertrand; Plantard, Laure; Aeschbach, Lorène

    2007-01-01

    and MDM skin. SLURP1 was found to be a marker of late differentiation, predominantly expressed in the granular layer of skin, notably the acrosyringium. Moreover, SLURP1 was also identified in several biological fluids such as sweat, saliva, tears, and urine from normal volunteers. In palmoplantar...... sections from MDM patients, as well as in their sweat, mutant SLURP1, including the new variant R71H-SLURP1, was either absent or barely detectable. Transfected human embryonic kidney 293T cells expressed the MDM mutant SLURP1 containing the single amino-acid substitution G86R but did not tolerate the MDM...

  3. Nudge Nation: A New Way to Prod Students into and through College. ES Select

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildavsky, Ben

    2013-01-01

    When Harvard law professor Cass Sunstein took his teenage daughter to the Lollapalooza music festival during a Chicago heat wave some years ago, the huge electronic displays that typically show performance schedules also flashed periodic admonitions: DRINK MORE WATER. YOU SWEAT IN THE HEAT: YOU LOSE WATER. "The sign was a nudge," wrote…

  4. Laserbehandeling bij morbus Hailey-Hailey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprengers, M.; de Coster, D.; Arits, A.H.M.M.; Verstraeten, V.L.R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Hailey-Hailey disease, also referred to as benign familial pemphigus, is a rare genodermatosis that results in painful erosions in erythematous plaques in the skin creases. Heat, sweat and friction usually worsen the disease. Beside pain, morbus Hailey-Hailey also restricts patients activities.

  5. Selfies are out - Now we take Healthies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2014-01-01

    This article is about healthy selfies. Images of fit bodies and sweat are the hottest thing in selfies these days. They fit somewhere between recognition and narcissism, says an associate professor and PhD, Bent Fausing, who believes that the fit body is an images of success - and protection...

  6. Fearless Public Speaking: Oral Presentation Activities for the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Janet S.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Riley, Jeanetta G.

    2007-01-01

    Nausea, sweating, weak knees, and a dry mouth are all symptoms associated with the fear of standing in front of an audience. Considering the anxiety that public speaking produces, students of any age are facing a significant challenge when they speak in front of a group. While speaking is considered to be an integral part of language arts, it…

  7. Exposure Prophylaxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    health care workers who report exposure to HIV at work whether given PEP or not ... breast milk, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial fluid ... or skin lesions [1]. Other body fluid like sweat, tears, saliva, urine and stool do not contain significant quantities of HIV unless there is blood mixed with them[1,2]. HIV is not ...

  8. 76 FR 65424 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Ezogabine Into Schedule V

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... abrupt termination of lacosamide produced no signs or symptoms of withdrawal in diabetic neuropathic pain... abdominal pain, muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, tremors and convulsions. These are similar in character... it diminish the power of any State to enforce its own laws. Accordingly, this rulemaking does not...

  9. 76 FR 77895 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Ezogabine Into Schedule V

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... neuropathic pain patients. Unlike ezogabine and pregabalin, the withdrawal syndrome following discontinuation... syndrome including abdominal pain, muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, tremors and convulsions. These are... or diminish the power of any state to enforce its own laws. Accordingly, this rulemaking does not...

  10. Reactions of pigs to a hot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    When compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are relatively sensitive to high environmental temperatures because the pig cannot sweat and is relatively poor at panting. Little information is available about the ambient temperatures above which group-housed pigs start to adapt their

  11. Ahmad Yahya Al-Sagarat* and Amani Al-Kharabsheh

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    babies in order to prevent the sweat sticking, and nearly 66% swaddled in order to .... answers, which was influenced by the informant's experience and personality. .... "At the first day after birth I gave the baby a regular bath with water and ...

  12. Ceramide profile in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J. M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a rare genetic disease. The clinical presentation includes lack of sweating ability, and an often widely spread dermatitis resembling atopic dermatitis (AD). In AD, the skin‐barrier defect is partly ascribed to the altered lipid profile...

  13. Screening of preschool and school children for cystic fibrosis with the chloride electrode and neutron activation analysis. Part of a coordinated programme on medical applications of activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurson, C.T.

    1975-10-01

    A screening study was performed on 9,685 infants and children between 0 and 7 years of age living in the city of Istanbul. 2,511 of the subjects (''normals'') were kindergarten and school children and the remainder were children who had been brought to the casualty outpatient departments of two large hospitals. The purposes of the investigation were twofold, first to determine the prevalence of cystic fibrosis in a normal versus a sick population of children, and second to compare sweat-chloride vis-a-vis nail-sodium as indicators of the disease. Sweat-chloride was determined in all subjects by the use of a chloride specific electrode; nail sodium was determined in 1122 subjects by neutron activation analysis. These measurements led to the identification of seven cystic fibrosis cases in the outpatient group (frequency = 0.1%) and none in the kindergarten/school group. Sweat-chloride gave 0.7% false positives and no false negatives; nailsodium gave 14.7% false positives and 0.1% false negatives. It is concluded that nail-sodium is a much less effective indicator of cystic fibrosis than sweat-chloride and its use can probably not be justified except in certain special circumstances. Furthermore it would appear that the screening of outpatient cases rather than the whole population of children is a more cost-effective method for the detection of cystic fibrosis

  14. 76 FR 67759 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... required. The SHOP funds together with the sweat equity and volunteer labor contributions significantly... Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Office of... Opportunity Program (SHOP). This announcement contains the consolidated names and addresses of this year's...

  15. 76 FR 48876 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... labor is also required. The SHOP funds together with the sweat equity and volunteer labor contributions... Awards for the Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) for Fiscal Year 2010 AGENCY: Office of... Opportunity Program (SHOP). This announcement contains the consolidated names and addresses of this year's...

  16. 76 FR 77548 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Self-Help Homeownership...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB Self-Help Homeownership Opportunity Program (SHOP) AGENCY: Office of... proposal. SHOP provides for funds to purchase home sites and develop/improve infrastructure to support sweat equity and volunteer-based homeownership programs for low-income persons and families. This...

  17. American School & University. Volume 77, Number 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Joe, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Each month, "American School & University" provides a mix of thought-provoking features, how-to-articles, industry reports, exclusive surveys, new sections, insightful columns, new product introductions and case histories to assist education officials in better performing their jobs. This July 2005 issue includes the following: "Sweat Shop"…

  18. Presymptomatic diagnosis of Fabry's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Rasmus Bo; Lav Madsen, Per; Bundgaard, Henning

    2016-01-01

    differential diagnoses in patients presenting with cardiac hypertrophy. In boys, onset has been reported in early childhood with complaints initially comprising neuropathic pain, reduced sweat production, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Later the cardiac, renal, and central nervous systems may become affected...... inheritable cardiomyopathies. The specific - precise - diagnosis may be crucial for the patient as well as the relatives....

  19. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hygiene Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Hygiene Basics What's in this article? Oily Hair Sweat ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  20. Dermatitis neglecta -- A dirty dermatosis: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis neglecta is a condition that results from inadequate frictional cleansing leading to accumulation of corneocytes, sebum and sweat ultimately resulting in hyper-pigmented patch or verrucous plaque. Recognizing this condition avoids unnecessary, aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Here we report three cases of dermatitis neglecta in whom the dermatitis developed as a result of intentional neglect of personal hygiene.

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-02-27

    Feb 27, 2015 ... Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original ... physical injuries, emotional problems and infection [9,11]. The ..... tropical climate (which predisposes to excessive sweating), poor hygiene ...

  2. Effects of atopic dermatitis and gender on sebum lipid mediator and fatty acid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipid mediator metabolism in skin is altered in some diseases. If mediators in skin secretions are influenced by skin health, they may provide useful clinical matrices with low subject burden. While lipid mediators in sweat can be altered by disease, the influences of skin diseases on sebum lipid me...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carrier Testing for Cystic Fibrosis CFTR-Related Metabolic Syndrome (CRMS) How Babies Are Screened in IRT-Only vs. IRT-DNA States Newborn Screening for CF Sweat Test Life With CF X close Caring for a Child With CF Raising a child with cystic fibrosis ...

  4. The efficacy of airflow and seat vibration on reducing visually induced motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D’Amour, Sarah; Bos, Jelte E.; Keshavarz, Behrang

    2017-01-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known sensation in virtual environments and simulators, typically characterized by a variety of symptoms such as pallor, sweating, dizziness, fatigue, and/or nausea. Numerous methods to reduce VIMS have been previously introduced; however, a reliable

  5. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk. On inhalation, it can cause difficulty in breathing, while on direct contact, it may cause permanent injury of the eyes of human and animals, burning sensations, nausea, worming, profuse sweating, mental confusion and ...

  6. 75 FR 11522 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Publication of the Petition for Waiver and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... condensation. The existing test procedure does not take humidity or adaptive control technology into account... moisture. According to the petitioner, Haier's technology is similar to that used by General Electric... interact with controls that vary the effective wattage of anti-sweat heaters to evaporate excess moisture...

  7. 75 FR 4539 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Publication of the Petition for Waiver and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... condensation. The existing test procedure does not take humidity or adaptive control technology into account..., as needed, to evaporate excess moisture. According to the petitioner, Electrolux's technology is... anti-sweat heaters to evaporate excess moisture. The existing DOE test procedure cannot be used to...

  8. Een patiënt met een longabces, primair behandeld met drainage en aanvullend met antibiotica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heddema, E. R.; Teengs, J. P.; Kunst, P. W. A.

    2002-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman presented herself with coughing, nocturnal sweating, weight loss, and chest pain, left laterally. In the previous 5 months she had been treated twice with antibiotics due to a suspected pneumonia. With the help of a CT scan, 2 subpleural lung abscesses were diagnosed. The primary

  9. A miniaturised image based fluorescence detection system for point-of-care-testing of cocaine abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Rafał; Krüger, Jan; Moynihan, Shane

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we describe a miniaturised image-based fluorescence detection system and demonstrate its viability as a highly sensitive tool for point-of-care-analysis of drugs of abuse in human sweat with a focus on monitor individuals for drugs of abuse. Investigations of miniaturised and low power optoelectronic configurations and methodologies for real-time image analysis were successfully carried out. The miniaturised fluorescence detection system was validated against a reference detection system under controlled laboratory conditions by analysing spiked sweat samples in dip stick and then strip with sample pad. As a result of the validation studies, a 1 ng mL-1 limit of detection of cocaine in sweat and full agreement of test results with the reference detection system can be reported. Results of the investigations open the way towards a detection system that integrates a hand-held fluorescence reader and a wearable skinpatch, and which can collect and in situ analyse sweat for the presence of cocaine at any point for up to tenths hours.

  10. 78 FR 26211 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... generations of striving immigrants who shaped our history--reaching and sweating and scraping to give their... Islanders have prevailed over adversity and risen to the top of their fields--from medicine to business to..., including Asia and the Pacific. Meeting those challenges will not be easy. But the history of the AAPI...

  11. Postchikungunya Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Sacco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old male resident of Guatemala presented with a 5-month history of distal symmetric arthritis and generalized fatigue. This was associated with night sweats, chills, and weight loss. Symptoms were refractory to oral prednisone and hydroxychloroquine.

  12. Fox–Fordyce disease of the vulva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Lakshmipriya; Jegadeesan, Muhilan; Jayakumar, Salai

    2016-01-01

    Fox–Fordyce disease is a rare, chronic skin disorder which affects the apocrine areas. This disease is due to the obstruction of the apocrine sweat duct. Extragenital regions are commonly affected than the genital region. We, herein, report a case of Fox–Fordyce in a female, with onset in the fifth decade and involving only the genital region. PMID:27190415

  13. Boys and Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase in pimples, sweating under his armpits and body odor. Daily hygiene will be important. Your son’s genitals will change, too. His penis and testicles will get larger. He’ll have more ... out from his body. Sometimes, an erection leads to ejaculation, which is ...

  14. Enhanced chemosensory detection of negative emotions in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Katrine D.; Ptito, Maurice; Møller, Per

    2015-01-01

    blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants' abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from...

  15. Hedgehog pathway does not play a role in hidradenitis suppurativa pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozeika, E.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Nürnberg, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    in normal embryonic skin, hair follicle, sebaceous and sweat gland development. Mutations of hedgehog pathway in adult skin have previously been found in basal cell carcinomas and in alopecia as well as in epidermal cysts and in odontogenic keratocysts. Therefore, we suggested that the hedgehog pathway...

  16. An unusual presentation of advanced prostate cancer in a 56-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.O. Areo

    2016-12-26

    Dec 26, 2016 ... Introduction: Advanced prostate cancer usually presents with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with features of ... fever or drenching night sweat. There was no ... active. Digital rectal examination revealed a firm mass bulging into the rectum on .... cells with pleomorphic and hyperchromatic nuclei.

  17. 12 CFR 1291.5 - Competitive application program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... outlay of cash needed to pay for materials, labor, and acquisition or other costs of completing the project. Cash costs do not include in-kind donations, voluntary professional labor or services, or sweat..., respectively, the value of such estimates. (ii) A project's cash sources of funds shall include any cash...

  18. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report. Volume 20, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Night sweats Hemoptysis Anorexia Weight loss Chest pain Fever Asymptomatic Cough No. of cases Aft er consolidation and analysis of the fi...tuberculosis infection in the United States population: the national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999-2000. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177(3

  19. 75 FR 13120 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung Electronics America... (Case No. RF-011) that grants to Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) a waiver from the DOE... humidity sensors and adaptive control anti-sweat heaters. Under today's decision and order, Samsung shall...

  20. Apparent Triclabendazole-Resistant Human Fasciola hepatica Infection, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkelhagen, Annemarie J. S.; Mank, Theo; de Vries, Peter J.; Soetekouw, Robin

    2012-01-01

    TO THE EDITOR: In December 2007, a 71-year-old sheep farmer sought care with a 4-month history of intermittent right upper quadrant pain, night sweats, anorexia, and a 5-kg weight loss. His medical history was unremarkable, and he had not traveled outside the Netherlands for ≈30 years. Physical

  1. Water vapour transfer in the simulated protective clothing system with exposure to intensive solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukazawa, T.; Hartog, E.A. den; Daanen, H.A.M.; Tochihara, Y.; Havenith, G.

    2005-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to study the moisture transfer in the protective clothing exposed to a high short wave (solar) radiant heat flux at a normal condition of 20 °C with 40 % RH in terms of heat stress caused by accumulated sweat in underwear. To simulate a practical situation,

  2. TBscore: Signs and symptoms from tuberculosis patients in a low-resource setting have predictive value and may be used to assess clinical course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Gustafson, Per; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    We developed a clinical score to monitor tuberculosis patients in treatment and to assess clinical outcome. We used the WHO clinical manual to choose signs and symptoms, including cough, haemoptysis, dyspnoea, chest pain, night sweating, anaemia, tachycardia, lung-auscultation finding, fever, low...

  3. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The paper reports on the conclusions of decennial and annual inspections of French dams. Dams surveillance is performed by the operators and consists in visual examinations and measurements. Concrete dams, in particular, always have more or less developed fissures with water sweating threw the concrete mass or the foundations. Old concrete often show low swelling phenomena which are measured too. (J.S.)

  4. Malignant Appendage Tumours in Zaria | Samaila | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Eccrine sweat gland origin. Conclusion: Malignant appendage tumours showed a higher frequency in middle aged men in this review. A good knowledge and understanding of the pathology, high index of suspicion and immunohistochemical studies should help in making diagnosis. Surgical intervention with wide margin ...

  5. Creative Artist 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Precious

    societies, in which climate and custom permit scant clothing, body designing is common and is ... since the patterns change about every ten years or according to fashion. .... Uli, is required to take his/her bath so as to remove dirt, sweat and oil ...

  6. Response of saliva Na/K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Schonewille, J Thomas; Verstegen, Martin Wa; Arsawakulsudhi, Supot; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Hendriks, Wouter H

    BACKGROUND: Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat-stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the

  7. Response of saliva Na/K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Schonewille, Thomas J.; Verstegen, Martin W.A.; Arsawakulsudhi, Supot; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Hendriks, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat-stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the

  8. Propantheline bromide is effective against dog drooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, Mette; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a common condition characterized by extensive sweat secretion. Systemic treatment with anticholinergics might prove effective, but patients often suffer from side effects, e.g. dryness of the mouth. We present a clinical case of severe polydipsia in a six-month-old puppy who had ...

  9. Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Elevated Troponin Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chest pain was associated with sweating. There was no history of breathlessness, giddiness, palpitation or syncope. There was no other history of any major medical illness in the past. He had no addictions. He was newly diagnosed to be having diabetes mellitus on admission. On examination, his pulse rate was.

  10. Causes and Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eczema become itchy, or experience a “prickly heat” sensation when they sweat, or get too hot. This can happen when you exercise or wear too many clothes to bed. During the cold winter months, your skin may also get too ...

  11. Conflicting Values: Spirituality and Wilderness at Mt. Shasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Fernandez-Gimenez; Lynn Huntsinger; Catherine Phillips; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    1992-01-01

    Many people from a variety of backgrounds believe that Mt. Shasta is a major spiritual center. Although these "spiritual users" value the area's natural features, their spiritual and social activities, including construction of sweat lodges, medicine wheels, altars, meditation pads, trails, and campsites, are leading to rapid ecological degradation. This...

  12. Feelings of Disgust and Disgust-Induced Avoidance Weaken following Induced Sexual Arousal in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex and disgust are basic, evolutionary relevant functions that are often construed as paradoxical. In general the stimuli involved in sexual encounters are, at least out of context strongly perceived to hold high disgust qualities. Saliva, sweat, semen and body odours are among the

  13. Somatic symptoms in social phobia : A treatment method based on rational emotive therapy and paradoxical interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MERSCH, PPA; HILDEBRAND, M; LAVY, EH; WESSEL, Ineke; VANHOUT, WJPJ

    Social phobia is often accompanied by somatic symptoms such as trembling, blushing, and sweating. In cases where these symptoms are predominant and, rather than the social situation, represent the feared stimulus, their unpredictable occurrence may reduce the effectiveness of an otherwise successful

  14. Cycling in the heat: performance perspectives and cerebral challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2010-01-01

    for heat dissipation when the environmental temperature increases. Accordingly, large sweat rates are required, which may challenge the cyclists' electrolyte and water balance. Furthermore, the cooling capacity of the environment may become a limiting factor for the ability to maintain heat balance...

  15. The human cystatin M/E gene (CST6): exclusion candidate gene for harlequin ichthyosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Dale, B.A.; Jongh, G.J. de; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M.J.J. van; Fleckman, P.; Kimball, J.R.; Stephens, K.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2003-01-01

    Cystatin M/E is a recently discovered cysteine proteinase inhibitor whose expression is largely confined to cutaneous epithelia. In human skin it is expressed in sweat glands, hair follicles, and stratum granulosum of the epidermis where it presumably acts as a substrate for transglutaminase. Very

  16. Jock Itch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Jock Itch ... jock itch because it's commonly seen in active people who sweat a lot while playing sports. But anyone can get this infection. What Are ...

  17. Management of patients with chronic kidney disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with these aspects, including follow-up guidelines and management and treatment ... those with ischaemic heart disease also require cardiac review at least once a year. .... doses when fluid losses are high, e.g. sweating in hot environments, ... dried beans, lentils, offal, salmon, chocolate, cola drinks and.

  18. Changes in the volume and circumference of the torso, leg and arm after cycling in the heat determined using 3D whole body scanners : conference paper, Lugano, Switzerland,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Daanen; Vonk, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Whole body volume changes due to sweat loss after exercise in the heat are well documented, but little is known about the relative contribution of the torso and extremities to these volume changes. It is the purpose of this study to quantify these effects. Therefore, seven healthy male subjects were

  19. Frey′s Syndrome as a Sequela of Superficial Parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Kumar Bali

    2006-01-01

    The disorder is characterized by unilateral sweating and flushing of facial skin in the area of parotid gland occurring during meals. We present a case of a patient who developed symptoms of Frey Syndrome 4 months after undergoing superficial parotidectomy on left side.

  20. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *Others include: - body swelling, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, vertigo, joint pain, insomnia, loss of scalp hair, chills. 8 "Mitch" is a non-specific condition described in the community as the cause for different acute febrile episodes. ** Others include: under nutrition, hereditary (familial), sun exposure, dust, sweating, drinking.

  1. Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, T.; Hakkinen, A.; Kautiainen, H.

    2008-01-01

    usual clinical care. Frequency of physical exercise (>= 30 minutes with at least some shortness of breath, sweating) is queried with 4 response options: >= 3 times weekly, 1-2 times weekly, 1-2 times monthly, and no exercise. Results. Between January 2005 and April 2007, a total of 5,235 patients from...

  2. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eaten after exercise. Ditch Dehydration Speaking of dehydration , water is just as important to unlocking your game power as food. When you sweat during exercise, it's easy to become overheated, headachy, and worn out — especially in hot or humid weather. Even ...

  3. Prevention and Management of Cold-Weather Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    49 d. After an initial stimulation of respiration with mild hypothermia (leading to respiratory alkalosis ), there is a progressive decrease...nonevaporated sweat will reduce clothing insulation and possibly form ice crystals. Breathing cold air can slightly exacerbate respiratory water loss... Respiratory . (1) Upper airway temperatures, which normally remain unchanged during exercise under temperate conditions, can decrease substantially

  4. Temperature responses of exercizing dogs to infusion of electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Brzezinska, Z.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of infusions with solutions of various ionic and osmotic composition on exercise temperature responses was studied in dogs who do not regulate their temperature by sweating. The results suggest an association between plasma Na+ and Ca++ level within the normal physiological range and the control of body temperature during exercise.

  5. Use of a Spacer Vest to Increase Evaporative Cooling Under Military Body Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endrusick, Thomas L; Berglund, Larry G; Gonzalez, Julio A; Gallimore, Richard; Zheng, James

    2006-01-01

    ...); with the IBA over the TBDU; and with the IBA over the various SV and the TBDU. TM results were used as input to a computer model predicting core temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, sweat rate, skin wettedness, and total body water loss...

  6. A microfluidic device based on an evaporation-driven micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Toonder, J.M.J. den

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a microfluidic device ultimately to be applied as a wearable sweat sensor. We show proof-of-principle of the microfluidic functions of the device, namely fluid collection and continuous fluid flow pumping. A filter-paper based layer, that eventually will form the interface

  7. Pneumonias to repetition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Ojeda Leon, Paulina

    2002-01-01

    The paper refers to the patient of feminine sex, 75 years who it consults to Present Square of 15 days of consistent evolution in dry cough and later dorsal pain, fever, and emetizant cough dry and anorexy. She refers, profuse sweat the last 3 months. Their evolution is described and a discussion is made

  8. An old man with a mass in the retropharyngeal space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi-Shahri

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    • In this article, we discuss clinical manifestations, laboratory results, and radiological findings in an old man with suppurative tender mass in the neck, accompanied by, fever, weight loss, malaise, fatigue, night sweat, cough, vomiting, anddysphagia. Pharyngeal exam revealed a huge retropharyngeal abscess.

  9. Psychometric Function Reconstruction from Adaptive Tracking Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-29

    reduced variability and length of the track can be shown by the use of the "sweat factor" defined by Taylor and Creelman (1967). This is a measure of...Psychophysics, 35, 385-392. Taylor, M. M., and Creelman , C. D. (1967). PEST: Efficient estimates on probability functions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of

  10. MITRAL VALVOTOMY IN THE YOUNGER AGE-GROUPS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dyspnoea became severe and sweating occurred. The face, feet ... right ventricular predominance and a'mitral P wave. An X-ray showed ... The anterior cusp was long and mobile and the posterior cusp was short and ... There was no ankle oedema. .... treated with large doses of antibiotics and recovery occurred in about 48 ...

  11. 77 FR 63766 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Methylone Into Schedule I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ..., fever, sweating, and hypertension. Some individuals under the influence of methylone have acted... to amphetamine, 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cathinone and other related substances.... Included below is a brief summary of each factor as analyzed by HHS and DEA, and as considered by DEA in...

  12. Hyperhidrosis in children and review of its current evidence-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyperhidrosis (HH) is excessive sweating that usually interferes with the patient's social life. In more than 80% of the cases, the symptoms start in childhood. Early detection and management can significantly improve the patient's quality of life; however, HH remains widely underdiagnosed and undertreated, particularly ...

  13. "Math Anxiety" Explored in Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    Math problems make more than a few students--and even teachers--sweat, but new brain research is providing insights into the earliest causes of the anxiety so often associated with mathematics. Experts argue that "math anxiety" can bring about widespread, intergenerational discomfort with the subject, which could lead to anything from fewer…

  14. Hot flushes | van Schoor | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, are considered to be the cardinal symptoms of menopause, and are experienced by most women. The physiology of hot flushes is not fully understood, and is likely to reflect the interplay between multiple central and peripheral physiological systems. Reproductive ...

  15. Self-reported cue-induced physical symptoms of craving as an indicator of cocaine dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorspan, Florence; Fortias, Maeva; Zerdazi, El-Hadi; Karsinti, Emily; Bloch, Vanessa; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Bellivier, Frank; Brousse, Georges; van den Brink, Wim; Derks, Eske M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of cocaine dependence is under-recognized by cocaine users and requires a careful standardized interview to be ascertained by clinicians. To test if past experiences of cue-induced physical symptoms of craving (nausea, vomiting, sweating, shaking, nervousness) before cocaine use could

  16. Diprosone ointment in psoriasis | Ross | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A double-blind trial which compared the effects of two topical steroids on 58 successive cases of psoriasis is reported. The investigations compared the efficacy and cosmetic acceptability ... of improvement in scaling observed by the investigator (P<0,080). The phenomenon of sweating in patches of psoriasis is discussed.

  17. [Acute cardiac failure in pheochromocytoma.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønler, Morten; Munk, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (P) is an endocrine catecholamine-secreting tumor. Classical symptoms like hypertension, attacks of sweating, palpitations, headache and palor are related to catecholamine discharge. We provide a case of P in a 71 year-old man presenting with acute cardiac failure, severe reduction...

  18. Eccrine porocarcinoma arising within an area of Bowen disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowney, A C

    2012-03-01

    Summary Very little is known about the aetiology of eccrine porocarcinoma (EP), a rare malignant sweat-gland tumour. Most reported cases have arisen de novo, or from a benign eccrine poroma. We report an unusual case, in which eccrine porocarcinoma arose at the exact site of pre-existing Bowen disease (BD).

  19. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... game power as food. When you sweat during exercise, it's easy to become overheated, headachy, and worn out — especially in hot or humid weather. Even mild dehydration can affect an athlete's physical and mental performance. There's no ...

  20. Clinical Guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is obvious bleeding or signs of infection, or sweating that makes the ... If liquid soap is not available, a ... contamination. If medications are to be infused into the medication port .... of the surrounding tissue to help clear the infection. .... microscopy or culture) mandates immediate catheter removal .... Generic name. Intermittent.