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Sample records for sweat gland carcinoma

  1. Epidemiological and histopathological analysis of 40 apocrine sweat gland carcinomas in dogs: a retrospective study

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    Kycko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (ASGCs are malignant neoplasms of dogs and other animals, rarely reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to summarise the occurrence of this cancer in a population of dogs in Poland between 2009 and 2014 with regards to histological features and body location of the tumours, as well as age, sex and breed of the cancer-affected dogs.

  2. Immunohistochemical sweat gland profiles.

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    Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E; Delvenne, Philippe; Quatresooz, Pascale; Humbert, Philippe; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. Some immunohistochemical markers are expected to distinguish the sweat gland types in their secretory and excretory parts. This study used two sets of antibodies. The first panel was composed of antibodies directed to well-defined sweat gland structures. The molecular targets included the low-molecular-weight cytokeratins CAM 5.2, the S100-B protein, the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). A second exploratory panel of antibodies targeted syndecan-1 (CD138), NKI-C3 (CD63), and CD68. They were used to disclose some undescribed antigen expressions in human sweat glands. The first set of antibodies confirmed previous findings. The immunoreactivities of the three sweat gland types were similar in the excretory ducts. By contrast, they were distinguished in the deeper coiled secretory portions of the glands. Clues supporting their distinction and probably their functional activity were obtained by immunohistochemistry using the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 antibodies. The immunoreactivity to the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 possibly help identifying apoeccrine sweat glands or a peculiar functional activity of eccrine sweat glands. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion.

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    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2015-09-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca(2+) -dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers - for example InsP3 and Ca(2+) - and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid-base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Sweating

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    ... Home Body Looking and feeling your best Sweating Sweating You might think that you are only supposed to sweat when you are hot, but once you hit puberty, you will also sweat when you are nervous. Your sweat glands, which ...

  5. F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging of Eccrine Sweat Gland Carcinoma of the Scrotum with Extensive Regional and Distant Metastases

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    Jin-Suk Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine carcinoma is an extremely rare malignant skin cancer arising from eccrine sweat glands with a high metastatic potential. It mainly occurs in the elderly, with equal incidence in both sexes. It usually spreads to regional lymph nodes, with liver, lungs, and bones being the most common sites of distant metastasis. Because of tumor rarity, little is known about the value of F18- FDG PET/CT in evaluating this disease. Our case report aims to increase current knowledge of F18- FDG PET/CT in eccrine sweat gland carcinoma as a noninvasive imaging tool for assessing the extension of the disease and detecting distant metastases. We reported a -96year-old man who presented with as lowly progressive, ill-margined erythematous papules and nodules with a crusted and eroded involving multiple sites of groin, scrotum, penis, left pelvic wall, left hip and left thigh for >3 years, which became extensive in the past 2 months. The histologic investigation confirmed the diagnosis of an eccrine carcinoma. He was performed F18- FDG PET/CT to further evaluate the lesions. FDG PET/ CT imaging revealed FDG uptake at the extensive skin lesion, involvement of lymph nodes, and multiple FDG-avid of liver, skeletal and lung metastases.

  6. Metastatic apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in a terrier dog.

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    Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Reza, Kheirandish; Shahriar, Dabiri; Omid, Azari; Daruoosh, Vosoogh; Nasrin, Askari

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the clinical and pathological aspects of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with distant metastasis in an aged dog. A 7-year-old male terrier dog was referred to small animal hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with a 5.5×3.5 centimeter pedunculated mass on its head near left auricular region which had been progressively growing since three months ago. The radiography showed no local and distant metastasis. Surgical excision and histological evaluation was done. Histologically, the mass was composed of epithelial cells arranged in glandular and solid patterns. The morphologic findings suggested either a primary or metastatic apocrine-gland carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were intensely positive for cytokeratin 7 and 20 and negative for S100 protein. On the basis of histopathological and clinical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a malignant apocrine gland tumor, arising from apocrine sweat glands of the skin. Local tumor recurrence with anorexia and weight loss was reported by the owner nine month later. Severe submandibular and prescapular lymphadenomegaly was noted in clinical examination. Several large pulmonary nodules were noted in chest radiographs resembling mediastinal lymph node metastasis. Second surgery and chemotherapy was rejected by the owner due to grave prognosis of the patient. The animal was died 45 days later due to respiratory complications. Tumors of apocrine sweat glands are relatively uncommon in dogs whereas apocrine gland adenocarcinoma with distant metastasis is extremely rare.

  7. Topics in histopathology of sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms.

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    Ansai, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews several topics regarding sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms. First, the clinicopathological characteristics of poroid neoplasms are summarized. It was recently reported that one-fourth of poroid neoplasms are composite tumors and one-fourth are apocrine type lesions. Recent progress in the immunohistochemical diagnosis of sweat gland neoplasms is also reviewed. CD117 can help to distinguish sweat gland or sebaceous tumors from other non-Merkel cell epithelial tumors of the skin. For immunohistochemical differential diagnosis between sweat gland carcinoma (SGC) other than primary cutanesous apocrine carcinoma and skin metastasis of breast carcinoma (SMBC), a panel of antibodies may be useful, including p63 (SGC+ , SMBC- ), CK5/6 (SGC+ , SMBC- ), podoplanin (SGC+ , SMBC- ) and mammaglobin (SGC- , SMBC+ ). Comparison of antibodies used for immunohistochemical diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma (SC) suggests that adipophilin has the highest sensitivity and specificity. Some authors have found that immunostaining for survivin, androgen receptor and ZEB2/SIP1 has prognostic value for ocular SC, but not extraocular SC. In situ SC is rare, especially extraocular SC, but there have been several recent reports that actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease are the source of invasive SC. Finally, based on recent reports, classification of sebaceous neoplasms into three categories is proposed, which are sebaceoma (a benign neoplasm with well-defined architecture and no atypia), borderline sebaceous neoplasm (low-grade SC; an intermediate tumor with well-defined architecture and nuclear atypia) and SC (a malignant tumor with invasive growth and evident nuclear atypia). © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Precise measurement of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

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    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We propose a method for extraction of the target eccrine sweat gland by use of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en-face OCT images are constructed by the SS-OCT. Furthermore, we demonstrate precise measurement of instantaneous volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus. The dynamic change of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating is performed by this method during the period of 300 sec with the frame intervals of 3.23 sec.

  9. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

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    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    malignant lymphomas, amelanotic melanomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas, in particular in small biopsy materials. Because of the rarity of undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas, the differential diagnosis should always include metastases of undifferentiated carcinomas arising...

  10. Precise measurement of volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

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    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this paper, we propose a method for extraction of the specific eccrine sweat gland by means of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en face OCT images are constructed by the swept-source OCT. In the experiment, we demonstrate precise measurement of the volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus.

  11. Metastatic apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in a terrier dog

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    Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Reza, Kheirandish; Shahriar, Dabiri; Omid, Azari; Daruoosh, Vosoogh; Nasrin, Askari

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the clinical and pathological aspects of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with distant metastasis in an aged dog. A 7-year-old male terrier dog was referred to small animal hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with a 5.5×3.5 centimeter pedunculated mass on its head near left auricular region which had been progressively growing since three months ago. The radiography showed no local and distant metastasis. Surgical excision and histological evaluation was don...

  12. Sweat

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    Sweat is a clear, salty liquid produced by glands in your skin. Sweating is how your body cools itself. You sweat mainly under your arms and on your feet and palms. When sweat mixes with bacteria on your skin, it can ...

  13. Lacrimal gland ductal carcinomas

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    Andreasen, Simon; Grauslund, Morten; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ductal carcinomas (DCs) of the lacrimal gland are very rare but aggressive malignancies. We investigated DC of the lacrimal gland for potentially clinically actionable targets in the search for new therapeutic options. METHODS: Case 1: A 77-year-old man, presented with diplopia...... HER2 amplification was found in cases 2 and 3. CONCLUSION: This study identified a spectrum of genetic events and pattern of protein expression in DC of the lacrimal gland similar to a subset of carcinomas of the breast and ductal carcinomas of the salivary glands. For therapeutic purposes...

  14. Sweat Gland Progenitors in Development, Homeostasis, and Wound Repair

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    Lu, Catherine; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    The human body is covered with several million sweat glands. These tiny coiled tubular skin appendages produce the sweat that is our primary source of cooling and hydration of the skin. Numerous studies have been published on their morphology and physiology. Until recently, however, little was known about how glandular skin maintains homeostasis and repairs itself after tissue injury. Here, we provide a brief overview of sweat gland biology, including newly identified reservoirs of stem cells in glandular skin and their activation in response to different types of injuries. Finally, we discuss how the genetics and biology of glandular skin has advanced our knowledge of human disorders associated with altered sweat gland activity. PMID:24492848

  15. Matrigel basement membrane matrix induces eccrine sweat gland cells to reconstitute sweat gland-like structures in nude mice.

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    Li, Haihong; Chen, Lu; Zeng, Shaopeng; Li, Xuexue; Zhang, Xiang; Lin, Changmin; Zhang, Mingjun; Xie, Sitian; He, Yunpu; Shu, Shenyou; Yang, Lvjun; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-03-01

    Severe burn results in irreversible damage to eccrine sweat glands, for which no effective treatment is available. Interaction between the extracellular matrix and epithelial cells is critical for proper three-dimensional organization and function of the epithelium. Matrigel-embedded eccrine sweat gland cells were subcutaneously implanted into the inguinal regions of nude mice. Two weeks later, the Matrigel plugs were removed and evaluated for series of detection items. Sweat gland cells developed into sweat gland-like structures in the Matrigel plugs based on: (1) de novo formation of tubular-like structures with one or more hollow lumens, (2) expression of epithelial and sweat gland markers (pancytokeratin, CK5/7/14/19, α-SMA and CEA), (3) basement membrane formation, (4) myoepithelial cells presenting in and encompassing the tubular-like structures, (5) cellular polarization, evident by the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin-1 and ZO-2), anchoring junctions (desmoglein-1 and -2 and E-cadherin) and CEA in the luminal membrane, (6) expression of proteins related to sweat secretion and absorption (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α/β, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl-cotranspoter 1, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1, aquaporin-5, epithelial sodium channel, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, potassium channel and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase), and (7) about 20% of the tubular-like structures are de novo coils and 80% are de novo ducts. This study provides not only an excellent model to study eccrine sweat gland development, cytodifferentiation and reconstitution, but also an in vivo model for regeneration of eccrine sweat glands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Salivary gland carcinomas

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    Therkildsen, M H; Andersen, L J; Christensen, M

    1998-01-01

    The prognosis of salivary gland carcinomas is difficult to assess. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates (T and sialosyl-T antigens, Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigens) have been shown to be of value in predicting prognosis for carcinomas in other locations. We studied the prognostic significance...

  17. Early-stage mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of eyelid

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    Nizawa T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Nizawa1, Toshiyuki Oshitari1, Ryuta Kimoto1, Fusae Kajita1, Jiro Yotsukura1, Kaoru Asanagi1, Takayuki Baba1, Yoko Takahashi2, Takashi Oide2, Takako Kiyokawa2, Takashi Kishimoto2, Shuichi Yamamoto11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Chiba, JapanAbstract: We present the findings of an early-stage primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma in the lower eyelid of a Japanese patient. The patient was a 73-year-old man who had had a nodule on the left lower eyelid for two years. He was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of a swollen chalazion. The clinical and histopathological records were reviewed and the mass was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography excluded systemic metastases. After the histopathological findings, a complete surgical excision of the margins of the adenocarcinoma was performed, with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. After the final histopathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with a primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the left eyelid. Six months after the surgery, no recurrence has been observed. Because the appearance of mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the eyelid is quite variable, the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathological examination. A complete surgical excision is recommended.Keywords: complete surgical excision, eyelid, initial stage, mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma

  18. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

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    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  19. Clinicopathologic characteristics of extramammary Paget’s disease of the scrotum associated with sweat gland adenocarcinoma—a clinical retrospective study

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    Dong Yan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Extramammary Paget’s disease of the scrotum with sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor. This study aims to summarize the clinicopathologic characteristics related to the prognosis of scrotal Paget’s disease with underlying sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Clinical datum of four patients with scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland carcinoma, treated in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital from 2002 to 2009 was analyzed, and a literature review was conducted. The typical manifestation of scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland carcinoma was eczematoid-like skin lesions. All patients underwent primary lesion resection plus inguinal lymphadenectomy. Three patients had inguinal lymph metastasis. One of them developed distant metastases in bone and bone marrow and died of metastatic carcinoma. The dead patient had higher serum carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA level, Her-2 overexpression and shorter disease course than the other patients. The other patients were observed for at least 3 years, and lived without tumor. Scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma may be prone to inguinal lymph node and bone metastasis. Serum CEA level, Her-2 overexpression, dermis and lymphovascular invasion may be associated with the prognosis of scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma. The primary lesion resection plus inguinal lymphadenectomy is the major treatment for scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma. The effect of combination chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic extramammary Paget’s disease remains to be proven by prolonged follow-up and wide experience.

  20. Quantification of sweat gland volume and innervation in neuropathy: Correlation with thermoregulatory sweat testing.

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    Loavenbruck, Adam; Wendelschaefer-Crabbe, Gwen; Sandroni, Paola; Kennedy, William R

    2014-10-01

    No study has correlated thermoregulatory sweat testing (TST) with histopathologic study of sweat glands (SGs) and SG nerve fibers (SGNFs). We studied 10 neuropathy patients in whom anhidrosis was found by TST and 10 matched controls. Skin biopsies were taken from both anhidrotic and sweating skin and immunohistochemical staining was done for nerves and basement membrane. For each biopsy, total tissue volume, total SG volume, and total SGNF length were measured. SGNF length per biopsy volume, SG volume per biopsy volume (SG%), and SGNF length per SG volume were calculated. SGNF length per biopsy volume was reduced in anhidrotic site biopsies of patients compared with controls. SG% was decreased and SGNF length per SG volume increased in patients compared with controls. The results suggest a concomitant loss of SG volume and SGNF length in neuropathy, with greater loss of SGNFs in anhidrotic skin, possibly exceeding collateral reinnervation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Composition of the secretion from the eccrine sweat glands of the cat's foot pad.

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    Foster, K G

    1966-05-01

    1. The sweat composition from the cat's foot pad was examined at various rates of secretion. Sodium pentobarbitone or chloralose anaesthesia were used.2. Cat's pad sweat contains lactate, glucose is almost absent, and the sodium and chloride concentrations increased with increasing sweat rate. In these respects the secretion resembles human eccrine sweat.3. The sodium, chloride, and potassium concentrations are much higher than in human sweat; also the potassium level decreased with increasing rate. Consequently, whereas human sweat is hypotonic with respect to the plasma, cat's pad sweat is slightly hypertonic with respect to the plasma even at low rates of secretion. In contrast to human sweat glands, which produce a slightly acidic secretion containing ammonia, cat's pad sweat glands produce an alkaline secretion containing bicarbonate. Also in contrast to human sweat, lactate levels decreased with increasing sweat rate.

  2. A novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model with physiological functionality.

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    Patricia Klaka

    Full Text Available Dysregulated human eccrine sweat glands can negatively impact the quality-of-life of people suffering from disorders like hyperhidrosis. Inability of sweating can even result in serious health effects in humans affected by anhidrosis. The underlying mechanisms must be elucidated and a reliable in vitro test system for drug screening must be developed. Here we describe a novel organotypic three-dimensional (3D sweat gland model made of primary human eccrine sweat gland cells. Initial experiments revealed that eccrine sweat gland cells in a two-dimensional (2D culture lose typical physiological markers. To resemble the in vivo situation as close as possible, we applied the hanging drop cultivation technology regaining most of the markers when cultured in its natural spherical environment. To compare the organotypic 3D sweat gland model versus human sweat glands in vivo, we compared markers relevant for the eccrine sweat gland using transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Comparing the marker profile, a high in vitro-in vivo correlation was shown. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3, Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1, calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A, and aquaporin-5 (AQP5 are found at significant expression levels in the 3D model. Moreover, cholinergic stimulation with acetylcholine or pilocarpine leads to calcium influx monitored in a calcium flux assay. Cholinergic stimulation cannot be achieved with the sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3 used as a sweat gland model system. Our results show clear benefits of the organotypic 3D sweat gland model versus 2D cultures in terms of the expression of essential eccrine sweat gland key regulators and in the physiological response to stimulation. Taken together, this novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model shows a good in vitro-in vivo correlation and is an appropriate alternative for screening of potential

  3. [Study on sweat gland regeneration induced by microenvironment of three-dimensional bioprinting].

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    Yao, B; Xie, J F; Huang, S; Fu, X B

    2017-01-20

    Sweat glands are abundant in the body surface and essential for thermoregulation. Sweat glands fail to conduct self-repair in patients with large area of burn and trauma, and the body temperature of patients increases in hot climate, which may cause shock or even death. Now, co-culture system, reprogramming, and tissue engineering have made progresses in inducing sweat gland regeneration, but the inductive efficiency and duration need to be improved. Cellular microenvironment can regulate cell biological behavior, including cell migration and cell differentiation. This article reviews the studies of establishment of microenvironment in vitro by three-dimensional bioprinting technology to induce sweat gland regeneration.

  4. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion.

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    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H; Matsumoto, M; Murai, N; Nakamachi, T; Hannibal, J; Fahrenkrug, J; Hashimoto, H; Watanabe, H; Sueki, H; Honda, K; Miyazaki, A; Shioda, S

    2017-02-01

    Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exhibits pleiotropic functions that are mediated via its receptors [PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and VPAC2R]. Although some studies have suggested a role for PACAP in the skin and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression and localization of PACAP and its receptors in mouse and human eccrine sweat glands. We injected PACAP subcutaneously into the footpads of mice and used the starch-iodine test to visualize sweat-secreting glands. Immunostaining showed PACAP and PAC1R expression by secretory cells from mouse and human sweat glands. PACAP immunoreactivity was also localized in nerve fibres around eccrine sweat glands. PACAP significantly promoted sweat secretion at the injection site, and this could be blocked by the PAC1R-antagonist PACAP6-38. VIP, an agonist of VPAC1R and VPAC2R, failed to induce sweat secretion. This is the first report demonstrating that PACAP may play a crucial role in sweat secretion via its action on PAC1R located in eccrine sweat glands. The mechanisms underlying the role of PACAP in sweat secretion may provide new therapeutic options to combat sweating disorders. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Characteristics of sweating responses and peripheral sweat gland function during passive heating in sprinters.

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    Amano, Tatsuro; Koga, Shunsaku; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Kondo, Narihiko

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sweating function in sprinters who have trained for several years with untrained subjects and trained endurance runners. Two separate experiments were conducted. Nine sprinters, eight untrained men, and nine distance runners (VO2 max 50.9 ± 1.4, 38.2 ± 1.8, and 59.1 ± 1.2 mL/kg/min, respectively; P sprinters, 11 untrained men and nine distance runners (similar VO2 max levels compared with Experiment 1 in each group) had their sweat gland capacity assessed based on acetylcholine-induced sweating rate (SR) (Experiment 2). The slope of the mean non-glabrous SR plotted against change in mean body temperature during passive heating did not differ significantly between sprinters and untrained men (1.21 ± 0.10 and 0.97 ± 0.12 mg cm(-2)/min/°C, respectively); in contrast, compared with untrained men, distance runners exhibited a significantly greater slope (1.42 ± 0.11 mg cm(-2)/min/°C, P sprinters and untrained men, whereas distance runners showed a significantly higher induced SR compared with untrained men. The sweating function was not improved in sprinters who have trained 2-3 h/day, 5 days/week, for at least 3 years compared with untrained men, although the VO2 max was markedly greater in sprinters. Thus, there is a case that daily training was not sufficient to improve sweating function in sprinters relative to those in distance runners.

  6. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is requir...

  7. Claudin-3 loss causes leakage of sweat from the sweat gland to contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.

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    Yamaga, Kosuke; Murota, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Atsushi; Miyata, Hirofumi; Ohmi, Masato; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru; Tsukita, Sachiko; Katayama, Ichiro

    2017-12-22

    The transfer of sweat to the skin surface without leakage is important for the homeostatic regulation of skin and is impaired in atopic dermatitis (AD). Although the precise composition of the leakage barrier remains obscure, there is a large contribution from claudins, the major components of tight junctions. In humans, claudin-1, -3, and -15 are expressed on sweat ducts, and claudin-3 and -10 are expressed on secretory coils. Although only two claudins are expressed in murine sweat glands, we found that the expression of claudin-3 is conserved. AD lesional skin had decreased claudin-3 expression in sweat glands, which was accompanied by sweat leakage. This critical role in water barrier function was confirmed in Cldn3 -/- and Cldn3 +/- mice and those with experimentally decreased claudin-3. Our results reveal the crucial role of claudin-3 in preventing sweat gland leakage and suggest that the pathogenesis of dermatoses accompanied by hypohidrosis involves abnormally decreased claudin-3. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sweat gland tumor (Eccrine Porocarcinoma of scalp: A rare tumor

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    Rana Roshani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine Porocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm arising from sweat glands. It was first described by Pinkus and Mehregan as ′Epidermotropic eccrine carcinoma′. It may occur de novo or as a malignant transformation of an eccrine poroma. It is commonly found in older age group and in the lower extremities. Clinically, it may present as a verrucous plaque, polypoid growth or an ulcerative lesion of long duration. Local recurrence and metastasis to skin, lymphnodes, viscera, and bone may occur. Treatment is wide local excision. Metastatic lesions can be treated with chemotherapy. We report a case of eccrine porocarcinoma of the scalp in a 50 years old female who presented to us with a bosselated, firm, painless, non-tender, freely mobile swelling over left fronto-parietal region of 12 years duration. It was excised and histopathological diagnosis was Eccrine Porocarcinoma. In literature, scalp porocarcinoma is a very rare tumor.

  9. A COMPARATIVE HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE SWEAT GLAND OF CATTLE (B. INDICUS AND YAK (P. POEPHAGUS

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    Partha Das

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yak and cattle are the species of different habitats, but are of the same genus Bos. In order to adapt to different habitats some changes may occur in cellular organizations, sweat gland morphology being one of the part of this cellular organization. The skin samples were collected from six adult nondescript male cattle and yak from five different anatomical regions viz., neck, dewlap, abdomen, back and prepuce. Sweat glands appeared tubular consisting of a secretary coil which was embedded in the dermis in cattle. In yak, the glands were saccular in the neck and dewlap regions and tubular in other regions. The sweat gland number (1729±3.44 in cattle was almost three times higher (P<0.01 than yak (615.82±3.44.Highest number of sweat gland population was found in back (1563.24±5.44 and lowest in abdomen (900.26±5.44 in both the species. Descending order of sweat gland number was detected in dewlap, neck and prepuce respectively in both the species. In cattle the sweat gland diameter was significantly (32.78±0.38 µm higher as compared to yak (27.68±0.38 ìm. The sweat gland number and nuclear diameter in cattle was more than yak. Acidophilic secretory granules of the glands were numerous in the supra-nuclear cytoplasm in case of cattle. These results suggest the hyper activity of sweat gland in controlling the thermo dynamics in cattle as compared to yak.

  10. Eccrine sweat gland anatomy in cockayne syndrome: a possible diagnostic aid.

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    Landing, B H; Sugarman, G; Dixon, L G

    1983-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease, which includes as major features motor and mental retardation (beginning in the second year), microcephaly, ataxia, retinal degeneration and pigmentation, cataracts, progeroid features, intracranial calcification, hypogonadism, and growth retardation. Many other diseases have some of these features, so that diagnosis of Cockayne syndrome can be difficult, especially in younger children. Eccrine sweat glands were microdissected from autopsy or biopsy specimens from patients with Cockayne syndrome, and mean values for duct length, secretory coil volume, ratio of coil volume to duct length, and axis ratio of the secretory coil were determined. In comparison with values for eccrine glands of patients with no known genetic or chromosomal disease, eccrine glands in Cockayne syndrome are abnormally small for age. Whether other diseases with various similarities to Cockayne syndrome produce similar growth abnormality of eccrine sweat glands is not known, but determination of sweat gland size may provide data suggesting or supporting the diagnosis of Cockayne syndrome.

  11. 3D bioprinted extracellular matrix mimics facilitate directed differentiation of epithelial progenitors for sweat gland regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Yao, Bin; Xie, Jiangfan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    Sweat glands perform a vital thermoregulatory function in mammals. Like other skin appendages, they originate from epidermal progenitors. However, they have low regenerative potential in response to injury, and whether adult epidermal progenitors could be specified to differentiate to a sweat gland cell lineage remains largely unexplored. We used bioprinting technology to create a functional in vitro cell-laden 3D extracellular matrix mimics (3D-ECM) with composite hydrogels based on gelatin and sodium alginate because of chemical and structural similarity to ECM components. To achieve specific cell differentiation, mouse plantar dermis and epidermal growth factor were synchronously incorporated into the 3D-ECM mimics to create an inductive niche for epidermal progenitor cells obtained from mice. The biological 3D construct could maintain cell viability, thereby facilitating cell spreading and matrix formation. In vitro data by immunofluorescence and gene expression assay of key cell-surface markers demonstrated that the bioprinted 3D-ECM could effectively create a restrictive niche for epidermal progenitors that ensures unilateral differentiation into sweat gland cells. Furthermore, direct delivery of bioprinted 3D-ECM into burned paws of mice resulted in functional restoration of sweat glands. This study represents the rational design to enhance the specific differentiation of epidermal lineages using 3D bioprinting and may have clinical and translational implications in regenerating sweat glands. Sweat gland regeneration after injury is of clinical importance but remains largely unsolved because of low regenerative potential and lack of a definite niche. Some studies have shown sweat gland regeneration with gene-based interventions or cell-based induction via embryonic components, but translation to clinic is challenging. The novelty and significance of the work lies in the fact that we design a 3D bioprinted extracellular matrix that provides the spatial

  12. The microfluidics of the eccrine sweat gland, including biomarker partitioning, transport, and biosensing implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonner, Z.; Wilder, E.; Heikenfeld, J.; Kasting, G.; Beyette, F.; Swaile, D.; Sherman, F.; Joyce, J.; Hagen, J.; Kelley-Loughnane, N.; Naik, R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive and accurate access of biomarkers remains a holy grail of the biomedical community. Human eccrine sweat is a surprisingly biomarker-rich fluid which is gaining increasing attention. This is especially true in applications of continuous bio-monitoring where other biofluids prove more challenging, if not impossible. However, much confusion on the topic exists as the microfluidics of the eccrine sweat gland has never been comprehensively presented and models of biomarker partitioning into sweat are either underdeveloped and/or highly scattered across literature. Reported here are microfluidic models for eccrine sweat generation and flow which are coupled with review of blood-to-sweat biomarker partition pathways, therefore providing insights such as how biomarker concentration changes with sweat flow rate. Additionally, it is shown that both flow rate and biomarker diffusion determine the effective sampling rate of biomarkers at the skin surface (chronological resolution). The discussion covers a broad class of biomarkers including ions (Na+, Cl−, K+, NH4+), small molecules (ethanol, cortisol, urea, and lactate), and even peptides or small proteins (neuropeptides and cytokines). The models are not meant to be exhaustive for all biomarkers, yet collectively serve as a foundational guide for further development of sweat-based diagnostics and for those beginning exploration of new biomarker opportunities in sweat. PMID:26045728

  13. Effects of age on histological parameters of the sweat glands of Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Regina Bueno de Mattos Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sweat glands are important in thermoregulation of cattle in a warm environment as they help dissipate heat through evaporation. Studies on gland histology are important to define its secretion potential and the capacity of perspiration and heat removal. The objective of this study was to determine, by histomorphometry, glandular epithelium height, the depth of the gland, length of the glandular portion and number of glands per cm2 of the sweat glands of the three age groups of Nellore cattle. Thirty females were used in this study. They were equally divided into calves, heifers and cows. Histological sections were obtained and analyzed by digital images in Trinocular BX40 Olympus microscope coupled to an Oly - 200 camera, connected to a computer. The images were obtained with microscope with 2x, 4x, 10x and 40x magnification objectives. The measurements were performed using HL Image 97 program. The height of glandular epithelium, depth of the glands, length and density of the glandular portion per cm2 , were all analyzed. The calves showed greater height of the glandular epithelium than heifers (P = 0.0024, and cows (P = 0.0191. The depth of the gland was not influenced by age. Cows had higher length of secretory portion than heifers (P = 0.0379 and calves (P = 0.0077. Heifers had a greater number of sweat glands per cm2 of skin than cows (P = 0.023. In cattle, the height of glandular epithelium and the density decreases as animals get older. On the other hand, the length of the secretor portion increases but with no changes in the depth of the sweat glands

  14. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) Background:  In several cancer types, osteopontin (OPN) expression has been correlated with tumor progression and prognosis. Two earlier studies have examined OPN expression in salivary gland carcinomas with contradictory results. Methods:  One hundred and seventy......-five patients with a primary salivary gland carcinoma diagnosed from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2005 were identified in the local pathology register, Odense University Hospital. Criteria as documented by Allred et al. were used to assess OPN immunostaining that was performed on surgical specimens. Results......:  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  15. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a national series of laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma patients and to bring a review of recent literature. METHODS: By merging The Danish Cancer Registry, The National Pathology Registry...... and The National Patient Registry all registered patients with laryngeal salivary carcinomas diagnosed from 1990 to 2007 were identified. The histological slides were reviewed and data concerning age, sex, symptoms, topography, histology, treatment and outcome were registered. Based on a supplemented PubMed search....... female ratio was 2:1, the most common location was the supraglottic region (52%) and the most predominant histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (46%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (35%) and adenocarcinoma NOS (12%). CONCLUSION: Laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma is a rare disease with a male...

  16. Sweating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat mental disorders Menopause Spicy foods (known as "gustatory sweating") Warm temperatures Withdrawal from alcohol or narcotic ... D, Chelimsky G. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ...

  17. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah L; Fehr, André; Persson, Marta

    2013-01-01

    To investigate genetic alterations in lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) with emphasis on the MYB-NFIB fusion oncogene and its downstream targets, MYB rearrangements, and copy number alterations in relation to clinical data and survival....

  18. Store-operated Ca2+ entry regulates Ca2+-activated chloride channels and eccrine sweat gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, Axel R; Vaeth, Martin; Wagner, Larry E; Eckstein, Miriam; Hecht, Lee; Yang, Jun; Crottes, David; Seidl, Maximilian; Shin, Hyosup P; Weidinger, Carl; Cameron, Scott; Turvey, Stuart E; Issekutz, Thomas; Meyts, Isabelle; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Cuk, Mario; Yule, David I; Feske, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are essential for sweating and thermoregulation in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and patients with these CRAC channel mutations suffer from anhidrosis and hyperthermia at high ambient temperatures. Here we have shown that CRAC channel-deficient patients and mice with ectodermal tissue-specific deletion of Orai1 (Orai1K14Cre) or Stim1 and Stim2 (Stim1/2K14Cre) failed to sweat despite normal sweat gland development. SOCE was absent in agonist-stimulated sweat glands from Orai1K14Cre and Stim1/2K14Cre mice and human sweat gland cells lacking ORAI1 or STIM1 expression. In Orai1K14Cre mice, abolishment of SOCE was associated with impaired chloride secretion by primary murine sweat glands. In human sweat gland cells, SOCE mediated by ORAI1 was necessary for agonist-induced chloride secretion and activation of the Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also known as TMEM16A). By contrast, expression of TMEM16A, the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and other regulators of sweat gland function was normal in the absence of SOCE. Our findings demonstrate that Ca2+ influx via store-operated CRAC channels is essential for CaCC activation, chloride secretion, and sweat production in humans and mice.

  19. A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (∼50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ∼0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

  1. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h−1) and feet (50–150 g.h−1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h−1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h−1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm−2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm−2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min−1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm−2.min−1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm−2.min−1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm−2.min−1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm−2.min−1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm−2.min−1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L−1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L−1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  2. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel As; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A

    2013-02-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6-2.3 L, with the hands (80-160 g.h-1) and feet (50-150 g.h-1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40-75 g.h-1) and all remaining sites losing 15-60 g.h-1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm-2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm-2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min-1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm-2.min-1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm-2.min-1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm-2.min-1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm-2.min-1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm-2.min-1, sodium losses of 26.5-49.7 mmol.L-1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8-36.7 mmol.L-1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise.

  3. NUT Carcinoma of the Sublingual Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; French, C A; Josiassen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NUT carcinoma (NC) is a recently described, rare and extremely aggressive cancer primarily located to supradiaphragmatic structures and affecting young individuals. NC is characterized by translocations involving the NUT gene on 15q14 with the most common translocation partner gene being BRD4 on 19......p13, resulting in the t(15;19)(q14;p13) karyotype. NC is poorly differentiated and is likely to be overlooked and misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) when immunohistochemical evaluation of NUT protein expression is omitted. Previously, NC has been found in the parotid...... and submandibular glands and we present the first case in the sublingual gland arising in a 40-year-old woman. We discuss the diagnostic considerations for poorly differentiated carcinomas of the salivary glands and advocate the inclusion of NUT immunohistochemistry in this setting. Not only does the NC diagnosis...

  4. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeya PatiI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumour of the salivary glands. It is an unusual type of a tumour in that it varies in its aggressiveness from a low-grade slow growing to high-grade rapidly growing behaviour. Low grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas maybe masqueraded in their clinical presentation, thus need to be looked at with a suspicious eye. We present two intraoral cases of this unique tumour.

  5. In vivo single human sweat gland activity monitoring using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and two-photon excited autofluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Gasecka, P; Formanek, F; Galey, J-B; Rigneault, H

    2016-04-01

    Eccrine sweat secretion is of central importance for control of body temperature. Although the incidence of sweat gland dysfunction might appear of minor importance, it can be a real concern for people with either hypohidrosis or hyperhidrosis. However, sweat gland function remains relatively poorly explored. To investigate the function of single human sweat glands. We describe a new approach for noninvasive imaging of single sweat gland activity in human palms in vivo up to a depth of 100 μm, based on nonlinear two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). These techniques appear to be useful compared with approaches already described for imaging single sweat gland activity, as they allow better three-dimensional spatial resolution of sweat pore inner morphology and real-time monitoring of individual sweat events. By filling the sweat pore with oil and tuning the CARS contrast at 2845 cm(-1) , we imaged the ejection of sweat droplets from a single sweat gland when oil is pushed out by sweat flow. On average, sweat events lasted for about 30 s every 3 min under the conditions studied. On the other hand, about 20% of sweat glands were found inactive. TPEF and CARS were also used to study, at the single pore level, the antiperspirant action of aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH) and to reveal, for the first time in vivo, the formation of a plug at the pore entrance, in agreement with reported ACH antiperspirant mechanisms. Although data were acquired on human palms, these techniques show great promise for a better understanding of sweat secretion physiology and should be helpful to improve the efficacy of antiperspirant formulations. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Evaporimeter and Bubble-Imaging Measures of Sweat Gland Secretion Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeeyeon; Farahmand, Miesha; Dunn, Colleen; Davies, Zoe; Frisbee, Eric; Milla, Carlos; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Beta-adrenergically-stimulated sweat rates determined by evaporimetry or by sweat bubble imaging are useful for measuring CFTR function because they provide a near-linear readout across almost the full range of CFTR function. They differentiate cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects from CF carriers and carriers from controls. However, evaporimetry, unlike bubble imaging, appears to be unable to detect improved levels of CFTR function in G551D subjects taking the CFTR modulator ivacaftor. Here, we quantify the sensitivity of evaporimetry and bubble imaging methods for assessing low levels of CFTR-dependent sweat rates. To establish sensitivity, we did dose-ranging studies using intradermally injected [cAMP]i-elevating cocktails. We reduced isoproterenol/aminophylline levels while maintaining a high level of atropine to block muscarinic elevation of [Ca2+]i. We stimulated the same sets of glands for both assays and recorded responses for 20 min. In response to a 3-log dilution of the stimulating cocktail (0.1%), bubble responses were detected in 12/12 tests (100%), with 49% ± 3% of glands secreting to produce an aggregate volume of 598 nl across the 12, 20-min tests. This was ~5% of the response to full cocktail. Evaporimetry detected responses in 3/12 (25%) tests with an aggregate secretion volume of 175 nl. After stimulation with a still more dilute cocktail (0.03%), bubble imaging detected 15 ± 13% of glands secreting at a rate ~0.9% of the response to full cocktail, while zero responding was seen with evaporimetry. The bubble imaging method detected secretion down to aggregate rates of bubble imaging may be required to detect small but physiologically important increases in secretion rates produced by CFTR modulators.

  7. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohe, Shuichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yanai, Hirotsugu [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Komai, Yoshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Omachi, Taichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Nakamura, Naohiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ohsugi, Haruyuki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki [Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ueno, Hiroo, E-mail: hueno@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan)

    2015-10-23

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. - Highlights: • The acral epithelium have two types of stem cells. • Lgr6-positive cells are rapid-cycling, short-term stem cells. • Bmi1-positive cells are slow-cycling stem cells that act as reserver stem cells. • Lgr5 may be a useful sweat gland marker in mice.

  8. Accumulation of FDG in axillary sweat glands in hyperhidrosis: a pitfall in whole-body PET examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, H. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Celsing, F. [Department of Haematology and Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ingvar, M. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, S. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Karolinska Pharmacy, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, S.A. [Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-03-27

    A diabetic male with severe autonomic neuropathy and recently discovered Hodgkin`s disease demonstrated bilateral uptake of [2-{sup 18}F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in the axillary sweat glands during profuse sweating caused by hypoglycaemia at positron emission tomography examination. It is not yet clear whether the sweating interfered with the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Regardless of the cause or mechanism for the uptake, the finding is clinically relevant. A bilateral symmetrical accumulation of FDG in the axillae of a tumour patient does not necessarily indicate malignant involvement of the lymph nodes. (orig.) With 1 fig., 9 refs.

  9. Epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Badge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC is a low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands. It is extremely rare neoplasm accounting for <1% of all salivary gland neoplasms. It is most commonly seen in parotid gland, but has also been described in the submandibular gland, minor salivary glands and extra oral sites. It is most commonly seen in females; with a peak occurrence in the seventh decade. We present a case of EMC of parotid gland in a 55-year-old male patient presented with painless swelling of 8 cm × 8 cm in preauricular region since 1-year. There was no history of fever and no palpable cervical lymphadenopathy. Facial nerve function was intact. All other findings in general examination were within normal limit. As EMC is a very rare tumor having high rate of recurrence we must aware of this entity while giving diagnosis on histopathological examination. Surgeons and oncologist must focus on the best treatment approach to prevent the recurrence of this tumor. Wide local excision, followed by radiotherapy remains the treatment of choice.

  10. Breast carcinoma metastasis to the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Marie N.; Von Holstein, Sarah; Hansen, Alastair B.

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old female, with proptosis, reduced eye motility and diplopia which had developed over two to three months and a 69-year-old female with proptosis, oedema of the eyelid, reduced motility and ptosis, which had developed over three weeks, are presented in the present study. Computed tomog...... study aimed to describe two such cases and draw attention to breast carcinomas as a differential diagnosis and the most frequent cause of lacrimal gland metastasis....

  11. Evaporimeter and Bubble-Imaging Measures of Sweat Gland Secretion Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyeon Kim

    Full Text Available Beta-adrenergically-stimulated sweat rates determined by evaporimetry or by sweat bubble imaging are useful for measuring CFTR function because they provide a near-linear readout across almost the full range of CFTR function. They differentiate cystic fibrosis (CF subjects from CF carriers and carriers from controls. However, evaporimetry, unlike bubble imaging, appears to be unable to detect improved levels of CFTR function in G551D subjects taking the CFTR modulator ivacaftor. Here, we quantify the sensitivity of evaporimetry and bubble imaging methods for assessing low levels of CFTR-dependent sweat rates. To establish sensitivity, we did dose-ranging studies using intradermally injected [cAMP]i-elevating cocktails. We reduced isoproterenol/aminophylline levels while maintaining a high level of atropine to block muscarinic elevation of [Ca2+]i. We stimulated the same sets of glands for both assays and recorded responses for 20 min. In response to a 3-log dilution of the stimulating cocktail (0.1%, bubble responses were detected in 12/12 tests (100%, with 49% ± 3% of glands secreting to produce an aggregate volume of 598 nl across the 12, 20-min tests. This was ~5% of the response to full cocktail. Evaporimetry detected responses in 3/12 (25% tests with an aggregate secretion volume of 175 nl. After stimulation with a still more dilute cocktail (0.03%, bubble imaging detected 15 ± 13% of glands secreting at a rate ~0.9% of the response to full cocktail, while zero responding was seen with evaporimetry. The bubble imaging method detected secretion down to aggregate rates of <0.2 nl/(cm2·min, or ~1/30th of the average basal transepithelial water loss (TEWL in the test subject of 4 g/m2·hr or 6.7 nl/(cm2·min. The increased sensitivity of bubble imaging may be required to detect small but physiologically important increases in secretion rates produced by CFTR modulators.

  12. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Jackson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA. To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  13. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B S; Pratt, T L; Van Rooyen, A

    2017-03-29

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA). To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  14. Latent heat loss and sweat gland histology of male goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, José Domingues Fontenele; Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The latent heat loss from the body surfaces of these ten undefined breed goats was measured using a ventilated capsule in sun and shade and in the three body regions (neck, flank and hindquarters). Skin samples from these three regions were histologically analyzed to relate the quantity of sweat glands, the area of sweat glands and the epithelium thickness of each of these regions to the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of the examined goats. The epithelium thickness that was measured varied significantly for body regions with different quantities and areas of sweat glands ( P < 0.01). Among the body regions that were examined, the samples from the neck demonstrated the highest epithelium thickness (16.23 ± 0.13 μm). However, the samples of sweat glands from the flank had the biggest area (43330.51 ± 778.71 μm2) and quantity per square centimeter (390 ± 9 cm-2). After the animals were exposed to sun, the flanks lost the greatest amount of heat by cutaneous evaporation (73.03 ± 1.75 W m-2) and possessed the highest surface temperatures (39.47 ± 0.18 °C). The histological characteristics may have influenced the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation that was observed in the flank region after the animals were exposed to sun.

  15. Advanced Upper Eyelid Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma with Deep Orbital Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizvi SAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sebaceous gland carcinomas (SGC are highly malignant lid tumors which originate from meibomian glands and rarely from the gland of Zeis, sebaceous gland of caruncle, eyebrows and periocular skin. In many cases correct diagnosis of SGC is delayed because of its ability to masquerade as a variety of other ocular conditions.A forty year old male presented with a left upper eyelid swelling with an ulcerated wound on its nasal aspect. A differential diagnosis of sebaceous gland carcinoma or preseptal cellulitis was made. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed an ill defined soft tissue density mass in the left orbit encasing the whole of the optic nerve. A total exentration was performed. A diagnosis of meibomian gland carcinoma was confirmed on histopathology.This is a report of an advanced sebaceous gland carcinoma with deep orbital extension. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment may decrease the long term morbidity and extend the survival rate of such patients.

  16. Ionic mechanisms of Ca(2+)-dependent electrolyte transport across equine sweat gland epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W H; Chan, H C; Chew, S B; Wong, P Y

    1996-01-01

    1. The ionic mechanism involved in Ca(2+)-stimulated electrolyte transport in cultured equine sweat gland epithelial cells was studied using the short-circuit current (ISC) technique. 2. Microscopy revealed that the cultured cells grown on Millipore filters formed polarized monolayers with tight junctions. Monolayers exhibited a mean transepithelial resistance of 333.9 +/- 40.4 omega cm2. 3. Ca(2+)-mobilizing agents, A23187 (1 microM) or thapsigargin (0.01-1 microM), stimulated ISC while forskolin exerted little effect on the ISC. 4. Replacement of external Cl- by gluconate significantly reduced the ISC by 63% when stimulated by 0.1 microM thapsigargin. Residual ISC could be abolished (> 99%) by elimination of HCO3- from the bathing solution. 5. Basolateral addition of bumetanide (0.1 mM), ouabain (0.01 mM) and acetazolamide (45 microM) and apical addition of methyl isobutyl amiloride (MIA, 1-100 microM) all had inhibitory effects on the thapsigargin-stimulated ISC to various extents. 6. Substantial current inhibition could be obtained using 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and diphenylamine-2-carboxylate (DPC) in a concentration-dependent manner. 7. The K+ channel blocker barium (5 mM) was effective on both sides of the epithelium with a much larger effect on the basolateral side. 8. The inhibitory effects of acetazolamide, amiloride, MIA, DIDS and DPC on the thapsigargin-stimulated ISC were also observed when a Cl(-)-free solution was used. 9. The results provide evidence for Ca(2+)-stimulated HCO3- as well as Cl- secretion by equine sweat gland epithelium. Images Figure 1 PMID:8799908

  17. Effect of periglandular ionic composition and transport inhibitors on rhesus monkey eccrine sweat gland function in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, F; Sato, K

    1987-12-01

    1. The effects of peritubular ions and transport inhibitors were studied on methacholine (MCH)-induced sweat secretion by the isolated, cannulated monkey palm sweat glands in vitro and on the transepithelial and basolateral membrane potential (p.d.). 2. Sweat secretory rate was a curvilinear function of peritubular Na+ and Cl- concentration. Among the anion substitutes only Br- was able to totally substitute for Cl-. Presence of HCO3- or H2PO4- in the bath was not essential. 3. Both bumetanide and furosemide inhibited sweat secretion in a dose-dependent manner with the median effective concentration (EC50) of 3 X 10(-6) and 3 X 10(-5) M, respectively. 4. Bumetanide (10(-4) M) had no significant effect on basolateral membrane p.d. but nearly abolished the transepithelial p.d. 5. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, 3 X 10(-4) M) inhibited sweat secretion by only 35%. Inhibitors of ion exchangers amiloride (10(-4) M) and DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid, 10(-4) M) lowered sweat secretion by less than 20%. 6. Removal of peritubular K+ as well as addition of 5 mM-Ba2+ also inhibited sweat rate. 5 mM-Ba2+ abolished the transepithelial p.d. and depolarized the basolateral p.d. by 26 mV, although the effects of Ba2+ on sweating and the transepithelial p.d. were only transient. 7. The data raise a possibility that either the NaCl or Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transport system or both may be involved in MCH-induced sweat secretion, whereas the role of parallel ion exchangers, if any, may be rather minor.

  18. Periocular sebaceous gland carcinoma: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Kaustubh; Aggarwal, Ekta; White, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC) is a rare tumour occurring at periocular and extra-ocular sites. SGC can be a challenging diagnosis for both clinicians and pathologists. High recurrence rates and a tendency for intra-epithelial spread, locoregional and distant metastases make it important for SGC to be suspected and be included in the differential diagnosis of an eyelid lesion. Early diagnosis, that may sometimes need ancillary testing, and prompt management using a multimodal approach can help reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with SGC. PMID:24227981

  19. Differentiation of human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells into sweat gland-like cells under special microenvironment:an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-an XU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the potentiality of human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells(hUCWJ-MSCs differentiated into sweat gland-like cells under the cultivation of sweat gland-induction medium.Methods Sweat gland cells were harvested from normal skin by digesting with collagenase typeⅡ,heat-shocked and then the supernatants of medium were collected.The sweat gland-induction medium was prepared at 10% volume fraction.hUCWJ-MSCs were harvested by enzyme digestion,and the cell phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM.Alkaline phosphatase(ALP and Oil red-O staining were then performed after culturing in osteogenic and adipogenic induction medium for 2-3 weeks respectively.The hUCWJ-MSCs were cultured in sweat gland-induction medium for 3 weeks,the changes of cell morphology were observed with inverted microscope;the cells cultured for 1,2 and 3 weeks were harvested,and the expression of sweat gland markers(CEA,CK14 and CK19 were determined by immunohistochemistry and FCM,the expression of sweat gland development gene(EDA was determined by RT-PCR.Results The normal sweat gland cells exhibited clonal growth with a flagstone appearance,while the hUCWJ-MSCs showed spindle and myofibroblast-like phenotype,and the positive rate of CD44,CD105,CD34 and CEA detected by FCM was 97.37%,96.26%,0.56% and 0.52%,respectively.After cultured in osteogenic and adipogenic induction medium for 2-3 weeks,the hUCWJ-MSCs were induced into adipocytes of Oil red-O positive staining and osteocytes of ALP positive staining,respectively.After cultured in sweat gland-induction medium for 3 weeks,sweat gland-like structures were found,and sweat gland markers CEA,CK14 and CK19 were positive in differentiated hUCWJ-MSCs when detected by immunohistochemistry,the positive rate detected by FCM was 54.37%,60.25% and 62.13%,respectively.RT-PCR analysis revealed a high level expression of gene EDA in differentiated hUCWJ-MSCs.Conclusion The h

  20. Lymphoepitheloal-like carcinoma of the submandibular gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphoepithelial-like carcinoma (LELC) of the salivary gland is uncommon, with about 80% of these occurring In the parotid gland. Its occurrence In the submandlbular gland is very rare. It has a higher Incidence In Eskimos and Orientals. Apart from a report about a North-African woman with LELC of the submandibular ...

  1. Oncocytic carcinoma of the salivary glands: A Danish national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard-Nielsen, Marie; Godballe, Christian; Andersen, Lisbeth Juhler

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present a Danish national series of oncocytic carcinoma (OC) patients, including data on treatment, recurrence and survival. METHODS: From the national Danish database of salivary gland carcinomas, all patients diagnosed with OC from 1990 to 2005 were identified and data concerning...... demographics, tumor site, clinical stage and treatment profiles were extracted. A follow-up was carried out. RESULTS: Of the 15 cases of salivary gland OC, eight were female. The incidence was 0.02/100.000 inhabitants per year in Denmark, 13 patients presented with OC in the parotid gland and two patients....... Six patients were alive at 5 years follow up and one patient was alive without recurrence at 10 years follow up. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report a national incidence of oncocytic carcinoma in the salivary glands. The results confirm oncocytic carcinoma to be a salivary gland carcinoma...

  2. Acinic Cell Carcinoma in Minor Salivary Glands of Retromolar

    OpenAIRE

    KOYUNCU, Mehmet; Atmaca, Sinan; Bedri KANDEMİR; ÇAKIL, Bünyamin

    2009-01-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant tumor of the salivary glands. ACC of the minor salivary glands is very rare. In the oral cavity, minor salivary gland tumors are rarely seen in the inferior anatomic regions like the retromolar trigone and the floor of mouth compared to the superior regions like the palate. We present a retromolar trigone ACC, a rare location in the oral cavity and discuss the relevant reports in the literature. Key words: Acinic cell carcinoma, minor salivar...

  3. Maspin and MCM2 immunoprofiling in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy Iman M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of salivary gland carcinomas is very complex and prognostic markers are difficult to find in these carcinomas of which the different subtypes have varying malignant potential. The study was conducted to examine the cellular distribution of maspin and MCM2 in salivary gland carcinomas and their value to predict lymph node metastasis. Materials and methods Fifty three paraffin blocks of different lesions (15 muco-epidermoid carcinoma, 14 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 3 epi-myoepithelial carcinoma, 5 salivary duct carcinoma, 5 malignant pleomorphic adenoma, 6 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and 5 acinic cell carcinoma were prepared for immunohistochemical staining with maspin and MCM2 antibodies. ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results All salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable cellular localization. There was a significant difference in the expression of each antibody between mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. No association was found between examined markers and lymph node metastasis. Conclusions Salivary gland carcinomas express maspin and MCM2 with variable levels and cellular localization, consisting important markers of biological behavior in these tumors. The level of MCM2 expression can be used in the differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Further study with large sample size is recommended to assess their value in prediction of lymph node metastasis.

  4. Estradiol rapidly induces the translocation and activation of the intermediate conductance calcium activated potassium channel in human eccrine sweat gland cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W

    2009-02-01

    Steroid hormones target K+ channels as a means of regulating electrolyte and fluid transport. In this study, ion transporter targets of Estradiol (E2) were investigated in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

  5. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Bjørndal, Kristine; Godballe, Christian

    2012-01-01

    J Oral Pathol Med (2012) Background:  Salivary gland carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying malignant potential. In this study, we evaluated the proliferative marker Ki-67 in salivary gland carcinomas and related the Ki-67 index to clinical data. Methods:  A total of 176...... salivary gland carcinomas of 13 different subtypes were stained immunohistochemically for Ki-67. The number of Ki-67 positive cells was counted and the Ki-67 index was calculated as the percentage of positive tumor cells. Results:  The Ki-67 median value was 26 (range 1-99). The median follow-up time was 6...

  6. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. Kapp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903 and no expression of P501S. The patient’s previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors.

  7. Does age affect prognosis in salivary gland carcinoma patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Therkildsen, Marianne H

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare incidence, histology, treatment modalities, disease stages, and outcome in elderly patients (≥70 years) compared to younger (gland carcinoma database, 871 patients diagnosed with a primary salivary gland carcinoma from January...... in the young group were WHO performance status 0 and in disease stage I + II, and they presented with significantly more histological low grade tumors. In multivariate analysis, chronological age seemed to be of no prognostic significance to salivary gland carcinoma patients as opposed to performance status......, disease stage and histological grade. CONCLUSIONS: Salivary gland carcinoma patients over the age of 70 years have a poor prognosis compared to younger patients, which can be explained by higher disease stages, more histological high grade subtypes and a poorer performance status at the time of diagnosis....

  8. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. 3 per 100 000 people.[1,2] A rare salivary gland tumour, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), has only recently been described.[3] The few reports and studies concerning MASC have been published in several pathology journals. We report ...

  9. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Neal Murari; Horattas, Mark C

    2008-11-01

    To examine the presentation, diagnosis, and appropriate management of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis to the thyroid gland. We describe a clinical case of solitary thyroid metastasis from renal clear cell carcinoma and present a comprehensive review of the related English-language literature. Common patterns of presentation and generalized overall management recommendations are evaluated and summarized. Eight years after nephrectomy for renal carcinoma at age 61 years, a man presented with a thyroid mass. Cytology and histopathologic surgical findings were consistent with a solitary metastasis most compatible with metastatic clear cell carcinoma from his previous renal carcinoma. After left thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy, the patient remains disease-free 5 years later. Although uncommon, nearly 150 cases of clinically recognized metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid have been reported in the English-language literature. Metastatic disease from the kidney to the thyroid gland can occur more than 20 years after nephrectomy with the average time interval being 7.5 years. Obtaining a full clinical history in any patient who presents with a thyroid nodule is essential to allow consideration of possible metastatic disease from previous primary tumor. Metastatic disease to the thyroid gland can be correctly diagnosed preoperatively. If metastatic renal cancer is limited to the thyroid gland only, prompt, appropriate surgical intervention can be curative. Metastatic renal carcinoma to the thyroid should be considered in any patient presenting with a thyroid mass and a medical history of renal cell carcinoma.

  10. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma.The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement.The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma.This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement.

  11. Multipotent nestin-positive stem cells reside in the stroma of human eccrine and apocrine sweat glands and can be propagated robustly in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Nagel

    Full Text Available Human skin harbours multiple different stem cell populations. In contrast to the relatively well-characterized niches of epidermal and hair follicle stem cells, the localization and niches of stem cells in other human skin compartments are as yet insufficiently investigated. Previously, we had shown in a pilot study that human sweat gland stroma contains Nestin-positive stem cells. Isolated sweat gland stroma-derived stem cells (SGSCs proliferated in vitro and expressed Nestin in 80% of the cells. In this study, we were able to determine the precise localization of Nestin-positive cells in both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands of human axillary skin. We established a reproducible isolation procedure and characterized the spontaneous, long-lasting multipotent differentiation capacity of SGSCs. Thereby, a pronounced ectodermal differentiation was observed. Moreover, the secretion of prominent cytokines demonstrated the immunological potential of SGSCs. The comparison to human adult epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs revealed differences in protein expression and differentiation capacity. Furthermore, we found a coexpression of the stem cell markers Nestin and Iα6 within SGSCs and human sweat gland stroma. In conclusion the initial results of the pilot study were confirmed, indicating that human sweat glands are a new source of unique stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential, high proliferation capacity and remarkable self renewal. With regard to the easy accessibility of skin tissue biopsies, an autologous application of SGSCs in clinical therapies appears promising.

  12. [Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Maxime; Diedhiou, Abdoulaye; Nallet, Emmanuel; Duflo, Suzy; Laé, Marick; Wassef, Michel

    2014-10-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the parotid gland is a rare and recently described lesion. We report the case of a 46-year-old man with a tumor of the parotid gland which was carried to the diagnosis of MASC. Diagnostic was confirmed by highlighting the ETV6-NTRK3 gene translocation. However, some morphologic and immunohistochemical features are suggestive of this entity. This carcinoma should be distinguished from its main differential diagnoses: acinic cell carcinoma and low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Mammary Gland in Domestic Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Filgueira,Kilder Dantas; Reche Junior,Archivaldo

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the feline species, 80% to 93% of neoplasias in the mammary gland are malignant, being the majority carcinomas. Among them, there is the mammary squamous cell carcinoma, which amounts to a very rare neoplasm in the domestic cat, with considerable potential for malignancy. This study aimed to report a case of squamous cell mammary carcinoma in the feline species. Case: A female cat, mixed breed, ten years old, presented history of skin lesion. The cat had been spayed two years b...

  14. Follicular Adenoma and Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    McHenry, Christopher R.; Phitayakorn, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland include benign follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Currently, a follicular carcinoma cannot be distinguished from a follicular adenoma based on cytologic, sonographic, or clinical features alone. As a result, all patients with a follicular neoplasm should, at minimum, undergo a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy. A completion thyroidectomy is necessary for invasive follicular carcinoma. The overall ten-year survival for patients w...

  15. Salivary gland-like breast carcinomas: An infrequent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwell-Cabello, Santiago; Maffuz-Aziz, Antonio; Ríos-Luna, Nina Paola; Bautista-Piña, Verónica; Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    To show the incidence, as well as the clinical and histopathological characteristics, of patients diagnosed with mammary salivary gland-like carcinomas at our institution. A retrospective study was conducted in all women diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution from January 2005 to February 2016. Patients with diagnosis of salivary gland-like breast carcinomas were included. In this period, 6384 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution; salivary gland-like carcinomas were found in 7 patients (0.1%), adenoid cystic carcinoma was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.07%), acinic cell carcinoma in 1 patient (0.015%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 1 patient (0.015%). The triple-negative subtype was found in all of the tumors. Median follow-up was 66.3 months (range, 1-108 months). No patient developed local or distant recurrence. Salivary gland-like breast tumors are extremely rare. We found a global incidence of 0.1%. Adenoid cystic, acinic cell and mucoepidermoid carcinomas were the three histologic types diagnosed. Although the triple-negative subtype is mainly found, good prognosis is expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Intraoral lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menditti, Dardo; Laino, Luigi; Milano, Massimiliano; Caputo, Cristian; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; D'Avino, Alfredo; Baldi, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of lymphoepithelial carcinoma in the oral cavity is extremely rare and a case with involvement of minor salivary glands is very uncommon. We describe a case of LELC of the oral cavity with involvement of the upper lip and of minor salivary glands. The tumour was described at the clinical and instrumental level; moreover, its histopathological phenotype was defined. Finally, the problems of differential diagnosis and the most appropriate therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  17. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma. The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland wi...

  18. Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma of Parotid Gland- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A. Badge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC is most commonly seen in the nasopharynx. Very rarely it is found in the salivary gland, preferably in parotid gland followed by submandibular gland where it accounts for 0.4% of all malignant salivary gland tumours. Most commonly it is seen in fifth decade with female predominance. Significant correlation has been reported between this tumour and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV.It has a racial predilection for Inuits,Chinese and Japanese. Very rarely it is found In Indians. So we present a case of LEC of parotid gland in a 23 year old male Indian patient. As this is a very radiosensitive tumour, surgery followed by radiotherapy remains the treatment of choice.

  19. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis to the mammary gland: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Yang, Jiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the second most common type of malignancy in Southern China. Metastatic sites are usually multifocal and involve the bones, lungs and distant lymph nodes. To date, there have been no studies with regard to nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis to the mammary gland. In the current study, the case of a 56-year-old female with nasal obstruction, epitaxis and a bilateral neck mass is presented. Following a series of examinations, the patient was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (cT3N3M0). Subsequently, the patient received radical radiation therapy. After three months, a mass was identified in the left breast, together with enlargement of multiple lymph nodes in the left axilla. The patient underwent a mastectomy and pathological examination revealed that the breast mass and axillary lymph node tissues were derived from the nasopharynx. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma that metastasized to the mammary gland.

  20. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis to the mammary gland: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shuang; Yang, Jiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the second most common type of malignancy in Southern China. Metastatic sites are usually multifocal and involve the bones, lungs and distant lymph nodes. To date, there have been no studies with regard to nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis to the mammary gland. In the current study, the case of a 56-year-old female with nasal obstruction, epitaxis and a bilateral neck mass is presented. Following a series of examinations, the patient was diagnosed with nasopharyn...

  1. Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma and Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah L; Fehr, André; Persson, Marta

    2014-01-01

    To study genetic alterations in lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA) with focus on copy number changes and expression patterns of the translocation target genes PLAG1, HMGA2, and CRTC1-MAML2 in relation to clinical data....

  2. Facial nerve function in carcinoma of the parotid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, Chris; Lubsen, Herman; Tan, Bing; Merkx, Thijs; van der Laan, Bernard; Jong, Rob Baatenburg-de; Manni, Hans; Kneght, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyse, for patients with carcinoma of the parotid gland, the prognostic value for treatment outcome of the function of the facial nerve (NVII), and determining facial nerve dysfunction after treatment. Methods and materials: In a retrospective study of the Dutch head and Neck cooperative

  3. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoof, Pamela; Tsai-Nguyen, Ginger; Paulson, Scott; Syed, Almas; Mora, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) has a clinical course and prognosis that is markedly different from that of common adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The patient in this case presented with fever of unknown origin, dyspnea, and near spinal cord compression. He was subsequently found to have widely metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of prostatic origin. This case emphasizes that despite the commonality of prostate cancer, there are rare presentations of this common disease.

  4. NKCC1 and NHE1 are abundantly expressed in the basolateral plasma membrane of secretory coil cells in rat, mouse, and human sweat glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Lene Niemann; Prætorius, Jeppe; Nielsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    1 (NHE1) protein has been localized to both the duct and secretory coil of human sweat duct; however, the NHE1 abundance in the duct was not compared with that in the secretory coil. The aim of this study was to test whether mRNA encoding NKCC1, NKCC2, and Na(+)-coupled acid-base transporters...... and the corresponding proteins are expressed in rodent sweat glands and, if expressed, to determine the cellular and subcellular localization in rat, mouse, and human eccrine sweat glands. NKCC1 mRNA was demonstrated in rat palmar tissue, including sweat glands, using RT-PCR, whereas NKCC2 mRNA was absent. Also, NHE1 m...... palmar skin by immunoblotting, whereas NKCC2, NHE2, and NHE3 proteins were not detected. Immunohistochemistry was performed using sections from rat, mouse, and human palmar tissue. Immunoperoxidase labeling revealed abundant expression of NKCC1 and NHE1 in the basolateral domain of secretory coils of rat...

  5. Elective neck management for high-grade salivary gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Michael P; Werning, John W; Morris, Christopher G; Kirwan, Jessica M; Amdur, Robert J; Mendenhall, William M

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether patients with clinically node negative (cNo) high grade salivary gland carcinomas benefit from an elective neck dissection prior to postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Between October 1964 and October 2009, 59 previously untreated patients with cNo high-grade salivary gland carcinomas (squamous cell carcinomas were excluded) were treated with curative intent using elective neck dissection (END; n=41), or elective neck irradiation (ENI; n=18) at the University of Florida College of Medicine (Gainesville, FL). All patients underwent resection of the primary cancer followed by postoperative RT. The median follow-up period was 5.2years (range, 0.3-34years). Occult metastases were found in 18 (44%) of the 41 patients in the END group. There were 4 recurrences (10%) in the END group and 0 recurrence in the ENI group. Neck control rates at 5years were: END, 90%; ENI, 100%; and overall, 93% (p=0.1879). Cause-specific survival was 94% in the ENI group, 84% in the END group, and 86% for all patients (p=0.6998). There were 3 reported grade 3 or 4 toxicities. Two patients had a postoperative fistula and one patient had a grade 4 osteoradionecrosis that required a partial mandibulectomy. Patients with cNo high grade salivary gland carcinomas who are planned to undergo surgery and postoperative RT likely do not benefit from a planned neck dissection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Consistent absence of BRAF mutations in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Mohtasham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare entities. Despite advances in surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, the rate of the mortality and five-year survival has not been improved markedly over the last few decades. The activation of EGFR- RAS-RAF signaling pathway contributes to the initiation and progression of many human cancers, promising a key pathway for therapeutic molecules. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate BRAF mutations in salivary gland carcinomas. Methods: We designed PCR- RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction -Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and screened 50 salivary gland carcinomas (SGCs including mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC, adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA for the BRAF V600E mutation. Results: PCR-RFLP analyses demonstrated no mutation in BRAF exon 15 for SGC samples at position V600, which is the most commonly mutated site for BRAF in human cancer. Conclusions: According to our results SGCs didn’t acquire BRAF mutations that result in a constitutive activation of the signaling cascade downstream of EGFR, hence SGCs can be a good candidate for anti EGFR therapies.

  7. Follicular adenoma and carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Christopher R; Phitayakorn, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland include benign follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Currently, a follicular carcinoma cannot be distinguished from a follicular adenoma based on cytologic, sonographic, or clinical features alone. The pathogenesis of follicular carcinoma may be related to iodine deficiency and various oncogene and/or microRNA activation. Advances in molecular testing for genetic mutations may soon allow for preoperative differentiation of follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma. Until then, a patient with a follicular neoplasm should undergo a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy, which is definitive treatment for a benign follicular adenoma or a minimally invasive follicular cancer. Additional therapy is necessary for invasive follicular carcinoma including completion thyroidectomy, postoperative radioactive iodine ablation, whole body scanning, and thyrotropin suppressive doses of thyroid hormone. Less than 10% of patients with follicular carcinoma will have lymph node metastases, and a compartment-oriented neck dissection is reserved for patients with macroscopic disease. Regular follow-up includes history and physical examination, cervical ultrasound and serum TSH, and thyroglobulin and antithyroglobulin antibody levels. Other imaging studies are reserved for patients with an elevated serum thyroglobulin level and a negative cervical ultrasound. Systemic metastases most commonly involve the lung and bone and less commonly the brain, liver, and skin. Microscopic metastases are treated with high doses of radioactive iodine. Isolated macroscopic metastases can be resected with an improvement in survival. The overall ten-year survival for patients with minimally invasive follicular carcinoma is 98% compared with 80% in patients with invasive follicular carcinoma.

  8. Invasive ductal carcinoma of the mammary gland in a mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, K; Honda, Y; Sako, T; Okamoto, M; Tsunoda, N; Tagami, M; Taniyama, H

    2003-01-01

    A 21-year-old thoroughbred mare had a 35 x 14 x 10 cm mass involving the mammary gland. Metastases were found in the kidneys, lungs, skeletal muscles, and regional lymph nodes. Histopathologic examination of the tumor revealed a ductal solid carcinoma with extensive intraductal and intralobular involvement and focal infiltration of the adjacent stroma. The intralobular neoplasms were divided into irregularly shaped islands and sheets of polygonal and spindle-shaped epithelial cells by thick or thin fibrous connective tissue bundles. The neoplastic cells had a small or moderate amount of cytoplasm that stained faintly with eosin and round or oval hyperchromatic nuclei. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for Lu-5, weakly positive for AE1/AE3, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, and negative for cytokeratin 8, cytokeratin 14, alpha-smooth muscle actin, calponin, and S100. The neoplasm was diagnosed as an invasive ductal carcinoma of the mammary gland with multiple metastases.

  9. Postirradiation carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G.H.

    1976-07-01

    In the early 1920's many infants and children received x-ray therapy for such conditions as enlarged thymus, hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids, cervical adenitis, sinusitis, and so forth. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland frequently received direct or scattered irradiation during these treatments. As the irradiated population has grown older it has become apparent that these people have an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Recent publicity on this problem in the newspaper, radio, and television has alarmed individuals or their parents who in turn have consulted their physicians for advice. All individuals with a history of head and neck irradiation should be considered as having an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. These patients should be examined every two years indefinitely. Fortunately, only a small percentage of irradiated individuals develop thyroid tumors. Most of the tumors found have been benign. Those which are malignant have been well differentiated, papillary, or follicular neoplasms which grow slowly, metastasize relatively late, and are curable by surgical removal before metastasis has occurred. If on palpation of the thyroid gland one or more firm, discrete nodules are palpated, these should be removed regardless of other findings. A scan may be useful in assessing the functional status of the nodule and may give some indication as to whether the nodule is malignant or benign. If the scan shows a cold area which corresponds with a palpable mass, the patient should be considered for prompt surgical exploration. If the scan shows a hot nodule, it is usually not malignant, but should be closely observed for change.

  10. Specificity of granular IgM deposition in folliculosebaceous units and sweat gland apparatus in direct immunofluorescence (DIF) of lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbendary, Amira; Zhou, Cheng; Valdebran, Manuel; Yu, Yan; Gad, AbdAllah; Kwon, Eun Ji; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis of lupus erythematosus (LE) in direct immunofluorescence testing is based on the finding of positive immunofluorescence at the dermoepidermal junction (DEJ). We sought to evaluate the sensitivity of IgM deposition at the DEJ and adnexal structures in the diagnosis of lupus erythematosus. We conducted a retrospective study of 100 previously diagnosed cases of lupus erythematosus and 158 cases of other immune-mediated dermatosis. Deposition of IgG, IgM, IgA, and C3 at the DEJ, follicular units, and sweat glands were recorded. Presence or absence of adnexal structures was documented. The immunoreactant deposition was documented as linear, coarse granular, or stippled. The most frequently deposited immunoreactant in lupus erythematosus cases was IgM along the DEJ and stromal-epithelial junction of hair follicles and sweat glands. IgM deposition along the stromal-epithelial junction of hair follicles and sweat glands was strongly associated with a diagnosis of lupus erythematosus compared with other immune-mediated diseases collectively (P value < .001). The pattern of IgM in lupus and dermatomyositis is granular, in contrast to the linear deposition in the other disorders evaluated. This was a retrospective study of archived material. Granular IgM deposition at the stromal-epithelial junction of cutaneous adnexal structures suggests a diagnosis of lupus erythematosus or dermatomyositis. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

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    Kwon, Kyung Yun; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Dong Youn; Choi, Karp Shik [Dept. of Dental Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-15

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor with typical histologic patterns. The majority of the se tumors occurs in the minor salivary glands, especially mucosa of the hard palate. The authors experienced the patients, who complained the tumor-like soft tissue masses on the palatal and mouth floor area. After careful analysis of clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, we diagnosed them as adenoid cystic carcinomas in the minor salivary glands, obtained results were as follows : 1. Main clinical symptoms were a slow growing soft tissue mass with normal intact mucosa on the palatal area, and soft tissue mass with mild pain on the mouth floor area. 2. In the radiographic examinations, soft tissue masses were observed with invasion to adjacent structures, and moderate defined, heterogeneous soft tissue mass with enhanced margin, respectively. 3. In the histopathologic examinations, dark-stained, small uniform ballad's cells in the hyaline or fibrous stroma were observed as solid and cribriform patterns, respectively.

  12. Mitochondrial mutations in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail K Mithani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. METHODOLOGY: The entire mitochondrial genome of 22 salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC of salivary glands and matched leukocyte DNA was sequenced to determine the frequency and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in ACC tumors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen of 22 ACCs (77% carried mitochondrial mutations, ranging in number from 1 to 37 mutations. A disproportionate number of mutations occurred in the D-loop. Twelve of 17 tumors (70.6% carried mutations resulting in amino acid changes of translated proteins. Nine of 17 tumors (52.9% with a mutation carried an amino acid changing mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH complex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mitochondrial mutation is frequent in salivary ACCs. The high incidence of amino acid changing mutations implicates alterations in aerobic respiration in ACC carcinogenesis. D-loop mutations are of unclear significance, but may be associated with alterations in transcription or replication.

  13. Mitochondrial mutations in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, Suhail K; Shao, Chunbo; Tan, Marietta; Smith, Ian M; Califano, Joseph A; El-Naggar, Adel K; Ha, Patrick K

    2009-12-30

    The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. The entire mitochondrial genome of 22 salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of salivary glands and matched leukocyte DNA was sequenced to determine the frequency and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in ACC tumors. Seventeen of 22 ACCs (77%) carried mitochondrial mutations, ranging in number from 1 to 37 mutations. A disproportionate number of mutations occurred in the D-loop. Twelve of 17 tumors (70.6%) carried mutations resulting in amino acid changes of translated proteins. Nine of 17 tumors (52.9%) with a mutation carried an amino acid changing mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) complex. Mitochondrial mutation is frequent in salivary ACCs. The high incidence of amino acid changing mutations implicates alterations in aerobic respiration in ACC carcinogenesis. D-loop mutations are of unclear significance, but may be associated with alterations in transcription or replication.

  14. Mucinous Carcinoma with Neuroendocrine Differentiation of Salivary Gland Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frankie K; Zumsteg, Zachary S; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Ali, Nabilah; Maclary, Shawn; Balzer, Bonnie L; Ho, Allen S

    2017-06-01

    Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the salivary gland are rare malignancies defined by aggregates of epithelial cells suspended in large pools of extracellular mucin. We report a case of a giant mucinous adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin, with low-grade cytoarchitectural features and neuroendocrine differentiation arising in the submental region. Grossly, the tumor measured 12.5 × 13.4 × 8.2 cm and replaced the bone and soft tissues of the anterior oral cavity. Microscopically, the neoplasm was composed of large extracellular pools of mucin, which contained papillary and acinar aggregates, and small nodules of ductal type epithelium with minimal nuclear enlargement, powdery chromatin and little pleomorphism. The nodules comprised 20 % of the tumor and showed morphologic and immunohistochemical evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation. Examination revealed histologic features comparable to mammary gland analogues in mucin predominance, ductal type morphology, expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, and GATA-3 positivity. This is the first case reported of mucin-rich carcinoma of salivary gland origin exhibiting neuroendocrine differentiation.

  15. Lung metastasis resection of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Antonio; Copelli, Chiara; Ampollini, Luca; Bianchi, Bernardo; Carbognani, Paolo; Bettati, Stefano; Sesenna, Enrico; Rusca, Michele

    2008-05-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare tumour originating from the exocrine mucous glands, known for its high propensity for distant metastases. The value of lung metastasis resection from adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands origin is evaluated. A retrospective study was conducted on patients undergoing surgery for primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands between 1982 and 2006. Patients were excluded who had primary tumour macroscopic incomplete resection or were lost at follow-up. From a database of 50 eligible patients, 27 were identified as having presented a tumour recurrence during follow-up; in 20 it was first diagnosed in the form of distant metastases, and in 7 in the form of loco-regional recurrence. Nine patients who presented isolated lung recurrence underwent complete lung metastasectomy. Demographic data, pathologic characteristics and operative and postoperative record were reviewed, as well as updated survival. Twenty-six men and 24 women with a median age of 57 years (range 33-79) underwent radical surgery for adenoid cystic carcinoma during the study period. In 20 patients, at a median free interval time of 3 years (range 1-12), a distant metastasis relapse was observed. Nine patients with a median free interval time of 5 years (range 1-12) underwent lung metastasectomy: five had single metastasis resection, one multiple mono-pulmonary and three multiple and bilateral. In six of these patients a new disease recurrence was noted: four patients underwent further lung metastasectomy, but in all of them progression of the disease was observed. Mean survival of the population as a whole resulted as being 16 years (SE=1.4) with an actuarial survival of 77% at 5 years, 66% at 10 years and 56% at 15 years. Mean survival of patients having presented with distant metastases resulted as being 11 years (SE=2.2). Mean survival after appearance of distant metastases resulted as being 72 months (SE=15.8) in the 9 patients treated by

  16. Renal metastasis from adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland: Report of the cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the major salivary gland is a relatively rare tumor which is well known for its high local recurrence rate and frequent distant metastasis. Metastasis of this tumor to kidney has not been reported previously to our knowledge.We report two cases of renal metastasis from adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland.

  17. Clear cell eccrine carcinoma with comedonecrosis in neck region: a  rare case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka H Hande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alka H Hande, Archana M Sonone, Minal S ChaudharyDepartment of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Sharad Pawar Dental College, Sawangi (Meghe, Wardha, IndiaAbstract: Adnexal carcinomas of the skin are rare; they derive from structures such as sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles. Adnexal tumors represent 1%–2% of skin cancers. Carcinomas of the eccrine sweat gland represent a rare group of tumors with potential for local destruction and metastasis. Clear cell changes are a prominent feature in a wide variety of squamous and adnexal carcinomas. Pure clear cell carcinomas of the skin are exceptionally rare. Eccrine clear cell carcinoma is most commonly seen in the scalp region. We represent a rare case report of clear cell eccrine carcinoma with comedonecrosis in the neck region which is an unusual location for this type of tumor.Keywords: adnexal carcinomas, carcinomas of the eccrine sweat gland, clear cell eccrine carcinoma with comedonecrosis

  18. Cells in 3D-reconstitutued eccrine sweat gland cell spheroids differentiate into gross cystic disease fluid protein 15-expressing dark secretory cells and carbonic anhydrase II-expressing clear secretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haihong; Chen, Liyun; Zhang, Mingjun; Zhang, Bingna

    2017-07-01

    Secretory coils of eccrine sweat glands are composed of myoepithelial cells, dark secretory cells and clear secretory cells. The two types of cells play important roles in sweat secretion. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the 3D-reconstituted eccrine sweat gland cell spheroids differentiate into secretory coil-like structures. However, whether the secretory coil-like structures further differentiate into dark secretory cells and clear secretory cells were is still unknown. In this study, we detected the differentiation of clear and dark secretory cells in the 3D-reconstituted eccrine sweat gland cell spheroids using the dark secretory cell-specific marker, GCDFP-15, and clear secretory cell-specific marker, CAII by immunofluorescence staining. Results showed that there were both GCDFP-15- and CAII-expressing cells in 12-week-old 3D spheroids, similar to native eccrine sweat glands, indicating that the spheroids possess a cellular structure capable of sweat secretion. We conclude that the 12-week 3D spheroids may have secretory capability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic Recurrent Major or Minor Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  20. Mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity in salivary gland carcinomas other than mammary analogue secretory carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kalyani R; Solomon, Isaac H; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2013-11-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that has morphologic features similar to secretory carcinoma of the breast and that also harbors the same ETV6 translocation. Diffuse mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity are used to differentiate MASC from its morphologic mimics, especially acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. However, the combination of mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity has not been well studied in other types of salivary gland carcinomas that may have focal areas reminiscent of MASC. Here we evaluated mammaglobin and S-100 immunoreactivity in 15 cases each of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and also in 2 cases of adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified, and 1 mucinous adenocarcinoma. Cases with significant co-expression of mammaglobin and S-100 (moderate or strong immunoreactivity in >25% of tumor cells) were further analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using the ETV6 (12p13) break-apart probe. Nine cases (60%) of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and two (13.3%) of adenoid cystic carcinoma met the criteria for significant co-expression of mammaglobin and S-100. All were negative for the ETV6 translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Although mammaglobin and S-100 positivity was seen in the majority of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas and a minority of adenoid cystic carcinomas, none were positive for the ETV6 translocation characteristic of MASC. This indicates a need for caution in the use of immunohistochemistry for diagnosing MASC, especially in the absence of cytogenetic confirmation. © 2013.

  1. What's Sweat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight for Me? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs What's Sweat? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Sweat? Print A A ... dehydrated (say: dee-HI-drayt-ed). Why Does Sweat Smell? Sweat isn't just wet — it can ...

  2. Clinicopathological characterization of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiosea, Simion I; Griffith, Christopher; Assaad, Adel; Seethala, Raja R

    2012-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described tumour with ETV6 translocation. We aimed to characterize the clinical significance of recognizing MASC. Thirty-six patients with MASC (27 identified retrospectively and nine prospectively) are presented. Historically, MASC mimicked other salivary tumours, as follows: 14 of 37 (37.8%) adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified, 11 of 89 (12.4%) acinic cell carcinomas (AciCC), one of five (20%) mucin-producing signet ring adenocarcinomas, and one of 165 (0.6%) mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Demographically, MASC affected males more commonly (1.4:1). The average age at diagnosis was 45.7 years. Parotid gland was the most common site of involvement (26 of 36, 72.2%), although other head and neck sites, including the base of tongue, were affected. Of 18 patients with neck dissection, lymph node involvement was identified in four patients (four of 18, 22.2%). Survival analysis of MASC cases presented here, combined with those reported previously, revealed a mean disease-free survival for patients with MASC of 92 months [n = 29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 71-115 months], compared with a mean DFS of 121 months for patients with AciCC (n = 38; 95% CI 92-149, P = 0.43). Although perhaps slightly more aggressive, MASC clinical outcome mimics that of AciCC. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Non-invasive diagnosis of sweat gland dysplasia using optical coherence tomography and reflectance confocal microscopy in a family with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, M; Gauglitz, G G; Giehl, K; Braun-Falco, M; Schwaiger, H; Schauber, J; Ruzicka, T; Berneburg, M; von Braunmühl, T

    2016-04-01

    Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) is an inherited syndrome, which originates mainly from genetic alteration of the ectodysplasin A (EDA) gene. It regularly affects the adnexa of the skin which results in a characteristic phenotype of the patients including hypo- or anhidrosis leading to severe disturbances in the regulation of body temperature. To prevent the development of the symptoms in early childhood promising therapeutic approaches are currently under clinical investigation. In this context, timely diagnosis of this genetic syndrome is crucial. The purpose of our study was the investigation of modern non-invasive imaging methods such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in the immediate diagnosis of AED. We examined a 3-year-old boy with the suspicion for an AED syndrome and his family members with RCM and OCT to document presence and characteristic features of sweat glands in comparison to non-affected individuals. The patient and the affected brother showed significantly reduced sweat glands in the imaging compared to the controls. The genetic analysis revealed a mutation of the EDA gene for hemizygosity previously associated with AED and the mother was revealed as the conductor of the genetic alteration. With the help of non-invasive imaging, we were able to detect sweat gland dysplasia in the affected family members without performing a biopsy which led us to the diagnosis of an AED. The application of modern dermatological imaging techniques might serve as valuable supplementary tools in the immediate, non-invasive diagnosis of genetic syndromes especially in newborns when early therapeutic approaches are planned. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

  5. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sublingual gland: A case report

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    Song, Ji Young [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the sublingual gland is an extremely rare neoplasm. The clinicopathological characteristics of ACC are slow-growing swelling with or without ulceration, perineural spread, local recurrence, and distant metastasis. This report describes a 58-year-old male who had a slowly growing swelling without ulceration on the right side of the mouth floor that had been present for 1 month. In a radiological examination, the mass showed multilocular cystic features and no bony or tongue muscle invasion. No enlarged cervical lymph nodes were detected. Excisional biopsy and histological analysis showed that the lesion was ACC. In addition to reporting a rare case of ACC, this report also discusses the differential diagnosis and treatment of ACC with a review of the relevant literature.

  6. Thyroid Gland Involvement in Carcinoma Larynx and Hypopharynx-Predictive Factors and Prognostic Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iype, Elizabeth Mathew; Jagad, Vijay; Nochikattil, Santhosh Kumar; Varghese, Bipin T; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative management of thyroid gland in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer is controversial. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion in patients undergoing surgery for laryngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma, to assess predictive factors and to assess the prognosis in patients with and without thyroid gland invasion. One hundred and thirty-three patients who underwent surgery for carcinoma larynx and hypopharynx from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Surgical specimens were examined to determine the incidence of thyroid gland invasion and predictive factors were analysed. The recurrence rate and the survival in patients with and without thyroid gland invasion were also analysed. Out of the 133 patients with carcinoma larynx and hypopharynx who underwent surgery, histological thyroid gland invasion was observed in 28/133 (21%) patients. Significant relationship was found between histological thyroid gland invasion and preoperative evidence of thyroid cartilage erosion by CT scan and also when gross thyroid gland involvement observed during surgery. There is significant association between thyroid gland invasion when there is upper oesophageal or subglottic involvement. After analysing the retrospective data from our study, we would like to suggest that thyroid gland need not be removed routinely in all laryngectomies, unless there is advanced disease with thyroid cartilage erosion and gross thyroid gland involvement or disease with significant subglottic or oesophageal involvement.

  7. [The changing pattern of stem cell markers of sweat gland in deep partial-thickness burn wound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIANG, Du-yin; ZONG, Xian-lei; FU, Xiao-bing; WANG, Wei; SHAN, Fei

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the rules of proliferation of epithelial cells of sweat glands in deep partial-thickness burn wound and its transdifferentiation towards epidermal cells during healing process to explore its mechanisms. Twenty-eight patients with limbs and trunk burn hospitalized in the Fourth People's Hospital of Taizhou City of Jiangsu Province and the Second Hospital of Shandong University from January 2004 to December 2007 were enrolled in the study. Tissue samples of deep partial-thickness burn wound (DPBW, n = 37), superficial partial-thickness burn wound (SPBW, n = 21), and normal skin (NS, n = 10) were harvested. Expressions of cytokeratin 10 (CK10), bcl-2, P63, CK14 and CK19 of epithelial cells in glandular secretory portion (GSP) in DPBW, SPBW and NS were detected with immunohistochemical double staining method. In NS, CK19, CK14 and CK10 expressed in medium intensity in GSP epithelial cells, P63 and CK14 weakly expressed in basal myoepithelial cells, while no expression of bcl-2 or P63 was observed in all CK10 positive terminally differentiated cells. In SPBW, no change of the construction of GSP and above-mentioned proteins during healing process was observed. In DPBW, as examined on 7(th) post burn day (PBD), expression of P63 and bcl-2 in GSP epithelial cells was enhanced. In DPBW on 8 - 10 PBD, bcl-2, P63, CK19 and CK14 strongly positive solid island-like epithelial structure was formed by proliferation, migration and squamous epithelization of basal cells. Such structure, along with granulation tissue, migrated towards the superficial layer of wounds. The hyperplasia of squamous epithelium resulted in complete reepithelialization. In DPBW, bcl-2, CK14, CK19 and P63 still strongly expressed in hyper-proliferative epidermal basal and suprabasal layers on 13 - 30 day after healing. During the natural healing process of DPBW, monolayer epithelium (CK19 and CK10 positive) of GSP slowly develops into stratified squamous epithelium (bcl-2, P63, CK19, and CK

  8. Large lipid-rich mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid gland: An unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prashant; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Singh, Shuchita; Kinra, Prateek; Ray, Ruma; Thakar, Alok

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland is a malignant tumor which bears morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular features similar to those of mammary secretory carcinoma. The tumor is considered as a low-grade malignancy perhaps slightly more aggressive than acinic cell carcinoma. High-grade transformation with recurrences, regional nodal involvement, metastases, and cancer-related death has been reported in a few cases. We report an unusual case of large MASC of the parotid gland in a young patient without regional lymph node involvement. To the best of our knowledge till date such a large MASC of the salivary gland has not been reported in the English literature.

  9. Mixed primary squamous cell carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Su; Song, Xue-Song; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jia

    2016-08-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare, and mixed squamous cell and follicular carcinoma is even rarer still, with only a few cases reported in the literature. The simultaneous presentation of three primary cancers of the thyroid has not been reported previously. Here we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid, follicular thyroid carcinoma, and micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old female patient presented with complaints of pain and a 2-month history of progressively increased swelling in the anterior region of the neck. Fine-needle-aspiration cytology of both lobes indicated the possibility of the presence of a follicular neoplasm. Total thyroidectomy with left-sided modified radical neck dissection was performed. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of thyroid follicular carcinoma with squamous cell carcinoma and micropapillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy with l-thyroxine was administered. Radioiodine and radiotherapy also were recommended, but the patient did not complete treatment as scheduled. The patient remained alive more than 9 months after operation. The present case report provides an example of the coexistence of multiple distinct malignancies in the thyroid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Case Report of Bilateral Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of Adrenal Glands With Adrenal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Nagase, Mamiko; Takami, Saki; Araki, Asuka; Ishikawa, Nahoko; Koike, Chiaki; Shiina, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Riruke

    2016-12-01

    Adrenocortical carcinomas are relatively rare, but they are considered to be highly aggressive malignant tumors. Sarcomatoid carcinomas represent an even more aggressive type. Bilateral malignant adrenal tumors are extraordinary rare, except for those that represent metastatic spread from a primary neoplasm. Here we report a case of a 69-year-old woman who presented symptoms that raised strong suspicions of adrenal insufficiency. Bilateral adrenal masses, identified in the imaging study, were responsible for the clinical manifestation and surgically resected. Surgical specimens of the bilateral adrenal tumors shared histological features compatible with sarcomatoid carcinoma. It was very difficult to confirm that the sarcomatoid carcinomas were derived from the cortex of the adrenal glands, but careful morphological observation and the panel of antibodies used for immunohistochemistry made the diagnosis possible. This is the first report of sarcomatoid carcinomas involving both adrenal glands. It should be emphasized that sarcomatoid carcinoma can arise bilaterally from even functionally impaired adrenal glands. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Carcinoma of prostate in clinically benign enlarged gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ishtiaq Ali; Nasir, Muhammad; Akbar, Muhammad; Khattak, Irfan-ud-Din; Khan, Asif Nawaz; Jan, Attaullah; Asif, Sadia; Zia-ur-Rehman

    2008-01-01

    Carcinoma of the prostate is one of the common tumours of old age in men. This cross sectional study was conducted to detect carcinoma of prostate in clinically benign enlarged gland and to evaluate the efficacy of Digital rectal Examination in detection of prostatic cancer in patients presented at Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from July 1998 to July 1999. Patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms over the age of 50 years were evaluated on English version of International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), clinically examined and post-voiding residual urine determined on abdominal sonography. The selection criteria were; Severe IPSS, absence of signs of malignancy on Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and post-voiding residual urine more than 100 ml. Thus a total 100 patients were selected for further study. Four ml blood was taken to assess Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) level pre-operatively. All these patients underwent either transvesical prostatectomy or transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) and enucleated prostatic tissues were sent to histopathology. Eighty-five percent patients had PSA level up to 10 etag/ml. PSA level of 15 (15%) patients were above 10n gm/ml out of which 13 (13%) patients were having PSA in range of 11-12 etag/ml and two (2%) had PSA level between 20-25 etag/ml. Histopathology report of 2% patients turned out as adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Out of 100 patients who were having clinically benign DRE findings, 2 turned out as Carcinoma of the prostate histologically.

  12. [Clinicopathologic features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X P; Ni, H; Wang, X; Chen, H; Shi, S S; Yu, B; Zhou, X J; Rao, Q

    2017-01-08

    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands, and its diagnosis, differential diagnosis, immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology. Methods: Seventeen cases of MASC were enrolled, with 9 cases of salivary acinar cell carcinoma and 18 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma as control groups from Nanjing General Hospital from 1997 to 2014 were included in this retrospective study, combined with immunohistochemistry and molecular detection of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. All cases were histologically reviewed with immunohistochemical staining (EnVision) for S-100 protein, SOX10, GATA3, CD117 expression in each group. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Results: The age of MASC patients ranged from 27 to 74 years with mean age of 47 and ratio of male and female was 4∶3. All cases showed infiltrative growth and diverse cytology and histology, including lobular (8 cases), cystic papillary (3 cases), cribriform mixed with papillary and glandular structures (6 cases) at various proportions. Some tumors of MASC also exhibited solid growth areas with occasional microcystic honeycombed pattern composed of small cysts merged into larger cysts resembling thyroid follicles. S-100 protein and SOX10 were strongly positive in all MASC cases (17/17). In addition, there was insignificant positivity for GATA3 (3/17) and CD117 (4/17). ETV6 gene fusion detection was informative in 12 MASC cases by FISH with 10 positive cases and 2 negative cases. Conclusions: Combined immunohistochemical positivity of S-100 protein, CD117 and SOX10 are useful in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of MASC. FISH detection of ETV6-NTRK3 fusion offers an additional molecular diagnostic marker for the diagnosis.

  13. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Night Sweats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Night sweats By Mayo Clinic Staff Night sweats are repeated episodes of extreme perspiration that may soak your nightclothes or ... these episodes are usually not labeled as night sweats and typically aren't a sign of a ...

  15. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Riaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old Saudi man with past history of right radical nephrectomy 5 years back presented with 3 months history of rapid increasing neck mass with dysphagia, presenting like anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Tru-cut biopsy turned out to be metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patient was treated with radiation therapy 30 Gy in 10 fractions to mass. Patient died 4 months after the discovery of anaplastic thyroid looking metastasis. Conclusion. Rapidly progressing thyroid metastases secondary to RCC are rare and found often unresectable which are not amenable to surgery. Palliative radiotherapy can be considered for such patients.

  16. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity

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    Ivan Damjanov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results.

  17. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanov, Ivan; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir

    2016-08-02

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results.

  18. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of salivary gland: Report of a rare case

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    Arati S Panchbhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rarity of primary squamous cell carcinoma of salivary gland coupled with degree of morphological diversity of the salivary gland carcinomas make this group of lesions, one of the most interesting and challenging diagnosis in the head and neck region. Owing to clinical and the histological diversity, the histological examination of an entire specimen is needed for diagnosis. Although tumor grading is important, it is not an independent prognostic indicator; the diagnosis and management need careful consideration of clinical and pathological features together. There are very few reports of this tumor originating in the submandibular gland. The present article reports the rare case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of submandibular gland in a 58-year-old male with brief review.

  19. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: update on a new diagnosis of salivary gland malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Roshan; Kozin, Elliott; Remenschneider, Aaron; Meier, Josh; VanderLaan, Paul; Faquin, William; Deschler, Daniel; Frankenthaler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To review the known histopathologic findings and clinical behavior of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC). PubMed. Literature search using the terms "Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma," "Mammary analog secretory carcinoma," and "MASC" to identify all relevant publications. MASC is an unusual and rare malignant salivary gland tumor first described in 2010. It shares histologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic features with secretory carcinoma of the breast. The clinical behavior of MASC ranges from slowly growing tumors that infrequently recur after surgical resection to aggressive tumors that cause widespread metastasis and death. Many cases of MASC were discovered in archived cases previously classified as acinic cell carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified. MASC is a newly recognized variant of salivary gland malignancy. Further research is needed to better delineate its overall prevalence and to define an appropriate treatment algorithm for this new clinical entity. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Pure intraductal carcinoma of the parotid gland: Cytologic findings on FNA sample. Report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barizzi, Jessica; Merlo, Elisabetta; Schönegg, Rene; Pelloni, Raffaele; Mazzuchelli, Luca; Fulciniti, Franco

    2017-11-01

    One case of intraductal carcinoma of the parotid gland in a 67-year-old male patient is here introduced. The patient, who had a one-year history of a parotid mass, had undergone ultrasound and MRI examination that disclosed a 13x4x3 mm well delimited nodular mass of the accessory lobe of his left parotid gland. Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) had been performed by the clinician. The obtained smears showed widespread cellular necrosis in which cellular clusters with moderate and focally severe atypias displayed papillary and cribriform architecture and were admixed with sheets of epithelial cells with less striking nuclear atypias, squamous, or apocrine metaplasia. Histopathological examination disclosed a pure intraductal carcinoma of the parotid gland with classical morphology, which was radically excised. The differential cytological diagnosis of pure intraductal carcinoma of salivary glands may be difficult and comprises mucoepidermoid carcinoma as well as "in situ" carcinomas developping in the context of sclerosing polycystic adenosis, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and cystic variants of salivary adenocarcinoma NOS (formerly called cystadenocarcinomas). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Differential senescence capacities in meibomian gland carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhu, Xiaowei; Ge, Shengfang; Gilson, Eric; Jia, Renbing; Ye, Jing; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-15

    Meibomian gland carcinoma (MGC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid carcinomas that exhibit highly dissimilar degrees of proliferation and prognoses. We address here the question of the differential mechanisms between these two eyelid cancers that explain their different outcome. A total of 102 confirmed MGC and 175 diagnosed BCC cases were analyzed. Twenty confirmed MGC and twenty diagnosed BCC cases were collected to determine the telomere length, the presence of senescent cells, and the expression levels of the telomere capping shelterin complex, P53, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah1. Decreased protein levels of the shelterin subunits, shortened telomere length, over-expressed Ki-67, and Bcl2 as well as mutations in P53 were detected both in MGC and BCC. It suggests that the decreased protein levels of the shelterin complex and the shortened telomere length contribute to the tumorigenesis of MGC and BCC. However, several parameters distinguish MGC from BCC samples: (i) the mRNA level of the shelterin subunits decreased in MGC but it increased in BCC; (ii) P53 was more highly mutated in MGC; (iii) Siah1 mRNA was over-expressed in BCC; (iv) BCC samples contain a higher level of senescent cells; (v) Ki-67 and Bcl2 expression were lower in BCC. These results support a model where a preserved P53 checkpoint in BCC leads to cellular senescence and reduced tumor proliferation as compared to MGC. © 2015 UICC.

  2. Large lipid-rich mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid gland: An unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC of the salivary gland is a malignant tumor which bears morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular features similar to those of mammary secretory carcinoma. The tumor is considered as a low-grade malignancy perhaps slightly more aggressive than acinic cell carcinoma. High-grade transformation with recurrences, regional nodal involvement, metastases, and cancer-related death has been reported in a few cases. We report an unusual case of large MASC of the parotid gland in a young patient without regional lymph node involvement. To the best of our knowledge till date such a large MASC of the salivary gland has not been reported in the English literature.

  3. Primary lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland in a North African woman

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    Soumaya Ben Abdelkrim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands is a rare neoplasm that is characterized by a non-neoplastic lymphocytic infiltration associated with an epithelial proliferation. It involves mainly the parotid gland. Racial and geographical factors contribute to the pathogenesis of this tumor. We report a case of a 70-year old woman from a non-endemic area who presented with several months history of swelling in the parotid region. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a parotid mass suggestive of a pleomorphic adenoma. The diagnosis of lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the parotid gland was performed on the surgical specimen. A primitive nasopharyngeal carcinoma was ruled out by random biopsies of the nasopharynx mucosa. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV was absent in neoplastic cells. We insist that, even in non-endemic areas and when clinical and radiological characteristics are not suggestive of malignancy, intra-operative frozen section analysis should be used in order to ensure the appropriate treatment.

  4. A case report of adenoid cystic carcinoma of lacrimal gland

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    Rajeshwari S Vhora

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of ACC of lacrimal gland. They are rare malignant tumors in a patient presenting with an orbital mass. They account for 1.6% of all orbital tumors. Despite their rarity, they are the second most frequent epithelial neoplasms occurring in the lacrimal gland after pleomorphic adenomas.

  5. Salivary gland carcinoma in Denmark 1990-2005: Outcome and prognostic factors Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    To describe outcome and prognostic factors in a national Danish series of patients treated for salivary gland carcinoma. From three Danish nation-wide registries and supplementary patient records, 871 patients diagnosed with primary major or minor salivary gland carcinoma in the period from 1990...... impact on survival in salivary gland carcinoma patients. This knowledge can be helpful in guiding clinicians in daily work and choice of treatment across the large variety of salivary gland carcinoma subtypes....

  6. Collision of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of Anogenital Mammary-like Glands and Vulvar Sarcomatoid Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tien A N; Deavers, Michael T; Carlson, J Andrew; Malpica, Anais

    2015-09-01

    A spectrum of invasive adenocarcinomas presumably arising from the anogenital mammary-like glands of the vulva has been reported. Even rarer are the cases of pure ductal carcinoma in situ that originated from these unique glandular structures. Herein, we report an 81-yr-old woman presented with an invasive well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Unexpectedly, the underlying dermis demonstrated a cystically dilated structure that displayed a layer of malignant squamous cells in the periphery, and a second centrally located population of neoplastic cells exhibiting glandular differentiation. In addition, a spindle and pleomorphic malignant cell population consistent with a sarcomatoid carcinoma was identified around the cystic structure. Scattered benign anogenital mammary-like glands were present in the adjacent dermis. The histologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with those of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma that has undergone sarcomatoid transformation after spreading in a pagetoid fashion into an underlying focus of ductal carcinoma in situ of anogenital mammary-like gland origin.

  7. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  8. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary glands: a diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindocha, N; Wilson, M H; Pring, M; Hughes, C W; Thomas, S J

    2017-04-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently identified salivary gland neoplasm that can mimic other salivary gland tumours such as acinic cell carcinoma and cystadenocarcinoma. It is distinguished from these by differences in immunohistochemical profile and the identification of an ETV6-NTRK3 translocation (12;15)(p13;q25), which is also found in secretory carcinomas of the breast. Previous publications have suggested that MASC tumours have similar biological behaviour to acinic cell carcinoma. We report two cases of MASC that affected the upper lip, and showed an infiltrative and locally aggressive growth pattern that required several operations to ensure clearance of microscopic tumour cells. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary gland, lacrimal gland, and breast are morphologically and genetically similar but have distinct microRNA expression profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Tan, Qihua; Agander, Tina Klitmøller

    2018-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is among the most frequent malignancies in the salivary and lacrimal glands and has a grave prognosis characterized by frequent local recurrences, distant metastases, and tumor-related mortality. Conversely, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare type of triple......-negative (estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2) and basal-like carcinoma, which in contrast to other triple-negative and basal-like breast carcinomas has a very favorable prognosis. Irrespective of site, adenoid cystic carcinoma is characterized by gene fusions involving MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB, and the reason...... for the different clinical outcomes is unknown. In order to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the discrepancy in clinical outcome, we characterized the phenotypic profiles, pattern of gene rearrangements, and global microRNA expression profiles of 64 salivary gland, 9 lacrimal gland, and 11 breast...

  10. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm. Key words:Acinic cell carcinoma, ETV6-NTRK3, Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma, secretory breast carcinoma. PMID:25481229

  11. Carcinoma da glândula supra-renal Adrenal gland carcinoma

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    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2007-09-01

    varia de 10% a 35%. Após operação curativa varia de 20% a 58%.BACKGROUND: Adrenal gland neoplasm may be originated from diverse histological types. Carcinomas are rare findings, and correspond to only 0,02% of all neoplasms. AIM: To review the latest advances in relation to the treatment of adrenal gland carcinomas. METHODS: A literature review was performed using Medline, text books and authors, as well as references obtained from relevant articles. CONCLUSION: Approximately 79% of adrenal gland carcinomas are functional. The most commonly secreted hormone is cortisol, which causes Cushing´s syndrome. Patients with non-functional lesions may complain about local growth of the lesion. This type of carcinoma is present in a series of other neoplasic syndromes of familiar origen. According to the symptoms, initial diagnostic investigation involves dosage of urinary cortisol, as well as aldosterone and renin serum levels. Abdominal tomography or magnetic ressonance are first class image tests. Fluorodeoxyglucose pet scan is a tool that can be used to differentiate benign and malignant lesions. Fine needle biopsy is not indicated due to the high rate of complications. The choosen treatment is usually surgery with block ressection of adjacent organs if necessary. Aortic and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy should be performed. Local recurrence and metastasis occur in 80% of the cases. Cytoreductive surgical procedures benefit cases of advanced disease. Quimiotherapy using mitotane is indicated to patients who were submitted to cytoreductive surgery, who have had local recurrence and in those with metastasis. Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice in the event of bone metastasis and adjuvant treatment is used in a few cases with elevated recurrence risks. In adults, the overall average life span in 5 years varies between 10% to 35%. After curative surgery it varies between 20% to 58%.

  12. Sweat Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  13. Thyroid gland involvement in carcinoma of the hypopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P; Nair, S; Chaturvedi, P; Nair, D; Shivakumar, T; D'Cruz, A K

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid gland is removed en bloc during laryngectomy. There are no objective criteria for deciding the extent of thyroid gland resection in primary hypopharyngeal cancer cases. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of thyroid gland involvement in hypopharyngeal cancer and identify the various predictors of this involvement. This paper reports a retrospective analysis of 358 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer, who underwent total laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai between 2004 and 2010. The mean age of this population was 61 years. The pyriform sinus was the most common hypopharyngeal subsite involved (in 89 per cent of cases). Most patients underwent hemi-thyroidectomy as part of their surgery. The thyroid gland was involved in only 13 per cent of cases. Thyroid gland involvement is not common in hypopharyngeal cancer. Cases that involved the post-cricoid area, subglottic extension, extralaryngeal spread or prior tracheostomy were associated with a higher risk of thyroid gland involvement. Ipsilateral thyroidectomy is sufficient in most patients undergoing surgery (laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy) for hypopharyngeal cancers.

  14. Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland with Metastatic Spread to the Pancreas

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    Jessica L. Geiger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic disease to the pancreas is rare among solid tumors and has not been well described for salivary cancers. We report a patient who developed an isolated metastatic lesion in the pancreas from acinic cell carcinoma of the salivary gland, presenting as acute pancreatitis.

  15. Oncocytic carcinoma of the parotid gland with late cervical lymph node metastases: a case report

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    Calvo Nicolás

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oncocytic carcinoma is a rare proliferation of cytomorphologically malignant oncocytes mainly found in glandular tissue, accounting for 0.5% of all epithelial salivary gland malignancies and 0.18% of all epithelial salivary gland tumors. Case presentation We report a case of oncocytic carcinoma arising in the parotid gland of a 65-year-old Caucasian man. Our patient initially underwent left superficial parotidectomy, including the removal of the mass. A close follow-up was made, and four years after first surgery cervical lymph node metastases were confirmed. Therefore, a complete parotidectomy and radical neck dissections were performed. There were no complications and no sign of recurrence after six months of follow-up. Conclusion Oncocytic carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy in the salivary glands. Prophylactic neck dissection may be indicated for tumors larger than 2 cm in diameter (our patient's tumor was 2.5 cm at its greatest diameter. The clinical course of our patient, with the appearance of cervical lymph node metastases after four years of follow-up, supports this approach. Further investigation of the prognosis and correct treatment of patients with oncocytic carcinoma are required as more cases are reported.

  16. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in lacrimal gland is a rare entity unlike its salivary gland counterpart. This rare tumor poses a diagnostic challenge to clinicians as pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and diagnosis is only by careful pathological assessment. We report this uncommon lesion in a 62-year-old lady, wherein the malignant component was mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The elderly patient remained clinically and radiologically free of the tumor for two years after complete excision of the tumor but computed tomography at the end of two and a half years showed a recurrent lesion in the region of the lacrimal gland. This makes long term follow up of patients with these rare lacrimal tumors imperative with a minimum period of at least five years.

  17. Primary clear cell carcinoma of parotid gland: Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Marta Saldaña; Reija, Maria Fe García; Rodilla, Irene González

    2013-01-01

    Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a rare low-grade carcinoma that represents only 1% to 2% of all salivary glands tumors. The finding of a clear cell tumor in a parotid gland involves the necessity of differential diagnosis between primary clear cell parotid tumors and metastases, mainly from kidney. The biological behavior is not very aggressive and development, which is very slow, is usually asymptomatic and indeed, the tumor often reaches considerable dimensions before being diagnosed. The treatment of choice is the surgical excision. There are rare cases of local recurrence and distant metastases. The aim of this article is to report a primary CCC in the parotid gland that microscopically closely resembled a metastatic CCC of renal origin, making microscopic differentiation difficult.

  18. Simple mucin-type Tn and sialosyl-Tn carbohydrate antigens in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoplastic transformation is associated frequently with changes in the glycosylation process. Simple mucin-type glycosylation in cancer cells has been found to be characterized by incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation, leading to the exposure of the structures Tn and sialosyl......-Tn, which are normally cryptic in human cells and secretions, including saliva and salivary glands. METHODS: Paraffin sections from 50 salivary gland carcinomas of different histologic types were investigated with immunohistologic studies and a panel of monoclonal antibodies with well-defined specificity......: Mucin-type Tn and sialosyl-Tn may be regarded as markers of a glandular differentiation pattern in salivary gland carcinomas. The cellular location of the antigen-antibody complex indicates that they are synthesized and secreted from the tumor cells into saliva or serum....

  19. Prognostic significance of p53 immunohistochemical expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinglin; Huang, Ping; Zheng, Chuanming; Wang, Jiafeng; Ge, Minghua

    2017-04-25

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands is a rare adenocarcinoma and has been placed in "high-risk" category as poor long-term prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate p53 protein expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis. Literatures were searched from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science, which investigated the relationships between p53 expression and pathological type, clinical stage, local recurrence, metastasis, nerve infiltration and overall survival. A total of 1,608 patients from 36 studies were included in the analysis. The results showed that p53-postive expression rate was 49% in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands (OR=10.34, 95%CI: 4.93-21.71, P salivary glands. It can be considered as the auxiliary detection index in treatment and prognosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands.

  20. Co-Culture Systems of Human Sweat Gland Derived Stem Cells and Peripheral Nerve Cells: An in Vitro Approach for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Mehnert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The treatment of peripheral nerve lesions still represents a clinical challenge. Several approaches such as novel biomaterials for nerve guides, addition of growth factors or cellular supplements moved in the focus of research. Especially the application of autologous stem cells is highly promising for future applications. Human sweat gland derived stem cells (hSGSCs represent an easy accessible source of autologous adult stem cells and did already show a beneficial effect in dermal wound healing. Methods: In this study, the effect of hSGSCs on neurite outgrowth of primary adult or prenatal Dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons was analysed in an indirect co-culture model. Additionally, direct co-cultures with hSGSCs as a feeder layer were performed. Results: Adult and prenatal DRG neurons showed increased neurite outgrowth after 24 h co-culture with hSGSCs. The outgrowth increased significantly by the factors 5.6 and 2.6 respectively. Direct co-cultures revealed neurite alignment along the hSGSCs orientation. Conclusion: The paracrine influence of hSGSCs on neurite outgrowth, but also their ability to operate as a feeder layer with guidance properties shows great potential for future applications in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  1. Co-culture systems of human sweat gland derived stem cells and peripheral nerve cells: an in vitro approach for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, Julia M; Kisch, Tobias; Brandenburger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of peripheral nerve lesions still represents a clinical challenge. Several approaches such as novel biomaterials for nerve guides, addition of growth factors or cellular supplements moved in the focus of research. Especially the application of autologous stem cells is highly promising for future applications. Human sweat gland derived stem cells (hSGSCs) represent an easy accessible source of autologous adult stem cells and did already show a beneficial effect in dermal wound healing. In this study, the effect of hSGSCs on neurite outgrowth of primary adult or prenatal Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons was analysed in an indirect co-culture model. Additionally, direct co-cultures with hSGSCs as a feeder layer were performed. Adult and prenatal DRG neurons showed increased neurite outgrowth after 24 h co-culture with hSGSCs. The outgrowth increased significantly by the factors 5.6 and 2.6 respectively. Direct co-cultures revealed neurite alignment along the hSGSCs orientation. The paracrine influence of hSGSCs on neurite outgrowth, but also their ability to operate as a feeder layer with guidance properties shows great potential for future applications in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  2. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a new entity associated with ETV6 gene rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Hanna; Skálová, Alena; Stodulski, Dominik; Klimková, Adéla; Steiner, Petr; Stankiewicz, Czesław; Biernat, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumour that harbours the recurrent ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. This is the first series of MASC cases identified in the historic cohort of carcinomas of salivary glands with clinical/pathological correlation and follow-up data. We reviewed 183 primary carcinomas of major and minor salivary glands resected at the Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland, between 1992 and 2012. Based on morphology and immunohistochemistry, cases suspicious for MASC were selected, and the diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for ETV6 rearrangement and by RT-PCR for the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript. Seven carcinomas met the criteria of MASC, as they exhibited a typical appearance with solid/microcystic and papillary architecture and intraluminal secretions, and cells completely devoid of basophilic cytoplasmic zymogen granules indicative of true acinar differentiation. The only paediatric case was an unencapsulated tumour composed of macrocystic structures covered by a mostly single but, focally, double layer of cells with apocrine morphology. In all cases, the neoplastic cells revealed immunoreactivity for S100, mammaglobin, cytokeratin CK7, CK8, STAT5a and vimentin. FISH for ETV6 gene rearrangement was positive in six out of seven cases, and RT-PCR was positive in three cases. MASC is a new entity of malignant epithelial salivary gland tumours not included in the 2005 WHO Classification of Head and Neck Tumours. There is a growing body of evidence that it is not as rare as was assumed, as is also indicated by our series (3.8 %). In most cases, MASC shares some microscopic features with AciCC, adenocarcinoma/cystadenocarcinoma NOS and low-grade MEC. In rare cases, MASC with high-grade transformation may mimic the morphological appearances of high-grade salivary gland malignancies, such as salivary duct carcinoma.

  3. Mucinous Carcinoma with Neuroendocrine Differentiation of Salivary Gland Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Frankie K.; Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Langevin, Claude-Jean; Ali, Nabilah; Maclary, Shawn; Balzer, Bonnie L.; Ho, Allen S.

    2016-01-01

    Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the salivary gland are rare malignancies defined by aggregates of epithelial cells suspended in large pools of extracellular mucin. We report a case of a giant mucinous adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin, with low-grade cytoarchitectural features and neuroendocrine differentiation arising in the submental region. Grossly, the tumor measured 12.5 × 13.4 × 8.2 cm and replaced the bone and soft tissues of the anterior oral cavity. Microscopically, the neo...

  4. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of Parotid Gland in a Teenage Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Humera; Fatima, Hadia; Faheem, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a rare salivary gland malignancy that exhibits resemblance with secretory carcinoma of the breast (SC) due to the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion, formerly classified as acinic cell carcinoma. It is a slowly growing painless tumor that exhibits wide range of clinical behavior. This tumor typically affects middle aged people. Less than 100 such cases have been reported in the literature so far with only 8 case reports of patients less than 19 years of age. Very little is known about the clinical management of such cases. We hereby report a case of 15-year boy who had been managed for MASC of left parotid gland with exision.

  5. The Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigen in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1995-01-01

    The simple mucin-type T (Thomsen-Friedenreich) antigen is a marker of carcinomas, and has been related to aggressiveness of malignant tumours. We studied the expression of T, sialosyl-T, A and H blood group antigens in salivary gland carcinomas. The aim was to study whether the tumours, based...... on the expression of these structures, could be divided into new diagnostic groups that may later show prognostic significance. Formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 77 salivary gland carcinomas of different histological types were studied using immunohistology and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs......). Fresh frozen tissue was examined in 30 of the cases. Frozen sections were superior to paraffin sections in demonstrating T and H antigens. Aberrant glycosylation with accumulation of T (in cytoplasm) and sialosyl-T antigens (in cytoplasm, membrane and mucin) was found in all tumour types except acinic...

  6. MTA1 regulation of ERβ pathway in salivary gland carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshiro, Kazufumi, E-mail: bcmkxo@gwu.edu; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-09-04

    Abstracts: Although Metastatic-tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) is differentially expressed in metastatic cancer and coregulates the status and activity of nuclear receptors, its role upon estrogen receptor β (ERβ) – a potent tumor suppressor, remains poorly understood. Here we investigated whether MTA1 regulates the expression and functions of ERβ, an ER isoform predominantly expressed in salivary gland cancer cells. We found that the depletion of the endogenous MTA1 in the HSG and HSY salivary duct carcinoma cell lines enhances the expression of ERβ while MTA1 overexpression augmented the expression of ERβ in salivary duct carcinoma cells. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown inhibited the proliferations and invasion of HSG and HSY cells. The noted ERβ downregulation by MTA1 overexpression involves the process of proteasomal degradation, as a proteasome inhibitor could block it. In addition, both MTA1 knockdown and ERβ overexpression attenuated the cell migration and inhibited the ERK1/2 signaling in the both cell lines. These findings imply that MTA1 dysregulation in a subset of salivary gland cancer might promote aggressive phenotypes by compromising the tumor suppressor activity of ERβ, and hence, MTA1-ERβ axis might serve a new therapeutic target for the salivary gland cancer. - Highlights: • MTA1 silencing upregulates ERβ expression in salivary gland carcinoma cells. • MTA1 overexpression downregulates ERβ expression via proteasomal degradation. • Upregulation of ERβ expression inhibits cell migration and ERK signaling. • MTA1 knockdown inhibits cell proliferation and invasion.

  7. Clinical and Histopathological Characteristic of Salivary Gland Carcinoma in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lidya Andriani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salivary gland neoplasm is one of the rare neoplasm. The frequency of this neoplasm is lower than 2% of all type of tumors in human. Malignant salivary gland tumor comprises 6% of all head and neck tumors. Data about salivary gland carcinoma are still limited. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of malignant salivary gland based on the patients’ age, gender, site of lesion and histopathology type. Methods: This study was conducted descriptively. There were 97 subjects found from histopathological form that had been examined in Department of Anatomical Pathology, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in 2009–2012. Total sampling technique was used and all data about patients’ age, gender, site of lesion and histopathology type were collected and analyzed. Results: Of 97 cases, age group 50–59 years old had the highest frequency (29%. The prevalence in male was more frequent than female with male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The most common site of carcinoma was found in parotid gland (45%. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common histopathology type found in this study (28%. Conclusions: Salivary gland carcinoma is still a rare malignant case in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Carcinoma in parotid gland was the most common site and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common histopathology type.

  8. Joint Use of Skull Base Surgery in a Case of Pediatric Parotid Gland Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Ueda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parotid gland carcinoma is extremely rare in children. We report a case of pediatric parotid gland carcinoma with extensive infiltration into surrounding tissues including the skin and temporomandibular joint capsule at initial examination. Total resection of the parotid gland was conducted together with skull base surgery and mandibular dissection. The patient was a 14-year-old girl. In addition to the skin and temporomandibular joint, infiltration into the anterior wall of the external auditory meatus and masseter muscle was also seen, and T4N0M0 stage IV parotid carcinoma was diagnosed. Skin was resected together with the pinna, and temporal craniotomy and skull base surgery were performed to resect the temporomandibular joint capsule and external auditory meatus en bloc, and mandible dissection was conducted. Facial nerves were resected at the same time. Level I to level IV neck dissection was also conducted. A latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap was used for reconstruction. The postoperative permanent pathology diagnosis was high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma with a low-grade component. Postoperatively, radiotherapy at 50 Gy alone has been conducted, with no recurrence or metastasis observed for over 4 years.

  9. Extended immunologic and genetic lineage of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hao; Zhang, Xue-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Xia, Qiu-Yuan; Lv, Jing-Huan; Wang, Xuan; Shi, Shan-Shan; Li, Rui; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Rao, Qiu

    2016-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands is a newly recognized tumor entity. To explore a more practical and convenient immunohistochemical approach to distinguish MASC from other tumors arising from salivary glands as well as to expand the immunologic and genetic lineage of MASC, we examined 17 MASCs using clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses. Eighteen cases of acinic cell carcinoma, 18 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma, 22 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and 14 cases of basal cell adenocarcinoma were brought in for comparison. Seventeen MASCs shared similar architectures with not only intraluminal or intracellular secretion but also low-grade vesicular nuclei. In addition, they were all immunoreactive for S-100 and SOX-10, whereas only 3 of 17 demonstrated reactivity for GATA-3 and P63, and 4 of 17 were focally positive for CD117. ETV6 translocation was detected in 10 cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization, whereas intact ETV6 was noted in 2 cases. Our data proposed a combined immunohistochemical panel to distinguish MASC from other tumors arising from salivary glands and expanded the immunologic and genetic lineage of MASC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic Characterization of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Channir, Hani Ibrahim; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Andreasen, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a malignant salivary gland tumor. To date, no cases of AdCC in first-degree relatives have been reported in the literature. We present a 50-year-old female (Case 1) and this patients' father (Case 2), both of whom were diagnosed with AdCC of the minor salivary...... glands. Histology of Case 1 demonstrated a tubulocribriform AdCC whereas Case 2 primarily was an AdCC of solid type. Both cases harbored the MYB-NFIB gene fusion as demonstrated by FISH and RNA-sequencing. After filtering and selection of putative deleterious variants, whole exome sequencing identified...

  11. Sweat as an Efficient Natural Moisturizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Tetsuo; Sato, Yohei; Komatsu, Yurie; Ushigome, Yukiko; Mizukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    Although recent research on the pathogenesis of allergic skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis has focused on defects in skin genes important for maintaining skin barrier function, the fact that excreted sweat has an overwhelmingly great capacity to increase skin surface hydration and contains moisturizing factors has long been ignored: the increase in water loss induced by these gene defects could theoretically be compensated fully by a significant increase in sweating. In this review, the dogma postulating the detrimental role of sweat in these diseases has been challenged on the basis of recent findings on the physiological functions of sweat, newly recognized sweat gland-/duct-related skin diseases, and therapeutic approaches to the management of these diseases. We are now beginning to appreciate that sweat glands/ducts are a sophisticated regulatory system. Furthermore, depending on their anatomical location and the degree of the impairment, this system might have a different function: sweating responses in sweat glands/ducts located at the folds in hairy skin such as on the trunk and extremities could function as natural regulators that maintain skin hydration under quiescent basal conditions, in addition to the better-studied thermoregulatory functions, which can be mainly mediated by those at the ridges. The normal functioning of sweat could be disturbed in various inflammatory skin diseases. Thus, we should recognize sweating disturbance as an etiologic factor in the development of these diseases. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Histologic Analysis of Incidental Carcinomas of The Prostate Gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Incidental prostate cancers, i.e. cancers found in the specimens of men undergoing surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), have been regarded ... Conclusion: The incidence of incidental carcinomas of the prostate in our environment is significant, consequently urologists should exercise high index of ...

  13. Salivary gland carcinoma in Denmark 1990-2005: a national study of incidence, site and histology. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    years. The parotid gland was the most common site (52.5%) followed by the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity (26.3%). The most frequent histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (25.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (16.9%), adenocarcinoma NOS (12.2%) and acinic cell carcinoma (10......To describe the incidence, site and histology (WHO 2005) of salivary gland carcinomas in Denmark. Nine hundred and eighty-three patients diagnosed from 1990 to 2005 were identified from three nation-wide registries. The associated clinical data were retrospectively retrieved from patient medical.......2%). The revision process changed the histological diagnosis in 121 out of 886 cases (14%). The incidence of salivary gland carcinoma in Denmark is higher than previously reported. More than half of salivary gland carcinomas are located in the parotid gland with adenoid cystic carcinoma being the most frequent...

  14. Basaloid ductal carcinoma in situ arising in salivary gland metaplasia of the breast: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Jeong; Kang, Su Hwan; Bae, Young Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland metaplasia is a newly recognized, adenosis-like lesion which could not be classified according to known categories of adenosis of the breast. We report a case of basaloid ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) arising in a background of salivary gland metaplasia in a 49-year old woman who visited our hospital for a right breast mass. Breast ultrasonography showed a multi-lobulating mixed hypoechoic and isoechoic mass measuring 2.9 cm in size at the periareolar area. Histologically, the lesion showed a well-defined DCIS with basaloid tumor cells and central comedo-type necrosis surrounded by salivary gland metaplasia composed of glands or ducts not specific to the breast, ducts with cribriform proliferation of luminal epithelial cells, and ducts with varying degrees of proliferation of basaloid cells including solid nests of basaloid cells. Salivary gland metaplasia is a most unusual lesion of the breast characterized by salivary gland-type acini and ducts with various proliferations of luminal and basaloid cells, and accompanied by malignant tumor of basal cell type.

  15. Distant metastases of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands and the value of diagnostic examinations during follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Becking, Alfred G.; Snow, Gordon B.; van der Waal, Isaac

    2002-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) accounts for approximately 10% of all neoplasms of the salivary glands. Late distant metastases and local recurrences are responsible for a rather low long-term survival rate. To study the metastasizing pattern of ACC of the salivary glands in 51 patients. Fifty-one

  16. Detection of atypical metastases in recurrent adenoid cystic carcinoma of parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Tewari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a known case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of right parotid gland in a 36-year-old Indian male, diagnosed 5 years ago for which he underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy. Now the patient has presented to the surgical oncologist with a mass near angle of right jaw. Computed tomography (CT performed elsewhere was reported negative for local recurrence. Subsequently, 18 F Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT (FDG PET-CT demonstrated local recurrence in right parotid bed. Surprisingly, metabolically active metastatic skeletal deposits were also identified, thus the disease was upstaged and management was changed. Trucut biopsy from left iliac bone lesion confirmed metastases from adenoid cystic carcinoma. Thus a whole body PET-CT has a significant impact on management of patients with salivary gland malignancies in assessing both local recurrence as well as distant metastases, especially in atypical and unsuspected sites.

  17. [Mandibular metastasis disclosing a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essakalli, L; Jazouli, N; Kzadri, M

    1994-01-01

    The thyroïd well differentiated carcinoma could be originate of the osseous metastasis and/or pulmonary or others. Sometimes, the cancer of the thyroïd stay latent, discovered by the occasion of secondary osseous localisations. We bring back a personally observation of papillary cancer of the thyroïd discovered by the occasion of mandibular metastasis. Helping ourselves by literary datum, we will comment on essentially the diagnostic and therapeutic problems breeded by this kind of metastasis.

  18. Impact of local radiation in the management of salivary gland carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eapen, L.J.; Gerig, L.H.; Catton, G.E.; Danjoux, C.E.; Girard, A.

    1988-03-01

    Seventy patients with salivary gland carcinoma (63% major gland and 37% minor gland) are reviewed. Histologies included adenoid cystic (54%), mucoepidermoid (16%), and adenocarcinoma (14%). Patients were analyzed according to extent of surgery and whether or not adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy was given. There is no difference in survival in patients who had complete excision of gross tumor with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients who did not undergo radiotherapy had a 62% actuarial risk of locoregional failure at 5 years, with a 20% risk in the adjuvantly irradiated group (P less than 0.001). A failure analysis demonstrates that among the 44% of patients with recurrence 71% (22/31) failed locoregionally and 69% (21/31) had distant metastases. Twenty-seven percent (19/70) died of disease, with 31% (6/19) dying of locoregional disease and 26% (5/19) of distant disease. Implications for management are discussed.

  19. Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) Involving the Thyroid Gland: A Report of the First 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettloff, Jennifer; Seethala, Raja R; Stevens, Todd M; Brandwein-Gensler, Margaret; Centeno, Barbara A; Otto, Kristen; Bridge, Julia A; Bishop, Justin A; Leon, Marino E

    2017-06-01

    Salivary gland-type tumors have been rarely described in the thyroid gland. Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) is a recently defined type of salivary gland carcinoma characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. We report 3 cases of MASC involving the thyroid gland without clinical evidence of a salivary gland or breast primary; the clinico-pathologic characteristics are reviewed. Assessment for rearrangement of the ETV6 (12p13) locus was conducted by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on representative FFPE sections using an ETV6 break apart probe (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA). The patients were two females (52 and 55 years-old) and 1 male (74 years-old). The tumors were poorly circumscribed solid white tan nodules involving the thyroid. Histologically, they were invasive and showed solid, microcystic, cribriform, and tubular growth patterns composed of variably bland polygonal eosinophilic cells with vesicular nuclear chromatin and conspicuous nucleoli. All three cases showed metastasis to lymph nodes; one case showed lateral neck involvement. The tumor cells were positive for S100 and mammaglobin. GATA-3 and PAX-8 were positive in 2 cases, one of which only focally so. All three cases were negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Rearrangement of the ETV6 locus was confirmed in all cases and a diagnosis of MASC rendered for each case. A site of origin distinct from the thyroid gland was not identified, with a median follow up of 24 months. MASC may rarely involve the thyroid gland. The origin of these lesions is unknown; while an origin from ectopic salivary gland-type cells is entertained, a metastatic origin from an occult primary cannot be definitively excluded at this time. Given the histologic (follicular-like microcystic pattern with colloid-like secretions and papillary pattern), immunophenotypic (PAX-8), and even molecular overlap, MASC can be mistaken for papillary thyroid carcinoma and should be

  20. Thyroid gland invasion in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangussi-Gomes, João; Danelon-Leonhardt, Fernando; Moussalem, Guilherme Figner; Ahumada, Nicolas Galat; Oliveira, Cleydson Lucena; Hojaij, Flávio Carneiro

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx has the potential to invade the thyroid gland. Despite this risk, the proposition of either partial or total thyroidectomy as part of the surgical treatment of all such cases remains controversial. To evaluate the frequency of invasion of the thyroid gland in patients with advanced laryngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma submitted to total laryngectomy or pharyngolaryngectomy and thyroidectomy; to determine whether clinic-pathological characteristics can predict glandular involvement. A retrospective case series with chart review, from January 1998 to July 2013, was undertaken in a tertiary care university medical center. An inception cohort of 83 patients with larynx/hypopharynx squamous cell carcinoma was considered. All patients had advanced stage disease (clinically T3-T4) and underwent total laryngectomy or total pharyngolaryngectomy in association with thyroidectomy. Adjuvant therapy was indicated when tumor or neck conditions required. Frequency of thyroid cartilage invasion was calculated; univariate and multivariate analysis of demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics associated with cartilage invasion were performed. The overall frequency of invasion of the thyroid gland was 18.1%. Glandular involvement was associated with invasion of the following structures: anterior commissure (odds ratio=5.13; 95% confidence interval 1.07-24.5), subglottis (odds ratio=12.44; 95% confidence interval 1.55-100.00) and cricoid cartilage (odds ratio=15.95; 95% confidence interval 4.23-60.11). Invasion of the thyroid gland is uncommon in the context of laryngopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical and pathological features such as invasion of the anterior commissure, subglottis and cricoid cartilage are more associated with glandular invasion. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  1. Salivary gland carcinoma in Denmark 1990-2005: a national study of incidence, site and histology. Results of the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2011-01-01

    years. The parotid gland was the most common site (52.5%) followed by the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity (26.3%). The most frequent histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (25.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (16.9%), adenocarcinoma NOS (12.2%) and acinic cell carcinoma (10...

  2. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Arévalo, Mónica L; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 Candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), Acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm.

  3. Toll-like receptor 5 and 7 expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma of major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, K; Bäck, L; Haglund, C; Leivo, I; Jouhi, L; Mäkitie, A A; Hagström, J

    2016-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the salivary glands has a poor long-term prognosis and high metastatic rate. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been related to tumour progression but have also tumour growth-inhibiting responses. To the best of our knowledge, they have not been studied previously in ACC. We studied the immunoexpression of TLR 5 and 7 in ACC of the major salivary glands. From a cohort of 54 patients with ACC of the major salivary glands treated at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland in 1974-2009, there were 34 primary tumours and six metastases available for immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemical expression of TLR 5 and 7 were correlated to clinicopathological findings and patient survival. Both TLR 5 and 7 were expressed in ACCs and their metastases, mostly on the cell membranes. The expression was heterogeneous in individual tumours. TLR 5 was expressed less in male samples, and TLR 7 had lower expression in ACCs with solid growth pattern. No correlation with survival was found. In the normal salivary gland, the TLR 5 and 7 expression was mainly negative. Both TLR 5 and 7 are expressed in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma on the cell membranes as well as in cytoplasm.

  4. Management of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma: institutional experience of a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfio José Tincani

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland tumor management requires long-term follow-up because of tumor indolence and possible late recurrence and distant metastasis. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC accounts for 10-15% of such tumors. The aim here was to evaluate surgical and clinical management, staging and follow-up of ACC patients in one academic institution. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at Head and Neck Service, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. METHODS: Data on 21 patients treated between 1993 and 2003 were reviewed. Management utilized clinical staging, histology and imaging. Major salivary gland tumor extent was routinely assessed by preoperative ultrasonography. Diagnosis, surgery type, margin type (negative/positive, postoperative radiotherapy and recurrence (presence/absence were evaluated. RESULTS: There were eleven major salivary gland tumors (52.3%, seven submandibular and four parotid. Ten patients (47.7% had minor salivary gland ACC (all in palate, while the submandibular was the most frequently affected major one. Diagnoses were mostly via fine-needle aspiration (FNA and incision biopsy. Frozen sections were used for six patients. There was good ultrasound/FNA correlation. Sixteen (76% had postoperative radiotherapy. One (4.7% died from ACC and five now have recurrent disease: three (14.2% locoregional and two (9.5% distant metastases. CONCLUSION: Adenoid cystic carcinoma has locally aggressive behavior. In 21 cases, of ACC, the facial nerve was preserved in all except in the few with gross tumor involvement. Treatment was defined from physical examination, imaging, staging and histology.

  5. Sweat Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiragun, Takaaki; Hide, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    For many years, sweat has been recognized as an exacerbation factor in all age groups of atopic dermatitis (AD) and a trigger of cholinergic urticaria (CholU). Recently, we reported the improvement of AD symptoms by spray with tannic acid, which suppresses basophil histamine release by semipurified sweat antigens in vitro, and showering that removes antigens in sweat from the skin surface. We finally identified MGL_1304 secreted by Malassezia globosa as a major histamine-releasing antigen in human sweat. MGL_1304 is detected as a 17-kDa protein in sweat and exhibits almost the highest histamine-release ability from basophils of patients with AD and CholU among antigens derived from Malassezia species. Moreover, serum levels of anti-MGL_1304 IgE of patients with AD and CholU were significantly higher than those of normal controls. Desensitization therapy using autologous sweat or MGL_1304 purified from culture of M. globosa or its cognates might be beneficial for patients with intractable CholU due to sweat allergy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Spatial distribution of mast cells and macrophages around tumor glands in human breast ductal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Roberto; Guidolin, Diego; Annese, Tiziana; Tortorella, Cinzia; Ruggieri, Simona; Rega, Serena; Zito, Francesco A; Nico, Beatrice; Ribatti, Domenico

    2017-10-01

    Macrophages and mast cells are usually present in the tumor microenvironment and play an important role as regulators of inflammation, immunological response and angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we have evaluated macrophage, mast cell, and microvessel density in a selected group of different grade of invasive breast carcinoma tumor specimens. Furthermore, we have investigated the pattern of distribution of CD68-positive macrophages and tryptase-positive mast cells around tumor glands. Results have shown that: A) Macrophages are more numerous in G2 and G3 breast cancer stages respect to controls, the per cent of macrophages in G1 samples was comparable to the controls, and the spatial relationship between macrophages and glands (as indicated by the mean cell-to-gland distance) correlated with CD31-positive vessels. B) Mast cells in G2 and G3 tumor specimens show a significant increase in their number as compared to control samples, and their spatial distribution around the glands did not show any significant difference among groups. Overall, the results of this study confirm the important role of macrophages and mast cells in tumor progression and angiogenesis in human ductal breast cancer, and pointed out the spatial relationship between tumor macrophages and glands, and its correlation with microvascular density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Warthin-Like Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Panagiotis Paliogiannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 22-year-old woman and a review of the literature on the topic. The patient had the occasional discovery of a hypoechoic thyroid nodule of approximately 18 mm, characterized by irregular margins, hyperechoic spots, rich intra- and perilesional vascularization, and a suspicious enlarged right laterocervical lymph node. Fine-needle aspiration was performed for both lesions and the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma without lymph node involvement was made. The patient underwent thyroidectomy and central neck lymphadenectomy without complications. Histopathological examination suggested a Warthin-like papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, with all the removed lymph nodes being free of disease. The patient subsequently underwent iodine ablative therapy and she remains free of disease one year after surgery. Warthin-like papillary thyroid carcinoma is a recently described variant of papillary thyroid cancer that is frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis. Morphologically, it resembles Warthin tumors of the salivary glands, with T and B lymphocytes infiltrating the stalks of papillae lined with oncocytic cells. Surgical and postoperative management is identical to that of classic differentiated thyroid cancer, while prognosis seems to be favourable.

  8. Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Minor Salivary Gland of the Base of Tongue That Required Reconstructive Surgery

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    Kota Wada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinic cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland of the base of tongue is very rare. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common tumor in the base of tongue. We present a patient with gigantic acinic cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. This patient required emergency tracheotomy before surgery, because he had dyspnea when he came to our hospital. We removed this tumor by pull-through method and performed reconstructive surgery using a rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. It was a case that to preserved movement of the tongue and swallowing function by keeping lingual arteries and hypoglossal nerves. This case was an extremely rare case of ACC of the base of tongue that required reconstructive surgery.

  9. Lipid peroxidation in female dogs bearing mammary gland carcinomas

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    I.B. Souza

    Full Text Available RESUMO O estresse oxidativo causa peroxidação lipídica e formação de substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS, processo que está comprovadamente associado à progressão de neoplasias malignas em seres humanos. Por sua vez, espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs são produzidas no processo carcinogênico, de forma que a geração de EROs parece ser, ao mesmo tempo, causa e consequência dele. Em cães, a associação da peroxidação lipídica com a carcinogênese permanece ainda obscura, com estudos escassos, de resultados conflitantes, que, muitas vezes, incluem, dentro de um mesmo grupo amostral, animais portadores de tumores heterogêneos dos pontos de vista morfológico e comportamental, além de estes se apresentarem em estágios bastante distintos. Nesse contexto, buscou-se, na presente investigação, avaliar a concentração plasmática de TBARS em fêmeas hígidas e portadoras de carcinomas mamários com diagnóstico histopatológico de carcinoma mamário tubular simples estágio 4, com comprometimento de linfonodos, porém sem metástases detectadas. Foi observado que as cadelas diagnosticadas com carcinoma mamário tiveram níveis plasmáticos de TBARS significativamente maiores (média de 7,98 ± 1,43μmol/mL, p < 0,0001 em relação às fêmeas consideradas hígidas (média de 6,14 ± 0,53μmol/mL, o que sugere associação entre câncer e maior ocorrência de estresse oxidativo.

  10. Multicystic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder with gland-like lumina and with signet-ring cells. A case report

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    Hes Ondrej

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the case of 80-year-old male with superficial papillary urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with striking multicystic architecture with a combination of features of urothelial carcinoma with gland-like lumina, with signet-ring cell differentiation and microcystic pattern. However, the tumor shared the morphologic features of several variants of urothelial carcinoma, the most important differential diagnosis covered so-called florid Brunneriosis, cystitis cystica, and primary adenocarcinomas of the urinary bladder.

  11. Expression of cancer/testis antigens in salivary gland carcinomas with reference to MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression in adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Shintaro; Ito, Yohei; Fujii, Kana; Saida, Kosuke; Takino, Hisashi; Masaki, Ayako; Murase, Takayuki; Kusafuka, Kimihide; Iida, Yoshiyuki; Onitsuka, Tetsuro; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hanai, Nobuhiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Ijichi, Kei; Murakami, Shingo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are detected in cancer cells but not in healthy normal tissues, with the exception of gametogenic tissues. CTAs are highly immunogenic proteins, and thus represent ideal targets for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated specific immune therapy. The aim of this study was to screen CTA expression in various types of salivary gland carcinoma and to clarify clinicopathological significance of MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression in adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCCs) of the salivary gland, which is one of the most common salivary gland carcinomas, and usually has a fatal outcome. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of four CTAs (MAGE-A, NY-ESO-1, CT7, and GAGE7) in various types of salivary gland carcinoma (n = 95). When carcinoma cases were divided into low-grade and intermediate/high-grade types, NY-ESO-1 and CT7 were expressed more frequently in intermediate/high-grade carcinomas. We then focused on MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression in a large cohort of adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCCs) (n = 46). MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 were frequently expressed in AdCC; specifically, MAGE-A was expressed in >60% of the AdCC cases. MAGE-A expression and tumour site (minor salivary gland) were identified as independent risk factors for locoregional tumour recurrence. These findings suggest that CTAs may be expressed in a variety of salivary gland carcinomas, especially in those with higher histological grades. In addition, MAGE-A, which is frequently expressed in AdCC cases, may be a useful prognostic factor for poorer locoregional recurrence-free survival. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Carbonic anhydrase VI: a novel marker for salivary serous acinar differentiation and its application to discriminate acinic cell carcinoma from mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Jhuang, Yu-Lin; Chou, Yueh-Hung; Lin, Chiao-Ying

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6) is present in serous acinar cells of human salivary glands. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic utility of CA6 in differentiating acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) from its morphological mimic mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland. CA6 immunostaining was performed in 28 cases of AciCC and 14 cases of MASC. All cases of AciCC showed positive CA6 staining. The staining pattern correlated with the number of serous acinar cells in tumours. All MASCs stained negatively for CA6. The results were compared with those obtained with currently used markers, including DOG1, mammaglobin, S100, and vimentin. CA6 showed sensitivity and specificity as high as those of DOG1 in diagnosing AciCC. CA6 expression was focally observed in basal cell adenoma and in one case of cystadenocarcinoma (1/3), but not in other salivary gland tumours, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, and pleomorphic adenoma. CA6 is a specific marker for serous acinar cells of salivary glands and AciCC. CA6 has sensitivity and specificity equal to those of DOG1 in the differential diagnosis between AciCC and MASC. A combination of CA6 and DOG1 could be an ideal immunohistochemical panel for AciCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  14. Finding and characterizing mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Jung; Song, Joon Seon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sung-Bae; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2013-02-01

    A new tumor entity of the salivary glands, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) with ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, has recently been proposed. MASC was originally diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (ANOS), or acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) by the current World Health Organization classification. We aimed to identify MASC cases by molecular tests, and to characterize their clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. Thirty cases of MASC candidates were selected after review of 196 salivary gland tumors, and subjected to break-apart ETV6 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemical study for S100 protein, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, DOG1, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Valid FISH results were obtained in 23 cases, and 13 positive cases were retrieved. MASCs were histologically varied, and the most frequent features observed in 10 cases were low-grade papillary/cystic/glandular patterns, intraluminal secretory materials, ovoid/wrinkled nuclei, and relatively abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasms, corresponding to papillary-cystic or follicular types of AciCC. All cases showed diffuse immunopositivity for S100 protein. Three cases developed recurrences, but all patients remained alive. MASC could be a molecularly well-defined salivary gland neoplasm, encompassing some portions of AciCC and ANOS, but its histological spectrum and clinical implication require further investigation.

  15. ALDH/CD44 identifies uniquely tumorigenic cancer stem cells in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Warner, Kristy; Pearson, Alexander T; Zhang, Zhaocheng; Kim, Hong Sun; Mochizuki, Daiki; Basura, Gregory; Helman, Joseph; Mantesso, Andrea; Castilho, Rogério M; Wicha, Max S; Nör, Jacques E

    2015-09-29

    A small sub-population of cells characterized by increased tumorigenic potential, ability to self-renew and to differentiate into cells that make up the tumor bulk, has been characterized in some (but not all) tumor types. These unique cells, namedcancer stem cells, are considered drivers of tumor progression in these tumors. The purpose of this work is to understand if cancer stem cells play a functional role in the tumorigenesis of salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Here, we investigated the expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (ALDH, CD10, CD24, CD44) in primary human mucoepidermoid carcinomas by immunofluorescence, in vitro salisphere assays, and in vivo tumorigenicity assays in immunodeficient mice. Human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (UM-HMC-1, UM-HMC-3A, UM-HMC-3B) sorted for high levels of ALDH activity and CD44 expression (ALDHhighCD44high) consistently formed primary and secondary salispheres in vitro, and showed enhanced tumorigenic potential in vivo (defined as time to tumor palpability, tumor growth after palpability), when compared to ALDHlowCD44low cells. Cells sorted for CD10/CD24, and CD10/CD44 showed varying trends of salisphere formation, but consistently low in vivo tumorigenic potential. And finally, cells sorted for CD44/CD24 showed inconsistent results in salisphere formation and tumorigenic potential assays when different cell lines were evaluated. Collectively, these data demonstrate that salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas contain a small population of cancer stem cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and that are characterized by high ALDH activity and CD44 expression. These results suggest that patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma might benefit from therapies that ablate these highly tumorigenic cells.

  16. Clinicopathologic and molecular characterization of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghai, F; Yazdani, F; Etebarian, A; Garajei, A; Skalova, A

    2017-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly recognized salivary gland tumor that harbors a characteristic balanced chromosomal translocation t (12; 15) (p13; q25) resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. Retrospective study of 111 salivary gland carcinomas revealed 37 cases with secretory features and growth patterns resembling secretory carcinoma of breast. These 37 cases were originally diagnosed as acinic cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified and cystadenocarcinoma. Positive immunostaining for S-100 protein and mammaglobin, followed by detection of ETV6 gene rearrangement by FISH and/or ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript by RT-PCR were used to identify MASCs. In the cohort of 37 salivary carcinomas with secretory features we have identified 10 cases of MASC. All 10 MASCs were positive for mammaglobin, S-100 protein and SOX10, while staining for DOG1 and p63 protein were mostly absent. In 7/10 cases, both FISH and RT-PCR were positive while three remaining cases showed break of ETV6 gene by FISH analysis and the RT-PCR was negative. Clinical follow-up data were obtained in 6 out of 10 patients with MASC. In 3 patients cervical lymph node metastases developed, one patient with high grade transformed MASC died with multiple distant bone metastases, and local recurrence was observed in three patients. Our clinicopathological data are in keeping with previous studies; in most cases, MASC is a low-grade malignancy with overall favorable prognosis. In rare cases, however, MASC with high-grade transformation may behave aggressively, and these patients could benefit from targeted biological treatment using tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: diagnostic pitfall with distinct immunohistochemical profile and molecular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, Oliver; Götz, Carolin; Kolk, Andreas; Bier, Henning A; Agaimy, Abbas; Frenzel, Henning; Perner, Sven; Ribbat-Idel, Julika; Wolff, Klaus Dietrich; Weichert, Wilko; Mogler, Caroline

    2017-10-03

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly defined entity among salivary gland malignancies which has just been established in the 4(th) edition of the WHO classification of head and neck tumors. MASC (synonym: secretory carcinoma) are characterized by a specific rearangement of the ETV6 gene locus. Here, we present a series of 3 MASC cases including clinical data with follow-up for up to 26 months. All tumours immunhistochemically displayed strong positivity for cytokeratin 7, and mammaglobin, focal positivity for S100, cytokeratin 5/6 and muc-4. In contrast, immunhistochemical stainings against cytokeratin 14, hormon receptors, Her2/neu, androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen were consistently negative. FISH analysis showed translocation of the ETV6 gene locus in the majority of tumour cell nuclei. During clinical follow-up, no local relapse or metastasis was detected. As these carcinomas are clinically and radiologically indistinguishable from other salivary gland tumours and as therapeutic approaches and prognosis might differ, we need to be able to diagnose MASC correctly.

  18. Immunoexpression of GLUT-1 and angiogenic index in pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas of the salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Lélia Batista; de Oliveira, Lucileide Castro; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; Pinto, Leão Pereira; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and compare the immunoexpression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and angiogenic index between pleomorphic adenomas (PAs), adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs), and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) of the salivary glands, and establish associations with the respective subtype/histological grade. Twenty PAs, 20 ACCs, and 10 MECs were submitted to morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. GLUT-1 expression was semi-quantitatively evaluated and angiogenic index was assessed by microvessel counts using anti-CD34 antibody. Higher GLUT-1 immunoexpression was observed in the MECs compared to PAs and ACCs (p = 0.022). Mean number of microvessels was 66.5 in MECs, 40.4 in PAs, and 21.2 in ACCs (p GLUT-1 expression and angiogenic index showed no significant correlation in the tumors studied. Results suggest that differences in biological behavior of the studied tumors are related to GLUT-1. Benign and malignant salivary gland tumors differ in the angiogenic index; however, angiogenesis may be independent of the tumor cell's metabolic demand.

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland: A diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupani Asha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the salivary gland tumors, mucoepidermoid carcinoma is probably the most difficult to diagnose accurately by aspiration cytology. It is the second most common tumor in the pediatric age group in parotid gland after pleomorphic adenoma and differentiating between both can be diagnostically challenging. We are hereby presenting a case of 13 year old female child with right parotid lesion. The combination of overlapping intermediate and mucus producing cells with abundant background and intracytoplasmic mucin helped us in making the diagnosis of intermediate mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Subsequently total parotidectomy revealed a low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Hence we concluded that abundant mucin with good cellularity can be seen in low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Grading of mucoepidermoid carcinoma is also important to determine the prognosis.

  20. Metastatic cervical carcinoma to the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapanagiotou, Elena; Saif, Muhammad Wasif; Rondoyianni, Dimitra; Markaki, Sofia; Alamara, Christina; Kiagia, Maria; Pantazopoulos, Kosmas; Tzannou, Ifigenia; Syrigos, Kostas

    2006-12-01

    Although metastases within the thyroid gland are rare, they are not as infrequent as generally believed. Asymptomatic breast, lung, and renal cell carcinomas may metastasize to the thyroid. When they become symptomatic, diagnosis relies upon fine needle aspiration cytology. We report the case of a squamous cell cervical cancer that presented metastatic lesions to the thyroid gland four years after the initial diagnosis. The procedures used to confirm the diagnosis, stage, and subsequently manage the patient are described. We present both a review of the necessary clinical investigation and the therapeutic options open to these patients. We conclude that patients who present swelling or palpable nodules in the thyroid side and have a history of a previous malignancy must be considered for metastatic disease.

  1. Ultrastructural Characterization of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands: A Distinct Entity from Acinic Cell Carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmette, Julie; Nielsen, Gunnlaugur P; Faquin, William C; Selig, Martin; Nosé, Vânia; Chi, Anthony W S; Sadow, Peter M

    2017-02-13

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands is a recently described neoplasm of the salivary glands with a characteristic morphology complemented by a specific cytogenetic translocation and gene rearrangements. Although immunophenotypic and cytogenetic differences allow for a more reliable distinction, ultrastructural features can also provide important information about the relationship between MASC, classic acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), and AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant. Following approval from the hospital's institutional review board, 7 cases of MASC, 8 cases of classic AciCC, and 4 cases of AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant were retrieved from the pathology files of Massachusetts General Hospital from 2012 to 2015. Electron microscopy was performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Ultrastructural features of all 19 neoplasms of the salivary glands were recorded. The predominant cell-types observed in MASC are those with intercalated/striated duct cell differentiation. These features include prominent invaginations of the cell surface studded with microvilli, and some intra- and intercellular lumina also with a microvillous surface. Classic AciCC dominant cell-type recapitulates acinar cell differentiation. These cells contain large intracytoplasmic zymogen-like granules. AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant showed both cell populations in various proportions with the intercalated/striated duct cell type usually being the dominant one. MASC presents with distinctive ultrastructural features that allows its proper differentiation from classic AciCC. However, significant ultrastructural features overlaps between both AciCC intercalated duct cells-predominant and classic AciCC and MASC. These findings indicate a very close proximity between these tumors.

  2. Sweat, the driving force behind normal skin: an emerging perspective on functional biology and regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murota, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Saki; Ono, Emi; Kijima, Akiko; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru; Katayama, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    The various symptoms associated with excessive or insufficient perspiration can significantly reduce a patient's quality of life. If a versatile and minimally invasive method could be established for returning sweat activity to normalcy, there is no question that it could be used in the treatment of many diseases that are believed to involve perspiration. For this reason, based on an understanding of the sweat-gland control function and sweat activity, it was necessary to conduct a comprehensive search for the factors that control sweating, such as the central and peripheral nerves that control sweat-gland function, the microenvironment surrounding the sweat glands, and lifestyle. We focused on the mechanism by which atopic dermatitis leads to hypohidrosis and confirmed that histamine inhibits acetylcholinergic sweating. Acetylcholine promotes the phosphorylation of glycogen synthesis kinase 3β (GSK3β) in the sweat-gland secretory cells and leads to sensible perspiration. By suppressing the phosphorylation of GSK3β, histamine inhibits the movement of sweat from the sweat-gland secretory cells through the sweat ducts, which could presumably be demonstrated by dynamic observations of the sweat glands using two-photon microscopy. It is expected that the discovery of new factors that control sweat-gland function can contribute to the treatment of diseases associated with dyshidrosis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanzá, Ricardo; Arrangoiz, Rodrigo; Cordera, Fernando; Muñoz, Manuel; Luque-de-León, Enrique; Moreno, Eduardo; Toledo, Carlos; González, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) was first described in 2010 by Skálová et al. This entity shares morphologic and immunohistochemical features with the secretory carcinoma (SC) of the breast. MASC usually presents as an asymptomatic mass in the parotid gland and predominantly affects men. This tumor is considered a low-grade carcinoma but has the potential for high-grade transformation. We report one MASC case and a review of world literature. Case report A 66-year-old male patient presented because he noticed a mass of approximately 3 × 3 cm on the right pre-auricular region. Physical examination demonstrated a 3 × 3.5 cm, firm, fixed, non-tender mass in the right pre-auricular region. An MRI of the head and neck showed an ovoid heterogeneous lesion, dependent of the right parotid gland of 27 × 28 mm. We performed a superficial parotidectomy with identification and preservation of the facial nerve. The immunophenotype was positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), CK8/18, vimentin, S-100 protein, and mammoglobin. No further surgical interventions or adjuvant therapies were needed. The patient will have a close follow up. Conclusion The presence of t(12;15) (p13;q25) translocation which results in the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion or positive immunochemical studies for STAT5, mammoglobin and S100 protein, are necessary to confirm the diagnosis of MASC. MASC treatment should mimic the management of other low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasms. The inhibition of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion could be used as treatment in the future. PMID:26496413

  4. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland is frequently characterized by MYB rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Y; Keeney, M G; Chintakuntlawar, A V; Knutson, D L; Kloft-Nelson, S; Greipp, P T; Garrity, J A; Salomao, D R; Garcia, J J

    2017-05-01

    PurposeAdenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) represents ~10-15% of salivary neoplasms and almost universally exhibits a lethal clinical course. ACC is also known to occur in the lacrimal gland. ACC is characterized by its heterogeneous morphology and may demonstrate tubular, cribriform, and/or solid architectural patterns. Unfortunately, these histopathological features are not specific to ACC and can be seen in other salivary gland-type neoplasms, introducing a diagnostic dilemma. The discovery of fusion transcripts has revolutionized the diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment of epithelial malignancies. In several anatomic subsites ACC is frequently characterized by a fusion transcript involving genes MYB and NFIB; more specifically, t(6;9)(q22-23;p23-24). This study explores the incidence of MYB rearrangement in cases of lacrimal gland ACC using fluorescent in situ hybridization.Materials and methodsRetrospective clinical and histopathological review of 12 cases of lacrimal gland ACC seen at Mayo Clinic over a 25-year period (1990-2015) was performed. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records. Surgical pathology archival material including H&E slides and immunostains was re-examined. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material was further evaluated using immunohistochemistry when appropriate. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using a MYB break-apart probe was applied to all histologically confirmed cases of ACC and benign salivary gland parenchyma.ResultsThe median patient age was 53.6 years (range 12-64) and distributed equally by gender (six male and six female). Rearrangement of MYB was identified using FISH in seven cases (58%). Twenty-five sections of benign salivary gland parenchyma showed no evidence of MYB rearrangement. Primary surgical resection was most common treatment, and 78% of the patient received adjuvant radiation therapy. Median overall survival (OS) was 11 years. Rearrangement of MYB did not affect OS

  5. Lysozyme Expression Can be Useful to Distinguish Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma from Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; Gómez, Camila Andrea Concha; de Souza do Nascimento, Juliana; Dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Egal, Erika Said; Montalli, Victor Angelo Martins; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Altemani, Albina

    2016-12-01

    Lysozyme is an enzymatic marker of acinar and intercalated duct cells of normal salivary glands. The aim of this study was to verify whether lysozyme expression could be useful to distinguish acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) from its main mimic, mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC). For comparison, DOG1 expression was analyzed as well. Seventeen cases of ACC, 15 MASC, and 125 other salivary tumors were studied. Lysozyme expression was found in tumor cells as well as in secreted material of MASC (86.6 % of cases) and in ductal cells of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC-53.8 %), pleomorphic adenoma (PA-29.1 %) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA-23.8 %). However, in ACC, lysozyme was not expressed. Three patterns of DOG1 staining were seen: apical-luminal, cytoplasmic, and mixed cytoplasmic/membranous. The apical-luminal pattern was detected in ductal cells of ACC (58.8 % of cases), EMC (38.4 %), adenoid-cystic carcinoma (AdCC-35.3 %), PA (8.3 %), and PLGA (4.8 %). These tumors also showed mixed membranous/cytoplasmic staining for DOG1. MASC, mucoepidermoid, and salivary duct carcinomas exhibited only DOG1 cytoplasmic staining. In conclusion, lysozyme cannot be used as a marker of acinar differentiation in salivary tumors. However, lysozyme expression can be helpful to distinguish MASC from ACC due to its high frequency in the former and absence in ACC. It is likely that in MASC, lysozyme expression may reflect a lactational-like secretory differentiation since lysozyme belongs to breast milk proteins. Regarding DOG1 expression, the apical-luminal pattern is related to acinar and intercalated duct differentiation whereas the cytoplasmic staining does not seem to be associated with a specific cellular phenotype.

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland: A diagnostic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Rupani Asha; Kavishwar Vikas; Achinmane Vynkatesh; Puranik Gururaj

    2008-01-01

    Of the salivary gland tumors, mucoepidermoid carcinoma is probably the most difficult to diagnose accurately by aspiration cytology. It is the second most common tumor in the pediatric age group in parotid gland after pleomorphic adenoma and differentiating between both can be diagnostically challenging. We are hereby presenting a case of 13 year old female child with right parotid lesion. The combination of overlapping intermediate and mucus producing cells with abundant background and intra...

  7. Sweat electrolytes test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat test; Sweat chloride; Iontophoretic sweat test; CF - sweat test; Cystic fibrosis - sweat test ... A colorless, odorless chemical that causes sweating is applied to a small area on an arm or leg. An electrode is then attached to the spot. A weak electrical ...

  8. Direct spread of thyroid follicular carcinoma to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaraa Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The parotid gland and the great cervical veins are very rarely involved in a metastatic thyroid cancer. Case presentation We report an interesting case of an unusual metastasis of a thyroid follicular carcinoma including the histopathological and radiological findings. A woman was seen in the otolaryngology clinic with a mass at the angle of the left side of her jaw. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a thyroid follicular carcinoma with metastases to the parotid gland and the internal jugular vein. Conclusion This is an educational case which highlights the importance of close communication between clinicians, histopathologists and radiologists to ensure that such rare cases are not missed.

  9. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  10. Primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Mardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin is a rare adnexal tumor of sweat gland origin. A case report is presented of a 70-year-old male, who presented with a slow growing mass near the lateral canthus of his left eye. The case was clinically diagnosed as a fibroma. An excisional biopsy of the lesion revealed mucinous carcinoma of the skin. Investigations excluded the possibility of metastatic mucinous carcinoma. Thus, the lesion in the lateral canthus region was diagnosed as Primary Mucinous Carcinoma of the skin, a rare site of occurrence.

  11. A spectrum of basaloid morphology in a subset of EBV-associated "lymphoepithelial carcinomas" of major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Jeppe Tang; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton; Homoe, Preben

    2012-01-01

    salivary gland carcinomas. Amongst primary LEC of major salivary gland, most cases reported in the literature have represented typical nasopharynx-like tumors. Variants of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) associated LEC have not been described previously, to the best of our knowledge. In this report, we describe 4...... EBV-associated major salivary gland LECs with prominent basaloid morphology, which represent 22 % of a cohort of 18 salivary LECs from an Inuit population in Greenland. The features described in these cases raise a differential diagnosis of other basaloid tumors, particularly in light of the salivary...

  12. [Masquerade of sebaceous gland carcinoma as a rapidly recurring "chalazion", a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, D M; Meyer, P; Messerli, J O; Piffaretti, J M; Haefliger, I O

    2001-05-01

    Demonstration of the importance of surgical excision and histological examination in presence of an apparently harmless tumoral alteration of the eyelids. We report the case of a 65 year old patient suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus who noted a tumoral lesion on his left lower eyelid. Suspecting a chalazion, his dermatologist simply performed a cauterization. Six weeks later, a recurrence of the tumor appeared at the same location, and again, cauterization was done. A few weeks later, the patient consulted our clinic with a polycyclic tumor of 5 mm in diameter, involving the lid margin of the temporal part of the lower left eyelid. The patient had only moderate signs of blepharitis. There were no palpable preauricular and cervical lymph nodes. Suspecting a malignant tumor, the entire tumoral lesion was removed surgically. The histopathologic examination showed a highly differentiated sebaceous gland carcinoma, most probably originating from a meibomian gland. The margins of the excision were found to be tumor-free. Sebaceous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. Depending on its histological differentiation it can be highly malignant. Infiltrative, and can metastasize. The mortality may reach 30% if low differentiation is present. As illustrated in the present case, the lesion may masquerade a chalazion. Therefore, in case of atypical lesion of the eyelid region complete surgical removal followed by a histopathological examination should be performed.

  13. Carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs: 113 cases (1985-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laurel E; Gliatto, John M; Dodge, Richard K; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Gamblin, Rance M; Thamm, Douglas H; Lana, Susan E; Szymkowski, Mary; Moore, Antony S

    2003-09-15

    To characterize the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and response to treatment of carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs. Retrospective study. 113 dogs with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac. Data on signalment, clinical signs, and staging were reviewed and analyzed along with treatment modality for potential association with survival time. Sex distribution was approximately equal (54% female, 46% male). One hundred four dogs underwent treatment consisting of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or multimodal treatment. Median survival for treated dogs was 544 days (range, 0 to 1,873 days). Dogs treated with chemotherapy alone had significantly shorter survival (median, 212 days) than those receiving other treatments (median, 584 days). Dogs not treated with surgery had significantly shorter survival (median, 402 days) than those that underwent surgery as part of their treatment (median, 548 days). Dogs with tumors > or = 10 cm2 had significantly shorter survival (median, 292 days) than dogs with tumors dogs, and those dogs had significantly shorter survival (median, 256 days), compared with those that were normocalcemic (median, 584 days). Dogs with pulmonary metastasis had significantly shorter survival (median, 219 days) than dogs without evidence of pulmonary metastasis (median, 548 days). Unlike most previous reports, this study revealed an approximately equal sex distribution, and results suggest a more favorable prognosis.

  14. Aspiration cytology of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Jung; Kim, Sang Yoon; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-04-01

    Aspiration cytologic findings of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), a newly established salivary gland neoplasm defined by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, are not fully characterized to date. We report cytologic descriptions of nine cases of molecularly confirmed MASC, including two with unusual findings. Aspiration smears from nine MASCs of the salivary glands were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed according to the cellular and structural features of the corresponding surgical specimens. Aspiration smears of MASC generally reflected the histologic diversity of the tumors. Among usual histologic findings, a micropapillary pattern was associated with a predominance of vacuolated individual cells on aspiration smears, a papillary-cystic pattern with a predominance of thin branching papillary structures, and a microcystic pattern with a predominance of irregular sheets of eosinophilic cells. There were two unusual cases, one with three-dimensional groups of high-grade atypical cells, and one with epithelial clusters floating in a notably mucinous background. These cases represented MASC with high-grade transformation and MASC with cystadenocarcinoma-like features, respectively. The secretory activity of MASC was not prominent in the aspiration specimens. Although unusual cases were present, most MASC cases showed characteristic cytologic findings, which could aid the cytologic diagnosis of MASC. And knowledge of the histologic spectrum of MASC, including high-grade transformation, could be valuable for cytological differential diagnoses of salivary gland tumors, and the management of patients with MASC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis to salivary glands – a series of 9 cases: clinico-pathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Majewska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors involving salivary glands arising from the non-head and neck area are very rare. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is known for its high propensity for metastasis to unusual localizations. RCC metastasis to the maxillofacial area is an uncommon event (16%, but metastasis to salivary glands is extremely rare. We report a series of 9 such cases retrieved from two institutions. The group included 6 females and 3 males. The age at diagnosis ranged from 60 to 97 years (mean 72.6 years. The tumors involved the parotid gland in 7 cases, and the submandibular and small salivary gland of the oral cavity in 1 case each. The size of tumors ranged from 0.4 to 5 cm. Total parotidectomy with selective neck dissection was performed in 4 cases, while superficial parotidectomy was performed in 1 case and simple resection in 3 cases. Histologically, all the tumors were clear cell renal cell carcinomas, and therefore the differential diagnosis mainly included clear cell variants of salivary gland carcinomas. The parotid gland was the initial manifestation of renal malignancy in 4 of the cases, while in the remaining 5 cases a history of RCC had been known. The salivary gland involvement developed from 11 months to 13 years after the time of diagnosis of the primary tumor. In 2 cases it was the first site of dissemination. Pathologists need to maintain a high index of suspicion for the possibility of metastasis when confronted with oncocytic or clear cell neoplasms developing in salivary glands. RCC, although rare, should be included in this differential diagnosis.

  16. Urea transporters and sweat response to uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Raymond W; Bailey, James L; Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-06-01

    In humans, urea is excreted in sweat, largely through the eccrine sweat gland. The urea concentration in human sweat is elevated when compared to blood urea nitrogen. The sweat urea nitrogen (UN) of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) is increased when compared with healthy humans. The ability to produce sweat is maintained in the overwhelming majority of ESRD patients. A comprehensive literature review found no reports of sweat UN neither in healthy rodents nor in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this study measured sweat UN concentrations in healthy and uremic rats. Uninephrectomy followed by renal artery ligation was used to remove 5/6 of renal function. Rats were then fed a high-protein diet to induce uremia. Pilocarpine was used to induce sweating. Sweat droplets were collected under oil. Sweat UN was measured with a urease assay. Serum UN was measured using a fluorescent ortho-pthalaldehyde reaction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was accomplished with a horseradish peroxidase and diaminobenzidine technique. Sweat UN in uremic rats was elevated greater than two times compared to healthy pair-fed controls (220 ± 17 and 91 ± 15 mmol/L, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between male and female uremic sweat UN (279 ± 38 and 177 ± 11 mmol/L, respectively.) IHC shows, for the first time, the presence of the urea transporters UT-B and UT-A2 in both healthy and uremic rat cutaneous structures. Future studies will use this model to elucidate how rat sweat UN and other solute excretion is altered by commonly prescribed diuretics. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  17. High expression of Polycomb group protein EZH2 predicts poor survival in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vékony, H.; Raaphorst, F.M.; Otte, A.P.; van Lohuizen, M.; Leemans, C.R.; van der Waal, I.; Bloemena, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The prognosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a malignant salivary gland tumour, depends on clinicopathological parameters. To decipher the biological behaviour of ACC, and to identify patients at risk of developing metastases, additional markers are needed. Methods: Expression of the

  18. Decreased sweating in seven patients with Laron syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Price, D A; Savage, M O

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sweat secretion was reduced in patients with GH deficiency and increased during GH treatment, indicating an influence of GH on sweat gland function. Thus, patients with GH deficiency have impaired thermoregulation. We report on sweat secretion rates (SSRs) in seven......). These observations further supported the hypothesis that sweat gland function in humans is under the influence of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I axis. It remains to be seen whether the decrease in SSR also leads to altered thermoregulation in patients with Laron syndrome....

  19. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands, containing the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene: a hitherto undescribed salivary gland tumor entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skálová, Alena; Vanecek, Tomas; Sima, Radek; Laco, Jan; Weinreb, Ilan; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Starek, Ivo; Geierova, Marie; Simpson, Roderrick H W; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; Ryska, Ales; Leivo, Ilmo; Kinkor, Zdenek; Michal, Michal

    2010-05-01

    We present a series of 16 salivary gland tumors with histomorphologic and immunohistochemical features reminiscent of secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is a hitherto undescribed and distinctive salivary gland neoplasm, with features resembling both salivary acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and displaying strong similarities to breast secretory carcinoma. Microscopically, the tumors have a lobulated growth pattern and are composed of microcystic and glandular spaces with abundant eosinophilic homogenous or bubbly secretory material positive for periodic acid-Schiff, mucicarmine, MUC1, MUC4, and mammaglobin. The neoplasms also show strong vimentin, S-100 protein, and STAT5a positivity. For this tumor, we propose a designation mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands (MASC). The 16 patients comprised 9 men and 7 women, with a mean age of 46 years (range 21 to 75). Thirteen cases occurred in the parotid gland, and one each in the minor salivary glands of the buccal mucosa, upper lip, and palate. The mean size of the tumors was 2.1 cm (range 0.7 to 5.5 cm). The duration of symptoms was recorded in 11 cases and ranged from 2 months to 30 years. Clinical follow-up was available in 13 cases, and ranged from 3 months to 10 years. Four patients suffered local recurrences. Two patients died, 1 of them owing to multiple local recurrences with extension to the temporal bone, and another owing to metastatic dissemination to cervical lymph nodes, pleura, pericardium, and lungs. We have shown a t(12;15) (p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 translocation in all but one case of MASC suitable for analysis. One case was not analyzable and another was not available for testing. This translocation was not found in any conventional salivary AciCC (12 cases), nor in other tumor types including pleomorphic adenoma (1 case) and low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (1 case), whereas ETV6-NTRK3 gene rearrangements were proven in all 3 tested cases of

  20. Aspiration biopsy of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of accessory parotid gland: another diagnostic dilemma in matrix-containing tumors of the salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Pascale; Fried, Karen; Krevitt, Lane D; Wang, Beverly; Wenig, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly described rare salivary gland tumor, which shares morphologic features with acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cystadenocarcinoma, and secretory carcinoma of the breast. This is the first reported case of MASC of an accessory parotid gland detected by aspiration biopsy with radiologic and histologic correlation in a 34-year-old patient. Sonographically-guided aspiration biopsy showed cytologic features mimicking those of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, including sheets of bland epithelial cells, dissociated histiocytoid cells with intracytoplasmic mucinous material, and spindle cells lying in a web-like matrix. Histologic sections showed a circumscribed tumor with microcystic spaces lined by bland uniform epithelial cells and containing secretory material. The tumor cells expressed mammaglobin and BRST-2. The cytologic features, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls are discussed. The pathologic stage was pT1N0. The patient showed no evidence of disease at 1 year follow-up. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Line; Christensen, Lise Hanne; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin (PMCS) is a rare malignant tumor deriving from the sweat glands. It is typically located on the head and is often mistaken for a metastasis from a more common primary tumor of the breast or gastrointestinal tract. We present the first population-based study...

  2. Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Kini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA, as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells′ invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years.

  3. Drug-induced thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in a minocycline-pigmented black thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacon, Lyndal; Tan, Charles T K; Alvarado, Raul; Gill, Anthony J; Sywak, Mark; Fulcher, Greg

    2008-07-01

    We describe a 31-year-old woman who had ingested minocycline for 18 months prior to presenting with hyperthyroidism and a palpable thyroid nodule. There was no evidence of Graves' disease or autonomous nodule on thyroid scintigraphy, and a clinical diagnosis of thyroiditis was made. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the palpable lesion suggested papillary carcinoma, and the patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Intraoperatively, the thyroid gland was found to have a striking black discoloration. Subsequent histological examination revealed the accumulation of pigment globules within the apical cytoplasm of the follicular cells, and associated findings of a drug-induced thyroiditis. The tumor nodule showed features of infarction and was felt to represent a necrotic papillary microcarcinoma. We postulate that in addition to causing black thyroid pigmentation, chronic minocycline use in our patient resulted in thyroiditis and subsequent hyperthyroidism. The papillary microcarcinoma was probably a coincidental finding.

  4. Toll-like receptor 9 expression in mucoepidermoid salivary gland carcinoma may associate with good prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korvala, Johanna; Harjula, Teresa; Siirilä, Kristiina; Almangush, Alhadi; Aro, Katri; Mäkitie, Antti A; Grénman, Reidar; Karttunen, Tuomo J; Leivo, Ilmo; Kauppila, Joonas H; Salo, Tuula

    2014-08-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common salivary gland malignancy. Although several biomarkers have been evaluated, histological grade remains the most valuable prognostic marker. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is an immune receptor recognizing microbial DNA. Its expression associates with prognosis or cancer properties in several cancers. This study examined the role of TLR9 in MEC. Sixty patients with salivary gland MEC were collected from two Finnish university hospitals, and tumor samples were stained for TLR9. Salivary gland high-grade MEC cell line (UT-MUC-1) was cultured to assess TLR9 and MMP-13 expression. The function of TLR9 was studied in vitro using traditional Matrigel(®) invasion assay and novel human myoma organotypic model. Cancer-specific survival was related with tumor grade (P = 0.01), and there were no deaths in patients with low-grade MEC. TLR9 was expressed in 56 of 60 (93%) tumors. High TLR9 expression indicated better survival in the patient series (P = 0.002) and showed a trend for association with lower disease stage (P = 0.06) and higher differentiation grade (P = 0.068). In multivariate analysis, TLR9 expression was prognostically insignificant due to heavy correlation to disease stage and higher gradus. Treating UT-MUC-1 cells with TLR9 ligand CpG in vitro induced MMP-13 expression and invasion in Matrigel(®) invasion assay, whereas decreased invasion was seen in myoma organotypic model. Functional TLR9 is present in salivary MEC, and high level of expression may indicate good prognosis. However, more studies are needed to evaluate biological consequences of TLR9 interaction in tumor cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Less aggressive disease in patients with primary squamous cell carcinomas of the thyroid gland and coexisting lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asik, Mehmet; Binnetoglu, Emine; Sen, Hacer; Gunes, Fahri; Muratli, Asli; Kankaya, Duygu; Uysal, Fatma; Sahin, Mustafa; Ukinc, Kubilay

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid gland is extremely rare. Infrequently, primary SCC of the thyroid gland is accompanied by other thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Recently, studies have demonstrated that differentiated thyroid cancer with coexisting HT has a better prognosis. However, the prognosis of patients with primary SCC of the thyroid gland and coexistent HT has not been clearly identified. We compared the clinical characteristics and disease stages of patients with primary SCC with and without lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT). We reviewed reports of primary SCC of the thyroid gland published in the English literature. We identified 46 papers that included 17 cases of primary SCC of the thyroid gland with LT and 77 cases of primary SCC of the thyroid gland without LT. Lymph node metastasis and local invasion rates did not differ between these two groups. Distant metastases were absent in patients with LT, and were observed in 13 (16.9%) patients without LT. A greater proportion of patients without LT had advanced stage disease (stage IV A-B-C) than patients with LT (p thyroid gland and coexisting LT had lower tumour-node-metastasis stage and frequency of distant metastasis than those without LT. Lymphocytic infiltration in patients with SCC appears to limit tumour growth and distant metastases.

  6. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a clinicopathologic study of 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Nasir Ud; Fatima, Saira; Kayani, Naila

    2016-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described tumor sharing the histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular profile of secretory carcinoma of breast. We aimed to evaluate the morphologic and histochemical features needed/required for the diagnosis of MASC without adjunct of molecular analysis. Six retrospective cases suspicious for MASC and 5 prospective cases reported as MASC were included in the study. Molecular analysis of ETV6 by fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed at the University of Pittsburg, USA. The ages of the patients ranged from 9 to 60 years (mean, 27.5 years). Histologically, all tumors showed mixed growth patterns including microcystic, macrocystic, papillary, tubular, and solid, papillary the being most common pattern. The tumor cells showed round to oval vesicular nuclei with small nucleoli, and eosinophilic to vacuolated cytoplasm. All cases demonstrated luminal and cytoplasmic mucin on periodic acid-Schiff with and without diastase digestion and alcian blue stain. ETV6 fusion gene rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization was detected in 10 of 11 tumors. Recurrences occurred in 3 patients, and 1 patient died of disease 5 years after surgery. In conclusion, MASC is a relatively rare salivary gland malignancy exhibiting distinct histologic and histochemical features which can help to differentiate it from other mimics. Histologically, papillary-cystic and microcystic patterns are the main clues to diagnosis. The follicular pattern of acinic cell carcinoma might represent MASC, as 4 cases in our series had this pattern. Two patients in our series were 9 and 9½ years old respectively, which are the youngest ages ever recorded for MASC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland with rare metastasis to the sternum in a 52-year-old male

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Alshammari; Omar Jamal Eldeib; Ahmed Jamal Eldeib; Waleed Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor, described as being one of the most biologically destructive tumors of the head and neck. It is the most common malignancy that affects the minor salivary glands. Lung and bones are the most common regions of ACC distant metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, herein, we report the first ever case of latent isolated sternal metastasis from ACC in a 52-year-old gentleman, who was diagnosed to have ACC of the submandibular gland, excised 10 years...

  8. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland with rare metastasis to the sternum in a 52-year-old male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alshammari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is a rare tumor, described as being one of the most biologically destructive tumors of the head and neck. It is the most common malignancy that affects the minor salivary glands. Lung and bones are the most common regions of ACC distant metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, herein, we report the first ever case of latent isolated sternal metastasis from ACC in a 52-year-old gentleman, who was diagnosed to have ACC of the submandibular gland, excised 10 years ago.

  9. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the thyroid gland: A primary thyroid adenocarcinoma harboring ETV6–NTRK3 fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ptashkin, Ryan N; Dawson, Robert R; Shah, Jatin P; Sherman, Eric J; Tuttle, R Michael; Fagin, James A; Klimstra, David S; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    ETV6–NTRK3 fusion was identified in several cancers including the recently described mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands and a minority of papillary thyroid carcinomas. We describe three cases of primary MASC of the thyroid gland and provide a detailed clinical and pathological characterization of the tumor morphology, immunoprofile, and genetic background. Immunohistochemistry for PAX8, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, and p63 was used to define the tumor immunophenotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization for ETV6 rearrangement was performed in three, and the next-generation sequencing assay MSK-IMPACT™ (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets) was performed in two cases. Primary MASC of the thyroid occurred in two women and one man, age 47–72 years. All patients presented with high T stage, infiltrative, locally aggressive tumors with extrathyroidal extension. Two cases were associated with well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, they appeared as low-grade tumors, resembling MASC of the salivary glands and labeled positive for mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, S-100 protein, p63, weakly positive for PAX8, and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ETV6 rearrangement in all cases. In two tested cases MSK-IMPACT™ confirmed the presence of ETV6–NTRK3 gene fusion. Two patients had at least two local recurrences, one was alive with disease, and one was alive and free of disease after 14 and 17 years, respectively. The third patient was alive and free of disease after 2 years. MASC of the thyroid is histologically, immunophenotypically, and genetically similar to its salivary gland counterpart. Thyroid MASC can be associated with a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma component, supporting follicular cell origin. Clinically, these carcinomas may show frequent recurrences but are associated

  10. Minor salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinoma in children and adolescents: a case series and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritwik Priyanshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Because well-documented cases of mucoepidermoid carcinomas that are of minor salivary gland origin and occur in children and adolescents have rarely been reported, little information regarding their clinical features and biologic behavior is available. This case report represents a retrospective clinical analysis of five minor salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas accessioned from a 35-year period at the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry and combines the data with 15 well-documented cases from the English language literature. Case presentation The five mucoepidermoid carcinomas in patients from birth to 19 years of age accounted for 1.3% of the accessioned minor salivary gland neoplasms. There were an additional 15 well-documented cases in the literature. Combining the data for the 20 mucoepidermoid carcinomas resulted in a mean age of 13.5 years and a 2.3:1 female-to-male ratio. Collectively, the hard palate, soft palate, and hard palate/soft palate junction accounted for 85% of the cases. Thirty-five percent of the cases presented as a fluctuant submucosal swelling with surface color alterations. The average duration was five months, and bone involvement occurred in seven cases. A histologic grade of low to intermediate predominated (95%. Surgical removal was the treatment in all cases. Thirteen cases had adequate follow-up of three years or more, and recurrence was documented in only one case. There were no cases of death or metastasis in this series. Conclusions In children and adolescents, mucoepidermoid carcinomas have a female predilection and occur most commonly on the hard or soft palate or both. A fluctuant submucosal lump with a bluish color is a helpful diagnostic clue. The histologic grades of most mucoepidermoid carcinomas in the first and second decades of life are low and, to a lesser degree, intermediate. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice and results in a recurrence

  11. Differential Diagnosis of a Follicular Carcinoma and Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland Based on Sonographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kyung Sik; Bae, Il Hun; Lee, Seung Young; Jeon, Min Hee [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the sonographic findings of a conventional papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and a follicular variant of a papillary carcinoma. A total of 308 nodules from 231 patients that were diagnosed with a papillary carcinoma and a follicular carcinoma by surgery after sonography were analyzed. The nodules consisted of a conventional papillary carcinoma (255, 83%), a follicular variant of a papillary carcinoma (25, 8%), and a follicualar carcinoma (28, 9%). We compared and analyzed the sonographic findings of each nodule for content, margin, echotexture, shape, calcification and halo sign. A conventional papillary carcinoma showed significant different sonographic findings than a follicular carcinoma and a follicular variant of a papillary carcinoma for an ill-defined or well-defined spiculated margin (63.1%), marked hypoechogenicity (85.9%) and microcalcification (49%). A follicular carcinoma showed a significant difference than a conventional papillary carcinoma for a well-defined smooth margin (92.9%), iso, hypo- or hyperechogenicity (89.3%), wider than tall shape (100%) and halo sign (82.1%). The follicular variant of a papillary carcinoma showed similar findings to a follicular carcinoma except for marked hypoechogenicity (44%, p = 0.006) and taller than wide shape (16%, p = 0.027). The follicular carcinoma and follicular variant of a papillary carcinoma showed similar sonographic findings, but findings of a conventional papillary carcinoma were different

  12. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of thyroid gland in a male patient: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chi-Yun; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) was first described by Chan et al in 1991. It is characterized by nest or strands of epidermoid tumor cells with squamous differentiation, rare mucous cells, prominent sclerotic stroma, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and a background of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in the non-neoplastic thyroid gland. It is important to recognize SMECE of thyroid and differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma or other neoplasms with squamous differentiation/metaplasia. In published cases, the SMECE of thyroid gland predominantly occurs in women. We report a case of SMECE of thyroid in a 45-year-old male patient. All cases in male patients were Caucasian described in English literature, and our case is the first one in Asian.

  13. Rare metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Changjing; Shen, Hong; Liu, Wenqiang; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Ling; Li, Jindong; Shen, Liangfang; Zeng, Shan

    2017-11-01

    Thyroid metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare. Metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes hasn't been reported before. We want to share our experience about the treatment choice. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal nonkeratinizing carcinoma in August 2004. In March 2013 he underwent a thyroid carcinoma radical operation, and histological examination revealed metastasis to the thyroid gland from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. An 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan and biopsy showed metastatic abdominal lymph nodes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in April 2015. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes. The patient was treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and metastasis to the thyroid gland. The metastases to the abdominal lymph nodes received chemotherapy. After 6 cycles of chemotherapy with gemcitabine, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil for metastasis to the abdominal lymph nodes, the patient is currently asymptomatic with stable disease and improved quality of life. The treatment choice for metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma depends on the clinical disease extent, and surgery and/or chemo-radiation therapy must be drafted to the individual patient in order to improve the prognosis and quality of life.

  14. WISP-1 overexpression upregulates cell proliferation in human salivary gland carcinomas via regulating MMP-2 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li FJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fu-Jun Li, Xin-Juan Wang, Xiao-Li Zhou Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, People’s Republic of China Background: WISP-1 is a member of the CCN family of growth factors and has been reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis by triggering downstream events via integrin signaling. However, little is known about the role of WISP-1 in proliferation of salivary gland carcinoma (SGC cells.Methods: In this study, we investigated the WISP-1 expression in SGC tissues via immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting assay, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, and then evaluated the regulatory role of WISP-1 in the growth of SGC A-253 cells. In addition, the role of MMP-2 in the WISP-1-mediated growth regulation was also investigated.Results: It was demonstrated that the WISP-1 expression was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in 15 of 21 SGC tumor tissues, compared to the non-tumor tissues (five of 21, associated with the lymph node dissection and bone invasion. The in vitro CCK-8 assay and colony-forming assay demonstrated that the exogenous WISP-1 treatment or the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the growth of A-253 cells. In addition, we confirmed that the WISP-1 overexpression upregulated the MMP-2 expression in A-253 cells with the gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies, and that the MMP-2 knockdown attenuated the WISP-1-mediated growth promotion of A-253 cells.Conclusion: We found that WISP-1 was overexpressed in the human SGCs, and the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the salivary gland cell proliferation via upregulating MMP-2 expression. Our study recognized the oncogenic role of WISP-1 in human SGCs, which could serve as a potential target for anticancer therapy. Keywords: WISP-1, SGCs, proliferation, MMP-2

  15. WISP-1 overexpression upregulates cell proliferation in human salivary gland carcinomas via regulating MMP-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Jun; Wang, Xin-Juan; Zhou, Xiao-Li

    2016-01-01

    WISP-1 is a member of the CCN family of growth factors and has been reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis by triggering downstream events via integrin signaling. However, little is known about the role of WISP-1 in proliferation of salivary gland carcinoma (SGC) cells. In this study, we investigated the WISP-1 expression in SGC tissues via immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting assay, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, and then evaluated the regulatory role of WISP-1 in the growth of SGC A-253 cells. In addition, the role of MMP-2 in the WISP-1-mediated growth regulation was also investigated. It was demonstrated that the WISP-1 expression was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in 15 of 21 SGC tumor tissues, compared to the non-tumor tissues (five of 21), associated with the lymph node dissection and bone invasion. The in vitro CCK-8 assay and colony-forming assay demonstrated that the exogenous WISP-1 treatment or the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the growth of A-253 cells. In addition, we confirmed that the WISP-1 overexpression upregulated the MMP-2 expression in A-253 cells with the gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies, and that the MMP-2 knockdown attenuated the WISP-1-mediated growth promotion of A-253 cells. We found that WISP-1 was overexpressed in the human SGCs, and the WISP-1 overexpression promoted the salivary gland cell proliferation via upregulating MMP-2 expression. Our study recognized the oncogenic role of WISP-1 in human SGCs, which could serve as a potential target for anticancer therapy.

  16. Identification of prognostic collagen signatures and potential therapeutic stromal targets in canine mammary gland carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Case

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in regulating the biologic behavior of breast cancer. In veterinary oncology, there is a need for improved prognostic markers to accurately identify dogs at risk for local and distant (metastatic recurrence of mammary gland carcinoma and therefore would benefit from adjuvant therapy. Collagen density and fiber organization have been shown to regulate tumor progression in both mouse and human mammary tumors, with certain collagen signatures predicting poor outcomes in women with breast cancer. We hypothesized that collagen signatures in canine mammary tumor biopsies can serve as prognostic biomarkers and potential targets for treatment. We used second harmonic generation imaging to evaluate fibrillar collagen density, the presence of a tumor-stromal boundary, tumor associated collagen signatures (TACS and individual collagen fiber characteristics (width, length and straightness in grade I/II and grade III canine mammary tumors. Collagen density, as well as fiber width, length and straightness, were inversely correlated with patient overall survival time. Notably, grade III cases were less likely to have a tumor-stromal boundary and the lack of a boundary predicted poor outcome. Importantly, a lack of a defined tumor-stromal boundary and an increased collagen fiber width were associated with decreased survival even when tumor grade, patient stage, ovariohysterectomy status at the time of mammary tumor excision, and histologic evidence of lymphovascular invasion were considered in a multivariable model, indicating that these parameters could augment current methods to identify patients at high risk for local or metastatic progression/recurrence. Furthermore, these data, which identify for the first time, prognostic collagen biomarkers in naturally occurring mammary gland neoplasia in the dog, support the use of the dog as a translational model for tumor

  17. Diagnostic utility of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 immunostaining in the diagnosis of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland: A comparative study of salivary gland cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akihiko; Taira, Tomoki; Abe, Hideyuki; Takase, Yorihiko; Kurita, Takashi; Sadashima, Eiji; Hattori, Satoshi; Imamura, Ichio; Matsumoto, Shinji; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Sueyoshi, Kazunobu; Akiba, Jun; Kage, Masayoshi

    2015-10-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) with an ETS variant gene 6 (ETV6)-neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 3 (NTRK3) translocation is a newly described type of salivary gland cancer. It is known that overexpression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a (STAT5a) occurs in secretory carcinoma of the breast and MASC, and STAT5a expression may be related to the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. It was hypothesized that phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (p-STAT5) might be specifically expressed in MASC of the salivary gland. The expression of p-STAT5 and mammaglobin (MMG) was examined with immunohistochemistry (IHC)/immunocytochemistry (ICC) in tissue sections from 58 salivary gland cancers (8 MASCs and 50 other salivary gland cancers) and in cytological smears from 17 salivary gland cancers (7 MASCs with paired histologic samples and 10 other salivary gland cancers). p-STAT5 IHC was clearly increased in MASC versus normal salivary gland tissue and other salivary gland cancers. p-STAT5 expression was found in 7 of 8 MASCs (87.5%) and in none of the 50 other salivary gland cancers (0%) by IHC. On cytology, p-STAT5 expression was found in all cases of MASC (7 of 7 or 100%) but in none of the 10 other salivary gland cancers (0%) by ICC. The expression rate of MMG by histology and cytology was higher than that of p-STAT5 in the other salivary gland cancers. p-STAT5 might be useful as a detection marker of MASC in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland cancers, and initial screening with p-STAT5 IHC/ICC, combined with auxiliary fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmation, is a reliable, economical approach to identifying MASC of the salivary gland. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  18. Novel trends in transrectal ultrasound imaging of prostate gland carcinoma

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    Tomasz Szopiński

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the prostate gland is the most common neoplasm in men. Its treatment depends on multiple factors among which local staging plays a significant role. The basic method is transrectal ultrasound imaging. This examination enables imaging of the prostate gland and its abnormalities, but it also allows ultrasound-guided biopsies to be conducted. A conventional gray-scale ultrasound examination enables assessment of the size, echostructure and outlines of the anatomic capsule, but in many cases, neoplastic lesions cannot be observed. For this reason, new sonographic techniques are implemented in order to facilitate detectability of cancer. The usage of contrast agents during transrectal ultrasound examination must be emphasized since, in combination with color Doppler, it facilitates detection of cancerous lesions by visualizing flow which is not observable without contrast enhancement. Elastography, in turn, is a different solution. It uses the differences in tissue elasticity between a neoplastic region and normal prostatic parenchyma that surrounds it. This technique facilitates detection of lesions irrespective of their echogenicity and thereby supplements conventional transrectal examinations. However, the size of the prostate gland and its relatively far location from the transducer may constitute limitations to the effectiveness of elastography. Moreover, the manner of conducting such an examination depends on the examiner and his or her subjective assessment. Another method, which falls within the novel, popular trend of combining imaging methods, is fusion of magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal sonography. The application of multidimensional magnetic resonance imaging, which is currently believed to be the best method for prostate cancer staging, in combination with the availability of a TRUS examination and the possibility of monitoring biopsies in real-time sonography is a promising alternative, but it is

  19. Occult Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Metastasis to the Sacrum and the Skull: An Unusual Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jouhar, Fatima S.; Quadri, Asif; Afandi, Bachar; Al Rawi, Sadir

    2014-01-01

    This case represents occult follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) with large metastasis to the sacrum. The patient, a 42-year-old female, presented after hemithyroidectomy for benign follicular adenoma with lower back pain associated with fever and sweating. A lytic lesion of the left sacral bone was found on the CT with biopsy showing metastatic carcinoma with morphology and immunophenotype of thyroid gland primary tumor proven to be FVPTC. The patient had completion thyr...

  20. Occult Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Metastasis to the Sacrum and the Skull: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima S. Jouhar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case represents occult follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC with large metastasis to the sacrum. The patient, a 42-year-old female, presented after hemithyroidectomy for benign follicular adenoma with lower back pain associated with fever and sweating. A lytic lesion of the left sacral bone was found on the CT with biopsy showing metastatic carcinoma with morphology and immunophenotype of thyroid gland primary tumor proven to be FVPTC. The patient had completion thyroidectomy with benign pathology.

  1. Occult papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis to the sacrum and the skull: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhar, Fatima S; Quadri, Asif; Afandi, Bachar; Al Rawi, Sadir

    2014-01-01

    This case represents occult follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) with large metastasis to the sacrum. The patient, a 42-year-old female, presented after hemithyroidectomy for benign follicular adenoma with lower back pain associated with fever and sweating. A lytic lesion of the left sacral bone was found on the CT with biopsy showing metastatic carcinoma with morphology and immunophenotype of thyroid gland primary tumor proven to be FVPTC. The patient had completion thyroidectomy with benign pathology.

  2. Unmasking MASC: bringing to light the unique morphologic, immunohistochemical and genetic features of the newly recognized mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A

    2013-03-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland neoplasm that is characterized by its striking morphologic and molecular similarities to secretory carcinoma of the breast. This review highlights the characteristic clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features of MASC, and draws attention to the differential diagnosis of this increasingly recognized tumor.

  3. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Merica; Sridhara, Shankar K; Leo, Leonard J; Coppit, George L; Ehrhardt, Nicole M

    2013-10-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid gland is a rare malignancy that presents with advanced disease and poor prognosis. A 75-year-old woman with a history of Hashimoto thyroiditis presented with 6 months of dysphagia and stridor. Imaging revealed a thyroid mass invading the larynx. Primary SCC of the thyroid was diagnosed by histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Total thyroidectomy, total laryngectomy, bilateral modified neck dissection, and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) were performed. Radiologic follow-up at 21 months demonstrated no disease and total length of survival was 31 months. Despite an aggressive T4aN0M0 tumor, survival in this case was more than double the median survival rate previously reported. Concomitant Hashimoto thyroiditis is rare and histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation is imperative for an accurate diagnosis. The case and literature reported here support that a thorough diagnostic workup of primary SCC of the thyroid with aggressive locoregional surgery and adjuvant RT may improve the length of survival. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Uropygial gland squamous cell carcinoma in chinstrap (Pygoscelis antarcticus) and gentoo (Pygoscelis papua) penguins at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Central Park Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmund, Christy L; Newton, Alisa L; Calle, Paul P

    2015-03-01

    Uropygial, or preen, glands are found in a variety of avian species including penguins. These glands have a multitude of functions and can develop a variety of conditions including impaction, rupture, adenitis, squamous metaplasia, and neoplasia of various types, with squamous cell carcinoma the most commonly reported. A case series of uropygial gland squamous cell carcinoma in five penguins at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Central Park Zoo is described. Most birds were aged (>10 yr) with a history of chronic, recurrent uropygial gland problems including impaction, rupture, abscess formation, or a combination of conditions. Before and after neoplasia diagnosis, these cases were managed conservatively, and palliative care was provided. Because many of these cases were preceded by chronic inflammation, it is possible this inflammation predisposed the uropygial gland to neoplastic transformation, and more aggressive treatment early in the disease process may therefore be warranted.

  5. Apocrine sweat gland obstruction by antiperspirants allowing transdermal absorption of cutaneous generated hormones and pheromones as a link to the observed incidence rates of breast and prostate cancer in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kris G

    2009-06-01

    Breast and prostate cancer share similarities and likely represent homologous cancers in females and males, respectively. The role of hormones such as testosterone and estrogen in carcinogenesis is well established. Despite worldwide research efforts, the pathogenesis of these diseases is largely not well understood. Personal care products containing estrogens or xenoestrogens have raised concern as a breast cancer risk, especially in young African-American women. In the United States (US) there is a parallel rise in the incidence in breast and prostate cancer compared to selected non-hormone dependent tumors. Observed US and global breast and prostate cancer incidence increases were occurring before exogenous hormone replacement and xenoestrogen exposure were commonplace. An unintentional, inadvertent, and long term hormone exposure may occur from transdermal absorption of sex hormones and pheromones (androgens) from axillary apocrine sweat gland obstruction by aluminum-based antiperspirants. The global rise in antiperspirant use parallels rises in breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. A multi-disciplinary literature based set of evidence is presented on how such a link is possible, to prompt confirmatory investigations in the pursuit of unmet needs in breast and prostate cancer etiology and prevention.

  6. 17beta-estradiol rapidly mobilizes intracellular calcium from ryanodine-receptor-gated stores via a PKC-PKA-Erk-dependent pathway in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W

    2008-09-01

    We describe a novel rapid non-genomic effect of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signalling in the eccrine sweat gland epithelial cell line NCL-SG3. E2 had no observable effect on basal [Ca2+]i, however exposure of cells to E2 in the presence of the microsomal Ca2+ ATPase pump inhibitor, thapsigargin, produced a secondary, sustained increase in [Ca2+]i compared to thapsigargin treatment alone, where cells responded with a transient single spike-like increase in [Ca2+]i. The E2-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was not dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and was completely abolished by ryanodine (100 microM). The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 (1 microM) prevented the E2-induced effects suggesting a role for the estrogen receptor in the release of [Ca2+]i from ryanodine-receptor-gated stores. The E2-induced effect on [Ca2+]i could also be prevented by the protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta)-specific inhibitor rottlerin (10 microM), the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3\\

  7. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of salivary gland with high-grade histology arising in hard palate, report of a case and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenyi; Lindley, Sarah W; Lindley, Peter H; Krempl, Gregory A; Seethala, Raja R; Fung, Kar-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Mammary gland analog secretary carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland is typically a tumor of low histologic grade and behaves as a low-grade malignancy with relatively benign course. This tumor shares histologic features, immunohistochemical profile, and a highly specific genetic translocation, ETV6-NTRK3, with secretory carcinoma of breast. Histologically, it is often mistaken as acinic cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, and other primary salivary gland tumors. Here we report a case of MASC with high-grade transformation and cervical lymph node metastases confirmed with ETV6-NTRK3 translocation arising in the hard palate of a 41 year-old adult. Interestingly, the metastatic carcinoma has lower grade than the original tumor which strongly support malignant transformation of the original tumor. Most commonly, MASC arises from the parotid gland and less often in minor salivary glands. Metastasis is relatively uncommon and high-grade histology has only been reported in four cases with three of them arising from the parotid gland and the location of the fourth one has not been reported. This is the first case with high grade histology that arise from minor salivary gland and it emphasizes the importance of molecular screening of salivary gland tumor with high-grade histology for ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. In our literature of 115 cases that includes the current case, MASC occurred predominantly in adult with only a few cases under 18 years of age and a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Parotid gland is more commonly affected but there is also significant occurrence in minor salivary glands. Except for the cases with high grade histology, the overall prognosis is good. PMID:25674280

  8. Systematic review focusing on the excretion and protection roles of sweat in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Cui, Xiao; Liu, Yanhua; Li, Yaoyin; Liu, Jian; Cheng, Biao

    2014-01-01

    The skin excretes substances primarily through sweat glands. Several conditions have been demonstrated to be associated with diminished sweating. However, few studies have concentrated on the metabolism and excretion of sweat. This review focuses on the relationship between temperature and the thermoregulatory efficacy of sweat, and then discusses the excretion of sweat, which includes the metabolism of water, minerals, proteins, vitamins as well as toxic substances. The potential role of sweat secretion in hormone homeostasis and the effects on the defense system of the skin are also clarified. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The predictive value of MRI in detecting thyroid gland invasion in patients with advanced laryngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peiliang; Huang, Xiaoming; Zheng, Chushan; Cai, Qian; Guan, Zhong; Liang, Faya; Zheng, Yiqing

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting thyroid gland invasion (TGI) in patients with advanced laryngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma. In a retrospective chart review, 41 patients with advanced laryngeal or hypopharyngeal carcinoma underwent MRI scan before total laryngectomy and ipsilateral or bilateral thyroidectomy during the past 5 years. The MRI findings were compared with the postoperative pathological results. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Among the 41 patients, 3 had thyroid gland invasion in postoperative pathological results. MRI correctly predicted the absence of TGI in 37 of 38 patients and TGI in all 3 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of MRI were 100.0, 97.4, 75.0, and 100 %, respectively, with the diagnostic accuracy of 97.6 %. In consideration of the high negative predictive value of MRI, it may help surgeons selectively preserve thyroid gland in total laryngectomy and reduce the incidence of hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism postoperatively.

  10. Dose Measurements of Parotid Glands and Spinal Cord in Conventional Treatment of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Using RANDO Phantom and Thermoluminescent Dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Radiotherapy is regarded as the first treatment of choice for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Despite the advantages of radiotherapy, patients may suffer from a wide range of side-effects due to the presence of many sensitive normal tissues in these regions. If the absorbed dose exceeds the tolerance level in parotid glands and the spinal cord, myelopathy, Lhermitte's sign and xerostomia cannot be avoided. Materials and Methods The head and neck of a RANDO phantom (reference man, which was regarded as a hypothetical patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was evaluated. The full course of treatment consisted of three phases. At the beginning of each phase, an oncologist marked conventional fields on the RANDO phantom using a simulator. For measuring the absorbed dose, Thermoluminescent Dosimeters(TLD chips (TLD-100 were utilized.The absorbed dose by TLDs was read by Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. Results The total absorbed dose was calculated by measuring the absorbed dose in each phase, multiplied by the fraction numbers of each phase; the obtained values were summed up. The results showed that the received doses by spinal cord ranged from 15.24 to 54.56 Gy. Also, the absorbed dose of parotid glands was approximately 39.23 Gy. Conclusion Considering the minimum tolerance dose the absorbed doses in the spinal cord and parotid glands were above the tolerance level. The incidence rate of xerostomia and myelopathy were higher in patients, treated by conventional methods.

  11. Influence of digoxin and diuretic therapy on sweat fluid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, A; Benzon, L; Aladjem, M

    1985-01-01

    The effect of digitalis and diuretic therapy on sweat fluid composition was investigated. Patients treated for congestive heart failure with a combination of digoxin and diuretics demonstrated a higher concentration of sodium and chloride in their sweat fluid when compared to age-matched controls. The administration of diuretics alone did not affect sweat fluid composition. The digoxin-induced increase in sodium concentration was significantly higher than that observed for chloride. These data suggest that digoxin markedly inhibits sodium reabsorption along the sweat gland tubule, whereas chloride transport is affected to a lesser degree. A significant correlation between sweat fluid sodium and serum digoxin concentrations was observed. We conclude that the increased digoxin-induced sweat sodium and chloride losses may affect sodium homeostasis in patients with congestive heart failure.

  12. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland origin: an update and expanded morphologic and immunohistochemical spectrum of recently described entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalova, Alena

    2013-07-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland origin (MASC) is a recently described tumor with ETV6 translocation. Akin to secretory breast cancer, MASC expresses S-100 protein, mammaglobin, vimentin, and harbors a t(12;15) (p13;q25) translocation which leads to ETV6-NTRK3 fusion product. Histologically, MASC displays a lobulated growth pattern and is often composed of microcystic, tubular, and solid structures with abundant eosinophilic homogeneous or bubbly secretions. Colloid-like secretory material stains positive for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) with and without diastase and for Alcian blue. The cells of MASC are devoid of PAS-positive secretory zymogen granules. These features help to exclude the most important differential diagnostic considerations, namely acinic cell carcinoma, low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, cystadenocarcinoma (not otherwise specified), and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. To date the presence of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene has not been demonstrated in any other salivary gland tumor than MASC. It is likely that MASC is more common than currently recognized and with further studies, the clinical need for molecular studies of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion may diminish. However, molecular testing is recommended at this time to arrive at the diagnosis of MASC.

  13. Metachronous solitary metastasis to the thyroid gland from squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsomino, Francesco; Lamberti, Giuseppe; Ambrosini, Valentina; Sperandi, Francesca; Agosti, Roberto; Morganti, Alessio G; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2017-11-15

    Non-small cell lung cancer presents at an advanced stage at diagnosis in two-thirds of cases. The most frequent metastatic sites are the central nervous system, adrenal glands and bones. By contrast, the thyroid gland is an extremely rare site of dissemination. A 64-year-old Caucasian man previously treated with radiosurgery and brain metastasectomy followed by right middle lobectomy for a squamous cell lung carcinoma had a metachronous solitary metastasis to the thyroid gland, as confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology and open biopsy. He underwent curative radiotherapy, with an initial response. At 9 months' follow-up the tumor relapsed both in the thyroid and the lung. Review of the literature confirmed that thyroid metastasis from lung cancer is very uncommon in clinical practice. No data on the role of surgery or curative radiotherapy in thyroid metastasis are available because of the lack of prospective studies addressing the impact on survival of these treatment strategies either alone or in combination. In the case described here, radical treatment with radiotherapy allowed to obtain a modest benefit in terms of relapse-free survival. A diagnosis of metastasis to the thyroid gland should be suspected in patients who present a thyroid nodule or suggestive imaging findings when there is a history of malignancy, including lung cancer. Indeed, an early diagnosis allows to pursue radical treatment that, in selected patients, could lead to long-term survival.

  14. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Christou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC. Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000–10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.05, p<0.10, and p<0.05, resp.. Parotid gland massage also reduced the salivary damage significantly (p<0.001. Additionally, vitamin C had some limited effect (p=0.37, whereas no effect was present in the case of chewing gum (p=0.99. Conclusion. The review showed that, among nonpharmacological interventions, sialogogues and parotid gland massage had the greatest impact on reducing salivary damage induced by radioiodine therapy of DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions.

  15. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Kyriakos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid metastases are rarely seen in clinical practice but should be considered particularly in patients with a history of non-thyroidal malignancies. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common tumor to metastasize to the thyroid gland and may present many years after a nephrectomy. Thus, patients require a long-term follow-up and, physicians should have a high index of suspicion particularly in patients with benign disorders of the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and thyroglobulin immunohistochemical staining are considered the most effective methods for diagnosis. Surgical treatment of solitary thyroid metastases is recommended and prolongs survival. Adjuvant medical treatment may also be useful in specific situations. We present the unusual case of a relative young patient with goiter who presented with an intrathyroidal metastasis of RCC. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 58-60

  16. Skin Tattoos Alter Sweat Rate and Na+ Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie Joe; Hanisko, Joseph Michael; Aho, Kyle Mathiew

    2017-07-01

    The popularity of tattoos has increased tremendously in the last 10 yr particularly among athletes and military personnel. The tattooing process involves permanently depositing ink under the skin at a similar depth as eccrine sweat glands (3-5 mm). The purpose of this study was to compare the sweat rate and sweat Na concentration of tattooed versus nontattooed skin. The participants were 10 healthy men (age = 21 ± 1 yr), all with a unilateral tattoo covering a circular area at least 5.2 cm. Sweat was stimulated by iontophoresis using agar gel disks impregnated with 0.5% pilocarpine nitrate. The nontattooed skin was located contralateral to the position of the tattooed skin. The disks used to collect sweat were composed of Tygon® tubing wound into a spiral so that the sweat was pulled into the tubing by capillary action. The sweat rate was determined by weighing the disk before and after sweat collection. The sweat Na concentration was determined by flame photometry. The mean sweat rate from tattooed skin was significantly less than nontattooed skin (0.18 ± 0.15 vs 0.35 ± 0.25 mg·cm·min; P = 0.001). All 10 participants generated less sweat from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin and the effect size was -0.79. The mean sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin was significantly higher than nontattooed skin (69.1 ± 28.9 vs 42.6 ± 15.2 mmol·L; P = 0.02). Nine of 10 participants had higher sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin, and the effect size was 1.01. Tattooed skin generated less sweat and a higher Na concentration than nontattooed skin when stimulated by pilocarpine iontophoresis.

  17. Acquired defects in CFTR-dependent β-adrenergic sweat secretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Clifford A; Tidwell, Sherry; Liu, Bo; Accurso, Frank J; Dransfield, Mark T; Rowe, Steven M

    2014-02-25

    Smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with acquired systemic cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction. Recently, sweat evaporimetry has been shown to efficiently measure β-adrenergic sweat rate and specifically quantify CFTR function in the secretory coil of the sweat gland. To evaluate the presence and severity of systemic CFTR dysfunction in smoking-related lung disease using sweat evaporimetry to determine CFTR-dependent sweat rate. We recruited a cohort of patients consisting of healthy never smokers (N = 18), healthy smokers (12), COPD smokers (25), and COPD former smokers (12) and measured β-adrenergic sweat secretion rate with evaporative water loss, sweat chloride, and clinical data (spirometry and symptom questionnaires). β-adrenergic sweat rate was reduced in COPD smokers (41.9 ± 3.4, P sweat chloride was significantly greater in COPD smokers (32.8 ± 3.3, P sweat rate and female gender (β = 0.26), age (-0.28), FEV1% (0.35), dyspnea (-0.3), and history of smoking (-0.27; each P sweat rate was significantly reduced in COPD patients, regardless of smoking status, reflecting acquired CFTR dysfunction and abnormal gland secretion in the skin that can persist despite smoking cessation. β-adrenergic sweat rate and sweat chloride are associated with COPD severity and clinical symptoms, supporting the hypothesis that CFTR decrements have a causative role in COPD pathogenesis.

  18. Metastatic thyroid carcinoma without identifiable primary tumor within the thyroid gland: a retrospective study of a rare phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Cohen, Perry R; Prasad, Manju L; Hasanovic, Adnan; Tuttle, Robert Michael; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2017-07-01

    Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) without an identifiable primary tumor despite extensive microscopic examination of the thyroid gland is a rare but true phenomenon.We retrieved 7 of such cases and described in detail the clinical and pathologic features of these tumors. BRAF V600E immunohistochemistry and Sequenom molecular profile were conducted in selected cases. All patients harbored metastatic disease in the central (n=3), lateral (n=3), or both neck compartments (n=1). The histotype of the metastatic disease was PTC (n=5), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma in association with a PTC columnar variant (n=1), and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in association with a PTC tall cell variant (n=1). Fibrosis was present in the thyroid of 5 patients. All patients with PTC were alive without evidence of recurrence. The 76-year-old patient with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma did not recur and died of unknown causes. Finally, the patient with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was alive with distant metastasis at last follow-up. The median follow-up for this cohort was 2.2years (range, 0.8-17). BRAF V600E was detected in 4 of 6 cases by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, metastatic nodal disease without identifiable thyroid primary is a rare but real phenomenon of unknown mechanisms. Although most tumors are low grade and well differentiated, aggressive behavior due to poorly differentiated or anaplastic carcinoma can happen. Most cases are BRAFV600E-positive thyroid tumors. A papillary carcinoma phenotype is found in all reported cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-03-01

    In his interesting and informative book Is That a Fact?, Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on the "pig." But this explanation, which I have seen on the Internet, lacks a few caveats. It implies that molten iron, solidifying and cooling, anywhere, anytime, accretes liquid water, as if this were a special property of cooling iron. Set aside that real pigs sweat perceptibly from their snouts; kiss a pig and verify for yourself. Pigs also sweat imperceptibly. Imperceptible (insensible) perspiration is water vapor from the skin and lungs exuded without sensible condensation. That from humans is about 1 liter/day. Sweat is 99% liquid water, NaCl the dominant solute, secreted quickly, sometimes profusely, by subcutaneous sweat glands in response to thermal stress, in contrast to the slow, continuous diffusion of water vapor through skin.

  20. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  1. The examination of the lymphatic glands from the patients with larynx carcinoma; Badania wezlow chlonnych u chorych z rakiem krtani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murlewska, A.; Gryczynski, M.; Grabicka-Grochal, M.; Jaskiewicz, D. [Katedra i Klinika Otolaryngologii, Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland)]|[Zaklad Medycyny Nuklearnej, Instytut Radiologii, Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    45 patients with carcinoma laryngis were studied. The ultrasonographic examination of the cervix was performed using a Aloka Hellige instrument Typ SSD 280LS with the presentation in the relative time. The evaluation of the enlargement cervical lymphatic nodes is available with this method. You can determinate their size, the status of their bursa and also the relation of the lymphatic glands to the big cervical vessels and surrounding tissues. 169 YbPtC12Meth was used for the scintigraphy of the cervix and the thorax. 15 patients with carcinoma laryngis were studied. This method is useful to the detection and the evaluation of the extensivity of the pathological process the lungs and the mediastinum. (author) 7 refs, 3 tabs

  2. The incidence of MYB gene breaks in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands and its prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Martin; Steiner, Petr; Salzman, Richard; Hauer, Lukas; Starek, Ivo

    2016-09-01

    To detect MYB gene breaks in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the salivary glands and its correlation with prognosis and selected clinical parameters MYB gene break was detected by FISH assay in 23 adenoid cystic carcinomas using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate prognosis. Fifteen of 23 evaluated tumours were MYB positive and 8 MYB negative. The 10-year cumulative survival, respectively disease free interval, was 60.0%, respectively 59.3%, in MYB positive patients and 88.5%, respectively 80.0%, in MYB negative patients (long rank test, P=0.23). There were no significant differences in age, gender, perineural invasion, the presence of hematogenic or nodal metastases or degree of histopathological grading between MYB positive and MYB negative patients. A tendency to differences in the survival of patients with ACC, depending on their MYB status. MYB negative patients were predisposed to better prognosis.

  3. Fine-Needle Aspiration of Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland With Prominent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma-Like Cribriform Features: Avoiding a Diagnostic Pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisagbonhi, Omonigho A; Tulecke, Mark A; Wilbur, David C; Goldar-Najafi, Atoussa; Iqbal, Shams; Sadow, Peter M; Faquin, William C

    2016-12-01

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare salivary gland malignancy associated with an overall good prognosis. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) typically shows a dual population of myoepithelial and ductal cells. Rarely, acellular matrix globules are present, raising a differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), a more aggressive salivary gland malignancy associated with a poor long-term prognosis. We report an FNA case of EMC containing a predominant pattern of AdCC-like spherical globules. We compare features of an unusual case of EMC with those of cribriform AdCC to arrive at morphologic clues to the correct diagnosis. Distinguishing features of EMC on FNA include (1) a prominent population of myoepithelial cells vs the predominance of basaloid cells in AdCC and (2) cohesive matrix globules with a peripheral rim of pale-staining basement membrane material compared with the dyscohesive matrix globules of AdCC. Immunochemical markers (S100, CD117, and MyB) are also useful. Although EMC and AdCC can both contain spherical matrix globules, close evaluation of the cytomorphology of the globules and their relationship to surrounding cells provides a clue to distinguish the two neoplasms. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic features and the diagnostic role of core needle biopsy

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    Song, Ok Kyu; Koo, Ja Seung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The aims of this study were to present the ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the thyroid gland and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Eight patients with nine metastatic RCC nodules in the thyroid glands who were treated from January 2002 to March 2015 in a single tertiary hospital were consecutively selected and retrospectively reviewed. US features and clinical history were obtained from the institution’s medical database. FNA was performed nine times on eight nodules and CNB was performed six times on six nodules. The diagnostic utility of FNA and CNB was evaluated. All nine nodules showed mass formation without diffuse thyroid involvement. On ultrasonography, metastatic RCC nodules were solid (100%), hypoechoic (100%), and ovalshaped nodules with a well-defined smooth margin (88.9%) and increased vascularity (100%, with 55% showing extensive vascularity). No calcifications were noted in any nodules. Lymph node metastasis and direct extension to nearby structures beyond the thyroid gland were not found. One FNA (11%) was able to confirm metastatic RCC, whereas all six CNBs confirmed metastatic RCC. Metastatic RCC appears as oval-shaped hypoechoic solid nodules with well-defined smooth margins, no calcifications, and increased vascularity on ultrasonography. Characteristic US features along with a previous history of RCC should raise clinical suspicion, and CNB should be performed to make an accurate diagnosis.

  5. Perineural Spread of Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Parotid Gland Involving V, VI, and VII Cranial Nerves Demonstrated on Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Piyush; Nath, Satish

    2017-01-01

    Perineural spread (PNS) in head and neck malignancies has been associated with extremely poor prognosis. Through this interesting case, we demonstrate the PNS of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of parotid gland with simultaneous involvement of V, VI, and VII cranial nerves identified on positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

  6. Microsatellite instability and expression of hMLH-1 and hMSH-2 in sebaceous gland carcinomas as markers for Muir-Torre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entius, M. M.; Keller, J. J.; Drillenburg, P.; Kuypers, K. C.; Giardiello, F. M.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    2000-01-01

    Sebaceous gland carcinomas (SGCs) are rare malignant skin tumors occurring sporadically or as a phenotypic feature of the Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS). A subset of patients with MTS have a variant of the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome caused by mutations in mismatch repair (MMR)

  7. Acinic cell carcinoma of parotid gland metastasis to left cavernous sinus: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Xiao-yan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations and pathological features of parotid gland papillary acinic cell carcinoma metastasis to left cavernous sinus. Methods The clinical manifestations, pathological features and differential diagnosis were studied in one case of parotid papillary acinic cell carcinoma metastasis to left cavernous sinus. Related literatures were also reviewed. Results The patient was a 50-year-old female who presented paroxysmal dizziness for 5 months and blurred vision in her left eye for 10 months. The MRI examination showed left parasellar space-occupying mass in the cavernous sinus. In operation, the tumor was located in the superior wall of left cavernous sinus, soft and red-grey in color, with abundant blood supply. The histomorphological examination revealed the tumor cells were arranged in solid, acinar or papillary pattern. The tumor cells were large, with eosinophilic cytoplasm, round or oval nuclei and small nucleoli. Immunohistochemical staining found that the tumor cells expressed cytokeratin (CK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, vimentin (Vim and S-100 protein (S-100, and showed weak positive expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and focal positive expression of P53 protein. Ki-67 labeling index was about 5%-10% . The tumor cells were negative for neuroendocrine markers and pituitary hormone protein markers. This case was difficult to differentiate from other primary intracalvarium tumors, including papillary meningioma, papillary tumor of choroid plexus, papillary ependymoma, papillary glioneuronal tumors as well as chordoma. According to the medical history and the comparison of histomorphology and immunophenotyping between parotid gland tumor cells and left cavernous sinus tumor cells, the final diagnosis was metastatic papillary parotid acinar cell carcinoma of the left cavernous sinus. The patient was followed for 21 months and no recurrence was seen. Conclusion It is very rare and

  8. Ultrasound and computed tomography features of primary acinic cell carcinoma in the parotid gland: A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia, E-mail: xpyxpy2011@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao tong University, Shanghai (China); Gong, Xia, E-mail: gongxiafeng@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao tong University, Shanghai (China); Xiong, Ping, E-mail: xiongpxp@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao tong University, Shanghai (China); Xu, Qiuhua, E-mail: xu_qiu_hua@msn.com [Department of Ultrasound, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao tong University, Shanghai (China); Liu, Yu, E-mail: 13917266194@126.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao tong University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Yazhu, E-mail: yazhuchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao tong University, Shanghai (China); Tian, Zhen, E-mail: tian0304_cn@163.com [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of primary acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) of the parotid gland. Subjects and methods: Seventy patients (70 lesions) with histopathologically proven AciCC underwent US or CT examination. The following characteristics were assessed on US images: size, shape, border, echogenicity, echotexture, internal structure, distal acoustic enhancement, and vascularity. The following characteristics were evaluated on CT images: size, shape, border, density, CT values on plain and contrast-enhanced scans, enhancement pattern, enhancement degree, and surrounding bone destruction. Results: On US images, lesions were irregular, well-defined, hypoechoic, heterogeneous, and poorly vascularized. On CT images, lesions were regular and well-defined, and showed slight heterogeneous enhancement. Conclusion: These findings suggest that most primary AciCCs show benign features on US and CT.

  9. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Third World Country Perspective-A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salat, Huzaifah; Mumtaz, Ramiz; Ikram, Mubasher; Din, Nasir Ud

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described pathological entity in major salivary glands, which was first described by Skálová et al. in 2010. Since then only a limited number of case reports/series have been published describing this tumor with the majority of them discussing the genetic and cytoarchitectural aspect of this tumor. Keeping this in view with the lack of clinical correlation with regard to this tumor, we present our approach to management of two such cases which, according to the best of our knowledge, are the first 2 cases presenting in the South Asian continent. Both patients were diagnosed and managed at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

  10. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Third World Country Perspective—A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salat, Huzaifah; Mumtaz, Ramiz; Ikram, Mubasher; Din, Nasir Ud

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described pathological entity in major salivary glands, which was first described by Skálová et al. in 2010. Since then only a limited number of case reports/series have been published describing this tumor with the majority of them discussing the genetic and cytoarchitectural aspect of this tumor. Keeping this in view with the lack of clinical correlation with regard to this tumor, we present our approach to management of two such cases which, according to the best of our knowledge, are the first 2 cases presenting in the South Asian continent. Both patients were diagnosed and managed at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. PMID:26783481

  11. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland: A Third World Country Perspective—A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huzaifah Salat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a recently described pathological entity in major salivary glands, which was first described by Skálová et al. in 2010. Since then only a limited number of case reports/series have been published describing this tumor with the majority of them discussing the genetic and cytoarchitectural aspect of this tumor. Keeping this in view with the lack of clinical correlation with regard to this tumor, we present our approach to management of two such cases which, according to the best of our knowledge, are the first 2 cases presenting in the South Asian continent. Both patients were diagnosed and managed at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

  12. An unusual presentation of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands with cranial nerve palsy: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Pierre A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC is a rare tumor entity and comprises about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial region. It is slow growing but a highly invasive cancer with a high recurrence rate. Intracranial ACC is even more infrequent and could be primary or secondary occurring either by direct invasion, hematogenous spread, or perineural spread. We report the first case of the 5th and 6th nerve palsy due to cavernous sinus invasion by adenoid cystic carcinoma. Case presentation A 49-year-old African American female presented to the emergency room complaining of severe right-sided headache, photophobia, dizziness and nausea, with diplopia. The patient had a 14 year history migraine headaches, hypertension, and mild intermittent asthma. Physical examination revealed right lateral rectus muscle palsy with esotropia. There was numbness in all three divisions of the right trigeminal nerve. Motor and sensory examination of extremities was normal. An MRI of the brain/brain stem was obtained which showed a large mass in the clivus extending to involve the nasopharynx, pterygoid plate, sphenoid and right cavernous sinuses. Biopsy showed an ACC tumor with a cribriform pattern of the minor salivary glands. The patient underwent total gross surgical resection and radiation therapy. Conclusion This is a case of ACC of the minor salivary glands with intracranial invasion. The patient had long history of headaches which changed in character during the past year, and symptoms of acute 5th and 6th cranial nerve involvement. Our unique case demonstrates direct invasion of cavernous sinus and could explain the 5th and 6th cranial nerve involvement as histopathology revealed no perineural invasion.

  13. Association between anal sac gland carcinoma and dog leukocyte antigen-DQB1 in the English Cocker Spaniel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Hernández, J; Polton, G; Kennedy, L J; Sargan, D R

    2010-12-01

    Anal sac gland carcinomas occur frequently in English Cocker Spaniels and, to a lesser extent, in other spaniel breeds. The disease typically presents in dogs aged 8 years or older and frequently metastasises to the local lymph nodes. The association between anal sac gland carcinoma in English Cocker Spaniels and the major histocompatibility complex class II loci (the dog leukocyte antigen loci DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1) was investigated in 42 cases and 75 controls. Based on a corrected error rate of 0.017 for each test, the allele distribution in DLA-DRB1 showed no significant difference between cases and controls (P value = 0.019), while a significant difference was obtained for DLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles (P values are 0.010 and 3.3 × 10⁻⁵). The DLA-DQB1*00701 allele was the most common in both cases and controls, but it had a higher frequency among the former (0.89) than in the latter (0.61), while the second most common allele had a higher frequency in the controls (0.23) than in the cases (0.07). Haplotype distributions were also significantly different between the two groups (P value = 1.61 × 10⁻⁴). This is the second disease in English Cocker Spaniels for which the most common DLA-DQB1 allele in the breed has been shown to have a higher frequency in cases than controls, while the second most common allele in the breed (*02001) has a significantly higher frequency in the controls, compared with the cases. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. MYB Translocation Status in Salivary Gland Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma: Evaluation of Classic, Variant, and Hybrid Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A; Westra, William H

    2017-11-09

    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a malignant salivary gland neoplasm comprised of a biphasic arrangement of inner luminal ductal cells and outer myoepithelial cells. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is also a biphasic tumor comprised of ductal and myoepithelial cells, but these components tend to be arranged in a more cribriform pattern. The occurrence of "hybrid carcinomas" that show mixed patterns of EMC and AdCC raises questions about the relationship of these morphologically overlapping but clinically distinct tumors. AdCCs frequently harbor MYB-NFIB gene fusions. Mapping of EMCs (including hybrid forms with an AdCC component) for this fusion could help clarify the true nature of EMC as a distinct entity or simply as some variant form of AdCC. Twenty-nine cases of EMC were evaluated including 15 classic low-grade EMCs, 7 intermediate-grade EMCs, 2 EMCs with myoepithelial anaplasia, 1 EMC with high-grade transformation, and 4 hybrid EMCs with an AdCC component. Break apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYB was performed, as was MYB immunohistochemistry. For the hybrid carcinomas and those with high-grade transformation, the divergent tumor components were separately analyzed. A MYB translocation was identified in 5 of 28 (18%) tumors including 3 of 4 (75%) hybrid carcinomas and 2 of 7 (29%) intermediate-grade EMCs. For the positive hybrid carcinomas, the fusion was detected in both the EMC and AdCC components. The MYB fusion was not detected in any of the classic EMCs (0/15) or in any of the EMCs with myoepithelial anaplasia (0/2) or high-grade transformation (0/1). The fluorescence in situ hybridization assay was unsuccessful in 1 case. MYB immunostaining was seen in 5 of 5 fusion-positive cases, and also 9 of 23 fusion-negative tumors. Classic low-grade EMCs are genetically distinct from AdCCs in that they do not harbor MYB fusions. The presence of a MYB fusion in EMCs showing hybrid features of AdCC or exhibiting highly infiltrative growth

  15. Study of MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression, tumor angiogenesis, and proliferation in adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Junya; Okada, Yasuo

    2017-12-14

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is one of the common malignant tumors in salivary glands, and the clinical prognosis is poor with frequent distant metastasis which may lead to death. Expression of the MYB-NFIB chimeric gene in ACC has been reported recently. MYB is an oncogene with transcription regulating functions, and NFIB encodes nuclear transcription factor although detailed functions are unknown. This study investigated whether MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression affects tumor angiogenesis and proliferation in salivary gland ACC. In 26 salivary gland ACC cases, MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. Immunohistochemical studies for CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Ki-67 were performed. Tumor angiogenesis was evaluated by blood vessel (CD31-positive) density and tumor proliferation by Ki-67 labeling index, and the relationship with MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression was analyzed. MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression was detected in nine of 26 ACC cases. Blood vessel density was significantly higher in chimeric gene-expressing cases compared to non-expressing cases. VEGF score tended to be higher in chimeric gene-expressing cases than in non-expressing cases, while Ki-67 labeling index was not significantly different. The number of chimeric gene-expressing cases increased with age, peaking in the sixties age group and declining thereafter, while the number of non-expressing cases increased with age continuously. In ACC, blood vessel density was significantly higher in MYB-NFIB chimeric gene-expressing cases compared to non-expressing cases, which may be due to higher VEGF production capability. MYB-NFIB chimeric gene expression may also be related to the onset age of ACC.

  16. A rare malignancy of the parotid gland in a 13-year-old Taiwanese boy: case report of a mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland with molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Michael J; Wu, Pei Ru; Chen, Chih-Ming; Chen, Chia-Yu; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2014-03-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described malignancy of the salivary glands characterized by an ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion gene. Morphologically, MASC is sometimes difficult to distinguish from acinic cell carcinoma. Consequently, identifying the chromosomal translocation is essential for diagnosis. We present a case of parotid gland MASC in a 13-year-old boy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest case reported in the literature. Histologic evaluation showed a tumor composed of microcysts, tubular structures, solid nests, or papillary architecture, with secretions within the lumens of the cysts or tubules. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells showed diffuse positive staining of S-100 protein, cytokeratin 19, and vimentin. ETV6 rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and EN fusion transcripts were verified by reverse transcription (RT-PCR) assay.

  17. Clinicopathologic Profile Of Sweat Gland Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Harsh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign adnexal tumours of the skin, excluding pilosebaceous tumours were identified in 24 patients between the ages of 9 and 70 years with a mean age of 34 years; 17 women and 7 men. Most lesions (n = 13 occurred on the face and scalp. Apocrine hydrocystoma and eccrine acrospiroma were the commonest tumors with apocrine and eccrine differentiation respectively. Few uncommon tumors with included were chondroid syringoma, syringocystadenoma papilliferum. Excisional biopsy is the treatment of choice.

  18. Evaluation of Bone Cancer Pain Induced by Different Doses of Walker 256 Mammary Gland Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Changsheng; Wu, RuiXin; Wu, Jing; Guo, Jing; Wang, Fangyuan; Fu, Yanli; Wang, Qing; Xu, Ling; Wang, Juyong

    2016-01-01

    Cancer pain is a complex medical syndrome. Understanding its underlying mechanisms relies on the use of animal models which can mimic the human condition. A crucial component of this model is the quantity of tumor cells; however, the exact relationship between the doses of tumor cells on bone cancer pain is yet unknown. We explored the relationship of different doses of Walker 256 carcinoma cells using a bone cancer pain model in rats, and evaluated its success and stability. Experimental animal study using a comparative design. Experimental Animal Center and Tumor Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine. We constructed the bone cancer pain model by implanting Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the right tibia of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (150 - 170 g). Spontaneous pain, mechanical threshold, and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were measured and x-ray, bone mineral density (BMD), histological, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) mRNA, carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were analyzed for bone pain model evaluation. The results showed that: (1) the 3 doses (3×105, 3.5×105, 4×105) of Walker 256 carcinoma cells can induce bone cancer pain from day 7 to day 21 after implantation into the right tibia of SD rats; (2) compared to the control group, 3×105, 3.5×105, and 4×105 Walker 256 carcinoma cells produced different pain manifestations, where the 3.5×105 dose of Walker 256 carcinoma cells resulted in the greatest bone cancer pain response; (3) the 3.5×105 dose induced the lowest mortality rate in rats; (4) Walker 256 carcinoma cells (3×105, 3.5×105, and 4×105) resulted in a significant decrease in the general condition and body weight of rats, where the 3.5×105 and 4×105 doses of carcinoma cells produced a greater effect than 3×105 dose of carcinoma cells; (5) progressive spontaneous pain, PWL, and mechanical threshold were exacerbated by 3.5×105 and 4×105 doses of carcinoma cells; (6) implantation of 3.5×105

  19. Modeling invasive lobular breast carcinoma by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic genome editing of the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, Stefano; Kas, Sjors M; Nethe, Micha; Yücel, Hatice; Del Bravo, Jessica; Pritchard, Colin; Bin Ali, Rahmen; van Gerwen, Bas; Siteur, Bjørn; Drenth, Anne Paulien; Schut, Eva; van de Ven, Marieke; Boelens, Mirjam C; Klarenbeek, Sjoerd; Huijbers, Ivo J; van Miltenburg, Martine H; Jonkers, Jos

    2016-06-15

    Large-scale sequencing studies are rapidly identifying putative oncogenic mutations in human tumors. However, discrimination between passenger and driver events in tumorigenesis remains challenging and requires in vivo validation studies in reliable animal models of human cancer. In this study, we describe a novel strategy for in vivo validation of candidate tumor suppressors implicated in invasive lobular breast carcinoma (ILC), which is hallmarked by loss of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. We describe an approach to model ILC by intraductal injection of lentiviral vectors encoding Cre recombinase, the CRISPR/Cas9 system, or both in female mice carrying conditional alleles of the Cdh1 gene, encoding for E-cadherin. Using this approach, we were able to target ILC-initiating cells and induce specific gene disruption of Pten by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic gene editing. Whereas intraductal injection of Cas9-encoding lentiviruses induced Cas9-specific immune responses and development of tumors that did not resemble ILC, lentiviral delivery of a Pten targeting single-guide RNA (sgRNA) in mice with mammary gland-specific loss of E-cadherin and expression of Cas9 efficiently induced ILC development. This versatile platform can be used for rapid in vivo testing of putative tumor suppressor genes implicated in ILC, providing new opportunities for modeling invasive lobular breast carcinoma in mice. © 2016 Annunziato et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report and literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Balanzá

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The presence of t(12;15 (p13;q25 translocation which results in the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion or positive immunochemical studies for STAT5, mammoglobin and S100 protein, are necessary to confirm the diagnosis of MASC. MASC treatment should mimic the management of other low-grade malignant salivary gland neoplasms. The inhibition of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion could be used as treatment in the future.

  1. Comparison of two different IMRT planning techniques in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Effect on parotid gland radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzel, E.K. [Sisli Etfal Teaching and Research Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Karacam, S. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Medical Physics; Elicin, O.; Uzel, Oe [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Radiation Oncology

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the effect of two different intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning techniques on parotid gland doses in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and methods: Radiotherapy for 10 NPC patients referred to the University of Istanbul Cerrahpasa Medical School was planned with arc- and static seven-field IMRT. The simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique was used to deliver 70 Gy (2.12 Gy per fraction) to the primary tumor and involved nodes; 60 Gy (1.81 Gy per fraction) to the entire nasopharynx and 54 Gy (1.63 Gy per fraction) to elective lymph nodes in 33 fractions. Plans also aimed to keep the mean parotid dose below 26 Gy and limit the maximum doses to the spinal cord and brain stem to 45 and 54 Gy, respectively. Mean parotid gland doses for the two planning techniques were compared using a paired t-test. Target coverage and dose inhomogeneity were evaluated by calculating conformity- (CI) and homogeneity index (HI) values. Results: Target coverage and dose homogeneity were identical and good for both planning techniques: CI = 1.05 {+-} 0.08 and 1.05 {+-} 0.08; HI = 1.08 {+-} 0.02 and 1.07 {+-} 0.01 for arc- and static field IMRT, respectively. Mean doses to contralateral parotid glands were 25.73 {+-} 4.27 and 27.73 {+-} 3.5 Gy(p = 0.008) for arc- and static field IMRT plans, respectively, whereas mean ipsilateral parotid doses were 30.65 {+-} 6.25 and 32.55 {+-} 5.93 Gy (non-significant p-value), respectively. Mean monitor units (MU) per fraction for the 10 patients were considerably lower for arc- than for static field treatments - 540.5 {+-} 130.39 versus 1288.4 {+-} 197.28 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Normal tissues - particularly the parotid glands - are better spared with the arc technique in patients with NPC. MU and treatment times are considerably reduced in arc IMRT plans. (orig.)

  2. A synchronous incidence of eccrine porocarcinoma of the forearm and facial squamous cell carcinoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasenderan, Nandinii; Shahir, Hasliza; Omar, Siti Zarqah

    2017-12-08

    Cutaneous appendageal tumor can differentiate towards or arise from either pilosebaceous apparatus or the eccrine sweat glands. Appendageal tumors are relatively rare, their clinical appearance is non-specific, and the vast majority are not diagnosed until after excision. Eccrine porocarcinoma (EP), also known as malignant eccrine poroma is a rare adnexal tumor arising from the intraepithelial ductal parts of the sweat gland. We presented a 65-year-old, Asian, female with medical co-morbids, who came with both a facial squamous cell carcinoma and a long-standing lesion over her left forearm. Histopathological finding of the left forearm demonstrated eccrine porocarcinoma. Mohs micrographic surgery is the mainstay treatment of cutaneous carcinoma. It is important to rule out associated syndromes in patient who present with multiple cutaneous appendageal tumors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Genomic profiling of a combined large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the submandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Persson, Marta; Kiss, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with no previous medical history presented with a rapidly growing submandibular mass. Fine needle aspiration cytology suggested a small-cell carcinoma and PET-CT showed increased 18-FDG uptake in the submandibular mass as well as in a lung mass. Submandibular resection...

  4. Sweat collection capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  5. A case of treatment in a patient with synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands: Clinical observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Latypov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma occurs in 1.4 % of cases. The probability of bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma is less than 0.5 %. The clinical observation presents a case of synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands. A 55‑year-old male patient was adm tted with the signs of hematuria and anemia to the Unit of Urology, Clinic of General Surgery, Siberian State Medical University. He was found to have synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement. Sequential surgical treatment – radical nephrectomy (with adrenal gland removal on the right side and, after 3 months, adrenalectomy and kidney resection on the left side were performed. All the organs removed displayed tumors that proved to be renal cell carcinomas (a clear cell variant. There were lymph node metastases in the right-sided renal portal. Postoperatively, the investigators performed hormone replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, an immunotherapy cycle, three cycles of targeted therapy withsorafenib and sunitinib (at an interval of 0.5–2 years, and insulin therapy for new-onset diabetes mellitus. The duration of a follow-up was 6.2 years. When describing the case, the patient was alive and showed a generalized tumorous process with extensive tumor involvement of the solitary kidney. Sunitinib therapy was used.

  6. A case of treatment in a patient with synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands: Clinical observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Latypov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma occurs in 1.4 % of cases. The probability of bilateral adrenal metastases from renal cell carcinoma is less than 0.5 %. The clinical observation presents a case of synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous metastatic involvement of both adrenal glands. A 55‑year-old male patient was adm tted with the signs of hematuria and anemia to the Unit of Urology, Clinic of General Surgery, Siberian State Medical University. He was found to have synchronous bilateral renal cell carcinoma and simultaneous bilateral adrenal involvement. Sequential surgical treatment – radical nephrectomy (with adrenal gland removal on the right side and, after 3 months, adrenalectomy and kidney resection on the left side were performed. All the organs removed displayed tumors that proved to be renal cell carcinomas (a clear cell variant. There were lymph node metastases in the right-sided renal portal. Postoperatively, the investigators performed hormone replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency, an immunotherapy cycle, three cycles of targeted therapy withsorafenib and sunitinib (at an interval of 0.5–2 years, and insulin therapy for new-onset diabetes mellitus. The duration of a follow-up was 6.2 years. When describing the case, the patient was alive and showed a generalized tumorous process with extensive tumor involvement of the solitary kidney. Sunitinib therapy was used.

  7. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of salivary gland origin in the head and neck: clinical and histopathological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-H; Liu, L; Shi, Y-Y; Hu, Y-J; Hu, Q-G; Zhang, P

    2017-12-04

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is an extremely rare neoplasm of salivary gland origin with a low-grade indolent nature. It is difficult to distinguish from other malignant salivary gland tumours. Clinical outcomes following surgery are generally reported as good. The aim of this study was to further determine the features of HCCC. This study was approved by Medical ethics review of affiliated hospital of jiangsu university. Fourteen new cases of HCCC are reported. The clinical and histopathological data of these 14 cases were analysed alongside those of 141 cases identified in a systematic review of the literature (up to 2016). Demographic data, histopathological findings, clinical presentation, primary treatment, and outcomes were extracted. Histologically, HCCC tumour cells had a clear cell morphology with hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemical results were positive for cytokeratins and EMA, but negative for SMA, S100, vimentin, and calponin. Twelve of the 14 patients showed EWSR1 translocation. Local nodal metastasis on presentation was present in 17.3% and the overall recurrence rate was 17.7% in the total population (N=155), compared with 35.7% and 21.4%, respectively, in the new cases alone. Focal necrosis and local metastasis were identified as possibly associated with recurrence. The overall prognosis was good: only 3.8% of patients died of the disease. HCCC is less indolent than was previously thought, but overall the prognosis is good. Risk factors for recurrence may include focal necrosis and local metastasis at presentation. The best treatment for patients with HCCC is wide local excision combined with regional lymph node dissection. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytological features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland: fine-needle aspiration of seven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Kayoko; Urano, Makoto; Takahashi, Reisuke H; Oshiro, Hisashi; Matsubayashi, Jun; Nagai, Takeshi; Obikane, Hiyo; Shimojo, Hisashi; Nagao, Toshitaka

    2014-10-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland neoplasm that is defined by ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. There have been few case reports on the cytopathologic features of MASC to date. We examined the clinicopathological and cytological features of seven cases of MASC defined by RT-PCR analysis of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. The cases occurred in three men and four women aged between 39 and 68 years, with a mean of 51.6 years. In five of these seven cases, the tumor involved the parotid gland. Histologically, all cases displayed predominantly microcystic patterns, often a mixture of follicular and papillary-cystic structures. All tumors were immunoreactive for mammaglobin, S-100 protein, and vimentin. Available fine-needle aspiration cytology smears were cellular and exhibited many loosely cohesive syncytial clusters or isolated cells. Many histiocytes, some of which contained hemosiderin pigments, and variously shaped mucinous material were evident in the background or within the epithelial clusters. The majority of cases showed small to medium-sized follicular structures with secreted materials. Papillary clusters were occasionally found. Tumor cells exhibited small to medium-sized round to oval nuclei, with a smooth contour and indistinct or small nucleoli, and vacuolated cytoplasm. No tumor cells had obvious intracytoplasmic zymogen granules. It appeared that clusters of small to medium-sized follicular and papillary configurations consisting of bland tumor cells with vacuolated cytoplasm, but lack of intracytoplasmic zymogen granules, in a mucinous or hemosiderin-laden histiocyte-rich background, were a characteristic cytological feature highly suggestive of MASC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Carcinoma of dual ectopic thyroid gland in a patient with cyanotic congenital heart disease--a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballehaninna, Umashankar K

    2013-02-01

    Carcinoma arising from an ectopic thyroid gland in the absence of a normal thyroid gland is uncommon. There is a clinically relevant and unique association of ectopic thyroid with congenital heart disease which in turn is related to thyroid embryogenesis. The median thyroid anlage develops adjacent to the newly differentiated myocardium during the 3rd week of intrauterine life. The downward pull exerted by continued descent of heart is postulated to assist in the descent of the thyroid to its final location in the lower cervical position. Ectopic thyroid tissue can result from abnormal heart development or abnormal interaction between thyroid primordium and heart. We present a rare association of cancer of the ectopic thyroid gland in a patient with congenital heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Do elephants need to sweat? | Wright | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adequate rate of evaporative water loss is considered essential for the maintenance of thermal balance in the elephant in warm climatic conditions. Histological studies have failed to reveal the existence of sweat glands in elephant skin. Transepidermal water-loss rate has been measured and shown to be sufficiently ...

  11. Clinicopathologic and prognostic factors in adenoid cystic carcinoma of head and neck minor salivary glands: A clinical analysis of 130 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shizhi; Li, Pingdong; Zhong, Qi; Hou, Lizhen; Yu, Zhenkun; Huang, Zhigang; Chen, Xuejun; Fang, Jugao; Chen, Xiaohong

    This study was to investigate clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic factors in adenoid cystic carcinoma of head and neck minor salivary glands. We conducted a retrospective review of 130 patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of head and neck minor salivary glands that were evaluated between 2000 and 2013 in Beijng Tongren Hospital. Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 80.8% and 55.6%. Local recurrence rate was 40%, regional recurrence 3.8%, and distant metastasis was 28.5%. On univariate analysis, solid histological subtype, perineural invasion, positive surgical margins and advanced stages were found to be poor prognostic indicators. On multivariate analysis, solid histological subtype and positive surgical margins were significant prognostic factors of worse overall survival. Solid histological subtype and positive surgical margins were the most important predictors of poor outcome in adenoid cystic carcinoma of minor salivary glands. Surgery with postoperative radiation were recommended treatment and offered durable local control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo sweat film layer thickness measured with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonathan, E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available the added advantage of supporting near-real time or video rate imaging speed. Consequently, FD-OCT supports assessment of tissue structure as well as near-real time imaging of functioning small organs in tissue [16–19]. The focus of this paper is direct... accurate measurement of SFL thickness as a diagnostic parameter of sweat intensity while near-real time imaging of the responsible small organs, namely sweat glands, sweat ducts and sweat pores is also of interest. 2. Experimental 2.1. Apparatus OCT...

  13. CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linea; Fehr, André; Heegaard, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    -grade MEC of the lacrimal gland. There were no signs of recurrence or metastases during a five-year follow-up. Using RT-PCR and FISH we demonstrated that the tumor was positive for the CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion previously shown to be associated with in particular low-grade salivary MECs with favorable...... prognosis. By immunohistochemistry we showed that the majority of tumor cells, including epidermoid, intermediate and mucous producing cells, expressed the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion protein. In contrast, 15 non-MEC lacrimal neoplasm were fusion-negative. Our findings show that lacrimal MEC is not only clinically...... anatomical sites and organs. Moreover, our findings indicate that the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion may be a useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for lacrimal MEC....

  14. Thin, Soft, Skin-Mounted Microfluidic Networks with Capillary Bursting Valves for Chrono-Sampling of Sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungil; Kang, Daeshik; Han, Seungyong; Kim, Sung Bong; Rogers, John A

    2017-03-01

    Systems for time sequential capture of microliter volumes of sweat released from targeted regions of the skin offer the potential to enable analysis of temporal variations in electrolyte balance and biomarker concentration throughout a period of interest. Current methods that rely on absorbent pads taped to the skin do not offer the ease of use in sweat capture needed for quantitative tracking; emerging classes of electronic wearable sweat analysis systems do not directly manage sweat-induced fluid flows for sample isolation. Here, a thin, soft, "skin-like" microfluidic platform is introduced that bonds to the skin to allow for collection and storage of sweat in an interconnected set of microreservoirs. Pressure induced by the sweat glands drives flow through a network of microchannels that incorporates capillary bursting valves designed to open at different pressures, for the purpose of passively guiding sweat through the system in sequential fashion. A representative device recovers 1.8 µL volumes of sweat each from 0.8 min of sweating into a set of separate microreservoirs, collected from 0.03 cm 2 area of skin with approximately five glands, corresponding to a sweat rate of 0.60 µL min -1 per gland. Human studies demonstrate applications in the accurate chemical analysis of lactate, sodium, and potassium concentrations and their temporal variations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Sebaceous gland carcinoma of the ocular adnexa - variability in clinical and histological appearance with analysis of immunohistochemical staining patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Eva Janine; Herwig-Carl, Martina C; Holz, Frank G; Loeffler, Karin U

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the characteristics of sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC) of the ocular adnexae, which is due to a high variability in clinical, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics often challenging to diagnose. Records of six patients with SGC were reviewed, who underwent surgical excision and who were histologically diagnosed with SGC. For comparison, there were specimens from four patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and four patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Histological and immunohistochemical analysis included stains for HE, cytokeratins (CKpan, Cam5.2), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), androgen receptor (AR441), perforin and adipophilin. SGC's were located in the upper (n = 2) or lower (n = 4) eyelid and were associated with various presenting clinical signs including chalazion-like lesions with pyogenic granuloma (n = 1), papillomatous conjunctival tumors (n = 3), a hyperkeratotic exophytic neoplasm (n = 1) and an ulcerating crusted lesion resembling chronic blepharitis (n = 1). The treatment was tumor resection, followed (if necessary) by adjuvant therapy with topical Mitomycin C (n = 2). Histologic characteristics included basophilic pleomorphic cells with vacuolated cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli, mitotic figures and in some cases pagetoid spread (n = 2). CKpan, EMA and Cam5.2 showed strong positive immunoreactivity in all specimens (SGC, BCC, SCC). Perforin immunostaining showed a varying, but overall weak, non-specific cytoplasmatic staining reaction in all lesions. AR441 positivity was noted with variable intensity in almost all lesions and in particular in pagetoid spread in contrast to non-tumor cells. Adipophilin showed an annular staining of lipid granules in immature sebaceous cells in SGC in contrast to a more granular staining pattern in BCC and SCC. SGCs display a variety of clinical signs and may mimic many other lesions. Tumor resection, followed by histological and

  16. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands is a lipid-rich tumour, and adipophilin can be valuable in its identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Azañero, Wilson Delgado; da Cunha, Isabela Werneck; Coutinho-Camilo, Claudia Malheiros; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Altemani, Albina

    2013-10-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands shows morphological similarities to milk-secreting mammary epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to analyse the immunohistochemical expression of adipophilin (a component of milk lipid globule membranes) and of proteins related to secretory mechanisms (STAT5a and mammaglobin) in MASC and other salivary tumours. Ten cases of MASC (all with ETV6 translocation) and 83 other salivary carcinomas were studied. In all MASC cases, adipophilin stained numerous large lipid droplets. These droplets were minute in other salivary carcinomas, except for sebaceous carcinoma. Overexpression of STAT5a was detected in all MASC cases, but only occasionally in other carcinomas. Mammaglobin expression occurred frequently in MASC (70% of cases), whereas, in other carcinomas, it was uncommon and limited. Only MASC showed cytoplasmic reactivity for p63, particularly in papillary-cystic areas. Positivity for S100, vimentin and high molecular weight keratin was observed in 100% of MASC cases. MASC is a lipid-rich tumour containing large lipid droplets covered by adipophilin. This finding can be included among its defining immunohistochemical features, and possibly represents lactation-like secretory differentiation. Strong expression of STAT5a and cytoplasmic p63 in MASC reinforces this hypothesis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cytogenetic and immunohistochemical characterization of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, Syed A; Sultan-Khan, Jemel; Atkey, Neil; Speight, Paul M

    2016-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), initially considered a subset of acinic cell carcinoma (ACC), harbors an ETV6 translocation [t(12:15)(p13:25 q)] and is now regarded as a distinct entity. Several putative markers to differentiate MASC from ACC have been reported; however, the immunohistochemical profile is still being explored and updated. The purpose of this study was to further explore the cytogenetic and immunohistochemical profile of MASC. Cases were analyzed for ETV6 translocation using fluorescent in situ hybridization and stained for CK8, amylase, mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, MUC1, MUC4, STAT5a, Ki-67 (n = 37), CK7, Cam5.2, CK14, SMA, p63, S100, vimentin and DOG1 (n = 42). Histochemical stains for mucins were also performed and data collected for age, sex, and site. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed 9 cases with ETV6 rearrangement and 2 with increased ETV6 copies. These 11 cases showed an absence of PAS-D-resistant granules, with 10 of 11 showing strong S100, mammaglobin, and STAT5a staining. All ACCs showed diffuse DOG1 staining, whereas 8/11 MASCs were negative and 3 showed only focal DOG1 staining. DOG1 can be used in conjunction with PAS-D, S100, and mammaglobin to identify MASCs. Cases with increased ETV6 copies are a novel finding with a similar immunostaining profile and should be considered as MASCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Absence of significant adverse events following thalidomide administration in bitches diagnosed with mammary gland carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, C B; Lavalle, G E; Fialho Ligório, S; Camargo Nunes, F; Carneiro, R A; Amorim, R L; Cassali, G D

    2016-11-19

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of adverse events (AEs) in female dogs diagnosed with advanced clinical stage mammary gland neoplasms following treatment with thalidomide. A prospective analysis of 29 female dogs treated with a high dose (HD) of 20 mg/kg/day of thalidomide for three months followed by a low dose (LD) of 10 mg/kg/day of thalidomide for three months was performed. All patients underwent physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry profile, thoracic radiographs, and abdominal ultrasound analysis before the treatment and after the HD and LD. Clinical AEs were absent in 16/29 (55.17 per cent) patients following HD. An initial 3-5 day period of somnolence was described in 4/29 (13.79 per cent), prolonged somnolence in 5/29 (17.24 per cent), a short period of somnolence lasting only a few hours in 3/29 (10.34 per cent), and difficulty to rouse was described in 5/29 (17.24 per cent) cases. Two patients (6.89 per cent) presented with prolonged somnolence that interfered with activities of daily living, resulting in anticipation of the dose reduction to the proposed LD after 15 days of the HD treatment. Following dose reduction, AE improvement was observed in all patients. Albeit remaining within the reference ranges, erythrocytes, haematocrit, total leucocyte count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase showed significant alteration associated to thalidomide treatment. British Veterinary Association.

  20. MYB, MYBL1, MYBL2 and NFIB gene alterations and MYC overexpression in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kana; Murase, Takayuki; Beppu, Shintaro; Saida, Kosuke; Takino, Hisashi; Masaki, Ayako; Ijichi, Kei; Kusafuka, Kimihide; Iida, Yoshiyuki; Onitsuka, Tetsuro; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hanai, Nobuhiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is one of the most common salivary gland malignancies and the long-term prognosis is poor. In this study, we examined alterations of AdCC-associated genes, MYB, MYBL1, MYBL2 and NFIB, and their target molecules, including MYC. The results were correlated to clinicopathological profile of the patients. Using paraffin tumour sections from 33 cases of salivary gland AdCC, we performed a detailed fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for gene splits and fusions of MYB, MYBL1, MYBL2 and NFIB. We found that 29 of 33 (88%) AdCC cases showed gene splits in either MYB, MYBL1 or NFIB. None of the cases showed an MYBL2 gene alteration. AdCCs were divided genetically into six gene groups, MYB-NFIB (n = 16), MYB-X (n = 4), MYBL1-NFIB (n = 2), MYBL1-X (n = 1), NFIB-X (n = 6) and gene-split-negative (n = 4). AdCC patients showing the MYB or MYBL1 gene splits were associated with microscopically positive surgical margins (P = 0.0148) and overexpression of MYC (P = 0.0164). MYC expression was detected in both ductal and myoepithelial tumour cells, and MYC overexpression was associated with shorter disease-free survival of the patients (P = 0.0268). The present study suggests that (1) nearly 90% of AdCCs may have gene alterations of either MYB, MYBL1 or NFIB, suggesting the diagnostic utility of the FISH assay, (2) MYB or MYBL1 gene splits may be associated with local aggressiveness of the tumours and overexpression of MYC, which is one of the oncogenic MYB/MYBL1 targets and (3) MYC overexpression may be a risk factor for disease-free survival in AdCC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Carcinoma ex basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland: A report of an extremely rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusafuka, Kimihide; Kawasaki, Takuya; Nakajima, Takashi; Sugino, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    Malignant non-basaloid tumors that arise from basal cell adenoma (BCA) are extremely rare. The patient was a 72-year-old Japanese male, who had noticed swelling of the left parotid region 21 years ago. A superficial lobectomy was performed. About 60% of the tumor was made up of cribriform and trabecular tissue composed of basaloid cells, which exhibited mild atypia and nuclear expression of β-catenin. This portion of the tumor was considered to be a BCA. In the other part of the tumor, the proliferation of large eosinophilic atypical cells, most of which formed intraductal structures, was observed. These tumor cells displayed cellular atypia, and some of them formed Roman bridge structures or contributed to intracapsular invasion. Immunohistochemically, these cells were positive for cytokeratin 7, gross cystic disease fluid proten-15 (GCDFP-15), androgen receptor (AR), and mammaglobin (MMG) and exhibited a high Ki-67 labeling index. So, this portion of the tumor was considered to be a salivary duct carcinoma (SDC). The tumor's final diagnosis was SDC ex BCA (intracapsular type), which is extremely rare. GCDFP-15, AR, MMG, and Ki-67 are useful immunohistochemical markers for diagnosing SDC ex BCA. © 2017 The Authors. Pathology International Published by Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. [What causes English sweats?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimar, Yossi

    2004-09-01

    English sweating disease also known as Sudor Anglicus is one of the least familiar epidemics of the Middle Ages, striking England 5 times during the 15th and 16th centuries before fading. This article will discuss the knowledge available to us about this fascinating epidemic, its characteristics and causes.

  3. Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines also can cause this type of hyperhidrosis. Anxiety and embarrassment Both types of hyperhidrosis can cause people to feel extremely anxious and embarrassed. Students often avoid raising their hand during class. Many teens never date. Adults may hide the sweat stains ...

  4. Biochemical changes of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells induced by SGI-1776

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xiuxiu, E-mail: show-1989@163.com [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000 (China); Yu, Yunfang, E-mail: yyf_8247425@163.com [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Feng, Jianguo, E-mail: fengjg@zjcc.org.cn [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Wang, Jiafeng, E-mail: 15990081256@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Zheng, Chuanming, E-mail: mingdoc@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Ling, Zhiqiang, E-mail: lingzq@zjcc.org.cn [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Ge, Minghua, E-mail: gemh@zjcc.org.cn [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000 (China); Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China); Zhu, Xin, E-mail: zhuxin@zjcc.org.cn [Zhejiang Cancer Research Institute, Zhejiang Province Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou 310022 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1 (Pim-1) has proved to be an oncogene and it is known that to depress Pim-1 activity may be a novel oncological treatment strategy. SGI-1776, a small molecule, is the first clinically tested inhibitor of the Pim kinase family. Here, we aimed to explore the effect of SGI-1776 on salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). Expression of Pim-1 was confirmed in SACC and control tissues by qRT-PCR. After SGI-1776 treatment, the Pim-1 expressions and Pim-1 kinase activity in both SACC-83 and SACC-LM cell lines were measured. Cell proliferation, cell invasion, cell cycle, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed. Also, the expression of FOXO3a, p-FOXO3a, RUNX3, Bcl-2, BAD, p-BAD, Bim and p-Bim were detected by Western blot. The results showed that Pim-1 was significantly overexpressed in SACC tissues. SGI-1776 down-regulated the Pim-1 expression, inhibited Pim-1 kinase activity, reduced cell proliferation, decreased invasive ability, increased caspase-3 activity and induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial depolarization. Reduced expression was also seen in p-FOXO3a, RUNX3, Bcl-2, p-BAD and p-Bim, whereas no significant changes were observed from FOXO3a, BAD and Bim. These results confirm the pivotal role of Pim-1 in SACC and suggest that targeting Pim-1 kinase signal pathway by SGI-1776 might be a promising therapeutic modality for SACC.

  5. Immunohistochemical pattern of pleomorphic adenoma, polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma in minor salivary glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Zaib

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To study the immunohistochemical pattern of CD 117, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, smooth muscle actin (SMA and CD 43 in pleomorphic adenoma (PA, adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA of minor salivary glands.Twenty cases of PA, 20 cases of AdCC and 10 cases of PLGA were retrieved from record files along with their paraffin blocks at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Pakistan. New histological diagnosis was made on freshly prepared H&E sections followed by application and analysis of immunostains.The mean age of the patients was 44 ± 15 (mean SD (range; 17-86 years. There were 26 male and 24 female patients with a male to female ratio of 1.08:1. Fourteen cases of PA, 14 cases of AdCC and 6 cases of PLGA were positive for CD117. In case of GFAP, only 9 cases of AdCC and 3 cases of PLGA were positive; however, 16 cases of PA were also positive. Twelve cases of AdCC and 7 cases of PA were positive for SMA and half of the PLGA cases were also reactive. Nonetheless, the least expression was seen in case of CD 43, where only five cases of AdCC were positive. Six cases of PA and three cases of PLGA were also positive.Our results suggest that the use of GFAP, SMA, CD 117 and CD 43 as an adjunct to histological examination is not helpful in differentiating PA, AdCC and PLGA from one another.

  6. Characterization of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland: discrimination from its mimics by the presence of the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation and novel surrogate markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Makoto; Nagao, Toshitaka; Miyabe, Satoru; Ishibashi, Kenichiro; Higuchi, Kayoko; Kuroda, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized salivary gland tumor harboring an ETV6-NTRK3 translocation similar to secretory carcinoma of the breast. Histologically, MASC mimics papillary-cystic, microcystic, and follicular-type acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC) of the salivary gland. Using histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular genetic techniques, we reevaluated 18 cases originally diagnosed as AciCC between 1993 and 2012. The last of these methods was used to detect the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. The results reconfirmed 6 cases as AciCC (3 men; average age, 63 years) and helped us reclassify 10 cases as MASC (6 men; mean age, 46 years) and 2 as LGCCC (2 women; mean age, 48 years). Using IHC, we identified the 3 histologic types according to the expression patterns of vimentin, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin 19, S-100, mammaglobin, MUC1, GATA-binding protein 3, adipophilin, α-amylase, DOG-1, SOX-10, and p63. The number of tumors diagnosed as MASC indicates that AciCC includes bona fide MASC cases. Because differential diagnosis among zymogen granule-poor AciCC, MASC, and LGCCC tumors is challenging, we recommend using molecular genetic tests for ETV6-NTRK3 for accurate diagnosis. Furthermore, detailed analyses of hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissues and IHC studies using the markers described here should be incorporated into routine practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Establishment and characterization of pleomorphic adenoma cell systems: an in-vitro demonstration of carcinomas arising secondarily from adenomas in the salivary gland

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    Shimizu Yoshiko

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the salivary gland carcinomas, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma has been regarded as a representative carcinoma type which arises secondarily in the background of a pre-existent benign pleomorphic adenoma. It is still poorly understood how and which benign pleomorphic adenoma cells transform into its malignant form, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Methods We have established five cell systems from a benign pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland of a 61-year-old woman. They were characterized by immunofluorescence, classical cytogenetics, p53 gene mutational analysis, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of their xenografts, to demonstrate their potency of secondary transformation. Results We established and characterized five cell systems (designated as SM-AP1 to SM-AP5 from a benign pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. SM-AP1 to SM-AP3 showed polygonal cell shapes while SM-AP4 and SM-AP5 were spindle-shaped. SM-AP1-3 cells were immunopositive for keratin only, indicating their duct-epithelial or squamous cell differentiation, while SM-AP4/5 cells were positive for both keratin and S-100 protein, indicating their myoepithelial cell differentiation. Chromosome analyses showed numeral abnormalities such as 5n ploidies and various kinds of structural abnormalities, such as deletions, translocations, derivatives and isodicentric chromosomes. Among them, der(9t(9;13(p13.3;q12.3 was shared by all five of the cell systems. In addition, they all had a common deletion of the last base G of codon 249 (AGG to AG_ of the p53 gene, which resulted in generation of its nonsense gene product. Transplanted cells in nude mice formed subcutaneous tumors, which had histological features of squamous cell carcinoma with apparent keratinizing tendencies. In addition, they had ductal arrangements or plasmacytoid appearances of tumor cells and myxoid or hyaline stromata

  8. Histology Of The Exocrine Glands Of The Canine Perianal Skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A histopathological study of the perianal skin of indigenous breeds of dogs in Nigeria was carried out in Zaria. The skin in this area had three types of glands: sebaceous, sweat, and hepatoid circumanal glands. Sebaceous glands in this area release their product by holocrine mode in which the whole cell is secreted with its ...

  9. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Submandibular Gland, Locoregional Recurrence, and a Solitary Liver Metastasis More Than 30 Years Since Primary Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coupland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is a relatively rare tumour of the salivary glands, accounting for approximately 5%–10% of all salivary gland tumours. An important feature of ACCs is the long clinical course with a high rate of distant metastases. The preferential sites of metastases are the lung and bone, followed by the brain and liver. Most liver metastases are derived from nonparotid ACCs, and the presentation is often related to local recurrence or metastases to other organs. Solitary metastases to the liver are rare and optimal management is unknown. We present the case of a metastatic ACC to the liver with primary disease presentation at a young age. We discuss our management and other potential treatment modalities.

  10. Determination of the maximum rate of eccrine sweat glands’ ion reabsorption using the galvanic skin conductance to local sweat rate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Gerrett, Nicola; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Havenith, George; Kondo, Narihiko

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and describe a simple method to evaluate the rate of ion reabsorption of eccrine sweat glands in human using the measurement of galvanic skin conductance (GSC) and local sweating rate (SR). This purpose was investigated by comparing the SR threshold for increasing GSC with following two criteria of sweat ion reabsorption in earlier studies such as (1) the SR threshold for increasing sweat ion was at approximately 0.2–0.5 mg/cm2/min and (2) exercise heat acclimation improved the sweat ion reabsorption ability and would increase the criteria 1. Seven healthy non-heat-acclimated male subjects received passive heat treatment both before and after 7 days of cycling in hot conditions (50% maximum oxygen uptake, 60 min/day, ambient temperature 32 °C, and 50% relative humidity). Subjects became partially heat-acclimated, as evidenced by the decreased end-exercise heart rate (p rate of perceived exhaustion (p maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption of eccrine sweat glands in humans.

  11. Cytological Features of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland in a 15-Year-Old Girl: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Inaba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a recently recognized tumor of salivary glands characterized by the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. This tumor is very rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of MASC in a 15-year-old girl, the fifth youngest case so far reported. The patient complained of a left infra-auricular mass that gradually enlarged for a year. Fine-needle aspiration cytology/imprint cytology showed individual tumor cells that had faintly eosinophilic granular cytoplasm with secretion granules sometimes seen adjacent to the tumor cells. These cytological features overlapped between those of zymogen granule-poor acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC and MASC. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the related literature with a focus on the cytological features of MASC. The differential diagnostic clues are also discussed.

  12. Cytological features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland in a 15-year-old girl: a case report with review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Takako; Fukumura, Yuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Junkichi; Ohba, Shinichi; Arakawa, Atsushi; Yao, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized tumor of salivary glands characterized by the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. This tumor is very rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of MASC in a 15-year-old girl, the fifth youngest case so far reported. The patient complained of a left infra-auricular mass that gradually enlarged for a year. Fine-needle aspiration cytology/imprint cytology showed individual tumor cells that had faintly eosinophilic granular cytoplasm with secretion granules sometimes seen adjacent to the tumor cells. These cytological features overlapped between those of zymogen granule-poor acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and MASC. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the related literature with a focus on the cytological features of MASC. The differential diagnostic clues are also discussed.

  13. Fluorodesoxyglucose uptake in the remaining adrenal glands during the follow-up of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma: do not consider it as malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboulleux, S; Deandreis, D; Escourrou, C; Al Ghuzlan, A; Bidault, F; Aupérin, A; Travagli, J P; Lumbroso, J; Schlumberger, M; Baudin, E

    2011-01-01

    To make the specificity of fluorodesoxyglucose ((18)FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) precise, in the follow-up of patients with adrenal cancer. This single centre retrospective study assessed the frequency and outcome of (18)FDG uptake in the remaining adrenal glands after adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) or malignant phaeochromocytoma (PH). Two hundred and ten (18)FDG PET scans in 62 ACC patients, all under 1,ortho-1,para'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloro-ethane (o,p'-DDD) treatment, and 30 (18)FDG PET scans in 8 PH patients were reviewed. Abnormal (18)FDG uptake in the remaining adrenal glands was found in 19 (8%) (18)FDG PET scans, in 10 (16%) ACC patients and in none of the PH patients. (18)FDG uptake was found in 4% of the patients before the onset of o,p'-DDD, in 29% of the patients 0-6 months after the onset of o,p'-DDD (P=0.05), in 26% of the patients 6-12 months (P=0.072) after the onset of o,p'-DDD and in 14% of the patients 12-24 months after the onset of o,p'-DDD. It was never found later than 24 months after the onset of o,p'-DDD. Adrenal glands with (18)FDG uptake were normal on computed tomography scans with i.v. contrast agent in all cases. (18)FDG uptake in the remaining adrenal glands decreased and disappeared on subsequent FDG PET imaging in eight of the patients with follow-up available. (18)FDG uptake in the remaining adrenal glands occurred in 14-29% of the patients followed for ACC within 24 months after adrenalectomy and onset of o,p'-DDD. This uptake is transient and should not be considered as suspicious for malignancy.

  14. CYP2W1 is highly expressed in adrenal glands and is positively associated with the response to mitotane in adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Cristina L; Sbiera, Silviu; Volante, Marco; Steinhauer, Sonja; Scott-Wild, Vanessa; Altieri, Barbara; Kroiss, Matthias; Bala, Margarita; Papotti, Mauro; Deutschbein, Timo; Terzolo, Massimo; Fassnacht, Martin; Allolio, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical tumors comprise frequent adenomas (ACA) and rare carcinomas (ACC). Human cytochrome P450 2W1 (CYP2W1) is highly expressed in some cancers holding the potential to activate certain drugs into tumor cytotoxins. To investigate the CYP2W1 expression in adrenal samples and its relationship with clinical outcome in ACC. CYP2W1 expression was investigated by qRT-PCR in 13 normal adrenal glands, 32 ACA, 25 ACC, and 9 different non-adrenal normal tissue samples and by immunohistochemistry in 352 specimens (23 normal adrenal glands, 33 ACA, 239 ACC, 67 non-adrenal normal or neoplastic samples). CYP2W1 mRNA expression was absent/low in normal non-adrenal tissues, but high in normal and neoplastic adrenal glands (all Padrenal normal tissues). Accordingly, CYP2W1 immunoreactivity was absent/low (H-score 0-1) in 72% of non-adrenal normal tissues, but high (H-score 2-3) in 44% of non-adrenal cancers, in 65% of normal adrenal glands, in 62% of ACAs and in 50% of ACCs (all Padrenal normal tissues), being significantly increased in steroid-secreting compared to non-secreting tumors. In ACC patients treated with mitotane only, high CYP2W1 immunoreactivity adjusted for ENSAT stage was associated with longer overall survival and time to progression (Padrenal glands making it a promising tool for targeted therapy in ACC. Furthermore, CYP2W1 may represent a new predictive marker for the response to mitotane treatment.

  15. Overexpression of sphingosine kinase 1 is associated with salivary gland carcinoma progression and might be a novel predictive marker for adjuvant therapy

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    Liu Guanglin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1 has been demonstrated to be associated with the development and progression in various types of human cancers. The current study was to characterize the expression of SPHK1 in salivary gland carcinomas (SGC and to investigate the association between SPHK1 expression and progression of SGC. Methods The expression of SPHK1 was examined in 2 normal salivary gland tissues, 8 SGC tissues of various clinical stages, and 5 pairs of primary SGC and adjacent salivary gland tissues from the same patient, using real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Furthermore, the SPHK1 protein expression was analyzed in 159 clinicopathologically characterized SGC cases by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the prognostic and diagnostic associations. Results SPHK1 expression was found to be markedly upregulated in SGC tissues than that in the normal salivary gland tissues and paired adjacent salivary gland tissues, at both mRNA and protein levels. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation of SPHK1 expression with the clinical stage (P = 0.005, T classification (P = 0.017, N classification (P = 0.009, M classification (P = 0.002, and pathological differentiation (P = 0.013. Patients with higher SPHK1 expression had shorter overall survival time, whereas patients with lower SPHK1 expression had better survival. Importantly, patients in the group without adjuvant therapy who exhibited high SPHK1 expression had significantly lower overall survival rates compared with those with low SPHK1 expression. Moreover, multivariate analysis suggested that SPHK1 expression might be an independent prognostic indicator for the survival of SGC patients. Conclusions Our results suggest that SPHK1 expression is associated with SGC progression, and might represent as a novel and valuable predictor for adjuvant therapy to SGC patients.

  16. Carcinoma apócrino na glândula parótida e na região submandibular Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region

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    Jairo S. Francisco

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho consistem na apresentação de um caso de carcinoma apócrino e na discussão de aspectos relacionados ao seu diagnóstico, tratamento e prognóstico. Os carcinomas com diferenciação apócrina que não correspondem aos casos de doença extramamária de Paget, de carcinoma ductal de mama, de adenocarcinoma das glândulas de Moll e de carcinoma ceruminal são tumores muito raros. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, negra, com 51 anos, na qual duas lesões de carcinoma apócrino acometeram a parótida esquerda (processo inicial e recidiva e uma lesão envolveu a pele da região submandibular do mesmo lado. O exame histopatológico destas lesões mostrou a presença de neoplasia epitelial glandular infiltrativa com pleomorfismo celular e nuclear moderados; apresentando células poligonais ou arredondadas, com núcleos grandes e citoplasma eosinofílico e granular. Destacou-se a presença de secreção por decapitação apical na maior parte das células tumorais voltadas para a luz das estruturas císticas neoplásicas. Adicionalmente, foi encontrada a presença de focos de comedo-necrose e de material corado pelo PAS com e sem diastase. Apesar de não podermos definir com certeza qual a sede do tumor primário, com base nos aspectos histopatológicos compatíveis com o carcinoma apócrino cutâneo, consideramos que tenha sido, provavelmente, a lesão retirada da pele da região submandibular. A paciente foi submetida a tratamentos cirúrgicos e não apresentou alterações após um ano de acompanhamento, depois da retirada do tumor recidivante na parótida.The objectives of this paper are to report a case of apocrine carcinoma and the discussion of aspects related to its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Carcinomas with apocrine differentiation not related to extramammary Paget's disease, ductal breast carcinoma, Moll's glands adenocarcinoma and ceruminous glands carcinoma are very uncommon tumors. We

  17. Mammary-specific inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 impairs functional gland development and leads to pleomorphic invasive lobular carcinoma in mice

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    Patrick W. B. Derksen

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of the Western world. Even though a large percentage of breast cancer patients show pathological complete remission after standard treatment regimes, approximately 30–40% are non-responsive and ultimately develop metastatic disease. To generate a good preclinical model of invasive breast cancer, we have taken a tissue-specific approach to somatically inactivate p53 and E-cadherin, the cardinal cell-cell adhesion receptor that is strongly associated with tumor invasiveness. In breast cancer, E-cadherin is found mutated or otherwise functionally silenced in invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC, which accounts for 10–15% of all breast cancers. We show that mammary-specific stochastic inactivation of conditional E-cadherin and p53 results in impaired mammary gland function during pregnancy through the induction of anoikis resistance of mammary epithelium, resulting in loss of epithelial organization and a dysfunctional mammary gland. Moreover, combined inactivation of E-cadherin and p53 induced lactation-independent development of invasive and metastatic mammary carcinomas, which showed strong resemblance to human pleomorphic ILC. Dissemination patterns of mouse ILC mimic the human malignancy, showing metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, lung, lymph nodes and bone. Our results confirm that loss of E-cadherin contributes to both mammary tumor initiation and metastasis, and establish a preclinical mouse model of human ILC that can be used for the development of novel intervention strategies to treat invasive breast cancer.

  18. Ninhydrin sweat test in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markendeya, N; Srinivas, C R

    2004-01-01

    Loss of sensation is an important feature of leprosy. Loss of sweating over the affected site due to loss of autonomic function occurs in leprosy. We have studied a simple, non-invasive, rapid method, using 1% ninhydrin in acetone, to detect loss of sweat function. The test was effective in detecting and grading the sweat function in 84 cases of different types of leprosy. We were able to detect normal sweating in 16 patients with hypopigmented lesion due to causes other than Hansen's disease.

  19. Thymic carcinoma

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    Vitória Homem Machado

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thymic carcinomas are a heterogeneous group of aggressive, invasive epithelial malignancies. Their incidence is rare, occurring predominantly in middle-aged men. Here we present the typical imaging findings of a thymic carcinoma. The combination of imaging characteristics with tumor location and patient age provides a roadmap for approaching the differential diagnosis. Keywords: Thymus Gland; carcinoma; mediastinal neoplasms

  20. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  1. Coloured sweat in two brothers: First report of familial chromhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Daniel C; Cooper, Hywel L

    2016-02-01

    The uncommon diagnosis of chromhidrosis is most frequently made in young adults. This sweat gland disease, although benign, may impact significantly on the patient's quality of life. We describe the first report of familial chromhidrosis of pseudo-eccrine type (pseudochromhidrosis) occurring in two brothers aged 9 and 12 years. The classification and causality of chromhidrosis is described and approaches to assessment and management are outlined. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer or Salivary Gland Cancer That Is Metastatic and/or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharynx Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  3. Increase in dermcidin-derived peptides in sweat of patients with atopic eczema caused by a humorous video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Dermcidin (DCD)-derived peptide is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the sweat glands. However, the levels of DCD-derived peptide in sweat were decreased in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The effect of viewing a humorous video on the levels of DCD-derived peptide was studied. Twenty patients with AE viewed an 87-min humorous video (Modern Times, featuring Charlie Chaplin). Just before and immediately after viewing, sweat was collected, and the levels of DCD-derived peptide and total protein in sweat were measured. Viewing a humorous video increased the levels of DCD-derived peptide without affecting the levels of total protein in sweat. Viewing a humorous video increased DCD-derived peptide in sweat of patients with AE, and thus, it may be helpful in the treatment of skin infection of AE.

  4. Sweating dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinn, L; Schrag, A; Viswanathan, R; Lees, A; Quinn, N; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence and nature of sweating disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and investigated their correlation with other clinical features and with Quality of Life (QoL) measures. A questionnaire on symptoms and consequences of sweating dysfunction was

  5. Proteomic and peptidomic analysis of human sweat with emphasis on proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yijing; Prassas, Ioannis; Muytjens, Carla M J; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2017-02-23

    Sweat is produced by eccrine and apocrine glands and represents a biological fluid with established roles in thermo-regulation and host infection defense. The composition of sweat is highly dynamic and alters significantly in various skin and other disorders. Therefore, in-depth profiling of sweat protein composition is expected to augment our understanding of the pathobiology of several skin diseases and may lead to the identification of useful sweat-based disease biomarkers. We here reported an in-depth analysis of the human sweat proteome and peptidome. Sweat was collected from healthy males and healthy females of ages 20-60years, following strenuous exercise. Two sweat pools were prepared (1 for males and 1 for females) and were subjected to sample preparation for mass spectrometric analysis. We identified a total of 861 unique proteins during our proteomic analysis and 32,818 endogenous peptides (corresponding to additional 1067 proteins) from our peptidomics workflow. As expected, the human skin was identified as the most abundant source of sweat proteins and peptides. Several skin proteases and protease inhibitors were identified in human sweat, highlighting the intense proteolytic activity of human skin. The presence of several antimicrobial peptides supports the functional roles of sweat in host defense and innate immunity. Sweat is a skin-associated biological fluid, secreted by eccrine and apocrine glands, with essential function in body thermo-regulation and host infection defense. In the present study, we performed in-depth profiling of both sweat proteome and peptidome composition. Our data provide the most in-depth characterization of the skin's catalytic network present in sweat. For the first time, we brought to light novel peptides in human sweat that potentially have antimicrobial activity, which highlight the important role of this fluid in innate immunity. All these findings allow us to have a better understanding of the complex web of

  6. Different gene-expression profiles for the poorly differentiated carcinoma and the highly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in mammary glands support distinct metabolic pathways

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    Barash Itamar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deregulation of Stat5 in the mammary gland of transgenic mice causes tumorigenesis. Poorly differentiated carcinoma and highly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma tumors evolve. To distinguish the genes and elucidate the cellular processes and metabolic pathways utilized to preserve these phenotypes, gene-expression profiles were analyzed. Methods Mammary tumors were excised from transgenic mice carrying a constitutively active variant of Stat5, or a Stat5 variant lacking s transactivation domain. These tumors displayed either the carcinoma or the papillary adenocarcinoma phenotypes. cRNAs, prepared from each tumor were hybridized to an Affymetrix GeneChip® Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 array. Gene-ontology analysis, hierarchical clustering and biological-pathway analysis were performed to distinct the two types of tumors. Histopathology and immunofluorescence staining complemented the comparison between the tumor phenotypes. Results The nucleus-cytoskeleton-plasma membrane axis is a major target for differential gene expression between phenotypes. In the carcinoma, stronger expression of genes coding for specific integrins, cytoskeletal proteins and calcium-binding proteins highlight cell-adhesion and motility features of the tumor cells. This is supported by the higher expression of genes involved in O-glycan synthesis, TGF-β, activin, their receptors and Smad3, as well as the Notch ligands and members of the γ-secretase complex that enable Notch nuclear localization. The Wnt pathway was also a target for differential gene expression. Higher expression of genes encoding the degradation complex of the canonical pathway and limited TCF expression in the papillary adenocarcinoma result in membranal accumulation of β-catenin, in contrast to its nuclear translocation in the carcinoma. Genes involved in cell-cycle arrest at G1 and response to DNA damage were more highly expressed in the papillary adenocarcinomas, as opposed to

  7. Volume and composition of hand sweat of White and Black men and women in desert walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, D B; Yousef, M K; Goldman, A; Hillyard, S D; Davis, T P

    1983-05-01

    Many investigators have sought, but failed to find, ethnic differences in the number and regional distribution of active sweat glands. In this study measurements have been made of sweat secreted on one hand and also on the whole body of Whites and Blacks walking in desert heat. Whites numbered 31 men and 27 women, ages 30 to 88 years; there were 21 Black men and 31 Black women, ages 16 to 61 years. Each walked on three occasions for 1 hour at a rate that required an oxygen consumption of about 40% of aerobic capacity. Ambient temperature ranged from 32 to 44 degrees C in 1979 and 1980; means were 38.4 degrees C in 1979 and 36.7 degrees C in 1980. There was no sweat in the gloves of many Blacks; this was true of only a few Whites. Volume of body sweat increased in both races with rate of walking; volume of hand sweat increased more in Whites than in Blacks. The Mann-Whitney test revealed that volumes of hand sweat were significantly greater for Whites than for Blacks. It was concluded that in desert walks most Whites and few Blacks sweat freely on their hands. In samples of hand sweat, Na+, K+, and Cl- were determined. Concentrations of each ion varied widely in both races, and were unrelated to race. Concentrations of Na+ and Cl- generally are somewhat higher in hand sweat than in body sweat; concentrations of K+ are much higher. It follows that the values for concentration of Na+ and Cl- reported in Table 3 probably are somewhat higher than would have been found in body sweat, and concentrations of K+ are probably much higher.

  8. Low abundance of sweat duct Cl− channel CFTR in both healthy and cystic fibrosis athletes with exceptionally salty sweat during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Karla K. V.; Pollack, Brian P.; Millard-Stafford, Mindy; McCarty, Nael A.

    2011-01-01

    To understand potential mechanisms explaining interindividual variability observed in human sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]), we investigated the relationship among [Na+] of thermoregulatory sweat, plasma membrane expression of Na+ and Cl− transport proteins in biopsied human eccrine sweat ducts, and basal levels of vasopressin (AVP) and aldosterone. Lower ductal luminal membrane expression of the Cl− channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was observed in immunofluorescent staining of sweat glands from healthy young adults identified as exceptionally “salty sweaters” (SS) (n = 6, P sweat [Na+] (control, n = 6). Genetic testing of healthy subjects did not reveal any heterozygotes (“carriers”) for any of the 39 most common disease-causing CFTR mutations in the United States. SS had higher baseline plasma [AVP] compared with control (P = 0.029). Immunostaining to investigate a potential relationship between higher plasma [AVP] (and sweat [Na+]) and ductal membrane aquaporin-5 revealed for all groups a relatively sparse and location-dependent ductal expression of the water channel with localization primarily to the secretory coil. Availability of CFTR for NaCl transport across the ductal membrane appears related to the significant physiological variability observed in sweat salt concentration in apparently healthy humans. At present, a heritable link between healthy salty sweaters and the most prevalent disease-causing CFTR mutations cannot be established. PMID:21228336

  9. Adrenal glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland ...

  10. Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Salivary Glands Salivary Glands Patient Health Information News media interested ... staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Where Are Your Salivary Glands? The glands are found in and around your ...

  11. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of a Diffuse Sclerosing Variant: Ultrasonographic Monitoring from a Normal Thyroid Gland to Mass Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Seong; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Sung, Chang Ohk; Oh, Young Lyun; Song, Sang Yong [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    A diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and has a tendency for rapid growth and a higher incidence of cervical lymph node metastases. We experienced a case of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 48-year-old man. This case showed benign features on nitial ultrasonography and positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A new nodule was detected on follow-up ultrasonography that showed rapid enlargement. This case was confirmed by surgical excision. We herein describe the initial and follow-up ultrasonographic findings of a diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

  12. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  13. Why Do I Sweat So Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Parents - or Other Adults Why Do I Sweat So Much? KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Do I Sweat So Much? Print A A A en español ¿Por qué sudo tanto? It's perfectly normal to sweat. Sweating plays an important health role because it ...

  14. Sweat mechanisms and dysfunctions in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Aleksi J; Vaughn, Alexandra R; Clark, Ashley K; Yosipovitch, Gil; Shi, Vivian Y

    2018-02-01

    Skin barrier dysfunction is inherent to atopic dermatitis (AD), causing dryness, irritation, and increased permeability to irritants, allergens and pathogens. Eccrine sweat functions as part of the skin's protective barrier. Variations in sweat responses have been observed in patients with AD, and altered sweat composition and dynamics are under-recognized as important factors in the disease cycle. This review discusses the role that sweat plays in the pathogenesis of AD, examines evidence on abnormal sweat composition, secretion, and neuro-immune responses to sweat in atopic skin, and highlights the value of sweat management. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Tumors of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linea; Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Heegaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the lacrimal gland comprise a wide spectrum, of which the most common demonstrate epithelial and lymphoid differentiation. The diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors depends primarily on histological evaluation, as do the choice of treatment and prognosis. For some lacrimal gland neoplasms......, such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, the outlook is grave. Optimal treatment for several lacrimal gland tumors is also a matter of controversy. However, recent progress has been made in the molecular and genetic understanding of tumorigenesis for such lesions. This article presents an overview of the histopathology...... of lacrimal gland tumors, together with their epidemiological features, clinical characteristics, and treatment strategies....

  16. A little CFTR goes a long way: CFTR-dependent sweat secretion from G551D and R117H-5T cystic fibrosis subjects taking ivacaftor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Jessica E; Wolfe, Marlene H; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Park, Il-Ho; Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Frisbee, Eric; Dunn, Colleen; Davies, Zoe; Milla, Carlos; Moss, Richard B; Thomas, Ewart A C; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    To determine if oral dosing with the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770, Kalydeco) improves CFTR-dependent sweating in CF subjects carrying G551D or R117H-5T mutations, we optically measured sweat secretion from 32-143 individually identified glands in each of 8 CF subjects; 6 F508del/G551D, one G551D/R117H-5T, and one I507del/R117H-5T. Two subjects were tested only (-) ivacaftor, 3 only (+) ivacaftor and 3 (+/-) ivacaftor (1-5 tests per condition). The total number of gland measurements was 852 (-) ivacaftor and 906 (+) ivacaftor. A healthy control was tested 4 times (51 glands). For each gland we measured both CFTR-independent (M-sweat) and CFTR-dependent (C-sweat); C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevated [cAMP]i while blocking muscarinic receptors. Absent ivacaftor, almost all CF glands produced M-sweat on all tests, but only 1/593 glands produced C-sweat (10 tests, 5 subjects). By contrast, 6/6 subjects (113/342 glands) produced C-sweat in the (+) ivacaftor condition, but with large inter-subject differences; 3-74% of glands responded with C/M sweat ratios 0.04%-2.57% of the average WT ratio of 0.265. Sweat volume losses cause proportionally larger underestimates of CFTR function at lower sweat rates. The losses were reduced by measuring C/M ratios in 12 glands from each subject that had the highest M-sweat rates. Remaining losses were estimated from single channel data and used to correct the C/M ratios, giving estimates of CFTR function (+) ivacaftor  = 1.6%-7.7% of the WT average. These estimates are in accord with single channel data and transcript analysis, and suggest that significant clinical benefit can be produced by low levels of CFTR function.

  17. A little CFTR goes a long way: CFTR-dependent sweat secretion from G551D and R117H-5T cystic fibrosis subjects taking ivacaftor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Char

    Full Text Available To determine if oral dosing with the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770, Kalydeco improves CFTR-dependent sweating in CF subjects carrying G551D or R117H-5T mutations, we optically measured sweat secretion from 32-143 individually identified glands in each of 8 CF subjects; 6 F508del/G551D, one G551D/R117H-5T, and one I507del/R117H-5T. Two subjects were tested only (- ivacaftor, 3 only (+ ivacaftor and 3 (+/- ivacaftor (1-5 tests per condition. The total number of gland measurements was 852 (- ivacaftor and 906 (+ ivacaftor. A healthy control was tested 4 times (51 glands. For each gland we measured both CFTR-independent (M-sweat and CFTR-dependent (C-sweat; C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevated [cAMP]i while blocking muscarinic receptors. Absent ivacaftor, almost all CF glands produced M-sweat on all tests, but only 1/593 glands produced C-sweat (10 tests, 5 subjects. By contrast, 6/6 subjects (113/342 glands produced C-sweat in the (+ ivacaftor condition, but with large inter-subject differences; 3-74% of glands responded with C/M sweat ratios 0.04%-2.57% of the average WT ratio of 0.265. Sweat volume losses cause proportionally larger underestimates of CFTR function at lower sweat rates. The losses were reduced by measuring C/M ratios in 12 glands from each subject that had the highest M-sweat rates. Remaining losses were estimated from single channel data and used to correct the C/M ratios, giving estimates of CFTR function (+ ivacaftor  = 1.6%-7.7% of the WT average. These estimates are in accord with single channel data and transcript analysis, and suggest that significant clinical benefit can be produced by low levels of CFTR function.

  18. Invasive salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: a teaching case giving rise to the genuine diagnostic difficulty on an inadequate cytology specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Sohsuke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A history of a recent rapid increase in long-standing swelling mass was presented in the right parotid gland of an 85-year-old male. The inadequate cytologic specimens contained few small clusters of three-dimensional malignant epithelial cells having hyperchromatic pleomorphic nuclei and prominent nucleoli, adjacent to a cluster of benign monomorphic myoepithelial cells. We first interpreted it merely as an adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. A radical parotidectomy was performed, and gross examination revealed an encapsulated and firm tumor lesion, looking grayish-blue to yellowish-white, focally associated with extracapsular invasion. On microscopic examination, the tumor was predominantly composed of a proliferation of highly atypical epithelial cells having abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, often arranged in a Roman-bridge appearance with foci of comedo necrosis, alternating with extensive infiltration to adjacent stroma in a trabecular or alveolar fashion with severe vessel permeation. Within the background of pleomorphic adenoma, the carcinoma cells sometimes replaced ductal luminal cells while retaining an intact-like myoepithelial layer. Therefore, we finally made a diagnosis of invasive salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. We should be aware that owing to its characteristic features, cytopathologists might be able to determine correct diagnosis, based on multiple and adequate samplings. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2126158270695815

  19. Invasive salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland: a teaching case giving rise to the genuine diagnostic difficulty on an inadequate cytology specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A history of a recent rapid increase in long-standing swelling mass was presented in the right parotid gland of an 85-year-old male. The inadequate cytologic specimens contained few small clusters of three-dimensional malignant epithelial cells having hyperchromatic pleomorphic nuclei and prominent nucleoli, adjacent to a cluster of benign monomorphic myoepithelial cells. We first interpreted it merely as an adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. A radical parotidectomy was performed, and gross examination revealed an encapsulated and firm tumor lesion, looking grayish-blue to yellowish-white, focally associated with extracapsular invasion. On microscopic examination, the tumor was predominantly composed of a proliferation of highly atypical epithelial cells having abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, often arranged in a Roman-bridge appearance with foci of comedo necrosis, alternating with extensive infiltration to adjacent stroma in a trabecular or alveolar fashion with severe vessel permeation. Within the background of pleomorphic adenoma, the carcinoma cells sometimes replaced ductal luminal cells while retaining an intact-like myoepithelial layer. Therefore, we finally made a diagnosis of invasive salivary duct carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. We should be aware that owing to its characteristic features, cytopathologists might be able to determine correct diagnosis, based on multiple and adequate samplings. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2126158270695815 PMID:22647549

  20. Difficulty in the Cytodiagnosis of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma: Survey of 109 Cytologists with a Case Originating from a Minor Salivary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Keita; Minesaki, Akimichi; Suzuki, Kumiko; Monji, Mikio; Nakamura, Mitsuo; Tsugitomi, Hisayuki; Kuratomi, Yuichiro; Aishima, Shinichi

    2017-07-25

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland shows morphologic similarities and shares an immunophenotype and characteristic ETV6-NTRK3 translocation with secretory carcinoma of the breast. We present a buccal case of MASC along with a survey-based debate about its cytologic diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). FNA of the buccal nodule of a 58-year-old Japanese man was initially performed by 3 cytologists who gave different assessments of the Papanicolaou classification (i.e., class II, III, and V). To investigate the potential for discrepant diagnosis of MASC on a larger scale, we distributed a survey with questions about the cytological diagnosis of the present case to cytologists at other institutions. A total of 109 cytologists completed the survey, providing varying assessments of the Papanicolaou classification: class I/II (14%), class III (53%), and class IV/V (33%). Most of the respondents (72%) could not identify a particular tumor or disease. Even the respondents who identified a particular tumor suggested widely differing diagnoses, from a benign lesion to various malignant tumors. Only 2 respondents correctly identified MASC. Our experience and the results of the survey suggest difficulty in the cytodiagnosis of MASC. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Inhibitory effects of silibinin on proliferation and lung metastasis of human high metastasis cell line of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma via autophagy induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Canhua Jiang,1 Shufang Jin,1 Zhisheng Jiang,1 Jie Wang2 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, 2Department of Immunology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the possible mechanisms and effects of silibinin (SIL on the proliferation and lung metastasis of human lung high metastasis cell line of salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC-M.Methods: A methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was performed to detect the inhibitory effects of SIL on the proliferation of ACC-M cells in vitro. Fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the autophagic process. Western blot was performed to detect the expression of microtube-related protein 1 light-chain 3 (LC3. An experimental adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC lung metastasis model was established in nude mice to detect the impacts of SIL on lung weight and lung cancer nodules. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expressions of LC3 in human ACC samples and normal salivary gland tissue samples.Results: SIL inhibited the proliferation of ACC-M cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and inductively increased the autophagic bodies in ACC-M cells. Furthermore, SIL could increase the expression of LC3 in ACC-M cells and promote the conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the ACC lung metastasis model, the lung weight and left and right lung nodules in the SIL-treated group were significantly less than those in the control group (P<0.05. The expressions of LC3-I and LC3-II as well as the positive expression rate of LC3 (80% significantly increased, but the positive expression of LC3 in human ACC (42.22% reduced significantly.Conclusion: SIL could inhibit the proliferation and lung metastasis of ACC-M cells by possibly inducing tumor cells autophagy. Keywords: silibinin, adenoid cystic carcinoma, ACC-M cells, autophagy

  2. Genetic variants in DNA double-strand break repair genes and risk of salivary gland carcinoma: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    Full Text Available DNA double strand break (DSB repair is the primary defense mechanism against ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. Ionizing radiation is the only established risk factor for salivary gland carcinoma (SGC. We hypothesized that genetic variants in DSB repair genes contribute to individual variation in susceptibility to SGC. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study in which we analyzed 415 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 45 DSB repair genes in 352 SGC cases and 598 controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Rs3748522 in RAD52 and rs13180356 in XRCC4 were significantly associated with SGC after Bonferroni adjustment; ORs (95% CIs for the variant alleles of these SNPs were 1.71 (1.40-2.09, P = 1.70 × 10(-7 and 0.58 (0.45-0.74, P = 2.00 × 10(-5 respectively. The genetic effects were modulated by histological subtype. The association of RAD52-rs3748522 with SGC was strongest for mucoepidermoid carcinoma (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.55-3.15, P = 1.25 × 10(-5, n = 74, and the association of XRCC4-rs13180356 with SGC was strongest for adenoid cystic carcinoma (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.87, P = 6.91 × 10(-3, n = 123. Gene-level association analysis revealed one gene, PRKDC, with a marginally significant association with SGC risk in non-Hispanic whites. To our knowledge, this study is the first to comprehensively evaluate the genetic effect of DSB repair genes on SGC risk. Our results indicate that genetic variants in the DSB repair pathways contribute to inter-individual differences in susceptibility to SGC and show that the impact of genetic variants differs by histological subtype. Independent studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  3. Apocrine carcinoma of the scalp – A case report and highlights for diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arden RL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Apocrine sweat gland carcinoma is a rare cutaneous adnexal neoplasm that may occur in the scalp, eyelid, and ear canal. More often, it presents as an asymptomatic, slow-growing, solid or cystic mass with variable color. The clinical appearance may be confused with basal cell carcinoma and the pathologic appearance with metastatic breast carcinoma. Supportive morphologic and immunohistochemical findings, together with careful clinicopathologic correlation, aid in diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment is wide local excision and neck dissection for node positive disease. The role of elective neck dissection and adjuvant radiotherapy remain controversial. Chemotherapy has been used for palliation in disseminated disease. This case report offers an algorithm that can aid the clinician in differential diagnosis of this often elusive neoplasm.

  4. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck metastasizing to the parotid gland-A review of current recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Hara, J.; Ferlito, A.; Takes, R.P.; Rinaldo, A.; Strojan, P.; Shaha, A.R.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Paleri, V.

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck may metastasize in up to 5% of patients, with the parotid lymph nodes the most frequent site for spread. Metastases frequently show delayed presentation after the primary cancer had been treated. The optimum treatment should be surgery

  5. A Metastatic Lipid-Rich Carcinoma of the Mammary Gland in a Female Cat: Clinicopathological, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Florin GAL

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipid-rich invasive human breast cancer is a rare enigmatic entity among special types of infiltrating duct carcinoma. Our paper reports a lipid-rich mammary carcinoma in a female cat with the gross, microscopic and immunohistochemical description of the tumor. A 13-year-old intact adult female, mixed-breed cat was presented by the owner to the Laboratory of Pathologic Anatomy from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania. A complete necropsy examination was performed in our laboratory. The tissue samples were collected and processed by paraffin technique for further histological, histochemical, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical examination. During the necropsy examination, a subcutaneous mass was discovered on the chest. Several variably sized, well-demarcated neoplasms were noted in the right axillary lymph node, right thoracic wall, pleura, lungs, liver, spleen and kidney. Histologically, the cells frequently formed tubuloacinar structures. The morphology of the described tumor showed features of a poorly differentiated mammary carcinoma. Numerous tumoral cells were large and polygonal, with abundant cytoplasm that showed foam-like cytoplasm. The tumoral cells contained either multiple small or large and solitary vacuoles that pushed the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. Intracytoplasmic vacuoles of the neoplastic cells were positive for Oil-Red-O and negatively with Periodic Acid–Schiff. As for immunofluorescence/immunohistochemistry, nonvacuolated and vacuolated neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin and negative for vimentin. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis support a diagnosis of lipid-rich mammary carcinoma. This is the second reliable record of a lipid-rich mammary carcinoma in female cat and the first one with internal metastases.

  6. Tropical Malaysians and temperate Koreans exhibit significant differences in sweating sensitivity in response to iontophoretically administered acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Bae, Jun-Sang; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Yang, Hun-Mo; Min, Young-Ki

    2009-03-01

    Natives of the tropics are able to tolerate high ambient temperatures. This results from their long-term residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. This study was designed to compare the peripheral mechanisms of thermal sweating in tropical natives with that of their temperate counterparts. Fifty-five healthy male subjects including 20 native Koreans who live in the temperate Korean climate (Temperate-N) and 35 native tropical Malaysian men that have lived all of their lives in Malaysia (Tropical-N) were enrolled in this study after providing written informed consent to participate. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with 10% acetylcholine (ACh) was used to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, and oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The sweat onset time of AXR (nicotinic-receptor-mediated) was 56 s shorter in the Temperate-N than in the Tropical-N subjects ( P stress.

  7. An analysis of trends of incidence and cytohistological correlation of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland with evaluation of discordant cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in thyroid nodules has been well-studied but there is a paucity of studies solely involving papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. The diagnostic criteria for PTC are established but still there is a worrisome possibility of false positive and false-negative results, which can have a serious impact on patient care. This article correlates the cytological and histological diagnosis of PTC with an eventual aim of analyzing the cause of false positive and false negative results in order to prevent misdiagnosis. An increase in the incidence of PTC in the younger population has been noted. Aims: To analyze the epidemiological trends and cytohistological correlation of PTC and evaluate the discordant cases and pitfalls of FNAC. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two cases who had undergone both FNAC and histopathological examination (HPE of the thyroid gland were selected. Age and sex distribution as well as cytohistological correlation were done for all the cases. Results: Cytohistological correlation was 81.94%. False positives were 5.56% and the false negative rate was 13.2%. Sensitivity was 86.7% and the positive predictive value was 93.6%. The peak age was 31-40 years among females and 41-60 years among males. Seven of our patients were <20 years of age (10%. Conclusion: FNAC is an indispensible tool for the early diagnosis of PTC. However, certain conditions of the thyroid gland can cause diagnostic dilemma. Awareness of pathologists regarding these pitfalls can prevent misdiagnosis and provide better patient care. Increasing the incidence of PTC with a more striking increase in the younger population makes early diagnosis all the more important owing to better prognosis in this age group.

  8. The interleukin-6/Janus kinase/STAT3 pathway in pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Simon; Heegaard, Steffen; Grauslund, Morten; Homøe, Preben

    2016-12-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common tumour of the lacrimal gland, but very little is known about its biology. It has a tendency to recur and an ability to transform into the high-grade malignancy carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (ca-ex-PA), which is also largely unexplored. In this study, we examine the expression of the interleukin-6/Janus kinase/STAT3 (IL-6/JAK/STAT3) pathway components in PA and ca-ex-PA. Sixteen PAs and two ca-ex-PAs were examined with immunohistochemistry. Seven PAs were subjected to microdissection and subsequent qPCR. The IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway was overexpressed in PA compared to normal lacrimal gland. Overexpression of phosphorylated JAK1 (p-JAK1) and cyclin D1 was significantly overexpressed in ductal cells compared with myoepithelial cells in PA. A shift from p-JAK1 to p-JAK2 and p-Tyk2 overexpression was seen between PA and ca-ex-PA, combined with a high p-STAT3 expression in the latter. The IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway is overexpressed in PA, and this overexpression was even more pronounced in ca-ex-PA, with a shift in the JAKs mediating STAT3 phosphorylation. Future studies are needed to clarify whether PA and ca-ex-PA could be treated with targeted therapy directed against components of the IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and molecular study including 2 cases harboring ETV6-X fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yohei; Ishibashi, Kenichiro; Masaki, Ayako; Fujii, Kana; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Kawakita, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Manabu; Miyabe, Satoru; Shimozato, Kazuo; Nagao, Toshitaka; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade carcinoma with morphologic and genetic similarity, including ETV6-NTRK3 fusion, to secretory carcinoma of the breast. ETV6 is frequently involved in other epithelial and nonepithelial tumors, and many fusion partners of ETV6 have been reported. In the present study, 14 Japanese MASC cases were clinicopathologically and molecularly analyzed. The median age of the patients was 39 years, and the male:female ratio was 6:8. All cases showed histopathologic findings compatible with those previously described for MASC and harbored an ETV6 split as visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two cases showed thick fibrous septa and invasive features including vascular or perineural tumor involvement, findings that are rare in MASC. In addition, in these 2 cases, non-NTRK3 genes appeared to fuse with ETV6 (ETV6-X fusion). NTRK1 and NTRK2, both members of the NTRK family, were not involved. Of the 14 MASC cases, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was positive in 6 cases, and the relative expression level of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was variable, ranging from 1 to 5.8. Results of the present study of MASC suggest that (1) ETV6 occasionally fuses with unknown non-NTRK3 genes, (2) ETV6-X cases might have an invasive histology, (3) for molecular diagnosis of MASC, fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect ETV6 splits is the method of choice, and (4) the expression level of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript is considerably variable. These findings provide a novel insight into the oncogenesis, histopathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this newly recognized carcinoma.

  10. Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen as marker of myoepithelial and basal cells in the parotid gland, pleomorphic adenomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas. An immunohistological comparison between T and sialosyl-T antigens, alpha-smooth muscle actin and cytokeratin 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1995-01-01

    was the only marker of cells in solid undifferentiated areas of adenoid cystic carcinomas. Our study supports the view, that modified "myoepithelial" cells in the tumours consist of a mixture of basal cells and myoepithelial cells. None of the investigated structures was in itself an ideal marker......Controversy centres on the role and identification of myoepithelial (MEC) and basal cells in salivary gland tumours, and recent studies suggest that both basal cells and myoepithelial cells participate in the formation of salivary gland tumours. We have correlated the expression of different well......-known markers of normal MEC/basal cells (i.e. alpha-smooth muscle actin and cytokeratin 14) with T (Thomsen-Friedenreich) antigen and its sialylated derivative: sialosyl-T antigen,) in 17 normal parotid glands and in two tumour types with MEC participation (i.e pleomorphic adenomas (PA) and adenoid cystic...

  11. Transition duration of ingested deuterium oxide to eccrine sweat during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Adam; Lee, Fanny; Buono, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The time necessary for the initial appearance of ingested water as sweat during exercise in the heat remains unknown. Based on the current literature, we estimated fluid transition through the body, from ingestion to appearance as sweat, to have a minimum time duration of approximately three minutes. The purpose of this study was to test this prediction and identify the time necessary for the initial enrichment of deuterium oxide (D2O) in sweat following ingestion during exercise in the heat. Eight participants performed moderate intensity (40% of maximal oxygen uptake) treadmill exercise in an environmental chamber (40°C, 40% rH) to induce active sweating. After fifteen minutes, while continuing to walk, participants consumed D2O (0.15mlkg-1) in a final volume of 50ml water. Scapular sweat samples were collected one minute prior to and ten minutes post-ingestion. Samples were analyzed for sweat D2O concentration using isotope ratio mass spectrometry and compared to baseline. Mean±SD ∆ sweat D2O concentration at minutes one and two post-ingestion were not significantly higher than baseline (0min). Minutes three (9±3ppm) through ten (23±11ppm) post-ingestion had ∆ sweat D2O concentrations significantly (P<0.05) higher than baseline. Such results suggest that ingested water rapidly transports across the mucosal membrane of the alimentary canal into the vasculature space, enters the extravascular fluid, and is actively secreted by the eccrine sweat glands onto the surface of the skin for potential evaporation in as little as three minutes during exercise in the heat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accumulation of 2H2O in plasma and eccrine sweat during exercise-heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Klau, Jennifer F; Ganio, Matthew S; McDermott, Brendon P; Yeargin, Susan W; Lee, Elaine C; Maresh, Carl M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize the movement of ingested water through body fluids, during exercise-heat stress. Deuterium oxide ((2)H(2)O) accumulation in plasma and eccrine sweat was measured at two sites (back and forehead). The exercise of 14 males was controlled via cycle ergometry in a warm environment (60 min; 28.7 degrees C, 51%rh). Subjects consumed (2)H(2)O (0.15 mg kg(-1), 99.9% purity) mixed in flavored, non-caloric, colored water before exercise, then consumed 3.0 ml kg(-1) containing no (2)H(2)O every 15 min during exercise. We hypothesized that water transit from mouth to skin would occur before 15 min. (2)H(2)O appeared rapidly in both plasma and sweat (P deuterium accumulation (DeltaD:H min(-1)) in plasma was 14.9 and 23.7 times greater than in forehead and back sweat samples, respectively. Mean (+/-SE) whole-body sweat rate was 1.04 +/- 0.05 L h(-1) and subjects with the greatest whole-body sweat rate exhibited the greatest peak deuterium enrichment in sweat (r(2) = 0.87, exponential function); the peak (2)H(2)O enrichment in sweat was not proportional (P > 0.05) to body mass, volume of the deuterium dose, or total volume of fluid consumed. These findings clarify the time course of fluid movement from mouth to eccrine sweat glands, and demonstrate considerable differences of (2)H(2)O enrichment in plasma versus sweat.

  13. Bioanalytical devices: Technological leap for sweat sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikenfeld, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Sweat analysis is an ideal method for continuously tracking a person's physiological state, but developing devices for this is difficult. A wearable sweat monitor that measures several biomarkers is a breakthrough. See Letter p.509

  14. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  15. Working Up a Good Sweat - The Challenges of Standardising Sweat Collection for Metabolomics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Joy N; Mantri, Nitin; Cohen, Marc M

    2017-02-01

    Human sweat is a complex biofluid of interest to diverse scientific fields. Metabolomics analysis of sweat promises to improve screening, diagnosis and self-monitoring of numerous conditions through new applications and greater personalisation of medical interventions. Before these applications can be fully developed, existing methods for the collection, handling, processing and storage of human sweat need to be revised. This review presents a cross-disciplinary overview of the origins, composition, physical characteristics and functional roles of human sweat, and explores the factors involved in standardising sweat collection for metabolomics analysis. A literature review of human sweat analysis over the past 10 years (2006-2016) was performed to identify studies with metabolomics or similarly applicable 'omics' analysis. These studies were reviewed with attention to sweat induction and sampling techniques, timing of sweat collection, sweat storage conditions, laboratory derivation, processing and analytical platforms. Comparative analysis of 20 studies revealed numerous factors that can significantly impact the validity, reliability and reproducibility of sweat analysis including: anatomical site of sweat sampling, skin integrity and preparation; temperature and humidity at the sweat collection sites; timing and nature of sweat collection; metabolic quenching; transport and storage; qualitative and quantitative measurements of the skin microbiota at sweat collection sites; and individual variables such as diet, emotional state, metabolic conditions, pharmaceutical, recreational drug and supplement use. Further development of standard operating protocols for human sweat collection can open the way for sweat metabolomics to significantly add to our understanding of human physiology in health and disease.

  16. Papillary-cystic pattern is characteristic in mammary analogue secretory carcinomas but is rarely observed in acinic cell carcinomas of the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Chou, Yueh-Hung; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2015-08-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) has a specific ETV6-NTRK3 translocation and morphologically overlaps with acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC). Before the recognition of MASC, in AciCC, four histologic patterns were identified including microcystic, solid, papillary-cystic, and follicular. The aim of this study was to evaluate histologic patterns in these two neoplasms through comprehensive histologic subtyping. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we identified 14 cases of MASC and 21 cases of AciCC. We used comprehensive histologic subtyping to provide a semiquantitive assessment of histologic patterns in each tumor and performed immunohistochemical analyses including S100/vimentin/mammaglobin/DOG1. MASC often presented papillary-cystic patterns without a solid component, previously considered to be one of the four major patterns associated with AciCC. However, in our study, this histologic feature was rarely seen in AciCC and more characteristic of MASC. In aspiration cytology samples, MASC was associated with more cellular atypia. An immunohistochemical panel of S100/mammaglobin/DOG1 was found useful for differential diagnosis. Comprehensive subtyping of histologic patterns is a useful screening method prior to initiation of molecular testing.

  17. Sweat Therapy Theory, Practice, and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Allen; Colmant, Stephen; Winterowd, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the potential application of sweat rituals to group counseling, adventure therapy, and other forms of group work by describing a theoretical model for how sweat rituals work and presenting the results of a randomized comparative outcome study on the efficacy of sweat therapy. The theoretical model proposes…

  18. Highly abundant defense proteins in human sweat as revealed by targeted proteomics and label free quantification mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csősz, Éva; Emri, Gabriella; Kalló, Gergő; Tsaprailis, George; Tőzsér, József

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The healthy human skin with its effective antimicrobial defense system forms an efficient barrier against invading pathogens. There is evidence suggesting that the composition of this chemical barrier varies between diseases, making the easily-collected sweat an ideal candidate for biomarker discoveries. OBJECTIVE Our aim was to provide information about the normal composition of the sweat, and to study the chemical barrier found at the surface of skin. METHODS Sweat samples from healthy individuals were collected during sauna bathing, and the global protein panel was analyzed by label-free mass spectrometry. SRM-based targeted proteomic methods were designed and stable isotope labeled reference peptides were used for method validation. RESULTS 95 sweat proteins were identified, 20 of them were novel proteins. It was shown that dermcidin is the most abundant sweat protein, and along with apolipoprotein D, clusterin, prolactin inducible protein and serum albumin, they make up 91% of secreted sweat proteins. The roles of these highly abundant proteins were reviewed; all of which have protective functions, highlighting the importance of sweat glands in composing the first line of innate immune defense system, and maintaining the epidermal barrier integrity. CONCLUSION Our findings in regards to the proteins forming the chemical barrier of the skin as determined by label free quantification and targeted proteomics methods are in accordance with previous studies, and can be further used as a starting point for non-invasive sweat biomarker research. PMID:26307449

  19. Influence of presence/absence of thyroid gland on the cutoff value for thyroglobulin in lymph-node aspiration to detect metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huan; Wang, Yong; Wang, Min-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Hai-Rui; Zhang, Bing; Guo, Hui-Qin

    2017-04-28

    Thyroglobulin measurement with fine-needle aspiration (Tg-FNA) is a sensitive method for detecting metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the diagnostic threshold is not well established and the influence of the thyroid gland on the cutoff value is also controversial. In this study, patients were classified into two groups according to the presence or absence of thyroid tissue, to determine an appropriate cutoff value for clinical practice. Patients with a history of thyroid nodules or surgery for PTC and with enlarged cervical lymph nodes on an FNA examination were enrolled for Tg-FNA detection. One hundred ninety-six lymph nodes (189 patients) were included: 100 from preoperative patients, 49 from patients treated with partial thyroid ablation, and 47 from patients with total thyroid ablation. In 149 lymph nodes from patient with thyroids, the cutoff value for Tg-FNA was 55.99 ng/mL (sensitivity, 95.1%; specificity, 100%), whereas in 47 lymph nodes from patients without a thyroid, it was 9.71 ng/mL (sensitivity, 96.7%; specificity, 100%). Thus, the cutoff value for Tg-FNA was higher in patients with thyroids than in patients without thyroids. The cutoff value for Tg-FNA is influenced by residual thyroid tissue, and a higher cutoff value is recommended for patients with thyroids than for patients without thyroids.

  20. Do elephants need to sweat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    higher increase (Clifford, Kerslake & Waddell 1959). Thus a number of factors studied under laboratory condi- tions in non-sweating human skin are pertinenl to this con- sideration of evaporative waler loss froro elephant skin and we have shown that the evaporative loss could provide the heat transfer necessary for thermal ...

  1. A soft, wearable microfluidic device for the capture, storage, and colorimetric sensing of sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ahyeon; Kang, Daeshik; Xue, Yeguang; Lee, Seungmin; Pielak, Rafal M; Kim, Jeonghyun; Hwang, Taehwan; Min, Seunghwan; Banks, Anthony; Bastien, Philippe; Manco, Megan C; Wang, Liang; Ammann, Kaitlyn R; Jang, Kyung-In; Won, Phillip; Han, Seungyong; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Paik, Ungyu; Slepian, Marvin J; Balooch, Guive; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2016-11-23

    Capabilities in health monitoring enabled by capture and quantitative chemical analysis of sweat could complement, or potentially obviate the need for, approaches based on sporadic assessment of blood samples. Established sweat monitoring technologies use simple fabric swatches and are limited to basic analysis in controlled laboratory or hospital settings. We present a collection of materials and device designs for soft, flexible, and stretchable microfluidic systems, including embodiments that integrate wireless communication electronics, which can intimately and robustly bond to the surface of the skin without chemical and mechanical irritation. This integration defines access points for a small set of sweat glands such that perspiration spontaneously initiates routing of sweat through a microfluidic network and set of reservoirs. Embedded chemical analyses respond in colorimetric fashion to markers such as chloride and hydronium ions, glucose, and lactate. Wireless interfaces to digital image capture hardware serve as a means for quantitation. Human studies demonstrated the functionality of this microfluidic device during fitness cycling in a controlled environment and during long-distance bicycle racing in arid, outdoor conditions. The results include quantitative values for sweat rate, total sweat loss, pH, and concentration of chloride and lactate. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Maximum rate of sweat ions reabsorption during exercise with regional differences, sex, and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Hirose, Megumi; Konishi, Kana; Gerrett, Nicola; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Narihiko; Inoue, Yoshimitsu

    2017-07-01

    It is recently reported that determining sweat rate (SR) threshold for increasing galvanic skin conductance (GSC) would represent a maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption in sweat glands. We evaluate the maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption over skin regions, sex, and long-term exercise training by using the threshold analysis in the present study. Ten males (2 untrained, 4 sprinters, and 4 distance runners) and 12 females (5 untrained, 4 sprinters, and 3 distance runners) conducted graded cycling exercise for 45 min at low, middle, and high exercise intensities (heart rate 100-110, 120-130, and 140-150 beats/min, respectively) for 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively, at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity. Comparisons were made between males and females and among untrained individuals, distance runners, and sprinters on the back and forearm. SR threshold for increasing GSC on back was significantly higher than that of forearm (P sprinters showed higher SR threshold for increasing GSC than that of untrained subjects on back (P sprinters, respectively). These results suggest that the maximum sweat ion reabsorption rate on the back is higher than that of forearm without sex differences. Furthermore, exercise training in distance runners and sprinters improves the maximum sweat ion reabsorption rate on the back.

  3. Sweat composition in exercise and in heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, T; Shephard, R J; Corey, P; Moore, R

    1982-12-01

    Sweat samples were collected from the forearms of eight male volunteers using light gauze pads applied for 20-min periods. Preliminary trials indicated that this technique yielded realistic figures for both sweat volume and sweat composition. Tests were conducted under three conditions: a) outdoor exercise, cool environment; b) indoor exercise, normal room temperatures; and c) sauna exposure. In all environments, proximal forearm samples indicated a larger sweat secretion than distal forearm or hand samples. [Mg2+] decreased as sweat flow increased, but after allowance for interindividual differences of sweat volume, [Na+], [K+], [Ca2+], and [Cl-] were independent of sweat flow rates. The differential effect of sweat flow suggests active regulation rather than contamination. Interindividual differences of sweat composition could not be explained in terms of differences in personal fitness. Sauna bathing yielded sweat with a higher [Mg2+] and [Ca2+] content than did exercise; however, [Na+], [K+], and [Cl-] were similar for the three experimental conditions. Again, the data are best explained in terms of an active regulation of sweat composition. Total ionic losses do not seem sufficient to deplete body mineral reserves unless many days of training are undertaken in a hot climate.

  4. A comparative immunohistochemistry study of diagnostic tools in salivary gland tumors: usefulness of mammaglobin, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, and p63 cytoplasmic staining for the diagnosis of mammary analog secretory carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projetti, Fabrice; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Serrano, Elie; Vergez, Sebastien; Barres, Béatrice Herbault; Meilleroux, Julie; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland has been recently described according to morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular (ETV6-NTRK3 translocation) similarities with the mammary secretory carcinoma. The most important differential diagnostic considerations of MASC are low-grade adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS), cystadenocarcinoma, and acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC). These tumors may share an overlapping morphology with MASC, and additional immunohistochemical studies are required to reinforce the diagnosis. Mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, and p63 staining have been reported in MASC. Our study was designed to check the specificity of these antibodies in MASC compared to other frequent tumors of salivary glands. A series of 62 salivary gland tumors [10 MASCs, 5 adenocarcinomas NOS and 2 cystadenocarcinomas with MASC features and without ETV6 rearrangement, one low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma (LGCCC), 9 AciCCs, 10 MECs, 10 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdeCCs), 5 polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas (PLGAs), and 10 pleomorphic adenomas (PAs)] was analyzed by immunohistochemistry with mammaglobin, GCDFP-15, and p63 antibodies. Positivity for mammaglobin was observed in all MASCs, cystadenocarcinomas, LGCCC, and PLGAs, in some adenocarcinomas NOS, PAs, and MECs, rarely in AciCCs and never in AdeCCs. Positivity for GCDFP-15 was observed in most of the tumor types except in AdeCCs. Interestingly, cytoplasmic positivity for p63 was observed in most of MASCs and PLGAs while rarely in adenocarcinomas NOS and PAs, and never in the other tumor types. Our study revealed the usefulness of mammaglobin and p63 cytoplasmic staining to define which tumors are worth to be screened for ETV6 rearrangement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands in Brazil: clinicopathological outcomes and a brief review Carcinoma mucoepidermoide de las glándulas salivares en Brasil: resultados clinicopatológicos y una breve revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinei Roberto Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The biological features and the clinical behavior of the mucoepidermoid carcinoma are varied and not known yet. The aim of present paper was to analyze the potential prognostic factors affecting the survival of patients diagnosed with primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of head and neck. A retrospective study was conducted in 16 patients treated between 1990 and 2008 in the General Hospital of Riberirao Preto, USP Medicine School, Brazil. The following variables were studied: age, sex, anatomical location, tumor size, clinical stage, histological degree, relapse, metastasis, involved surgical edges ant treatment on the clinical-pathological results. The survival curves were designed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the statistic analysis was made using the log-rank test. The 68.7 % of patients was of male sex, all patients were between 13 and 83 years old. The 75 % of tumors was located in the great salivary glands, the 56.3 % in the parotid glands ones, the mucoepidermoid carcinomas of low degree and of II stage were the 37.5 %. The surgical resection was carried out in all patients. The follow-up period in present study fluctuates between 6 and 217 months. The general rate of 5- y years or 10-years survival was of 85.6 % whereas the rates of disease-free survival were of 81.8 % at 5 years and of 68.2 % at 10 years. The were statistically significant influences of the tumor size (p = 0.05, presence of metastasis (p = 0.04 and of the primary anatomical location (p = 0.04 on the rates of disease-free survival. The results obtained show the significance of the primary anatomical location of the tumor, of its size and of the presence of metastasis in the survival of mucoepidermoid carcinomas.Las características biológicas y el comportamiento clínico del carcinoma mucoepidermoide son muy variados y aún poco conocidos. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar los factores pronósticos que puedan afectar la supervivencia de los pacientes con diagn

  6. Parotid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; de Stricker, Karin

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to investigate the expression of kit protein (KIT) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in parotid carcinomas in order to correlate the expression to histology and prognosis. Further we want to perform mutation analysis of KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 73 patients with parotid gland carcinomas were used for the study. The sections were stained with both KIT and EGFR polyclonal antibodies. Twelve KIT-positive adenoid cystic carcinomas were examined for c-kit mutation in codon 816....... RESULTS: Of all carcinomas 25% were KIT-positive and 79% were EGFR-positive. Ninety-two percentage of the adenoid cystic carcinomas were KIT-positive. None of the adenoid cystic carcinomas had mutations in codon 816 of the c-kit gene. CONCLUSION: Neither KIT- nor EGFR-expression seem to harbour...

  7. Clinical utility of myb rearrangement detection and p63/p40 immunophenotyping in the diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of minor salivary glands: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyris, Prokopios P; Wetzel, Stephanie L; Greipp, Patricia; Wehrs, Rebecca N; Knutson, Darlene L; Kloft-Nelson, Sara M; García, Joaquín J; Koutlas, Ioannis G

    2016-03-01

    MYB rearrangement is observed in approximately 28% to 86% of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs). Also, ACC features a p63+/p40+ immunophenotype in greater than 90% of cases, compared with p63+/p40- polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA). Our aim was to investigate the incidence of (1) MYB rearrangement and (2) p63/p40 immunoreactivity in ACC and PLGA of minor salivary glands (MSGs). Seven cases of ACC as well as five of PLGA were evaluated by using a MYB (6 q23.3) break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe. In addition, all cases were immunohistochemically stained with p63 and p40 antibodies. All five successfully hybridized ACCs featured MYB rearrangement, whereas PLGAs did not show MYB rearrangement. Interestingly, one case of PLGA demonstrated a single intact copy of MYB in greater than 88% of the neoplastic cells. All ACCs exhibited consistent p63+/p40+ staining, whereas PLGAs demonstrated a p63+/p40- immunophenotype. (1) MYB rearrangement is encountered in ACCs but not PLGAs of MSGs; (2) MYB aberrations, for example, monosomy or deletion, can be seen in PLGAs; (3) combined p63/p40 immunostaining can be used to differentiate ACC from PLGA in incisionally biopsied specimens; and (4) performance of either FISH or p63/p40 immunohistochemistry is expected to be able to confirm the diagnosis of ACC or PLGA in small intraoral biopsies, since both techniques appeared to be diagnostically accurate in this pilot study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of Outcome in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Salivary Glands: A Clinicopathologic Study With Correlation Between MYB Fusion and Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Drill, Esther; Ho, Allen; Ho, Alan; Dunn, Lara; Prieto-Granada, Carlos Nicolas; Chan, Timothy; Ganly, Ian; Ghossein, Ronald; Katabi, Nora

    2017-10-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is the second most common salivary gland malignancy and it has a high rate of recurrences and a poor long-term prognosis. Our aim was to assess the prognostic factors in ACC and study MYB-NFIB fusion and MYB protein expression in a large retrospective cohort of 135 patients with a median follow-up of 6.3 years. The 5- and 10-year local recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate of 94% and 78%, 5- and 10-year distant metastasis survival rate of 77% and 58%, and 5- and 10-year RFS of 66% and 44%. The following features were identified as adverse prognostic factors of RFS on univariate analysis: large tumor size, solid growth pattern, increased mitoses, positive margin, American Joint Committee on Cancer clinical staging, high-grade transformation, vascular invasion, nuclear atypia, open chromatin, prominent nucleoli, and tumor necrosis. However, on multivariate analysis, only increased mitoses (≥5/10 high-power fields), any solid growth pattern, and advanced American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging were independent adverse predictors for RFS. MYB immunoexpression and MYB-NFIB translocation were common findings in ACC, occurring in 72% and 59% of the tested ACCs, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MYB immunohistochemistry in detecting MYB-NFIB fusion was relatively low at 78% sensitivity and 50% specificity. The high prevalence of alterations leading to high expression of the MYB transcription factor family suggests that targeted approaches developed to suppress the expression of these oncogenic transcription factors and/or the transcriptional activity of these proteins would be a rational therapeutic approach to investigate in ACC.

  9. Thermal influence on palmar sweating and mental influence on generalized sweating in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T

    1975-01-01

    Sweat rates on the forearm and on the palm were simultaneously recorded by resistance hygrometry and the mode of sweating in these areas in response to thermal and non-thermal stimuli were compared with each other. In Series A, periodic infrared irradiation (1 min on, 1 min off) was done to the back of the trunk, and reflex responses in sweat rate were recorded on both test areas. A high correlation was noted between the mean changes in the palmar sweat rate and those in the forearm one during the irradiation cycle in a majority of cases. However the magnitude of the sweat response was much less on the palm than on the forearm. These observations reveal that the central mechanism of palmar sweating may be affected to some extent by the thermoregulatory mechanism. Series B was concerned with the pattern of response in forearm sweating to various non-thermal stimuli. Careful observations showed that the forearm sweating responded diversely to various mental stimuli, unlike the palmar sweating whose response was always an increase. Mental arithmetic, mental testing and physical exercise caused an immediate increase in the palmar sweating but often elicited a transient decrease in the forearm sweating, whereas pain, noise, and emotional stimuli consistently provoked an increase of sweating on the forearm as well as on the palm. These observations suggest that the activities of higher centers, presumably involving neocortex and limbic cortex, exert various influences on the central mechanisms of palmar and generalized sweating.

  10. Skin pretreatment with microneedles prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis increases sweat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David; Prausnitz, Mark R; Buono, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Collection of sweat via pilocarpine iontophoresis is commonly used to diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF), with thousands of tests performed each day. The main source of resistance to the passage of pilocarpine ions to the sweat glands is the electrical resistance of the stratum corneum. It was hypothesized that pretreating the skin with 0·5 mm-long microneedles would significantly decrease this resistance, thus increasing pilocarpine's permeation into the skin. Improved permeation should result in significantly reduced time to sweat initiation, time to collection of a clinically meaningful amount of sweat, and increased total amount of sweat produced in 15 min. Subjects (n = 12) had two 5 cm(2) areas on the forearm measured, marked and randomized to experimental (microneedles + iontophoresis) or control (iontophoresis alone). Microneedle pretreatment was conducted using a 35-needle microneedle stamp in a manner that 20 applications completely covered the 5 cm(2) treatment area. This was repeated five times for a total of 100 applications. Both experimental and control sites were placed under iontophoresis (1·5 mA) for 5 min. Microneedle pretreatment significantly decreased mean skin resistance (260 ± 27 kΩ versus 160 ± 19 kΩ, P = 0·006), while significantly increasing mean sweat rate (0·76 ± 0·35 versus 0·54 ± 0·19 μl cm(2) min(-1) , P = 0·007). No significant difference was found concerning pain (P = 0·059), number of active sweat glands (P = 0·627) or the osmolality of the collected sweat (P = 0·636). The results of this study suggest that microneedle pretreatment prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis significantly increases sweat production. Such results have the potential to improve the methodology currently used to diagnose cystic fibrosis and, more broadly, to administer drugs via the skin. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sweat sensor for sports physiological monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Coyle, Shirley; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication and the performance of a novel, wearable, robust, flexible and disposable micro-fluidic device which incorporates miniature optical components as a detection system, for wireless monitoring in real time mode of sweat pH during an exercise session is presented. This micro-fluidic platform is completely non-invasive, providing a continuous flow of fresh sweat for continuous real time analysis, ensuring immediate feedback regarding sweat composition to an athlete and/or coach.

  12. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... 100 mg/5 min. CONCLUSIONS: A sweat production rate of 100 mg/5 min as measured by gravimetric testing may be a reasonable cut-off value for distinguishing axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis from normal physiological sweat production....

  13. Complete cure of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with right adrenal gland metastasis and portal vein thrombosis by multiple applications of an interdisciplinary therapy: case report with 8-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hojung; Km, Byung Ik; Cho, Yong Kyun; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Hong Joo; Hong, Hyun Pyo

    2017-11-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cause of death worldwide and the main cause of primary liver cancer. The principle problem of HCC is the poor prognosis, since advanced HCC reportedly has a median survival of only 9 months. The standard therapies are sorafenib and regorafenib, but the outcomes remain unclear. We report a 60-year-old man with advanced HCC with right adrenal gland metastasis and portal vein tumor thrombosis, who showed a complete response to multiple applications of an interdisciplinary therapy.

  14. Working Up a Good Sweat – The Challenges of Standardising Sweat Collection for Metabolomics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Joy N; Mantri, Nitin; Cohen, Marc M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Human sweat is a complex biofluid of interest to diverse scientific fields. Metabolomics analysis of sweat promises to improve screening, diagnosis and self-monitoring of numerous conditions through new applications and greater personalisation of medical interventions. Before these applications can be fully developed, existing methods for the collection, handling, processing and storage of human sweat need to be revised. This review presents a cross-disciplinary overview of the origins, composition, physical characteristics and functional roles of human sweat, and explores the factors involved in standardising sweat collection for metabolomics analysis. Methods A literature review of human sweat analysis over the past 10 years (2006–2016) was performed to identify studies with metabolomics or similarly applicable ‘omics’ analysis. These studies were reviewed with attention to sweat induction and sampling techniques, timing of sweat collection, sweat storage conditions, laboratory derivation, processing and analytical platforms. Results Comparative analysis of 20 studies revealed numerous factors that can significantly impact the validity, reliability and reproducibility of sweat analysis including: anatomical site of sweat sampling, skin integrity and preparation; temperature and humidity at the sweat collection sites; timing and nature of sweat collection; metabolic quenching; transport and storage; qualitative and quantitative measurements of the skin microbiota at sweat collection sites; and individual variables such as diet, emotional state, metabolic conditions, pharmaceutical, recreational drug and supplement use. Conclusion Further development of standard operating protocols for human sweat collection can open the way for sweat metabolomics to significantly add to our understanding of human physiology in health and disease. PMID:28798503

  15. Sweating the small stuff: adequacy and accuracy in sweat chloride determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Mari L; Dietzen, Dennis J; Brown, Sarah M

    2015-04-01

    Sweat chloride testing is the gold standard for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Our objectives were to: 1) describe variables that determine sweat rate; 2) determine the analytic and diagnostic capacity of sweat chloride analysis across the range of observed sweat rates; and 3) determine the biologic variability of sweat chloride concentration. A retrospective analysis was performed using data from all sweat chloride tests performed at St. Louis Children's Hospital over a 21-month period. A total of 1397 sweat chloride tests (1155 sufficient [≥75 mg], 242 insufficient [sweat weight collected from forearms was statistically greater than that collected from legs. There was a negligible correlation between sweat weight and chloride concentration (r=-0.06). The mean individual biologic CV calculated from individuals with two or more sweat collections ≥75 mg was 13.1% (95% CI: 11.3-14.9%; range 0-88%) yielding a reference change value of 36%. Using 60 mmol/L as the diagnostic chloride cutoff, 100% of CF cases were detected whether a minimum sweat weight of 75, 40, or 20 mg was required. 1) Collection of sweat from forearms is preferable to upper legs, particularly in very young infants; 2) sweat chloride concentrations are not highly dependent upon sweat rate; 3) a change in sweat chloride concentration exceeding 36% may be considered a clinically significant response to cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor targeted therapy, and 4) sweat collections of less than 75 mg provide clinically accurate information. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sweat function in the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markendeya Nirmala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction, an early manifestation of diabetic neuropathy, presents with altered sweating patterns, leading to dryness and fissuring. We conducted a study to assess the sweat function in the diabetic foot and to determine the interrelation between the duration of diabetes, sensation, fissuring, and sweating. Methods: The sweat function was assessed in 30 diabetic patients, 28 of whom had fissuring of the feet, using Ninhydrin impregnated discs. Results: There was a significant association between fissuring and sensation, but not between the duration of diabetes and fissuring and between loss of sweating and fissuring. In 18 patients (60% there was impairment or absence of sweating in the presence of normal sensation. Conclusion: Although fissuring increases with long-standing diabetes and sweating is reduced in diabetic patients with fissures on the foot, the correlation between these entities was not statistically significant. Since 60% patients had altered sweating in the presence of normal sensations, the sweat test can be used as an early indicator of diabetic neuropathy.

  17. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... characteristics, prognostic factors, and clinical course. We present a large national series of histopathologically revised SGTs from the past 35 years in Denmark with clinicopathologic correlation. Twenty nine cases were identified, of which 96.6 % were malignant and 16/28 (57.1 %) were adenoid cystic carcinomas...... (ACC). Patient demography was similar to salivary gland tumors in other locations. All fine needle aspiration cytologies (FNACs) interpreted as benign were from ACCs. Metastatic disease was found in 12.5 % of ACCs at diagnosis with one third of all ACC patients having metastases at the end of follow...

  18. Significance of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for the identification of adrenal gland and liver metastases in connection with bronchial carcinoma in comparison with conventional diagnostics; Wertigkeit der {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT zur Erkennung von Nebennieren- und Leber-Metastasen beim Bronchialkarzinom im Vergleich zur konventionellen Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kley, Adelheid

    2012-02-09

    In the frame of the thesis in the significance of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT for the identification of adrenal gland and liver metastases in connection with bronchial carcinoma in comparison with conventional diagnostics the data of 229 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Compared to PET the diagnostics the use of PET/CT shows higher specificity and sensitivity with respect to the detection of adrenal gland metastases for patients with primary bronchial carcinoma. In case of liver metastases PET/CT is not better than PET, CT or ultrasonography.

  19. Bortezomib Followed by the Addition of Doxorubicin at Disease Progression in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (Cancer) of the Head and Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  20. Postoperative [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy in the treatment of acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. With associated risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Ming-hui; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Lei; Liu, Shu-ming; Huang, Ming-wei; Shi, Yan [Peking Univ. School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

    2014-11-15

    This retrospective study was undertaken to analyze data from patients receiving iodine-125 ([{sup 125}I]) seed brachytherapy postoperatively for the treatment of acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid gland along with the following risk factors: residual tumor, recurrent tumor, facial nerve invasion, positive resection margins, advanced tumor stage, or tumor spillage. Twenty-nine patients with ACC (17 females, 12 males; age range, 13-73 years; median age, 37.3 years) were included. Median follow-up was 58.2 months (range, 14-122 months). Patients received [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy (median actuarial D90, 177 Gy) 3-41 days (median, 14 days) following surgery. Radioactivity was 18.5-33.3 MBq per seed, and the prescription dose was 80-120 Gy. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year rates of local control were 93.1, 88.7, and 88.7 %, respectively; overall survival was 96.6, 92, and 92 %; disease-free survival was 93.1, 88.4, and 88.4 %; and freedom from distant metastasis was 96.6, 91.2, and 91.2 %. Lymph node metastases were absent in all patients, although two patients died with distant metastases. Facial nerve recovery was quick, and no severe radiotherapy-related complications were noted. Recurrence history, local recurrence, and distant metastasis significantly affected overall survival. Postoperative [{sup 125}I] seed brachytherapy is effective in treating ACC and has minor complications. Patients with a history of recurrence showed poor prognosis and were more likely to experience disease recurrence and develop metastases. (orig.) [German] Diese retrospektive Studie wurde durchgefuehrt, um die Daten von Patienten zu analysieren, die postoperativ eine Seed-Brachytherapie mit Iod-125 ([{sup 125}I]) zur Behandlung von Azinuszellkarzinomen der Ohrspeicheldruese mit begleitenden Risikofaktoren, wie Residualtumor, Rezidivtumor, Invasion in den N. facialis, positive (= nicht tumorfreie) Resektionsraender, fortgeschrittenes Tumorstadium oder lokale Verbreitung von Tumorzellen

  1. Sweat rate and sweat electrolyte composition in international female soccer players during game specific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, A E; Tunstall, H; Wraith, E; Good, M; Gammon, C; Smith, C

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sweat rate and sweat electrolyte composition in female international level soccer players. Thirteen soccer players performed two 90 min soccer-specific training sessions (T1 and T2) on separate days. Hydration status was determined prior to each session and sweat loss, sweat rate and sweat composition (Na (+), K (+), Mg (++) and Ca (+)) were determined from patches worn during training. The mean sweat rate during T1 and T2 was 0.50+/-0.20 and 0.43+/-0.18 L.h (-1) respectively (P>0.05). The mean sweat electrolyte composition during T1 and T2 was: [Na (+)]: 43.9+/-15.0 and 46.2+/-7.9 mmol.L (-1); [K (+)]: 6.1+/-1.1 and 5.2+/-1.1 mmol.L (-1); [Mg (++)]: 0.1+/-0.0 and 0.1+/-0.0 mmol.L (-1); [Ca (+)]: 1.2+/-0.5 and 0.7+/-0.1 mmol.L (-1), respectively. When data from T1 and T2 were combined, there were no relationships between sweat rate and sweat concentration of any electrolyte. In conclusion, the sweat rate and sweat electrolyte losses in this cohort of international female soccer players, during soccer-specific training in cool conditions, were small. Electrolyte losses of this magnitude are unlikely to require special consideration in terms of optimising player hydration.

  2. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  3. Usefulness of Sweat Management for Patients with Adult Atopic Dermatitis, regardless of Sweat Allergy: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Sakae; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murata, Susumu; Katayama, Ichiro; Morita, Eishin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Sweat is an aggravating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD), regardless of age. Sweat allergy may be involved in AD aggravated by sweating. Objective. We investigated whether sweat exacerbates adult AD symptoms and examined the extent of sweat allergy’s involvement. Method. We asked 34 AD patients (17 men, 17 women; mean age: 27.8 years) to record the extent to which sweat aggravated their symptoms on a 10-point numerical scale. Participant responses were compared with histamine rele...

  4. Highly abundant defense proteins in human sweat as revealed by targeted proteomics and label-free quantification mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csősz, É; Emri, G; Kalló, G; Tsaprailis, G; Tőzsér, J

    2015-10-01

    The healthy human skin with its effective antimicrobial defense system forms an efficient barrier against invading pathogens. There is evidence suggesting that the composition of this chemical barrier varies between diseases, making the easily collected sweat an ideal candidate for biomarker discoveries. Our aim was to provide information about the normal composition of the sweat, and to study the chemical barrier found at the surface of skin. Sweat samples from healthy individuals were collected during sauna bathing, and the global protein panel was analysed by label-free mass spectrometry. SRM-based targeted proteomic methods were designed and stable isotope labelled reference peptides were used for method validation. Ninety-five sweat proteins were identified, 20 of them were novel proteins. It was shown that dermcidin is the most abundant sweat protein, and along with apolipoprotein D, clusterin, prolactin-inducible protein and serum albumin, they make up 91% of secreted sweat proteins. The roles of these highly abundant proteins were reviewed; all of which have protective functions, highlighting the importance of sweat glands in composing the first line of innate immune defense system, and maintaining the epidermal barrier integrity. Our findings with regard to the proteins forming the chemical barrier of the skin as determined by label-free quantification and targeted proteomics methods are in accordance with previous studies, and can be further used as a starting point for non-invasive sweat biomarker research. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  5. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the mandible : Case report | Lawal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon salivary gland malignancy which can also develop in the mucus glands of the larynx, trachea, bronchus, lungs and mammary glands besides the head and neck region (1). The most frequently affected sites are the parotid gland, sub-mandibular gland and palate, whereas ...

  6. Salivary mucoepidermoid carcinoma revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coca-Pelaz, A.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Triantafyllou, A.; Hunt, J.L.; Rinaldo, A.; Strojan, P.; Haigentz, M., Jr.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Takes, R.P.; Poorten, V. Van der; Ferlito, A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicopathological features, prognosis and therapeutic strategies for mucoepidermoid carcinoma originating in salivary and salivary-type glands of the head and neck are reviewed. We emphasise histopathological aspects, appraise the value of histochemistry, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry

  7. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma Mimicking Salivary Adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid g...

  8. Parotid gland metastasis of a breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Fidalgo, J A; Chirivella, I; Laforga, J; Colio, J M; Blanes, M D; Baydal, R; Roselló, S; De-la-Morena, E; Lluch, A

    2007-04-01

    Parotid gland metastases from malignant tumors are extremely rare. A 61-year-old woman was diagnosed with an early breast cancer with no expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors. Five years later the patient presented a tumour in parotid gland. After total parotidectomy, microscopic analysis of the gland demonstrated an invasive duct carcinoma (IDC) with positive expression of oestrogen receptor. The patient was treated with chemotherapy followed by complementary local radiotherapy. Diagnosis of a metastasic tumour in parotid gland poses a challenge. In our case an immunohistochemical study of oestrogen receptor was fundamental to establish a diagnosis.

  9. Usefulness of Sweat Management for Patients with Adult Atopic Dermatitis, regardless of Sweat Allergy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Sakae; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murata, Susumu; Katayama, Ichiro; Morita, Eishin

    2017-01-01

    Background . Sweat is an aggravating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD), regardless of age. Sweat allergy may be involved in AD aggravated by sweating. Objective. We investigated whether sweat exacerbates adult AD symptoms and examined the extent of sweat allergy's involvement. Method. We asked 34 AD patients (17 men, 17 women; mean age: 27.8 years) to record the extent to which sweat aggravated their symptoms on a 10-point numerical scale. Participant responses were compared with histamine release tests (HRT). Furthermore, 24 of the patients received instructions on methods of sweat management, and their outcomes were evaluated on a 10-point scale. Results. Sweat HRT results were class ≥ 2 in 13 patients, but HRT results were not correlated with the patients' self-assessments of symptom aggravation by sweat. One month after receiving sweat management instructions, a low mean score of 4.6 was obtained regarding whether active sweating was good, but a high mean score of 7.0 was obtained in response to whether the sweat management instructions had been helpful. Conclusion . Our investigation showed that patients' negative impressions of sweat might derive from crude personal experiences that are typically linked to sweating. Sweat management for patients with adult atopic dermatitis was extremely useful regardless of sweat allergy.

  10. Usefulness of Sweat Management for Patients with Adult Atopic Dermatitis, regardless of Sweat Allergy: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakae Kaneko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sweat is an aggravating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD, regardless of age. Sweat allergy may be involved in AD aggravated by sweating. Objective. We investigated whether sweat exacerbates adult AD symptoms and examined the extent of sweat allergy’s involvement. Method. We asked 34 AD patients (17 men, 17 women; mean age: 27.8 years to record the extent to which sweat aggravated their symptoms on a 10-point numerical scale. Participant responses were compared with histamine release tests (HRT. Furthermore, 24 of the patients received instructions on methods of sweat management, and their outcomes were evaluated on a 10-point scale. Results. Sweat HRT results were class ≥ 2 in 13 patients, but HRT results were not correlated with the patients’ self-assessments of symptom aggravation by sweat. One month after receiving sweat management instructions, a low mean score of 4.6 was obtained regarding whether active sweating was good, but a high mean score of 7.0 was obtained in response to whether the sweat management instructions had been helpful. Conclusion. Our investigation showed that patients’ negative impressions of sweat might derive from crude personal experiences that are typically linked to sweating. Sweat management for patients with adult atopic dermatitis was extremely useful regardless of sweat allergy.

  11. Unusual apocrine carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: a cutaneous neoplasm may be analogous to neuroendocrine carcinoma with apocrine differentiation of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Li-li; Li, Bin; Tian, Xiao-ying; Li, Zhi

    2015-06-10

    Cutaneous apocrine carcinoma (AC) is a rare adnexal neoplasm that histologically can mimic breast carcinoma metastatic to the skin or apocrine carcinoma arising in ectopic breast tissue. As extremely rare condition, neuroendocrine differentiation may be observed in AC although its etiology and pathogenesis is still unclear. We report here a case of unusual AC with neuroendocrine differentiation in right labium majus pudenda. A 43-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of an asymptomatic pea-sized brownish nodule in right labium majus pudenda without enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes and bilateral breast nodules. The mass was totally resected. Microscopically, the tumor was solitary and located in the deep dermis without epidermal connection. Tumor cells were arranged in a micronodular or formed massive solid nests separated by densely fibroblastic stroma. Scattered glandular or rosette-like structures were identified within the tumor nodules. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were diffusely positive to CK7, CEA, GCDFP-15, synaptophysin, estrogen and progesterone receptors. Part of tumor cells expressed androgen receptor, but they were negative to CK20, CK5/6, p63 and S-100. Because of its rarity and histogenesis complexity, there exist diagnostic challenges for pathologists to differentiate cutaneous AC with neuroendocrine differentiation from other carcinomas with apocrine or neuroendocrine features. Our case demonstrates that the tumor shares some features with mammary carcinoma and might originate from mammary-like sweat gland in anogenital region. The results suggest that, for the first time, primary cutaneous AC with neuroendocrine differentiation may be analogous to the mammary neuroendocrine carcinoma with apocrine differentiation in histological feature and biological behavior. Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7732276716685708.

  12. Recent Developments in Sweat Analysis and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the clinical use of sweat as biofluid is limited. The collection of sweat and its analysis for determining ethanol, drugs, ions, and metals have been encompassed in this review article to assess the merits of sweat compared to other biofluids, for example, blood or urine. Moreover, sweat comprises various biomarkers of different diseases including cystic fibrosis and diabetes. Additionally, the normalization of sampled volume of sweat is also necessary for getting efficient and useful results.

  13. Evolution: plastic sociality in a sweat bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuisat, Michel

    2010-11-23

    How and why do bees become social? A transplant experiment shows that sweat bees can adopt a solitary or social lifestyle in response to their environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 7 CFR 29.3554 - Sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3554 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [30 FR 9207, July...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3553 - Sweated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3553 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  16. Intraparotid Location of the Great Auricular Nerve: A New Anatomical Basis for Gustatory Sweating Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Gaoussou

    2015-11-01

    Gustatory sweating syndrome (also known as Frey syndrome or auriculotemporal nerve syndrome) is thought to result from a lesion of the auriculotemporal nerve. A lesion of this nerve can lead to aberrant regeneration of nerve fibers to the sweat glands and blood vessels. The occurrence of signs outside the region of the auriculotemporal nerve prompted the author to search for another anatomical basis for this syndrome. The author dissected 46 great auricular nerves from their origin to the parotid gland and in the infratemporal fossa. The author investigated the different connections of the great auricular nerve with the facial nerve and the auriculotemporal nerve. The great auricular nerve was found to essentially be a parotid nerve. There was a set of intraparotid nerve connections on 14 of the 46 half-heads that were dissected. The author was able to discern three types of parotid great auricular nerve connections, which he designates as either type 1, connection with the trunk of the facial nerve and its branches; type 2, connection with the auriculotemporal nerve; or type 3, connection with the auriculotemporal nerve and the facial nerve with the formation of an intraparotid nerve circle. Having clearly established the nerve connections of the great auricular nerve, the author believes that it is primarily this nerve that is responsible for gustatory sweating syndrome. This allows for a better understanding of the sympathetic nervous system features and the manifestation of the syndrome outside the region of the auriculotemporal nerve.

  17. Sweating Rate and Sweat Sodium Concentration in Athletes: A Review of Methodology and Intra/Interindividual Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Lindsay B.

    2017-01-01

    Athletes lose water and electrolytes as a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise and it is well known that the rate and composition of sweat loss can vary considerably within and among individuals. Many scientists and practitioners conduct sweat tests to determine sweat water and electrolyte losses of athletes during practice and competition. The information gleaned from sweat testing is often used to guide personalized fluid and electrolyte replacement recommendations for a...

  18. Changes in the index of sweat ion concentration with increasing sweat during passive heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, A K M; Yanagimoto, S; Kuwahara, T; Zhang, Y; Nomura, C; Kondo, N

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the pattern changes in the index of sweat ion concentration at skin surface with increasing sweat during passive heat stress in humans, we measured conductivity of the perfused water with sweat as the index of sweat ion concentration and sweat rate, continuously at the chest skin surface. Eight healthy subjects (22.4 +/-1.0 years) were passively heated by lower-leg immersion in a hot water bath of 42 degrees C for 50 min in an ambient temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 50%. The internal temperature (Tor) thresholds of sweat rate and index of sweat ion concentration were almost similar. Concomitant onset for the index of sweat ion concentration and sweat rate occurred but two types of linear regression lines were identified in the relationship between the index of sweat ion concentration and sweat rate at a boundary sweat rate value of 0.30 +/- 0.08 mg cm(-2) min(-1). The slope of the regression line at low levels of sweat (slope 0.02 +/- 0.01 V mg(-1) cm(-2) min(-1)) was significantly gradual compared with that at moderate levels of sweat (slope 0.30 +/- 0.08 V mg(-1) cm(-2) min(-1)) (P<0.05). These results suggest that at low levels of sweat the index of sweat ion concentration responds gradually with respect to sweat rate, which may be due to the ion reabsorption capacity of the sweat duct, and then the index of sweat ion concentration increased steeply with sweat rate.

  19. A new method of sweat testing: the CF Quantum®sweat test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Michael J; Makholm, Linda; Eickhoff, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Conventional methods of sweat testing are time consuming and have many steps that can and do lead to errors. This study compares conventional sweat testing to a new quantitative method, the CF Quantum® (CFQT) sweat test. This study tests the diagnostic accuracy and analytic validity of the CFQT. Previously diagnosed CF patients and patients who required a sweat test for clinical indications were invited to have the CFQT test performed. Both conventional sweat testing and the CFQT were performed bilaterally on the same day. Pairs of data from each test are plotted as a correlation graph and Bland-Altman plot. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as well as the means and coefficient of variation by test and by extremity. After completing the study, subjects or their parents were asked for their preference of the CFQT and conventional sweat testing. The correlation coefficient between the CFQT and conventional sweat testing was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.97-0.99). The sensitivity and specificity of the CFQT in diagnosing CF was 100% (95% confidence interval: 94-100%) and 96% (95% confidence interval: 89-99%), respectively. In one center in this three center multicenter study, there were higher sweat chloride values in patients with CF and also more tests that were invalid due to discrepant values between the two extremities. The percentage of invalid tests was higher in the CFQT method (16.5%) compared to conventional sweat testing (3.8%) (p sweat chloride determination. This technology requires further refinement to improve the analytic accuracy at higher sweat chloride values and to decrease the number of invalid tests. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Salivary gland carcinoma : Independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival: Results of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, CHJ; Lubsen, H; Van der Tweel, [No Value; Hilgers, FJM; Eijkenboom, WMH; Marres, HAM; Tjho-Heslinga, RE; de Jong, JMA; Roodenburg, JLN

    Background. We analyzed the records of patients with malignant salivary gland tumors, as diagnosed in centers of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group, in search of independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival. Methods. In 565

  1. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands with high-grade transformation: report of 3 cases with the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion and analysis of TP53, β-catenin, EGFR, and CCND1 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skálová, Alena; Vanecek, Tomas; Majewska, Hanna; Laco, Jan; Grossmann, Petr; Simpson, Roderick H W; Hauer, Lukas; Andrle, Pavel; Hosticka, Lubor; Branžovský, Jindrich; Michal, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland origin (MASC) is a recently described tumor resembling secretory carcinoma of the breast characterized by strong S-100 protein, mammaglobin, and vimentin immunoexpression and which harbors a t(12;15) (p13;q25) translocation resulting in ETV6-NTRK3 fusion product. Histologically, conventional MASC displays bland histomorphology and a lobulated growth pattern and is often composed of microcystic, tubular, and solid structures with abundant eosinophilic homogenous or bubbly secretions. Colloid-like secretory material stains positively for periodic acid-Schiff with and without diastase as well as for Alcian Blue. We present for the first time, 3 patients with MASC of the parotid gland in which high-grade (HG) transformation developed in each case characterized by an accelerated clinical course and poor outcome. The HG component revealed strong membrane staining for EGFR and β-catenin, cytoplasmic/nuclear staining for S-100 protein, and nuclear staining for cyclin-D1, whereas HER-2/neu was absent. Analysis for the presence of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript revealed positivity in both HG and low-grade component of MASC in 2 of the 3 studied cases. The tumor in case 2 was negative in both its elements for the t(12;15) translocation, but ETV6 gene rearrangement was detected in both components in all 3 cases. Analysis of TP53 and CTNNB1 gene mutations in the HG component of MASCs as well as detection of copy number aberration of EGFR and CCND1 gene did not harbor any abnormalities. All 3 patients with HG-transformed MASC died of disseminated disease within 2 to 6 years after diagnosis. Recognizing HG-transformed MASC and testing for ETV6 rearrangement may be of potential value in patient treatment, because the presence of the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation may represent a therapeutic target in MASC.

  2. A comparison of the demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma of major and minor salivary glands versus less common sites within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Xu, Li; Zhao, Hui; El-Naggar, Adel K; Sturgis, Erich M

    2012-08-15

    The scientific literature to date lacks population-based studies on the demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of different anatomic sites. The authors identified 5349 patients who had ACC of the major salivary glands (N = 1850), minor salivary glands (N = 2077), breast (N = 696), skin (N = 291), lung and bronchus (N = 203), female genital system (N = 132), and eye and orbit (N = 100) from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. Differences in demographics, clinical features, and survival of patients were assessed. ACC of the eye and orbit was associated with younger age at presentation (mean age,49.9 years). ACC of the skin or breast tended to present with less aggressive prognostic features, whereas ACC of the lung and bronchus or eye and orbit tended to present with more aggressive prognostic features. In a multivariate survival analysis of patients who presented with localized disease, patients with ACC of the breast (hazard ratio [HR], 0.40) or skin (HR, 0.40) had a significantly lower risk death than patients with ACC of the major salivary glands; whereas patients with ACC of the lung and bronchus (HR, 3.72) or the eye and orbit (HR, 3.67) had a significantly higher risk. For patients who presented with regional disease, the only clear prognostic difference in multivariate analysis was that patients with ACC of skin fared significantly better. The demographics and clinical features of patients with ACC differ by disease site. The current results indicated that site may be an important predictor of survival for patients who present with localized disease but is less important for patients who present with regional disease. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  3. Eccrine hidradenoma of the breast: distinct pathological lesion mimicking a carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa El Amine El Hadj

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine hidradenoma (EH is a rare benign cutaneous neoplasm, believed to arise from the distal excretory duct of the eccrine sweat glands. We report an exceptional lesion of eccrine hidradenoma localized to the breast and clinically mimicking a carcinoma of the breast. Aim: We aim to describe the pathological characteristics of this lesion. We report the case of a 59 year old woman. She presented with a right-sided breast nodule. Physical examination, found a mobile firm nodule retracting the skin. By ultrasound examination, the tumor was heterogeneous and measured 11 mm in great diameter. A local surgical excision of the nodule was performed. By histological exam, the diagnosis of EH was retained. The complement of immunohistochemistry was not requested. This tumor is usually confined to the dermis or subcutaneous layer without. EH of the breast is an uncommon site. Histopathological confirmation is necessary and wide excision of these tumors is the treatment of choice.

  4. Sweating the small stuff: Glycoproteins in human sweat and their unexplored potential for microbial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robyn A; Gueniche, Audrey; Adam de Beaumais, Ségolène; Breton, Lionel; Dalko-Csiba, Maria; Packer, Nicolle H

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that secretory fluids such as tears, saliva and milk play an important role in protecting the human body from infection via a washing mechanism involving glycan-mediated adhesion of potential pathogens to secretory glycoproteins. Interaction of sweat with bacteria is well established as the cause of sweat-associated malodor. However, the role of sweat glycoproteins in microbial attachment has received little, if any, research interest in the past. In this review, we demonstrate how recent published studies involving high-throughput proteomic analysis have inadvertently, and fortuitously, exposed an abundance of glycoproteins in sweat, many of which have also been identified in other secretory fluids. We bring together research demonstrating microbial adhesion to these secretory glycoproteins in tears, saliva and milk and suggest a similar role of the sweat glycoproteins in mediating microbial attachment to sweat and/or skin. The contribution of glycan-mediated microbial adhesion to sweat glycoproteins, and the associated impact on sweat derived malodor and pathogenic skin infections are unchartered new research areas that we are beginning to explore. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. About a rare tumor of the upper lip: the mucoepidermoid carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma represents about 5% of all salivary gland tumors, in which, about one-third occurs in the minor salivary gland. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the third most frequently encountered minor salivary gland tumor, preceded only by a mixed tumor and adenoid cystic carcinoma. The affected minor ...

  6. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50 °C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na+] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na+] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na+] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions.

  7. Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Saroj R.; Miyata, Eisuke; Ishai, Paul Ben; Kawase, Kodo

    2015-03-01

    It is crucial to understand the various biological effects induced by terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves with the rapid development of electronic and photonic devices operating in the THz frequency region. The presence of sweat glands plays an important role in THz wave interactions with human skin. We investigated the morphological features of sweat ducts using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to further understand such phenomena. We observed remarkable features of the ducts, such as their clear helical structure. The intersubject and intrasubject variations in the diameter of sweat ducts were considerably smaller than the variations in other structural parameters, such as length and number of turns. Based on the sweat duct dimensions and THz dielectric properties of skin measured using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), we calculated the resonating frequency of the sweat duct under the assumption of it functioning as a helical antenna. Here, we show that the resonance frequency in the axial mode of operation lies in the THz wave region with a centre frequency of 0.44 +/- 0.07 THz. We expect that these findings will further our understanding of the various health consequences of the interaction of THz waves with human beings.

  8. Real-time sweat analysis via alternating current conductivity of artificial and human sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengchen; Alomari, Mahmoud; Sahin, Bunyamin; Snelgrove, Samuel E.; Edwards, Jeffrey; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2015-03-01

    Dehydration is one of the most profound physiological challenges that significantly affects athletes and soldiers if not detected early. Recently, a few groups have focused on dehydration detection using sweat as the main biomarker. Although there are some proposed devices, the electrical and chemical characteristics of sweat have yet to be incorporated into the validations. In this work, we have developed a simple test setup to analyze artificial sweat that is comprised the main components of human sweat. We provide theoretical and experimental details on the electrical and chemical behavior of the artificial sweat for various concentration values within a temperature range of 5 °C to 50 °C. We have also developed an efficient sweat collecting and detection system based on 3D printing. Human studies were conducted and this particular protocol has shown that dehydration starts to take effect as early as 40 min into the physical activity if there is no fluid intake during the exercise. We believe that our device will lead to developing viable real-time sweat analysis systems.

  9. Biological variability of the sweat chloride in diagnostic sweat tests: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, F; Lebecque, P; De Boeck, K; Leal, T

    2017-01-01

    The sweat test is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). CF is unlikely when sweat chloride (Cl sw ) is lower than 30mmol/L, Cl sw >60 is suggestive of CF, with intermediate values between 30 and 60mmol/L. To correctly interpret a sweat chloride value, the biological variability of the sweat chloride has to be known. Sweat tests performed in two centers using the classic Gibson and Cooke method were retrospectively reviewed (n=5904). Within test variability of Cl sw was measured by comparing results from right and left arm collected on the same day. Between test variability was calculated from subjects with sweat tests performed on more than one occasion. Within test variability of Cl sw calculated in 1022 subjects was low with differences between -3.2 (p5) and +3.6mmol/L (p95). Results from left and right arm were classified differently in only 3 subjects. Between test variability of Cl sw in 197 subjects was larger, with differences between -18.2mmol/L (p5) and +14.1mmol/L (p95) between repeat tests. Changes in diagnostic conclusion were seen in 55/197 subjects, the most frequent being changing from indeterminate to 'CF unlikely' range (48/102). Variability of sweat chloride is substantial, with frequent changes in diagnostic conclusion, especially in the intermediate range. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrochromic Approaches to Mapping Human Sweat Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Hoon; Park, Bum Jun; Kim, Jong-Man

    2016-06-21

    Hydrochromic materials, which undergo changes in their light absorption and/or emission properties in response to water, have been extensively investigated as humidity sensors. Recent advances in the design of these materials have led to novel applications, including monitoring the water content of organic solvents, water-jet-based rewritable printing on paper, and hydrochromic mapping of human sweat pores. Our interest in this area has focused on the design of hydrochromic materials for human sweat pore mapping. We recognized that materials appropriate for this purpose must have balanced sensitivities to water. Specifically, while they should not undergo light absorption and/or emission transitions under ambient moisture conditions, the materials must have sufficiently high hydrochromic sensitivities that they display responses to water secreted from human sweat pores. In this Account, we describe investigations that we have carried out to develop hydrochromic substances that are suitable for human sweat pore mapping. Polydiacetylenes (PDAs) have been extensively investigated as sensor matrices because of their stimulus-responsive color change property. We found that incorporation of headgroups composed of hygroscopic ions such as cesium or rubidium and carboxylate counterions enables PDAs to undergo a blue-to-red colorimetric transition as well as a fluorescence turn-on response to water. Very intriguingly, the small quantities of water secreted from human sweat pores were found to be sufficient to trigger fluorescence turn-on responses of the hydrochromic PDAs, allowing precise mapping of human sweat pores. Since the hygroscopic ion-containing PDAs developed in the initial stage display a colorimetric transition under ambient conditions that exist during humid summer periods, a new system was designed. A PDA containing an imidazolium ion was found to be stable under all ambient conditions and showed temperature-dependent hydrochromism corresponding to a

  11. Efficient sweat reduction of three different antiperspirant application forms during stress-induced sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Rose, T; Lehmbeck, F; Bürger, A; Windisch, B; Keyhani, R; Max, H

    2013-12-01

    Stress sweating can occur in everyday situations independently of thermally-induced perspiration. It is triggered by emotionally challenging situations and leads to underarm wetness and a characteristic unpleasant malodor. In this study, we aimed to determine the long-term efficacy of three unperfumed antiperspirant (AP) formulas for different application forms (roll-on, stick, aerosol) against stress-induced sweating and malodor formation. We utilized the widely accepted Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to induce psychosocial stress in female and male volunteers (18 - 40 years) and determined physiological stress parameters. To additionally assess the efficacy of the test AP roll-on against thermally-induced sweating, a hot room study was performed. Increasing heart rates and an augmentation of saliva cortisol levels during the TSST indicated a substantial stress reaction which was paralleled by a pronounced sweat production in the untreated axillae of both males and females. Forty-eight hours after application, all three test APs significantly decreased the amount of sweat in the treated axillae independent of gender. With respect to AP effects on malodor production, trained sniffers assessed sweat samples collected during the TSST from the untreated axillae as significantly more malodorous than comparable samples from the AP-treated axillae. Also, independent of gender the test AP roll-on significantly decreased the thermally-induced sweat in the AP-treated axilla. We show for the first time a highly effective reduction of emotionally-induced axillary sweating and malodor production for three different application forms 48 h after the last product use. The specially developed roll-on, stick, and aerosol AP provide long-term protection against stress-induced sweat which is of high relevance in everyday life. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration’s proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean ± S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85 ± 0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for four weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from 7 subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 μg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for four weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test. PMID:17481836

  13. Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    During exercise in the heat, sweat is initially concentrated in minerals, but serial sweat samples appear more dilute. Possible causes include reduced dermal mineral concentrations or flushing of surface contamination. PURPOSE: To simultaneously sample mineral concentrations in transdermal fluid (T...

  14. Cannabis Use Surveillance by Sweat Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Fucci, Nadia; Aroni, Kyriaki; Bacci, Mauro; Marcelli, Antonio; Rossi, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    Sweat testing, an alternative matrix for establishing drug abuse, offers additional benefits to the more common biological samples. The authors developed a procedure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to test for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) in a sweat patch. The results were compared with urine and hair sample results. Urine, hair, and sweat samples were simultaneously collected from 12 patients who were involved, respectively, in forensic case and monitoring abuse. Selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, intraday and interday imprecision, and inaccuracy of the quantification procedure were validated. LODs in hair were 0.05 ng/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN, and CBD, and 0.005 ng/mg for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. The LOD for sweat was 0.30 ng/patch for all substances. The LOQ in hair was 0.1 ng/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN, and CBD, and 0.01 ng/mg for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. The LOQ was 0.4 ng/patch in sweat for each analyte. Cannabinoid in urine was determined by means of immunochemical screening (cutoff 11-nor-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid 50 ng/mL). All subjects tested positive for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in urine and hair. In sweat samples, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol was found in all patches (0.4-2.0 ng/patch); 6 cases were positive for CBN (0.4-0.5 ng/patch) and 3 for CBD (0.4-0.6 ng/patch); 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid was never detected in patches. Present sweat analysis results integrated the information from hair and urine and showed that sweat analysis is a suitable, noninvasive method for monitoring compliance with rehabilitation therapy and for detecting recent cumulative use of cannabinoids.

  15. 'My sweat my health': Real time sweat analysis using wearable micro-fluidic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Curto, Vincenzo F.; Angelov, Nikolay; Coyle, Shirley; Byrne, Robert; Hughes, Sarah; Moyna, Niall; Diamond, Dermot; Benito-Lopez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In this work a robust, non-invasive and wearable micro-fluidic system was developed and employed to analyse pH of sweat in real time during exercise. The device is incorporated in an optical detection platform designed to provide real-time information on sweat composition. The device has been tested by monitoring the pH of sweat during 55 minutes of cycling activity. During these trials, the data obtained by the micro-fluidic system was compared to pH measurements obtained in parallel studies...

  16. Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-202 P6 - 1 Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses Samuel N. Cheuvront, Ph.D., Richard R. Gonzalez, Ph.D...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses P6 - 2 RTO-MP-HFM-202 Conclusion OSEC and PW provide for more accurate sweat

  17. Sweat control in male by the use of alunogen and cypripedium pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of my study is to investigate upon the quality and quantity of the free fatty acids secreted by apocrine glands, as chief index to determine the real efficacy of a new model of antiperspirant-deodorant, that interferes directly with apocrine glands (by reducing drastically the secretion of free fatty acids and indirectly with eccrine glands, by minimising the salted water secretion. I created an innovative cosmetic formula that comprises the Alunogen, idest the heptadecahydrated form of aluminium sulphate, since the generic aluminium sulphate has been recently accused of the onset of the Alzheimer’s disease, when penetrating the epidermis, although definitive scientific proof is difficult to establish due to the lack of longitudinal studies, and therefore could be banished in the very next future. The formula comprises also the concrète of Cypripedium Pubescens (Lady’s slipper which contains, inter alia, the cypripedin, a quinine-analog, endowed by anticholinergic activities, that can be reputed useful as astringent agent with regards to eccrine glands, synergically to the action upon apocrine glands performed by alunogen. I recruited 11 young men, 11 bricklayers that customarily have to work 9 hours pro day after the hot summer sun and assert without doubt to sweat copiously, in order to carry out my experience.

  18. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined.

  19. Loss of carbonic anhydrase XII function in individuals with elevated sweat chloride concentration and pulmonary airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Vecchio-Pagán, Briana; Sharma, Neeraj; Waheed, Abdul; Li, Xiaopeng; Raraigh, Karen S; Robbins, Sarah; Han, Sangwoo T; Franca, Arianna L; Pellicore, Matthew J; Evans, Taylor A; Arcara, Kristin M; Nguyen, Hien; Luan, Shan; Belchis, Deborah; Hertecant, Jozef; Zabner, Joseph; Sly, William S; Cutting, Garry R

    2016-05-15

    Elevated sweat chloride levels, failure to thrive (FTT), and lung disease are characteristic features of cystic fibrosis (CF, OMIM #219700). Here we describe variants in CA12 encoding carbonic anhydrase XII in two pedigrees exhibiting CF-like phenotypes. Exome sequencing of a white American adult diagnosed with CF due to elevated sweat chloride, recurrent hyponatremia, infantile FTT and lung disease identified deleterious variants in each CA12 gene: c.908-1 G>A in a splice acceptor and a novel frameshift insertion c.859_860insACCT. In an unrelated consanguineous Omani family, two children with elevated sweat chloride, infantile FTT, and recurrent hyponatremia were homozygous for a novel missense variant (p.His121Gln). Deleterious CFTR variants were absent in both pedigrees. CA XII protein was localized apically in human bronchiolar epithelia and basolaterally in the reabsorptive duct of human sweat glands. Respiratory epithelial cell RNA from the adult proband revealed only aberrant CA12 transcripts and in vitro analysis showed greatly reduced CA XII protein. Studies of ion transport across respiratory epithelial cells in vivo and in culture revealed intact CFTR-mediated chloride transport in the adult proband. CA XII protein bearing either p.His121Gln or a previously identified p.Glu143Lys missense variant localized to the basolateral membranes of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, but enzyme activity was severely diminished when assayed at physiologic concentrations of extracellular chloride. Our findings indicate that loss of CA XII function should be considered in individuals without CFTR mutations who exhibit CF-like features in the sweat gland and lung. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A portable optical human sweat sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-omari, Mahmoud; Liu, Gengchen; Mueller, Anja; Mock, Adam; Ghosh, Ruby N.; Smith, Kyle; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-11-01

    We describe the use of HNQ (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or Lawsone) as a potential sweat sensor material to detect the hydration levels of human beings. We have conducted optical measurements using both artificial and human sweat to validate our approach. We have determined that the dominant compound that affects HNQ absorbance in artificial sweat is sodium. The presence of lactate decreases the reactivity of HNQ while urea promotes more interactions of sodium and potassium ions with HNQ. The interactions between the hydroxyl group of HNQ and the artificial sweat components (salts, lactic acid, and urea) were investigated comprehensively. We have also proposed and developed a portable diode laser absorption sensor system that converts the absorbance at a particular wavelength range (at 455 ± 5 nm, where HNQ has an absorbance peak) into light intensity measurements via a photocell. The absorbance intensity values obtained from our portable sensor system agrees within 10.4% with measurements from a laboratory based ultraviolet-visible spectrometer. Findings of this research will provide significant information for researchers who are focusing on real-time, in-situ hydration level detection.

  1. Descriptive pattern of Benign Salivary Gland Tumours in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ademu

    accounting for the highest frequency (115) and basal cell adenoma for the lowest frequency (1) [table 2]. Parotid gland was also the commonest site of occurrence of most of these lesions except for basal cell adenoma which was found in the sublingual gland. ... the rare lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma[2]. Irradiation,.

  2. Clinico-pathological analysis of malignant salivary gland tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND Salivary gland tumours are common head and neck tumours. Malignant salivary gland tumours generally occur less frequently than benign ones and account for greater morbidity and mortality. Patients in our environment are seen to present at late stages and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the commonest ...

  3. Sweating Rate and Sweat Sodium Concentration in Athletes: A Review of Methodology and Intra/Interindividual Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-03-01

    Athletes lose water and electrolytes as a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise and it is well known that the rate and composition of sweat loss can vary considerably within and among individuals. Many scientists and practitioners conduct sweat tests to determine sweat water and electrolyte losses of athletes during practice and competition. The information gleaned from sweat testing is often used to guide personalized fluid and electrolyte replacement recommendations for athletes; however, unstandardized methodological practices and challenging field conditions can produce inconsistent/inaccurate results. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a review of the literature regarding the effect of laboratory and field sweat-testing methodological variations on sweating rate (SR) and sweat composition (primarily sodium concentration [Na + ]). The simplest and most accurate method to assess whole-body SR is via changes in body mass during exercise; however, potential confounding factors to consider are non-sweat sources of mass change and trapped sweat in clothing. In addition, variability in sweat [Na + ] can result from differences in the type of collection system used (whole body or localized), the timing/duration of sweat collection, skin cleaning procedure, sample storage/handling, and analytical technique. Another aim of this paper is to briefly review factors that may impact intra/interindividual variability in SR and sweat [Na + ] during exercise, including exercise intensity, environmental conditions, heat acclimation, aerobic capacity, body size/composition, wearing of protective equipment, sex, maturation, aging, diet, and/or hydration status. In summary, sweat testing can be a useful tool to estimate athletes' SR and sweat Na + loss to help guide fluid/electrolyte replacement strategies, provided that data are collected, analyzed, and interpreted appropriately.

  4. Variations in regional sweat composition in normal human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M J; Galloway, S D; Nimmo, M A

    2000-11-01

    This project aimed to quantify the regional distribution of sweat composition over the skin surface and to determine whether sweat constituent concentrations collected from regional sites can estimate whole-body concentrations. Ten males cycled for 90 min in a 20 degrees C (50% relative humidity) environment at 45% peak aerobic power. Sweat was collected from eleven skin regions and the whole body, using a wash-down technique. Strong relationships were evident between the regional and whole-body sweat [Na+] and [Cl-], such that the thigh and calf exhibited greater correlation coefficients than area-weighted means derived from four and eight skin regions. Therefore, in this particular protocol the whole-body sweat [Na+] and [Cl-] could be predicted from regional sweat collections. Relationships between sweat constituents were evident for sweat [Na+] and pH, and sweat [K+] and [lactate] when data were pooled between skin regions and subjects. To our knowledge this is the first investigation to report a positive relationship between sweat [K+] and [lactate]. The exact mechanism responsible for the positive relationship between sweat [K+] and [lactate] is uncertain although it is speculated to occur at the secretory coil.

  5. Metastases of kidney cancer into the thyroid gland (сlinical observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Ognerubov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a literature review considering epidemiological aspects of secondary cancer of the thyroid gland. The authors’ clinical observation of renal cell carcinoma metastasis into the thyroid gland with tumor thrombus of the internal jugular vein is described. The authors emphasize the necessity of complex diagnostics and treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

  6. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy; Diagnostik und Therapie des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann (eds.) [Diagnostisches Brustzentrum Goettingen BZG, Goettingen(Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  7. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland as a secondary malignancy in a childhood survivor of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jennifer; Seethala, Raja R; Sirintrapun, S Joseph

    2014-06-01

    We report the first case of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) arising as a secondary malignancy in a 14 years old child with a history of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT). Although MASC and ATRT are both rare malignancies, they do not share the same genetic and molecular profiles. MASC is a salivary malignancy characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation, resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion product encoding for a tyrosine kinase. ATRT is a highly malignant pediatric tumor characterized by a chromosome 22 mutation in the hSNF5/INI1 gene, encoding for a chromatin remodeling protein. Additionally, although mucoepidermoid carcinoma has been described as a secondary malignancy post-therapy for head and neck tumors, MASC has only been reported as a primary malignancy. Our patient was treated with a complete resection of his left sided ATRT at age 3 followed postoperatively with chemoradiotherapy. At age 14 he underwent a parotidectomy for his 1 year history of a left sided preauricular mass and was subsequently diagnosed with MASC. We not only report a case of two rare malignancies in one patient, but also the first case of MASC arising as a secondary malignancy.

  8. A rare mutation in the RET-protooncogen associated with mixed medullary-follicular micro-carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, K.; Huwe, A.; Boldt, H.; Dresel, S. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, HELIOS-Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany); Geipel, D. [St.-Hedwig-Krankenhaus, Bereich Endokrine Chirurgie (Germany); Mairinger, T. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, HELIOS-Klinikum Emil von Behring (Germany); Schwabe, M. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Charite Berlin Campus Mitte (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arises from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and accounts for 1% to 10% of all thyroid cancers (1). MTC can be sporadic or hereditary. Hereditary MTC represents 20% to 30% of all MTC with an autosomal dominant pattern of transmission and a high degree of penetrance (>90%). It can be transmitted as a single entity (sporadic), familial MTC (FMTC), or it can arise as part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome type 2A or 2B. Both genders are equally affected. (1, 9) The identification of hereditary MTC has been facilitated in recent years by the direct analysis of germline point mutations of the RET(rearranged during transfection)-protooncogene, a 21 exon gene that encodes a plasma membrane-bound tyrosine kinase receptor, localised on chromosome 10q11.2, which is expressed in tissues derived from the neural crest. To date codon mutations in nine different exons were identified (7, 8, 16, 22, 29) causing MEN 2A (MTC in combination with pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism, including rare variants with Hirschsprung's disease and cutaneous lichen amyloidosis), FMTC (MTC as a sole disease phenotype) and MEN 2B (MTC in combination with pheochromocytoma, multiple mucosa neuromas, and marfanoid habitus). The most common mutation, accounting for over 80% of all mutations associated with MEN 2A (or Sipple's) syndrome affects codon 634 in exon 11 of the RET-protooncogene. Other mutations affect codon 630 in exon 11, and codons 609, 611, 618, 620 in exon 10 - they also cause FMTC, although some have a classic MEN 2A syndrome. 5% to 10% of families with FMTC have mutations that affect codons 768, 790, 791 in exon 13: codons 804, 844 in exon 14, and codon 891 in exon 15 (3, 4, 10). The much more aggressive MEN 2B is caused by a single mutation converting a methionine into a threonine at codon 918 in exon 16, and has been identified in approximately 95% of patients with MEN 2B. Other rare mutations associated with MEN 2

  9. Salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after remnant ablation with radioactive iodine in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma prepared with recombinant human thyrotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Calsolari, Maria Regina

    2013-05-01

    One of the adverse effects of radioactive iodine (¹³¹I) treatment in patients with thyroid cancer is damage to the salivary and lacrimal glands. In almost all studies evaluating salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction, the patients received ¹³¹I after levothyroxine (L-T4) withdrawal. Since the biokinetics of ¹³¹I after recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) is not the same as in hypothyroidism, studies need to evaluate ¹³¹I-induced salivary and lacrimal toxicity after preparation with rhTSH. This prospective study investigated the occurrence of salivary and lacrimal damage after ablation with ¹³¹I using this preparation. One hundred forty-eight patients who had a total thyroidectomy were included in the study. The subjects were evaluated after thyroidectomy during L-T4 use to exclude those who already showed symptoms or had a history of ocular or oral disease. Symptoms were investigated 12 and 18 months after ablation. In patients who had persistent symptoms, specific tests were performed to confirm glandular dysfunction and to rule out other causes. Twelve months after ablation, symptoms of salivary or lacrimal dysfunction were observed in 10 (6.7%) patients, including oral symptoms in 8 (5.4%) and ocular symptoms in 6 (4%). Eighteen months after ¹³¹I, symptoms persisted in eight (5.4%) patients, including oral symptoms in seven (4.7%) and ocular symptoms in five (3.4%). In all of the patients, glandular dysfunction was confirmed by specific tests and other causes were ruled out. No symptoms were seen in the patients who received a low ¹³¹I dose (30 mCi). In the patients who received high ¹³¹I doses (100 or 150 mCi), symptoms were noted 12 months after ¹³¹I in 10 patients (9.2%), and 18 months after ¹³¹I in 8 patients (7.4%). Apparently, the rates of salivary and lacrimal damage were lower than those reported in prospective studies that used similar ¹³¹I activities, but these studies were performed in patients who were

  10. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001041.htm Salivary gland infections To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland infections affect the glands that produce spit (saliva). ...

  11. Salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001040.htm Salivary gland tumors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Salivary gland tumors are abnormal cells growing in the gland ...

  12. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  13. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  14. Interindividual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration in marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Puente, Carlos; Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium (Na(+)) intake during exercise aims to replace the Na(+) lost by sweat to avoid electrolyte imbalances, especially in endurance disciplines. However, Na(+) needs can be very different among individuals because of the great inter-individual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration. The aim of this investigation was to determine sweat electrolyte concentration in a large group of marathoners. A total of 157 experienced runners (141 men and 16 women) completed a marathon race (24.4 ± 3.6 °C and 27.7 ± 4.8 % of humidity). During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches placed on the runners' forearms. Sweat electrolyte concentration was measured by using photoelectric flame photometry. As a group, sweat Na(+) concentration was 42.9 ± 18.7 mmol·L(-1) (minimal-maximal value = 7.0-95.5 mmol·L(-1)), sweat Cl(-) concentration was 32.2 ± 15.6 mmol·L(-1) (7.3-90.6 mmol·L(-1)) and sweat K(+) concentration was 6.0 ± 0.9 mmol·L(-1) (3.1-8.0 mmol·L(-1)). Women presented lower sweat Na(+) (33.9 ± 12.1 vs 44.0 ± 19.1 mmol·L(-1); P = 0.04) and sweat Cl(-) concentrations (22.9 ± 10.5 vs 33.2 ± 15.8 mmol·L(-1); P = 0.01) than men. A 20 % of individuals presented a sweat Na(+) concentration higher than 60 mmol·L(-1) while this threshold was not surpassed by any female marathoner. Sweat electrolyte concentration did not correlate to sweat rate, age, body characteristics, experience or training. Although there was a significant correlation between sweat Na(+) concentration and running pace (r = 0.18; P = 0.03), this association was weak to interpret that sweat Na(+) concentration increased with running pace. The inter-individual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration was not explained by any individual characteristics except for individual running pace and sex. An important portion (20 %) of marathoners might need special sodium intake recommendations due to

  15. The interleukin-6/Janus kinase/STAT3 pathway in pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Heegaard, Steffen; Grauslund, Morten

    2016-01-01

    . In this study, we examine the expression of the interleukin-6/Janus kinase/STAT3 (IL-6/JAK/STAT3) pathway components in PA and ca-ex-PA. METHODS: Sixteen PAs and two ca-ex-PAs were examined with immunohistochemistry. Seven PAs were subjected to microdissection and subsequent qPCR. RESULTS: The IL-6/JAK/STAT3...... pathway was overexpressed in PA compared to normal lacrimal gland. Overexpression of phosphorylated JAK1 (p-JAK1) and cyclin D1 was significantly overexpressed in ductal cells compared with myoepithelial cells in PA. A shift from p-JAK1 to p-JAK2 and p-Tyk2 overexpression was seen between PA and ca......-ex-PA, combined with a high p-STAT3 expression in the latter. CONCLUSION: The IL-6/JAK/STAT3 pathway is overexpressed in PA, and this overexpression was even more pronounced in ca-ex-PA, with a shift in the JAKs mediating STAT3 phosphorylation. Future studies are needed to clarify whether PA and ca-ex-PA could...

  16. Sweating rate and sweat composition during exercise and recovery in ambient heat and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R J; Hare, M J; Ecker, G L; Lindinger, M I

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition and extent of sweat losses during submaximal exercise under hot and humid conditions and to compare these findings with the same exercise protocol conducted under cool, dry and hot, dry conditions. Five Thoroughbred horses (age 3 to 6) completed exercise tests under each of 3 environmental conditions in random order: cool, dry (CD), room temperature (T) = 20 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) = 45-55%; hot, dry (HD), T = 32-34 degrees C, RH = 45-55%; and hot, humid (HH), T = 32-34 degrees C, RH = 80-85%. Horses exercised at 50% of their predetermined VO2max on a treadmill set at a 10% slope until attainment of a pulmonary artery blood temperature of 41.5 degrees C followed by a 60 min recovery. Sweat was collected from a sealed polyethylene pouch enclosing a 150 cm2 area on the lateral thorax. During exercise and the first 30 min of recovery, sweat fluid losses were 7.9 +/- 0.7 litres, 9.9 +/- 0.5 litres and 6.6 +/- 1.2 litres (mean +/- s.e.m.) for CD, HD and HH, respectively. Sweating rate (SR), calculated from sweat volume per unit area of enclosed skin, was lowest in CD and similar in HD and HH during exercise such that at end of exercise in HH (16.5 min) calculated sweat losses were approximately 5% and 32% higher than in HD and CD, respectively. In recovery, SR declined in all conditions but was significantly lower in CD (P Sweating was detectable until 30 min recovery in CD, 45 min recovery in HD and 60 min recovery in HH. Sweat composition and osmolality was different under the 3 environmental conditions and changed gradually during exercise and recovery in all conditions. Osmolality and [Na] was highest in HD and lowest in CD. During exercise, [Na] increased with increasing SR. Although exercise duration was significantly decreased in HH (16.5 +/- 1 min) when compared to HD (28 +/- 2 min) and CD (37 +/- 2 min), fluid and ion losses in HH were comparable to those in HD as a result of a high SR and

  17. Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements of the thyroid gland: report of three cases including one case with breast cancer history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Xi; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Johnstone, Marianne; Deng, Yuan; Ke, Yongqiang; Nunes, Quentin M; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yili; Zhang, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare malignant tumor of the thyroid or adjacent neck soft tissues, whose histogenesis is still debated. It may resemble other primary or metastatic poorly differentiated tumors histologically and the differential diagnosis is crucial for CASTLE has a better prognosis. However, CASTLE as a second primary tumor has not been reported in the literature. We report three cases of thyroid CASTLE, including a unique tumor following breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast invasive carcinoma. There were two female and one male. All three tumors were located in the right lobe of the thyroid, and one tumor showed extension into the surrounding soft tissue. Histologically, all tumors showed expansive growth and consisted of cords, nests or sheets of epithelial cells divided into irregularly shaped lobules by fibrous connective tissue with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Focal squamous differentiation resembling Hassall's corpuscles were observed. All cases stained positively for CD5, CD117, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin, P63, carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen. Positive staining for Bcl-2 in two cases and chromogranin A in one case was noted. Ki-67 expression ranged from 15 to 25%. Thyroid transcription factor and CD3 were negative. There was no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease at following surgery. These features demonstrated CASTLE may arise from branchial pouch remnants, the thyroid solid cell nests. CASTLE is a rare entity, awareness of its occurrence as a second primary tumor is important to avoid overtreatment because it is associated with a favorable prognosis.

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency causing night sweats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, H U

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common. It is known to cause a wide spectrum of neurological syndromes, including autonomic dysfunction. Three cases are discussed here in which drenching night sweats were thought to be caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. All three responded dramatically to vitamin B12 therapy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. [Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Violeta; Trandafir, Daniela; Ferariu, D; Boişteanu, Otilia; Haba, Danisia

    2011-01-01

    Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland is a rare clinical entity. Definitive clinical diagnosis is often difficult to determine preoperatively because of the lack of pathognomonic features. The most frequent location of a parotid dermoid cyst is a triangular area lying above the pinna. Imaging studies do not definitely diagnose a parotid dermoid cyst. Although parotid dermoid cyst is (generally) well-encapsulated, complete removal of the cyst wall is not sufficient to cure it, so it is mandatory to perform careful excision of the cyst by parotidectomy, in terms of preserving facial nerve integrity. Histopathology of the parotid gland tumor removed by parotidectomy makes a diagnosis of certainty, by revealing a cyst wall with keratinization of the squamous epithelium and the presence of skin annexes (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands). We present a rare case of parotid dermoid cyst in a 21-year-old male patient with symptoms and imaging rather suggestive of arch I branchial cyst and a brief review of data in the medical literature of the last 20 years.

  20. Valor prognóstico do Ki-67 no carcinoma indiferenciado de grandes células de glândula salivar maior: estudo de 11 casos Prognostic significance of Ki-67 in great cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the major salivary glands: study of 11 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio V. Barbosa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estabelecer a relação entre o comportamento biológico e o prognóstico nas neoplasias indiferenciadas das glândulas salivares maiores. OBJETIVO: Identificação de parâmetros clínicos, histopatológicos, imunohistoquímicos e de proliferação celular (Ki-67 no prognóstico destas neoplasias. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Análise de espécimes através de procedimentos histológicos e imunohistoquímicos e sua relação com o prognóstico destas neoplasias. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Onze casos de carcinoma indiferenciado tipo grandes células das glândulas salivares maiores, diagnosticados e tratados no Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo, no período de 1977 a 2000. Foram revistos e subclassicados por perfis de positividade para citoqueratinas de alto e/ou baixos pesos moleculares. RESULTADOS: Sinalizou-se com um padrão imunohistoquímico de diferenciação histogênica bidirecional (tipo mucoepidermóide, e unidirecionais do tipo epidermóide ou ductal/glandular, visando sobretudo identificar a influência de parâmetros demográficos, clínicos, anátomo-patológicos (índice mitótico, e do índice de imunoproliferação celular (ki-67 clone MIB-1. Os resultados mostraram significativa ocorrência em indivíduos na 5ª década de vida, brancos, na glândula parótida, ao mesmo tempo que não demostrou diferença estatística em relação ao critério gênero. O índice mitótico e o índice de imunoproliferação celular (Ki-67, apresentaram-se estatisticamente significativos (pINTRODUCTION: To establish the relation between the biologic behaviour and the prognosis of the undifferentatiated carcinoma of major salivary glands. OBJECTIVE: Identification of clinical histological, imunohistochemical parameters and its influence on the prognosis. STUDY DESIGN: Specimens analysis through histological and imunoihistochemical procedures. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Eleven

  1. [Muscle metastasis of bronchopulmonary carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, A; Schiffino, L; Canavese, A; Arnone, P; Scarpini, M; Almansour, M

    1999-06-01

    Typical sites of bronchogenic carcinoma metastases are liver, brain, bones or adrenal glands. Rarely and in advanced dissemination phase it could involve the skeletal muscle. Two cases of metastases in the skeletal muscle from bronchogenic carcinoma, one of which revealed this neoplasia, are reported.

  2. HPV-related Multiphenotypic Sinonasal Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishop, Justin A; Andreasen, Simon; Hang, Jen-Fan

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related multiphenotypic sinonasal carcinoma (HMSC), originally known as HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features, is a peculiar neoplasm that is restricted to the sinonasal tract, exhibits features of both a surface-derived and salivary gland ca...

  3. Testing in artificial sweat - Is less more? Comparison of metal release in two different artificial sweat solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midander, Klara; Julander, Anneli; Kettelarij, Jolinde; Lidén, Carola

    2016-11-01

    Metal release from materials immersed in artificial sweat can function as a measure of potential skin exposure. Several artificial sweat models exist that, to various degree, mimic realistic conditions. Study objective was to evaluate metal release from previously examined and well characterized materials in two different artificial sweat solutions; a comprehensive sweat model intended for use within research, based on the composition of human sweat; and the artificial sweat, EN1811, intended for testing compliance with the nickel restriction in REACH. The aim was to better understand whether there are advantages using either of the sweat solutions in bio-elution testing of materials. Metal release in two different artificial sweat solutions was compared for discs of a white gold alloy and two hard metals, and a rock drilling insert of tungsten carbide at 1 h, 24 h, 1 week and 1 month. The released amount of metal was analysed by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Similar levels of released metals were measured from test materials in the two different artificial sweat solutions. For purposes in relation to legislations, it was concluded that a metal release test using a simple artificial sweat composition may provide results that sufficiently indicate the degree of metal release at skin contact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of sweat test (ST) based on the proportion of sweat sodium (Na) and sweat chloride (Cl) as diagnostic parameter of cystic fibrosis: are we on the right way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Alethéa Guimarães; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Gomez, Carla Cristina de Souza; Ribeiro, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Morais, Lucas Brioschi; Servidoni, Maria de Fátima; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia; Sakano, Eulália; Goto, Maura; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; Pereira, Mônica Corso; Hessel, Gabriel; Levy, Carlos Emílio; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Peixoto, Andressa Oliveira; Simões, Maria Cristina Ribeiro; Lomazi, Elizete Aparecida; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2016-10-26

    To assess the quality of sweat test (ST) based on the proportion of sweat sodium and sweat chloride as diagnostic parameter of cystic fibrosis (CF). A retrospective study of 5,721 sweat samples and subsequent descriptive analysis were carried out. The test was considered "of good quality" (correct) when: (i) sweat chloride was lower than 60 mEq/L, and sweat sodium was higher than sweat chloride; (ii) sweat chloride was higher than 60 mEq/L, and sweat sodium was lower than sweat chloride. The study included 5,692/5,721 sweat samples of ST which had been requested due to clinical presentations compatible with CF and/or neonatal screenings with altered immunoreactive trypsinogen values. Considering the proportion of sweat sodium and sweat chloride as ST quality parameter, the test was performed correctly in 5,023/5,692 (88.2 %) sweat samples. The sweat chloride test results were grouped into four reference ranges for chloride (i) chloride sweat weight (p = 0.416). However, there was a positive association with: (i) gender, (ii) results of ST (p sweat chloride/sodium ratio (p sweat chloride values (p = 0.047), (iii) subject's age at the time of the ST grouped by numerical order (p = 0.001). Considering that the quality of ST can be assessed by levels of sweat sodium and sweat chloride, an increasing number of low-quality tests could be observed in our sweat samples. The quality of the test was associated with important factors, such as gender, CF diagnosis, and subjects' age.

  5. Sweat conductivity: an accurate diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Ana Claudia Veras; Leone, Claudio; Rodrigues, Joaquim Carlos; Adde, Fabíola Villac

    2014-09-01

    Sweat chloride test is the gold standard test for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. Sweat conductivity is widely used although still considered a screening test. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, diagnostic research conducted at the laboratory of the Instituto da Criança of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. Sweat chloride (quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis) and sweat conductivity tests were simultaneously performed in patients referred for a sweat test between March 2007 and October 2008. Conductivity and chloride cut-off values used to rule out or diagnose CF were sweat chloride and conductivity values were 11 and 25 mmol/L in these populations, respectively. Twenty-four patients who had received a diagnosis of CF presented median sweat chloride and conductivity values of 87 and 103 mmol/L, respectively. Conductivity values above 90 mmol/L had 83.3% sensitivity, 99.7% specificity, 90.9% PPV and 99.4% NPV to diagnose CF. The best conductivity cut-off value to exclude CF was sweat conductivity test yielded a high degree of diagnostic accuracy and it showed good agreement with sweat chloride. We suggest that it should play a role as a diagnostic test for CF in the near future. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Salivary duct carcinoma of accessory parotid

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hashim, Mohammed A.; Al-Jazan, Nasser A.

    2017-01-01

    Accessory parotid gland (APG) is seen in around 21%?56% of individuals. Tumors of accessory parotid are uncommon with an incidence rate of 1%?8% of all parotid tumors. Ductal carcinoma of APG is rare, so no reported incidence was seen in the literature. However, salivary gland ductal carcinoma is reported to be 1% of all salivary gland neoplasms. We report here a case of salivary duct carcinoma of APG. Clinical presentation, investigation, and management are discussed. A 69-year-old female pr...

  7. Salivary Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your salivary glands are in your mouth. You have three pairs of major salivary glands and hundreds of small (minor) glands. They make ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause them to become irritated and swollen. ...

  8. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  9. SALIVARY GLANDS - AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    The glands are divided into major and minor salivary gland categories. The major salivary glands are parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. The minor glands are dispersed throughout the upper aero-digestive submucosa. Saliva is the watery substance produced in the mouths of humans and other animals. Saliva is a component of oral fluid. Human saliva is composed of 98% water, while the other 2% consists of other compounds such as electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various e...

  10. [Amounts of sweat and salt loss due to sweating during a three-hour badminton practice in summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Nobuko; Futamura, Azusa

    2007-11-01

    In 7 men and 5 women, we measured the amounts of sweat and fluid intake, and the ionic composition of sweat during a 3-hour badminton practice in summer. The amount of sweat was calculated as follows; body weight before practice (g)--body weight after practice (g)--urine volume (ml) +fluid intake (ml). We collected sweat by covering the non-dominant forearm with a plastic bag. The amounts of sweat and fluid intake during the 3-hour practice were 1809 +/- 715ml (mean +/- SD) and 658 +/- 344ml, respectively. Weight loss after the practice was 2.0 +/- 0.9% of their weight before the practice. The Na(+) and Cl(-) levels of the sweat about 30 min after the start of practice were 66 +/- 34 mEq/l and 54 +/- 32mEq/l, respectively. There was no significant difference between those ionic levels of the sweat about 30 min after the start of practice and those about 30 min before the end of practice. The sum of Na(+) and Cl(-) loss into sweat during a 3-hour practice session was supposed to be 6.9 +/- 5.3g, and to be above 10 g in 4 of 7 men, assuming that there were no regional differences in the ionic composition of sweat. The findings suggested that most of the participants should take more fluid and some of them might need salt intake during the practice.

  11. Management of the thyroid gland during laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S X; Polacco, M A; Gosselin, B J; Harrington, L X; Titus, A J; Paydarfar, J A

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to: describe the incidence of thyroid gland involvement in advanced laryngeal cancer, analyse patterns of spread to the thyroid and elucidate predictors of thyroid involvement. A retrospective review was performed on patients who underwent laryngectomy from 1991 to 2015 as a primary or salvage treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, hypopharynx or base of tongue. The incidence of thyroidectomy during total laryngectomy, type of thyroidectomy, incidence of gland involvement, route of spread, and positive predictors of spread were analysed and reported. A total of 188 patients fit the inclusion criteria. Of these, 125 (66 per cent) underwent thyroidectomy. The thyroid was involved in 10 of the 125 patients (8 per cent), 9 by direct extension and 1 by metastasis. Cartilage invasion was a predictor of thyroid gland involvement, with a positive predictive value of 26 per cent. There is a low incidence of thyroid gland involvement in laryngeal carcinoma. Most cases of gland involvement occurred by direct extension. Thyroidectomy during laryngectomy should be considered for advanced stage tumours with cartilage invasion.

  12. Effect of plasma prolactin on sweat rate and sweat composition during exercise in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, P; Brisson, G R; Péronnet, F

    1993-05-01

    We investigated the role of the exercise-induced elevation of plasma prolactin (PRL) concentration on sweat rate and composition during prolonged exercise in men. Two groups of healthy young males (20-26 yr old) showing a high (high responders; n = 8) or a low (low responders; n = 7) response of plasma PRL concentration to exercise were studied during a 60-min period of exercise on a cycle ergometer (65% maximum O2 consumption) in warm conditions (26.2 +/- 0.1 degrees C; 57 +/- 1% relative humidity), 1 h after receiving 1.25 mg bromocriptine (BRC) per os or a placebo. In high responders, administration of BRC totally abolished the threefold increase in plasma PRL observed in response to exercise with placebo [placebo, 10 +/- 2 (rest) and 30 +/- 2 micrograms/l (exercise); BRC, 9 +/- 1 (rest) and 8 +/- 1 microgram/l (exercise)]. The latter was associated with a significant decrease in sweat rate (2.7 +/- 0.5 to 1.9 +/- 0.3 microliter.cm-2.min-1) and a significant increase in sweat Na+ concentration (57 +/- 7 to 68 +/- 5 mmol/l). BRC also reduced the small response in plasma PRL concentration observed in low responders [placebo, 10 +/- 1 (rest) and 15 +/- 1 microgram/l (exercise); BRC, 9 +/- 1 (rest) and 7 +/- 1 microgram/l (exercise)], but this was not associated with any change in sweat rate (2.2 +/- 0.2 to 1.9 +/- 0.3 microliter.cm-2.min-1) or in sweat Na+ concentration (63 +/- 10 to 64 +/- 9 mmol/l).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Latherin: a surfactant protein of horse sweat and saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona E McDonald

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Horses are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein. The amino acid sequence of latherin, determined from cDNA analysis, is highly conserved across four geographically dispersed equid species (horse, zebra, onager, ass, and is similar to a family of proteins only found previously in the oral cavity and associated tissues of mammals. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (< or = 1 mg ml(-1, and therefore probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a waterproofed pelt. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that this detergent-like activity is associated with the formation of a dense protein layer, about 10 A thick, at the air-water interface. However, biophysical characterization (circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry in solution shows that latherin behaves like a typical globular protein, although with unusual intrinsic fluorescence characteristics, suggesting that significant conformational change or unfolding of the protein is required for assembly of the air-water interfacial layer. RT-PCR screening revealed latherin transcripts in horse skin and salivary gland but in no other tissues. Recombinant latherin produced in bacteria was also found to be the target of IgE antibody from horse-allergic subjects. Equids therefore may have adapted an oral/salivary mucosal protein for two purposes peculiar to their lifestyle, namely their need for rapid and efficient heat dissipation and their specialisation for masticating and processing large quantities of dry food material.

  14. Epithelial Salivary Gland Tumors in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saede Atarbashi Moghadam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Salivary gland tumors are rare and specific lesions. There are differences in the incidence and frequency of salivary tumors in both minor and major salivary glands in different countries. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of major and minor salivary gland tumors in Ahvaz in the south of Iran. Materials and methods. All the cases, recorded in Imam Khomeyni Hospital and Shafa Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran from 1997 to 2008 were assessed. Age, gender, anatomical location, and histology of all the specimens were evaluated. Results. Of 112 cases, 84 cases were benign and 28 cases were malignant. Female predominance was observed in these cases. Most lesions appeared in the third to fifth decades of life (60.71%. The incidence of malignant salivary gland tumors increased with age and male predominance was found in malignant tumors. The majority of the tumors occurred in parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common histological type (65.17%. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were the most common malignant tumors. Conclusion. It was shown that the peak incidence age of all salivary gland tumors was the third to fifth decades, and malignant tumors mostly occurred in the sixth to eighth decades. Female predominance for all the tumors and slight male predominance in malignant tumors were observed. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor. The most common malignant tumors were mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  15. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber...

  16. Sweat chloride concentrations in children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Moir, Devin; Jain, Amrish

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (INS) has been believed to cause a false positive elevation of sweat chloride concentrations, as measured by the sweat test. Sweat tests were done for 11 children with acute onset INS at admission and again while they were in remission, with results being compared to normal historical controls. The initial sweat chloride concentration for 10 patients was normal (mean16.7 ± 11.02 mmol/L) and 1 patient had inadequate collection. This latter patient and two others were excluded during follow-up because of diagnoses other than INS. Sweat test results for the eight INS patients during follow up remained unchanged when they were in remission (16.94 ± 7.88 mmol/L; P = 0.98; Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Rank Test). In comparing sweat chloride concentrations from INS patients to those from 20 historical control subjects, we found no significant differences (Mann-Whitney Test; initial vs. control P = 0.643; follow up vs. control P = 0.806). INS does not cause a false positive sweat test. Further studies should be done to objectively assess the conditions that have been reported to affect sweat chloride concentrations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Equine sweat composition: effects of adrenaline infusion, exercise and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaghy, F F; Hodgson, D R; Evans, D L; Rose, R J

    1995-11-01

    Significant alterations in plasma electrolyte concentrations have been reported in horses following prolonged exercise, resulting from loss of hypertonic sweat. Sweat was collected from 10 horses undergoing a 10 week training programme; 5 at moderate intensity, to speeds of 10 m/s and 5 at low intensity, to speeds of 5 m/s. Sweat was collected from 2 sites in response to a submaximal exercise test (30 min at 50% VO2max and during an adrenaline infusion (dose mean +/- s.d.; 0.3 +/- 0.05 g/kg over 30 min). Sweat samples were analysed for sodium, chloride, potassium, protein, magnesium, calcium and urea concentrations. Sweat produced in response to exercise and adrenaline infusion was hypertonic and showed no significant differences in composition following training. However, the [NaCl] of sweat rose with increased duration of sweating. Sweat produced in response to adrenaline infusion was more dilute than that produced in response to exercise, which may be related to sympathetic outflow during exercise.

  18. [Estimation of the sweat composition of fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovskaia, S S; Varus, V I; Briuzgina, T S; Belov, A A; Ivanov, D A

    2007-05-01

    Changes in the fatty acid composition of sweat lipid were studied in persons whose activity was associated with military service. There were significant changes in essential fatty acids of sweat lipids, which made it possible to use this noninvasive biological object as a criterion for rating dysadaptive processes in armed forces personnel.

  19. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  20. Primary cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Markus Winther; Steiniche, Torben; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a case of primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the skin and reviews the available literature on this topic. Myoepitheliomas and carcinomas arise most frequently from myoepithelial cells within the salivary glands but are found in many anatomical locations. We documented a case...... of an 80-year-old man with a 2 × 2 × 1 cm tumour located on the scalp. This tumour emerged over a period of 2 months. The tumour was radically excised, and histological examination revealed a cutaneous myoepithelial carcinoma. At an 18-month follow-up, no recurrence of the tumour was found. A systematic...... literature search identified 23 papers that reported 58 cases of cutaneous myoepitheliomas and myoepithelial carcinomas. All cases are reviewed in the presented paper. This case report and literature review serves to increase awareness regarding myoepithelial carcinomas. These tumours exhibit high metastatic...

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer ...

  2. Improved Devices for Collecting Sweat for Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2011-01-01

    Improved devices have been proposed for collecting sweat for biochemical analysis especially for determination of the concentration of Ca2+ ions in sweat as a measure of loss of Ca from bones. Unlike commercially available sweat-collection patches used previously in monitoring osteoporosis and in qualitative screening for some drugs, the proposed devices would not allow evaporation of the volatile chemical components (mostly water) of sweat. Moreover, the proposed devices would be designed to enable determination of the volumes of collected sweat. From these volumes and the quantities of Ca2+ and/or other analytes as determined by other means summarized below, one could determine the concentrations of the analytes in sweat. A device according to the proposal would be flexible and would be worn like a commercial sweat-collection patch. It would be made of molded polydimethylsiloxane (silicone rubber) or other suitable material having properties that, for the purpose of analyzing sweat, are similar to those of glass. The die for molding the silicone rubber would be fabricated by a combination of lithography and electroplating. The die would reproducibly form, in the silicone rubber, a precisely defined number of capillary channels per unit area, each channel having a precisely defined volume. Optionally, electrodes for measuring the Ca2+ content of the sweat could be incorporated into the device. The volume of sweat collected in the capillary channels of the device would be determined from (1) the amount of light or radio waves of a given wavelength absorbed by the device and (2) the known geometry of the array of capillary channels. Then, in one of two options, centrifugation would be performed to move the sweat from the capillary tubes to the region containing the electrodes, which would be used to measure the Ca2+ content by a standard technique. In the other option, centrifugation would be performed to remove the sweat from the device to make the sweat available

  3. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough ... syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born ...

  4. Effect of salt supplementation on the rate of inadequate sweat collection for infants less than 3 months of age referred for the sweat test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Sweat testing in young infants (≤ 3 months) with a positive newborn screen for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) can yield higher rates of inadequate sweat collection. The role of salt supplements in improving sweat collection has not been studied before. All young infants referred to our CF center for sweat testing were randomized to either receive salt supplements {1/8th teaspoon salt (750 mg)} mixed in formula feeds 1 day prior to sweat testing (study group) or no salt supplement (controls). Of the 151 young infants that underwent sweat testing over 18 months, 75 received salt supplements, while 76 did not. A total of 9 (11.8%) infants in the salt supplement group had inadequate sweat collection, as compared to 4 (5.2%) infants in the control group (p = 0.16, Fisher's Exact Test). Oral salt supplementation for young infants prior to sweat testing does not help to reduce the rates of inadequate sweat collection.

  5. General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body against infections . Enlarge Anatomy of the thymus gland. The thymus gland is a small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone. It makes white blood cells, called lymphocytes, ... of the thymus. Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare tumors of ...

  6. Stages of Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body against infections . Enlarge Anatomy of the thymus gland. The thymus gland is a small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone. It makes white blood cells, called lymphocytes, ... of the thymus. Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare tumors of ...

  7. Treatment Options for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body against infections . Enlarge Anatomy of the thymus gland. The thymus gland is a small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone. It makes white blood cells, called lymphocytes, ... of the thymus. Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare tumors of ...

  8. Oncocytoma of Parotid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena N. Jadhav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncocytomas of salivary gland are benign tumors composed exclusively of oncocytic cells. Majority of them occur in parotid gland and have excellent prognosis following complete excision. They should be differentiated from other salivary gland tumors with more prominent oncocytic component and nodular oncocytic hyperplasia. Herein we present a case of oncocytoma of parotid gland in a 48 year old male patient who has no recurrence four years after excision.

  9. About the Parathyroid Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glands Parathyroid conditions Treatment The body has four parathyroid glands that are located just behind the thyroid gland (which is the center of the neck at the front). They have nothing to do with the function of the thyroid. (PARA is derived from a ...

  10. Flexible nanoporous tunable electrical double layer biosensors for sweat diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munje, Rujuta D.; Muthukumar, Sriram; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Prasad, Shalini

    2015-09-01

    An ultra-sensitive and highly specific electrical double layer (EDL) modulated biosensor, using nanoporous flexible substrates for wearable diagnostics is demonstrated with the detection of the stress biomarker cortisol in synthetic and human sweat. Zinc oxide thin film was used as active region in contact with the liquid i.e. synthetic and human sweat containing the biomolecules. Cortisol detection in sweat was accomplished by measuring and quantifying impedance changes due to modulation of the double layer capacitance within the electrical double layer through the application of a low orthogonally directed alternating current (AC) electric field. The EDL formed at the liquid-semiconductor interface was amplified in the presence of the nanoporous flexible substrate allowing for measuring the changes in the alternating current impedance signal due to the antibody-hormone interactions at diagnostically relevant concentrations. High sensitivity of detection of 1 pg/mL or 2.75 pmol cortisol in synthetic sweat and 1 ng/mL in human sweat is demonstrated with these novel biosensors. Specificity in synthetic sweat was demonstrated using a cytokine IL-1β. Cortisol detection in human sweat was demonstrated over a concentration range from 10-200 ng/mL.

  11. Use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to characterize adrenal gland tumors in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Pascaline; Rossi, Federica; Vignoli, Massimo; Duchateau, Luc; Marescaux, Laurent; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2014-10-01

    To describe the contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic characteristics and vascular patterns of adrenal gland tumors in dogs and determine whether those features are indicative of malignancy or histologic type of tumor. 14 dogs with 16 adrenal gland lesions (10 carcinomas [8 dogs], 3 adenomas [3 dogs], and 3 pheochromocytomas [3 dogs]). Unsedated dogs with adrenal gland lesions underwent B-mode ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography ≤ 48 hours before adrenalectomy; contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic examinations were video-recorded. Macroscopic evaluation of the adrenal gland lesions and histologic examination of removed adrenal gland tissues were subsequently performed. Surgical and histopathologic findings and the ultrasonographic and contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic characteristics were recorded for the various tumor types. Time-intensity curves were generated from the contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic recordings and used to calculate regional blood volume (value proportional to area under the curve) and mean transit time (time the lesion began to enhance to the half-peak intensity). In adrenal gland carcinomas, tortuous feeding vessels were noticeable during the arterial and venous phases of contrast enhancement. Heterogeneity of contrast enhancement was evident only in malignant tumors. Compared with adenomas, adrenal gland carcinomas and pheochromocytomas had significantly less regional blood volume. Mean transit times were significantly shorter in adrenal gland carcinomas and pheochromocytomas than in adenomas. For dogs, evaluation of the vascular pattern and contrast-enhancement characteristics of adrenal gland tumors by means of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography may be useful in assessment of malignancy and tumor type.

  12. The effect of heat acclimation on sweat microminerals: Artifact of surface contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat acclimation (HA) reportedly conveys conservation in sweat micromineral concentrations when sampled from arm sweat, but time course is unknown. The observation that comprehensive cleaning of the skin surface negates sweat micromineral reductions during prolonged sweating raises the question of w...

  13. Asymmetric salivary gland uptake: Potential pitfall following radioiodide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavin, J.D. Jr.; Mack, J.M.; Spencer, R.P.

    1987-10-01

    A 67-year old woman, with prior radioiodide (/sup 131/I) therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, had a follow-up scan that revealed asymmetric accumulation in the left upper neck and cheek regions. This resembled functioning metastatic tissue. An immediate /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate image demonstrated accumulation in the same areas. This corresponded to activity in the left submandibular gland and parotid. Hence, asymmetric salivary gland uptake was mimicking functional thyroid metastases. Possible causes of the disparate salivary gland function were discussed.

  14. Apocrine gland carcinoma on the right thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Renato Pais Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cutaneous apocrine ductal carcinomaof the right thigh in a 78-year-old female. Histological examinationrevealed a solid, ductal and glandular tumor with a significantdesmoplastic reaction. The tumor cells showed high-grade cellularatypia, and occasional peritumoral inflammatory infiltration wasalso observed. There were no characteristics of extramammaryPaget´s Disease on the overlying skin. The neoplastic cells wereimmunohistochemically positive for S-100 protein, lysozyme andalpha-chymotrypsin, but negative for CEA, EMA, and HMB-45. On thebasis of these findings, the diagnosis of apocrine ductal carcinomawas confirmed. The patient then underwent wide resection of thetumor plus en-bloc radical inguinal lymphadenectomy. The localreconstruction was done by means of a tensor fascia lata flap, noadjuvant treatment was performed. To date, one year on, the patientremains healthy, there being no evidence of tumor recurrence.

  15. Parotid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Schultz, Joyce H; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical data and possible prognostic factors of patients with primary carcinoma of the parotid gland. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was made of 85 patients with suspected parotid cancer who were admitted to the Center of Head and Neck Oncology at Odense University......%) were excluded from the analysis, leaving 75 individuals for the study. RESULTS: Twenty-four percent of patients were classified as T1, 32% as T2, 15% as T3, and 28% as T4. One patient (1%) was not classifiable (TX). Regional lymph node metastases were found in 17 cases (23%). Two of these were......-year recurrence-free survival of the entire study group was 63%, disease-specific survival was 69%, and crude survival was 52%. In univariate analysis, tumor size, histological appearance, T status, stage, the presence of lymph node metastases, distant metastases, pain, and facial nerve dysfunction had...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: cold-induced sweating syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition CISS CNTF receptor-related disorders Crisponi syndrome Sohar-Crisponi syndrome ... of cardiotrophin-like cytokine, a second ligand for ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, leads to cold-induced sweating syndrome in ...

  17. Cystic fibrosis with normal sweat chloride concentration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Filho Luiz Vicente Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease usually diagnosed by abnormal sweat testing. We report a case of an 18-year-old female with bronchiectasis, chronic P. aeruginosa infection, and normal sweat chloride concentrations who experienced rapid decrease of lung function and clinical deterioration despite treatment. Given the high suspicion ofcystic fibrosis, broad genotyping testing was performed, showing a compound heterozygous with deltaF508 and 3849+10kb C->T mutations, therefore confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Although the sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, alternative diagnostic tests such as genotyping and electrophysiologic measurements must be performed if there is suspicion of cystic fibrosis, despite normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

  18. \\'Sweat Equity\\': Women\\'s Participation in Subsidised Housing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The notion of \\"sweat equity\\" has been promoted as an integral part of subsidised housing in South African Housing policy. It\\'s tougher for females, though. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 58-64 ...

  19. Influence of sex and growth hormone deficiency on sweating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Nilsson, K O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1991-01-01

    Sweat secretion rate (SSR) was measured by the pilocarpine iontophoresis test in (a) 254 healthy children and adolescents (aged 6.0 to 19.2 years, mean age 11.2 years); in (b) 58 healthy adults (aged 20.4 to 75.2 years, mean age 37.6 years); and in (c) eight prepubertal patients with growth hormone...... in sweat excretion rate from childhood to adulthood showed a difference between the sexes. Both pre-pubertal and pubertal boys had a lower secretion value than adult men (p less than 0.001 and 0.01, respectively), whereas girls showed higher secretion values than adult women (p less than 0.01 and p less...... min-1). We conclude that (a) sweat secretion pattern in children shows a significant sex difference and (b) sweating in children is dependent on growth hormone....

  20. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000826.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats To use ... stress reduction. Learning how to decrease stress and anxiety may help relieve hot flashes in some people. ...

  1. Lack of harmonization in sweat testing for cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Christiansen, Anne; Nybo, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Sweat testing is used in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Interpretation of the sweat test depends, however, on the method performed since conductivity, osmolality and chloride concentration all can be measured as part of a sweat test. The aim of this study...... fibrosis. Because diagnosing cystic fibrosis is a combined effort between local pediatric departments, biochemical and genetic departments and cystic fibrosis centers, a national harmonization is necessary to assure correct clinical use....... a normal and grey zone or a pathological value. Cut-off values for normal, grey and pathological areas were like the reference intervals inconsistent. Conclusion. There is inconsistent use of NPU codes, reference intervals and interpretation of sweat conductivity used in the process of diagnosing cystic...

  2. Observation of the sweating in lipstick by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S Y; Lee, I S; Shin, H Y; Choi, K Y; Kang, S H; Ahn, H J

    1999-06-01

    The relationship between the wax matrix in lipstick and sweating has been investigated by observing the change of size and shape of the wax matrix due to sweating by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). For observation by SEM, a lipstick sample was frozen in liquid nitrogen. The oil in the lipstick was then extracted in cold isopropanol (-70 degrees C) for 1-3 days. After the isopropanol was evaporated, the sample was sputtered with gold and examined by SEM. The change of wax matrix underneath the surface from fine, uniform structure to coarse, nonuniform structure resulted from the caking of surrounding wax matrix. The oil underneath the surface migrated to the surface of lipstick with sweating; consequently the wax matrix in that region was rearranged into the coarse matrix. In case of flamed lipstick, sweating was delayed and the wax matrix was much coarser than that of the unflamed one. The larger wax matrix at the surface region was good for including oil. The effect of molding temperature on sweating was also studied. As the molding temperature rose, sweating was greatly reduced and the size of the wax matrix increased. It was found that sweating was influenced by the compatibility of wax and oil. A formula consisting of wax and oil that have good compatibility has a tendency to reduce sweating and increase the size of the wax matrix. When pigments were added to wax and oil, the size of the wax matrix was changed, but in all cases sweating was increased due to the weakening of the binding force between wax and oil. On observing the thick membrane of wax at the surface of lipstick a month after molding it was also found that sweating was influenced by ageing. In conclusion, the structure of the wax matrix at the surface region of lipstick was changed with the process of flaming, molding temperature, compatibility of wax and oil, addition of pigment, and ageing. In most cases, as the size of the wax matrix was increased, sweating was reduced and delayed.

  3. Metabolomics analysis of human sweat collected after moderate exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Povedano, M M; Calderón-Santiago, M; Luque de Castro, M D; Priego-Capote, F

    2018-01-15

    Sweat is a promising biofluid scarcely used in clinical analysis despite its non-invasive sampling. A more frequent clinical use of sweat requires to know its whole composition, especially concerning to non-polar compounds, and the development of analytical strategies for its characterization. The aim of the present study was to compare different sample preparation strategies to maximize the detection of metabolites in sweat from humans collected after practicing moderate exercise. Special emphasis was put on non-polar compounds as they have received scant attention in previous studies dealing with this biofluid. Sample preparation by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using extractants with different polarity index was compared to deproteination. Then, derivatization by methoxymation with subsequent silylation was compared to direct analysis of sweat extracts to check the influence of derivatization on the subsequent determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). 135 compounds were tentatively identified by combining spectral and retention time information after analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in high resolution mode (GC-TOF/MS). Lipids, VOCs, benzenoids and other interesting metabolites such as alkaloids and ethanolamines were identified. Among the tested protocols, methyoxiamination plus silylation after LLE with dichloromethane was the best option to obtain a representative snapshot of sweat metabolome collected from different body parts after moderate exercise. Passive and active sweat pools from a cohort of volunteers (n = 6) were compared to detect compositional differences which can be explained by the sampling process and sweating induction. As most of the identified compounds are metabolites involved in key biochemical pathways, this study opens new opportunities to extend the applicability of human sweat as a source of metabolite biomarkers of pathologies or specific processes such as dehydration or nutritional unbalance

  4. Primary intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma of maxilla- case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary intraosseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma (PIOC) of the jaw bones is an extremely rare malignant salivary gland tumour constituting 2-4.3% of all the reported mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). It is commonly seen in the posterior part of the mandible and rare in maxilla. The aetiopathogenesis of the PIOC is not ...

  5. Papillary thyroid carcinoma formation in a thyroglossal cyst: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroglossal cyst rarely presents with carcinoma formation in the remnants of the thyroid gland. We report a 40 year old male with papillary thyroid carcinoma formation in a thyroglossal cyst. The patient underwent surgical intervention for the cyst. His pathology was positive for thyroid carcinoma and he underwent complete ...

  6. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a noninvasive approach for cutaneous research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karan; Hassoun, Lauren A; Foolad, Negar; Pedersen, Theresa L; Sivamani, Raja K; Newman, John W

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques provide new opportunities to identify noninvasive biomarkers for the study of skin inflammation and repair. This study aims to characterize the lipid mediator profile including oxygenated lipids, endocannabinoids, and ceramides/sphingoid bases in sweat and identify differences in these profiles between sweat collected from nonlesional sites on the unflared volar forearm of subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Adapting routine procedures developed for plasma analysis, over 100 lipid mediators were profiled using LC-MS/MS and 58 lipid mediators were detected in sweat. Lipid mediator concentrations were not affected by sampling or storage conditions. Increases in concentrations of C30-C40 [NS] and [NdS] ceramides, and C18:1 sphingosine, were observed in the sweat of study participants with AD despite no differences being observed in transepidermal water loss between study groups, and this effect was strongest in men (P Sweat mediator profiling may therefore provide a noninvasive diagnostic for AD prior to the presentation of clinical signs.

  7. Wearable Sweat Rate Sensors for Human Thermal Comfort Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2018-01-19

    We propose watch-type sweat rate sensors capable of automatic natural ventilation by integrating miniaturized thermo-pneumatic actuators, and experimentally verify their performances and applicability. Previous sensors using natural ventilation require manual ventilation process or high-power bulky thermo-pneumatic actuators to lift sweat rate detection chambers above skin for continuous measurement. The proposed watch-type sweat rate sensors reduce operation power by minimizing expansion fluid volume to 0.4 ml through heat circuit modeling. The proposed sensors reduce operation power to 12.8% and weight to 47.6% compared to previous portable sensors, operating for 4 hours at 6 V batteries. Human experiment for thermal comfort monitoring is performed by using the proposed sensors having sensitivity of 0.039 (pF/s)/(g/m 2 h) and linearity of 97.9% in human sweat rate range. Average sweat rate difference for each thermal status measured in three subjects shows (32.06 ± 27.19) g/m 2 h in thermal statuses including 'comfortable', 'slightly warm', 'warm', and 'hot'. The proposed sensors thereby can discriminate and compare four stages of thermal status. Sweat rate measurement error of the proposed sensors is less than 10% under air velocity of 1.5 m/s corresponding to human walking speed. The proposed sensors are applicable for wearable and portable use, having potentials for daily thermal comfort monitoring applications.

  8. Trapped sweat in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Reimel, Adam J; Sopeña, Bridget C; Barnes, Kelly A; Nuccio, Ryan P; De Chavez, Peter John D; Stofan, John R; Carter, James M

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: (1) trapped sweat (TS) in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss (SL) estimates during a laboratory-based basketball simulation protocol; (2) the impact of exercise intensity, body mass, age, and SL on TS; and (3) TS during on-court training to assess the ecological validity of the laboratory-based results. Twenty-four recreational/competitive male basketball players (23 ± 10 years, 77.0 ± 16.7 kg) completed three randomized laboratory-based trials (Low, Moderate, and High intensity) consisting of 150-min intermittent exercise. Eighteen elite male players (23 ± 4 years, 92.0 ± 20.6 kg) were observed during coach-led, on-court training. Nude and clothed body mass were measured pre and postexercise to determine TS. Data are mean ± SD. There was a significant effect of intensity on SL and TS ( P  < 0.001, Lowsweat and TS was 0.11 ± 0.15 kg (8.0 ± 5.1% SL). During Moderate, subjects lost 1.60 ± 0.56 kg sweat and TS was 0.21 ± 0.21 kg (11.6 ± 6.3% SL). During High, subjects lost 2.12 ± 0.66 kg sweat and TS was 0.38 ± 0.28 kg (16.0 ± 7.4% SL). Multiple regression and partial correlation analysis suggested TS was significantly related to SL ( P  < 0.0001; partial r  = 0.81-0.89), whereas the contributions of body mass ( P  = 0.22-0.92) and age ( P  = 0.29-0.44) were not significant. TS during on-court training was 0.35 ± 0.36 kg, which was associated with a 14.1 ± 11.5% underestimation in SL, and was not statistically different than laboratory-based results ( P  = 0.59). Clothed body mass measurements should be used with caution, as TS is highly variable and can cause a significant underestimation in SL in athletes with high sweating rates. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma in the submandibular space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Byung Mo; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Hyun Bae; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-15

    A 66-year-old man visited author's institute complaining of the swelling on the submandibular gland area. Clinically, the exophytic mass penetrated the skin of the submandibular area. On MRI, the lesion occupied the left submandibular space and extended downward, protruding exterior to the subcutaneous fat layer, but the center of the lesion was located on the side of the skin and the growth exterior to the skin was prominent. Demarcation of the lesion and the submandibular gland was unclear. Histopathologically the epithelial nests and keratin production were seen, then the biopsy result was squamous cell carcinoma. The stroma of lesion showed a myxoid characteristic and some ducts showed metaplasia of the ductal cells, which suggested the gland-origin carcinoma. However, lots of keratin production and carcinomatous change of cells continuous to the normal epithelium of the skin, the skin-origin carcinoma invading into the submandibular gland area could not be excluded.

  10. Sweat Farm Road Fire in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Dense plumes of blue-white smoke billowed from the Sweat Farm Road Fire in southern Georgia on April 19, 2007, when the Landsat 5 satellite captured this detailed image. The fire started on April 16, when a tree fell on a power line and, fanned by strong winds, quickly exploded into a major fire. By April 19, the fire had forced officials to close several roads, including U.S. Highway 1, and to evacuate hundreds of people from the perimeter of the city of Waycross, the silver cluster along the top edge of the image. The nearness of the fire is evident in the dark brown, charred land just south of the city. The active fire front is along the south edge of the burned area, where the flames are eating into the dark green hardwood forests, pine plantations, and shrubs in Okefenokee Swamp. Because of the difficult terrain, the fire and the adjoining Big Turnaround Complex fire are expected to burn until significant rain falls, said the morning report issued by the Southern Area Coordination Center on May 4. 'In the long term, the burning of the swamp will ultimately benefit the swamp wilderness habitat, which is a fire-dependent ecosystem,' said a press release issued from the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge on May 4. Such ecosystems require fire to remain healthy. In the case of southern pine forests, many pine species need fire to remove litter from the ground and release soil nutrients so that new seedlings can grow.

  11. Simultaneous Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bighan Khademi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The association of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with thyroid papillary carcinoma is an unusual finding. From 2004 to 2011, approximately 250 patients underwent laryngectomies due to squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx at the Otolaryngology Department of Khalili Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In three patients, synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma was found. Histopathologic study of the lymph nodes revealed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. We report three cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma incidentally found on histological examinations of resected thyroid lobes, as a procedure required for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In comparison, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs more aggressive treatment than well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, as an incidental finding in our study was 0.01%. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland by ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lesions is recommended in patients who are candidates for open laryngectomy.

  12. A case of radiation myelopathy with characteristic findings of thermoregulatory sweat distribution and magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Katsumasa; Sannomiya, Kunihiro; Nagao, Shinichiro; Nakazato, Okifumi; Tsuda, Tomiyasu (Oita Medical University, Hazama (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    A 73-year-old man had undergone resection of a lung carcinoma of the right upper lobe in 1987. Post-operative irradiation (40 Gy) was given to the right hilus. In November 1988, recurrence was detected in the trachea. Laser therapy was done in December 1988. From January 9 to February 13 in 1989, irradiation (50 Gy) was given to the mediastinum. From the beginning of 1991, the patient developed muscle weakness in the right lower extremity and pain temperature sensations were impaired below the Th12 level on the left side. On October 3, 1991, he was admitted to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed mild muscle weakness in the right lower extremity. Superficial sensations were impaired below the Th6 level bilaterally. Deep tendon reflexes were hyperactive in the lower extremities. A bilateral Babinski sign was positive. The T1 weighted MRI showed a low signal intensity in the spinal cord at the level of thoracic vertebra (TV)2-TV6. T2 weighted images revealed a high signal intensity area of the spinal cord from TV4-TV6. A gadolinium-DTPA injection revealed an enhancement on the left side of the spinal cord at the TV2-3 level, and right side of the spinal cord at the TV4-5 level on the sagittal and axial images. A thermal sweating test revealed hypohidrosis below the Th8 level on the right side, and the Th11 level on the left side. Sweating was delayed at the Th7-8 levels on the right side and Th10-11 levels on the left side. An irradiated field on the chest revealed hypohidrosis. There were differences between spinal lesions in MRI and thermoregulatory sweat distribution. Sweat distribution of this case could not be explained by damage of intermediolateral nucleus of the spinal cord. We speculated that the sympathetic sudomotor pathways were partially disturbed at the upper thoracic cord. But the exact mechanism could not been elucidated. (author).

  13. Tubulopapillary mammary carcinoma in a brown bear (Ursus arctos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nak, Deniz; Cangul, I Taci; Nak, Yavuz; Cihan, Huseyin; Celimli, Nureddin

    2008-04-01

    A 28-yr-old, nulliparous female brown bear (Ursus arctos) at the Karacabey Ovakurusu Bear Sanctuary presented with an enlargement of the mammary gland. Three other nodules were also noted in the proximity of the mammary gland and over the vulva. Clinical, hematologic, ultrasonographic, and radiologic examinations were performed; the enlarged mammary gland was removed and the other masses were also excised. Histopathologic examination revealed tubulopapillary carcinoma of the mammary gland, and the other masses were diagnosed as epidermoid cysts. This is the first reported case of tubulopapillary mammary carcinoma accompanied by epidermoid cysts in a bear.

  14. A Real-Time Wireless Sweat Rate Measurement System for Physical Activity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueck, Andrew; Iftekhar, Tashfin; Stannard, Alicja B; Yelamarthi, Kumar; Kaya, Tolga

    2018-02-10

    There has been significant research on the physiology of sweat in the past decade, with one of the main interests being the development of a real-time hydration monitor that utilizes sweat. The contents of sweat have been known for decades; sweat provides significant information on the physiological condition of the human body. However, it is important to know the sweat rate as well, as sweat rate alters the concentration of the sweat constituents, and ultimately affects the accuracy of hydration detection. Towards this goal, a calorimetric based flow-rate detection system was built and tested to determine sweat rate in real time. The proposed sweat rate monitoring system has been validated through both controlled lab experiments (syringe pump) and human trials. An Internet of Things (IoT) platform was embedded, with the sensor using a Simblee board and Raspberry Pi. The overall prototype is capable of sending sweat rate information in real time to either a smartphone or directly to the cloud. Based on a proven theoretical concept, our overall system implementation features a pioneer device that can truly measure the rate of sweat in real time, which was tested and validated on human subjects. Our realization of the real-time sweat rate watch is capable of detecting sweat rates as low as 0.15 µL/min/cm², with an average error in accuracy of 18% compared to manual sweat rate readings.

  15. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. It also makes precursors that can be converted ... steroids (androgen, estrogen). A different part of the adrenal gland makes adrenaline (epinephrine). When the glands produce ...

  16. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  17. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  18. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  19. Parotid gland sparing radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Radiotherapy is a common form of treatment for head-and-neck malignancies. One of the most prominent complaints after radiotherapy is a dry mouth, which is caused by irradiation of the salivary glands. The main contributors of saliva during stimulation are the parotid glands, which are

  20. Colorectal carcinoma with dome-like phenotype: an under-recognised subset of colorectal carcinoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, L; Pachler, J; Holck, S

    2008-01-01

    The term dome carcinoma has been applied to a variant of colorectal carcinoma, thought to derive from M-cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Its distinguishing morphological features include a non-polypoid plaque-like lesion composed of closely apposed cystically dilated glands lined...

  1. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J; Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background . Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods . Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results . Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions . Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  2. Adhesive RFID Sensor Patch for Monitoring of Sweat Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, Michael E; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian; Heikenfeld, Jason C

    2015-06-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smartphone app with 96% accuracy at 50 mM Na(+) (in vitro tests). All circuitry is solder-reflow integrated on a standard Cu/polyimide flexible-electronic layer including an antenna, but while also allowing electroplating for simple integration of exotic metals for sensing electrodes. Optional paper microfluidics wick sweat from a sweat porous adhesive allowing flow to the sensor, or the sensor can be directly contacted to the skin. The wearability of the patch has been demonstrated for up to seven days, and includes a protective textile which provides a feel and appearance similar to a standard Band-Aid. Applications include hydration monitoring, but the basic capability is extendable to other mM ionic solutes in sweat (Cl(-), K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), and Zn(2+)). The design and fabrication of the patch are provided in full detail, as the basic components could be useful in the design of other wearable sensors.

  3. Exercise- and methylcholine-induced sweating responses in older and younger men: effect of heat acclimation and aerobic fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Y.; Havenith, George; Kenney, W. Larry; Loomis, Joseph L.; Buskirk, Elsworth R.

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of aging and aerobic fitness on exercise- and methylcholine-induced sweating responses during heat acclimation. Five younger [Y group - age: 23+/-1 (SEM) years; maximal oxygen consumption (V.O2max): 47+/-3 ml.kg-1.min-1], four highly fit older (HO group - 63+/-3 years; 48+/-4 ml.kg-1.min-1) and five normally fit older men (NO group - 67+/-3 years; 30+/-1 ml.kg-1.min-1) who were matched for height, body mass and percentage fat, were heat acclimated by daily cycle exercise ( 35% V.O2max for 90 min) in a hot (43°C, 30% RH) environment for 8 days. The heat acclimation regimen increased performance time, lowered final rectal temperature (Tre) and percentage maximal heart rate (%HRmax), improved thermal comfort and decreased sweat sodium concentration similarly in all groups. Although total body sweating rates (M.sw) during acclimation were significantly greater in the Y and HO groups than in the NO group (Pgroup), the M.sw did not change in all groups with the acclimation sessions. Neither were local sweating rates (m.sw) on chest, back, forearm and thigh changed in all groups by the acclimation. The HO group presented greater forearm m.sw (30-90 min) values and the Y group had greater back and thigh m.sw (early in exercise) values, compared to the other groups (PHO>NO, and on the forearm Y=HO>NO. No group differences were observed for activated sweat gland density at any site. The SGO at the respective sites increased in the post-acclimation test regardless of group (Pgroups than in the Y group. These findings suggest that heat tolerance and the improvement with acclimation are little impaired not only in highly fit older but also normally fit older men, when the subjects exercised at the same relative exercise intensity. Furthermore, the changes induced by acclimation appear associated with an age-related decrease in V.O2max. However methylcholine-activated SGO and the magnitude of improvement of SGO with

  4. Actinomycosis of Submandibular Gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Ho; Park, In Woo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Kangnung National University, Kangnung (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hang Moon; Heo, MIn Suk; Lee, Sam Sun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-15

    Actinomycosis is defined as a chronic, specific, suppurative, granulomatous disease caused mainly by the anaerobic, gram positive organism, Actinomyces israelii. Actinomycosis in the salivary gland is a rare disease that is caused by an inhabitant of the normal flora. We report the case of the actinomycosis of submandibular gland. A 53-year old man presented with the swelling on left submandiblar area. The lesion was not painful but had been increasing for about 10 days. In the CT view, the internal portion of the mass showed homogeneous moderate signal. The mass had continuities with the inferior portion of the left enlarged submandibular gland. In the MRI, there was a mass that showed a buldging pattern inferiorly in the left submandibular gland without bony invasion sign. The biopsy shows the colony of special organism. Many filaments are discovered with clubbed ends diffused from center of colony. We diagnosed this disease as actinomycosis in the submandibular gland by the postoperational biopsy.

  5. Sweat mineral-element responses during 7 h of exercise-heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, Scott J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lukaski, Henry C

    2007-12-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the effect of sustained sweating on sweat mineral-element composition. To determine the effect of multiple hours of exercise-heat stress on sweat mineral concentrations. Seven heat-acclimated subjects (6 males, 1 female) completed 5 x 60 min of treadmill exercise (1.56 m/s, 2% grade) with 20 min rest between exercise periods in 2 weather conditions (27 degrees C, 40% relative humidity, 1 m/s and 35 degrees C, 30%, 1 m/s). Sweat was collected from a sweat-collection pouch attached to the upper back during exercise bouts 1, 3, and 5. Mineral elements were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-emission spectrography. At 27 degrees C, sweat sodium (863 [563] microg/mL; mean [SD]), potassium (222 [48] microg/mL), calcium (16 [7]) microg/mL), magnesium (1265 [566] ng/mL), and copper (80 [56] ng/mL) remained similar to baseline over 7 h of exercise-heat stress, whereas sweat zinc declined 42-45% after the initial hour of exercise-heat stress (Ex1 = 655 [362], Ex3 = 382 [168], Ex5 = 355 [288] microg/mL, P sweat zinc at 35 degrees C when sweat rates were higher. Sweat rate had no effect on sweat trace-element composition. Sweat sodium, potassium, and calcium losses during multiple hours of sustained sweating can be predicted from initial sweat composition. Estimates of sweat zinc losses, however, will be overestimated if sweat zinc conservation is not accounted for in sweat zinc-loss estimates.

  6. Extra-ocular sebaceous carcinoma: Rare skin adnexal tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Sen; Sumiti Gupta; Ashok Sangwaiya; Renuka Verma; Jyoti Sharma; Veena Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Sebaceous carcinoma is a rare, highly malignant, and potentially lethal tumor of the skin, which most commonly occurs in the eyelid. The neoplasm arises from sebaceous glands, such as those of the eyebrow. It represents 1-5.5% of eyelid malignancies and is considered to be the third most common eyelid malignancy after basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, although few reports placed this tumor as second most common after basal cell carcinoma. Cutaneous extra-ocular sebaceous carci...

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of MYB in salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinoma and basal cell adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Sydney L; Robinson, Robert A

    2017-10-01

    Basal cell predominant salivary gland neoplasms can be difficult to separate histologically. One of the most aggressive of basaloid salivary gland neoplasms is adenoid cystic carcinoma. MYB expression by immunohistochemistry has been documented in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Some investigators have suggested that using this expression can help in establishing the diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma. Utilizing tissue microarrays, we studied a group of basal cell adenocarcinomas and basal cell adenomas to determine: (i) whether either tumor expressed MYB and (ii) the frequency of any expression in either tumors. Seventeen salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinomas and 30 salivary gland basal cell adenomas were used to construct microarrays. These tissue microarrays were used to assess for immunohistochemical MYB expression. Fifty-three percent (nine of 17) of salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinomas and 57% (17 of 30) of salivary gland basal cell adenomas showed MYB overexpression. For comparison, we studied 11 adenoid cystic carcinomas for MYB expression and found that 64% (seven of 11) overexpressed MYB. We found no relation to clinical course for basal adenomas or basal cell adenocarcinomas that overexpressed MYB vs those that did not. MYB expression does not help separate basal cell adenocarcinomas from basal cell adenomas, and our data suggest it does not differentiate between either of these neoplasms and adenoid cystic carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  9. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Abdurrahman Erdem; Karataş-Torun, Nimet; Maslak, İbrahim Cemal; Bingöl, Ayşen; Alper, Özgül M

    2017-01-01

    Başaran AE, Karataş-Torun N, Maslak İC, Bingöl A, Alper ÖM. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 68-70. A 5-month-old patient presented with complaints of fever and cough. He was hospitalized with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and pseudo-Bartter's syndrome. Patient was further investigated for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The chloride (Cl) level in sweat was determined within the normal range (25.1 mmol/L, 20.3 mmol/L). CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator gene; NM_000492.2) genotyping results were positive for p.E92K; p.F1052V mutations. The patient was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. In our patient, with features of CF and normal sweat test, mutation analysis was helpful for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

  10. Comparing the RTOG/EORTC and LENT-SOMA scoring systems for the evaluation of late skin toxicity after (125)I seed brachytherapy for parotid gland cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ming-Hui; Feng, Zhien; Li, Hua; Qin, Li-Zheng; Li, Jian-Hua; Huang, Xin; Xing, Ru-Dong; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Han, Zheng-Xue

    The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) and Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force-Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (LENT-SOMA) scoring systems were compared for grading late skin effects after iodine-125 seed brachytherapy in parotid gland cancer patients. A total of 109 patients diagnosed with parotid gland carcinoma were treated postoperatively with iodine-125 seed brachytherapy at a dose of 100-120 Gy. After 6-24 months of followup, telangiectasia, skin pigmentation, atrophy, fibrosis, and ulceration were scored according to both RTOG and LENT-SOMA scale criteria. The strength of correlation between the scores and the interobserver variability were calculated. Of 109 patients, 22.9% had telangiectasia; 78.9%, pigmentation; 28.4%, fibrosis; 4.6%, edema; 0.9%, ulceration; 37.6%, retraction and/or atrophy; 22.9%, sensation change; and 11%, scaliness and/or roughness. Compared with RTOG, LENT-SOMA criteria resulted in the upgrading of pigmentation in 17% of cases, the downgrading of all instances of telangiectasia and the downgrading of one instance of Grade 4 ulceration to Grade 3. Between the two scales, fibrosis and atrophy correlated well (Spearman ρ, 0.992, 0.986). An additional 229 side effects were observed using LENT-SOMA criteria. The LENT-SOMA scale was more accurate than the RTOG scale for the evaluation of late skin and subcutaneous toxicity. The downgrading of telangiectasia and upgrading of pigmentation with the LENT-SOMA scale reflected the patients' conditions better than the scores obtained with the RTOG scale. The assessment of fibrosis and atrophy correlated well between the two scales. The use of the sum of the individual scores of the LENT-SOMA is therefore advocated. The addition of decreased sweating and the removal of the alopecia (scalp) metric should be considered to standardize the reporting of late radiation morbidity. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of induced metabolic alkalosis on sweat composition in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Nimmo, M A

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether induced metabolic alkalosis affects sweat composition, 10 males cycled for 90 min at 62.5 +/- 1.3% peak oxygen uptake, on two separate occasions. Subjects ingested either empty capsules (placebo) or capsules containing NaHCO3- (0.3 g kg-1 body mass; six equal doses) over a 2-h period, which commenced 3 h prior to exercise. Arterialized-venous blood samples were drawn prior to and after 15, 30, 60 and 90 min of exercise. Sweat was aspirated at the end of exercise from a patch located on the right scapula region. NaHCO3- ingestion elevated blood pH, [HCO3-] and serum [Na+], whereas serum [Cl-] and [K+] were reduced, both at rest and during exercise (P Sweat pH was greater in the NaHCO3- trial (6.24 +/- 0.18 vs. 6.38 +/- 0.18; P sweat [Na+] (49.5 +/- 4.8 vs. 50.2 +/- 4.3 mEq L-1), [Cl-] (37.5 +/- 5.1 vs. 39.3 +/- 4.2 mEq L-1) and [K+] (4.66 +/- 0.19 vs. 4.64 +/- 0.34 mEq L-1) did not differ between trials (P > 0.05). Sweat [HCO3-] (2.49 +/- 0.58 vs. 3.73 +/- 1.10 mEq L-1) and [lactate] (8.92 +/- 0.79 vs. 10.51 +/- 0.32 mmol L-1) tended to be greater after NaHCO3- ingestion, although significance was not reached (P=0.07 and P=0.08, respectively). These data indicate that induced metabolic alkalosis can modify sweat composition, although it is unclear whether the secretory coil, reabsorptive duct, or both are responsible for this alteration.

  12. Myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Lata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of salivary glands that account for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. The most common sites of involvement are major salivary glands mainly parotid gland. Intraorally, it can arise from minor salivary glands; palate is the most common site of occurrence. It also occurs in nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity and larynx in head and neck region. Myoepithelial tumors were first described in 1943. Their malignant variant, myoepithelial carcinoma, was first reported by Stromeyer et al., in 1975, characterized by distinct morphologic heterogeneity and an infiltrative growth pattern into adjacent tissues. Here, we report a rare case of a 55-year-old female with myoepithelial carcinoma of buccal mucosa. It was also rare because of unusual location of tumor. Our patient was treated with wide local resection and remained free of disease for 15 months.

  13. Sweat chloride as a biomarker of CFTR activity: proof of concept and ivacaftor clinical trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Frank J; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L; Rowe, Steven M; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W; Hoch, Heather E; Heltshe, Sonya L; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Campbell, Preston W; Ashlock, Melissa A

    2014-03-01

    We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821} of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with aG551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing,and analysis was employed for the first time. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators.

  14. [Analysis of fatty acid composition of sweat lipids in children and adults with skin disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrashko, Iu V; Koliadenko, V G; Briuzgina, T S; Prokhorova, M P

    2002-01-01

    Gas-chromatographic analysis of fatty acid composition of sweat lipids in children and adults with neurodermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and eczema showed that sweat can be used as a new noninvasive biological object for evaluation of lipid metabolism disorders.

  15. Sweat sodium loss influences serum sodium concentration in a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, B; Salinero, J J; Areces, F; Ruiz-Vicente, D; Gallo-Salazar, C; Abián-Vicén, J; Del Coso, J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of sweat electrolyte concentration on body water and electrolyte homeostasis during a marathon. Fifty-one runners completed a marathon race in a warm and dry environment (24.4 ± 3.6 °C). Runners were classified as low-salt sweaters (n = 21; sweat Na + concentration), typical sweaters (n = 20; ≥30 and sweat Na + concentration), and salty sweaters (n = 10; ≥60 mmol/L of sweat Na + concentration). Before and after the race, body mass and a sample of venous blood were obtained. During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches, and fluid and electrolyte intake were recorded by using self-reported questionnaires. Low-salt, typical and salty sweaters presented similar sweat rates (0.93 ± 0.2, 0.92 ± 0.29, 0.99 ± 0.21 L/h, respectively), body mass changes (-3.0 ± 1.0, -3.3 ± 1.0, -3.2 ± 0.8%), total Na + intake (12.7 ± 8.1, 11.5 ± 9.7, 14.5 ± 16.6 mmol), and fluid intake (1.3 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.6 L) during the race. However, salty sweaters presented lower post-race serum Na + concentration (140.8 ± 1.3 vs 142.5 ± 1.1, 142.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L; P Sweat electrolyte concentration could influence post-race serum electrolyte concentration in the marathon. However, even the saltiest sweaters did not develop exercise-associated hyponatremia or associated symptoms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  17. Wearable technologies for sweat rate and conductivity sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Salvo, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Wearable sensors present a new frontier in the development of monitoring techniques. They are of great importance in sectors such as sports and healthcare, as they permit the continuous monitoring of physiological and biological elements, such as ECG and human sweat. Until recently, this could only be carried out in specialized laboratories in the presence of cumbersome, and usually, expensive devices. Sweat monitoring sensors integrated onto textile substrates are not only part of a new field of work but, they also represent the first attempt to implement such an

  18. Immediate Wheal Reactivity to Autologous Sweat in Atopic Dermatitis Is Associated with Clinical Severity, Serum Total and Specific IgE and Sweat Tryptase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilves, Tiina; Virolainen, Anu; Harvima, Ilkka Tapani

    2016-01-01

    Sweating can worsen atopic dermatitis (AD). The purpose of this work was to study the associations between reactivity to autologous sweat and the clinical severity of AD as well as investigate the possible wheal-inducing factors of sweat. Intracutaneous skin tests with autologous sweat were performed on 50 AD patients and 24 control subjects. In skin biopsies, tryptase and PAR-2 were enzyme and immunohistochemically stained. The associations between skin test reactivity and sweat histamine concentration, tryptase or chymase activity levels, tryptase or PAR-2 expression and AD clinical severity or IgE levels were investigated. The wheal reactions in the intracutaneous tests with autologous sweat were positive, weakly positive and negative in 38, 34 and 28% of the AD patients, respectively, and in 4, 46 and 50% of the healthy controls, respectively (p = 0.008). In AD, the wheal reaction was associated significantly with clinical severity, serum total and specific IgE levels and sweat tryptase activity, but not with sweat histamine and chymase. In nonlesional AD skin, the percentage of PAR-2+ mast cells (MCs) or the number of tryptase+ MCs did not differ significantly between the intracutaneous test reactivity groups. Reactivity to autologous sweat correlates with the clinical severity of AD, and tryptase may be one of the factors involved in the sweat-induced wheal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Transient elevation of sweat chloride concentration in a malnourished girl with the Mauriac syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, F P; Transue, D J; Belknap, W M; Freij, B J; Aughton, D J

    1995-02-01

    Elevated sweat chloride concentration in a patient with Mauriac syndrome has been reported only once. The authors of that report regarded their patient's underlying malnutrition, and not Mauriac syndrome per se, as the cause of the elevated sweat chloride concentration. We describe a second example of transient elevation of sweat chloride concentration, which confirms that the malnutrition intrinsic to Mauriac syndrome, rather than the syndrome itself, was the probable cause of elevated sweat chloride values.

  20. Simple barcode system based on ionogels for real time pH-sweat monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Coyle, Shirley; Byrne, Robert; O’Toole, Corinne; Barry, Caroline; Diamond, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication, characterization and the performance of a wearable, robust, flexible and disposable barcode system based on novel ionic liquid polymer gels (ionogels) for monitoring in real time mode the pH of the sweat generated during an exercise period. Up to now sweat analysis has been carried out using awkward methods of collecting sweat followed by laboratory analysis. The approach presented here can provide immediate feedback regarding sweat composition. The great ...