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Sample records for sweat bee lasioglossum

  1. Pesticide use within a pollinator-dependent crop has negative effects on the abundance and species richness of sweat bees, Lasioglossum spp., and on bumble bee colony growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are implicated in current bee declines. Wild bees that nest or forage within agroecosystems may be exposed to numerous pesticides applied throughout their life cycles, with potential additive or synergistic effects. In pollinator-dependent crops, pesticides may reduce bee populations, cre...

  2. Evolution: plastic sociality in a sweat bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuisat, Michel

    2010-11-23

    How and why do bees become social? A transplant experiment shows that sweat bees can adopt a solitary or social lifestyle in response to their environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. RELATEDNESS AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE PRIMITIVELY EUSOCIAL BEE LASIOGLOSSUM ZEPHYRUM (HYMENOPTERA: HALICTIDAE) IN KANSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, R H; Smith, B H; Crozier, Y C

    1987-07-01

    Lasioglossum zephyrum is a primitively eusocial bee, which nests in small colonies of up to 20 individuals. The nests occur in patchily distributed aggregations of from a few to over 1,000 nests along periodically disturbed stream and river banks in eastern North America. We used five polymorphic allozyme loci to test for geographic structure and estimate relatedness in eight patches of nests from five aggregations in Douglas Co., Kansas. Autocorrelation analysis of gene frequencies, plus a multilocus G test, revealed a low but significant tendency for differentiation among nests within patches, among patches within aggregations, and among aggregations. Small numbers of nests restricted estimation of relatedness to three patches, of which only one had a sample size large enough to yield confidence limits narrow enough to be informative. The limits from this patch of 20 nests are 0.64 makeup is more complex than this, so that a lower value, say 0.7, is more plausible. This value is sufficiently high to indicate that kin selection is probably important in these populations. © 1987 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Bees of the Hemihalictus series of Lasioglossum Curtis (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, Ryuki

    2017-05-18

    The South Korean fauna of the Hemihalictus series belonging to the genus Lasioglossum Curtis are reviewed. Twenty-seven species are recognized for the country. Lasioglossum laevoides Ebmer is recorded from the Korean Peninsula for the first time. The following species are newly recorded from South Korea: L. albipes villosum Ebmer, L. calceatum (Scopoli), L. kiautschouense (Strand), L. sakagamii Ebmer, L. speculinum (Cockerell), L. subfulvicorne subfulvicorne (Blüthgen), L. villosulum (Kirby), and L. vulsum (Vachal). Illustrated keys to females and males of South Korean species are provided. Bionomical data such as flight and flower records in South Korea are given.

  5. Sweat bees on hot chillies: provision of pollination services by native bees in traditional slash-and-burn agriculture in the Yucatán Peninsula of tropical Mexico.

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    Landaverde-González, Patricia; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G; Theodorou, Panagiotis; Murray, Tomás E; Husemann, Martin; Ayala, Ricardo; Moo-Valle, Humberto; Vandame, Rémy; Paxton, Robert J

    2017-12-01

    Traditional tropical agriculture often entails a form of slash-and-burn land management that may adversely affect ecosystem services such as pollination, which are required for successful crop yields. The Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico has a >4000 year history of traditional slash-and-burn agriculture, termed 'milpa'. Hot 'Habanero' chilli is a major pollinator-dependent crop that nowadays is often grown in monoculture within the milpa system.We studied 37 local farmers' chilli fields (sites) to evaluate the effects of landscape composition on bee communities. At 11 of these sites, we undertook experimental pollination treatments to quantify the pollination of chilli. We further explored the relationships between landscape composition, bee communities and pollination service provision to chilli.Bee species richness, particularly species of the family Apidae, was positively related to the amount of forest cover. Species diversity decreased with increasing proportion of crop land surrounding each sampling site. Sweat bees of the genus Lasioglossum were the most abundant bee taxon in chilli fields and, in contrast to other bee species, increased in abundance with the proportion of fallow land, gardens and pastures which are an integral part of the milpa system.There was an average pollination shortfall of 21% for chilli across all sites; yet the shortfall was unrelated to the proportion of land covered by crops. Rather, chilli pollination was positively related to the abundance of Lasioglossum bees, probably an important pollinator of chilli, as well indirectly to the proportion of fallow land, gardens and pastures that promote Lasioglossum abundance. Synthesis and applications . Current, low-intensity traditional slash-and-burn ( milpa ) agriculture provides Lasioglossum spp. pollinators for successful chilli production; fallow land, gardens and pasture therefore need to be valued as important habitats for these and related ground-nesting bee species. However, the

  6. Floral Resources and Nesting Requirements of the Ground-Nesting Social Bee, Lasioglossum malachurum (Hymenoptera: Halictidae, in a Mediterranean Semiagricultural Landscape

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    Carlo Polidori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to adopt correct conservation strike plans to maintain bee pollination activity it is necessary to know the species' resource utilisation and requirements. We investigated the floral resources and the nesting requirements of the eusocial bee Lasioglossum malachurum Kirby at various sites in a Mediterranean landscape. Analysis of bees' pollen loads showed that Compositae was the more exploited family, although interpopulations differences appeared in the pollen types used. From 5 to 7 pollen types were used by bees, but only as few as 1–1.9 per load. Variations of the pollen spectrum through the annual nesting cycle were conspicuous. At all sites, bees nested in horizontal ground areas with high soil hardness, low acidity, and rare superficial stones. On the other side, the exploited soil was variable in soil granulometry (although always high in % of silt or sand and it was moderately variable in content of organic matter and highly variable in vegetation cover. Creation of ground patches with these characteristics in proximity of both cultivated and natural flowering fields may successfully promote colonization of new areas by this bee.

  7. Sweating

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    ... Home Body Looking and feeling your best Sweating Sweating You might think that you are only supposed to sweat when you are hot, but once you hit puberty, you will also sweat when you are nervous. Your sweat glands, which ...

  8. Sweat

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    Sweat is a clear, salty liquid produced by glands in your skin. Sweating is how your body cools itself. You sweat mainly under your arms and on your feet and palms. When sweat mixes with bacteria on your skin, it can ...

  9. The use of heterospecific scent marks by the sweat bee Halictus aerarius

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    Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Goulson, Dave; Fujisaki, Kenji

    2007-12-01

    To forage effectively amongst flowers, some bee species utilize olfactory cues left by previous visitors in addition to direct assessment of visual cues to identify rewarding flowers. This ability can be more advantageous if the bees can recognize and use scent marks left by heterospecifics, not just marks left by members of their own species. We conducted field experiments to investigate whether the sweat bee Halictus aerarius avoids visiting flowers of trailing water willow Justicia procumbens emptied by other bee species. We found that H. aerarius rejected the flowers visited by both heterospecifics and conspecifics. They also rejected visited flowers artificially replenished with nectar. Our results demonstrate that social bees outside the Apidae can detect marks left on flowers by heterospecifics but that (on this plant species) they are unable to discriminate against flowers by directly detecting nectar volume. H. aerarius exhibited different rejection rates according to the identity of the previous bee species. We suggest that the frequency of rejection responses may depend on the amount of chemical substances left by the previous bee. In general, the use of scent marks left by previous visitors is almost certainly advantageous, enabling foragers to avoid flowers with depleted nectar levels and thereby improving their foraging efficiency.

  10. Sweating

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    ... treat mental disorders Menopause Spicy foods (known as "gustatory sweating") Warm temperatures Withdrawal from alcohol or narcotic ... D, Chelimsky G. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ...

  11. Consequences of a warming climate for social organisation in sweat bees.

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    Schürch, Roger; Accleton, Christopher; Field, Jeremy

    The progression from solitary living to caste-based sociality is commonly regarded as a major evolutionary transition. However, it has recently been shown that in some taxa, sociality may be plastic and dependent on local conditions. If sociality can be environmentally driven, the question arises as to how projected climate change will influence features of social organisation that were previously thought to be of macroevolutionary proportions. Depending on the time available in spring during which a foundress can produce worker offspring, the sweat bee Halictus rubicundus is either social or solitary. We analysed detailed foraging data in relation to climate change predictions for Great Britain to assess when and where switches from a solitary to social lifestyle may be expected. We demonstrate that worker numbers should increase throughout Great Britain under predicted climate change scenarios, and importantly, that sociality should appear in northern areas where it has never before been observed. This dramatic shift in social organisation due to climate change should lead to a bigger workforce being available for summer pollination and may contribute towards mitigating the current pollinator crisis. The sweat bee Halictus rubicundus is socially polymorphic, expressing both solitary and social forms, and is socially plastic, capable of transitioning from solitary to social forms, depending on local environmental conditions. Here, we analyse detailed foraging data in relation to climate change predictions for Great Britain to show that worker numbers and sociality both increase under predicted climate change scenarios. Especially dramatic will be the appearance of social H. rubicundus nests in the north of Britain, where previously only solitary forms are found. Particularly, if more taxa are found to be socially plastic, environmentally driven shifts in social organisation may help to mitigate future pollinator crises by providing more individuals for pollination.

  12. What's Sweat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight for Me? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs What's Sweat? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Sweat? Print A A ... dehydrated (say: dee-HI-drayt-ed). Why Does Sweat Smell? Sweat isn't just wet — it can ...

  13. Night Sweats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Night sweats By Mayo Clinic Staff Night sweats are repeated episodes of extreme perspiration that may soak your nightclothes or ... these episodes are usually not labeled as night sweats and typically aren't a sign of a ...

  14. Sweat Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  15. Sweat Allergy.

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    Hiragun, Takaaki; Hide, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    For many years, sweat has been recognized as an exacerbation factor in all age groups of atopic dermatitis (AD) and a trigger of cholinergic urticaria (CholU). Recently, we reported the improvement of AD symptoms by spray with tannic acid, which suppresses basophil histamine release by semipurified sweat antigens in vitro, and showering that removes antigens in sweat from the skin surface. We finally identified MGL_1304 secreted by Malassezia globosa as a major histamine-releasing antigen in human sweat. MGL_1304 is detected as a 17-kDa protein in sweat and exhibits almost the highest histamine-release ability from basophils of patients with AD and CholU among antigens derived from Malassezia species. Moreover, serum levels of anti-MGL_1304 IgE of patients with AD and CholU were significantly higher than those of normal controls. Desensitization therapy using autologous sweat or MGL_1304 purified from culture of M. globosa or its cognates might be beneficial for patients with intractable CholU due to sweat allergy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Sweat electrolytes test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat test; Sweat chloride; Iontophoretic sweat test; CF - sweat test; Cystic fibrosis - sweat test ... A colorless, odorless chemical that causes sweating is applied to a small area on an arm or leg. An electrode is then attached to the spot. A weak electrical ...

  17. Pollination by flies, bees, and beetles of Nuphar ozarkana and N. advena (Nymphaeaceae).

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    Lippok, B; Gardine, A A; Williamson, P S; Renner, S S

    2000-06-01

    Nuphar comprises 13 species of aquatic perennials distributed in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The European species N. lutea and N. pumila in Norway, the Netherlands, and Germany are pollinated by bees and flies, including apparent Nuphar specialists. This contrasts with reports of predominant beetle pollination in American N. advena and N. polysepala. We studied pollination in N. ozarkana in Missouri and N. advena in Texas to assess whether (1) there is evidence of pollinator shifts associated with floral-morphological differences between Old World and New World species as hypothesized by Padgett, Les, and Crow (American Journal of Botany 86: 1316-1324. 1999) and (2) whether beetle pollination characterizes American species of Nuphar. Ninety-seven and 67% of flower visits in the two species were by sweat bees, especially Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) nelumbonis. Syrphid fly species visiting both species were Paragus sp., Chalcosyrphus metallicus, and Toxomerus geminatus. The long-horned leaf beetle Donacia piscatrix was common on leaves and stems of N. ozarkana but rarely visited flowers. Fifteen percent of visits to N. advena flowers were by D. piscatrix and D. texana. The beetles' role as pollinators was investigated experimentally by placing floating mesh cages that excluded flies and bees over N. advena buds about to open and adding beetles. Beetles visited 40% of the flowers in cages, and flowers that received visits had 69% seed set, likely due to beetle-mediated geitonogamy of 1st-d flowers. Experimentally outcrossed 1st-d flowers had 62% seed set, and open-pollinated flowers 76%; 2nd-d selfed or outcrossed flowers had low seed sets (9 and 12%, respectively). Flowers are strongly protogynous and do not self spontaneously. Flowers shielded from pollinators set no seeds. A comparison of pollinator spectra in the two Old World and three New World Nuphar species studied so far suggests that the relative contribution of flies, bees, and beetles to pollen transfer

  18. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion.

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    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2015-09-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca(2+) -dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers - for example InsP3 and Ca(2+) - and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid-base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Immunohistochemical sweat gland profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E; Delvenne, Philippe; Quatresooz, Pascale; Humbert, Philippe; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. Some immunohistochemical markers are expected to distinguish the sweat gland types in their secretory and excretory parts. This study used two sets of antibodies. The first panel was composed of antibodies directed to well-defined sweat gland structures. The molecular targets included the low-molecular-weight cytokeratins CAM 5.2, the S100-B protein, the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). A second exploratory panel of antibodies targeted syndecan-1 (CD138), NKI-C3 (CD63), and CD68. They were used to disclose some undescribed antigen expressions in human sweat glands. The first set of antibodies confirmed previous findings. The immunoreactivities of the three sweat gland types were similar in the excretory ducts. By contrast, they were distinguished in the deeper coiled secretory portions of the glands. Clues supporting their distinction and probably their functional activity were obtained by immunohistochemistry using the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 antibodies. The immunoreactivity to the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 possibly help identifying apoeccrine sweat glands or a peculiar functional activity of eccrine sweat glands. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sweat collection capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  1. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. [What causes English sweats?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimar, Yossi

    2004-09-01

    English sweating disease also known as Sudor Anglicus is one of the least familiar epidemics of the Middle Ages, striking England 5 times during the 15th and 16th centuries before fading. This article will discuss the knowledge available to us about this fascinating epidemic, its characteristics and causes.

  3. Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines also can cause this type of hyperhidrosis. Anxiety and embarrassment Both types of hyperhidrosis can cause people to feel extremely anxious and embarrassed. Students often avoid raising their hand during class. Many teens never date. Adults may hide the sweat stains ...

  4. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities

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    Joshua W. Campbell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp. have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine (P. taeda plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3–4 year old pine plantations and 9–10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.

  5. Bee Community of Commercial Potato Fields in Michigan and Bombus impatiens Visitation to Neonicotinoid-Treated Potato Plants

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    Amanda L. Buchanan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a bee survey in neonicotinoid-treated commercial potato fields using bowl and vane traps in the 2016 growing season. Traps were placed outside the fields, at the field edges, and 10 and 30 m into the fields. We collected 756 bees representing 58 species, with Lasioglossum spp. comprising 73% of all captured bees. We found seven Bombus spp., of which B. impatiens was the only known visitor of potato flowers in our region. The majority of the bees (68% were collected at the field edges and in the field margins. Blue vane traps caught almost four-times as many bees and collected 30% more species compared to bowl traps. Bee communities did not differ across trap locations but they were different among trap types. We tested B. impatiens visitation to neonicotinoid treated and untreated potato flowers in field enclosures. The amount of time bees spent at flowers and the duration of visits were not significantly different between the two treatments. Our results demonstrate that a diverse assemblage of bees is associated with an agroecosystem dominated by potatoes despite the apparent lack of pollinator resources provided by the crop. We found no difference in B. impatiens foraging behavior on neonicotinoid-treated compared to untreated plants.

  6. Bee Community of Commercial Potato Fields in Michigan and Bombus impatiens Visitation to Neonicotinoid-Treated Potato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Amanda L; Gibbs, Jason; Komondy, Lidia; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2017-03-09

    We conducted a bee survey in neonicotinoid-treated commercial potato fields using bowl and vane traps in the 2016 growing season. Traps were placed outside the fields, at the field edges, and 10 and 30 m into the fields. We collected 756 bees representing 58 species, with Lasioglossum spp. comprising 73% of all captured bees. We found seven Bombus spp., of which B. impatiens was the only known visitor of potato flowers in our region. The majority of the bees (68%) were collected at the field edges and in the field margins. Blue vane traps caught almost four-times as many bees and collected 30% more species compared to bowl traps. Bee communities did not differ across trap locations but they were different among trap types. We tested B. impatiens visitation to neonicotinoid treated and untreated potato flowers in field enclosures. The amount of time bees spent at flowers and the duration of visits were not significantly different between the two treatments. Our results demonstrate that a diverse assemblage of bees is associated with an agroecosystem dominated by potatoes despite the apparent lack of pollinator resources provided by the crop. We found no difference in B. impatiens foraging behavior on neonicotinoid-treated compared to untreated plants.

  7. Abundance and Diversity of Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Found in Lowbush Blueberry Growing Regions of Downeast Maine.

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    Bushmann, Sara L; Drummond, Francis A

    2015-08-01

    Insect-mediated pollination is critical for lowbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) fruit development. Past research shows a persistent presence of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) providing pollination services even when commercial pollinators are present. We undertook the study to 1) provide a description of bee communities found in lowbush blueberry-growing regions, 2) identify field characteristics or farm management practices that influence those communities, 3) identify key wild bee pollinators that provide pollination services for the blueberry crop, and 4) identify non-crop plants found within the cropping system that provide forage for wild bees. During a 4-year period, we collected solitary and eusocial bees in over 40 fields during and after blueberry bloom, determining a management description for each field. We collected 4,474 solitary bees representing 124 species and 1,315 summer bumble bees representing nine species. No bumble bee species were previously unknown in Maine, yet we document seven solitary bee species new for the state. These include species of the genera Nomada, Lasioglossum, Calliopsis, and Augochloropsis. No field characteristic or farm management practice related to bee community structure, except bumble bee species richness was higher in certified organic fields. Pollen analysis determined scopal loads of 67-99% ericaceous pollen carried by five species of Andrena. Our data suggest two native ericaceous plants, Kalmia angustifolia L. and Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenheim), provide important alternative floral resources. We conclude that Maine blueberry croplands are populated with a species-rich bee community that fluctuates in time and space. We suggest growers develop and maintain wild bee forage and nest sites. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Ninhydrin sweat test in leprosy.

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    Markendeya, N; Srinivas, C R

    2004-01-01

    Loss of sensation is an important feature of leprosy. Loss of sweating over the affected site due to loss of autonomic function occurs in leprosy. We have studied a simple, non-invasive, rapid method, using 1% ninhydrin in acetone, to detect loss of sweat function. The test was effective in detecting and grading the sweat function in 84 cases of different types of leprosy. We were able to detect normal sweating in 16 patients with hypopigmented lesion due to causes other than Hansen's disease.

  9. Bee Pollen

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    Bee Pollen Extract, Buckwheat Pollen, Extrait de Pollen d’Abeille, Honeybee Pollen, Honey Bee Pollen, Maize Pollen, Pine Pollen, Polen de Abeja, Pollen, Pollen d'Abeille, Pollen d’Abeille de Miel, Pollen de ...

  10. A survey of bees (hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Indiana dunes and Northwest Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundel, R.; Jean, R.P.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Gibbs, J.; Glowacki, G.A.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Indiana Dunes, and nearby natural areas in northwest Indiana, are floristically rich Midwest U.S. locales with many habitat types. We surveyed bees along a habitat gradient ranging from grasslands to forests in these locales, collecting at least 175 bee species along this gradient plus 29 additional species in other nearby habitats. About 25% of all species were from the genus Lasioglossum and 12% of the species were associated with sandy soils. Several bumblebee (Bombus) species of conservation concern that should occur in this region were not collected during our surveys. Similarity of the northwest Indiana bee fauna to other published U.S. faunas decreased about 1.3% per 100 km distance from northwest Indiana. Thirty percent of bees netted from flowers were males. Males and females differed significantly in their frequency of occurrence on different plant species. For bees collected in bowl traps, the percentage captured in fluorescent yellow traps declined and in fluorescent blue traps increased from spring to late summer. Capture rates for different bee genera varied temporally, with about a quarter of the genera being captured most frequently in late spring and a quarter in late summer. Capture rates for most genera were higher in more open than in more closed canopy habitats. The maximum number of plant species on which a single bee species was captured plateaued at 24, on average. Forty-nine percent of bee species known to occur in Indiana were found at these northwest Indiana sites. Having this relatively high proportion of the total Indiana bee fauna is consistent with Indiana Dunes existing at a biogeographic crossroads where grassland and forest biomes meet in a landscape whose climate and soils are affected by proximity to Lake Michigan. The resulting habitat, plant, edaphic, and climatic diversity likely produces the diverse bee community documented.

  11. Sweating dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinn, L; Schrag, A; Viswanathan, R; Lees, A; Quinn, N; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence and nature of sweating disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and investigated their correlation with other clinical features and with Quality of Life (QoL) measures. A questionnaire on symptoms and consequences of sweating dysfunction was

  12. A Survey of Bee Species Found Pollinating Watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

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    C. S. Henne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. hives were in any of the fields; however, two contained managed hives of the common eastern bumble bee, Bombus impatiens (Cresson. A total of 15 species were collected or observed from all three fields combined. Of these species, only four were found to be very abundant: Agapostemon angelicus Cockerell/texanus Cresson, A. mellifera, Lasioglossum coactum (Cresson, and Melissodes thelypodii Cockerell. Apis mellifera comprised 46% of all bees collected from all three fields combined and was highly abundant in two of the three fields. In the third field, however, A. mellifera and Agapostemon angelicus/texanus were equally abundant. Surprisingly, B. impatiens comprised only 1% of the total bees surveyed in all three fields combined, despite two of the fields having several managed hives each. As B. impatiens is not native to this region, it was not surprising that none were collected or observed in the field with no managed hives.

  13. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  14. Why Do I Sweat So Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Parents - or Other Adults Why Do I Sweat So Much? KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Do I Sweat So Much? Print A A A en español ¿Por qué sudo tanto? It's perfectly normal to sweat. Sweating plays an important health role because it ...

  15. Sweat mechanisms and dysfunctions in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Aleksi J; Vaughn, Alexandra R; Clark, Ashley K; Yosipovitch, Gil; Shi, Vivian Y

    2018-02-01

    Skin barrier dysfunction is inherent to atopic dermatitis (AD), causing dryness, irritation, and increased permeability to irritants, allergens and pathogens. Eccrine sweat functions as part of the skin's protective barrier. Variations in sweat responses have been observed in patients with AD, and altered sweat composition and dynamics are under-recognized as important factors in the disease cycle. This review discusses the role that sweat plays in the pathogenesis of AD, examines evidence on abnormal sweat composition, secretion, and neuro-immune responses to sweat in atopic skin, and highlights the value of sweat management. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bee health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine

    with a queen bee, based on their health status. Some of the methodological novelty, set-backs and preliminary results are discussed. In the fourth part, the thesis concludes by zooming out of the confines of the inner hive in order to address recent concerns regarding the potential spill-over of honey bee...

  17. Bioanalytical devices: Technological leap for sweat sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikenfeld, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Sweat analysis is an ideal method for continuously tracking a person's physiological state, but developing devices for this is difficult. A wearable sweat monitor that measures several biomarkers is a breakthrough. See Letter p.509

  18. Working Up a Good Sweat - The Challenges of Standardising Sweat Collection for Metabolomics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Joy N; Mantri, Nitin; Cohen, Marc M

    2017-02-01

    Human sweat is a complex biofluid of interest to diverse scientific fields. Metabolomics analysis of sweat promises to improve screening, diagnosis and self-monitoring of numerous conditions through new applications and greater personalisation of medical interventions. Before these applications can be fully developed, existing methods for the collection, handling, processing and storage of human sweat need to be revised. This review presents a cross-disciplinary overview of the origins, composition, physical characteristics and functional roles of human sweat, and explores the factors involved in standardising sweat collection for metabolomics analysis. A literature review of human sweat analysis over the past 10 years (2006-2016) was performed to identify studies with metabolomics or similarly applicable 'omics' analysis. These studies were reviewed with attention to sweat induction and sampling techniques, timing of sweat collection, sweat storage conditions, laboratory derivation, processing and analytical platforms. Comparative analysis of 20 studies revealed numerous factors that can significantly impact the validity, reliability and reproducibility of sweat analysis including: anatomical site of sweat sampling, skin integrity and preparation; temperature and humidity at the sweat collection sites; timing and nature of sweat collection; metabolic quenching; transport and storage; qualitative and quantitative measurements of the skin microbiota at sweat collection sites; and individual variables such as diet, emotional state, metabolic conditions, pharmaceutical, recreational drug and supplement use. Further development of standard operating protocols for human sweat collection can open the way for sweat metabolomics to significantly add to our understanding of human physiology in health and disease.

  19. Sweat Therapy Theory, Practice, and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Allen; Colmant, Stephen; Winterowd, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the potential application of sweat rituals to group counseling, adventure therapy, and other forms of group work by describing a theoretical model for how sweat rituals work and presenting the results of a randomized comparative outcome study on the efficacy of sweat therapy. The theoretical model proposes…

  20. Do elephants need to sweat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    higher increase (Clifford, Kerslake & Waddell 1959). Thus a number of factors studied under laboratory condi- tions in non-sweating human skin are pertinenl to this con- sideration of evaporative waler loss froro elephant skin and we have shown that the evaporative loss could provide the heat transfer necessary for thermal ...

  1. Sweat composition in exercise and in heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, T; Shephard, R J; Corey, P; Moore, R

    1982-12-01

    Sweat samples were collected from the forearms of eight male volunteers using light gauze pads applied for 20-min periods. Preliminary trials indicated that this technique yielded realistic figures for both sweat volume and sweat composition. Tests were conducted under three conditions: a) outdoor exercise, cool environment; b) indoor exercise, normal room temperatures; and c) sauna exposure. In all environments, proximal forearm samples indicated a larger sweat secretion than distal forearm or hand samples. [Mg2+] decreased as sweat flow increased, but after allowance for interindividual differences of sweat volume, [Na+], [K+], [Ca2+], and [Cl-] were independent of sweat flow rates. The differential effect of sweat flow suggests active regulation rather than contamination. Interindividual differences of sweat composition could not be explained in terms of differences in personal fitness. Sauna bathing yielded sweat with a higher [Mg2+] and [Ca2+] content than did exercise; however, [Na+], [K+], and [Cl-] were similar for the three experimental conditions. Again, the data are best explained in terms of an active regulation of sweat composition. Total ionic losses do not seem sufficient to deplete body mineral reserves unless many days of training are undertaken in a hot climate.

  2. Sweat as an Efficient Natural Moisturizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Tetsuo; Sato, Yohei; Komatsu, Yurie; Ushigome, Yukiko; Mizukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    Although recent research on the pathogenesis of allergic skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis has focused on defects in skin genes important for maintaining skin barrier function, the fact that excreted sweat has an overwhelmingly great capacity to increase skin surface hydration and contains moisturizing factors has long been ignored: the increase in water loss induced by these gene defects could theoretically be compensated fully by a significant increase in sweating. In this review, the dogma postulating the detrimental role of sweat in these diseases has been challenged on the basis of recent findings on the physiological functions of sweat, newly recognized sweat gland-/duct-related skin diseases, and therapeutic approaches to the management of these diseases. We are now beginning to appreciate that sweat glands/ducts are a sophisticated regulatory system. Furthermore, depending on their anatomical location and the degree of the impairment, this system might have a different function: sweating responses in sweat glands/ducts located at the folds in hairy skin such as on the trunk and extremities could function as natural regulators that maintain skin hydration under quiescent basal conditions, in addition to the better-studied thermoregulatory functions, which can be mainly mediated by those at the ridges. The normal functioning of sweat could be disturbed in various inflammatory skin diseases. Thus, we should recognize sweating disturbance as an etiologic factor in the development of these diseases. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Urea transporters and sweat response to uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Raymond W; Bailey, James L; Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-06-01

    In humans, urea is excreted in sweat, largely through the eccrine sweat gland. The urea concentration in human sweat is elevated when compared to blood urea nitrogen. The sweat urea nitrogen (UN) of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) is increased when compared with healthy humans. The ability to produce sweat is maintained in the overwhelming majority of ESRD patients. A comprehensive literature review found no reports of sweat UN neither in healthy rodents nor in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this study measured sweat UN concentrations in healthy and uremic rats. Uninephrectomy followed by renal artery ligation was used to remove 5/6 of renal function. Rats were then fed a high-protein diet to induce uremia. Pilocarpine was used to induce sweating. Sweat droplets were collected under oil. Sweat UN was measured with a urease assay. Serum UN was measured using a fluorescent ortho-pthalaldehyde reaction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was accomplished with a horseradish peroxidase and diaminobenzidine technique. Sweat UN in uremic rats was elevated greater than two times compared to healthy pair-fed controls (220 ± 17 and 91 ± 15 mmol/L, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between male and female uremic sweat UN (279 ± 38 and 177 ± 11 mmol/L, respectively.) IHC shows, for the first time, the presence of the urea transporters UT-B and UT-A2 in both healthy and uremic rat cutaneous structures. Future studies will use this model to elucidate how rat sweat UN and other solute excretion is altered by commonly prescribed diuretics. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  4. Bee bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Joshua David

    2015-01-01

    substances nowadays known primarily only to beekeepers and practitioners of traditional medicines. Propolis (or ‘bee glue’) is a structural sealant and potent antimicrobial agent within the hive, and it carries a beautiful resinous aroma. Royal jelly is what all brood—the immature larvae and pupae—are first...

  5. Thermal influence on palmar sweating and mental influence on generalized sweating in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T

    1975-01-01

    Sweat rates on the forearm and on the palm were simultaneously recorded by resistance hygrometry and the mode of sweating in these areas in response to thermal and non-thermal stimuli were compared with each other. In Series A, periodic infrared irradiation (1 min on, 1 min off) was done to the back of the trunk, and reflex responses in sweat rate were recorded on both test areas. A high correlation was noted between the mean changes in the palmar sweat rate and those in the forearm one during the irradiation cycle in a majority of cases. However the magnitude of the sweat response was much less on the palm than on the forearm. These observations reveal that the central mechanism of palmar sweating may be affected to some extent by the thermoregulatory mechanism. Series B was concerned with the pattern of response in forearm sweating to various non-thermal stimuli. Careful observations showed that the forearm sweating responded diversely to various mental stimuli, unlike the palmar sweating whose response was always an increase. Mental arithmetic, mental testing and physical exercise caused an immediate increase in the palmar sweating but often elicited a transient decrease in the forearm sweating, whereas pain, noise, and emotional stimuli consistently provoked an increase of sweating on the forearm as well as on the palm. These observations suggest that the activities of higher centers, presumably involving neocortex and limbic cortex, exert various influences on the central mechanisms of palmar and generalized sweating.

  6. Sweat sensor for sports physiological monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Coyle, Shirley; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication and the performance of a novel, wearable, robust, flexible and disposable micro-fluidic device which incorporates miniature optical components as a detection system, for wireless monitoring in real time mode of sweat pH during an exercise session is presented. This micro-fluidic platform is completely non-invasive, providing a continuous flow of fresh sweat for continuous real time analysis, ensuring immediate feedback regarding sweat composition to an athlete and/or coach.

  7. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... 100 mg/5 min. CONCLUSIONS: A sweat production rate of 100 mg/5 min as measured by gravimetric testing may be a reasonable cut-off value for distinguishing axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis from normal physiological sweat production....

  8. Working Up a Good Sweat – The Challenges of Standardising Sweat Collection for Metabolomics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Joy N; Mantri, Nitin; Cohen, Marc M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Human sweat is a complex biofluid of interest to diverse scientific fields. Metabolomics analysis of sweat promises to improve screening, diagnosis and self-monitoring of numerous conditions through new applications and greater personalisation of medical interventions. Before these applications can be fully developed, existing methods for the collection, handling, processing and storage of human sweat need to be revised. This review presents a cross-disciplinary overview of the origins, composition, physical characteristics and functional roles of human sweat, and explores the factors involved in standardising sweat collection for metabolomics analysis. Methods A literature review of human sweat analysis over the past 10 years (2006–2016) was performed to identify studies with metabolomics or similarly applicable ‘omics’ analysis. These studies were reviewed with attention to sweat induction and sampling techniques, timing of sweat collection, sweat storage conditions, laboratory derivation, processing and analytical platforms. Results Comparative analysis of 20 studies revealed numerous factors that can significantly impact the validity, reliability and reproducibility of sweat analysis including: anatomical site of sweat sampling, skin integrity and preparation; temperature and humidity at the sweat collection sites; timing and nature of sweat collection; metabolic quenching; transport and storage; qualitative and quantitative measurements of the skin microbiota at sweat collection sites; and individual variables such as diet, emotional state, metabolic conditions, pharmaceutical, recreational drug and supplement use. Conclusion Further development of standard operating protocols for human sweat collection can open the way for sweat metabolomics to significantly add to our understanding of human physiology in health and disease. PMID:28798503

  9. Sweating the small stuff: adequacy and accuracy in sweat chloride determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Mari L; Dietzen, Dennis J; Brown, Sarah M

    2015-04-01

    Sweat chloride testing is the gold standard for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Our objectives were to: 1) describe variables that determine sweat rate; 2) determine the analytic and diagnostic capacity of sweat chloride analysis across the range of observed sweat rates; and 3) determine the biologic variability of sweat chloride concentration. A retrospective analysis was performed using data from all sweat chloride tests performed at St. Louis Children's Hospital over a 21-month period. A total of 1397 sweat chloride tests (1155 sufficient [≥75 mg], 242 insufficient [sweat weight collected from forearms was statistically greater than that collected from legs. There was a negligible correlation between sweat weight and chloride concentration (r=-0.06). The mean individual biologic CV calculated from individuals with two or more sweat collections ≥75 mg was 13.1% (95% CI: 11.3-14.9%; range 0-88%) yielding a reference change value of 36%. Using 60 mmol/L as the diagnostic chloride cutoff, 100% of CF cases were detected whether a minimum sweat weight of 75, 40, or 20 mg was required. 1) Collection of sweat from forearms is preferable to upper legs, particularly in very young infants; 2) sweat chloride concentrations are not highly dependent upon sweat rate; 3) a change in sweat chloride concentration exceeding 36% may be considered a clinically significant response to cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor targeted therapy, and 4) sweat collections of less than 75 mg provide clinically accurate information. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sweat function in the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markendeya Nirmala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction, an early manifestation of diabetic neuropathy, presents with altered sweating patterns, leading to dryness and fissuring. We conducted a study to assess the sweat function in the diabetic foot and to determine the interrelation between the duration of diabetes, sensation, fissuring, and sweating. Methods: The sweat function was assessed in 30 diabetic patients, 28 of whom had fissuring of the feet, using Ninhydrin impregnated discs. Results: There was a significant association between fissuring and sensation, but not between the duration of diabetes and fissuring and between loss of sweating and fissuring. In 18 patients (60% there was impairment or absence of sweating in the presence of normal sensation. Conclusion: Although fissuring increases with long-standing diabetes and sweating is reduced in diabetic patients with fissures on the foot, the correlation between these entities was not statistically significant. Since 60% patients had altered sweating in the presence of normal sensations, the sweat test can be used as an early indicator of diabetic neuropathy.

  11. Precise measurement of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We propose a method for extraction of the target eccrine sweat gland by use of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en-face OCT images are constructed by the SS-OCT. Furthermore, we demonstrate precise measurement of instantaneous volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus. The dynamic change of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating is performed by this method during the period of 300 sec with the frame intervals of 3.23 sec.

  12. Sweat rate and sweat electrolyte composition in international female soccer players during game specific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, A E; Tunstall, H; Wraith, E; Good, M; Gammon, C; Smith, C

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sweat rate and sweat electrolyte composition in female international level soccer players. Thirteen soccer players performed two 90 min soccer-specific training sessions (T1 and T2) on separate days. Hydration status was determined prior to each session and sweat loss, sweat rate and sweat composition (Na (+), K (+), Mg (++) and Ca (+)) were determined from patches worn during training. The mean sweat rate during T1 and T2 was 0.50+/-0.20 and 0.43+/-0.18 L.h (-1) respectively (P>0.05). The mean sweat electrolyte composition during T1 and T2 was: [Na (+)]: 43.9+/-15.0 and 46.2+/-7.9 mmol.L (-1); [K (+)]: 6.1+/-1.1 and 5.2+/-1.1 mmol.L (-1); [Mg (++)]: 0.1+/-0.0 and 0.1+/-0.0 mmol.L (-1); [Ca (+)]: 1.2+/-0.5 and 0.7+/-0.1 mmol.L (-1), respectively. When data from T1 and T2 were combined, there were no relationships between sweat rate and sweat concentration of any electrolyte. In conclusion, the sweat rate and sweat electrolyte losses in this cohort of international female soccer players, during soccer-specific training in cool conditions, were small. Electrolyte losses of this magnitude are unlikely to require special consideration in terms of optimising player hydration.

  13. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  14. Usefulness of Sweat Management for Patients with Adult Atopic Dermatitis, regardless of Sweat Allergy: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Sakae; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murata, Susumu; Katayama, Ichiro; Morita, Eishin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Sweat is an aggravating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD), regardless of age. Sweat allergy may be involved in AD aggravated by sweating. Objective. We investigated whether sweat exacerbates adult AD symptoms and examined the extent of sweat allergy’s involvement. Method. We asked 34 AD patients (17 men, 17 women; mean age: 27.8 years) to record the extent to which sweat aggravated their symptoms on a 10-point numerical scale. Participant responses were compared with histamine rele...

  15. Precise measurement of volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this paper, we propose a method for extraction of the specific eccrine sweat gland by means of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en face OCT images are constructed by the swept-source OCT. In the experiment, we demonstrate precise measurement of the volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus.

  16. Usefulness of Sweat Management for Patients with Adult Atopic Dermatitis, regardless of Sweat Allergy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Sakae; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murata, Susumu; Katayama, Ichiro; Morita, Eishin

    2017-01-01

    Background . Sweat is an aggravating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD), regardless of age. Sweat allergy may be involved in AD aggravated by sweating. Objective. We investigated whether sweat exacerbates adult AD symptoms and examined the extent of sweat allergy's involvement. Method. We asked 34 AD patients (17 men, 17 women; mean age: 27.8 years) to record the extent to which sweat aggravated their symptoms on a 10-point numerical scale. Participant responses were compared with histamine release tests (HRT). Furthermore, 24 of the patients received instructions on methods of sweat management, and their outcomes were evaluated on a 10-point scale. Results. Sweat HRT results were class ≥ 2 in 13 patients, but HRT results were not correlated with the patients' self-assessments of symptom aggravation by sweat. One month after receiving sweat management instructions, a low mean score of 4.6 was obtained regarding whether active sweating was good, but a high mean score of 7.0 was obtained in response to whether the sweat management instructions had been helpful. Conclusion . Our investigation showed that patients' negative impressions of sweat might derive from crude personal experiences that are typically linked to sweating. Sweat management for patients with adult atopic dermatitis was extremely useful regardless of sweat allergy.

  17. Usefulness of Sweat Management for Patients with Adult Atopic Dermatitis, regardless of Sweat Allergy: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakae Kaneko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sweat is an aggravating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD, regardless of age. Sweat allergy may be involved in AD aggravated by sweating. Objective. We investigated whether sweat exacerbates adult AD symptoms and examined the extent of sweat allergy’s involvement. Method. We asked 34 AD patients (17 men, 17 women; mean age: 27.8 years to record the extent to which sweat aggravated their symptoms on a 10-point numerical scale. Participant responses were compared with histamine release tests (HRT. Furthermore, 24 of the patients received instructions on methods of sweat management, and their outcomes were evaluated on a 10-point scale. Results. Sweat HRT results were class ≥ 2 in 13 patients, but HRT results were not correlated with the patients’ self-assessments of symptom aggravation by sweat. One month after receiving sweat management instructions, a low mean score of 4.6 was obtained regarding whether active sweating was good, but a high mean score of 7.0 was obtained in response to whether the sweat management instructions had been helpful. Conclusion. Our investigation showed that patients’ negative impressions of sweat might derive from crude personal experiences that are typically linked to sweating. Sweat management for patients with adult atopic dermatitis was extremely useful regardless of sweat allergy.

  18. Bee cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars

    2017-10-09

    Maeterlinck did not mean to suggest that honeybees rival humans in intelligence - rather he saw in the bee a qualitatively different form of intelligence, tailored to the challenges of a profoundly different kind of society and lifestyle. Insects are strange "aliens from inner space", with sensory and cognitive worlds wholly different from our own. The 19(th) century discovery that ants can detect ultraviolet light triggered a golden age in the exploration of the diversity of sensory systems of insects (and indeed other animals), identifying such abilities as magnetic compasses, electrosensitivity, polarization vision, and peculiar locations for sense organs such as the infrared sensors on the abdomens of some beetles or photoreceptors on the genitalia of some butterflies. Could insect minds be equally strange and diverse? Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Recent Developments in Sweat Analysis and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the clinical use of sweat as biofluid is limited. The collection of sweat and its analysis for determining ethanol, drugs, ions, and metals have been encompassed in this review article to assess the merits of sweat compared to other biofluids, for example, blood or urine. Moreover, sweat comprises various biomarkers of different diseases including cystic fibrosis and diabetes. Additionally, the normalization of sampled volume of sweat is also necessary for getting efficient and useful results.

  20. 7 CFR 29.3554 - Sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3554 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [30 FR 9207, July...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3553 - Sweated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3553 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  2. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-03-01

    In his interesting and informative book Is That a Fact?, Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on the "pig." But this explanation, which I have seen on the Internet, lacks a few caveats. It implies that molten iron, solidifying and cooling, anywhere, anytime, accretes liquid water, as if this were a special property of cooling iron. Set aside that real pigs sweat perceptibly from their snouts; kiss a pig and verify for yourself. Pigs also sweat imperceptibly. Imperceptible (insensible) perspiration is water vapor from the skin and lungs exuded without sensible condensation. That from humans is about 1 liter/day. Sweat is 99% liquid water, NaCl the dominant solute, secreted quickly, sometimes profusely, by subcutaneous sweat glands in response to thermal stress, in contrast to the slow, continuous diffusion of water vapor through skin.

  3. Sweating Rate and Sweat Sodium Concentration in Athletes: A Review of Methodology and Intra/Interindividual Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Lindsay B.

    2017-01-01

    Athletes lose water and electrolytes as a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise and it is well known that the rate and composition of sweat loss can vary considerably within and among individuals. Many scientists and practitioners conduct sweat tests to determine sweat water and electrolyte losses of athletes during practice and competition. The information gleaned from sweat testing is often used to guide personalized fluid and electrolyte replacement recommendations for a...

  4. Changes in the index of sweat ion concentration with increasing sweat during passive heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, A K M; Yanagimoto, S; Kuwahara, T; Zhang, Y; Nomura, C; Kondo, N

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the pattern changes in the index of sweat ion concentration at skin surface with increasing sweat during passive heat stress in humans, we measured conductivity of the perfused water with sweat as the index of sweat ion concentration and sweat rate, continuously at the chest skin surface. Eight healthy subjects (22.4 +/-1.0 years) were passively heated by lower-leg immersion in a hot water bath of 42 degrees C for 50 min in an ambient temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 50%. The internal temperature (Tor) thresholds of sweat rate and index of sweat ion concentration were almost similar. Concomitant onset for the index of sweat ion concentration and sweat rate occurred but two types of linear regression lines were identified in the relationship between the index of sweat ion concentration and sweat rate at a boundary sweat rate value of 0.30 +/- 0.08 mg cm(-2) min(-1). The slope of the regression line at low levels of sweat (slope 0.02 +/- 0.01 V mg(-1) cm(-2) min(-1)) was significantly gradual compared with that at moderate levels of sweat (slope 0.30 +/- 0.08 V mg(-1) cm(-2) min(-1)) (P<0.05). These results suggest that at low levels of sweat the index of sweat ion concentration responds gradually with respect to sweat rate, which may be due to the ion reabsorption capacity of the sweat duct, and then the index of sweat ion concentration increased steeply with sweat rate.

  5. A new method of sweat testing: the CF Quantum®sweat test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Michael J; Makholm, Linda; Eickhoff, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Conventional methods of sweat testing are time consuming and have many steps that can and do lead to errors. This study compares conventional sweat testing to a new quantitative method, the CF Quantum® (CFQT) sweat test. This study tests the diagnostic accuracy and analytic validity of the CFQT. Previously diagnosed CF patients and patients who required a sweat test for clinical indications were invited to have the CFQT test performed. Both conventional sweat testing and the CFQT were performed bilaterally on the same day. Pairs of data from each test are plotted as a correlation graph and Bland-Altman plot. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as well as the means and coefficient of variation by test and by extremity. After completing the study, subjects or their parents were asked for their preference of the CFQT and conventional sweat testing. The correlation coefficient between the CFQT and conventional sweat testing was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.97-0.99). The sensitivity and specificity of the CFQT in diagnosing CF was 100% (95% confidence interval: 94-100%) and 96% (95% confidence interval: 89-99%), respectively. In one center in this three center multicenter study, there were higher sweat chloride values in patients with CF and also more tests that were invalid due to discrepant values between the two extremities. The percentage of invalid tests was higher in the CFQT method (16.5%) compared to conventional sweat testing (3.8%) (p sweat chloride determination. This technology requires further refinement to improve the analytic accuracy at higher sweat chloride values and to decrease the number of invalid tests. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Blackawton bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackawton, P S; Airzee, S; Allen, A; Baker, S; Berrow, A; Blair, C; Churchill, M; Coles, J; Cumming, R F-J; Fraquelli, L; Hackford, C; Hinton Mellor, A; Hutchcroft, M; Ireland, B; Jewsbury, D; Littlejohns, A; Littlejohns, G M; Lotto, M; McKeown, J; O'Toole, A; Richards, H; Robbins-Davey, L; Roblyn, S; Rodwell-Lynn, H; Schenck, D; Springer, J; Wishy, A; Rodwell-Lynn, T; Strudwick, D; Lotto, R B

    2011-04-23

    Real science has the potential to not only amaze, but also transform the way one thinks of the world and oneself. This is because the process of science is little different from the deeply resonant, natural processes of play. Play enables humans (and other mammals) to discover (and create) relationships and patterns. When one adds rules to play, a game is created. the process of playing with rules that enables one to reveal previously unseen patterns of relationships that extend our collective understanding of nature and human nature. When thought of in this way, science education becomes a more enlightened and intuitive process of asking questions and devising games to address those questions. But, because the outcome of all game-playing is unpredictable, supporting this 'messyness', which is the engine of science, is critical to good science education (and indeed creative education generally). Indeed, we have learned that doing 'real' science in public spaces can stimulate tremendous interest in children and adults in understanding the processes by which we make sense of the world. The present study (on the vision of bumble-bees) goes even further, since it was not only performed outside my laboratory (in a Norman church in the southwest of England), but the 'games' were themselves devised in collaboration with 25 8- to 10-year-old children. They asked the questions, hypothesized the answers, designed the games (in other words, the experiments) to test these hypotheses and analysed the data. They also drew the figures (in coloured pencil) and wrote the paper. Their headteacher (Dave Strudwick) and I devised the educational programme (we call 'i,scientist'), and I trained the bees and transcribed the childrens' words into text (which was done with smaller groups of children at the school's local village pub). So what follows is a novel study (scientifically and conceptually) in 'kids speak' without references to past literature, which is a challenge. Although the

  7. Sweating the small stuff: Glycoproteins in human sweat and their unexplored potential for microbial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robyn A; Gueniche, Audrey; Adam de Beaumais, Ségolène; Breton, Lionel; Dalko-Csiba, Maria; Packer, Nicolle H

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that secretory fluids such as tears, saliva and milk play an important role in protecting the human body from infection via a washing mechanism involving glycan-mediated adhesion of potential pathogens to secretory glycoproteins. Interaction of sweat with bacteria is well established as the cause of sweat-associated malodor. However, the role of sweat glycoproteins in microbial attachment has received little, if any, research interest in the past. In this review, we demonstrate how recent published studies involving high-throughput proteomic analysis have inadvertently, and fortuitously, exposed an abundance of glycoproteins in sweat, many of which have also been identified in other secretory fluids. We bring together research demonstrating microbial adhesion to these secretory glycoproteins in tears, saliva and milk and suggest a similar role of the sweat glycoproteins in mediating microbial attachment to sweat and/or skin. The contribution of glycan-mediated microbial adhesion to sweat glycoproteins, and the associated impact on sweat derived malodor and pathogenic skin infections are unchartered new research areas that we are beginning to explore. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50 °C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na+] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na+] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na+] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions.

  9. Real-time sweat analysis via alternating current conductivity of artificial and human sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengchen; Alomari, Mahmoud; Sahin, Bunyamin; Snelgrove, Samuel E.; Edwards, Jeffrey; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2015-03-01

    Dehydration is one of the most profound physiological challenges that significantly affects athletes and soldiers if not detected early. Recently, a few groups have focused on dehydration detection using sweat as the main biomarker. Although there are some proposed devices, the electrical and chemical characteristics of sweat have yet to be incorporated into the validations. In this work, we have developed a simple test setup to analyze artificial sweat that is comprised the main components of human sweat. We provide theoretical and experimental details on the electrical and chemical behavior of the artificial sweat for various concentration values within a temperature range of 5 °C to 50 °C. We have also developed an efficient sweat collecting and detection system based on 3D printing. Human studies were conducted and this particular protocol has shown that dehydration starts to take effect as early as 40 min into the physical activity if there is no fluid intake during the exercise. We believe that our device will lead to developing viable real-time sweat analysis systems.

  10. Biological variability of the sweat chloride in diagnostic sweat tests: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, F; Lebecque, P; De Boeck, K; Leal, T

    2017-01-01

    The sweat test is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). CF is unlikely when sweat chloride (Cl sw ) is lower than 30mmol/L, Cl sw >60 is suggestive of CF, with intermediate values between 30 and 60mmol/L. To correctly interpret a sweat chloride value, the biological variability of the sweat chloride has to be known. Sweat tests performed in two centers using the classic Gibson and Cooke method were retrospectively reviewed (n=5904). Within test variability of Cl sw was measured by comparing results from right and left arm collected on the same day. Between test variability was calculated from subjects with sweat tests performed on more than one occasion. Within test variability of Cl sw calculated in 1022 subjects was low with differences between -3.2 (p5) and +3.6mmol/L (p95). Results from left and right arm were classified differently in only 3 subjects. Between test variability of Cl sw in 197 subjects was larger, with differences between -18.2mmol/L (p5) and +14.1mmol/L (p95) between repeat tests. Changes in diagnostic conclusion were seen in 55/197 subjects, the most frequent being changing from indeterminate to 'CF unlikely' range (48/102). Variability of sweat chloride is substantial, with frequent changes in diagnostic conclusion, especially in the intermediate range. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrochromic Approaches to Mapping Human Sweat Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Hoon; Park, Bum Jun; Kim, Jong-Man

    2016-06-21

    Hydrochromic materials, which undergo changes in their light absorption and/or emission properties in response to water, have been extensively investigated as humidity sensors. Recent advances in the design of these materials have led to novel applications, including monitoring the water content of organic solvents, water-jet-based rewritable printing on paper, and hydrochromic mapping of human sweat pores. Our interest in this area has focused on the design of hydrochromic materials for human sweat pore mapping. We recognized that materials appropriate for this purpose must have balanced sensitivities to water. Specifically, while they should not undergo light absorption and/or emission transitions under ambient moisture conditions, the materials must have sufficiently high hydrochromic sensitivities that they display responses to water secreted from human sweat pores. In this Account, we describe investigations that we have carried out to develop hydrochromic substances that are suitable for human sweat pore mapping. Polydiacetylenes (PDAs) have been extensively investigated as sensor matrices because of their stimulus-responsive color change property. We found that incorporation of headgroups composed of hygroscopic ions such as cesium or rubidium and carboxylate counterions enables PDAs to undergo a blue-to-red colorimetric transition as well as a fluorescence turn-on response to water. Very intriguingly, the small quantities of water secreted from human sweat pores were found to be sufficient to trigger fluorescence turn-on responses of the hydrochromic PDAs, allowing precise mapping of human sweat pores. Since the hygroscopic ion-containing PDAs developed in the initial stage display a colorimetric transition under ambient conditions that exist during humid summer periods, a new system was designed. A PDA containing an imidazolium ion was found to be stable under all ambient conditions and showed temperature-dependent hydrochromism corresponding to a

  12. Efficient sweat reduction of three different antiperspirant application forms during stress-induced sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Rose, T; Lehmbeck, F; Bürger, A; Windisch, B; Keyhani, R; Max, H

    2013-12-01

    Stress sweating can occur in everyday situations independently of thermally-induced perspiration. It is triggered by emotionally challenging situations and leads to underarm wetness and a characteristic unpleasant malodor. In this study, we aimed to determine the long-term efficacy of three unperfumed antiperspirant (AP) formulas for different application forms (roll-on, stick, aerosol) against stress-induced sweating and malodor formation. We utilized the widely accepted Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to induce psychosocial stress in female and male volunteers (18 - 40 years) and determined physiological stress parameters. To additionally assess the efficacy of the test AP roll-on against thermally-induced sweating, a hot room study was performed. Increasing heart rates and an augmentation of saliva cortisol levels during the TSST indicated a substantial stress reaction which was paralleled by a pronounced sweat production in the untreated axillae of both males and females. Forty-eight hours after application, all three test APs significantly decreased the amount of sweat in the treated axillae independent of gender. With respect to AP effects on malodor production, trained sniffers assessed sweat samples collected during the TSST from the untreated axillae as significantly more malodorous than comparable samples from the AP-treated axillae. Also, independent of gender the test AP roll-on significantly decreased the thermally-induced sweat in the AP-treated axilla. We show for the first time a highly effective reduction of emotionally-induced axillary sweating and malodor production for three different application forms 48 h after the last product use. The specially developed roll-on, stick, and aerosol AP provide long-term protection against stress-induced sweat which is of high relevance in everyday life. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  13. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration’s proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean ± S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85 ± 0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for four weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from 7 subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 μg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for four weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test. PMID:17481836

  14. Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    During exercise in the heat, sweat is initially concentrated in minerals, but serial sweat samples appear more dilute. Possible causes include reduced dermal mineral concentrations or flushing of surface contamination. PURPOSE: To simultaneously sample mineral concentrations in transdermal fluid (T...

  15. Cannabis Use Surveillance by Sweat Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Fucci, Nadia; Aroni, Kyriaki; Bacci, Mauro; Marcelli, Antonio; Rossi, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    Sweat testing, an alternative matrix for establishing drug abuse, offers additional benefits to the more common biological samples. The authors developed a procedure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to test for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) in a sweat patch. The results were compared with urine and hair sample results. Urine, hair, and sweat samples were simultaneously collected from 12 patients who were involved, respectively, in forensic case and monitoring abuse. Selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, intraday and interday imprecision, and inaccuracy of the quantification procedure were validated. LODs in hair were 0.05 ng/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN, and CBD, and 0.005 ng/mg for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. The LOD for sweat was 0.30 ng/patch for all substances. The LOQ in hair was 0.1 ng/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN, and CBD, and 0.01 ng/mg for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. The LOQ was 0.4 ng/patch in sweat for each analyte. Cannabinoid in urine was determined by means of immunochemical screening (cutoff 11-nor-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid 50 ng/mL). All subjects tested positive for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in urine and hair. In sweat samples, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol was found in all patches (0.4-2.0 ng/patch); 6 cases were positive for CBN (0.4-0.5 ng/patch) and 3 for CBD (0.4-0.6 ng/patch); 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid was never detected in patches. Present sweat analysis results integrated the information from hair and urine and showed that sweat analysis is a suitable, noninvasive method for monitoring compliance with rehabilitation therapy and for detecting recent cumulative use of cannabinoids.

  16. 'My sweat my health': Real time sweat analysis using wearable micro-fluidic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Curto, Vincenzo F.; Angelov, Nikolay; Coyle, Shirley; Byrne, Robert; Hughes, Sarah; Moyna, Niall; Diamond, Dermot; Benito-Lopez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In this work a robust, non-invasive and wearable micro-fluidic system was developed and employed to analyse pH of sweat in real time during exercise. The device is incorporated in an optical detection platform designed to provide real-time information on sweat composition. The device has been tested by monitoring the pH of sweat during 55 minutes of cycling activity. During these trials, the data obtained by the micro-fluidic system was compared to pH measurements obtained in parallel studies...

  17. Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-202 P6 - 1 Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses Samuel N. Cheuvront, Ph.D., Richard R. Gonzalez, Ph.D...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses P6 - 2 RTO-MP-HFM-202 Conclusion OSEC and PW provide for more accurate sweat

  18. A portable optical human sweat sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-omari, Mahmoud; Liu, Gengchen; Mueller, Anja; Mock, Adam; Ghosh, Ruby N.; Smith, Kyle; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-11-01

    We describe the use of HNQ (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or Lawsone) as a potential sweat sensor material to detect the hydration levels of human beings. We have conducted optical measurements using both artificial and human sweat to validate our approach. We have determined that the dominant compound that affects HNQ absorbance in artificial sweat is sodium. The presence of lactate decreases the reactivity of HNQ while urea promotes more interactions of sodium and potassium ions with HNQ. The interactions between the hydroxyl group of HNQ and the artificial sweat components (salts, lactic acid, and urea) were investigated comprehensively. We have also proposed and developed a portable diode laser absorption sensor system that converts the absorbance at a particular wavelength range (at 455 ± 5 nm, where HNQ has an absorbance peak) into light intensity measurements via a photocell. The absorbance intensity values obtained from our portable sensor system agrees within 10.4% with measurements from a laboratory based ultraviolet-visible spectrometer. Findings of this research will provide significant information for researchers who are focusing on real-time, in-situ hydration level detection.

  19. Catálogo de los Halictini Halictus Latreille, 1804 y Lasioglossum Curtis, 1833 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Halictidae de la Península Ibérica y de las islas Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornosa, C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work is a catalogue of the Halictini genera Halictus Latreille, 1804 and Lasioglossum Curtis, 1833 in the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. It includes the taxa, their synonymies, discussion, when necessary, and their geographic distribution as well (Tables 1, 2, 3 y 4. Some recent records of several species have been included too. The results (Table 1 indicate that this fauna is composed of 143 species and 161 subspecies: 126 appear in the Iberian Peninsula and 17 in the Canary Islands, where 6 of them and 17 subspecies are endemic, out of a total of 29 subespecies; 9 of the Canary species are present in both territories.En este catálogo se presenta un inventario actualizado de las especies de Halictini de los géneros Halictus Latreille, 1804 y Lasioglossum Curtis, 1833 de la Península Ibérica y de las Islas Canarias. Contiene 143 especies y 161 subespecies: 126 de las especies se conocen en la fauna ibérica y 17 en las Islas Canarias y, de estas, 6 especies y 17 subespecies son endémicas, de un total de 29 subespecies presentes en las islas; 9 de las especies canarias, son comunes a ambos territorios. De todos los taxones, además de la correspondiente discusión, si procede, se incluye su lista sinonímica y su distribución geográfica (Tablas 1, 2, 3 y 4. En algunas especies, se han incluido registros recientes que pueden resultar de interés.

  20. ABEJAS VISITANTES DE Mimosa pigra L. (MIMOSACEAE: COMPORTAMIENTO DE PECOREO Y CARGAS POLÍNICAS Bees visiting Mimosa pigra L. (Mimosaceae: foraging behavior and pollen loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARA ISABEL AGUILAR SIERRA

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las cargas polínicas de 13 taxones de abejas capturadas visitando a Mimosa pigra en la zona de influencia del Embalse Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia. De los 21 tipos polínicos encontrados, M. pigra presenta el mayor porcentaje acumulado de colecta; Mimosa pudica, Piper aduncum, Solanum diversifolium, Warszewiczia coccinea y Psidium guajava, en su orden, se pueden considerar fuentes alternativas de polen, para varias de las especies de abejas cuyas cargas polínicas fueron analizadas. Dentro de las especies de abejas capturadas visitando a M. pigra se pueden diferenciar varios grupos según el tipo y abundancia relativa de los tipos polínicos encontrados en sus cargas. Uno de ellos, incluye a siete especies de abejas con más del 85% de granos de polen de M. pigra; otro, con cuatro especies de abejas que colectaron más del 94,5% del polen en M. pigra y M. pudica. Adicionalmente, se encontraron especies como Trigona dorsalis con cargas de M. pigra (59,4%, de S. diversifolium (37,8% y especies de abejas como Lasioglossum sp. 113, en cuyas cargas polínicas predominan los granos de polen de P. aduncum (61,8% y de W.coccinea (36,4%, en contraste con los de M. pigra (1,3%. En cuanto a la riqueza de tipos polínicos colectados por las abejas sobresalen Trigona muzoensis (12 tipos polínicos y T. dorsalis (10 tipos, lo cual refleja nichos tróficos más amplios para estas especies y deja duda sobre su constancia floral o hábitos de limpieza.We studied the pollen loads of 13 taxa of wild bees visiting the flowers of Mimosa pigra on the influence zone of the Dam Project Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia. Out of 21 different pollen types, M. pigra represents the higuest percentage; Mimosa pudica, Piper aduncum, Solanum diversifolium, Warszewiczia coccinea and Psidium guajava, in that order, were also abundant, and are alternative sources of pollen for the different kinds of bees recorded. Among the species of bees collected, we differentiate

  1. Sweating Rate and Sweat Sodium Concentration in Athletes: A Review of Methodology and Intra/Interindividual Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-03-01

    Athletes lose water and electrolytes as a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise and it is well known that the rate and composition of sweat loss can vary considerably within and among individuals. Many scientists and practitioners conduct sweat tests to determine sweat water and electrolyte losses of athletes during practice and competition. The information gleaned from sweat testing is often used to guide personalized fluid and electrolyte replacement recommendations for athletes; however, unstandardized methodological practices and challenging field conditions can produce inconsistent/inaccurate results. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a review of the literature regarding the effect of laboratory and field sweat-testing methodological variations on sweating rate (SR) and sweat composition (primarily sodium concentration [Na + ]). The simplest and most accurate method to assess whole-body SR is via changes in body mass during exercise; however, potential confounding factors to consider are non-sweat sources of mass change and trapped sweat in clothing. In addition, variability in sweat [Na + ] can result from differences in the type of collection system used (whole body or localized), the timing/duration of sweat collection, skin cleaning procedure, sample storage/handling, and analytical technique. Another aim of this paper is to briefly review factors that may impact intra/interindividual variability in SR and sweat [Na + ] during exercise, including exercise intensity, environmental conditions, heat acclimation, aerobic capacity, body size/composition, wearing of protective equipment, sex, maturation, aging, diet, and/or hydration status. In summary, sweat testing can be a useful tool to estimate athletes' SR and sweat Na + loss to help guide fluid/electrolyte replacement strategies, provided that data are collected, analyzed, and interpreted appropriately.

  2. Variations in regional sweat composition in normal human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M J; Galloway, S D; Nimmo, M A

    2000-11-01

    This project aimed to quantify the regional distribution of sweat composition over the skin surface and to determine whether sweat constituent concentrations collected from regional sites can estimate whole-body concentrations. Ten males cycled for 90 min in a 20 degrees C (50% relative humidity) environment at 45% peak aerobic power. Sweat was collected from eleven skin regions and the whole body, using a wash-down technique. Strong relationships were evident between the regional and whole-body sweat [Na+] and [Cl-], such that the thigh and calf exhibited greater correlation coefficients than area-weighted means derived from four and eight skin regions. Therefore, in this particular protocol the whole-body sweat [Na+] and [Cl-] could be predicted from regional sweat collections. Relationships between sweat constituents were evident for sweat [Na+] and pH, and sweat [K+] and [lactate] when data were pooled between skin regions and subjects. To our knowledge this is the first investigation to report a positive relationship between sweat [K+] and [lactate]. The exact mechanism responsible for the positive relationship between sweat [K+] and [lactate] is uncertain although it is speculated to occur at the secretory coil.

  3. Skin Tattoos Alter Sweat Rate and Na+ Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie Joe; Hanisko, Joseph Michael; Aho, Kyle Mathiew

    2017-07-01

    The popularity of tattoos has increased tremendously in the last 10 yr particularly among athletes and military personnel. The tattooing process involves permanently depositing ink under the skin at a similar depth as eccrine sweat glands (3-5 mm). The purpose of this study was to compare the sweat rate and sweat Na concentration of tattooed versus nontattooed skin. The participants were 10 healthy men (age = 21 ± 1 yr), all with a unilateral tattoo covering a circular area at least 5.2 cm. Sweat was stimulated by iontophoresis using agar gel disks impregnated with 0.5% pilocarpine nitrate. The nontattooed skin was located contralateral to the position of the tattooed skin. The disks used to collect sweat were composed of Tygon® tubing wound into a spiral so that the sweat was pulled into the tubing by capillary action. The sweat rate was determined by weighing the disk before and after sweat collection. The sweat Na concentration was determined by flame photometry. The mean sweat rate from tattooed skin was significantly less than nontattooed skin (0.18 ± 0.15 vs 0.35 ± 0.25 mg·cm·min; P = 0.001). All 10 participants generated less sweat from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin and the effect size was -0.79. The mean sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin was significantly higher than nontattooed skin (69.1 ± 28.9 vs 42.6 ± 15.2 mmol·L; P = 0.02). Nine of 10 participants had higher sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin, and the effect size was 1.01. Tattooed skin generated less sweat and a higher Na concentration than nontattooed skin when stimulated by pilocarpine iontophoresis.

  4. One World: Service Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Bees are a vital part of the ecology. People of conscience are a vital part of society. In Nina Frenkel's "One World" poster, the bee is also a metaphor for the role of the individual in a diverse society. This article presents a lesson that uses Frenkel's poster to help early-grades students connect these ideas and explore both the importance of…

  5. Bee deaths need analysing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Alarm bells are ringing all over the world about the death of bee populations. Although it is not known exactly how severe the decline is, it is important to take the problem seriously. The signals are alarming and the bee is important, not just for natural ecosystems but also for the pollination of

  6. Geok Bee Teh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geok Bee Teh. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 35 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 87-95. Preparation and characterization of plasticized high molecular weight PVC-based polymer electrolytes · S Ramesh Geok Bee Teh Rong-Fuh Louh Yong Kong Hou Pung Yen Sin Lim Jing Yi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  7. Honey bee toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M

    2015-01-07

    Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects, so it is unsurprising that many insecticides have the potential to harm honey bees (Apis mellifera). However, bees are exposed to a great variety of other potentially toxic chemicals, including flavonoids and alkaloids that are produced by plants; mycotoxins produced by fungi; antimicrobials and acaricides that are introduced by beekeepers; and fungicides, herbicides, and other environmental contaminants. Although often regarded as uniquely sensitive to toxic compounds, honey bees are adapted to tolerate and even thrive in the presence of toxic compounds that occur naturally in their environment. The harm caused by exposure to a particular concentration of a toxic compound may depend on the level of simultaneous exposure to other compounds, pathogen levels, nutritional status, and a host of other factors. This review takes a holistic view of bee toxicology by taking into account the spectrum of xenobiotics to which bees are exposed.

  8. Interindividual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration in marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Puente, Carlos; Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium (Na(+)) intake during exercise aims to replace the Na(+) lost by sweat to avoid electrolyte imbalances, especially in endurance disciplines. However, Na(+) needs can be very different among individuals because of the great inter-individual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration. The aim of this investigation was to determine sweat electrolyte concentration in a large group of marathoners. A total of 157 experienced runners (141 men and 16 women) completed a marathon race (24.4 ± 3.6 °C and 27.7 ± 4.8 % of humidity). During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches placed on the runners' forearms. Sweat electrolyte concentration was measured by using photoelectric flame photometry. As a group, sweat Na(+) concentration was 42.9 ± 18.7 mmol·L(-1) (minimal-maximal value = 7.0-95.5 mmol·L(-1)), sweat Cl(-) concentration was 32.2 ± 15.6 mmol·L(-1) (7.3-90.6 mmol·L(-1)) and sweat K(+) concentration was 6.0 ± 0.9 mmol·L(-1) (3.1-8.0 mmol·L(-1)). Women presented lower sweat Na(+) (33.9 ± 12.1 vs 44.0 ± 19.1 mmol·L(-1); P = 0.04) and sweat Cl(-) concentrations (22.9 ± 10.5 vs 33.2 ± 15.8 mmol·L(-1); P = 0.01) than men. A 20 % of individuals presented a sweat Na(+) concentration higher than 60 mmol·L(-1) while this threshold was not surpassed by any female marathoner. Sweat electrolyte concentration did not correlate to sweat rate, age, body characteristics, experience or training. Although there was a significant correlation between sweat Na(+) concentration and running pace (r = 0.18; P = 0.03), this association was weak to interpret that sweat Na(+) concentration increased with running pace. The inter-individual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration was not explained by any individual characteristics except for individual running pace and sex. An important portion (20 %) of marathoners might need special sodium intake recommendations due to

  9. Sweating rate and sweat composition during exercise and recovery in ambient heat and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R J; Hare, M J; Ecker, G L; Lindinger, M I

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition and extent of sweat losses during submaximal exercise under hot and humid conditions and to compare these findings with the same exercise protocol conducted under cool, dry and hot, dry conditions. Five Thoroughbred horses (age 3 to 6) completed exercise tests under each of 3 environmental conditions in random order: cool, dry (CD), room temperature (T) = 20 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) = 45-55%; hot, dry (HD), T = 32-34 degrees C, RH = 45-55%; and hot, humid (HH), T = 32-34 degrees C, RH = 80-85%. Horses exercised at 50% of their predetermined VO2max on a treadmill set at a 10% slope until attainment of a pulmonary artery blood temperature of 41.5 degrees C followed by a 60 min recovery. Sweat was collected from a sealed polyethylene pouch enclosing a 150 cm2 area on the lateral thorax. During exercise and the first 30 min of recovery, sweat fluid losses were 7.9 +/- 0.7 litres, 9.9 +/- 0.5 litres and 6.6 +/- 1.2 litres (mean +/- s.e.m.) for CD, HD and HH, respectively. Sweating rate (SR), calculated from sweat volume per unit area of enclosed skin, was lowest in CD and similar in HD and HH during exercise such that at end of exercise in HH (16.5 min) calculated sweat losses were approximately 5% and 32% higher than in HD and CD, respectively. In recovery, SR declined in all conditions but was significantly lower in CD (P Sweating was detectable until 30 min recovery in CD, 45 min recovery in HD and 60 min recovery in HH. Sweat composition and osmolality was different under the 3 environmental conditions and changed gradually during exercise and recovery in all conditions. Osmolality and [Na] was highest in HD and lowest in CD. During exercise, [Na] increased with increasing SR. Although exercise duration was significantly decreased in HH (16.5 +/- 1 min) when compared to HD (28 +/- 2 min) and CD (37 +/- 2 min), fluid and ion losses in HH were comparable to those in HD as a result of a high SR and

  10. Vitamin B12 deficiency causing night sweats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, H U

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common. It is known to cause a wide spectrum of neurological syndromes, including autonomic dysfunction. Three cases are discussed here in which drenching night sweats were thought to be caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. All three responded dramatically to vitamin B12 therapy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Testing in artificial sweat - Is less more? Comparison of metal release in two different artificial sweat solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midander, Klara; Julander, Anneli; Kettelarij, Jolinde; Lidén, Carola

    2016-11-01

    Metal release from materials immersed in artificial sweat can function as a measure of potential skin exposure. Several artificial sweat models exist that, to various degree, mimic realistic conditions. Study objective was to evaluate metal release from previously examined and well characterized materials in two different artificial sweat solutions; a comprehensive sweat model intended for use within research, based on the composition of human sweat; and the artificial sweat, EN1811, intended for testing compliance with the nickel restriction in REACH. The aim was to better understand whether there are advantages using either of the sweat solutions in bio-elution testing of materials. Metal release in two different artificial sweat solutions was compared for discs of a white gold alloy and two hard metals, and a rock drilling insert of tungsten carbide at 1 h, 24 h, 1 week and 1 month. The released amount of metal was analysed by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Similar levels of released metals were measured from test materials in the two different artificial sweat solutions. For purposes in relation to legislations, it was concluded that a metal release test using a simple artificial sweat composition may provide results that sufficiently indicate the degree of metal release at skin contact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of sweat gland volume and innervation in neuropathy: Correlation with thermoregulatory sweat testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loavenbruck, Adam; Wendelschaefer-Crabbe, Gwen; Sandroni, Paola; Kennedy, William R

    2014-10-01

    No study has correlated thermoregulatory sweat testing (TST) with histopathologic study of sweat glands (SGs) and SG nerve fibers (SGNFs). We studied 10 neuropathy patients in whom anhidrosis was found by TST and 10 matched controls. Skin biopsies were taken from both anhidrotic and sweating skin and immunohistochemical staining was done for nerves and basement membrane. For each biopsy, total tissue volume, total SG volume, and total SGNF length were measured. SGNF length per biopsy volume, SG volume per biopsy volume (SG%), and SGNF length per SG volume were calculated. SGNF length per biopsy volume was reduced in anhidrotic site biopsies of patients compared with controls. SG% was decreased and SGNF length per SG volume increased in patients compared with controls. The results suggest a concomitant loss of SG volume and SGNF length in neuropathy, with greater loss of SGNFs in anhidrotic skin, possibly exceeding collateral reinnervation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Quality of sweat test (ST) based on the proportion of sweat sodium (Na) and sweat chloride (Cl) as diagnostic parameter of cystic fibrosis: are we on the right way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Alethéa Guimarães; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Gomez, Carla Cristina de Souza; Ribeiro, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Morais, Lucas Brioschi; Servidoni, Maria de Fátima; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia; Sakano, Eulália; Goto, Maura; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; Pereira, Mônica Corso; Hessel, Gabriel; Levy, Carlos Emílio; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Peixoto, Andressa Oliveira; Simões, Maria Cristina Ribeiro; Lomazi, Elizete Aparecida; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2016-10-26

    To assess the quality of sweat test (ST) based on the proportion of sweat sodium and sweat chloride as diagnostic parameter of cystic fibrosis (CF). A retrospective study of 5,721 sweat samples and subsequent descriptive analysis were carried out. The test was considered "of good quality" (correct) when: (i) sweat chloride was lower than 60 mEq/L, and sweat sodium was higher than sweat chloride; (ii) sweat chloride was higher than 60 mEq/L, and sweat sodium was lower than sweat chloride. The study included 5,692/5,721 sweat samples of ST which had been requested due to clinical presentations compatible with CF and/or neonatal screenings with altered immunoreactive trypsinogen values. Considering the proportion of sweat sodium and sweat chloride as ST quality parameter, the test was performed correctly in 5,023/5,692 (88.2 %) sweat samples. The sweat chloride test results were grouped into four reference ranges for chloride (i) chloride sweat weight (p = 0.416). However, there was a positive association with: (i) gender, (ii) results of ST (p sweat chloride/sodium ratio (p sweat chloride values (p = 0.047), (iii) subject's age at the time of the ST grouped by numerical order (p = 0.001). Considering that the quality of ST can be assessed by levels of sweat sodium and sweat chloride, an increasing number of low-quality tests could be observed in our sweat samples. The quality of the test was associated with important factors, such as gender, CF diagnosis, and subjects' age.

  14. Influence of digoxin and diuretic therapy on sweat fluid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, A; Benzon, L; Aladjem, M

    1985-01-01

    The effect of digitalis and diuretic therapy on sweat fluid composition was investigated. Patients treated for congestive heart failure with a combination of digoxin and diuretics demonstrated a higher concentration of sodium and chloride in their sweat fluid when compared to age-matched controls. The administration of diuretics alone did not affect sweat fluid composition. The digoxin-induced increase in sodium concentration was significantly higher than that observed for chloride. These data suggest that digoxin markedly inhibits sodium reabsorption along the sweat gland tubule, whereas chloride transport is affected to a lesser degree. A significant correlation between sweat fluid sodium and serum digoxin concentrations was observed. We conclude that the increased digoxin-induced sweat sodium and chloride losses may affect sodium homeostasis in patients with congestive heart failure.

  15. Sweat conductivity: an accurate diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Ana Claudia Veras; Leone, Claudio; Rodrigues, Joaquim Carlos; Adde, Fabíola Villac

    2014-09-01

    Sweat chloride test is the gold standard test for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. Sweat conductivity is widely used although still considered a screening test. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, diagnostic research conducted at the laboratory of the Instituto da Criança of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. Sweat chloride (quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis) and sweat conductivity tests were simultaneously performed in patients referred for a sweat test between March 2007 and October 2008. Conductivity and chloride cut-off values used to rule out or diagnose CF were sweat chloride and conductivity values were 11 and 25 mmol/L in these populations, respectively. Twenty-four patients who had received a diagnosis of CF presented median sweat chloride and conductivity values of 87 and 103 mmol/L, respectively. Conductivity values above 90 mmol/L had 83.3% sensitivity, 99.7% specificity, 90.9% PPV and 99.4% NPV to diagnose CF. The best conductivity cut-off value to exclude CF was sweat conductivity test yielded a high degree of diagnostic accuracy and it showed good agreement with sweat chloride. We suggest that it should play a role as a diagnostic test for CF in the near future. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Decreased sweating in seven patients with Laron syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Price, D A; Savage, M O

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sweat secretion was reduced in patients with GH deficiency and increased during GH treatment, indicating an influence of GH on sweat gland function. Thus, patients with GH deficiency have impaired thermoregulation. We report on sweat secretion rates (SSRs) in seven......). These observations further supported the hypothesis that sweat gland function in humans is under the influence of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I axis. It remains to be seen whether the decrease in SSR also leads to altered thermoregulation in patients with Laron syndrome....

  17. Bumblebees and solitary bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I

    Summary: The effects of farming system, flower resources and semi-natural habitats on bumblebees and solitary bees in intensively cultivated landscapes in Denmark were investigated in two sets of studies, in 2011 and 2012. The pan trap colour preferences of bumblebees and solitary bees were also...... of dicotyledonous herbs in the flowering stage (quantity) and density of plants containing combined high pollen and nectar amounts (quality). Potential flower and nesting resources (referred to as semi-natural habitats) in the surrounding landscape were assessed using up-to-date, spatially precise registers of land...... flower resources and the proportion of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape both contributed to increased numbers of individuals and species of bumblebees and solitary bees. Solitary bees responded positively to the proportion of semi-natural habitats at 250 m and 500 m scale, while...

  18. Report Bee Kills

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA uses incident report data to help inform our pesticide regulatory decisions. Information from these reports helps us identify patterns of bee kills associated with the use of specific pesticides or active ingredients. Here's how to report incidents.

  19. [Amounts of sweat and salt loss due to sweating during a three-hour badminton practice in summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Nobuko; Futamura, Azusa

    2007-11-01

    In 7 men and 5 women, we measured the amounts of sweat and fluid intake, and the ionic composition of sweat during a 3-hour badminton practice in summer. The amount of sweat was calculated as follows; body weight before practice (g)--body weight after practice (g)--urine volume (ml) +fluid intake (ml). We collected sweat by covering the non-dominant forearm with a plastic bag. The amounts of sweat and fluid intake during the 3-hour practice were 1809 +/- 715ml (mean +/- SD) and 658 +/- 344ml, respectively. Weight loss after the practice was 2.0 +/- 0.9% of their weight before the practice. The Na(+) and Cl(-) levels of the sweat about 30 min after the start of practice were 66 +/- 34 mEq/l and 54 +/- 32mEq/l, respectively. There was no significant difference between those ionic levels of the sweat about 30 min after the start of practice and those about 30 min before the end of practice. The sum of Na(+) and Cl(-) loss into sweat during a 3-hour practice session was supposed to be 6.9 +/- 5.3g, and to be above 10 g in 4 of 7 men, assuming that there were no regional differences in the ionic composition of sweat. The findings suggested that most of the participants should take more fluid and some of them might need salt intake during the practice.

  20. Effect of plasma prolactin on sweat rate and sweat composition during exercise in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, P; Brisson, G R; Péronnet, F

    1993-05-01

    We investigated the role of the exercise-induced elevation of plasma prolactin (PRL) concentration on sweat rate and composition during prolonged exercise in men. Two groups of healthy young males (20-26 yr old) showing a high (high responders; n = 8) or a low (low responders; n = 7) response of plasma PRL concentration to exercise were studied during a 60-min period of exercise on a cycle ergometer (65% maximum O2 consumption) in warm conditions (26.2 +/- 0.1 degrees C; 57 +/- 1% relative humidity), 1 h after receiving 1.25 mg bromocriptine (BRC) per os or a placebo. In high responders, administration of BRC totally abolished the threefold increase in plasma PRL observed in response to exercise with placebo [placebo, 10 +/- 2 (rest) and 30 +/- 2 micrograms/l (exercise); BRC, 9 +/- 1 (rest) and 8 +/- 1 microgram/l (exercise)]. The latter was associated with a significant decrease in sweat rate (2.7 +/- 0.5 to 1.9 +/- 0.3 microliter.cm-2.min-1) and a significant increase in sweat Na+ concentration (57 +/- 7 to 68 +/- 5 mmol/l). BRC also reduced the small response in plasma PRL concentration observed in low responders [placebo, 10 +/- 1 (rest) and 15 +/- 1 microgram/l (exercise); BRC, 9 +/- 1 (rest) and 7 +/- 1 microgram/l (exercise)], but this was not associated with any change in sweat rate (2.2 +/- 0.2 to 1.9 +/- 0.3 microliter.cm-2.min-1) or in sweat Na+ concentration (63 +/- 10 to 64 +/- 9 mmol/l).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Characteristics of sweating responses and peripheral sweat gland function during passive heating in sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Koga, Shunsaku; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Kondo, Narihiko

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sweating function in sprinters who have trained for several years with untrained subjects and trained endurance runners. Two separate experiments were conducted. Nine sprinters, eight untrained men, and nine distance runners (VO2 max 50.9 ± 1.4, 38.2 ± 1.8, and 59.1 ± 1.2 mL/kg/min, respectively; P sprinters, 11 untrained men and nine distance runners (similar VO2 max levels compared with Experiment 1 in each group) had their sweat gland capacity assessed based on acetylcholine-induced sweating rate (SR) (Experiment 2). The slope of the mean non-glabrous SR plotted against change in mean body temperature during passive heating did not differ significantly between sprinters and untrained men (1.21 ± 0.10 and 0.97 ± 0.12 mg cm(-2)/min/°C, respectively); in contrast, compared with untrained men, distance runners exhibited a significantly greater slope (1.42 ± 0.11 mg cm(-2)/min/°C, P sprinters and untrained men, whereas distance runners showed a significantly higher induced SR compared with untrained men. The sweating function was not improved in sprinters who have trained 2-3 h/day, 5 days/week, for at least 3 years compared with untrained men, although the VO2 max was markedly greater in sprinters. Thus, there is a case that daily training was not sufficient to improve sweating function in sprinters relative to those in distance runners.

  2. BEE VENOM TRAP DESIGN FOR PRODUCE BEE VENOM OF APIS MELLIFERA L. HONEY BEES

    OpenAIRE

    Budiaman

    2015-01-01

    Bee venom is one honey bee products are very expensive and are required in the pharmaceutical industry and as an anti-cancer known as nanobee, but the production technique is still done in the traditional way. The purpose of this study was to design a bee venom trap to produce bee venom of Apis mellifera L honey bees. The method used is to design several models of bee venom apparatus equipped weak current (DC current) with 3 variations of voltage, ie 12 volts, 15 volts and 18 volts coupled...

  3. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber...

  4. Sweat chloride concentrations in children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Moir, Devin; Jain, Amrish

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (INS) has been believed to cause a false positive elevation of sweat chloride concentrations, as measured by the sweat test. Sweat tests were done for 11 children with acute onset INS at admission and again while they were in remission, with results being compared to normal historical controls. The initial sweat chloride concentration for 10 patients was normal (mean16.7 ± 11.02 mmol/L) and 1 patient had inadequate collection. This latter patient and two others were excluded during follow-up because of diagnoses other than INS. Sweat test results for the eight INS patients during follow up remained unchanged when they were in remission (16.94 ± 7.88 mmol/L; P = 0.98; Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Rank Test). In comparing sweat chloride concentrations from INS patients to those from 20 historical control subjects, we found no significant differences (Mann-Whitney Test; initial vs. control P = 0.643; follow up vs. control P = 0.806). INS does not cause a false positive sweat test. Further studies should be done to objectively assess the conditions that have been reported to affect sweat chloride concentrations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Equine sweat composition: effects of adrenaline infusion, exercise and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaghy, F F; Hodgson, D R; Evans, D L; Rose, R J

    1995-11-01

    Significant alterations in plasma electrolyte concentrations have been reported in horses following prolonged exercise, resulting from loss of hypertonic sweat. Sweat was collected from 10 horses undergoing a 10 week training programme; 5 at moderate intensity, to speeds of 10 m/s and 5 at low intensity, to speeds of 5 m/s. Sweat was collected from 2 sites in response to a submaximal exercise test (30 min at 50% VO2max and during an adrenaline infusion (dose mean +/- s.d.; 0.3 +/- 0.05 g/kg over 30 min). Sweat samples were analysed for sodium, chloride, potassium, protein, magnesium, calcium and urea concentrations. Sweat produced in response to exercise and adrenaline infusion was hypertonic and showed no significant differences in composition following training. However, the [NaCl] of sweat rose with increased duration of sweating. Sweat produced in response to adrenaline infusion was more dilute than that produced in response to exercise, which may be related to sympathetic outflow during exercise.

  6. [Estimation of the sweat composition of fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovskaia, S S; Varus, V I; Briuzgina, T S; Belov, A A; Ivanov, D A

    2007-05-01

    Changes in the fatty acid composition of sweat lipid were studied in persons whose activity was associated with military service. There were significant changes in essential fatty acids of sweat lipids, which made it possible to use this noninvasive biological object as a criterion for rating dysadaptive processes in armed forces personnel.

  7. Magnetic effect on dancing bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, M.; Martin, H.

    1972-01-01

    Bee sensitivity to the earth's magnetic field is studied. Data cover sensitivity range and the use of magnetoreception for orientation purposes. Experimental results indicate bee orientation is aided by gravity fields when the magnetic field is compensated.

  8. Insemination of Honey Bee Queens

    OpenAIRE

    SOJKOVÁ, Lada

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental insemination honey bee queen is in Czech Republic only possibility, how make controlled mating bees. Main significance lies in expanding desirable feature in the bee colony. Instrumental inseminations are thus obtained the required feature, that are the mildness of bees, sitting on the comb, or resistance to disease. Insemination must precede controlled breeding drones and controlled breeding queens. That drones were sexually mature at the time of insemination must be breeding dr...

  9. Composition of the secretion from the eccrine sweat glands of the cat's foot pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K G

    1966-05-01

    1. The sweat composition from the cat's foot pad was examined at various rates of secretion. Sodium pentobarbitone or chloralose anaesthesia were used.2. Cat's pad sweat contains lactate, glucose is almost absent, and the sodium and chloride concentrations increased with increasing sweat rate. In these respects the secretion resembles human eccrine sweat.3. The sodium, chloride, and potassium concentrations are much higher than in human sweat; also the potassium level decreased with increasing rate. Consequently, whereas human sweat is hypotonic with respect to the plasma, cat's pad sweat is slightly hypertonic with respect to the plasma even at low rates of secretion. In contrast to human sweat glands, which produce a slightly acidic secretion containing ammonia, cat's pad sweat glands produce an alkaline secretion containing bicarbonate. Also in contrast to human sweat, lactate levels decreased with increasing sweat rate.

  10. Is Nocturnal Foraging in a Tropical Bee an Escape From Interference Competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam R; Kitchen, Shannon M; Toney, Ryan M; Ziegler, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Temporal niche partitioning may result from interference competition if animals shift their activity patterns to avoid aggressive competitors. If doing so also shifts food sources, it is difficult to distinguish the effects of interference and consumptive competition in selecting for temporal niche shift. Bees compete for pollen and nectar from flowers through both interference and consumptive competition, and some species of bees have evolved nocturnality. Here, we use tropical forest canopy towers to observe bees (the night-flying sweat bees Megalopta genalis and M. centralis [Halictidae], honey bees, and stingless bees [Apidae]) visiting flowers of the balsa tree (Ochroma pyramalidae, Malvaceae). Because Ochroma flowers are open in the late afternoon through the night we can test the relative influence of each competition type on temporal nice. Niche shift due to consumptive competition predicts that Megalopta forage when resources are available: from afternoon into the night. Niche shift due to interference competition predicts that Megalopta forage only in the absence of diurnal bees. We found no overlap between diurnal bees and Megalopta in the evening, and only one instance of overlap in the morning, despite the abundance of pollen and nectar in the late afternoon and evening. This supports the hypothesis that Megalopta are avoiding interference competition, but not the hypothesis that they are limited by consumptive competition. We propose that the release from interference competition enables Megalopta to provision cells quickly, and spend most of their time investing in nest defense. Thus, increases in foraging efficiency directly resulting from temporal shifts to escape interference competition may indirectly lead to reduced predation and parasitism. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  11. Improved Devices for Collecting Sweat for Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2011-01-01

    Improved devices have been proposed for collecting sweat for biochemical analysis especially for determination of the concentration of Ca2+ ions in sweat as a measure of loss of Ca from bones. Unlike commercially available sweat-collection patches used previously in monitoring osteoporosis and in qualitative screening for some drugs, the proposed devices would not allow evaporation of the volatile chemical components (mostly water) of sweat. Moreover, the proposed devices would be designed to enable determination of the volumes of collected sweat. From these volumes and the quantities of Ca2+ and/or other analytes as determined by other means summarized below, one could determine the concentrations of the analytes in sweat. A device according to the proposal would be flexible and would be worn like a commercial sweat-collection patch. It would be made of molded polydimethylsiloxane (silicone rubber) or other suitable material having properties that, for the purpose of analyzing sweat, are similar to those of glass. The die for molding the silicone rubber would be fabricated by a combination of lithography and electroplating. The die would reproducibly form, in the silicone rubber, a precisely defined number of capillary channels per unit area, each channel having a precisely defined volume. Optionally, electrodes for measuring the Ca2+ content of the sweat could be incorporated into the device. The volume of sweat collected in the capillary channels of the device would be determined from (1) the amount of light or radio waves of a given wavelength absorbed by the device and (2) the known geometry of the array of capillary channels. Then, in one of two options, centrifugation would be performed to move the sweat from the capillary tubes to the region containing the electrodes, which would be used to measure the Ca2+ content by a standard technique. In the other option, centrifugation would be performed to remove the sweat from the device to make the sweat available

  12. Effect of salt supplementation on the rate of inadequate sweat collection for infants less than 3 months of age referred for the sweat test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Sweat testing in young infants (≤ 3 months) with a positive newborn screen for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) can yield higher rates of inadequate sweat collection. The role of salt supplements in improving sweat collection has not been studied before. All young infants referred to our CF center for sweat testing were randomized to either receive salt supplements {1/8th teaspoon salt (750 mg)} mixed in formula feeds 1 day prior to sweat testing (study group) or no salt supplement (controls). Of the 151 young infants that underwent sweat testing over 18 months, 75 received salt supplements, while 76 did not. A total of 9 (11.8%) infants in the salt supplement group had inadequate sweat collection, as compared to 4 (5.2%) infants in the control group (p = 0.16, Fisher's Exact Test). Oral salt supplementation for young infants prior to sweat testing does not help to reduce the rates of inadequate sweat collection.

  13. Flexible nanoporous tunable electrical double layer biosensors for sweat diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munje, Rujuta D.; Muthukumar, Sriram; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Prasad, Shalini

    2015-09-01

    An ultra-sensitive and highly specific electrical double layer (EDL) modulated biosensor, using nanoporous flexible substrates for wearable diagnostics is demonstrated with the detection of the stress biomarker cortisol in synthetic and human sweat. Zinc oxide thin film was used as active region in contact with the liquid i.e. synthetic and human sweat containing the biomolecules. Cortisol detection in sweat was accomplished by measuring and quantifying impedance changes due to modulation of the double layer capacitance within the electrical double layer through the application of a low orthogonally directed alternating current (AC) electric field. The EDL formed at the liquid-semiconductor interface was amplified in the presence of the nanoporous flexible substrate allowing for measuring the changes in the alternating current impedance signal due to the antibody-hormone interactions at diagnostically relevant concentrations. High sensitivity of detection of 1 pg/mL or 2.75 pmol cortisol in synthetic sweat and 1 ng/mL in human sweat is demonstrated with these novel biosensors. Specificity in synthetic sweat was demonstrated using a cytokine IL-1β. Cortisol detection in human sweat was demonstrated over a concentration range from 10-200 ng/mL.

  14. The effect of heat acclimation on sweat microminerals: Artifact of surface contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat acclimation (HA) reportedly conveys conservation in sweat micromineral concentrations when sampled from arm sweat, but time course is unknown. The observation that comprehensive cleaning of the skin surface negates sweat micromineral reductions during prolonged sweating raises the question of w...

  15. Generalist Bee Species on Brazilian Bee-Plant Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid de Matos Peixoto Kleinert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining bee and plant interactions has an important role on understanding general biology of bee species as well as the potential pollinating relationship between them. Bee surveys have been conducted in Brazil since the end of the 1960s. Most of them applied standardized methods and had identified the plant species where the bees were collected. To analyze the most generalist bees on Brazilian surveys, we built a matrix of bee-plant interactions. We estimated the most generalist bees determining the three bee species of each surveyed locality that presented the highest number of interactions. We found 47 localities and 39 species of bees. Most of them belong to Apidae (31 species and Halictidae (6 families and to Meliponini (14 and Xylocopini (6 tribes. However, most of the surveys presented Apis mellifera and/or Trigona spinipes as the most generalist species. Apis mellifera is an exotic bee species and Trigona spinipes, a native species, is also widespread and presents broad diet breath and high number of individuals per colony.

  16. Cryptic extended brood care in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiñones Paredes, Andres; Wcislo, W.T.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of different brood cell provisioning strategies, nest-making insects may differ in the extent to which adults regularly provide extended parental care to their brood beyond nest defense. Mass-provisioning species cache the entire food supply needed for larval development prior to the

  17. How bees distinguish colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Behind each facet of the compound eye, bees have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by sunlight reflected from the surrounding panorama. In experiments that excluded ultraviolet, bees learned to distinguish between black, gray, white, and various colors. To distinguish two targets of differing color, bees detected, learned, and later recognized the strongest preferred inputs, irrespective of which target displayed them. First preference was the position and measure of blue reflected from white or colored areas. They also learned the positions and a measure of the green receptor modulation at vertical edges that displayed the strongest green contrast. Modulation is the receptor response to contrast and was summed over the length of a contrasting vertical edge. This also gave them a measure of angular width between outer vertical edges. Third preference was position and a measure of blue modulation. When they returned for more reward, bees recognized the familiar coincidence of these inputs at that place. They cared nothing for colors, layout of patterns, or direction of contrast, even at black/white edges. The mechanism is a new kind of color vision in which a large-field tonic blue input must coincide in time with small-field phasic modulations caused by scanning vertical edges displaying green or blue contrast. This is the kind of system to expect in medium-lowly vision, as found in insects; the next steps are fresh looks at old observations and quantitative models.

  18. Sandhills native bee survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes the results of a bee survey conducted in Sandhills region of north and south Carolina on May 18th and 19th 2006. Part of the survey was...

  19. How bees distinguish colors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: Behind each facet of the compound eye, bees have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by sunlight reflected from the surrounding panorama. In experiments that excluded ultraviolet, bees learned to distinguish between black, gray, white, and various colors. To distinguish two targets of differing color, bees detected, learned, and later recognized the strongest preferred inputs, irrespective of which target displayed them. First preference was the position and measure of blue reflected from white or colored areas. They also learned the positions and a measure of the green receptor modulation at vertical edges that displayed the strongest green contrast. Modulation is the receptor response to contrast and was summed over the length of a contrasting vertical edge. This also gave them a measure of angular width between outer vertical edges. Third preference was position and a measure of blue modulation. When they returned for more reward, bees recognized the familiar coincidence of these inputs at that place. They cared nothing for colors, layout of patterns, or direction of contrast, even at black/white edges. The mechanism is a new kind of color vision in which a large-field tonic blue input must coincide in time with small-field phasic modulations caused by scanning vertical edges displaying green or blue contrast. This is the kind of system to expect in medium-lowly vision, as found in insects; the next steps are fresh looks at old observations and quantitative models. Keywords: vision, honey bee, visual processing, optimum system, picture sorting

  20. Genetics Home Reference: cold-induced sweating syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition CISS CNTF receptor-related disorders Crisponi syndrome Sohar-Crisponi syndrome ... of cardiotrophin-like cytokine, a second ligand for ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, leads to cold-induced sweating syndrome in ...

  1. Cystic fibrosis with normal sweat chloride concentration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Filho Luiz Vicente Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease usually diagnosed by abnormal sweat testing. We report a case of an 18-year-old female with bronchiectasis, chronic P. aeruginosa infection, and normal sweat chloride concentrations who experienced rapid decrease of lung function and clinical deterioration despite treatment. Given the high suspicion ofcystic fibrosis, broad genotyping testing was performed, showing a compound heterozygous with deltaF508 and 3849+10kb C->T mutations, therefore confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Although the sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, alternative diagnostic tests such as genotyping and electrophysiologic measurements must be performed if there is suspicion of cystic fibrosis, despite normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

  2. Sweat Gland Progenitors in Development, Homeostasis, and Wound Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Catherine; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    The human body is covered with several million sweat glands. These tiny coiled tubular skin appendages produce the sweat that is our primary source of cooling and hydration of the skin. Numerous studies have been published on their morphology and physiology. Until recently, however, little was known about how glandular skin maintains homeostasis and repairs itself after tissue injury. Here, we provide a brief overview of sweat gland biology, including newly identified reservoirs of stem cells in glandular skin and their activation in response to different types of injuries. Finally, we discuss how the genetics and biology of glandular skin has advanced our knowledge of human disorders associated with altered sweat gland activity. PMID:24492848

  3. \\'Sweat Equity\\': Women\\'s Participation in Subsidised Housing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The notion of \\"sweat equity\\" has been promoted as an integral part of subsidised housing in South African Housing policy. It\\'s tougher for females, though. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 58-64 ...

  4. Influence of sex and growth hormone deficiency on sweating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Nilsson, K O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1991-01-01

    Sweat secretion rate (SSR) was measured by the pilocarpine iontophoresis test in (a) 254 healthy children and adolescents (aged 6.0 to 19.2 years, mean age 11.2 years); in (b) 58 healthy adults (aged 20.4 to 75.2 years, mean age 37.6 years); and in (c) eight prepubertal patients with growth hormone...... in sweat excretion rate from childhood to adulthood showed a difference between the sexes. Both pre-pubertal and pubertal boys had a lower secretion value than adult men (p less than 0.001 and 0.01, respectively), whereas girls showed higher secretion values than adult women (p less than 0.01 and p less...... min-1). We conclude that (a) sweat secretion pattern in children shows a significant sex difference and (b) sweating in children is dependent on growth hormone....

  5. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000826.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats To use ... stress reduction. Learning how to decrease stress and anxiety may help relieve hot flashes in some people. ...

  6. Lack of harmonization in sweat testing for cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Christiansen, Anne; Nybo, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Sweat testing is used in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Interpretation of the sweat test depends, however, on the method performed since conductivity, osmolality and chloride concentration all can be measured as part of a sweat test. The aim of this study...... fibrosis. Because diagnosing cystic fibrosis is a combined effort between local pediatric departments, biochemical and genetic departments and cystic fibrosis centers, a national harmonization is necessary to assure correct clinical use....... a normal and grey zone or a pathological value. Cut-off values for normal, grey and pathological areas were like the reference intervals inconsistent. Conclusion. There is inconsistent use of NPU codes, reference intervals and interpretation of sweat conductivity used in the process of diagnosing cystic...

  7. Observation of the sweating in lipstick by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S Y; Lee, I S; Shin, H Y; Choi, K Y; Kang, S H; Ahn, H J

    1999-06-01

    The relationship between the wax matrix in lipstick and sweating has been investigated by observing the change of size and shape of the wax matrix due to sweating by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). For observation by SEM, a lipstick sample was frozen in liquid nitrogen. The oil in the lipstick was then extracted in cold isopropanol (-70 degrees C) for 1-3 days. After the isopropanol was evaporated, the sample was sputtered with gold and examined by SEM. The change of wax matrix underneath the surface from fine, uniform structure to coarse, nonuniform structure resulted from the caking of surrounding wax matrix. The oil underneath the surface migrated to the surface of lipstick with sweating; consequently the wax matrix in that region was rearranged into the coarse matrix. In case of flamed lipstick, sweating was delayed and the wax matrix was much coarser than that of the unflamed one. The larger wax matrix at the surface region was good for including oil. The effect of molding temperature on sweating was also studied. As the molding temperature rose, sweating was greatly reduced and the size of the wax matrix increased. It was found that sweating was influenced by the compatibility of wax and oil. A formula consisting of wax and oil that have good compatibility has a tendency to reduce sweating and increase the size of the wax matrix. When pigments were added to wax and oil, the size of the wax matrix was changed, but in all cases sweating was increased due to the weakening of the binding force between wax and oil. On observing the thick membrane of wax at the surface of lipstick a month after molding it was also found that sweating was influenced by ageing. In conclusion, the structure of the wax matrix at the surface region of lipstick was changed with the process of flaming, molding temperature, compatibility of wax and oil, addition of pigment, and ageing. In most cases, as the size of the wax matrix was increased, sweating was reduced and delayed.

  8. Metabolomics analysis of human sweat collected after moderate exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Povedano, M M; Calderón-Santiago, M; Luque de Castro, M D; Priego-Capote, F

    2018-01-15

    Sweat is a promising biofluid scarcely used in clinical analysis despite its non-invasive sampling. A more frequent clinical use of sweat requires to know its whole composition, especially concerning to non-polar compounds, and the development of analytical strategies for its characterization. The aim of the present study was to compare different sample preparation strategies to maximize the detection of metabolites in sweat from humans collected after practicing moderate exercise. Special emphasis was put on non-polar compounds as they have received scant attention in previous studies dealing with this biofluid. Sample preparation by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using extractants with different polarity index was compared to deproteination. Then, derivatization by methoxymation with subsequent silylation was compared to direct analysis of sweat extracts to check the influence of derivatization on the subsequent determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). 135 compounds were tentatively identified by combining spectral and retention time information after analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in high resolution mode (GC-TOF/MS). Lipids, VOCs, benzenoids and other interesting metabolites such as alkaloids and ethanolamines were identified. Among the tested protocols, methyoxiamination plus silylation after LLE with dichloromethane was the best option to obtain a representative snapshot of sweat metabolome collected from different body parts after moderate exercise. Passive and active sweat pools from a cohort of volunteers (n = 6) were compared to detect compositional differences which can be explained by the sampling process and sweating induction. As most of the identified compounds are metabolites involved in key biochemical pathways, this study opens new opportunities to extend the applicability of human sweat as a source of metabolite biomarkers of pathologies or specific processes such as dehydration or nutritional unbalance

  9. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a noninvasive approach for cutaneous research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karan; Hassoun, Lauren A; Foolad, Negar; Pedersen, Theresa L; Sivamani, Raja K; Newman, John W

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques provide new opportunities to identify noninvasive biomarkers for the study of skin inflammation and repair. This study aims to characterize the lipid mediator profile including oxygenated lipids, endocannabinoids, and ceramides/sphingoid bases in sweat and identify differences in these profiles between sweat collected from nonlesional sites on the unflared volar forearm of subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Adapting routine procedures developed for plasma analysis, over 100 lipid mediators were profiled using LC-MS/MS and 58 lipid mediators were detected in sweat. Lipid mediator concentrations were not affected by sampling or storage conditions. Increases in concentrations of C30-C40 [NS] and [NdS] ceramides, and C18:1 sphingosine, were observed in the sweat of study participants with AD despite no differences being observed in transepidermal water loss between study groups, and this effect was strongest in men (P Sweat mediator profiling may therefore provide a noninvasive diagnostic for AD prior to the presentation of clinical signs.

  10. Wearable Sweat Rate Sensors for Human Thermal Comfort Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2018-01-19

    We propose watch-type sweat rate sensors capable of automatic natural ventilation by integrating miniaturized thermo-pneumatic actuators, and experimentally verify their performances and applicability. Previous sensors using natural ventilation require manual ventilation process or high-power bulky thermo-pneumatic actuators to lift sweat rate detection chambers above skin for continuous measurement. The proposed watch-type sweat rate sensors reduce operation power by minimizing expansion fluid volume to 0.4 ml through heat circuit modeling. The proposed sensors reduce operation power to 12.8% and weight to 47.6% compared to previous portable sensors, operating for 4 hours at 6 V batteries. Human experiment for thermal comfort monitoring is performed by using the proposed sensors having sensitivity of 0.039 (pF/s)/(g/m 2 h) and linearity of 97.9% in human sweat rate range. Average sweat rate difference for each thermal status measured in three subjects shows (32.06 ± 27.19) g/m 2 h in thermal statuses including 'comfortable', 'slightly warm', 'warm', and 'hot'. The proposed sensors thereby can discriminate and compare four stages of thermal status. Sweat rate measurement error of the proposed sensors is less than 10% under air velocity of 1.5 m/s corresponding to human walking speed. The proposed sensors are applicable for wearable and portable use, having potentials for daily thermal comfort monitoring applications.

  11. Trapped sweat in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Reimel, Adam J; Sopeña, Bridget C; Barnes, Kelly A; Nuccio, Ryan P; De Chavez, Peter John D; Stofan, John R; Carter, James M

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: (1) trapped sweat (TS) in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss (SL) estimates during a laboratory-based basketball simulation protocol; (2) the impact of exercise intensity, body mass, age, and SL on TS; and (3) TS during on-court training to assess the ecological validity of the laboratory-based results. Twenty-four recreational/competitive male basketball players (23 ± 10 years, 77.0 ± 16.7 kg) completed three randomized laboratory-based trials (Low, Moderate, and High intensity) consisting of 150-min intermittent exercise. Eighteen elite male players (23 ± 4 years, 92.0 ± 20.6 kg) were observed during coach-led, on-court training. Nude and clothed body mass were measured pre and postexercise to determine TS. Data are mean ± SD. There was a significant effect of intensity on SL and TS ( P  < 0.001, Lowsweat and TS was 0.11 ± 0.15 kg (8.0 ± 5.1% SL). During Moderate, subjects lost 1.60 ± 0.56 kg sweat and TS was 0.21 ± 0.21 kg (11.6 ± 6.3% SL). During High, subjects lost 2.12 ± 0.66 kg sweat and TS was 0.38 ± 0.28 kg (16.0 ± 7.4% SL). Multiple regression and partial correlation analysis suggested TS was significantly related to SL ( P  < 0.0001; partial r  = 0.81-0.89), whereas the contributions of body mass ( P  = 0.22-0.92) and age ( P  = 0.29-0.44) were not significant. TS during on-court training was 0.35 ± 0.36 kg, which was associated with a 14.1 ± 11.5% underestimation in SL, and was not statistically different than laboratory-based results ( P  = 0.59). Clothed body mass measurements should be used with caution, as TS is highly variable and can cause a significant underestimation in SL in athletes with high sweating rates. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological

  12. Red mason bees cannot compete with honey bees for floral resources in a cage experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudewenz, Anika; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2015-11-01

    Intensive beekeeping to mitigate crop pollination deficits and habitat loss may cause interspecific competition between bees. Studies show negative correlations between flower visitation of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees, but effects on the reproduction of wild bees were not proven. Likely reasons are that honey bees can hardly be excluded from controls and wild bee nests are generally difficult to detect in field experiments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) compete with honey bees in cages in order to compare the reproduction of red mason bees under different honey bee densities. Three treatments were applied, each replicated in four cages of 18 m³ with 38 red mason bees in all treatments and 0, 100, and 300 honey bees per treatment with 10-20% being foragers. Within the cages, the flower visitation and interspecific displacements from flowers were observed. Niche breadths and resource overlaps of both bee species were calculated, and the reproduction of red mason bees was measured. Red mason bees visited fewer flowers when honey bees were present. Niche breadth of red mason bees decreased with increasing honey bee density while resource overlaps remained constant. The reproduction of red mason bees decreased in cages with honey bees. In conclusion, our experimental results show that in small and isolated flower patches, wild bees can temporarily suffer from competition with honey bees. Further research should aim to test for competition on small and isolated flower patches in real landscapes.

  13. Matrigel basement membrane matrix induces eccrine sweat gland cells to reconstitute sweat gland-like structures in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haihong; Chen, Lu; Zeng, Shaopeng; Li, Xuexue; Zhang, Xiang; Lin, Changmin; Zhang, Mingjun; Xie, Sitian; He, Yunpu; Shu, Shenyou; Yang, Lvjun; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-03-01

    Severe burn results in irreversible damage to eccrine sweat glands, for which no effective treatment is available. Interaction between the extracellular matrix and epithelial cells is critical for proper three-dimensional organization and function of the epithelium. Matrigel-embedded eccrine sweat gland cells were subcutaneously implanted into the inguinal regions of nude mice. Two weeks later, the Matrigel plugs were removed and evaluated for series of detection items. Sweat gland cells developed into sweat gland-like structures in the Matrigel plugs based on: (1) de novo formation of tubular-like structures with one or more hollow lumens, (2) expression of epithelial and sweat gland markers (pancytokeratin, CK5/7/14/19, α-SMA and CEA), (3) basement membrane formation, (4) myoepithelial cells presenting in and encompassing the tubular-like structures, (5) cellular polarization, evident by the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin-1 and ZO-2), anchoring junctions (desmoglein-1 and -2 and E-cadherin) and CEA in the luminal membrane, (6) expression of proteins related to sweat secretion and absorption (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α/β, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl-cotranspoter 1, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1, aquaporin-5, epithelial sodium channel, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, potassium channel and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase), and (7) about 20% of the tubular-like structures are de novo coils and 80% are de novo ducts. This study provides not only an excellent model to study eccrine sweat gland development, cytodifferentiation and reconstitution, but also an in vivo model for regeneration of eccrine sweat glands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bee sting allergy in beekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich-Wanger, C; Müller, U R

    1998-10-01

    Beekeepers are strongly exposed to honey bee stings and therefore at an increased risk to develop IgE-mediated allergy to bee venom. We wondered whether bee venom-allergic beekeepers were different from normally exposed bee venom-allergic patients with regard to clinical and immunological parameters as well as their response to venom immunotherapy. Among the 459 bee venom-allergic patients seen over the 5 year period 1987-91, 62 (14%) were beekeepers and 44 (10%) family members of beekeepers. These two groups were compared with 101 normally exposed bee venom-allergic patients matched with the allergic beekeepers for age and sex, regarding clinical parameters, skin sensitivity, specific IgE and IgG antibodies to bee venom as well as safety and efficacy of venom immunotherapy. As expected, allergic beekeepers had been stung most frequently before the first allergic reaction. The three groups showed a similar severity of allergic symptoms following bee stings and had an equal incidence of atopic diseases. Allergic beekeepers showed higher levels of bee venom-specific serum IgG, lower skin sensitivity and lower levels of bee venom specific serum IgE than bee venom-allergic control patients. A negative correlation between number of stings and skin sensitivity as well as specific IgE was found in allergic beekeepers and their family members, while the number of stings was positively correlated with specific IgG in these two groups. Venom immunotherapy was equally effective in the three groups, but better tolerated by allergic beekeepers than the two other groups. The majority of allergic beekeepers continued bee-keeping successfully under the protection of venom immunotherapy. The lower level of sensitivity in diagnostic tests and the better tolerance of immunotherapy in allergic beekeepers is most likely related to the high level of specific IgG in this group.

  15. Sweat Farm Road Fire in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Dense plumes of blue-white smoke billowed from the Sweat Farm Road Fire in southern Georgia on April 19, 2007, when the Landsat 5 satellite captured this detailed image. The fire started on April 16, when a tree fell on a power line and, fanned by strong winds, quickly exploded into a major fire. By April 19, the fire had forced officials to close several roads, including U.S. Highway 1, and to evacuate hundreds of people from the perimeter of the city of Waycross, the silver cluster along the top edge of the image. The nearness of the fire is evident in the dark brown, charred land just south of the city. The active fire front is along the south edge of the burned area, where the flames are eating into the dark green hardwood forests, pine plantations, and shrubs in Okefenokee Swamp. Because of the difficult terrain, the fire and the adjoining Big Turnaround Complex fire are expected to burn until significant rain falls, said the morning report issued by the Southern Area Coordination Center on May 4. 'In the long term, the burning of the swamp will ultimately benefit the swamp wilderness habitat, which is a fire-dependent ecosystem,' said a press release issued from the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge on May 4. Such ecosystems require fire to remain healthy. In the case of southern pine forests, many pine species need fire to remove litter from the ground and release soil nutrients so that new seedlings can grow.

  16. Claudin-3 loss causes leakage of sweat from the sweat gland to contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaga, Kosuke; Murota, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Atsushi; Miyata, Hirofumi; Ohmi, Masato; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru; Tsukita, Sachiko; Katayama, Ichiro

    2017-12-22

    The transfer of sweat to the skin surface without leakage is important for the homeostatic regulation of skin and is impaired in atopic dermatitis (AD). Although the precise composition of the leakage barrier remains obscure, there is a large contribution from claudins, the major components of tight junctions. In humans, claudin-1, -3, and -15 are expressed on sweat ducts, and claudin-3 and -10 are expressed on secretory coils. Although only two claudins are expressed in murine sweat glands, we found that the expression of claudin-3 is conserved. AD lesional skin had decreased claudin-3 expression in sweat glands, which was accompanied by sweat leakage. This critical role in water barrier function was confirmed in Cldn3 -/- and Cldn3 +/- mice and those with experimentally decreased claudin-3. Our results reveal the crucial role of claudin-3 in preventing sweat gland leakage and suggest that the pathogenesis of dermatoses accompanied by hypohidrosis involves abnormally decreased claudin-3. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Real-Time Wireless Sweat Rate Measurement System for Physical Activity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueck, Andrew; Iftekhar, Tashfin; Stannard, Alicja B; Yelamarthi, Kumar; Kaya, Tolga

    2018-02-10

    There has been significant research on the physiology of sweat in the past decade, with one of the main interests being the development of a real-time hydration monitor that utilizes sweat. The contents of sweat have been known for decades; sweat provides significant information on the physiological condition of the human body. However, it is important to know the sweat rate as well, as sweat rate alters the concentration of the sweat constituents, and ultimately affects the accuracy of hydration detection. Towards this goal, a calorimetric based flow-rate detection system was built and tested to determine sweat rate in real time. The proposed sweat rate monitoring system has been validated through both controlled lab experiments (syringe pump) and human trials. An Internet of Things (IoT) platform was embedded, with the sensor using a Simblee board and Raspberry Pi. The overall prototype is capable of sending sweat rate information in real time to either a smartphone or directly to the cloud. Based on a proven theoretical concept, our overall system implementation features a pioneer device that can truly measure the rate of sweat in real time, which was tested and validated on human subjects. Our realization of the real-time sweat rate watch is capable of detecting sweat rates as low as 0.15 µL/min/cm², with an average error in accuracy of 18% compared to manual sweat rate readings.

  18. Bees brought to their knees: Microbes affecting honey bee health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biology and health of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been of interest to human societies since the advent of beekeeping. Descriptive scientific research on pathogens affecting honey bees have been published for nearly a century, but it wasn’t until the recent outbreak of heavy colony losses...

  19. Systematic review focusing on the excretion and protection roles of sweat in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Cui, Xiao; Liu, Yanhua; Li, Yaoyin; Liu, Jian; Cheng, Biao

    2014-01-01

    The skin excretes substances primarily through sweat glands. Several conditions have been demonstrated to be associated with diminished sweating. However, few studies have concentrated on the metabolism and excretion of sweat. This review focuses on the relationship between temperature and the thermoregulatory efficacy of sweat, and then discusses the excretion of sweat, which includes the metabolism of water, minerals, proteins, vitamins as well as toxic substances. The potential role of sweat secretion in hormone homeostasis and the effects on the defense system of the skin are also clarified. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J; Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background . Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods . Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results . Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions . Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  1. Adhesive RFID Sensor Patch for Monitoring of Sweat Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, Michael E; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian; Heikenfeld, Jason C

    2015-06-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smartphone app with 96% accuracy at 50 mM Na(+) (in vitro tests). All circuitry is solder-reflow integrated on a standard Cu/polyimide flexible-electronic layer including an antenna, but while also allowing electroplating for simple integration of exotic metals for sensing electrodes. Optional paper microfluidics wick sweat from a sweat porous adhesive allowing flow to the sensor, or the sensor can be directly contacted to the skin. The wearability of the patch has been demonstrated for up to seven days, and includes a protective textile which provides a feel and appearance similar to a standard Band-Aid. Applications include hydration monitoring, but the basic capability is extendable to other mM ionic solutes in sweat (Cl(-), K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), and Zn(2+)). The design and fabrication of the patch are provided in full detail, as the basic components could be useful in the design of other wearable sensors.

  2. Early-stage mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizawa T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Nizawa1, Toshiyuki Oshitari1, Ryuta Kimoto1, Fusae Kajita1, Jiro Yotsukura1, Kaoru Asanagi1, Takayuki Baba1, Yoko Takahashi2, Takashi Oide2, Takako Kiyokawa2, Takashi Kishimoto2, Shuichi Yamamoto11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Chiba, JapanAbstract: We present the findings of an early-stage primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma in the lower eyelid of a Japanese patient. The patient was a 73-year-old man who had had a nodule on the left lower eyelid for two years. He was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of a swollen chalazion. The clinical and histopathological records were reviewed and the mass was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography excluded systemic metastases. After the histopathological findings, a complete surgical excision of the margins of the adenocarcinoma was performed, with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. After the final histopathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with a primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the left eyelid. Six months after the surgery, no recurrence has been observed. Because the appearance of mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the eyelid is quite variable, the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathological examination. A complete surgical excision is recommended.Keywords: complete surgical excision, eyelid, initial stage, mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma

  3. Hey! A Bee Stung Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Taking Care of Your Teeth Bad Breath Hey! A Bee Stung Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Bee Stung Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Gnat ...

  4. Sweat mineral-element responses during 7 h of exercise-heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, Scott J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lukaski, Henry C

    2007-12-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the effect of sustained sweating on sweat mineral-element composition. To determine the effect of multiple hours of exercise-heat stress on sweat mineral concentrations. Seven heat-acclimated subjects (6 males, 1 female) completed 5 x 60 min of treadmill exercise (1.56 m/s, 2% grade) with 20 min rest between exercise periods in 2 weather conditions (27 degrees C, 40% relative humidity, 1 m/s and 35 degrees C, 30%, 1 m/s). Sweat was collected from a sweat-collection pouch attached to the upper back during exercise bouts 1, 3, and 5. Mineral elements were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-emission spectrography. At 27 degrees C, sweat sodium (863 [563] microg/mL; mean [SD]), potassium (222 [48] microg/mL), calcium (16 [7]) microg/mL), magnesium (1265 [566] ng/mL), and copper (80 [56] ng/mL) remained similar to baseline over 7 h of exercise-heat stress, whereas sweat zinc declined 42-45% after the initial hour of exercise-heat stress (Ex1 = 655 [362], Ex3 = 382 [168], Ex5 = 355 [288] microg/mL, P sweat zinc at 35 degrees C when sweat rates were higher. Sweat rate had no effect on sweat trace-element composition. Sweat sodium, potassium, and calcium losses during multiple hours of sustained sweating can be predicted from initial sweat composition. Estimates of sweat zinc losses, however, will be overestimated if sweat zinc conservation is not accounted for in sweat zinc-loss estimates.

  5. Sweat, the driving force behind normal skin: an emerging perspective on functional biology and regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murota, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Saki; Ono, Emi; Kijima, Akiko; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru; Katayama, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    The various symptoms associated with excessive or insufficient perspiration can significantly reduce a patient's quality of life. If a versatile and minimally invasive method could be established for returning sweat activity to normalcy, there is no question that it could be used in the treatment of many diseases that are believed to involve perspiration. For this reason, based on an understanding of the sweat-gland control function and sweat activity, it was necessary to conduct a comprehensive search for the factors that control sweating, such as the central and peripheral nerves that control sweat-gland function, the microenvironment surrounding the sweat glands, and lifestyle. We focused on the mechanism by which atopic dermatitis leads to hypohidrosis and confirmed that histamine inhibits acetylcholinergic sweating. Acetylcholine promotes the phosphorylation of glycogen synthesis kinase 3β (GSK3β) in the sweat-gland secretory cells and leads to sensible perspiration. By suppressing the phosphorylation of GSK3β, histamine inhibits the movement of sweat from the sweat-gland secretory cells through the sweat ducts, which could presumably be demonstrated by dynamic observations of the sweat glands using two-photon microscopy. It is expected that the discovery of new factors that control sweat-gland function can contribute to the treatment of diseases associated with dyshidrosis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acquired defects in CFTR-dependent β-adrenergic sweat secretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Clifford A; Tidwell, Sherry; Liu, Bo; Accurso, Frank J; Dransfield, Mark T; Rowe, Steven M

    2014-02-25

    Smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with acquired systemic cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction. Recently, sweat evaporimetry has been shown to efficiently measure β-adrenergic sweat rate and specifically quantify CFTR function in the secretory coil of the sweat gland. To evaluate the presence and severity of systemic CFTR dysfunction in smoking-related lung disease using sweat evaporimetry to determine CFTR-dependent sweat rate. We recruited a cohort of patients consisting of healthy never smokers (N = 18), healthy smokers (12), COPD smokers (25), and COPD former smokers (12) and measured β-adrenergic sweat secretion rate with evaporative water loss, sweat chloride, and clinical data (spirometry and symptom questionnaires). β-adrenergic sweat rate was reduced in COPD smokers (41.9 ± 3.4, P sweat chloride was significantly greater in COPD smokers (32.8 ± 3.3, P sweat rate and female gender (β = 0.26), age (-0.28), FEV1% (0.35), dyspnea (-0.3), and history of smoking (-0.27; each P sweat rate was significantly reduced in COPD patients, regardless of smoking status, reflecting acquired CFTR dysfunction and abnormal gland secretion in the skin that can persist despite smoking cessation. β-adrenergic sweat rate and sweat chloride are associated with COPD severity and clinical symptoms, supporting the hypothesis that CFTR decrements have a causative role in COPD pathogenesis.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  8. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  9. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Abdurrahman Erdem; Karataş-Torun, Nimet; Maslak, İbrahim Cemal; Bingöl, Ayşen; Alper, Özgül M

    2017-01-01

    Başaran AE, Karataş-Torun N, Maslak İC, Bingöl A, Alper ÖM. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 68-70. A 5-month-old patient presented with complaints of fever and cough. He was hospitalized with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and pseudo-Bartter's syndrome. Patient was further investigated for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The chloride (Cl) level in sweat was determined within the normal range (25.1 mmol/L, 20.3 mmol/L). CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator gene; NM_000492.2) genotyping results were positive for p.E92K; p.F1052V mutations. The patient was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. In our patient, with features of CF and normal sweat test, mutation analysis was helpful for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

  10. Honey bee pathology: current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genersch, Elke

    2010-06-01

    Managed honey bees are the most important commercial pollinators of those crops which depend on animal pollination for reproduction and which account for 35% of the global food production. Hence, they are vital for an economic, sustainable agriculture and for food security. In addition, honey bees also pollinate a variety of wild flowers and, therefore, contribute to the biodiversity of many ecosystems. Honey and other hive products are, at least economically and ecologically rather, by-products of beekeeping. Due to this outstanding role of honey bees, severe and inexplicable honey bee colony losses, which have been reported recently to be steadily increasing, have attracted much attention and stimulated many research activities. Although the phenomenon "decline of honey bees" is far from being finally solved, consensus exists that pests and pathogens are the single most important cause of otherwise inexplicable colony losses. This review will focus on selected bee pathogens and parasites which have been demonstrated to be involved in colony losses in different regions of the world and which, therefore, are considered current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.

  11. Effect of induced metabolic alkalosis on sweat composition in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Nimmo, M A

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether induced metabolic alkalosis affects sweat composition, 10 males cycled for 90 min at 62.5 +/- 1.3% peak oxygen uptake, on two separate occasions. Subjects ingested either empty capsules (placebo) or capsules containing NaHCO3- (0.3 g kg-1 body mass; six equal doses) over a 2-h period, which commenced 3 h prior to exercise. Arterialized-venous blood samples were drawn prior to and after 15, 30, 60 and 90 min of exercise. Sweat was aspirated at the end of exercise from a patch located on the right scapula region. NaHCO3- ingestion elevated blood pH, [HCO3-] and serum [Na+], whereas serum [Cl-] and [K+] were reduced, both at rest and during exercise (P Sweat pH was greater in the NaHCO3- trial (6.24 +/- 0.18 vs. 6.38 +/- 0.18; P sweat [Na+] (49.5 +/- 4.8 vs. 50.2 +/- 4.3 mEq L-1), [Cl-] (37.5 +/- 5.1 vs. 39.3 +/- 4.2 mEq L-1) and [K+] (4.66 +/- 0.19 vs. 4.64 +/- 0.34 mEq L-1) did not differ between trials (P > 0.05). Sweat [HCO3-] (2.49 +/- 0.58 vs. 3.73 +/- 1.10 mEq L-1) and [lactate] (8.92 +/- 0.79 vs. 10.51 +/- 0.32 mmol L-1) tended to be greater after NaHCO3- ingestion, although significance was not reached (P=0.07 and P=0.08, respectively). These data indicate that induced metabolic alkalosis can modify sweat composition, although it is unclear whether the secretory coil, reabsorptive duct, or both are responsible for this alteration.

  12. Sweat chloride as a biomarker of CFTR activity: proof of concept and ivacaftor clinical trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Frank J; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L; Rowe, Steven M; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W; Hoch, Heather E; Heltshe, Sonya L; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Campbell, Preston W; Ashlock, Melissa A

    2014-03-01

    We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821} of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with aG551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing,and analysis was employed for the first time. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators.

  13. [Analysis of fatty acid composition of sweat lipids in children and adults with skin disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrashko, Iu V; Koliadenko, V G; Briuzgina, T S; Prokhorova, M P

    2002-01-01

    Gas-chromatographic analysis of fatty acid composition of sweat lipids in children and adults with neurodermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and eczema showed that sweat can be used as a new noninvasive biological object for evaluation of lipid metabolism disorders.

  14. Sweat sodium loss influences serum sodium concentration in a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, B; Salinero, J J; Areces, F; Ruiz-Vicente, D; Gallo-Salazar, C; Abián-Vicén, J; Del Coso, J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of sweat electrolyte concentration on body water and electrolyte homeostasis during a marathon. Fifty-one runners completed a marathon race in a warm and dry environment (24.4 ± 3.6 °C). Runners were classified as low-salt sweaters (n = 21; sweat Na + concentration), typical sweaters (n = 20; ≥30 and sweat Na + concentration), and salty sweaters (n = 10; ≥60 mmol/L of sweat Na + concentration). Before and after the race, body mass and a sample of venous blood were obtained. During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches, and fluid and electrolyte intake were recorded by using self-reported questionnaires. Low-salt, typical and salty sweaters presented similar sweat rates (0.93 ± 0.2, 0.92 ± 0.29, 0.99 ± 0.21 L/h, respectively), body mass changes (-3.0 ± 1.0, -3.3 ± 1.0, -3.2 ± 0.8%), total Na + intake (12.7 ± 8.1, 11.5 ± 9.7, 14.5 ± 16.6 mmol), and fluid intake (1.3 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.6 L) during the race. However, salty sweaters presented lower post-race serum Na + concentration (140.8 ± 1.3 vs 142.5 ± 1.1, 142.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L; P Sweat electrolyte concentration could influence post-race serum electrolyte concentration in the marathon. However, even the saltiest sweaters did not develop exercise-associated hyponatremia or associated symptoms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  16. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  17. Wearable technologies for sweat rate and conductivity sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Salvo, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Wearable sensors present a new frontier in the development of monitoring techniques. They are of great importance in sectors such as sports and healthcare, as they permit the continuous monitoring of physiological and biological elements, such as ECG and human sweat. Until recently, this could only be carried out in specialized laboratories in the presence of cumbersome, and usually, expensive devices. Sweat monitoring sensors integrated onto textile substrates are not only part of a new field of work but, they also represent the first attempt to implement such an

  18. Immediate Wheal Reactivity to Autologous Sweat in Atopic Dermatitis Is Associated with Clinical Severity, Serum Total and Specific IgE and Sweat Tryptase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilves, Tiina; Virolainen, Anu; Harvima, Ilkka Tapani

    2016-01-01

    Sweating can worsen atopic dermatitis (AD). The purpose of this work was to study the associations between reactivity to autologous sweat and the clinical severity of AD as well as investigate the possible wheal-inducing factors of sweat. Intracutaneous skin tests with autologous sweat were performed on 50 AD patients and 24 control subjects. In skin biopsies, tryptase and PAR-2 were enzyme and immunohistochemically stained. The associations between skin test reactivity and sweat histamine concentration, tryptase or chymase activity levels, tryptase or PAR-2 expression and AD clinical severity or IgE levels were investigated. The wheal reactions in the intracutaneous tests with autologous sweat were positive, weakly positive and negative in 38, 34 and 28% of the AD patients, respectively, and in 4, 46 and 50% of the healthy controls, respectively (p = 0.008). In AD, the wheal reaction was associated significantly with clinical severity, serum total and specific IgE levels and sweat tryptase activity, but not with sweat histamine and chymase. In nonlesional AD skin, the percentage of PAR-2+ mast cells (MCs) or the number of tryptase+ MCs did not differ significantly between the intracutaneous test reactivity groups. Reactivity to autologous sweat correlates with the clinical severity of AD, and tryptase may be one of the factors involved in the sweat-induced wheal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Transient elevation of sweat chloride concentration in a malnourished girl with the Mauriac syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, F P; Transue, D J; Belknap, W M; Freij, B J; Aughton, D J

    1995-02-01

    Elevated sweat chloride concentration in a patient with Mauriac syndrome has been reported only once. The authors of that report regarded their patient's underlying malnutrition, and not Mauriac syndrome per se, as the cause of the elevated sweat chloride concentration. We describe a second example of transient elevation of sweat chloride concentration, which confirms that the malnutrition intrinsic to Mauriac syndrome, rather than the syndrome itself, was the probable cause of elevated sweat chloride values.

  20. Simple barcode system based on ionogels for real time pH-sweat monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Coyle, Shirley; Byrne, Robert; O’Toole, Corinne; Barry, Caroline; Diamond, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication, characterization and the performance of a wearable, robust, flexible and disposable barcode system based on novel ionic liquid polymer gels (ionogels) for monitoring in real time mode the pH of the sweat generated during an exercise period. Up to now sweat analysis has been carried out using awkward methods of collecting sweat followed by laboratory analysis. The approach presented here can provide immediate feedback regarding sweat composition. The great ...

  1. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a non-invasive approach for cutaneous research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat is a complex biological fluid with potential diagnostic value for the investigation of skin disorders. Previous efforts in sweat testing focused on analysis of small molecules and ions for forensic and diagnostic testing, but with advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques, there h...

  2. Sweat it Out : Johannes de Gorter and Sudorifics in the Dutch Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Today, many go for a run, cover themselves under blankets, or sit in the sauna believing that they can ‘sweat out’ the common cold. Whereas modern medicine has falsified the efficacy of sweating as treatment, this paper considers the development of medical research about sweating in the early modern

  3. Crying for a Vision: The Native American Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Brubaker, Michael; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Brotherton, Dale; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Conwill, William; Grayshield, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The Native American sweat lodge ceremony or sweat therapy is being used increasingly in various medical, mental health, correctional, and substance abuse treatment centers serving both Native and non-Native clients. This article explores the sweat lodge ceremony's background, elements of Native American spirituality, origin story, cultural…

  4. Artificial sweat composition to grow and sustain a mixed human axillary microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Buysschaert, Benjamin; Vossen, Els; Fievez, Veerle; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-08-01

    A novel artificial sweat composition, Skin Community Interaction simulation, designed to mimic the human axillary sweat, was compared to other artificial sweat compositions. Axillary microbiota grown in the novel composition closely resembled the original community. Volatile organic compound analysis showed good correlations with in vivo axillary (mal)odor components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of stimulation technique, anatomical region and time on human sweat lipid mediator profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few studies compare sampling protocol effect on sweat composition. Here we evaluate the impact of sweat stimulation mode and site of collection on lipid mediator composition. Sweat from healthy males (n = 7) was collected weekly for three weeks from the volar forearm following either pilocarpine ion...

  6. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is requir...

  7. Resource overlap and possible competition between honey bees and wild bees in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffan-Dewenter, I; Tscharntke, T

    2000-02-01

    Evidence for interspecific competition between honey bees and wild bees was studied on 15 calcareous grasslands with respect to: (1) foraging radius of honey bees, (2) overlap in resource use, and (3) possible honey bee effects on species richness and abundance of flower-visiting, ground-nesting and trap-nesting wild bees. The grasslands greatly differed in the number of honey bee colonies within a radius of 2 km and were surrounded by agricultural habitats. The number of flower-visiting honey bees on both potted mustard plants and small grassland patches declined with increasing distance from the nearest apiary and was almost zero at a distance of 1.5-2.0 km. Wild bees were observed visiting 57 plant species, whereas honey bees visited only 24 plant species. Percentage resource overlap between honey bees and wild bees was 45.5%, and Hurlbert's index of niche overlap was 3.1. In total, 1849 wild bees from 98 species were recorded on the calcareous grasslands. Neither species richness nor abundance of wild bees were negatively correlated with the density of honey bee colonies (within a radius of 2 km) or the density of flower-visiting honey bees per site. Abundance of flower- visiting wild bees was correlated only with the percentage cover of flowering plants. In 240 trap nests, 1292 bee nests with 6066 brood cells were found. Neither the number of bee species nor the number of brood cells per grassland was significantly correlated with the density of honey bees. Significant correlations were found only between the number of brood cells and the percentage cover of shrubs. The number of nest entrances of ground-nesting bees per square metre was not correlated with the density of honey bees but was negatively correlated with the cover of vegetation. Interspecific competition by honey bees for food resources was not shown to be a significant factor determining abundance and species richness of wild bees.

  8. The Sweat Lodge Ceremony in Challenge/Adventure Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, William J.; Smith, Thomas E.

    This paper advocates the potentials of "sweat lodge" rituals for adventure education programs. Historically, rituals and ceremonies have been instrumental in passing major philosophical and sociological paradigms from one generation to the next. However, there is little theory and research about how ritual and ceremony results in the…

  9. Do elephants need to sweat? | Wright | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adequate rate of evaporative water loss is considered essential for the maintenance of thermal balance in the elephant in warm climatic conditions. Histological studies have failed to reveal the existence of sweat glands in elephant skin. Transepidermal water-loss rate has been measured and shown to be sufficiently ...

  10. the comfort, measured by means of a sweating manikin (waltertm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Anton F Botha*, Marguerite E Stoffberg & Lawrance Hunter. ABSTRACT. With the growing importance of clothing comfort in South African and overseas markets for locally produced clothing, the Council for. Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR) acquired an advanced sweating fabric manikin for measuring clothing comfort.

  11. Sweating, thirst perception and plasma electrolyte composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirst is a perception, the subjective experience evoked by fluid deficits. Exercise induces sweating and subsequently electrolyte loss and thirst but there is little documented on post exercise thirst perception in women of varying body mass indices. 40 apparently healthy young women (19-25years) in the follicular phase of ...

  12. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H; Matsumoto, M; Murai, N; Nakamachi, T; Hannibal, J; Fahrenkrug, J; Hashimoto, H; Watanabe, H; Sueki, H; Honda, K; Miyazaki, A; Shioda, S

    2017-02-01

    Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exhibits pleiotropic functions that are mediated via its receptors [PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and VPAC2R]. Although some studies have suggested a role for PACAP in the skin and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression and localization of PACAP and its receptors in mouse and human eccrine sweat glands. We injected PACAP subcutaneously into the footpads of mice and used the starch-iodine test to visualize sweat-secreting glands. Immunostaining showed PACAP and PAC1R expression by secretory cells from mouse and human sweat glands. PACAP immunoreactivity was also localized in nerve fibres around eccrine sweat glands. PACAP significantly promoted sweat secretion at the injection site, and this could be blocked by the PAC1R-antagonist PACAP6-38. VIP, an agonist of VPAC1R and VPAC2R, failed to induce sweat secretion. This is the first report demonstrating that PACAP may play a crucial role in sweat secretion via its action on PAC1R located in eccrine sweat glands. The mechanisms underlying the role of PACAP in sweat secretion may provide new therapeutic options to combat sweating disorders. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Characteristics of honey bee and non-Apis bee (Hymenoptera) farms in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Z; Melhim, A; Weersink, A

    2012-08-01

    Here, we present a farm-level, Canada-wide analysis of Canadian bee farms in 2006; this article is the first report to distinguish between honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) farms and non-Apis bee (Hymenoptera) farms. Farms are characterized according to bee species, bee stocks, and whether the farm makes 50% or more of gross sales from bee-related activities. Farm characteristics, including bee stocks, gross sales, capital investments, land base, specialization, location, and operator demographics, are reported for the different farm types and sizes. Non-Apis bee farms are revealed to be a nontrivial part of the Canadian bee industry: 21.2% of Canadian bee farms have non-Apis bees and 16.6% have exclusively non-Apis bees. Important differences between honey bee farms and non-Apis bee farms also are found. These differences include the more land-intensive nature of non-Apis bee farms and the finding that non-Apis bee farms have greater diversity in terms of their primary commodity, even at higher bee stock levels.

  14. Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer,F.; Laitano,O.; Bar-Or,O.; McDougall,D.; Heigenhauser,G.J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR) suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac-) and ammonia (NH3) and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men) cycled in the heat (42ºC, 20% relative humidity) at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject's lower back. During b...

  15. Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Flavia; Lionello Neto, Orlando Laitano

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR) suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac-) and ammonia (NH3) and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men) cycled in the heat (42ºC, 20% relative humidity) at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject’s lower back. During b...

  16. Hydration and sweating responses to hot-weather football competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdak, S S; Shirreffs, S M; Maughan, R J; Ozgünen, K T; Zeren, C; Korkmaz, S; Yazici, Z; Ersöz, G; Binnet, M S; Dvorak, J

    2010-10-01

    During a football match played in warm (34.3 ± 0.6 °C), humid (64 ± 2% rh) conditions, 22 male players had their pre-match hydration status, body mass change, sweat loss and drinking behavior assessed. Pre-match urine specific gravity (1.012 ± 0.006) suggested that all but three players commenced the match euhydrated. Players lost 3.1 ± 0.6 L of sweat and 45 ± 9 mmol of sodium during the 90-min match and replaced 55 ± 19% of their sweat losses and hence by the end of the game were 2.2 ± 0.9% lighter. The water volume consumed during the game was highly variable (1653 ± 487 mL; 741-2387 mL) but there was a stronger relationship between the estimated pre-game hydration status and water volume consumed, than between sweat rate and water volume consumed. In a second match, with the same players 2 weeks later in 34.4 ± 0.6 °C, 65 ± 3% rh, 11 players had a sports drink available to them before and during the match in addition to water. Total drink volume consumed during the match was the same, but approximately half the volume was consumed as sports drink. The results indicate that substantial sweat water and electrolyte losses can occur during match play in hot conditions and a substantial water and sodium deficit can occur in many players even when water or sports drink is freely available. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Sweat output measurement of the post-ganglion sudomotor response by Q-Sweat Test: a normative database of Chinese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shu-Fang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Q-Sweat is a model used for evaluating the post-ganglionic sudomotor function by assessing sweat response. This study aimed to establish the normative database of Q-Sweat test among Chinese individuals since this type of information is currently lacking. Results One hundred and fifty (150 healthy volunteers, 76 men and 74 women with age range of 22–76 years were included. Skin temperature and sweat onset latency measured at the four sites (i.e., the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and the foot did not significantly correlate with age, gender, body height (BH, body weight (BW, and body mass index (BMI but the total sweat volume measured in all four sites significantly correlated with sex, BH, and BW. Except for the distal leg, the total sweat volume measured at the other three sites had a significant correlation with BMI. In terms of gender, men had larger total sweat volume, with median differences at the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and foot of 0.591 μl, 0.693 μl, 0.696 μl, and 0.358 μl, respectively. Regarding BW difference (≥62 and  Conclusion This is the first report to show the normative database of sweat response in Chinese participants evaluated using Q-Sweat device. This normative database can help guide further research on post-ganglionic sudomotor or related clinical practice involving a Chinese population.

  18. ZigBee-2007 Security Essentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    ZigBee is a fairly new but promising standard for wireless networks due to its low resource requirements. As in other wireless network standards, security is an important issue and each new version of the ZigBee Specification enhances the level of the ZigBee security. In this paper, we present...... the security essentials of the latest ZigBee Specification, ZigBee-2007. We explain the key concepts, protocols, and computations. In addition, we formulate the protocols using standard protocol narrations. Finally, we identify the key challenges to be considered for consolidating ZigBee....

  19. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    Honey bees are important insects for human welfare, due to pollination as well as honey production. Viral diseases strongly impact honey bee health, especially since the spread of varroa mites. This dissertation deals with the interactions between honey bees, viruses and varroa mites. A new tool...... was developed to diagnose three viruses in honey bees. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the distribution of two popular viruses in five different tissues of 86 honey bee queens. Seasonal variation of viral infection in honey bee workers and varroa mites were determined by sampling 23 colonies under...

  20. Seeing in the dark: vision and visual behaviour in nocturnal bees and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2008-06-01

    In response to the pressures of predation, parasitism and competition for limited resources, several groups of (mainly) tropical bees and wasps have independently evolved a nocturnal lifestyle. Like their day-active (diurnal) relatives, these insects possess apposition compound eyes, a relatively light-insensitive eye design that is best suited to vision in bright light. Despite this, nocturnal bees and wasps are able to forage at night, with many species capable of flying through a dark and complex forest between the nest and a foraging site, a behaviour that relies heavily on vision and is limited by light intensity. In the two best-studied species - the Central American sweat bee Megalopta genalis (Halictidae) and the Indian carpenter bee Xylocopa tranquebarica (Apidae) - learned visual landmarks are used to guide foraging and homing. Their apposition eyes, however, have only around 30 times greater optical sensitivity than the eyes of their closest diurnal relatives, a fact that is apparently inconsistent with their remarkable nocturnal visual abilities. Moreover, signals generated in the photoreceptors, even though amplified by a high transduction gain, are too noisy and slow to transmit significant amounts of information in dim light. How have nocturnal bees and wasps resolved these paradoxes? Even though this question remains to be answered conclusively, a mounting body of theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that the slow and noisy visual signals generated by the photoreceptors are spatially summed by second-order monopolar cells in the lamina, a process that could dramatically improve visual reliability for the coarser and slower features of the visual world at night.

  1. A novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model with physiological functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Klaka

    Full Text Available Dysregulated human eccrine sweat glands can negatively impact the quality-of-life of people suffering from disorders like hyperhidrosis. Inability of sweating can even result in serious health effects in humans affected by anhidrosis. The underlying mechanisms must be elucidated and a reliable in vitro test system for drug screening must be developed. Here we describe a novel organotypic three-dimensional (3D sweat gland model made of primary human eccrine sweat gland cells. Initial experiments revealed that eccrine sweat gland cells in a two-dimensional (2D culture lose typical physiological markers. To resemble the in vivo situation as close as possible, we applied the hanging drop cultivation technology regaining most of the markers when cultured in its natural spherical environment. To compare the organotypic 3D sweat gland model versus human sweat glands in vivo, we compared markers relevant for the eccrine sweat gland using transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Comparing the marker profile, a high in vitro-in vivo correlation was shown. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3, Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1, calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A, and aquaporin-5 (AQP5 are found at significant expression levels in the 3D model. Moreover, cholinergic stimulation with acetylcholine or pilocarpine leads to calcium influx monitored in a calcium flux assay. Cholinergic stimulation cannot be achieved with the sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3 used as a sweat gland model system. Our results show clear benefits of the organotypic 3D sweat gland model versus 2D cultures in terms of the expression of essential eccrine sweat gland key regulators and in the physiological response to stimulation. Taken together, this novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model shows a good in vitro-in vivo correlation and is an appropriate alternative for screening of potential

  2. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT...

  3. Sweat output measurement of the post-ganglion sudomotor response by Q-Sweat Test: a normative database of Chinese individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Q-Sweat is a model used for evaluating the post-ganglionic sudomotor function by assessing sweat response. This study aimed to establish the normative database of Q-Sweat test among Chinese individuals since this type of information is currently lacking. Results One hundred and fifty (150) healthy volunteers, 76 men and 74 women with age range of 22–76 years were included. Skin temperature and sweat onset latency measured at the four sites (i.e., the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and the foot) did not significantly correlate with age, gender, body height (BH), body weight (BW), and body mass index (BMI) but the total sweat volume measured in all four sites significantly correlated with sex, BH, and BW. Except for the distal leg, the total sweat volume measured at the other three sites had a significant correlation with BMI. In terms of gender, men had larger total sweat volume, with median differences at the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and foot of 0.591 μl, 0.693 μl, 0.696 μl, and 0.358 μl, respectively. Regarding BW difference (≥62 and sweat volume. Median differences at the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and foot were 0.538 μl, 0.744 μl, 0.695 μl, and 0.338 μl, respectively. There was an uneven distribution of male and female participants in the two BW groups. In all conditions, the total sweat volume recorded at the foot site was the smallest. Conclusion This is the first report to show the normative database of sweat response in Chinese participants evaluated using Q-Sweat device. This normative database can help guide further research on post-ganglionic sudomotor or related clinical practice involving a Chinese population. PMID:22682097

  4. ABEJAS VISITANTES DE Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S. F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO Y CARGAS POLÍNICAS BEES VISITING Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S .F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: FORAGING BEHAVIOR AND POLLEN LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Isabel Aguilar Sierra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro localidades de la zona de influencia del embalse Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia, se observó el comportamiento de 23 taxones de abejas durante sus visitas a Aspilia tenella (Kunth S. F. Blake; se registró el número de individuos y el tiempo total de visita y se midieron la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Los análisis de varianza indican que hubo una relación estadísticamente significativa en cuanto a los atributos considerados para las especies de abejas y una covariación significativa con las variables ambientales. Las pruebas de rangos múltiples muestran que Trigona nigerrima es la especie con los mayores valores promedio para el número de individuos y el tiempo de visita. En el estudio de las cargas polínicas se encontraron 30 tipos polínicos, dentro de los cuales A. tenella presentó el mayor porcentaje; Piper aduncum, Miconia minuti flora, Psidium guajava, Rapanea sp., Mimosa pudica y Psychotria sp., en su orden, son otras fuentes de polen importantes para varias de las especies de abejas. El análisis de agrupamiento para las abejas capturadas permitió diferenciar dos grupos: el primero incluye a 18 especies cuyas cargas polínicas que poseían una abundancia relativa de granos de polen de A. tenella por encima de 77%; el segundo grupo estaba conformado por cinco especies de abejas que recolectaron porcentajes mayores de otros tipos polínicos: Exomalopsis sp. 1 (90,4% de M. minuti flora; Lasioglossum sp. 1 y Coelioxys aff. mexicana (77,4% y 64,1% de P. aduncum, respectivamente; Exomalopsis sp. 2 (67,1% de P. guajava y Auglochloropsis vesta (55,5% de Rapanea sp.. Trigona fulviventris y Apis mellifera presentaron los valores más altos de riqueza de tipos polínicos en las cargas de polen; ello evidencia sus nichos tróficos amplios y su comportamiento generalista de visita.We observed the behavior of 23 species of wild bees visiting Aspilia tenella (Kunth S .F. Blake in four different localities of the Porce II dam

  5. Endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy for women: effect on compensatory sweat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Paula Loureiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Plantar hyperhidrosis is present in 50% of patients with hyperhidrosis. Thoracic sympathectomy is an important tool for the treatment of this condition, which is successful in about 60% of patients. For the remaining patients, lumbar sympathectomy is the procedure of choice. As new minimally invasive techniques have been developed, a significant demand for this type of access has led to its adaptation to the lumbar sympathectomy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy in controlling plantar hyperhidrosis and its effects on compensatory sweat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty female patients with persistent plantar hyperhidrosis after thoracic sympathectomy were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to laparoscopic retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy (Group A or no surgical intervention (Group B - control groups. Quality-of-life modifications were assessed by specific questionnaires before and after surgery. In the same manner, direct sweat measurements were also performed pre- and post-intervention by evaluating trans-epidermal water loss. Despite the lack of intervention, the control group was evaluated at similar timepoints. RESULTS: In Group A, no major complications occurred in the peri-operative period. During the immediate post-operative period, three patients (20% experienced prolonged pain (more than ten days. Eight patients suffered from worsened compensatory sweating (53.3%. In Group A, after lumbar sympathectomy, the quality of life significantly improved (p<0.05, intra-group comparison beyond that of the control group (p<0.05, inter-group comparison. Also, lumbar sympathectomy resulted in significantly lower values of foot sweat (pre- vs. post-operative periods, p<0.05; Group A vs. Group B, p<0.05. These patients also developed higher values of sweat measurements on specific points of their dorsal and abdominal regions after the procedure (p<0

  6. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  7. Chemical Manipulation of Honey Bee Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Nicholas Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The loss of managed honey bee colonies, resulting from their unintentional exposure to pesticides, is a topic of concern for the agricultural and apicultural industry. Current methods for reducing pesticide exposure to bees involve the application of pesticides before crop bloom or in the evening when foraging bees are less likely to be exposed to these applications. There is an urgent need for additional protection procedures to reduce the annual losses of managed bee colonies. Another met...

  8. Body Odor Trait Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Perception of Sweat Biosamples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Olofsson, Jonas K; Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    Body odors are potent triggers of disgust and regulate social behaviors in many species. The role of olfaction in disgust-associated behaviors has received scant attention in the research literature, in part because olfactory disgust assessments have required laboratory testing with odors. We have devised the "Body Odor Disgust Scale" (BODS) to facilitate research on olfactory disgust. In this study, we evaluated whether individual differences in BODS scores would be associated with the perception of disgust for sweat samples in a laboratory setting. Results show that BODS was a strong predictor of disgust ratings of sweat samples even when controlling for general disgust sensitivity. In contrast, odor intensity ratings were unrelated to BODS scores. Our findings suggest that the BODS scores reflect body odor disgust perception. The BODS scale might facilitate research on olfactory disgust responses and associated behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. 3D modeling and characterization of a calorimetric flow rate sensor for sweat rate sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, Ahmed Tashfin; Ho, Jenny Che-Ting; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2017-03-01

    Sweat-based physiological monitoring has been intensively explored in the last decade with the hopes of developing real-time hydration monitoring devices. Although the content of sweat (electrolytes, lactate, urea, etc.) provides significant information about the physiology, it is also very important to know the rate of sweat at the time of sweat content measurements because the sweat rate is known to alter the concentrations of sweat compounds. We developed a calorimetric based flow rate sensor using PolydimethylSiloxane that is suitable for sweat rate applications. Our simple approach on using temperature-based flow rate detection can easily be adapted to multiple sweat collection and analysis devices. Moreover, we have developed a 3D finite element analysis model of the device using COMSOL Multiphysics™ and verified the flow rate measurements. The experiment investigated flow rate values from 0.3 μl/min up to 2.1 ml/min, which covers the human sweat rate range (0.5 μl/min-10 μl/min). The 3D model simulations and analytical model calculations covered an even wider range in order to understand the main physical mechanisms of the device. With a verified 3D model, different environmental heat conditions could be further studied to shed light on the physiology of the sweat rate.

  10. Laboratory performance of sweat conductivity for the screening of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Ronda F; Jolly, Lisa; Massie, John; Scott, Sue; Wiley, Veronica C; Metz, Michael P; Mackay, Richard J

    2017-10-09

    There are several complementary English-language guidelines for the performance of the sweat chloride test. These guidelines also incorporate information for the collection of conductivity samples. However, recommendations for the measurement and reporting of sweat conductivity are less clear than for sweat chloride. The aim of the study was to develop an understanding of the testing and reporting practices of sweat conductivity in Australasian laboratories. A survey specifically directed at conductivity testing was sent to the 12 laboratories registered with the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs. Nine (75%) laboratories participated in the survey, seven of whom used Wescor Macroduct® for collecting sweat and the Wescor SWEAT·CHEK™ for conductivity testing, and the remaining two used the Wescor Nanoduct®. There was considerable variation in frequency and staffing for this test. Likewise, criteria about which patients it was inappropriate to test, definitions of adequate collection sweat rate, cutoffs and actions recommended on the basis of the result showed variations between laboratories. Variations in sweat conductivity testing and reporting reflect many of the same issues that were revealed in sweat chloride test audits and have the potential to lead to uncertainty about the result and the proper action in response to the result. We recommend that sweat testing guidelines should include clearer statements about the use of sweat conductivity.

  11. Bumble bees at home and at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, MM

    1997-01-01

    Do you know how bumble bees live and what they need? You can discover a lot about bumble bees if you watch them while they visit flowers. This article is a shortened version of a chapter from the IBRA publication Bumble bees for pleasure and profit*, and gives you information on how to do

  12. Aging and body size in solitary bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solitary bees are important pollinators of crops and non-domestic plants. Osmia lignaria is a native, commercially-reared solitary bee used to maximize pollination in orchard crops. In solitary bees, adult body size is extremely variable depending on the nutritional resources available to the develo...

  13. A Whole Day of Bees? Buzz Off!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, David

    2017-01-01

    In March 2016, the school that the author teaches at held its annual science day and the theme was "bees." Each class was given a different question relating to bees to investigate. The children in the authors' year 2 class (ages 6-7) were challenged to investigate the life cycle of a bee. The whole day was focused around the life cycle…

  14. Clinical and immunological surveys in bee keepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Coulomb, Y; Robinet-Levy, M; Michel, F B

    1982-07-01

    Two hundred and fifty bee keepers in the South of France, working seasonally, were clinically investigated by means of a questionnaire. Forty-three per cent had presented anaphylactic symptoms and 7.0% toxic reactions when stung by bees. The personal atopic history was found to be significantly (P less than 0.01) elevated in bee keepers who experienced anaphylaxis. Total serum IgE and been venom-specific IgE were titrated in 100 subjects. Total serum IgE was significantly elevated in allergic bee keepers (P = 0.02). Although bee venom-specific IgE were significantly (P less than 0.01) higher in allergic bee keepers this parameter cannot discriminate between allergic and non-allergic bee keepers owing to a considerable overlap. Bee venom-specific IgG was assayed in seventy subjects. Their level was significantly (P less than 0.001) higher in allergic and non-allergic bee keepers as compared with non-allergic blood donors and non-bee-keeping allergic patients. In both bee keeper groups there was no difference in bee venom-specific IgG titres.

  15. Hologenome theory and the honey bee pathosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research shows substantial genomic diversity among the parasites and pathogens honey bees encounter, a robust microbiota living within bees, and a genome-level view of relationships across global honey bee races. Different combinations of these genomic complexes may explain regional variatio...

  16. Topics in histopathology of sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews several topics regarding sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms. First, the clinicopathological characteristics of poroid neoplasms are summarized. It was recently reported that one-fourth of poroid neoplasms are composite tumors and one-fourth are apocrine type lesions. Recent progress in the immunohistochemical diagnosis of sweat gland neoplasms is also reviewed. CD117 can help to distinguish sweat gland or sebaceous tumors from other non-Merkel cell epithelial tumors of the skin. For immunohistochemical differential diagnosis between sweat gland carcinoma (SGC) other than primary cutanesous apocrine carcinoma and skin metastasis of breast carcinoma (SMBC), a panel of antibodies may be useful, including p63 (SGC+ , SMBC- ), CK5/6 (SGC+ , SMBC- ), podoplanin (SGC+ , SMBC- ) and mammaglobin (SGC- , SMBC+ ). Comparison of antibodies used for immunohistochemical diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma (SC) suggests that adipophilin has the highest sensitivity and specificity. Some authors have found that immunostaining for survivin, androgen receptor and ZEB2/SIP1 has prognostic value for ocular SC, but not extraocular SC. In situ SC is rare, especially extraocular SC, but there have been several recent reports that actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease are the source of invasive SC. Finally, based on recent reports, classification of sebaceous neoplasms into three categories is proposed, which are sebaceoma (a benign neoplasm with well-defined architecture and no atypia), borderline sebaceous neoplasm (low-grade SC; an intermediate tumor with well-defined architecture and nuclear atypia) and SC (a malignant tumor with invasive growth and evident nuclear atypia). © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Concentration of electrolytes in the sweat of malnourished children.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, M. E.; M. C. MELO; Reis, F J; Penna, F J

    1994-01-01

    The sweat test was performed by the method of Gibson and Cooke on 36 children with second and third degree malnutrition, aged from 2 months to 4 years. The results were compared with those from 32 healthy, well nourished controls in the same age range. Determinations were made of sodium and chloride concentrations, chloride/sodium ratio, and the sum of the concentrations of the two electrolytes in each sample. The malnourished children were found to have higher sodium and chloride concentrati...

  18. Coloured sweat in two brothers: First report of familial chromhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Daniel C; Cooper, Hywel L

    2016-02-01

    The uncommon diagnosis of chromhidrosis is most frequently made in young adults. This sweat gland disease, although benign, may impact significantly on the patient's quality of life. We describe the first report of familial chromhidrosis of pseudo-eccrine type (pseudochromhidrosis) occurring in two brothers aged 9 and 12 years. The classification and causality of chromhidrosis is described and approaches to assessment and management are outlined. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  19. The English 'sweate' (Sudor Anglicus) and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridson, E

    2001-01-01

    A rapidly fatal viral infectious disease appeared in England in 1485, persisted for the summer months and disappeared as winter approached. This pattern of infection re-appeared in 1508, 1517, 1528, and finally 1551. The epidemic never returned. It had no respect for wealth or rank, and predominantly attacked males between the ages of 15 and 45 years. The incubation period was frighteningly short and the outcome normally fatal. The symptoms of acute respiratory disease and copious sweating were characteristic, providing the name 'the English sweating disease'. It was never in the big league of killer epidemics, such as plague and influenza, but its pockets of instant lethality in communities gave it a special ranking of horror. The infective cause of this disease remained a total mystery until it was compared with Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in 1994. The strength of this theory is examined in this paper, and it is concluded that, although there is a close resemblance, HPS does not match the English sweating disease completely and positive identification of a possible rodent carrier for the latter was not established.

  20. Anthropometric profile and sweat rate in young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rossi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is a sport whose worldwide acceptance has been growing year after year, and is one of the most important events in the sports world. A growing number of children and teenagers are engaged in this activity, but studies regarding risk factors such as adiposity and negative impacts such as dehydration and hyperthermia are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profile, sweat rate and risk of dehydration among young soccer players. For anthropometric assessment, weight, height, circumference measures and skinfold thickness were collected and used for the determination of body mass index and percent body fat of each player. For determination of the sweat rate, players were weighed before and after pre-competition training. Analysis of fat percentage (14.4 ± 3.6% and the sum of skinfolds showed that the players presented an optimal percentage and activity pattern, probably related to their role in the game. Although low (8.8 ± 6.6 mL/min, the sweat rate varied widely among players, wit the observation of a significant reduction (p<0.05 in final weight. The risk of dehydration was low, but the same cannot be stated for the risk of hyperthermia. Further studies involving this population are necessary to establish an adequate hydration strategy, with emphasis on the monitoring of signs of hyperthermia.

  1. Anthropometric profile and sweat rate in young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Aparecida de Brito Reis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n2p134   Soccer is a sport whose worldwide acceptance has been growing year after year, and is one of the most important events in the sports world. A growing number of children and teenagers are engaged in this activity, but studies regarding risk factors such as adiposity and negative impacts such as dehydration and hyperthermia are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profile, sweat rate and risk of dehydration among young soccer players. For anthropometric assessment, weight, height, circumference measures and skinfold thickness were collected and used for the determination of body mass index and percent body fat of each player. For determination of the sweat rate, players were weighed before and after pre-competition training. Analysis of fat percentage (14.4 ± 3.6% and the sum of skinfolds showed that the players presented an optimal percentage and activity pattern, probably related to their role in the game. Although low (8.8 ± 6.6 mL/min, the sweat rate varied widely among players, wit the observation of a significant reduction (p < 0.05 in final weight. The risk of dehydration was low, but the same cannot be stated for the risk of hyperthermia. Further studies involving this population are necessary to establish an adequate hydration strategy, with emphasis on the monitoring of signs of hyperthermia.

  2. Metastatic apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in a terrier dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Reza, Kheirandish; Shahriar, Dabiri; Omid, Azari; Daruoosh, Vosoogh; Nasrin, Askari

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the clinical and pathological aspects of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with distant metastasis in an aged dog. A 7-year-old male terrier dog was referred to small animal hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with a 5.5×3.5 centimeter pedunculated mass on its head near left auricular region which had been progressively growing since three months ago. The radiography showed no local and distant metastasis. Surgical excision and histological evaluation was done. Histologically, the mass was composed of epithelial cells arranged in glandular and solid patterns. The morphologic findings suggested either a primary or metastatic apocrine-gland carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were intensely positive for cytokeratin 7 and 20 and negative for S100 protein. On the basis of histopathological and clinical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a malignant apocrine gland tumor, arising from apocrine sweat glands of the skin. Local tumor recurrence with anorexia and weight loss was reported by the owner nine month later. Severe submandibular and prescapular lymphadenomegaly was noted in clinical examination. Several large pulmonary nodules were noted in chest radiographs resembling mediastinal lymph node metastasis. Second surgery and chemotherapy was rejected by the owner due to grave prognosis of the patient. The animal was died 45 days later due to respiratory complications. Tumors of apocrine sweat glands are relatively uncommon in dogs whereas apocrine gland adenocarcinoma with distant metastasis is extremely rare.

  3. On sweat analysis for quantitative estimation of dehydration during physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Matthias; Lohmueller, Clemens; Rauh, Manfred; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative estimation of water loss during physical exercise is of importance because dehydration can impair both muscular strength and aerobic endurance. A physiological indicator for deficit of total body water (TBW) might be the concentration of electrolytes in sweat. It has been shown that concentrations differ after physical exercise depending on whether water loss was replaced by fluid intake or not. However, to the best of our knowledge, this fact has not been examined for its potential to quantitatively estimate TBW loss. Therefore, we conducted a study in which sweat samples were collected continuously during two hours of physical exercise without fluid intake. A statistical analysis of these sweat samples revealed significant correlations between chloride concentration in sweat and TBW loss (r = 0.41, p sweat osmolality and TBW loss (r = 0.43, p sweat samples.

  4. The plight of the bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Marla; Mader, Eric; Vaughan, Mace; Euliss, Ned H.

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a trend that is garnering much concern. As organisms have evolved mutualistic and synergistic relationships, the loss of one or a few species can have a much wider environmental impact. Since much pollination is facilitated by bees, the reported colony collapse disorder has many worried of widespread agricultural fallout and thus deleterious impact on human foodstocks. In this Feature, Spivak et al. review what is known of the present state of bee populations and provide information on how to mitigate and reverse the trend.

  5. Imaging calcium carbonate distribution in human sweat pore in vivo using nonlinear microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueqin; Gasecka, Alicja; Formanek, Florian; Galey, Jean-Baptiste; Rigneault, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear microscopies, including two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), were used to study individual human sweat pore morphology and topically applied antiperspirant salt penetration inside sweat pore, in vivo on human palms. Sweat pore inner morphology in vivo was imaged up to the depth of 100 μm by TPEF microscopy. The 3D penetration and distribution of "in situ calcium carbonate" (isCC), an antiperspirant salt model, was investigated using CARS microscopy.

  6. The effect of heat acclimation on sweat microminerals: artifact of surface contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Matthew R; Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Chinevere, Troy; Lacher, Craig P; Lukaski, Henry C; Montain, Scott J

    2013-10-01

    Heat acclimation (HA) reportedly conveys conservation in sweat micromineral concentrations when sampled from arm sweat, but time course is unknown. The observation that comprehensive cleaning of the skin surface negates sweat micromineral reductions during prolonged sweating raises the question of whether the reported HA effect is real or artifact of surface contamination. To measure sweat mineral concentrations serially during HA and determine if surface contamination plays a role in the reported mineral reductions. Calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) were measured in sweat obtained from 17 male volunteers using an arm bag on Day 1, 5, and 10 of a HA protocol. To study the role of contamination, sweat was simultaneously (n = 10 subjects) sampled twice daily from a cleaned site (WASH) and unclean site (NO WASH) on the scapular surface. Sweat Ca, Cu, and Mg from Arm Bag trended progressively downward from Day 1 to Day 10 of HA (p = .10-0.25). Micromineral concentrations from the WASH site did not change between Day 1, 5, or 10 (Ca = 0.30 ± 0.12 mmol/L, Cu 0.41 ± 0.53 μmol/L; Zn 1.11 ± 0.80 μmol/L). Surface contamination can confound sweat mineral estimates, as sweat Ca and Cu from NO WASH site were initially higher than WASH (p Heat acclimation does not confer reductions in sweat Ca, Cu, Mg, or Zn. When the skin surface is not cleaned, mineral residue inflates initial sweat mineral concentrations. Earlier reports of micromineral reductions during HA may have been confounded by interday cleaning variability.

  7. Profiling of honey bee viruses in Kenyan honey bee colonies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey bee population worldwide is dwindling due to a number of interrelated factors among them pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and metazoan parasites. ... 454 pyro sequencing was performed on genome sequencer FLX system. The resultant single reads were analyzed using CLC Genomic workbench.

  8. [Study on sweat gland regeneration induced by microenvironment of three-dimensional bioprinting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B; Xie, J F; Huang, S; Fu, X B

    2017-01-20

    Sweat glands are abundant in the body surface and essential for thermoregulation. Sweat glands fail to conduct self-repair in patients with large area of burn and trauma, and the body temperature of patients increases in hot climate, which may cause shock or even death. Now, co-culture system, reprogramming, and tissue engineering have made progresses in inducing sweat gland regeneration, but the inductive efficiency and duration need to be improved. Cellular microenvironment can regulate cell biological behavior, including cell migration and cell differentiation. This article reviews the studies of establishment of microenvironment in vitro by three-dimensional bioprinting technology to induce sweat gland regeneration.

  9. Multidimensional Raman spectroscopic signature of sweat and its potential application to forensic body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Lednev, Igor K

    2012-03-09

    This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the potential of Raman microspectroscopy for nondestructive identification of traces of sweat for forensic purposes. Advanced statistical analysis of Raman spectra revealed that dry sweat was intrinsically heterogeneous, and its biochemical composition varies significantly with the donor. As a result, no single Raman spectrum could adequately represent sweat traces. Instead, a multidimensional spectroscopic signature of sweat was built that allowed for the presentation of any single experimental spectrum as a linear combination of two fluorescent backgrounds and three Raman spectral components dominated by the contribution from lactate, lactic acid, urea and single amino acids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of sweat induced with pilocarpine, physical exercise, and collected passively by metabolomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, S L; Graça, G; Oliva, A

    2017-11-12

    The elimination of the pain associated with needle picking is a strong motivation for the development of clinical non-invasive diagnostic methods. Sweat has been described as an alternative biological sample that may have a direct relation to the plasma composition. In this study, analysis of sweat of human volunteers obtained by induction with pilocarpine is compared with sweat samples obtained by physical exercise and by passive collection along 7 hours. The sweat samples have been analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A range of 34 different metabolites has been detected in sweat samples, including lactate, several amino acids, pyroglutamate, and urocanate. Most of the metabolites identified were quantified. The majority of the amino acids detected in sweat seem to have origin in the epidermis surface. No significant differences in sweat samples from female and male were observed by 1H NMR metabolomic analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that both physical exercise and pilocarpine methods seem to be equally reproducible methods in terms of sweat metabolite composition presenting better repeatability than natural sweat collection. Nevertheless, this difference is mainly originated from amino acids with origin from the skin surface. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Composition of sweat of the horse during prolonged epinephrine (adrenaline) infusion, heat exposure, and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, M G; Snow, D H

    1983-08-01

    Temporal changes in sweat composition were studied in 4 horses during epinephrine (adrenaline) infusion (0.13 to 0.31 micrograms/kg/min for 3 hours), heat exposure (41 C, [33 C wet bulb] for 5 to 6 hours), and exercise (16 to 18 km/hr for 58 to 80 km). Four ponies also were studied during heat exposure. Sweat produced by each of the stimuli was hypertonic for Na+, K+, and Cl-. These electrolyte concentrations remained constant during the central period of the experiments, with changes occurring near the beginning and toward the end. The Na+ was significantly higher and K+ significantly lower in epinephrine-induced sweat than in heat-induced sweat, and the pattern of change in sweat Na/K ratio varied among the 3 stimuli. The Ca2+ concentration decreased with time and was hypotonic after 15 minutes of epinephrine-induced sweating. Concentrations of Mg2+ and protein decreased exponentially with time. There was a high correlation between them, although the Mg2+ was not protein-bound. Sweat urea concentration was directly related to plasma urea concentration. When plasma glucose concentration became greater than 10 to 12 mmole/L during epinephrine infusion, glucose appeared in the sweat and its concentration rose to 8 to 12 mmole/L of sweat when plasma glucose was more than 20 mmole/L.

  12. Comparison of fabric skins for the simulation of sweating on thermal manikins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelblen, Barbara; Psikuta, Agnes; Bogdan, Anna; Annaheim, Simon; Rossi, René M.

    2017-09-01

    Sweating is an important thermoregulatory process helping to dissipate heat and, thus, to prevent overheating of the human body. Simulations of human thermo-physiological responses in hot conditions or during exercising are helpful for assessing heat stress; however, realistic sweating simulation and evaporative cooling is needed. To this end, thermal manikins dressed with a tight fabric skin can be used, and the properties of this skin should help human-like sweat evaporation simulation. Four fabrics, i.e., cotton with elastane, polyester, polyamide with elastane, and a skin provided by a manikin manufacturer (Thermetrics) were compared in this study. The moisture management properties of the fabrics have been investigated in basic tests with regard to all phases of sweating relevant for simulating human thermo-physiological responses, namely, onset of sweating, fully developed sweating, and drying. The suitability of the fabrics for standard tests, such as clothing evaporative resistance measurements, was evaluated based on tests corresponding to the middle phase of sweating. Simulations with a head manikin coupled to a thermo-physiological model were performed to evaluate the overall performance of the skins. The results of the study showed that three out of four evaluated fabrics have adequate moisture management properties with regard to the simulation of sweating, which was confirmed in the coupled simulation with the head manikin. The presented tests are helpful for comparing the efficiency of different fabrics to simulate sweat-induced evaporative cooling on thermal manikins.

  13. In vivo sweat film layer thickness measured with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonathan, E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available the added advantage of supporting near-real time or video rate imaging speed. Consequently, FD-OCT supports assessment of tissue structure as well as near-real time imaging of functioning small organs in tissue [16–19]. The focus of this paper is direct... accurate measurement of SFL thickness as a diagnostic parameter of sweat intensity while near-real time imaging of the responsible small organs, namely sweat glands, sweat ducts and sweat pores is also of interest. 2. Experimental 2.1. Apparatus OCT...

  14. From silkworms to bees: Diseases of beneficial insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diseases of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and managed bees, including the honey bee (Apis mellifera), bumbles bees (Bombus spp.), the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), and mason bees (Osmia spp.) are reviewed, with diagnostic descriptions and a summary of control methods for production...

  15. Low abundance of sweat duct Cl− channel CFTR in both healthy and cystic fibrosis athletes with exceptionally salty sweat during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Karla K. V.; Pollack, Brian P.; Millard-Stafford, Mindy; McCarty, Nael A.

    2011-01-01

    To understand potential mechanisms explaining interindividual variability observed in human sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]), we investigated the relationship among [Na+] of thermoregulatory sweat, plasma membrane expression of Na+ and Cl− transport proteins in biopsied human eccrine sweat ducts, and basal levels of vasopressin (AVP) and aldosterone. Lower ductal luminal membrane expression of the Cl− channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was observed in immunofluorescent staining of sweat glands from healthy young adults identified as exceptionally “salty sweaters” (SS) (n = 6, P sweat [Na+] (control, n = 6). Genetic testing of healthy subjects did not reveal any heterozygotes (“carriers”) for any of the 39 most common disease-causing CFTR mutations in the United States. SS had higher baseline plasma [AVP] compared with control (P = 0.029). Immunostaining to investigate a potential relationship between higher plasma [AVP] (and sweat [Na+]) and ductal membrane aquaporin-5 revealed for all groups a relatively sparse and location-dependent ductal expression of the water channel with localization primarily to the secretory coil. Availability of CFTR for NaCl transport across the ductal membrane appears related to the significant physiological variability observed in sweat salt concentration in apparently healthy humans. At present, a heritable link between healthy salty sweaters and the most prevalent disease-causing CFTR mutations cannot be established. PMID:21228336

  16. Determination of the maximum rate of eccrine sweat glands’ ion reabsorption using the galvanic skin conductance to local sweat rate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Gerrett, Nicola; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Havenith, George; Kondo, Narihiko

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and describe a simple method to evaluate the rate of ion reabsorption of eccrine sweat glands in human using the measurement of galvanic skin conductance (GSC) and local sweating rate (SR). This purpose was investigated by comparing the SR threshold for increasing GSC with following two criteria of sweat ion reabsorption in earlier studies such as (1) the SR threshold for increasing sweat ion was at approximately 0.2–0.5 mg/cm2/min and (2) exercise heat acclimation improved the sweat ion reabsorption ability and would increase the criteria 1. Seven healthy non-heat-acclimated male subjects received passive heat treatment both before and after 7 days of cycling in hot conditions (50% maximum oxygen uptake, 60 min/day, ambient temperature 32 °C, and 50% relative humidity). Subjects became partially heat-acclimated, as evidenced by the decreased end-exercise heart rate (p rate of perceived exhaustion (p maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption of eccrine sweat glands in humans.

  17. A wearable multisensing patch for continuous sweat monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasova, Salzitsa; Crewther, Blair; Bembnowicz, Pawel; Curto, Vincenzo; Ip, Henry Md; Rosa, Bruno; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2017-07-15

    In sport, exercise and healthcare settings, there is a need for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of biomarkers to assess human performance, health and wellbeing. Here we report the development of a flexible microfluidic platform with fully integrated sensing for on-body testing of human sweat. The system can simultaneously and selectively measure metabolite (e.g. lactate) and electrolytes (e.g. pH, sodium) together with temperature sensing for internal calibration. The construction of the platform is designed such that continuous flow of sweat can pass through an array of flexible microneedle type of sensors (50µm diameter) incorporated in a microfluidic channel. Potentiometric sodium ion sensors were developed using a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) functional membrane deposited on an electrochemically deposited internal layer of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymer. The pH sensing layer is based on a highly sensitive membrane of iridium oxide (IrOx). The amperometric-based lactate sensor consists of doped enzymes deposited on top of a semipermeable copolymer membrane and outer polyurethane layers. Real-time data were collected from human subjects during cycle ergometry and treadmill running. A detailed comparison of sodium, lactate and cortisol from saliva is reported, demonstrating the potential of the multi-sensing platform for tracking these outcomes. In summary, a fully integrated sensor for continuous, simultaneous and selective measurement of sweat metabolites, electrolytes and temperature was achieved using a flexible microfluidic platform. This system can also transmit information wirelessly for ease of collection and storage, with the potential for real-time data analytics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards Addressing the Body Electrolyte Environment via Sweat Analysis:Pilocarpine Iontophoresis Supports Assessment of Plasma Potassium Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairo, Donato; Bruzzese, Laurie; Marlinge, Marion; Fuster, Lea; Adjriou, Nabil; Kipson, Nathalie; Brunet, Philippe; Cautela, Jennifer; Jammes, Yves; Mottola, Giovanna; Burtey, Stephane; Ruf, Jean; Guieu, Regis; Fenouillet, Emmanuel

    2017-09-18

    Electrolyte concentration in sweat depends on environmental context and physical condition but also on the pathophysiological status. Sweat analyzers may be therefore the future way for biological survey although how sweat electrolyte composition can reflect plasma composition remains unclear. We recruited 10 healthy subjects and 6 patients to have a broad range of plasma electrolyte concentrations (chloride, potassium and sodium) and pH. These variables were compared to those found in sweat produced following cycling exercise or pilocarpine iontophoresis, a condition compatible with operating a wearable device. We found no correlation between plasma and sweat parameters when exercise-induced sweat was analyzed, and we could identify a correlation only between plasma and sweat potassium concentration (R = 0.78, p sweat was induced using pilocarpine iontophoresis. We tested measurement repeatability in sweat at 24hr-interval for 3 days in 4 subjects and found a great intra-individual variability regarding all parameters in exercise-induced sweat whereas similar electrolyte levels were measured in pilocarpine-induced sweat. Thus, electrolyte concentration in sweat sampled following physical activity does not reflect concentration in plasma while pilocarpine iontophoresis appears to be promising to reproducibly address sweat electrolytes, and to make an indirect evaluation of plasma potassium concentration in chronic kidney disease and arrhythmia.

  19. Sweat patterns differ between tilt-induced reflex syncope and tilt-induced anxiety among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Geoffrey L; Harvey, Rebecca A; Islam, Monica P

    2016-08-01

    Profound sweating can occur with reflex-syncope and with emotional distress, but little is known about the similarities and differences between these sweat responses when they occur during orthostatic challenge. We sought to characterize and compare the sweat patterns related to tilt-induced syncope, presyncope, anxiety, and normal tilt testing. In a prospective observational study, quantitative sweat rate was measured from the abdomen, forearm, ankle, and thigh during head-upright tilt. Sweat characteristics were compared across tilt diagnoses of syncope, presyncope, anxiety, and normal testing. When anxiety and syncope/presyncope occurred during the same study (separated by ≥6 min), both were diagnosed. Our cohort comprised150 patients (15.1 ± 2.3 years; 82.9 % female) with 156 diagnoses: 76 with reflex-syncope, 31 with presyncope, 23 with anxiety, and 26 with normal results. All syncope/presyncope patients and 20 (87 %) of the anxiety patients had corresponding sweat responses. Minimal or negligible sweating occurred among patients with normal tests. Neither basal sweat (19.4 ± 4.7 versus 18.3 ± 3.7 versus 18.5 ± 3.7 nL/min/cm(2)) nor peak sweat (171 ± 47.4 versus 149.4 ± 64.4 versus 154.4 ± 59.2 nL/min/cm(2)) differed between patients with syncope, presyncope, or anxiety, p = .32 and p = .12, respectively. However, the qualitative sweat patterns related to syncope/presyncope (diffuse, smoothly contoured, symmetrical, single peaks) differed considerably from the sweat patterns related to anxiety (heterogeneous, asymmetrical, roughly contoured single-peak, multi-peak, or progressive sweat changes). The sweat patterns related to syncope/presyncope are distinguishable from the sweat patterns related to anxiety. Recognition of the different sweat patterns can inform how signs and symptoms are interpreted during clinical orthostatic challenge.

  20. Fungal protein MGL_1304 in sweat is an allergen for atopic dermatitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiragun, Takaaki; Ishii, Kaori; Hiragun, Makiko; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kan, Takanobu; Mihara, Shoji; Yanase, Yuhki; Bartels, Joachim; Schröder, Jens-M; Hide, Michihiro

    2013-09-01

    Sweat is a major aggravating factor of atopic dermatitis (AD) and approximately 80% of patients with AD show type I hypersensitivity against sweat. To identify and characterize an antigen in sweat that induces histamine release from basophils of patients with AD. Basophil histamine-releasing activity in sweat was purified by a combination of chromatographies, and proteins were analyzed with mass spectrometry. Recombinant proteins of the sweat antigen were generated, and their biological characteristics were studied by immunoblots, histamine release tests, and neutralization assays. We identified a fungal protein, MGL_1304, derived from Malassezia globosa (M globosa) in the purified sweat antigen. Recombinant MGL_1304 induced histamine release from basophils of most of the patients with AD, in accordance with the semi-purified sweat antigen. Moreover, recombinant MGL_1304 abolished the binding of serum IgE of patients with AD to the semi-purified sweat antigen, or vice versa in immunoblot analysis, and attenuated the sensitization of RBL-48 mast cells expressing human FcɛRI by serum IgE. Studies of truncated mutants of MGL_1304 indicated that IgE of patients with AD recognized the conformational structure of MGL_1304 rather than short peptide sequences. Western blot analysis of the whole lysate, the culture supernatant of M globosa, and the semi-purified sweat antigen showed that MGL_1304 was produced as a minor immunological antigen of M globosa with posttranslational modification, cleaved, and secreted as a 17-kDa major histamine-releasing sweat antigen. MGL_1304 is a major allergen in human sweat and could cause type I allergy in patients with AD. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating performance in sweat testing in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralica, Merica; Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2017-02-15

    Sweat test has a diagnostic role in evaluation of cystic fibrosis. Its performance includes sweat stimulation, collection and analysis. All listed may be sources of inconsistencies in everyday practice. The aim of this study was an evaluation of external quality assessment (EQA) of sweat chloride measurement including sweat test performance in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia. EQA for sweat chloride measurement was provided by Croatian Centre for Quality Assessment in Laboratory Medicine (CROQALM) in five consecutive exercises to medical biochemistry laboratories (MBL) that offered sweat testing. A questionnaire regarding all phases of testing was mailed to involved MBL (N = 10). Survey results were compared to current guidelines for sweat test performance. Reported results of EQA in 2015 exercises showed coefficients of variation (CV) from 28.9%, 29.0% to 35.3%, respectively. An introduction of uniform sweat chloride measurement protocol resulted in CV of 15.5% and 14.7% reported in following two exercises in 2016. All MBL included in this study replied to the questionnaire. Results reported by MBL indicated: lack of patient information policy (7/10), use of unacceptable electrodes (6/9), misuse of minimum of acceptable sweat weight (6/9), lack of internal quality assessment (5/9) and recommended reference ranges (5/9 and 4/9). Agreements to guidelines were found in approach to unsuitable patients (9/10) and sweat collection (8/9). Presented results indicate major weak points of current practice in sweat test performance in Croatian MBL and stress the need for its standardization on a national level.

  2. Volume and composition of hand sweat of White and Black men and women in desert walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, D B; Yousef, M K; Goldman, A; Hillyard, S D; Davis, T P

    1983-05-01

    Many investigators have sought, but failed to find, ethnic differences in the number and regional distribution of active sweat glands. In this study measurements have been made of sweat secreted on one hand and also on the whole body of Whites and Blacks walking in desert heat. Whites numbered 31 men and 27 women, ages 30 to 88 years; there were 21 Black men and 31 Black women, ages 16 to 61 years. Each walked on three occasions for 1 hour at a rate that required an oxygen consumption of about 40% of aerobic capacity. Ambient temperature ranged from 32 to 44 degrees C in 1979 and 1980; means were 38.4 degrees C in 1979 and 36.7 degrees C in 1980. There was no sweat in the gloves of many Blacks; this was true of only a few Whites. Volume of body sweat increased in both races with rate of walking; volume of hand sweat increased more in Whites than in Blacks. The Mann-Whitney test revealed that volumes of hand sweat were significantly greater for Whites than for Blacks. It was concluded that in desert walks most Whites and few Blacks sweat freely on their hands. In samples of hand sweat, Na+, K+, and Cl- were determined. Concentrations of each ion varied widely in both races, and were unrelated to race. Concentrations of Na+ and Cl- generally are somewhat higher in hand sweat than in body sweat; concentrations of K+ are much higher. It follows that the values for concentration of Na+ and Cl- reported in Table 3 probably are somewhat higher than would have been found in body sweat, and concentrations of K+ are probably much higher.

  3. Comparison of three methods for estimation of exercise-related ion losses in sweat of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, J K; McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R J

    1999-10-01

    To quantify total fluid loss in sweat of Thoroughbreds during >3 hours of low-intensity exercise in controlled conditions and to calculate and compare estimated ion losses in sweat, according to 3 methods. 6 exercise-trained Thoroughbreds. Fluid and ion losses in sweat were measured in 6 horses exercising at 40% of the speed that elicited maximum oxygen consumption for 45 km. Horses were given a 15-minute rest period at the end of three 15-km exercise phases. Horses completed 2 exercise trials. Ion losses in sweat were calculated, using measurements of local sweating rate and sweat ion composition (SWT), change in net exchangeable cation content (CAT), and change in extracellular ion content (PLAS) derived from plasma total solids and ion concentrations. Measurement of SWT revealed a mean (+/- SEM) fluid loss in sweat during 45 km of exercise of 27.5 +/- 1.6 L. Total ion loss in sweat was approximately 241 g or 7.8 mol with higher sodium losses in the second and third phases of exercise compared with the first phase. Losses of sodium and potassium calculated by SWT or CAT were not significantly different from each other, whereas losses of these ions as determined by PLAS were significantly lower. Calculation of ion losses from a mean whole body sweating rate extrapolated from either local sweating rate and sweat ion composition or from change in net exchangeable cation content provide similar results, whereas ion losses determined by changes in extracellular ion content derived from plasma total solids and ion concentration results in underestimation of actual losses.

  4. The reproducibility of closed-pouch sweat collection and thermoregulatory responses to exercise-heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Gavin; Milne, Helen C; Patterson, Mark J; Nimmo, Myra A

    2004-05-01

    Seven active male subjects cycled for 60 min at 29.5 (0.8)% peak work rate on three separate occasions in a hot environmental condition [36.0 (0.1) degrees C, 60 (1)% relative humidity] in order to determine the reproducibility of a closed-pouch sweat collection technique for sweat composition at the scapula, forearm and thigh. To confirm that sweat composition was not influenced by between-trial variations in sudomotor drive, local sweat rate, whole-body sweat rate, heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (T(re)) and mean skin temperature (T(sk)) responses were also measured, consequently reproducibility was also established for these variables. Sweat composition did not differ among trials, with the mean coefficients of variation (CVs) for sweat [Na(+)], [K(+)] and pH being 10.4 (7.4)%, 8.1 (6.5)% and 1.3 (1.1)%, respectively. Local sweat rates did not differ among the three trials (P>0.05) although whole-body sweat rate was reduced in the third trial (Psweat rates, respectively. Between-trial differences were not evident for T(re), T(sk) or HR with mean CVs of 0.3 (0.2)%, 0.7 (0.6)% and 3.9 (1.7)%, respectively, although HR tended to be greater in the first trial ( P=0.08). It is proposed that moderate variations in sweat composition were influenced by variations in the local sweat rate, which were induced by application of the pouch.

  5. Metastatic apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in a terrier dog

    OpenAIRE

    Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Reza, Kheirandish; Shahriar, Dabiri; Omid, Azari; Daruoosh, Vosoogh; Nasrin, Askari

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the clinical and pathological aspects of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with distant metastasis in an aged dog. A 7-year-old male terrier dog was referred to small animal hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with a 5.5×3.5 centimeter pedunculated mass on its head near left auricular region which had been progressively growing since three months ago. The radiography showed no local and distant metastasis. Surgical excision and histological evaluation was don...

  6. Sex differences in amino acids lost via sweating could lead to differential susceptibilities to disturbances in nitrogen balance and collagen turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Dunstan, R. H.; Sparkes, D. L.; Dascombe, B. J.; Stevens, C. J.; Murphy, G. R.; Macdonald, M. M.; Gottfries, J.; Gottfries, C.-G.; Roberts, T. K.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid collected during sweating is enriched with amino acids derived from the skin?s natural moisturising factors and has been termed ?faux? sweat. Little is known about sex differences in sweat amino acid composition or whether faux sweat amino acid losses affect nitrogen balance. Faux sweat collected by healthy adults (n?=?47) after exercise, and at rest by chronic fatigue patients, was analysed for amino acid composition. Healthy females had higher total amino acid concentrations in sweat ...

  7. Differential sensitivity of honey bees and bumble bees to a dietary insecticide (imidacloprid)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cresswell, James E; Page, Christopher J; Uygun, Mehmet B; Holmbergh, Marie; Li, Yueru; Wheeler, Jonathan G; Laycock, Ian; Pook, Christopher J; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Smirnoff, Nick; Tyler, Charles R

    2012-01-01

    .... To establish whether imidacloprid, a systemic neonicotinoid and insect neurotoxin, harms individual bees when ingested at environmentally realistic levels, we exposed adult worker bumble bees, Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae...

  8. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Honeybee Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiri, Esmaeil; Meixner, Marina; Büchler, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is known as a disease of worker honey bees. To investigate pathogenesis of the CBPV on the queen, the sole reproductive individual in a colony, we conducted experiments regarding the susceptibility of queens to CBPV. Results from susceptibility experiment showed...... a similar disease progress in the queens compared to worker bees after infection. Infected queens exhibit symptoms by Day 6 post infection and virus levels reach 1011 copies per head. In a transmission experiment we showed that social interactions may affect the disease progression. Queens with forced...... contact to symptomatic worker bees acquired an overt infection with up to 1011 virus copies per head in six days. In contrast, queens in contact with symptomatic worker bees, but with a chance to receive food from healthy bees outside the cage appeared healthy. The virus loads did not exceed 107...

  9. Comparison of Quantitative Sweat Chloride Methods after Positive Newborn Screen for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Theresa A.; Lin, Nan; Wang, Qi; Holme, Bonnie; McNamara, John; Regelmann, Warren E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives Rapid and reliable confirmatory sweat testing following a positive newborn screen (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) is preferred to allow for early diagnosis and to decrease parental anxiety. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) recently recommended a quantity not sufficient (QNS) rate of ≤ 10% in infants sweat chloride analysis. Two CFF-approved methods are available by which to quantitatively measure chloride concentration in sweat. Our objective was to compare the performance of the Macroduct® sweat collection system (MSCS) with the Gibson and Cooke technique (GCT) in the acquisition of samples for the determination of sweat chloride concentration in infants with a positive Minnesota State NBS for cystic fibrosis. Methods A retrospective database review of infants referred to the core Minnesota CF Center or its affiliate site for confirmatory sweat testing was performed to compare the QNS rates for the two techniques. Associations between birthweight, age at test, race and QNS rates were examined. Results 568 infants were referred for 616 sweat tests from March 2006–January 2010. The mean age was 32.8 days at the initial sweat test. The GCT had a significantly higher QNS rate compared to the MSCS (15.4% vs. 2.1%, psweat testing in infants following a positive state NBS. PMID:22786625

  10. Sweat : Materiality and Fluidity of Perspiration in in Eighteenth-Century Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    How can a bodily excretion like sweat, often accompanied with a stench or associated with anxiety and distress, enrich our view of the history of science? This paper argues that following the fluid and flow of sweat has in fact particular advantages, because it provides a unique perspective by

  11. Lactate and ammonia concentration in blood and sweat during incremental cycle ergometer exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Mook, GA; Gips, CH; Verkerke, GJ

    It is known that the concentrations of ammonia and lactate in blood increase during incremental exercise. Sweat also contains lactate and ammonia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological response of lactate and ammonia in plasma and sweat during a stepwise incremental cycle

  12. The microfluidics of the eccrine sweat gland, including biomarker partitioning, transport, and biosensing implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonner, Z.; Wilder, E.; Heikenfeld, J.; Kasting, G.; Beyette, F.; Swaile, D.; Sherman, F.; Joyce, J.; Hagen, J.; Kelley-Loughnane, N.; Naik, R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive and accurate access of biomarkers remains a holy grail of the biomedical community. Human eccrine sweat is a surprisingly biomarker-rich fluid which is gaining increasing attention. This is especially true in applications of continuous bio-monitoring where other biofluids prove more challenging, if not impossible. However, much confusion on the topic exists as the microfluidics of the eccrine sweat gland has never been comprehensively presented and models of biomarker partitioning into sweat are either underdeveloped and/or highly scattered across literature. Reported here are microfluidic models for eccrine sweat generation and flow which are coupled with review of blood-to-sweat biomarker partition pathways, therefore providing insights such as how biomarker concentration changes with sweat flow rate. Additionally, it is shown that both flow rate and biomarker diffusion determine the effective sampling rate of biomarkers at the skin surface (chronological resolution). The discussion covers a broad class of biomarkers including ions (Na+, Cl−, K+, NH4+), small molecules (ethanol, cortisol, urea, and lactate), and even peptides or small proteins (neuropeptides and cytokines). The models are not meant to be exhaustive for all biomarkers, yet collectively serve as a foundational guide for further development of sweat-based diagnostics and for those beginning exploration of new biomarker opportunities in sweat. PMID:26045728

  13. Relationship between sweat chloride, sodium, and age in clinically obtained samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeger, Nadav; Shi, Qiuhu; Dozor, Allen J

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between sweat electrolytes and age is uncertain, as is the value of measuring sodium or the chloride:sodium ratio. 13,785 sweat tests performed over 23 years at one center through the Macroduct collection in clinically obtained samples were analyzed. Sweat chloride tended to decrease over the first year of life, slowly increase until the fourth decade, then either level off or slightly decrease. In children, sweat sodium overlapped between those with positive and negative sweat tests, but not in adults. If the sweat test was positive, there was a higher likelihood of having a chloride:sodium ratio >1, but most subjects with a ratio >1 did not have CF. Sweat chloride and sodium vary with age. Measurement of sweat sodium did not add discriminatory value. The proportion of subjects with a chloride:sodium ratio >1, with or without CF, varied greatly between age ranges. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  14. The detection of cortisol in human sweat: implications for measurement of cortisol in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan H M

    2014-02-01

    Hair cortisol analysis has been shown to be an effective measure of chronic stress. Cortisol is assumed to incorporate into hair via serum, sebum, and sweat sources; however, the extent to which sweat contributes to hair cortisol content is unknown. Sweat and saliva samples were collected from 17 subjects after a period of intensive exercise and analyzed by salivary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, an in vitro test on exposure of hair to hydrocortisone was conducted. Residual hair samples were immersed in a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution for periods lasting 15 minutes to 24 hours, followed by a wash or no-wash condition. Hair cortisol content was determined using our modified protocol for a salivary ELISA. Postexercise control sweat cortisol concentrations ranged from 8.16 to 141.7 ng/mL and correlated significantly with the log-transformed time of day. Sweat cortisol levels significantly correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations. In vitro hair exposure to a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution (mimicking sweat) for 60 minutes or more resulted in significantly increased hair cortisol concentrations. Washing with isopropanol did not affect immersion-increased hair cortisol concentrations. Human sweat contains cortisol in concentrations comparable with salivary cortisol levels. This study suggests that perfuse sweating after intense exercise may increase cortisol concentrations detected in hair. This increase likely cannot be effectively decreased with conventional washing procedures and should be considered carefully in studies using hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress.

  15. A Simple and Valid Method to Determine Thermoregulatory Sweating Threshold and Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    therefore, preferred for sweating threshold temperature and sensitivity analysis (32). Volunteers spit into a cup during data collection to avoid spurious...MA, Stephenson LA. Control of sweating during the human menstrual cycle. Eur J Appl Physiol 58: 890–895, 1989. 21. Kondo N, Shibasaki M, Aoki K, Koga

  16. Differential sensitivity of honey bees and bumble bees to a dietary insecticide (imidacloprid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, James E; Page, Christopher J; Uygun, Mehmet B; Holmbergh, Marie; Li, Yueru; Wheeler, Jonathan G; Laycock, Ian; Pook, Christopher J; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Smirnoff, Nick; Tyler, Charles R

    2012-12-01

    Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and the sustainability of pollination services. One potential threat to bees is the unintended impact of systemic insecticides, which are ingested by bees in the nectar and pollen from flowers of treated crops. To establish whether imidacloprid, a systemic neonicotinoid and insect neurotoxin, harms individual bees when ingested at environmentally realistic levels, we exposed adult worker bumble bees, Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), to dietary imidacloprid in feeder syrup at dosages between 0.08 and 125μg l(-1). Honey bees showed no response to dietary imidacloprid on any variable that we measured (feeding, locomotion and longevity). In contrast, bumble bees progressively developed over time a dose-dependent reduction in feeding rate with declines of 10-30% in the environmentally relevant range of up to 10μg l(-1), but neither their locomotory activity nor longevity varied with diet. To explain their differential sensitivity, we speculate that honey bees are better pre-adapted than bumble bees to feed on nectars containing synthetic alkaloids, such as imidacloprid, by virtue of their ancestral adaptation to tropical nectars in which natural alkaloids are prevalent. We emphasise that our study does not suggest that honey bee colonies are invulnerable to dietary imidacloprid under field conditions, but our findings do raise new concern about the impact of agricultural neonicotinoids on wild bumble bee populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. To bee or not to bee (interview with T. Blacquière & J. Calis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoenes, E.; Blacquière, T.; Calis, J.

    2009-01-01

    The honey bee is not doing very well. both in europe and in the United states, beekeepers increasingly see their bees fall victim to the ‘disappearing disease’. The symptom, an empty hive without any bees – neither living nor dead – poses a riddle to scientists. researchers from Wageningen Ur are

  18. DNA barcoding and male genital morphology reveal five new cryptic species in the West Palearctic bee Seladonia smaragdula (Vachal, 1895) (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Alain; Devalez, Jelle; Sonet, Gontran; Nagy, Zoltán Tamás; Boevé, Jean-Luc

    2015-10-29

    Several forms or variants have long been recognized in the West Palearctic sweat bee Seladonia smaragdula (Vachal, 1895). Using DNA barcoding and morphological characters, primarily of the male genitalia, these variants are here recognized and described as five new species: S. gemmella Pauly sp. nov., S. submediterranea Pauly sp. nov., S. orientana Pauly & Devalez sp. nov., S. phryganica Pauly & Devalez sp. nov., and S. cretella Pauly & Devalez sp. nov. Also, we designate a lectotype for Halictus smaragdulus Vachal, consider Seladonia butea (Warncke, 1975) and S. morinella (Warncke, 1975) as nomina dubia, and discuss the identity of the Seladonia specimens from Australia currently determined as S. smaragdula.

  19. Biological Variation of Chloride and Sodium in Sweat Obtained by Pilocarpine Iontophoresis in Adults: How Sure are You About Sweat Test Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Philippe; Weekx, Steven; Meskal, Anissa; Schouwers, Sofie

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat is an important test for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to assess the analytical variation (CV A ) and within-subject (CV I ) and between-subject (CV G ) biological variation of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat, collected by pilocarpine iontophoresis and to determine their effect on the clinical interpretation of sweat test results. Twelve Caucasian adults (six male and six female) without symptoms suggestive for CF and with a mean age of 41 years (range 28-59) were included in the study. At least eight samples of sweat were collected from each individual by pilocarpine iontophoresis. Chloride and sodium concentrations were measured in duplicate for each sample using ion selective electrodes. After the removal of outliers, the CV A , CV I , and CV G of chloride and sodium were determined, and their impact on measurement uncertainty and reference change value were calculated. The CV A , CV I , and CV G of chloride in sweat samples were 6.5, 17.7, and 47.2%, respectively. The CV A , CV I , and CV G of sodium sweat samples were 6.0, 17.5, and 42.6%, respectively. Our study indicates that sweat chloride and sodium concentration results must be interpreted with great care. Different components of variation, particularly the biological variations, have a considerable impact on the interpretation of these results. If no pre-analytical, analytical, or post-analytical errors are suspected, repeated sweat testing to confirm first-measurement results might not be desirable.

  20. Immunological multimetal deposition for rapid visualization of sweat fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayun; Xu, Linru; Zhu, Yu; Wei, Qianhui; Zhang, Meiqin; Su, Bin

    2014-11-10

    A simple method termed immunological multimetal deposition (iMMD) was developed for rapid visualization of sweat fingerprints with bare eyes, by combining the conventional MMD with the immunoassay technique. In this approach, antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used to specifically interact with the corresponding antigens in the fingerprint residue. The AuNPs serve as the nucleation sites for autometallographic deposition of silver particles from the silver staining solution, generating a dark ridge pattern for visual detection. Using fingerprints inked with human immunoglobulin G (hIgG), we obtained the optimal formulation of iMMD, which was then successfully applied to visualize sweat fingerprints through the detection of two secreted polypeptides, epidermal growth factor and lysozyme. In comparison with the conventional MMD, iMMD is faster and can provide additional information than just identification. Moreover, iMMD is facile and does not need expensive instruments. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Corrosion behavior of nickel-containing alloys in artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, J P

    1988-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of various nickel-containing alloys was measured in artificial sweat (perspiration) using the Tafel extrapolation method. It was found that Ni, CuNi 25 (coin alloy), NiAl (colored intermetallic compounds), WC + Ni (hard metal), white gold (jewelry alloy), FN42 and Nilo Alby K (controlled expansion alloys), and NiP (electroless nickel coating) are in an active state and dissolve readily in oxygenated artificial sweat. By contrast, austenitic stainless steels, TiC + Mo2C + Ni (hard metal), NiTi (shape-memory alloy), Hastelloy X (superalloy), Phydur (precipitation hardening alloy), PdNi and SnNi (nickel-containing coatings) are in a passive state but may pit under certain conditions. Cobalt, Cr, Ti, and some of their alloys were also investigated for the purpose of comparison. Cobalt and its alloys have poor corrosion resistance except for Stellite 20. Chromium and high-chromium ferritic stainless steels have a high pitting potential but the latter are susceptible to crevice corrosion. Ti has a pitting potential greater than 3 V. Comparison between the in vitro measurements of the corrosion rate of nickel-based alloys and the clinical observation of the occurrence of contact dermatitis is discussed.

  2. Proteomic and peptidomic analysis of human sweat with emphasis on proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yijing; Prassas, Ioannis; Muytjens, Carla M J; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2017-02-23

    Sweat is produced by eccrine and apocrine glands and represents a biological fluid with established roles in thermo-regulation and host infection defense. The composition of sweat is highly dynamic and alters significantly in various skin and other disorders. Therefore, in-depth profiling of sweat protein composition is expected to augment our understanding of the pathobiology of several skin diseases and may lead to the identification of useful sweat-based disease biomarkers. We here reported an in-depth analysis of the human sweat proteome and peptidome. Sweat was collected from healthy males and healthy females of ages 20-60years, following strenuous exercise. Two sweat pools were prepared (1 for males and 1 for females) and were subjected to sample preparation for mass spectrometric analysis. We identified a total of 861 unique proteins during our proteomic analysis and 32,818 endogenous peptides (corresponding to additional 1067 proteins) from our peptidomics workflow. As expected, the human skin was identified as the most abundant source of sweat proteins and peptides. Several skin proteases and protease inhibitors were identified in human sweat, highlighting the intense proteolytic activity of human skin. The presence of several antimicrobial peptides supports the functional roles of sweat in host defense and innate immunity. Sweat is a skin-associated biological fluid, secreted by eccrine and apocrine glands, with essential function in body thermo-regulation and host infection defense. In the present study, we performed in-depth profiling of both sweat proteome and peptidome composition. Our data provide the most in-depth characterization of the skin's catalytic network present in sweat. For the first time, we brought to light novel peptides in human sweat that potentially have antimicrobial activity, which highlight the important role of this fluid in innate immunity. All these findings allow us to have a better understanding of the complex web of

  3. Towards Addressing the Body Electrolyte Environment via Sweat Analysis:Pilocarpine Iontophoresis Supports Assessment of Plasma Potassium Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Vairo, Donato; Bruzzese, Laurie; Marlinge, Marion; Fuster, Lea; Adjriou, Nabil; Kipson, Nathalie; Brunet, Philippe; Cautela, Jennifer; Jammes, Yves; Mottola, Giovanna; Burtey, Stephane; Ruf, Jean; Guieu, Regis; Fenouillet, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Electrolyte concentration in sweat depends on environmental context and physical condition but also on the pathophysiological status. Sweat analyzers may be therefore the future way for biological survey although how sweat electrolyte composition can reflect plasma composition remains unclear. We recruited 10 healthy subjects and 6 patients to have a broad range of plasma electrolyte concentrations (chloride, potassium and sodium) and pH. These variables were compared to those found in sweat ...

  4. Acute effects of dehydration on sweat composition in men during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R M; Patterson, M J; Nimmo, M A

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether acute exercise-heat-induced dehydration affects sweat composition, eight males cycled for 2 h at 39.5 +/- 1.6% VO2peak on two separate occasions in a hot-humid environment (38.0 +/- 0.0 degrees C, 60.0 +/- 0.1% relative humidity). During exercise, subjects ingested either no fluid (dehydration) or a 20 mmol L(-1) sodium chloride solution (euhydration). The volume of solution, calculated from whole-body sweat loss and determined in a familiarization trial, was ingested at 0 min and every 15 min thereafter. Venous blood was collected at 0, 60 and 120 min of exercise and sweat was aspirated from a patch located on the dominant forearm at 120 min. Following the 2-h cycling exercise, sweat [Na+] and [Cl-] was greater (P sweat [Na+] and [Cl-] which was potentially related to greater extracellular fluid [Na+], plasma aldosterone or sympathetic nervous activity.

  5. Repellent foraging scent recognition across bee families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gawleta, N; Zimmermann, Y; Eltz, T

    2005-01-01

    ...) discriminate against previously visited inflorescences (Stachys officinalis), and that discrimination is equally strong regardless of whether the previous visitor is conspecific or belongs to a different bee family...

  6. Nutritional Physiology and Ecology of Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Geraldine A; Nicolson, Susan W; Shafir, Sharoni

    2018-01-07

    Honey bees feed on floral nectar and pollen that they store in their colonies as honey and bee bread. Social division of labor enables the collection of stores of food that are consumed by within-hive bees that convert stored pollen and honey into royal jelly. Royal jelly and other glandular secretions are the primary food of growing larvae and of the queen but are also fed to other colony members. Research clearly shows that bees regulate their intake, like other animals, around specific proportions of macronutrients. This form of regulation is done as individuals and at the colony level by foragers.

  7. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  8. Sweat-inducing physiological challenges do not result in acute changes in hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Gao, Wei; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to provide a stable, integrative marker of long-term systemic cortisol secretion. However, contrary to this assumption, some recent observations have raised the possibility that HCC may be subject to acute influences, potentially related to cortisol incorporation from sweat. Here, we provide a first detailed in vivo investigation of this possibility comprising two independent experimental studies: study I (N=42) used a treadmill challenge to induce sweating together with systemic cortisol reactivity while in study II (N=52) a sauna bathing challenge induced sweating without systemic cortisol changes. In both studies, repeated assessments of HCC, salivary cortisol, cortisol in sweat and individuals' sweating rate (single assessment) were conducted on the experimental day and at a next-day follow-up. Results across the two studies consistently revealed that HCC were not altered by the acute interventions. Further, HCC were found to be unrelated to acute salivary cortisol reactivity, sweat cortisol levels, sweating rate or the time of examination. In line with previous data, cortisol levels in sweat were strongly related to total salivary cortisol output across the examined periods. The present results oppose recent case report data by showing that single sweat-inducing interventions do not result in acute changes in HCC. Our data also tentatively speak against the notion that cortisol in sweat may be a dominant source of HCC. Further, our findings also indicate that HCC are not subject to diurnal variation. This research provides further support for hair cortisol analysis as a marker of integrated long-term systemic cortisol secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attitudes about Advances in Sweat Patch Testing in Drug Courts: Insights from a Case Study in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Drug courts are reinventing the drug testing framework by experimenting with new methods, including use of the sweat patch. The sweat patch is a band-aid like strip used to monitor drug court participants. The validity and reliability of the sweat patch as an effective testing method was examined, as well as the effectiveness, meaning how likely…

  10. Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F; Laitano, O; Bar-Or, O; McDougall, D; Heigenhauser, G J F; Heingenhauser, G J F

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR) suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac-) and ammonia (NH3) and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men) cycled in the heat (42 degrees C, 20% relative humidity) at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject's lower back. During bout 1, sweat from girls and boys had higher Lac- concentrations (23.6 +/- 1.2 and 21.2 +/- 1.7 mM; P sweat from women and men (18.2 +/- 1.9 and 14.8 +/- 1.6 mM, respectively), but Lac- was weakly associated with SR (P > 0.05; r = -0.27). Sweat Lac- concentration dropped during exercise bout 2, reaching similar levels among all groups (overall mean = 13.7 +/- 0.4 mM). Children had a higher sweat NH3 than adults during bout 1 (girls = 4.2 +/- 0.4, boys = 4.6 +/- 0.6, women = 2.7 +/- 0.2, and men = 3.0 +/- 0.2 mM; P sweat pH was lower than that of adults (mean +/- SEM, girls = 5.4 +/- 0.2, boys = 5.0 +/- 0.1, women = 6.2 +/- 0.5, and men = 6.2 +/- 0.4 for bout 1, and girls = 5.4 +/- 0.2, boys = 6.5 +/- 0.5, women = 5.2 +/- 0.2, and men = 6.9 +/- 0.4 for bout 2). This may have favored NH3 transport from plasma to sweat as accounted for by a significant correlation between sweat NH3 and H+ (r = 0.56). Blood pH increased from rest (mean +/- SEM; 7.3 +/- 0.02) to the end of exercise (7.4 +/- 0.01) without differences among groups. These results, however, are representative of sweat induced by moderate exercise in the absence of acidosis.

  11. Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis: dermatitis due to live bee acupuncture therapy in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Min Jung; Chung, Ki Hun; Ko, Dong Kyun; Chung, Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis is an iatrogenic disease induced by so-called live bee acupuncture therapy, which applies the honeybee (Apis cerana) stinger directly into the lesion to treat various diseases in Korea. We present two cases of live bee acupuncture dermatitis and review previously published articles about this disease. We classify this entity into three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. The acute stage is an inflammatory reaction, such as anaphylaxis or urticaria. In the chronic stage, a foreign body granuloma may develop from the remaining stingers, similar to that of a bee sting reaction. However, in the subacute stage, unlike bee stings, we see the characteristic histological "flame" figures resulting from eosinophilic stimulation induced by excessive bee venom exposure. We consider this stage to be different from the adverse skin reaction of accidental bee sting. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Eccrine Sweat Contains IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and Activates Epidermal Keratinocytes as a Danger Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiuju; Okazaki, Hidenori; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Murakami, Masamoto; Tohyama, Mikiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Sayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal. Eccrine sweat was collected from the arms of healthy volunteers after exercise, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the sweat were quantified by ELISA. We detected the presence of IL-1α, IL-1β, and high levels of IL-31 in sweat samples. To investigate whether sweat activates keratinocytes, normal human keratinocytes were stimulated with concentrated sweat. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK signaling in sweat-stimulated keratinocytes. Real-time PCR using total RNA and ELISA analysis of supernatants showed the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-1β by sweat. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-1R antagonist blocked sweat-stimulated cytokine production and signal activation, indicating that bioactive IL-1 is a major factor in the activation of keratinocytes by sweat. Moreover, IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator that activates keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokine, CCL2. Sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and does not come into contact with keratinocytes in normal skin. However, in skin with a defective cutaneous barrier, such as atopic dermatitis-affected skin, sweat cytokines can directly act on epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in their activation. In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal. PMID:23874436

  13. Eccrine sweat contains IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuju Dai

    Full Text Available Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal. Eccrine sweat was collected from the arms of healthy volunteers after exercise, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the sweat were quantified by ELISA. We detected the presence of IL-1α, IL-1β, and high levels of IL-31 in sweat samples. To investigate whether sweat activates keratinocytes, normal human keratinocytes were stimulated with concentrated sweat. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK signaling in sweat-stimulated keratinocytes. Real-time PCR using total RNA and ELISA analysis of supernatants showed the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-1β by sweat. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-1R antagonist blocked sweat-stimulated cytokine production and signal activation, indicating that bioactive IL-1 is a major factor in the activation of keratinocytes by sweat. Moreover, IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator that activates keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokine, CCL2. Sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and does not come into contact with keratinocytes in normal skin. However, in skin with a defective cutaneous barrier, such as atopic dermatitis-affected skin, sweat cytokines can directly act on epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in their activation. In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal.

  14. Artificial Bee Colony Optimizer with Bee-to-Bee Communication and Multipopulation Coevolution for Multilevel Threshold Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-yi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modified artificial bee colony optimizer (MABC by combining bee-to-bee communication pattern and multipopulation cooperative mechanism. In the bee-to-bee communication model, with the enhanced information exchange strategy, individuals can share more information from the elites through the Von Neumann topology. With the multipopulation cooperative mechanism, the hierarchical colony with different topologies can be structured, which can maintain diversity of the whole community. The experimental results on comparing the MABC to several successful EA and SI algorithms on a set of benchmarks demonstrated the advantage of the MABC algorithm. Furthermore, we employed the MABC algorithm to resolve the multilevel image segmentation problem. Experimental results of the new method on a variety of images demonstrated the performance superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Sweat gland tumor (Eccrine Porocarcinoma of scalp: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Roshani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine Porocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm arising from sweat glands. It was first described by Pinkus and Mehregan as ′Epidermotropic eccrine carcinoma′. It may occur de novo or as a malignant transformation of an eccrine poroma. It is commonly found in older age group and in the lower extremities. Clinically, it may present as a verrucous plaque, polypoid growth or an ulcerative lesion of long duration. Local recurrence and metastasis to skin, lymphnodes, viscera, and bone may occur. Treatment is wide local excision. Metastatic lesions can be treated with chemotherapy. We report a case of eccrine porocarcinoma of the scalp in a 50 years old female who presented to us with a bosselated, firm, painless, non-tender, freely mobile swelling over left fronto-parietal region of 12 years duration. It was excised and histopathological diagnosis was Eccrine Porocarcinoma. In literature, scalp porocarcinoma is a very rare tumor.

  16. Sweat: a sample with limited present applications and promising future in metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Bravo, A; Luque de Castro, M D

    2014-03-01

    Sweat is a biofluid with present scant use as clinical sample. This review tries to demonstrate the advantages of sweat over other biofluids such as blood or urine for routine clinical analyses and the potential when related to metabolomics. With this aim, critical discussion of sweat samplers and equipment for analysis of target compounds in this sample is made. Well established routine analyses in sweat as is that to diagnose cystic fibrosis, and the advantages and disadvantages of sweat versus urine or blood for doping control have also been discussed. Methods for analytes such as essential metals and xenometals, ethanol and electrolytes in sweat in fact constitute target metabolomics approaches or belong to any metabolomics subdiscipline such as metallomics, ionomics or xenometabolomics. The higher development of biomarkers based on genomics or proteomics as omics older than metabolomics is discussed and also the potential role of metabolomics in systems biology taking into account its emergent implementation. Normalization of the volume of sampled sweat constitutes a present unsolved shortcoming that deserves investigation. Foreseeable trends in this area are outlined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Proteomic Analysis of Eccrine Sweat: Implications for the Discovery of Schizophrenia Biomarker Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Michelle M.; Ross, Mark M.; Russo, Paul S.; Schaepper, Mary Ann H.; Zhou, Weidong; Deng, Jianghong; Ng, Daniel; Dickson, April; Dickson, Cindy; Strom, Monica; Osorio, Carolina; Soeprono, Thomas; Wulfkuhle, Julia D.; Kabbani, Nadine; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Kirsch, Wolff M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) proteomics analyses were performed on eccrine sweat of healthy controls, and the results were compared with those from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ). This is the first large scale study of the sweat proteome. First, we performed LC-MS/MS on pooled SZ samples and pooled control samples for global proteomics analysis. Results revealed a high abundance of diverse proteins and peptides in eccrine sweat. Most of the proteins identified from sweat samples were found to be different than the most abundant proteins from serum, which indicates that eccrine sweat is not simply a plasma transudate, and may thereby be a source of unique disease-associated biomolecules. A second independent set of patient and control sweat samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and spectral counting to determine qualitative protein differential abundances between the control and disease groups. Differential abundances of selected proteins, initially determined by spectral counting, were verified by MRM-MS analyses. Seventeen proteins showed a differential abundance of approximately two-fold or greater between the SZ pooled sample and the control pooled sample. This study demonstrates the utility of LC-MS/MS and MRM-MS as a viable strategy for the discovery and verification of potential sweat protein disease biomarkers. PMID:22256890

  18. Effects of stimulation technique, anatomical region, and time on human sweat lipid mediator profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karan; Waller, Justin D; Pedersen, Theresa L; Newman, John W

    2018-01-01

    Few studies compare sampling protocol effect on sweat composition. Here we evaluate the impact of sweat stimulation mode and site of collection on lipid mediator composition. Sweat from healthy males (n=7) was collected weekly for three weeks from the volar forearm following either pilocarpine iontophoresis or exercise, and from the forearm, back and thigh following pilocarpine iontophoresis only. Sweat content of over 150 lipid mediators were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Seventy lipid mediators were routinely detected, including prostanoids, alcohols, diols, epoxides, ketones, nitrolipids, N-acylethanolamides, monoacylglycerols, and ceramides. Detected lipid mediators appeared unaffected by sampling site, though the forearm was the most consistent source of sweat. Pilocarpine-induced sweat showed increased concentrations of most detected compounds. Moreover, lipid mediator concentrations and profiles were temporally stable over the study duration. Sweat therefore appears to be a consistent and anatomically-stable source of lipid mediators, but care must be taken in comparing results obtained from different stimulation techniques. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. [Cholinergic urticaria successfully treated by immunotherapy with partially purified sweat antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Kaori; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kameyoshi, Yoshikazu; Hide, Michihiro

    2007-01-01

    A 24-years-old man was referred to our University Hospital because of one and a half-year history of disabling symptoms related to physical exertion. Multiple small round-shaped wheals with severe itch were induced by exercise, warmth and psychological stress. These symptoms were resistant to histamine H1-receptor antagonists. Similar eruptions were induced by sauna-bathing, and skin test with autologous sweat showed a flare and wheal reaction. Incubation of his peripheral-blood leukocytes with partially purified sweat antigen evoked marked histamine release, indicating that he has been IgE-sensitized to an antigen(s) in human sweat. Specific immunotherapy using partially purified sweat antigen was performed every other week. Both pruritus and wheals improved gradually, and the reactivity of his peripheral blood leukocytes against sweat antigen decreased as immunotherapy was proceeded. Specific immunotherapy using sweat antigen may be valuable for patients with cholinergic urticaria with type I hypersensitivity to sweat antigen(s).

  20. Pattern recognition in bees : orientation discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Srinivasan, M.V.; Wait, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera, worker) were trained to discriminate between two random gratings oriented perpendicularly to each other. This task was quickly learned with vertical, horizontal, and oblique gratings. After being trained on perpendicularly-oriented random gratings, bees could discriminate

  1. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of...

  2. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sébastien C.; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Simcock, Kerry L.; Derveau, Sophie; Mitchell, Jessica; Softley, Samantha; Stout, Jane C.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2015-05-01

    The impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators is highly controversial. Sublethal concentrations alter the behaviour of social bees and reduce survival of entire colonies. However, critics argue that the reported negative effects only arise from neonicotinoid concentrations that are greater than those found in the nectar and pollen of pesticide-treated plants. Furthermore, it has been suggested that bees could choose to forage on other available flowers and hence avoid or dilute exposure. Here, using a two-choice feeding assay, we show that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, do not avoid nectar-relevant concentrations of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMD), thiamethoxam (TMX), and clothianidin (CLO), in food. Moreover, bees of both species prefer to eat more of sucrose solutions laced with IMD or TMX than sucrose alone. Stimulation with IMD, TMX and CLO neither elicited spiking responses from gustatory neurons in the bees' mouthparts, nor inhibited the responses of sucrose-sensitive neurons. Our data indicate that bees cannot taste neonicotinoids and are not repelled by them. Instead, bees preferred solutions containing IMD or TMX, even though the consumption of these pesticides caused them to eat less food overall. This work shows that bees cannot control their exposure to neonicotinoids in food and implies that treating flowering crops with IMD and TMX presents a sizeable hazard to foraging bees.

  4. The Plight of the Honey Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockridge, Emma

    2010-01-01

    The decline of colonies of honey bees across the world is threatening local plant biodiversity and human food supplies. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been implicated as a major cause of the problem and are banned or suspended in several countries. Other factors could also be lowering the resistance of bees to opportunist infections by, for…

  5. Physiology and biochemistry of honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their tremendous economic importance, honey bees are not a typical model system for studying general questions of insect physiology. This is primarily due to the fact that honey bees live in complex social settings which impact their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Not surpris...

  6. SWEAT: Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Dries; Benninga, Harm-Jan; Diaz Schümmer, Carlos; Donnerer, Julia; Fischer, Georg; Henriksen, Marie; Hippert Ferrer, Alexandre; Jamali, Maryam; Marinaci, Stefano; Mould, Toby JD; Phelan, Liam; Rosker, Stephanie; Schrenker, Caroline; Schulze, Kerstin; Emanuel Telo Bordalo Monteiro, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    To study how the water cycle changes over time, satellite and airborne remote sensing missions are typically employed. Over the last 40 years of satellite missions, the measurement of true water inventories stored in sea and land ice within the cryosphere have been significantly hindered by uncertainties introduced by snow cover. Being able to determine the thickness of this snow cover would act to reduce such error, improving current estimations of hydrological and climate models, Earth's energy balance (albedo) calculations and flood predictions. Therefore, the target of the SWEAT (Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry) mission is to directly measure the surface Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on sea and land ice within the polar regions above 60°and below -60° latitude. There are no other satellite missions currently capable of directly measuring SWE. In order to achieve this, the proposed mission will implement a novel combination of Ka- and Ku-band radioaltimeters (active microwave sensors), capable of penetrating into the snow microstructure. The Ka-band altimeter (λ ≈ 0.8 cm) provides a low maximum snow pack penetration depth of up to 20 cm for dry snow at 37 GHz, since the volume scattering of snow dominates over the scattering caused by the underlying ice surface. In contrast, the Ku-band altimeter (λ ≈ 2 cm) provides a high maximum snowpack penetration depth of up to 15 m in high latitudes regions with dry snow, as volume scattering is decreased by a factor of 55. The combined difference in Ka- and Ku-band signal penetration results will provide more accurate and direct determination of SWE. Therefore, the SWEAT mission aims to improve estimations of global SWE interpreted from passive microwave products, and improve the reliability of numerical snow and climate models.

  7. A Preliminary Study of Biomonitoring for Bisphenol-A in Human Sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porucznik, Christina A; Cox, Kyley J; Wilkins, Diana G; Anderson, David J; Bailey, Nicole M; Szczotka, Kathryn M; Stanford, Joseph B

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of human exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA) is hampered by the ubiquitous but transient exposure for most individuals, coupled with a short metabolic half-life which leads to high inter- and intra-individual variability. We investigated the possibility of measuring multiday exposure to BPA in human sweat among volunteer participants with the goal of identifying an exposure assessment method less affected by temporal variability. We recruited 50 participants to wear a sweat collection patch (PharmChek(®)) for 7 days with concurrent collection of daily first-morning urine. Urines and sweat patch extracts were analyzed with quantitative LC-MS-MS using a method we previously validated. In addition, a human volunteer consumed one can of commercially available soup (16 oz, 473 cm(3)) daily for 3 days and collected urine. Sweat patches (n = 2, 1 per arm) were worn for the 3 days of the study. BPA was detected in quality control specimens prepared by fortification of BPA to sweat patches, but was only detected at 5× above average background on three participant patches. Although the highest measured urine BPA concentration was 195 ng/mL for an individual with deliberate exposure, no BPA was detected above background in the corresponding sweat patches. In this preliminary investigation, the use of sweat patches primarily worn on the upper-outer arm did not detect BPA exposures that were documented by urine monitoring. The absence of BPA in sweat patches may be due to several factors, including insufficient quantity of specimen per patch, or extremely low concentrations of BPA in naturally occurring sweat, among others. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Transition duration of ingested deuterium oxide to eccrine sweat during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Adam; Lee, Fanny; Buono, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The time necessary for the initial appearance of ingested water as sweat during exercise in the heat remains unknown. Based on the current literature, we estimated fluid transition through the body, from ingestion to appearance as sweat, to have a minimum time duration of approximately three minutes. The purpose of this study was to test this prediction and identify the time necessary for the initial enrichment of deuterium oxide (D2O) in sweat following ingestion during exercise in the heat. Eight participants performed moderate intensity (40% of maximal oxygen uptake) treadmill exercise in an environmental chamber (40°C, 40% rH) to induce active sweating. After fifteen minutes, while continuing to walk, participants consumed D2O (0.15mlkg-1) in a final volume of 50ml water. Scapular sweat samples were collected one minute prior to and ten minutes post-ingestion. Samples were analyzed for sweat D2O concentration using isotope ratio mass spectrometry and compared to baseline. Mean±SD ∆ sweat D2O concentration at minutes one and two post-ingestion were not significantly higher than baseline (0min). Minutes three (9±3ppm) through ten (23±11ppm) post-ingestion had ∆ sweat D2O concentrations significantly (P<0.05) higher than baseline. Such results suggest that ingested water rapidly transports across the mucosal membrane of the alimentary canal into the vasculature space, enters the extravascular fluid, and is actively secreted by the eccrine sweat glands onto the surface of the skin for potential evaporation in as little as three minutes during exercise in the heat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Accumulation of 2H2O in plasma and eccrine sweat during exercise-heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Klau, Jennifer F; Ganio, Matthew S; McDermott, Brendon P; Yeargin, Susan W; Lee, Elaine C; Maresh, Carl M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize the movement of ingested water through body fluids, during exercise-heat stress. Deuterium oxide ((2)H(2)O) accumulation in plasma and eccrine sweat was measured at two sites (back and forehead). The exercise of 14 males was controlled via cycle ergometry in a warm environment (60 min; 28.7 degrees C, 51%rh). Subjects consumed (2)H(2)O (0.15 mg kg(-1), 99.9% purity) mixed in flavored, non-caloric, colored water before exercise, then consumed 3.0 ml kg(-1) containing no (2)H(2)O every 15 min during exercise. We hypothesized that water transit from mouth to skin would occur before 15 min. (2)H(2)O appeared rapidly in both plasma and sweat (P deuterium accumulation (DeltaD:H min(-1)) in plasma was 14.9 and 23.7 times greater than in forehead and back sweat samples, respectively. Mean (+/-SE) whole-body sweat rate was 1.04 +/- 0.05 L h(-1) and subjects with the greatest whole-body sweat rate exhibited the greatest peak deuterium enrichment in sweat (r(2) = 0.87, exponential function); the peak (2)H(2)O enrichment in sweat was not proportional (P > 0.05) to body mass, volume of the deuterium dose, or total volume of fluid consumed. These findings clarify the time course of fluid movement from mouth to eccrine sweat glands, and demonstrate considerable differences of (2)H(2)O enrichment in plasma versus sweat.

  10. Bee Hive management and colonisation: a practical approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bee-keeping is fast becoming a big business although the practice requires an understanding of the nature and preferences of the honey bee. These will include knowledge of the types of housing and how to maintain the structures; method of attracting bees to colonies, the erected structure and the way to relate to bees in ...

  11. [Sweat chloride measurement using direct potentiometry: Spotchem(®) (Elitech-Arkray) evaluation and comparison with coulometry and conductivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Khoa, Thao; Borgard, Jean-Pierre; Miled, Ryad; Rota, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    Sweat chloride (Cl(-)) measurement is a key step for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The coulometric technique is validated in this context by international guidelines. The aim of our study was to evaluate the assay for sweat Cl(-) ions using direct potentiometry on disposable cassette (Spotchem™ SE EL-1520, Elitech-Arkray) by comparing results to those obtained on the same sample, by coulometry (Chloride analyser Sherwood 926S, Dutscher). To complete our table of correspondence between the results of Cl(-) ions and sweat conductivity (Sweat Check™ 3100), conductivity has been also achieved for 99 of the 139 sweat samples studied. Linearity of each technique performed extends from 10 to 120 mmol/L. The coefficients of variation within and between runs are Sweat Cl(-) determinations using Spotchem™ analyser meet the criteria required by analytical recommendations. The technique is standardized, easy to perform and fast. Its good practicability makes the sweat test independent to operator and allows point-of care use.

  12. The response of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to two components of human sweat, ammonia and L-lactic acid, in an olfactometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braks, M.A.H.; Meijerink, J.; Takken, W.

    2001-01-01

    In an olfactometer study on the response of the anthropophilic malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera, Culicidae) to human sweat it was found that freshly collected sweat, mostly of eccrine origin, was attractive, but that incubated sweat was significantly more attractive than fresh sweat.

  13. Pulsed direct and constant direct currents in the pilocarpine iontophoresis sweat chloride test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carla Cristina Souza; Servidoni, Maria de Fatima; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Canavezi, Paulo Jose Coelho; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Toro, Adyleia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Pavan, Celia Regina; Rondon, Michelle Vivine Sá Dos Santos; Lorena, Sonia Leticia Silva; Vieria, Francisco Ubaldi; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu

    2014-12-13

    The classic sweat test (CST) is the golden standard for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. Then, our aim was compare the production and volume of sweat, and side effects caused by pulsed direct current (PDC) and constant direct current (CDC). To determine the optimal stimulation time (ST) for the sweat collection. To verify the PDC as CF diagnosis option. Prospective study with cross-sectional experimental intervention. Experiment 1 (right arm): PDC and CDC. ST at 10 min and sweat collected at 30 min. Currents of 0.5; 0.75; 1.0 and 1.5 mA and frequencies of 0, 200, 1,000 and 5,000 Hz applied. Experiment 2 (left arm): current of 1.0 mA, ST at 5 and 10 min and sweat collected at 15 and 30 min with frequencies of 0; 200; 1,000 and 5,000 Hz applied Experiments 1 and 2 were performed with current density (CD) from 0.07 to 0.21 mA/cm2. Experiment 3: PDC was used in typical CF patients with two CFTR mutations screened and or with CF diagnosis by rectal biopsy and patients with atypical CF. 48 subjects (79.16% female) with average of 29.54 ± 8.87 years old were enrolled. There was no statistical difference between the interaction of frequency and current in the sweat weight (p = 0.7488). Individually, positive association was achieved between weight sweat and stimulation frequency (p = 0.0088); and current (p = 0.0025). The sweat production was higher for 10 min of stimulation (p = 0.0023). The sweat collection was better for 30 min (p = 0.0019). The skin impedance was not influenced by ST and sweat collection (p > 0.05). The current frequency was inversely associated with the skin impedance (p sweat, without side effects. The optimal stimulation time and sweat collection were, respectively, 10 and 30 min.

  14. PIXE analysis of cystic fibrosis sweat samples with an external proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, F.; Massonnet, B.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE analysis with an external proton beam is used to study, in four control and five cystic fibrosis children, the elemental composition of sweat samples collected from different parts of the body during entire body hyperthermia. We observe no significant difference of sweat rates and of temperature variations between the two groups during sweat test. The statistical study of results obtained by PIXE analysis allows us to pick out amongst 8 elements studied, 6 elements (Na, Cl, Ca, Mn, Cu, Br) significatively different between the two groups of subjects. Using regression analysis, Na, Cl and Br concentrations could be used in a predictive equation of the state of health.

  15. Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meyer

    Full Text Available The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac- and ammonia (NH3 and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men cycled in the heat (42ºC, 20% relative humidity at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject's lower back. During bout 1, sweat from girls and boys had higher Lac- concentrations (23.6 ± 1.2 and 21.2 ± 1.7 mM; P 0.05; r = -0.27. Sweat Lac- concentration dropped during exercise bout 2, reaching similar levels among all groups (overall mean = 13.7 ± 0.4 mM. Children had a higher sweat NH3 than adults during bout 1 (girls = 4.2 ± 0.4, boys = 4.6 ± 0.6, women = 2.7 ± 0.2, and men = 3.0 ± 0.2 mM; P < 0.05. This difference persisted through bout 2 only in females. On average, children's sweat pH was lower than that of adults (mean ± SEM, girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 5.0 ± 0.1, women = 6.2 ± 0.5, and men = 6.2 ± 0.4 for bout 1, and girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 6.5 ± 0.5, women = 5.2 ± 0.2, and men = 6.9 ± 0.4 for bout 2. This may have favored NH3 transport from plasma to sweat as accounted for by a significant correlation between sweat NH3 and H+ (r = 0.56. Blood pH increased from rest (mean ± SEM; 7.3 ± 0.02 to the end of exercise (7.4 ± 0.01 without differences among groups. These results, however, are representative of sweat induced by moderate exercise in the absence of acidosis.

  16. Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meyer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac- and ammonia (NH3 and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men cycled in the heat (42ºC, 20% relative humidity at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject's lower back. During bout 1, sweat from girls and boys had higher Lac- concentrations (23.6 ± 1.2 and 21.2 ± 1.7 mM; P 0.05; r = -0.27. Sweat Lac- concentration dropped during exercise bout 2, reaching similar levels among all groups (overall mean = 13.7 ± 0.4 mM. Children had a higher sweat NH3 than adults during bout 1 (girls = 4.2 ± 0.4, boys = 4.6 ± 0.6, women = 2.7 ± 0.2, and men = 3.0 ± 0.2 mM; P < 0.05. This difference persisted through bout 2 only in females. On average, children's sweat pH was lower than that of adults (mean ± SEM, girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 5.0 ± 0.1, women = 6.2 ± 0.5, and men = 6.2 ± 0.4 for bout 1, and girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 6.5 ± 0.5, women = 5.2 ± 0.2, and men = 6.9 ± 0.4 for bout 2. This may have favored NH3 transport from plasma to sweat as accounted for by a significant correlation between sweat NH3 and H+ (r = 0.56. Blood pH increased from rest (mean ± SEM; 7.3 ± 0.02 to the end of exercise (7.4 ± 0.01 without differences among groups. These results, however, are representative of sweat induced by moderate exercise in the absence of acidosis.

  17. Wearable sweat detector device design for health monitoring and clinical diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuchen; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tian, Bihao; Zhang, Hongyan; Yu, Yang; Wang, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Miniaturized sensor is necessary part for wearable detector for biomedical applications. Wearable detector device is indispensable for online health care. This paper presents a concept of an wearable digital health monitoring device design for sweat analysis. The flexible sensor is developed to quantify the amount of hydrogen ions in sweat and skin temperature in real time. The detection system includes pH sensor, temperature sensor, signal processing module, power source, microprocessor, display module and so on. The sweat monitoring device is designed for sport monitoring or clinical diagnosis.

  18. Analysis of methamphetamine in hair, nail, sweat, and saliva by mass fragmentography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Inoue, T; Hori, H; Inayama, S

    1989-01-01

    A method for the detection and quantitation of methamphetamine and its major metabolite in hair, nails, sweat, and saliva from habitual users of methamphetamine by mass fragmentography has been developed. Hair and nail samples were washed with water and methanol to remove the external contamination, processed with 0.6M HCl, alkalinized, and extracted with CHCl3/isopropanol (3:1 v/v). Sweat and saliva samples were extracted with methanol. After trifluoroacetyl derivatization, the samples were analyzed by mass fragmentography. Methamphetamine and its major metabolite, amphetamine, were detected in hair, nail, and sweat samples, but methamphetamine alone was detected in saliva samples.

  19. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Ozge Tozkar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World’s most important centers of apiculture, harboring 5 subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. 60 megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp., neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae, Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, Apis filamentous virus and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus, Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly. We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  20. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö.; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9–10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees. PMID:25852743

  1. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al Toufailia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony. These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001, and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008. This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because

  2. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Denise A.; Bento, José M. S.; Marchini, Luis C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack

  3. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h−1) and feet (50–150 g.h−1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h−1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h−1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm−2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm−2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min−1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm−2.min−1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm−2.min−1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm−2.min−1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm−2.min−1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm−2.min−1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L−1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L−1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  4. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel As; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A

    2013-02-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6-2.3 L, with the hands (80-160 g.h-1) and feet (50-150 g.h-1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40-75 g.h-1) and all remaining sites losing 15-60 g.h-1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm-2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm-2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min-1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm-2.min-1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm-2.min-1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm-2.min-1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm-2.min-1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm-2.min-1, sodium losses of 26.5-49.7 mmol.L-1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8-36.7 mmol.L-1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise.

  5. STIMULATION OF RESISTANCE OF BEE FAMILIES DURING WINTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nicolae eremia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees use as food nectar, honey, pollen and bee bread. They collect nectar and pollen on flowers, that process in food - honey and bee bread. Food provides the bees body with energy due to carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, vitamins, minerals. The goal of the studies was to stimulate the bees’ resistance during wintering against nesemosa disease in bee families’ survival after winter time and productivity increasing. There was established that the optimal dose of feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in reserves supplementing of food of bee families during autumn is 150 mg of sugar syrup. There was revealed that using of the feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in bees feeding for reserves supplementing of bees food ensures a stimulating of resistance at wintering of bees, decreases the quantity of used honey during wintering at one space between honey combs populated with bees, as well increases the productivity.

  6. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and bee age impact honey bee pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Traynor, Kirsten S; Andree, Michael; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chen, Yanping; Saegerman, Claude; Cox-Foster, Diana L

    2017-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies continue to experience high annual losses that remain poorly explained. Numerous interacting factors have been linked to colony declines. Understanding the pathways linking pathophysiology with symptoms is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of disease. In this study we examined the specific pathologies associated with honey bees collected from colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and compared these with bees collected from apparently healthy colonies. We identified a set of pathological physical characteristics that occurred at different rates in CCD diagnosed colonies prior to their collapse: rectum distension, Malpighian tubule iridescence, fecal matter consistency, rectal enteroliths (hard concretions), and venom sac color. The multiple differences in rectum symptomology in bees from CCD apiaries and colonies suggest effected bees had trouble regulating water. To ensure that pathologies we found associated with CCD were indeed pathologies and not due to normal changes in physical appearances that occur as an adult bee ages (CCD colonies are assumed to be composed mostly of young bees), we documented the changes in bees of different ages taken from healthy colonies. We found that young bees had much greater incidences of white nodules than older cohorts. Prevalent in newly-emerged bees, these white nodules or cellular encapsulations indicate an active immune response. Comparing the two sets of characteristics, we determined a subset of pathologies that reliably predict CCD status rather than bee age (fecal matter consistency, rectal distension size, rectal enteroliths and Malpighian tubule iridescence) and that may serve as biomarkers for colony health. In addition, these pathologies suggest that CCD bees are experiencing disrupted excretory physiology. Our identification of these symptoms is an important first step in understanding the physiological pathways that underlie CCD and factors

  7. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and bee age impact honey bee pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Kirsten S.; Andree, Michael; Lichtenberg, Elinor M.; Chen, Yanping; Saegerman, Claude; Cox-Foster, Diana L.

    2017-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies continue to experience high annual losses that remain poorly explained. Numerous interacting factors have been linked to colony declines. Understanding the pathways linking pathophysiology with symptoms is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of disease. In this study we examined the specific pathologies associated with honey bees collected from colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and compared these with bees collected from apparently healthy colonies. We identified a set of pathological physical characteristics that occurred at different rates in CCD diagnosed colonies prior to their collapse: rectum distension, Malpighian tubule iridescence, fecal matter consistency, rectal enteroliths (hard concretions), and venom sac color. The multiple differences in rectum symptomology in bees from CCD apiaries and colonies suggest effected bees had trouble regulating water. To ensure that pathologies we found associated with CCD were indeed pathologies and not due to normal changes in physical appearances that occur as an adult bee ages (CCD colonies are assumed to be composed mostly of young bees), we documented the changes in bees of different ages taken from healthy colonies. We found that young bees had much greater incidences of white nodules than older cohorts. Prevalent in newly-emerged bees, these white nodules or cellular encapsulations indicate an active immune response. Comparing the two sets of characteristics, we determined a subset of pathologies that reliably predict CCD status rather than bee age (fecal matter consistency, rectal distension size, rectal enteroliths and Malpighian tubule iridescence) and that may serve as biomarkers for colony health. In addition, these pathologies suggest that CCD bees are experiencing disrupted excretory physiology. Our identification of these symptoms is an important first step in understanding the physiological pathways that underlie CCD and factors

  8. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD and bee age impact honey bee pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis vanEngelsdorp

    Full Text Available Honey bee (Apis mellifera colonies continue to experience high annual losses that remain poorly explained. Numerous interacting factors have been linked to colony declines. Understanding the pathways linking pathophysiology with symptoms is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of disease. In this study we examined the specific pathologies associated with honey bees collected from colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD and compared these with bees collected from apparently healthy colonies. We identified a set of pathological physical characteristics that occurred at different rates in CCD diagnosed colonies prior to their collapse: rectum distension, Malpighian tubule iridescence, fecal matter consistency, rectal enteroliths (hard concretions, and venom sac color. The multiple differences in rectum symptomology in bees from CCD apiaries and colonies suggest effected bees had trouble regulating water. To ensure that pathologies we found associated with CCD were indeed pathologies and not due to normal changes in physical appearances that occur as an adult bee ages (CCD colonies are assumed to be composed mostly of young bees, we documented the changes in bees of different ages taken from healthy colonies. We found that young bees had much greater incidences of white nodules than older cohorts. Prevalent in newly-emerged bees, these white nodules or cellular encapsulations indicate an active immune response. Comparing the two sets of characteristics, we determined a subset of pathologies that reliably predict CCD status rather than bee age (fecal matter consistency, rectal distension size, rectal enteroliths and Malpighian tubule iridescence and that may serve as biomarkers for colony health. In addition, these pathologies suggest that CCD bees are experiencing disrupted excretory physiology. Our identification of these symptoms is an important first step in understanding the physiological pathways that underlie CCD and

  9. Management of corneal bee sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmjoo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Razmjoo1,2, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi1,2,4, Peyman Roomizadeh1,3, Zahra Mohammadi1,2, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi1,3,41Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS; 2Ophthalmology Ward, Feiz Hospital, IUMS; 3Isfahan Medical Students Research Center (IMSRC, IUMS; 4Isfahan Ophthalmology Research Center (IORC, Feiz Hospital, IUMS, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Corneal bee sting is an uncommon environmental eye injury that can result in various ocular complications with an etiology of penetrating, immunologic, and toxic effects of the stinger and its injected venom. In this study we present our experience in the management of a middle-aged male with a right-sided deep corneal bee sting. On arrival, the patient was complaining of severe pain, blurry vision with acuity of 160/200, and tearing, which he had experienced soon after the injury. Firstly, we administered conventional drugs for eye injuries, including topical antibiotic, corticosteroid, and cycloplegic agents. After 2 days, corneal stromal infiltration and edema developed around the site of the sting, and visual acuity decreased to 100/200. These conditions led us to remove the stinger surgically. Within 25 days of follow-up, the corneal infiltration decreased gradually, and visual acuity improved to 180/200. We suggest a two-stage management approach for cases of corneal sting. For the first stage, if the stinger is readily accessible or primary dramatic reactions, including infiltration, especially on the visual axis, exist, manual or surgical removal would be indicated. Otherwise, we recommend conventional treatments for eye injuries. Given this situation, patients should be closely monitored for detection of any worsening. If the condition does not resolve or even deteriorates, for the second stage, surgical removal of the stinger under local or generalized anesthesia is indicated.Keywords: bee sting, stinger, cornea, removal, management, surgery

  10. The effects of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom to the preadipocyte proliferation and lipolysis of adipocyte, localized fat accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ki Kim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom to the primary cultured preadipocyte, adipocytes, and localized fat tissue. Methods : Decreased preadipocyte proliferation and decreased lipogenesis are mechanisms to reduce obesity. So, preadipocytes and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures using Sprague-Dawley Rats and treated with 0.01-1mg/㎖ Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom. And porcine skin including fat tissue after treated Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom according to the dosage dependent variation are investigated the histologic changes after injection of these Pharmacopuncture. Result : Following results were obtained from the preadipocyte proliferation and lipolysis of adipocyte and histologic investigation of fat tissue. 1. Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom showed the effect of decreased preadipocyte proliferation depend on concentration. 2. Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom showed the effect of decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH significantly. 3. Bee Venom was not showed the effect of lipolysis, but Sweet Bee Venom was increased in low dosage and decreased in high dosage. 4. Investigated the histologic changes in porcine fat tissue after treated Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom, we knew that these Pharmacopuncture was activated nonspecific lysis of cell membranes depend on concentration. Conclusion : These results suggest that Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom efficiently induces decreased proliferation of preadipocyte and lipolysis in adipose tissue

  11. A case of localized adrenergic urticaria mimicking an allergic reaction to a sweat chloride test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanova, Y; LeGrys, V; Cooper, D; Levy, D; Santora, D; Schwindt, C

    2009-09-01

    Adrenergic urticaria (AU) is a rare type of physical urticaria triggered by stress. It is frequently confused with IgE-mediated urticaria or other physical urticarias. This report describes a case of localized adrenergic urticaria triggered by a sweat chloride test in an adolescent male with multiple atopic disorders. A pruritic papular rash at the site of a sweat chloride test prompted an evaluation for allergic and physical urticarias using multiple skin test methods. A positive intradermal skin test to noradrenaline, which reproduced the rash observed during the sweat test, lead to the diagnosis of adrenergic urticaria. This is the first case report describing an immediate adrenergic urticarial reaction to sweat chloride testing in a patient with other atopic disorders. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  13. A modified scout bee for artificial bee colony algorithm and its performance on optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahid Anuar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The artificial bee colony (ABC is one of the swarm intelligence algorithms used to solve optimization problems which is inspired by the foraging behaviour of the honey bees. In this paper, artificial bee colony with the rate of change technique which models the behaviour of scout bee to improve the performance of the standard ABC in terms of exploration is introduced. The technique is called artificial bee colony rate of change (ABC-ROC because the scout bee process depends on the rate of change on the performance graph, replace the parameter limit. The performance of ABC-ROC is analysed on a set of benchmark problems and also on the effect of the parameter colony size. Furthermore, the performance of ABC-ROC is compared with the state of the art algorithms.

  14. Sweat Rate Prediction Equations for Outdoor Exercise with Transient Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    clothing, aerobic fitness, and progressive dehydration . J Therm Biol 22: 331–342, 1997. 25. Matthew WT, Santee WR, Berglund LG. Solar Load Inputs for...code) Sweat rate prediction equations for outdoor exercise with transient solar radiation Richard R. Gonzalez,1 Samuel N. Cheuvront,2 Brett R. Ely,2...Moran DS, Hadid A, Endrusick TL, Sawka MN. Sweat rate prediction equations for outdoor exercise with transient solar radiation. J Appl Phys- iol 112

  15. System-level design of an RFID sweat electrolyte sensor patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, M; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh K; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, I; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive RFID sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of mM ionic solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smart-phone app (in-vitro tests).

  16. A new paradigm in sweat based wearable diagnostics biosensors using Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs)

    OpenAIRE

    Munje, Rujuta D.; Muthukumar, Sriram; Jagannath, Badrinath; Prasad, Shalini

    2017-01-01

    Successful commercialization of wearable diagnostic sensors necessitates stability in detection of analytes over prolonged and continuous exposure to sweat. Challenges are primarily in ensuring target disease specific small analytes (i.e. metabolites, proteins, etc.) stability in complex sweat buffer with varying pH levels and composition over time. We present a facile approach to address these challenges using RTILs with antibody functionalized sensors on nanoporous, flexible polymer membran...

  17. Sweat composition in Arabian horses performing endurance exercise on forage-based, low Na rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, H S; Nielsen, B D; Schott, H C; Harris, P A

    2010-11-01

    Excessive sweat loss during endurance exercise may lead to electrolyte disturbances and previous research suggests dietary factors may affect hydration status. While investigating the effect of dietary fibre type on hydration status, sweat samples were collected which allowed for the evaluation of sweat composition in horses consuming forage-based, low sodium (Na) rations. To investigate sweat composition in Arabian horses performing endurance type exercise while fed forage-based, rations low in Na. Six 2-year-old Arabian horses were fed, according to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square, either grass hay (G), 50:50 grass hay:alfalfa hay (GA), or 50:50 grass hay: chopped fibres (GM) without any additional electrolyte supplementation. After 14 days on each diet, horses performed a 60 km treadmill exercise test. Sweat was collected from sealed pouches on the dorsal thorax after each of four 15 km exercise bouts. Intake (g/day) of Na (2.5 ± 0.4), Cl (72 ± 16), and Mg (18 ± 3) were not different between diets but K and Ca intakes (g/day) were greater (P sweat pH (7.65 ± 0.04) or concentrations (mmol/l) of K (46 ± 3), Cl (133 ± 7), Ca (8.5 ± 1.1), or Mg (2.3 ± 0.3); yet diet did influence sweat Na concentration (P sweat constituents due to diet were observed, but more importantly both Na and Cl concentration are lower than those previously reported perhaps due to low dietary Na intake or breed of animal. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Hydration profile and sweat loss perception of male and female division II basketball players during practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Lauren K; Green, James M; OʼNeal, Eric K

    2014-12-01

    Hydration affects multiple aspects of basketball performance, but few investigations have examined the hydration profiles of collegiate basketball players. We examined multiday prepractice hydration status of 11 male and 11 female NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division II basketball players' sweat losses, fluid intake, and how accurately players estimated their sweat losses. Urine-specific gravity (USG) was spontaneously assessed before 2 practices. Sweat losses and fluid intakes were measured during a conditioning practice (CP) and sport-specific practice (SP). After practices, players filled 1,030 ml practice bottles to estimate their sweat losses. Urine-specific gravity between practices exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.54; p = 0.012) and were consistently high (17% of samples = USG >1.030) with no difference in mean USG between men (1.026 ± 0.004) and women (1.022 ± 0.008). Athletes' estimations of their sweat loss volumes between CP and the longer SP were strongly correlated (r = 0.88; p < 0.001). Estimation error was high (absolute error for both practices = 71 ± 52%) and error direction varied greatly within men. Women consistently underestimated sweat losses by 63 ± 28% and 65 ± 20% during CP and SP. Sweat losses during SP equaled 2,471 ± 495 ml and 1,910 ± 441 ml for men and women, respectively, but high practice fluid intake limited body mass losses to 1.1 ± 0.6% by the end of practice. It is plausible that hypohydration is related to poor conceptualization of sweat losses. Simulating the methodology of this study could help identify chronically hypohydrated athletes and be used to educate on between-practice fluid needs.

  19. A COMPARATIVE HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE SWEAT GLAND OF CATTLE (B. INDICUS AND YAK (P. POEPHAGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Das

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yak and cattle are the species of different habitats, but are of the same genus Bos. In order to adapt to different habitats some changes may occur in cellular organizations, sweat gland morphology being one of the part of this cellular organization. The skin samples were collected from six adult nondescript male cattle and yak from five different anatomical regions viz., neck, dewlap, abdomen, back and prepuce. Sweat glands appeared tubular consisting of a secretary coil which was embedded in the dermis in cattle. In yak, the glands were saccular in the neck and dewlap regions and tubular in other regions. The sweat gland number (1729±3.44 in cattle was almost three times higher (P<0.01 than yak (615.82±3.44.Highest number of sweat gland population was found in back (1563.24±5.44 and lowest in abdomen (900.26±5.44 in both the species. Descending order of sweat gland number was detected in dewlap, neck and prepuce respectively in both the species. In cattle the sweat gland diameter was significantly (32.78±0.38 µm higher as compared to yak (27.68±0.38 ìm. The sweat gland number and nuclear diameter in cattle was more than yak. Acidophilic secretory granules of the glands were numerous in the supra-nuclear cytoplasm in case of cattle. These results suggest the hyper activity of sweat gland in controlling the thermo dynamics in cattle as compared to yak.

  20. Wearable Sensor System Powered by a Biofuel Cell for Detection of Lactate Levels in Sweat (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    lactate dehydrogenase; energy harvester (EH); micropotentiostat (MP) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF...Band-Aid like RFID sensor patches and temporary tattoo-based sensors have been developed for electrolyte and lactate sensing in sweat as part of on...2008. ISABEL’08. First International Symposium on. 2008. IEEE. 27. D. P. Rose et al., “Adhesive RFID sensor patch for monitoring of sweat electrolytes

  1. Does Replacing Sodium Excreted in Sweat Attenuate the Health Benefits of Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin J; Avolio, Alberto P

    2016-08-01

    International guidelines suggest limiting sodium intake to 86-100 mmol/day, but average intake exceeds 150 mmol/day. Participants in physical activities are, however, advised to increase sodium intake before, during and after exercise to ensure euhydration, replace sodium lost in sweat, speed rehydration and maintain performance. A similar range of health benefits is attributable to exercise and to reduction in sodium intake, including reductions in blood pressure (BP) and the increase of BP with age, reduced risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, and reduced risk of osteoporosis and dementia. Sweat typically contains 40-60 mmol/L of sodium, leading to approximately 20-90 mmol of sodium lost in one exercise session with sweat rates of 0.5-1.5 L/h. Reductions in sodium intake of 20-90 mmol/day have been associated with substantial health benefits. Homeostatic systems reduce sweat sodium as low as 3-10 mmol/L to prevent excessive sodium loss. "Salty sweaters" may be individuals with high sodium intake who perpetuate their "salty sweat" condition by continual replacement of sodium excreted in sweat. Studies of prolonged high intensity exercise in hot environments suggest that sodium supplementation is not necessary to prevent hyponatremia during exercise lasting up to 6 hr. We examine the novel hypothesis that sodium excreted in sweat during physical activity offsets a significant fraction of excess dietary sodium, and hence may contribute part of the health benefits of exercise. Replacing sodium lost in sweat during exercise may improve physical performance, but may attenuate the long-term health benefits of exercise.

  2. Thin, Soft, Skin-Mounted Microfluidic Networks with Capillary Bursting Valves for Chrono-Sampling of Sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungil; Kang, Daeshik; Han, Seungyong; Kim, Sung Bong; Rogers, John A

    2017-03-01

    Systems for time sequential capture of microliter volumes of sweat released from targeted regions of the skin offer the potential to enable analysis of temporal variations in electrolyte balance and biomarker concentration throughout a period of interest. Current methods that rely on absorbent pads taped to the skin do not offer the ease of use in sweat capture needed for quantitative tracking; emerging classes of electronic wearable sweat analysis systems do not directly manage sweat-induced fluid flows for sample isolation. Here, a thin, soft, "skin-like" microfluidic platform is introduced that bonds to the skin to allow for collection and storage of sweat in an interconnected set of microreservoirs. Pressure induced by the sweat glands drives flow through a network of microchannels that incorporates capillary bursting valves designed to open at different pressures, for the purpose of passively guiding sweat through the system in sequential fashion. A representative device recovers 1.8 µL volumes of sweat each from 0.8 min of sweating into a set of separate microreservoirs, collected from 0.03 cm 2 area of skin with approximately five glands, corresponding to a sweat rate of 0.60 µL min -1 per gland. Human studies demonstrate applications in the accurate chemical analysis of lactate, sodium, and potassium concentrations and their temporal variations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Sixty-five years since the New York heat wave: advances in sweat testing for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Jake T B; Massie, R John; Jones, Oliver A H; LeGrys, Vicky A; Greaves, Ronda F

    2014-02-01

    The sweat test remains important as a diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis (CF) and has contributed greatly to our understanding of CF as a disease of epithelial electrolyte transport. The standardization of the sweat test, by Gibson and Cooke [Gibson and Cooke (1959) Pediatrics 1959;23:5], followed observations of excessive dehydration amongst patients with CF and confirmed the utility as a diagnostic test. Quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis remains the gold standard for sweat induction, but there are a number of collection and analytical methods. The pathophysiology of electrolyte transport in sweat was described by Quinton [Quinton (1983) Nature 1983;301:421-422], and this complemented the developments in genetics that discovered the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an epithelial-based electrolyte transport protein. Knowledge of CF has since increased rapidly and further developments in sweat testing include: new collection methods, further standardization of the technique with international recommendations and age related reference intervals. More recently, sweat chloride values have been used as proof of effect for the new drugs that activate CFTR. However, there remain issues with adherence to sweat test guidelines in many countries and there are gaps in our knowledge, including reference intervals for some age groups and stability of sweat samples in transport. Furthermore, modern methods of elemental quantification need to be explored as alternatives to the original analytical methods for sweat electrolyte measurement. The purpose of this review is therefore to describe the development of the sweat test and consider future directions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. African bees to control African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  5. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process.

  6. African bees to control African elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Fritz; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2002-11-01

    Numbers of elephants have declined in Africa and Asia over the past 30 years while numbers of humans have increased, both substantially. Friction between these two keystone species is reaching levels which are worryingly high from an ecological as well as a political viewpoint. Ways and means must be found to keep the two apart, at least in areas sensitive to each species' survival. The aggressive African bee might be one such method. Here we demonstrate that African bees deter elephants from damaging the vegetation and trees which house their hives. We argue that bees can be employed profitably to protect not only selected trees, but also selected areas, from elephant damage.

  7. Association between pulse wave velocity and hot flashes/sweats in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruwei; Zhou, Yang; Li, Changbin; Tao, Minfang

    2017-10-23

    As women age and go through menopause, they suffer a higher incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that a relationship exists between hot flashes/sweats and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the association between hot flashes/sweats and arterial stiffness is unclear. We aim to explore the relationship between hot flashes/sweats and arterial stiffness using the modified Kupperman index (KMI) questionnaire and measure the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). The prevalence of hot flashes in our research was reported to be 41.77%. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean baPWV among groups that experienced different severities of hot flashes/sweats according to one-way ANOVA test (p hot flashes/sweats based on linear regression after adjusting for established cardiovascular confounders (95% CI: (5.86, 43.23), p = 0.01). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation to propose that baPWV may serve both as an objective index for evaluating the severity of hot flashes/sweats and as a predictor of arterial stiffness beyond Cardiac Vascular Disease (CVD) risk factors in middle-aged women.

  8. A soft, wearable microfluidic device for the capture, storage, and colorimetric sensing of sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ahyeon; Kang, Daeshik; Xue, Yeguang; Lee, Seungmin; Pielak, Rafal M; Kim, Jeonghyun; Hwang, Taehwan; Min, Seunghwan; Banks, Anthony; Bastien, Philippe; Manco, Megan C; Wang, Liang; Ammann, Kaitlyn R; Jang, Kyung-In; Won, Phillip; Han, Seungyong; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Paik, Ungyu; Slepian, Marvin J; Balooch, Guive; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2016-11-23

    Capabilities in health monitoring enabled by capture and quantitative chemical analysis of sweat could complement, or potentially obviate the need for, approaches based on sporadic assessment of blood samples. Established sweat monitoring technologies use simple fabric swatches and are limited to basic analysis in controlled laboratory or hospital settings. We present a collection of materials and device designs for soft, flexible, and stretchable microfluidic systems, including embodiments that integrate wireless communication electronics, which can intimately and robustly bond to the surface of the skin without chemical and mechanical irritation. This integration defines access points for a small set of sweat glands such that perspiration spontaneously initiates routing of sweat through a microfluidic network and set of reservoirs. Embedded chemical analyses respond in colorimetric fashion to markers such as chloride and hydronium ions, glucose, and lactate. Wireless interfaces to digital image capture hardware serve as a means for quantitation. Human studies demonstrated the functionality of this microfluidic device during fitness cycling in a controlled environment and during long-distance bicycle racing in arid, outdoor conditions. The results include quantitative values for sweat rate, total sweat loss, pH, and concentration of chloride and lactate. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Estimation of sweat rates during cycling exercise by means of the closed chamber condenser technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, P; Clijsen, R; Barel, A O; Schouteden, R; van Olst, B; Aerenhouts, D

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge of local sweating patterns is of importance in occupational and exercise physiology settings. The recently developed closed chamber condenser technology (Biox Aquaflux ® ) allows the measurement of evaporative skin water loss with a greater measurement capacity (up to 1325 g/h/m 2 ) compared to traditional evaporimeters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the Biox Aquaflux ® to estimate sweat production during exercise. Fourteen healthy subjects performed a 20-min cycle ergometer trial at respectively 55% heart rate (HR reserve and 75% HR reserve . Sweat production was estimated by measuring body weight before and after exercise, by calculating the amount of sweat collected in a patch, and by measuring the water flux (in g/h/m 2 ) with the Biox Aquaflux ® instrument. The Biox Aquaflux ® instrument allowed the follow up of sweat kinetics at both intensities. Correlations between the measurement methods were all significant for the 75% HR reserve trial (with r ranging from 0.68 to 0.76) whilst for the 55% HR reserve a significant relation was detected between the patch method and the Biox Aquaflux ® only (with r ranging from 0.41 to 0.79). The Biox Aquaflux ® instrument is a practical and direct method for the estimation of local sweat rates under field conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Noninvasive monitoring of plasma L-dopa concentrations using sweat samples in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Makoto; Hirayama, Masaaki; Tsuda, Takao; Ohno, Kinji

    2015-03-10

    L-dopa (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is commonly used for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). However, regardless of its prominent effect, therapeutic range of L-dopa narrows down with disease progression, which leads to development of motor complications including wearing off and dyskinesias. In addition, intestinal absorption of L-dopa is inversely correlated with the amount of oral protein intake, and shows intra- and inter-day variability. Hence, frequent monitoring of plasma L-dopa concentrations is beneficial, but frequent venipuncture imposes physical and psychological burdens on patients with PD. We investigated the usefulness of sweat samples instead of plasma samples for monitoring L-dopa concentrations. With a monolithic silica disk-packed spin column and the high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection system, L-dopa in sweat samples was successfully quantified and analyzed in 23 PD patients. We found that the Pearson's correlation coefficient of the plasma and sweat l-dopa concentrations was 0.678. Although the disease durations and severities were not correlated with the deviation of the actual sweat L-dopa concentrations from the fitted line, acquisition of the sweat samples under a stable condition was technically difficult in severely affected patients. The deviations may also be partly accounted for by skin permeability of L-dopa. Measuring L-dopa concentrations in sweat is suitable to get further insights into the L-dopa metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Wearable/disposable sweat-based glucose monitoring device with multistage transdermal drug delivery module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjae; Song, Changyeong; Hong, Yong Seok; Kim, Min Sung; Cho, Hye Rim; Kang, Taegyu; Shin, Kwangsoo; Choi, Seung Hong; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical analysis of sweat using soft bioelectronics on human skin provides a new route for noninvasive glucose monitoring without painful blood collection. However, sweat-based glucose sensing still faces many challenges, such as difficulty in sweat collection, activity variation of glucose oxidase due to lactic acid secretion and ambient temperature changes, and delamination of the enzyme when exposed to mechanical friction and skin deformation. Precise point-of-care therapy in response to the measured glucose levels is still very challenging. We present a wearable/disposable sweat-based glucose monitoring device integrated with a feedback transdermal drug delivery module. Careful multilayer patch design and miniaturization of sensors increase the efficiency of the sweat collection and sensing process. Multimodal glucose sensing, as well as its real-time correction based on pH, temperature, and humidity measurements, maximizes the accuracy of the sensing. The minimal layout design of the same sensors also enables a strip-type disposable device. Drugs for the feedback transdermal therapy are loaded on two different temperature-responsive phase change nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are embedded in hyaluronic acid hydrogel microneedles, which are additionally coated with phase change materials. This enables multistage, spatially patterned, and precisely controlled drug release in response to the patient’s glucose level. The system provides a novel closed-loop solution for the noninvasive sweat-based management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:28345030

  12. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a noninvasive approach for cutaneous research[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Lauren A.; Foolad, Negar; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Sivamani, Raja K.; Newman, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques provide new opportunities to identify noninvasive biomarkers for the study of skin inflammation and repair. This study aims to characterize the lipid mediator profile including oxygenated lipids, endocannabinoids, and ceramides/sphingoid bases in sweat and identify differences in these profiles between sweat collected from nonlesional sites on the unflared volar forearm of subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Adapting routine procedures developed for plasma analysis, over 100 lipid mediators were profiled using LC-MS/MS and 58 lipid mediators were detected in sweat. Lipid mediator concentrations were not affected by sampling or storage conditions. Increases in concentrations of C30–C40 [NS] and [NdS] ceramides, and C18:1 sphingosine, were observed in the sweat of study participants with AD despite no differences being observed in transepidermal water loss between study groups, and this effect was strongest in men (P Sweat mediator profiling may therefore provide a noninvasive diagnostic for AD prior to the presentation of clinical signs. PMID:27875258

  13. Lack of harmonization in sweat testing for cystic fibrosis - a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Anne Lindegaard; Nybo, Mads

    2014-11-01

    Sweat testing is used in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Interpretation of the sweat test depends, however, on the method performed since conductivity, osmolality and chloride concentration all can be measured as part of a sweat test. The aim of this study was to investigate how performance of the test is organized in Denmark. Departments conducting the sweat test were contacted and interviewed following a premade questionnaire. They were asked about methods performed, applied NPU (Nomenclature for Properties and Units) code, reference interval, recommended interpretation and referred literature. 14 departments performed the sweat test. One department measured chloride and sodium concentration, while 13 departments measured conductivity. One department used a non-existing NPU code, two departments applied NPU codes inconsistent with the method performed, four departments applied no NPU code and seven applied a correct NPU code. Ten of the departments measuring conductivity applied reference intervals. Nine departments measuring conductivity had recommendations of a normal area, a grey zone and a pathological value, while four departments only applied a normal and grey zone or a pathological value. Cut-off values for normal, grey and pathological areas were like the reference intervals inconsistent. There is inconsistent use of NPU codes, reference intervals and interpretation of sweat conductivity used in the process of diagnosing cystic fibrosis. Because diagnosing cystic fibrosis is a combined effort between local pediatric departments, biochemical and genetic departments and cystic fibrosis centers, a national harmonization is necessary to assure correct clinical use.

  14. Stretchable, wireless sensors and functional substrates for epidermal characterization of sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian; Liu, Yuhao; Chen, Kaile; Shin, Woo-Jung; Lu, Ching-Jui; Kong, Gil-Woo; Patnaik, Dwipayan; Lee, Sang-Heon; Cortes, Jonathan Fajardo; Rogers, John A

    2014-08-13

    This paper introduces materials and architectures for ultrathin, stretchable wireless sensors that mount on functional elastomeric substrates for epidermal analysis of biofluids. Measurement of the volume and chemical properties of sweat via dielectric detection and colorimetry demonstrates some capabilities. Here, inductively coupled sensors consisting of LC resonators with capacitive electrodes show systematic responses to sweat collected in microporous substrates. Interrogation occurs through external coils placed in physical proximity to the devices. The substrates allow spontaneous sweat collection through capillary forces, without the need for complex microfluidic handling systems. Furthermore, colorimetric measurement modes are possible in the same system by introducing indicator compounds into the depths of the substrates, for sensing specific components (OH(-) , H(+) , Cu(+) , and Fe(2+) ) in the sweat. The complete devices offer Young's moduli that are similar to skin, thus allowing highly effective and reliable skin integration without external fixtures. Experimental results demonstrate volumetric measurement of sweat with an accuracy of 0.06 μL/mm(2) with good stability and low drift. Colorimetric responses to pH and concentrations of various ions provide capabilities relevant to analysis of sweat. Similar materials and device designs can be used in monitoring other body fluids. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Higher sweat chloride levels in patients with asthma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shally; Dixit, Pratibha; Maurya, Nutan

    2015-02-01

    To screen asthmatic patients by sweat chloride test to identify proportion with Cystic Fibrosis (CF); (Sweat chloride level >60 mmol/L). Also, to compare sweat chloride levels between cases of bronchial asthma and age and sex matched healthy children aged 5 mo-15 y. The present case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in India. Cases of bronchial asthma, diagnosed by GINA guideline 2008, and age matched healthy controls were included. Case to control ratio was 2:1. Sweat Chloride test was done by Pilocarpine Iontophoresis method. From April 2010 through May 2012, 216 asthmatics and 112 controls were recruited. Among asthmatics, there was no case of Cystic Fibrosis. Mean sweat chloride levels in asthmatics was 22.39 ± 8.45 mmol/L (inter-quartile range - 15-28 mmol/L) and in controls 19.55 ± 7.04 mmol/L (inter-quartile range - 15-23.5 mmol/L) (p value = 0.048). No Cystic Fibrosis case was identified among asthmatics. Mean sweat chloride levels were higher in asthmatics as compared to controls.

  16. Rate and composition of sweat fluid losses are unaltered by hypohydration during prolonged exercise in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, J K; Geor, R J; McCutcheon, L J

    1997-10-01

    Rate and ionic composition of sweat fluid losses and partitioning of evaporative heat loss into respiratory and cutaneous components were determined in six horses during three 15-km phases of exercise at approximately 40% of maximal O2 uptake. Pattern of change in sweat rate (SR) and composition was similar during each phase. SR increased rapidly for the first 20 min of exercise but remained at approximately 24-28 ml . m-2 . min-1 during the remainder of each phase. Similarly, the concentrations of Na and Cl in sweat increased until 30 min of exercise but were unchanged thereafter. Sweat osmolality and concentrations of Na and Cl were positively correlated with SR. Sweat K concentration decreased during exercise but was not correlated with SR. Fluid losses were 33.8 +/- 1.5 liters, resulting in decreases of approximately 21% in plasma volume and approximately 11% in total body water. The approximately 6% hypohydration was not associated with an alteration in SR, sweat composition, or heat storage. Respiratory and cutaneous evaporative heat loss represented approximately 23 and 70%, respectively, of the total heat dissipated, and the partitioning of heat loss was similar in each exercise phase. We conclude that SR and the relative proportions of respiratory and cutaneous evaporative heat loss are unchanged in horses during prolonged low-intensity exercise despite moderate hypohydration.

  17. A new paradigm in sweat based wearable diagnostics biosensors using Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munje, Rujuta D; Muthukumar, Sriram; Jagannath, Badrinath; Prasad, Shalini

    2017-05-16

    Successful commercialization of wearable diagnostic sensors necessitates stability in detection of analytes over prolonged and continuous exposure to sweat. Challenges are primarily in ensuring target disease specific small analytes (i.e. metabolites, proteins, etc.) stability in complex sweat buffer with varying pH levels and composition over time. We present a facile approach to address these challenges using RTILs with antibody functionalized sensors on nanoporous, flexible polymer membranes. Temporal studies were performed using both infrared spectroscopic, dynamic light scattering, and impedimetric spectroscopy to demonstrate stability in detection of analytes, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Cortisol, from human sweat in RTILs. Temporal stability in sensor performance was performed as follows: (a) detection of target analytes after 0, 24, 48, 96, and 168 hours post-antibody sensor functionalization; and (b) continuous detection of target analytes post-antibody sensor functionalization. Limit of detection of IL-6 in human sweat was 0.2 pg/mL for 0-24 hours and 2 pg/mL for 24-48 hours post-antibody sensor functionalization. Continuous detection of IL-6 over 0.2-200 pg/mL in human sweat was demonstrated for a period of 10 hours post-antibody sensor functionalization. Furthermore, combinatorial detection of IL-6 and Cortisol in human sweat was established with minimal cross-talk for 0-48 hours post-antibody sensor functionalization.

  18. Higher sweating rate and skin blood flow during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haneul; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Shah, Nirali; Awali, Abdulaziz; Shah, Karan; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Yim, JongEun

    2014-10-01

    Evaporation by sweating is the most effective way to remove heat from the body. Sweat rates increase under both local and whole-body heat stress. Men and women differ in how they respond to heat, because sexual steroids alter resting body core temperature and the threshold for sweating and skin blood flow (SBF) during heating. The purpose of the present study was to compare local sweat rates and cutaneous vasodilatation during heat exposure in women with a regular menstrual cycle. The cutaneous vasodilatation was judged by measuring the SBF. Eight female and nine male subjects participated in this study, and their age range was 24-29 years. Female subjects were tested twice throughout one full menstrual cycle: once during the middle follicular phases and once during the luteal phase. Subjects remained in a temperature-regulated room at 41°C and 21% of relative humidity for 40 minutes. Sweat rate was recorded from the forehead, forearm, and thigh, and skin temperature and SBF were measured on the thigh and forehead. We found that the sweating rate and SBF were greater in the luteal phase compared to follicular phase (p0.05). We propose the enhanced sympathetic activity in the luteal phase with a regular menstrual cycle.

  19. Control of sweating in man after work-induced thermal load and symmetrically applied cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heising, M; Werner, J

    1987-01-01

    To examine the compensatory effects of work-induced thermal load and symmetrically applied local cooling on local sweat rates, two kinds of experiment were carried out on eight male subjects in a climatic chamber: 1) Experiments at 36 degrees C ambient temperature with a work load of about 25 W by the right leg. 2) Experiments at 36 degrees C ambient temperature with a work load of about 25 W by the right leg as in 1., but with additional compensatory cooling of the left leg controlled throughout by heat balance calculations at 75-85 W, equal to the heat produced in the working leg, the necessary air temperature being dependent on local sweat rate. Work load without cooling brought about a significant increase in core temperatures, metabolism, heart rate and local sweat rates. With unchanged local skin temperatures local sweat rate increase was higher in the working leg. Therefore the existence of muscle thermoreceptors should be assumed, the afferent information from which is processed and weighted in a different way to that provided by skin receptors. Work load combined with additional cooling reduced local and mean skin temperatures and heart rate, but had no significant influence on core temperature or metabolism. However, local sweat rate was generally lower in both thighs, with a major reduction in the cooled leg confirming control of local sweat rate by local temperature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Normative data on regional sweat-sodium concentrations of professional male team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Tiller, Nicholas B; Ramchandani, Girish; Jutley, Raj; Blow, Andrew; Tye, Jonny; Drury, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report normative data on regional sweat sweat-sodium concentrations of various professional male team-sport athletes, and to compare sweat-sodium concentrations among sports. Data to this effect would inform our understanding of athlete sodium requirements, thus allowing for the individualisation of sodium replacement strategies. Accordingly, data from 696 athletes (Soccer, n = 270; Rugby, n = 181; Baseball, n = 133; American Football, n = 60; Basketball, n = 52) were compiled for a retrospective analysis. Regional sweat-sodium concentrations were collected using the pilocarpine iontophoresis method, and compared to self-reported measures collected via questionnaire. Sweat-sodium concentrations were significantly higher (p sports. There were strong positive correlations between sweat-sodium concentrations and self-reported sodium losses in American football (rs = 0.962, p sports science/medicine practitioners in generating bespoke hydration and electrolyte-replacement strategies to meet the sodium demands of professional team-sport athletes. Moreover, these novel data suggest that self-reported measures of sodium loss might serve as an effective surrogate in the absence of direct measures; i.e., those which are more expensive or non-readily available.

  1. Maximum rate of sweat ions reabsorption during exercise with regional differences, sex, and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Hirose, Megumi; Konishi, Kana; Gerrett, Nicola; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Narihiko; Inoue, Yoshimitsu

    2017-07-01

    It is recently reported that determining sweat rate (SR) threshold for increasing galvanic skin conductance (GSC) would represent a maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption in sweat glands. We evaluate the maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption over skin regions, sex, and long-term exercise training by using the threshold analysis in the present study. Ten males (2 untrained, 4 sprinters, and 4 distance runners) and 12 females (5 untrained, 4 sprinters, and 3 distance runners) conducted graded cycling exercise for 45 min at low, middle, and high exercise intensities (heart rate 100-110, 120-130, and 140-150 beats/min, respectively) for 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively, at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity. Comparisons were made between males and females and among untrained individuals, distance runners, and sprinters on the back and forearm. SR threshold for increasing GSC on back was significantly higher than that of forearm (P sprinters showed higher SR threshold for increasing GSC than that of untrained subjects on back (P sprinters, respectively). These results suggest that the maximum sweat ion reabsorption rate on the back is higher than that of forearm without sex differences. Furthermore, exercise training in distance runners and sprinters improves the maximum sweat ion reabsorption rate on the back.

  2. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2013-03-07

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orchards with simple (honey bee only) and diverse (non-Apis bees present) bee communities. In orchards with non-Apis bees, the foraging behaviour of honey bees changed and the pollination effectiveness of a single honey bee visit was greater than in orchards where non-Apis bees were absent. This change translated to a greater proportion of fruit set in these orchards. Our field experiments show that increased pollinator diversity can synergistically increase pollination service, through species interactions that alter the behaviour and resulting functional quality of a dominant pollinator species. These results of functional synergy between species were supported by an additional controlled cage experiment with Osmia lignaria and Apis mellifera. Our findings highlight a largely unexplored facilitative component of the benefit of biodiversity to ecosystem services, and represent a way to improve pollinator-dependent crop yields in a sustainable manner.

  3. A simple and distinctive microbiota associated with honey bees and bumble bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Vincent G; Danforth, Bryan N; Minckley, Robert L; Rueppell, Olav; Tingek, Salim; Moran, Nancy A

    2011-02-01

    Specialized relationships with bacteria often allow animals to exploit a new diet by providing a novel set of metabolic capabilities. Bees are a monophyletic group of Hymenoptera that transitioned to a completely herbivorous diet from the carnivorous diet of their wasp ancestors. Recent culture-independent studies suggest that a set of distinctive bacterial species inhabits the gut of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Here we survey the gut microbiotae of diverse bee and wasp species to test whether acquisition of these bacteria was associated with the transition to herbivory in bees generally. We found that most bee species lack phylotypes that are the same or similar to those typical of A. mellifera, rejecting the hypothesis that this dietary transition was symbiont-dependent. The most common bacteria in solitary bee species are a widespread phylotype of Burkholderia and the pervasive insect associate, Wolbachia. In contrast, several social representatives of corbiculate bees do possess distinctive bacterial phylotypes. Samples of A. mellifera harboured the same microbiota as in previous surveys, and closely related bacterial phylotypes were identified in two Asian honey bees (Apis andreniformis and Apis dorsata) and several bumble bee (Bombus) species. Potentially, the sociality of Apis and Bombus species facilitates symbiont transmission and thus is key to the maintenance of a more consistent gut microbiota. Phylogenetic analyses provide a more refined taxonomic placement of the A. mellifera symbionts. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. BEE VENOM TRAP DESIGN OF APIS MELLIFERA L. AND APIS CERANA F. HONEY BEES

    OpenAIRE

    Budiaman

    2015-01-01

    The nectar and pollen of flowers which are abundance have not been taken into account for any purpose in forest, agriculture and plantation area. Honey bees such as Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. had known as biological pollinators which could converted the flower components to be high economy products in the forms of honey, royal jelly, propolis, bee wax and bee venom. Among the products, bee venom has the best selling value, but the method of it???s optimal production has not been ext...

  5. Why do leafcutter bees cut leaves? New insights into the early evolution of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Jessica R; Danforth, Bryan N; Eardley, Connal D; Praz, Christophe J

    2011-12-07

    Stark contrasts in clade species diversity are reported across the tree of life and are especially conspicuous when observed in closely related lineages. The explanation for such disparity has often been attributed to the evolution of key innovations that facilitate colonization of new ecological niches. The factors underlying diversification in bees remain poorly explored. Bees are thought to have originated from apoid wasps during the Mid-Cretaceous, a period that coincides with the appearance of angiosperm eudicot pollen grains in the fossil record. The reliance of bees on angiosperm pollen and their fundamental role as angiosperm pollinators have contributed to the idea that both groups may have undergone simultaneous radiations. We demonstrate that one key innovation--the inclusion of foreign material in nest construction--underlies both a massive range expansion and a significant increase in the rate of diversification within the second largest bee family, Megachilidae. Basal clades within the family are restricted to deserts and exhibit plesiomorphic features rarely observed among modern bees, but prevalent among apoid wasps. Our results suggest that early bees inherited a suite of behavioural traits that acted as powerful evolutionary constraints. While the transition to pollen as a larval food source opened an enormous ecological niche for the early bees, the exploitation of this niche and the subsequent diversification of bees only became possible after bees had evolved adaptations to overcome these constraints.

  6. Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundlöf, Maj; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Fries, Ingemar; Hederström, Veronica; Herbertsson, Lina; Jonsson, Ove; Klatt, Björn K; Pedersen, Thorsten R; Yourstone, Johanna; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has therefore introduced a moratorium on three neonicotinoids as seed coatings in flowering crops that attract bees. The moratorium has been criticized for being based on weak evidence, particularly because effects have mostly been measured on bees that have been artificially fed neonicotinoids. Thus, the key question is how neonicotinoids influence bees, and wild bees in particular, in real-world agricultural landscapes. Here we show that a commonly used insecticide seed coating in a flowering crop can have serious consequences for wild bees. In a study with replicated and matched landscapes, we found that seed coating with Elado, an insecticide containing a combination of the neonicotinoid clothianidin and the non-systemic pyrethroid β-cyfluthrin, applied to oilseed rape seeds, reduced wild bee density, solitary bee nesting, and bumblebee colony growth and reproduction under field conditions. Hence, such insecticidal use can pose a substantial risk to wild bees in agricultural landscapes, and the contribution of pesticides to the global decline of wild bees may have been underestimated. The lack of a significant response in honeybee colonies suggests that reported pesticide effects on honeybees cannot always be extrapolated to wild bees.

  7. New functions and applications of walter, the sweating fabric manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jintu; Qian, Xiaoming

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, latest developments on Walter, a sweating fabric manikin, are reported. These include the improved simulation of "walking motion", the design and construction of an automated water supply, and real-time measurement of evaporative water loss and regulation of "skin" temperature through the regulation of the pumps inside the manikin body. Testing of commercial garment ensembles showed that the measurement of thermal insulation and moisture-vapour resistance of clothing is very reproducible with the coefficient of variation being generally less than 5%. It was also shown that, in addition to the thermal insulation and moisture-vapour resistance, the percentage of moisture accumulation within clothing is a very useful parameter of clothing comfort. The improved manikin has been used to investigate the effects of walking motion on thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of clothing. The trend of the effects of walking speed up to 1.13 m s(-1) for the nude manikin and when it was wearing garments of different sizes are reported.

  8. Corrosion Performance of Cu-Based Coins in Artificial Sweat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Porcayo-Calderon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of different Cu-based coins in artificial sweat was evaluated. The electrochemical behavior of the coins was determined by potentiodynamic polarization curves, linear polarization resistance, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Regardless of the chemical composition of the Cu-based coins, they showed similar polarization curves; particularly, the observed similarity in the anodic zone suggests that the corrosion mechanism is the same in all cases. The presence of Ni and Zn does not appreciably affect the corrosion resistance of Cu. However, the presence of both elements affects the corrosion resistance of Cu. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed the presence of three time constants with very similar characteristics, again indicating that the main corrosion mechanism is the same in all cases. Equivalent circuits confirmed that the corrosion performance of the Ni-Zn-Cu coins depends on the Zn/Ni ratio, such that decreasing this value decreases the corrosion resistance of the alloy. In general, nickel has a detrimental effect due to the formation of highly soluble Ni-based corrosion products.

  9. Sweat Facilitated Amino Acid Losses in Male Athletes during Exercise at 32-34°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, R Hugh; Sparkes, Diane L; Dascombe, Benjamin J; Macdonald, Margaret M; Evans, Craig A; Stevens, Christopher J; Crompton, Marcus J; Gottfries, Johan; Franks, Jesse; Murphy, Grace; Wood, Ryan; Roberts, Timothy K

    2016-01-01

    Sweat contains amino acids and electrolytes derived from plasma and athletes can lose 1-2L of sweat per hour during exercise. Sweat may also contain contributions of amino acids as well as urea, sodium and potassium from the natural moisturizing factors (NMF) produced in the stratum corneum. In preliminary experiments, one participant was tested on three separate occasions to compare sweat composition with surface water washings from the same area of skin to assess contributions from NMF. Two participants performed a 40 minute self-paced cycle session with sweat collected from cleansed skin at regular intervals to assess the contributions to the sweat load from NMF over the period of exercise. The main study investigated sweat amino acid composition collected from nineteen male athletes following standardised endurance exercise regimes at 32-34°C and 20-30% RH. Plasma was also collected from ten of the athletes to compare sweat and plasma composition of amino acids. The amino acid profiles of the skin washings were similar to the sweat, suggesting that the NMF could contribute certain amino acids into sweat. Since the sweat collected from athletes contained some amino acid contributions from the skin, this fluid was subsequently referred to as "faux" sweat. Samples taken over 40 minutes of exercise showed that these contributions diminished over time and were minimal at 35 minutes. In the main study, the faux sweat samples collected from the athletes with minimal NMF contributions, were characterised by relatively high levels of serine, histidine, ornithine, glycine and alanine compared with the corresponding levels measured in the plasma. Aspartic acid was detected in faux sweat but not in the plasma. Glutamine and proline were lower in the faux sweat than plasma in all the athletes. Three phenotypic groups of athletes were defined based on faux sweat volumes and composition profiles of amino acids with varying relative abundances of histidine, serine, glycine

  10. Sweat Facilitated Amino Acid Losses in Male Athletes during Exercise at 32-34°C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Hugh Dunstan

    Full Text Available Sweat contains amino acids and electrolytes derived from plasma and athletes can lose 1-2L of sweat per hour during exercise. Sweat may also contain contributions of amino acids as well as urea, sodium and potassium from the natural moisturizing factors (NMF produced in the stratum corneum. In preliminary experiments, one participant was tested on three separate occasions to compare sweat composition with surface water washings from the same area of skin to assess contributions from NMF. Two participants performed a 40 minute self-paced cycle session with sweat collected from cleansed skin at regular intervals to assess the contributions to the sweat load from NMF over the period of exercise. The main study investigated sweat amino acid composition collected from nineteen male athletes following standardised endurance exercise regimes at 32-34°C and 20-30% RH. Plasma was also collected from ten of the athletes to compare sweat and plasma composition of amino acids. The amino acid profiles of the skin washings were similar to the sweat, suggesting that the NMF could contribute certain amino acids into sweat. Since the sweat collected from athletes contained some amino acid contributions from the skin, this fluid was subsequently referred to as "faux" sweat. Samples taken over 40 minutes of exercise showed that these contributions diminished over time and were minimal at 35 minutes. In the main study, the faux sweat samples collected from the athletes with minimal NMF contributions, were characterised by relatively high levels of serine, histidine, ornithine, glycine and alanine compared with the corresponding levels measured in the plasma. Aspartic acid was detected in faux sweat but not in the plasma. Glutamine and proline were lower in the faux sweat than plasma in all the athletes. Three phenotypic groups of athletes were defined based on faux sweat volumes and composition profiles of amino acids with varying relative abundances of histidine

  11. Phasmida (by Waitress for the Bees)

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, E.

    2016-01-01

    "Phasmida" by Waitress for the Bees Starring: Alex, Alfred, Amity, Aubrey, Dylan, Emma, Holly, James, Madeline, Mireille and Reuben. Video by Owen Benson. Music, concept and choreography by Emma Hooper (WFTB).

  12. Variability of sweat chloride concentration in subjects with cystic fibrosis and G551D mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, F; Le Camus, C; Davies, J C; Bilton, D; Milenković, D; De Boeck, K

    2017-01-01

    Sweat chloride concentration, a biomarker of CFTR function, is an appropriate outcome parameter in clinical trials aimed at correcting the basic CF defect. Although there is consensus on a cut-off value to diagnose CF, we have only limited information on the within subject variability of sweat chloride over time. Such information would be useful for sample size calculations in clinical trials. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed repeated sweat chloride values obtained in patients with G551D mutation(s) assigned to placebo in an ivacaftor interventional trial. In subjects with G551D at least 12years of age, a pilocarpine sweat test using Macroduct collector was taken on both arms at 8 time points over 48weeks. We explored 1062 pilocarpine sweat test values obtained in 78 placebo patients of the VX08-770-102 trial. Mean overall sweat chloride value (all patients, all tests, n=1062) was 100.8mmol/L (SD 12.7mmol/L). Using a multilevel mixed model, the between-subject standard deviation (SD) for sweat chloride was 8.9mmol/L (95% CI 7.4-10.6) and within-subject SD was 8.1mmol/L (95% CI 7.5-8.7). Limits of repeatability for repeat measurements were -19.7 to +21.6mmol/L using values from one arm, and -13.3 to 11.8mmol/L using mean of values obtained at 4 test occasions. Sample size calculations showed that the minimal treatment effect on sweat chloride concentration that can be demonstrated for a group of 5 patients is around 15mmol/L, using a cross-over design and combinations of 4 tests for each phase of the trial. Although the sweat test is considered a robust measure, sweat chloride measurements in patients with CF and a G551D mutation had an inherent biological variability that is higher than commonly considered. Further analyses of placebo group data are crucial to learn more about the natural variability of this outcome parameter. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Field-level sublethal effects of approved bee hive chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jennifer A; Hood, W Michael; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Delaplane, Keith S

    2013-01-01

    In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate) and Check Mite+ (coumaphos) and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals.

  14. Field-level sublethal effects of approved bee hive chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Berry

    Full Text Available In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate and Check Mite+ (coumaphos and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals.

  15. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...... conclude that although obese subjects have markedly reduced GH release and impaired IGF-I levels, sweat secretion rate is found to be normal....

  16. Association of sweat chloride concentration at time of diagnosis and CFTR genotype with mortality and cystic fibrosis phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Edward F; Velentgas, Priscilla; Swenson, Anna J; Goss, Christopher H

    2015-09-01

    The extent to which sweat chloride concentration predicts survival and clinical phenotype independently of CFTR genotype in cystic fibrosis is not well understood. We analyzed the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry data using Cox regression to examine the relationship between sweat chloride concentration (sweat chloride, CFTR genotype, and measures of lung function and growth. When included in the same model, CFTR genotype, but not sweat chloride, was independently associated with survival and with lung function, height, and BMI. Among patients with unclassified CFTR genotype, sweat chloride was an independent predictor of survival (Sweat chloride concentration may be a useful predictor of mortality and clinical phenotype when CFTR genotype functional class is unclassified. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increase in dermcidin-derived peptides in sweat of patients with atopic eczema caused by a humorous video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Dermcidin (DCD)-derived peptide is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the sweat glands. However, the levels of DCD-derived peptide in sweat were decreased in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The effect of viewing a humorous video on the levels of DCD-derived peptide was studied. Twenty patients with AE viewed an 87-min humorous video (Modern Times, featuring Charlie Chaplin). Just before and immediately after viewing, sweat was collected, and the levels of DCD-derived peptide and total protein in sweat were measured. Viewing a humorous video increased the levels of DCD-derived peptide without affecting the levels of total protein in sweat. Viewing a humorous video increased DCD-derived peptide in sweat of patients with AE, and thus, it may be helpful in the treatment of skin infection of AE.

  18. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev; Pawel Olczyk; Justyna Kaźmierczak; Lukasz Mencner; Krystyna Olczyk

    2015-01-01

    Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition ha...

  19. Bee products as natural compounds in cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, André; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Sousa, Maria João

    2012-01-01

    Since ancient times, among the Greeks, the Egyptians and later the Romans, honey and other different bee products were considered essential for health and well-being. The ancient Greek society used them widely in medicine, and later associate them with the concept of wellness and feminine beauty, in what can be considered the embryo of modern day cosmetics. Most bee products can be consumed, or used in its original format, but there are many additional applications when these prod...

  20. Chalkbrood disease in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, K A; Murray, K D

    2010-01-01

    Chalkbrood is a fungal disease of honey bee brood caused by Ascosphaera apis. This disease is now found throughout the world, and there are indications that chalkbrood incidence may be on the rise. In this review we consolidate both historic knowledge and recent scientific findings. We document the worldwide spread of the fungus, which is aided by increased global travel and the migratory nature of many beekeeping operations. We discuss the current taxonomic classification in light of the recent complete reworking of fungal systematics brought on by application of molecular methods. In addition, we discuss epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease, as well as pathogen biology, morphology and reproduction. New attempts at disease control methods and management tactics are reviewed. We report on research tools developed for identification and monitoring, and also include recent findings on genomic and molecular studies not covered by previous reviews, including sequencing of the A. apis genome and identification of the mating type locus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. How bees distinguish black from white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Bee eyes have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by reflected white but not by black. With ultraviolet reflections excluded by the apparatus, bees can learn to distinguish between black, gray, and white, but theories of color vision are clearly of no help in explaining how they succeed. Human vision sidesteps the issue by constructing black and white in the brain. Bees have quite different and accessible mechanisms. As revealed by extensive tests of trained bees, bees learned two strong signals displayed on either target. The first input was the position and a measure of the green receptor modulation at the vertical edges of a black area, which included a measure of the angular width between the edges of black. They also learned the average position and total amount of blue reflected from white areas. These two inputs were sufficient to help decide which of two targets held the reward of sugar solution, but the bees cared nothing for the black or white as colors, or the direction of contrast at black/white edges. These findings provide a small step toward understanding, modeling, and implementing in silicon the anti-intuitive visual system of the honeybee, in feeding behavior. Keywords: vision, detectors, black/white, color, visual processing

  2. [Immunotherapy in patients allergic to bee venom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Martin Becerril

    2010-01-01

    to review the main features about honey-bee venom desensitization in patients with adverse reactions to honey-bee stings. a non-systematic search was performed in the main internet medical data base looking for relevant papers related to honeybee venom allergy, patients' selection for honey-bee venom immunotherapy (HBVIT), the most effective immunotherapy, the time of application and the protection obtained by HBVIT. of a total of 1,656 articles found, 18 documents were selected and revised, with the following findings: the HBVIT is indicated in patients with a clinical history and diagnostic confirmatory tests of allergy to bee venom and with the knowledge of the natural history of the disease. The protection against systemic reactions caused by new bee stings using HBVIT is over 90%. It is advisible to apply HBVIT for continuos periods of 5 years in order to develop a long-lasting immunologic tolerance. HBVIT has well defined clinical indications, and its adequate application offers protection in the long term against new bee stings.

  3. Epidermal Microfluidic Electrochemical Detection System: Enhanced Sweat Sampling and Metabolite Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Aida; Kim, Jayoung; Kurniawan, Jonas F; Sempionatto, Juliane R; Moreto, Jose R; Tang, Guangda; Campbell, Alan S; Shin, Andrew; Lee, Min Yul; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Joseph

    2017-12-22

    Despite tremendous recent efforts, noninvasive sweat monitoring is still far from delivering its early analytical promise. Here, we describe a flexible epidermal microfluidic detection platform fabricated through hybridization of lithographic and screen-printed technologies, for efficient and fast sweat sampling and continuous, real-time electrochemical monitoring of glucose and lactate levels. This soft, skin-mounted device judiciously merges lab-on-a-chip and electrochemical detection technologies, integrated with a miniaturized flexible electronic board for real-time wireless data transmission to a mobile device. Modeling of the device design and sweat flow conditions allowed optimization of the sampling process and the microchannel layout for achieving attractive fluid dynamics and rapid filling of the detection reservoir (within 8 min from starting exercise). The wearable microdevice thus enabled efficient natural sweat pumping to the electrochemical detection chamber containing the enzyme-modified electrode transducers. The fabricated device can be easily mounted on the epidermis without hindrance to the wearer and displays resiliency against continuous mechanical deformation expected from such epidermal wear. Amperometric biosensing of lactate and glucose from the rapidly generated sweat, using the corresponding immobilized oxidase enzymes, was wirelessly monitored during cycling activity of different healthy subjects. This ability to monitor sweat glucose levels introduces new possibilities for effective diabetes management, while similar lactate monitoring paves the way for new wearable fitness applications. The new epidermal microfluidic electrochemical detection strategy represents an attractive alternative to recently reported colorimetric sweat-monitoring methods, and hence holds considerable promise for practical fitness or health monitoring applications.

  4. Variability of measurements of sweat sodium using the regional absorbent-patch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Christine E; Ross, Megan L; Slater, Gary J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-09-01

    There is interest in including recommendations for the replacement of the sodium lost in sweat in individualized hydration plans for athletes. Although the regional absorbent-patch method provides a practical approach to measuring sweat sodium losses in field conditions, there is a need to understand the variability of estimates associated with this technique. Sweat samples were collected from the forearms, chest, scapula, and thigh of 12 cyclists during 2 standardized cycling time trials in the heat and 2 in temperate conditions. Single measure analysis of sodium concentration was conducted immediately by ion-selective electrodes (ISE). A subset of 30 samples was frozen for reanalysis of sodium concentration using ISE, flame photometry (FP), and conductivity (SC). Sweat samples collected in hot conditions produced higher sweat sodium concentrations than those from the temperate environment (P = .0032). A significant difference (P = .0048) in estimates of sweat sodium concentration was evident when calculated from the forearm average (mean ± 95% CL; 64 ± 12 mmol/L) compared with using a 4-site equation (70 ± 12 mmol/L). There was a high correlation between the values produced using different analytical techniques (r2 = .95), but mean values were different between treatments (frozen FP, frozen SC > immediate ISE > frozen ISE; P sweat sodium concentration estimates differed depending on the number of sites included in the calculation. Environmental testing conditions should be considered in the interpretation of results. The impact of sample freezing and subsequent analytical technique was small but statistically significant. Nevertheless, when undertaken using a standardized protocol, the regional absorbent-patch method appears to be a relatively robust field test.

  5. Long-term outcomes of children with intermediate sweat chloride values in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Tyler; Robinson, Paul; Wiley, Veronica; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2015-06-01

    To describe the clinical course of children who have intermediate sweat chloride values on initial screening for cystic fibrosis (CF). We performed a retrospective review of children with intermediate sweat chloride values (raised immunoreactive trypsinogen/1 copy of p.F508del CF mutation on newborn screening (NBS)/sweat chloride value of 30-59 mmol/L) presenting to The Children's Hospital at Westmead over 15 years. Patients with an intermediate sweat chloride evolving to a formal diagnosis of CF (termed "delayed CF") were matched (2:1) with NBS positive patients with CF (termed "NBS positive CF"). Clinical outcomes were compared. Fourteen of 29 (48%, 95% CI 0.3-0.66) patients with intermediate sweat chloride value evolved to a diagnosis of CF and were matched with 28 NBS positive patients with CF. Delayed CF had less pancreatic insufficiency (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.44, P = .006), less colonization with nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.38, P = .005), milder obstructive lung disease (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio), and overall disease severity (Shwachman scores) at 10 years (mean difference 5.93, 95% CI 0.39-11.46, P = .04; mean difference 4.72, 95% CI 0.9-8.53, P = .015, respectively). Nutritional outcomes were better at 2 years for delayed CF but did not persist to later ages. In this cohort, approximately one-half of infants with intermediate sweat chloride value were later diagnosed with CF. The clinical course of delayed CF was milder in some aspects compared with NBS positive CF. These results emphasize the importance of ongoing follow-up of infants with intermediate sweat chloride values. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bee Mite ID - an online resource on identification of mites associated with bees of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitic mites are known to be a factor in recent declines in bee pollinator populations. In particular, Varroa destructor, an introduced parasite and disease vector, has decimated colonies of the western honey bee, one of the most important agricultural pollinators in the world. Further, global tr...

  7. Bees without Flowers: Before Peak Bloom, Diverse Native Bees Find Insect-Produced Honeydew Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Joan M; Griswold, Terry L; Harris, David J; Ernest, S K Morgan

    2017-08-01

    Bee foragers respond to complex visual, olfactory, and extrasensory cues to optimize searches for floral rewards. Their abilities to detect and distinguish floral colors, shapes, volatiles, and ultraviolet signals and even gauge nectar availability from changes in floral humidity or electric fields are well studied. Bee foraging behaviors in the absence of floral cues, however, are rarely considered. We observed 42 species of wild bees visiting inconspicuous, nonflowering shrubs during early spring in a protected Mediterranean habitat. We determined experimentally that these bees were accessing sugary honeydew secretions from scale insects without the aid of standard cues. While honeydew use is known among some social Hymenoptera, its use across a diverse community of solitary bees is a novel observation. The widespread ability of native bees to locate and use unadvertised, nonfloral sugars suggests unappreciated sensory mechanisms and/or the existence of an interspecific foraging network among solitary bees that may influence how native bees cope with scarcity of floral resources and increasing environmental change.

  8. The mechanism of eccrine sweat pore plugging by aluminium salts using microfluidics combined with small angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretagne, Alice; Cotot, Franck; Arnaud-Roux, Mireille; Sztucki, Michael; Cabane, Bernard; Galey, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-05-24

    Aluminium salts are widely used to control sweating for personal hygiene purposes. Their mechanism of action as antiperspirants was previously thought to be a superficial plugging of eccrine sweat pores by the aluminium hydroxide gel. Here we present a microfluidic T junction device that mimics sweat ducts, and is designed for the real time study of interactions between sweat and ACH (Aluminium Chloro Hydrate) under conditions that lead to plug formation. We used this device to image and measure the diffusion of aluminium polycationic species in sweat counter flow. We report the results of small angle X-ray scattering experiments performed to determine the structure and composition of the plug, using BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin) as a model of sweat proteins. Our results show that pore occlusion occurs as a result of the aggregation of sweat proteins by aluminium polycations. Mapping of the device shows that this aggregation is initiated in the T junction at the location where the flow of aluminium polycations joins the flow of BSA. The mechanism involves two stages: (1) a nucleation stage in which aggregates of protein and polycations bind to the wall of the sweat duct and form a tenuous membrane, which extends across the junction; (2) a growth stage in which this membrane collects proteins that are carried by hydrodynamic flow in the sweat channel and polycations that diffuse into this channel. These results could open up perspectives to find new antiperspirant agents with an improved efficacy.

  9. Imidacloprid Alters Foraging and Decreases Bee Avoidance of Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Chen, Weiwen; Dong, Shihao; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Yuchong; Nieh, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb) imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana) showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera), to other important bee species. PMID:25025334

  10. Imidacloprid alters foraging and decreases bee avoidance of predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    Full Text Available Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera, to other important bee species.

  11. Country-specific effects of neonicotinoid pesticides on honey bees and wild bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, B A; Bullock, J M; Shore, R F; Heard, M S; Pereira, M G; Redhead, J; Ridding, L; Dean, H; Sleep, D; Henrys, P; Peyton, J; Hulmes, S; Hulmes, L; Sárospataki, M; Saure, C; Edwards, M; Genersch, E; Knäbe, S; Pywell, R F

    2017-06-30

    Neonicotinoid seed dressings have caused concern world-wide. We use large field experiments to assess the effects of neonicotinoid-treated crops on three bee species across three countries (Hungary, Germany, and the United Kingdom). Winter-sown oilseed rape was grown commercially with either seed coatings containing neonicotinoids (clothianidin or thiamethoxam) or no seed treatment (control). For honey bees, we found both negative (Hungary and United Kingdom) and positive (Germany) effects during crop flowering. In Hungary, negative effects on honey bees (associated with clothianidin) persisted over winter and resulted in smaller colonies in the following spring (24% declines). In wild bees ( Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis ), reproduction was negatively correlated with neonicotinoid residues. These findings point to neonicotinoids causing a reduced capacity of bee species to establish new populations in the year following exposure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  12. Latherin: a surfactant protein of horse sweat and saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona E McDonald

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Horses are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein. The amino acid sequence of latherin, determined from cDNA analysis, is highly conserved across four geographically dispersed equid species (horse, zebra, onager, ass, and is similar to a family of proteins only found previously in the oral cavity and associated tissues of mammals. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (< or = 1 mg ml(-1, and therefore probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a waterproofed pelt. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that this detergent-like activity is associated with the formation of a dense protein layer, about 10 A thick, at the air-water interface. However, biophysical characterization (circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry in solution shows that latherin behaves like a typical globular protein, although with unusual intrinsic fluorescence characteristics, suggesting that significant conformational change or unfolding of the protein is required for assembly of the air-water interfacial layer. RT-PCR screening revealed latherin transcripts in horse skin and salivary gland but in no other tissues. Recombinant latherin produced in bacteria was also found to be the target of IgE antibody from horse-allergic subjects. Equids therefore may have adapted an oral/salivary mucosal protein for two purposes peculiar to their lifestyle, namely their need for rapid and efficient heat dissipation and their specialisation for masticating and processing large quantities of dry food material.

  13. Native and Non-Native Supergeneralist Bee Species Have Different Effects on Plant-Bee Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Tereza C; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Acosta, Andre L; Silva, Juliana S; Maia, Kate P; Saraiva, Antonio M; Guimarães, Paulo R; Kleinert, Astrid M P

    2015-01-01

    Supergeneralists, defined as species that interact with multiple groups of species in ecological networks, can act as important connectors of otherwise disconnected species subsets. In Brazil, there are two supergeneralist bees: the honeybee Apis mellifera, a non-native species, and Trigona spinipes, a native stingless bee. We compared the role of both species and the effect of geographic and local factors on networks by addressing three questions: 1) Do both species have similar abundance and interaction patterns (degree and strength) in plant-bee networks? 2) Are both species equally influential to the network structure (nestedness, connectance, and plant and bee niche overlap)? 3) How are these species affected by geographic (altitude, temperature, precipitation) and local (natural vs. disturbed habitat) factors? We analyzed 21 plant-bee weighted interaction networks, encompassing most of the main biomes in Brazil. We found no significant difference between both species in abundance, in the number of plant species with which each bee species interacts (degree), and in the sum of their dependencies (strength). Structural equation models revealed the effect of A. mellifera and T. spinipes, respectively, on the interaction network pattern (nestedness) and in the similarity in bee's interactive partners (bee niche overlap). It is most likely that the recent invasion of A. mellifera resulted in its rapid settlement inside the core of species that retain the largest number of interactions, resulting in a strong influence on nestedness. However, the long-term interaction between native T. spinipes and other bees most likely has a more direct effect on their interactive behavior. Moreover, temperature negatively affected A. mellifera bees, whereas disturbed habitats positively affected T. spinipes. Conversely, precipitation showed no effect. Being positively (T. spinipes) or indifferently (A. mellifera) affected by disturbed habitats makes these species prone to

  14. Native and Non-Native Supergeneralist Bee Species Have Different Effects on Plant-Bee Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C Giannini

    Full Text Available Supergeneralists, defined as species that interact with multiple groups of species in ecological networks, can act as important connectors of otherwise disconnected species subsets. In Brazil, there are two supergeneralist bees: the honeybee Apis mellifera, a non-native species, and Trigona spinipes, a native stingless bee. We compared the role of both species and the effect of geographic and local factors on networks by addressing three questions: 1 Do both species have similar abundance and interaction patterns (degree and strength in plant-bee networks? 2 Are both species equally influential to the network structure (nestedness, connectance, and plant and bee niche overlap? 3 How are these species affected by geographic (altitude, temperature, precipitation and local (natural vs. disturbed habitat factors? We analyzed 21 plant-bee weighted interaction networks, encompassing most of the main biomes in Brazil. We found no significant difference between both species in abundance, in the number of plant species with which each bee species interacts (degree, and in the sum of their dependencies (strength. Structural equation models revealed the effect of A. mellifera and T. spinipes, respectively, on the interaction network pattern (nestedness and in the similarity in bee's interactive partners (bee niche overlap. It is most likely that the recent invasion of A. mellifera resulted in its rapid settlement inside the core of species that retain the largest number of interactions, resulting in a strong influence on nestedness. However, the long-term interaction between native T. spinipes and other bees most likely has a more direct effect on their interactive behavior. Moreover, temperature negatively affected A. mellifera bees, whereas disturbed habitats positively affected T. spinipes. Conversely, precipitation showed no effect. Being positively (T. spinipes or indifferently (A. mellifera affected by disturbed habitats makes these species prone to

  15. Skin pretreatment with microneedles prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis increases sweat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David; Prausnitz, Mark R; Buono, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Collection of sweat via pilocarpine iontophoresis is commonly used to diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF), with thousands of tests performed each day. The main source of resistance to the passage of pilocarpine ions to the sweat glands is the electrical resistance of the stratum corneum. It was hypothesized that pretreating the skin with 0·5 mm-long microneedles would significantly decrease this resistance, thus increasing pilocarpine's permeation into the skin. Improved permeation should result in significantly reduced time to sweat initiation, time to collection of a clinically meaningful amount of sweat, and increased total amount of sweat produced in 15 min. Subjects (n = 12) had two 5 cm(2) areas on the forearm measured, marked and randomized to experimental (microneedles + iontophoresis) or control (iontophoresis alone). Microneedle pretreatment was conducted using a 35-needle microneedle stamp in a manner that 20 applications completely covered the 5 cm(2) treatment area. This was repeated five times for a total of 100 applications. Both experimental and control sites were placed under iontophoresis (1·5 mA) for 5 min. Microneedle pretreatment significantly decreased mean skin resistance (260 ± 27 kΩ versus 160 ± 19 kΩ, P = 0·006), while significantly increasing mean sweat rate (0·76 ± 0·35 versus 0·54 ± 0·19 μl cm(2) min(-1) , P = 0·007). No significant difference was found concerning pain (P = 0·059), number of active sweat glands (P = 0·627) or the osmolality of the collected sweat (P = 0·636). The results of this study suggest that microneedle pretreatment prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis significantly increases sweat production. Such results have the potential to improve the methodology currently used to diagnose cystic fibrosis and, more broadly, to administer drugs via the skin. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Winter survival of individual honey bees and honey bee colonies depends on level of Varroa destructor infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coby van Dooremalen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to survive until the next spring. We investigated in two subsequent years the effects of different levels of V. destructor infestation during the transition from short-lived summer bees to long-lived winter bees on the lifespan of individual bees and the survival of bee colonies during winter. Colonies treated earlier in the season to reduce V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees were expected to have longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mite infestation was reduced using acaricide treatments during different months (July, August, September, or not treated. We found that the number of capped brood cells decreased drastically between August and November, while at the same time, the lifespan of the bees (marked cohorts increased indicating the transition to winter bees. Low V. destructor infestation levels before and during the transition to winter bees resulted in an increase in lifespan of bees and higher colony survival compared to colonies that were not treated and that had higher infestation levels. A variety of stress-related factors could have contributed to the variation in longevity and winter survival that we found between years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study contributes to theory about the multiple causes for the recent elevated colony losses in honey bees. Our study shows the correlation between long lifespan of winter bees and colony loss in spring. Moreover, we show that colonies treated earlier in the season had reduced V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees resulting in longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter.

  17. Sweat osmolarity shows intra-animal regional variation in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Samantha; Thatcher, Rhys; Jones, Arwel W; Warren, Lori K; Tenbroeck, Saundra H; Nottage, Florence; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-10-01

    Sweating is important in regulating body temperature but can be a source of loss of both fluids and electrolytes. Although the process has been studied in horses, the variation in sweat osmolarity across the body has not. This work describes an investigation to determine if there is regional variation in the osmolarity of sweat across different anatomical regions of the horse. Ten horses were used in the study and were animals either stabled for riding lessons or had livery on-site. Sweat samples were collected from five regions on each horse following exercise and the osmolarity measurements were made using an Osmomat 030 (Gonotec, Berlin, Germany). Values were analysed by paired t-tests and analysis of variance. Samples from the back and ears had statistically (P sweat collected from the horse's back. The current work demonstrates that these values are probably an underestimation of electrolyte loss, which may have implications for the composition and administration of rehydration compounds. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. Correlation of sweat chloride and percent predicted FEV1in cystic fibrosis patients treated with ivacaftor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Meredith C; Beusmans, Jack; Panorchan, Paul; Van Goor, Fredrick

    2017-01-01

    Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator that enhances chloride transport by acting directly on CFTR to increase its channel gating activity, has been evaluated in patients with different CFTR mutations. Several previous analyses have reported no statistical correlation between change from baseline in ppFEV 1 and reduction in sweat chloride levels for individuals treated with ivacaftor. The objective of the post hoc analysis described here was to expand upon previous analyses and evaluate the correlation between sweat chloride levels and absolute ppFEV 1 changes across multiple cohorts of patients with different CF-causing mutations who were treated with ivacaftor. The goal of the analysis was to help define the potential value of sweat chloride as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for use in CFTR modulator trials. For any given study, reductions in sweat chloride levels and improvements in absolute ppFEV 1 were not correlated for individual patients. However, when the data from all studies were combined, a statistically significant correlation between sweat chloride levels and ppFEV 1 changes was observed (psweat chloride level changes in response to potentiation of the CFTR protein by ivacaftor appear to be a predictive pharmacodynamic biomarker of lung function changes on a population basis but are unsuitable for the prediction of treatment benefits for individuals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Feasibility and normal values of an integrated conductivity (Nanoduct™) sweat test system in healthy newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Claudia E; Schindler, Matthias; Mazur, Agnieszka; Malzacher, Andreas; Hornung, René; Barben, Juerg

    2017-07-01

    Nanoduct™ is a simple and practical sweat analysis system measuring conductivity in situ. It requires only three microlitres of sweat, making it especially applicable to newborns. We measured conductivity in 260 healthy term infants at the age of four days, and again at four weeks to determine the proportion of successful tests, test duration, and normal values for sweat conductivity in newborns. Sufficient sweat was collected in 159/260 of four-day olds (61%), and in 225/239 of four-week olds (94%). Mean (sd) test duration was 27 (5) and 25 (5) min. Mean (sd, range) conductivity was 53mmol/l (16, 8-114) at age four days, and 36 (9, 12-64) at four weeks. Determination of sweat conductivity using Nanoduct™ cannot be recommended for four-day old newborns. However, at the age of four weeks the success rate is high (94%), and conductivity values at that age are comparable to older healthy children. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry and blushing (anger and happiness is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  1. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  2. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. PMID:25136663

  3. Predicting bee community responses to land-use changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, De Adriana; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Aizen, Marcelo A.; Albrecht, Matthias; Basset, Yves; Bates, Adam; Blake, Robin J.; Boutin, Céline; Bugter, Rob; Connop, Stuart; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Cunningham, Saul A.; Darvill, Ben; Diekötter, Tim; Dorn, Silvia; Downing, Nicola; Entling, Martin H.; Farwig, Nina; Felicioli, Antonio; Fonte, Steven J.; Fowler, Robert; Franzén, Markus; Goulson, Dave; Grass, Ingo; Hanley, Mick E.; Hendrix, Stephen D.; Herrmann, Farina; Herzog, Felix; Holzschuh, Andrea; Jauker, Birgit; Kessler, Michael; Knight, M.E.; Kruess, Andreas; Lavelle, Patrick; Féon, Le Violette; Lentini, Pia; Malone, Louise A.; Marshall, Jon; Pachón, Eliana Martínez; McFrederick, Quinn S.; Morales, Carolina L.; Mudri-Stojnic, Sonja; Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Nilsson, Sven G.; Öckinger, Erik; Osgathorpe, Lynne; Parra-H, Alejandro; Peres, Carlos A.; Persson, Anna S.; Petanidou, Theodora; Poveda, Katja; Power, Eileen F.; Quaranta, Marino; Quintero, Carolina; Rader, Romina; Richards, Miriam H.; Roulston, Tai; Rousseau, Laurent; Sadler, Jonathan P.; Samnegård, Ulrika; Schellhorn, Nancy A.; Schüepp, Christof; Schweiger, Oliver; Smith-Pardo, Allan H.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C.; Tonietto, Rebecca K.; Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Verboven, Hans A.F.; Vergara, Carlos H.; Verhulst, Jort; Westphal, Catrin; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Purvis, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Land-use change and intensification threaten bee populations worldwide, imperilling pollination services. Global models are needed to better characterise, project, and mitigate bees' responses to these human impacts. The available data are, however, geographically and taxonomically

  4. Late Onset of Acute Urticaria after Bee Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Asai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the cases of five patients with a late onset of acute urticaria after a bee sting. The ages of the five Japanese patients ranged from 33 to 86 years (median: 61. All patients had no history of an allergic reaction to bee stings. The onset of urticaria was 6–14 days (median: 10 after a bee sting. Although four of the patients did not describe experiencing a bee sting at their presentation, the subsequent examination detected anti-bee-specific IgE antibodies. So, we think a history of a bee sting should thus be part of the medical interview sheet for patients with acute urticaria, and an examination of IgE for bees may help prevent a severe bee-related anaphylactic reaction in the future.

  5. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    .... In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem...

  6. In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (∼50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ∼0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

  7. Exercise-induced trace mineral element concentration in regional versus whole-body wash-down sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Stofan, John R; Lukaski, Henry C; Horswill, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Simultaneous whole-body wash-down (WBW) and regional skin surface sweat collections were completed to compare regional patch and WBW sweat calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Athletes (4 men, 4 women) cycled in a plastic open-air chamber for 90 min in the heat. Before exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer (covered in plastic) were washed with deionized water. After the onset of sweating, sterile patches were attached to the forearm, back, chest, forehead, and thigh and removed on saturation. After exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer were washed with 5 L of 15-mM ammonium sulfate solution to collect all sweat minerals and determine the volume of unevaporated sweat. Control trials were performed to measure mineral contamination in regional and WBW methods. Because background contamination in the collection system was high for WBW Mn, Fe, and Zn, method comparisons were not made for these minerals. After correction for minimal background contamination, WBW sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 44.6 ± 20.0, 9.8 ± 4.8, and 0.125 ± 0.069 mg/L, respectively, and 5-site regional (weighted for local sweat rate and body surface area) sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 59.0 ± 15.9, 14.5 ± 4.8, and 0.166 ± 0.031 mg/L, respectively. Five-site regional [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] overestimated WBW by 32%, 48%, and 33%, respectively. No individual regional patch site or 5-site regional was significantly correlated with WBW sweat [Ca] (r = -.21, p = .65), [Mg] (r = .49, p = .33), or [Cu] (r = .17, p = .74). In conclusion, regional sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] are not accurate surrogates for or significantly correlated with WBW sweat composition.

  8. Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health

    OpenAIRE

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Borba, Renata S.; Wilson, Michael; Spivak, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are constantly dealing with threats from pathogens, pests, pesticides and poor nutrition. It is critically important to understand how honey bees? natural immune responses (individual immunity) and collective behavioral defenses (social immunity) can improve bee health and productivity. One form of social immunity in honey bee colonies is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and their use in the nest architecture as propolis. We review research on the const...

  9. Effects of short-term exercise in the heat on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and sweat composition of tropic-dwelling subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohamed; Sirisinghe, Roland Gamini; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term aerobic training program in a hot environment on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and composition in tropic-dwellers who have been exposed to passive heat. Sixteen healthy Malaysian-Malay male volunteers underwent heat acclimation (HA) by exercising on a bicycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max for 60 min each day in a hot environment (Ta: 31.1+/-0.1 degrees C, rh: 70.0+/-4.4%) for 14 days. All parameters mentioned above were recorded on Day 1 and at the end of HA (Day 16). On these two days, subjects rested for 10 min, then cycled at 60% of VO2max for 60 min and rested again for 20 min (recovery) in an improvised heat chamber. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk) heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), local sweat rate and percent dehydration were recorded during the test. Sweat concentration was analysed for sodium [Na+]sweat and potassium. Blood samples were analysed for biochemical changes, electrolytes and hematologic indices. Urine samples were collected before and after each test and analysed for electrolytes.After the period of acclimation the percent dehydration during exercise significantly increased from 1.77+/-0.09% (Day 1) to 2.14+/-0.07% (Day 16). Resting levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells decreased significantly while [Na+]sweat increased significantly. For Tre and Tsk there were no differences at rest. Tre, HR, RPE, TS, plasma lactate concentration, hemoglobin and hematocrit at the 40th min of exercise were significantly lower after the period of acclimation but mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum osmolality were significantly higher while no difference was seen in [Na+]sweat and Tsk. It can be concluded that tropic-dwelling subjects, although exposed to prolonged passive heat exposure, were not fully heat acclimatized. To achieve further HA, they should gradually expose themselves to exercise-heat stress in a

  10. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a

  11. Multiyear survey targeting disease incidence in US honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US National Honey Bee Disease Survey sampled colony pests and diseases from 2009 to 2014. We verified the absence of Tropilaelaps spp., the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), and slow bee paralysis virus. Endemic health threats were quantified, including Varroa destructor, Nosema spp., and eight hon...

  12. Assessing Patterns of Admixture and Ancestry in Canadian Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada has a large beekeeping industry comprised of 8483 beekeepers managing 672094 23 colonies. Canadian honey bees, like all honey bees in the New World, originate from centuries of importation of predominately European honey bees, but their precise ancestry remains unknown. There have been no i...

  13. The honey bee parasite Nosema ceranae: transmissible via food exchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Smith

    Full Text Available Nosema ceranae, a newly introduced parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is contributing to worldwide colony losses. Other Nosema species, such as N. apis, tend to be associated with increased defecation and spread via a fecal-oral pathway, but because N. ceranae does not induce defecation, it may instead be spread via an oral-oral pathway. Cages that separated older infected bees from young uninfected bees were used to test whether N. ceranae can be spread during food exchange. When cages were separated by one screen, food could be passed between the older bees and the young bees, but when separated by two screens, food could not be passed between the two cages. Young uninfected bees were also kept isolated in cages, as a solitary control. After 4 days of exposure to the older bees, and 10 days to incubate infections, young bees were more likely to be infected in the 1-Screen Test treatment vs. the 2-Screen Test treatment (P=0.0097. Young bees fed by older bees showed a 13-fold increase in mean infection level relative to young bees not fed by older bees (1-Screen Test 40.8%; 2-Screen Test 3.4%; Solo Control 2.8%. Although fecal-oral transmission is still possible in this experimental design, oral-oral infectivity could help explain the rapid spread of N. ceranae worldwide.

  14. Gardening and landscaping practices for nesting native bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees have two primary needs in life: pollen and nectar to feed themselves and their offspring, and a suitable place to nest. Guidance is increasingly available about garden flowers to plant for native bees. We know far less about accommodating the nesting needs of our native bees, but there are cer...

  15. A survey of indigenous knowledge of stingless bees (Apidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They however do not know the role of stingless bees in the pollination of their crops. Even though the indigenous people recognize stingless bee honey as highly medicinal, no attempt has been made to manage the bees for their benefits. Harvesting of honey has been mainly destructive and this research is opening up an ...

  16. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

    2013-01-01

    in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10...

  17. Occurrence of Nosema species in honey bee colonies in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide critical pollination services and livelihood for small-holder farmers in Kenya, thus contributing to nutrition and food security. While honey bee colonies in North America and Europe are in decline due to parasites and pathogens, little is known about the status and effects of the honey bee ...

  18. The native bee fauna of the Palouse Prairie (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the range and general composition of North American bee fauna have been mostly described based on random collections, bee communities associated with specific habitats are largely uncharacterized. This report describes the community of native bees currently found in remnant fragments of the P...

  19. Eccrine sweat gland anatomy in cockayne syndrome: a possible diagnostic aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing, B H; Sugarman, G; Dixon, L G

    1983-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease, which includes as major features motor and mental retardation (beginning in the second year), microcephaly, ataxia, retinal degeneration and pigmentation, cataracts, progeroid features, intracranial calcification, hypogonadism, and growth retardation. Many other diseases have some of these features, so that diagnosis of Cockayne syndrome can be difficult, especially in younger children. Eccrine sweat glands were microdissected from autopsy or biopsy specimens from patients with Cockayne syndrome, and mean values for duct length, secretory coil volume, ratio of coil volume to duct length, and axis ratio of the secretory coil were determined. In comparison with values for eccrine glands of patients with no known genetic or chromosomal disease, eccrine glands in Cockayne syndrome are abnormally small for age. Whether other diseases with various similarities to Cockayne syndrome produce similar growth abnormality of eccrine sweat glands is not known, but determination of sweat gland size may provide data suggesting or supporting the diagnosis of Cockayne syndrome.

  20. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie F. Daughenbaugh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  1. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-06-23

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  2. Mapping sleeping bees within their nest: spatial and temporal analysis of worker honey bee sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett Anthony; Stiegler, Martin; Klein, Arno; Tautz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of behavior within societies have long been visualized and interpreted using maps. Mapping the occurrence of sleep across individuals within a society could offer clues as to functional aspects of sleep. In spite of this, a detailed spatial analysis of sleep has never been conducted on an invertebrate society. We introduce the concept of mapping sleep across an insect society, and provide an empirical example, mapping sleep patterns within colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Honey bees face variables such as temperature and position of resources within their colony's nest that may impact their sleep. We mapped sleep behavior and temperature of worker bees and produced maps of their nest's comb contents as the colony grew and contents changed. By following marked bees, we discovered that individuals slept in many locations, but bees of different worker castes slept in different areas of the nest relative to position of the brood and surrounding temperature. Older worker bees generally slept outside cells, closer to the perimeter of the nest, in colder regions, and away from uncapped brood. Younger worker bees generally slept inside cells and closer to the center of the nest, and spent more time asleep than awake when surrounded by uncapped brood. The average surface temperature of sleeping foragers was lower than the surface temperature of their surroundings, offering a possible indicator of sleep for this caste. We propose mechanisms that could generate caste-dependent sleep patterns and discuss functional significance of these patterns.

  3. Do linden trees kill bees? Reviewing the causes of bee deaths on silver linden (Tilia tomentosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Hauke; Stevenson, Philip C

    2017-09-01

    For decades, linden trees (basswoods or lime trees), and particularly silver linden (Tilia tomentosa), have been linked to mass bee deaths. This phenomenon is often attributed to the purported occurrence of the carbohydrate mannose, which is toxic to bees, in Tilia nectar. In this review, however, we conclude that from existing literature there is no experimental evidence for toxicity to bees in linden nectar. Bee deaths on Tilia probably result from starvation, owing to insufficient nectar resources late in the tree's flowering period. We recommend ensuring sufficient alternative food sources in cities during late summer to reduce bee deaths on silver linden. Silver linden metabolites such as floral volatiles, pollen chemistry and nectar secondary compounds remain underexplored, particularly their toxic or behavioural effects on bees. Some evidence for the presence of caffeine in linden nectar may mean that linden trees can chemically deceive foraging bees to make sub-optimal foraging decisions, in some cases leading to their starvation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Lina; Ravoet, Jorgen; de Miranda, Joachim R; Wenseleers, Tom; Mueller, Matthias Y; Moritz, Robin F A; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.

  5. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina De Smet

    Full Text Available The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.

  6. Hydration, sweat and thermoregulatory responses to professional football training in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; McCall, Allan; Coutts, Aaron James; Peiffer, Jeremiah John

    2012-01-01

    AbstThis study examined the relationship between intensity of training and changes in hydration status, core temperature, sweat rate and composition and fluid balance in professional football players training in the heat. Thirteen professional football players completed three training sessions; "higher-intensity" (140 min; HI140), "lower-intensity" (120 min; LI120) and "game-simulation" (100 min; GS100). Movement demands were measured by Global Positioning System, sweat rate and concentration were determined from dermal patches and body mass change. Despite similar environmental conditions (26.9 ± 0.1 °C and 65.0 ± 7.0% relative humidity [Rh]), higher relative speeds (m · min(-1)) and increased perceptions of effort and thermal strain were observed in HI140 and GS100 compared with LI120 (P sweat rate (L · h(-1)) and electrolyte losses (g) were observed in HI140 and GS100 compared with LI120. Rate of rise in core temperature was correlated with mean speed (r = 0.85), session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) (r = 0.61), loss of potassium (K+) (r = 0.51) sweat rate (r = 0.49), and total sweat loss (r = 0.53), with mean speed the strongest predictor. Sodium (Na+) (r = 0.39) and K+ (r = 0.50) losses were associated with total distance covered. In hot conditions, individualised rehydration practices should be adopted following football training to account for differences in sweat rate and electrolyte losses in response to intensity and overall activity within a session.

  7. Whole body sweat collection in humans: an improved method with preliminary data on electrolyte content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirreffs, S M; Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    Previous methods used to collect human sweat for electrolyte analysis have been criticized because they involve only regional sampling or because of methodological problems associated with whole body-washdown techniques. An improved method for collection of whole body sweat from exercising subjects is described. It involved construction of a plastic frame that supports a large plastic bag within which the subject exercises. The subject and the equipment are washed with distilled, deionized water before exercise begins. After exercise is completed, the subject and equipment are again washed with water containing a marker not present in sweat (ammonium sulfate). Total sweat loss is calculated from the change in body mass, and the volume of sweat not evaporated is calculated from dilution of the added marker. Recovery of added water was 102 +/- 2% (SD) of the added volume, and recovery of added electrolytes was 99 +/- 2% for sodium, 98 +/- 9% for potassium, and 101 +/- 4% for chloride. Repeated trials (n = 4) on five subjects to establish the reproducibility of the method gave a coefficient of variation of 17 +/- 5% for sodium, 23 +/- 6% for potassium, and 15 +/- 6% for chloride. These values include the biological variability between trials as well as the error within the method. The biological variability thus appears to be far greater than the methodological error. Normal values for the composition of sweat induced by exercise in a hot, humid environment in healthy young men and women were (in mM) 50.8 +/- 16.5 sodium, 4.8 +/- 1.6 potassium, 1.3 +/- 0.9 calcium, 0.5 +/- 0.5 magnesium, and 46.6 +/- 13.1 chloride.

  8. Amino acid composition, including key derivatives of eccrine sweat: potential biomarkers of certain atopic skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Harker; Harding, Clive R

    2013-04-01

    The free amino acid (AA) composition of eccrine sweat is different from other biological fluids, for reasons which are not properly understood. We undertook the detailed analysis of the AA composition of freshly isolated pure human eccrine sweat, including some of the key derivatives of AA metabolism, to better understand the key biological mechanisms governing its composition. Eccrine sweat was collected from the axillae of 12 healthy subjects immediately upon formation. Free AA analysis was performed using an automatic AA analyser after ninhydrin derivatization. Pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA) levels were determined using GC/MS. The free AA composition of sweat was dominated by the presence of serine accounting for just over one-fifth of the total free AA composition. Glycine was the next most abundant followed by PCA, alanine, citrulline and threonine, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the AA content of sweat bears a remarkable similarity to the AA composition of the epidermal protein profilaggrin. This protein is the key source of free AAs and their derivatives that form a major part of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) within the stratum corneum (SC) and plays a major role in maintaining the barrier integrity of human skin. As perturbations in the production of NMF can lead to abnormal barrier function and can arise as a consequence of filaggrin genotype, we propose the quantification of AAs in sweat may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for certain atopic skin conditions, that is, atopic dermatitis (AD). © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. Role of Sweat in Accumulation of Orally Administered Griseofulvin in Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vinod P.; Epstein, William L.; Riegelman, Sidney

    1974-01-01

    Griseofulvin, an orally effective antimicrobial agent, appears in the stratum corneum within 4-8 h after oral administration. Griseofulvin distribution was found to be highest in the outermost layers of the stratum corneum (level I, 20.8±1.5 ng/mg) and lowest inside (level II, 10.0±1.5; level III, 7.5±2.2 ng/mg). In order to study the precise mechanism of griseofulvin transfer to stratum corneum, the role of sweat in the accumulation of griseofulvin was considered. Heat-induced total body sweating decreased the mean stratum corneum concentration of griseofulvin by 55%, and 200-300 ng of griseofulvin accumulated per ml of sweat. A silicone hydrophobic resin was used to differentiate between “wash-off” and carrier properties of sweat for griseofulvin. Prevention of transepidermal water and sweat loss by (a) topical application of formaldehyde-releasing cream to one palm, (b) occlusion by a 2 × 2-cm patch on one arm, and (c) wearing a rubber glove for 24 h, showed a lower griseofulvin concentration when compared to control areas in the same subjects. The results of the gloved hand experiment show that a complete equilibrium is established at all three levels of stratum corneum, thereby removing the reversed gradient. These results support the hypothesis that a “wick effect” is responsible for the observed reversed drug gradient within the stratum corneum. The results of the experiments suggest that sweat and transepidermal fluid loss play an important role in griseofulvin transfer in stratum corneum. PMID:4830229

  10. Clinical evaluation of the Nanoduct sweat test system in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis after newborn screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, Annette; Dompeling, Edward; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Arets, HGM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/244205698; Tiddens, Harm; Loeber, Gerard; Dankert-Roelse, Jeannette

    After a positive newborn screening test for cystic fibrosis (CF), a sweat test is performed to confirm the diagnosis. The success rate of the generally acknowledged methods (Macroduct/Gibson and Cooke) in newborns varies between 73 and 99 %. The Nanoduct sweat test system is easier to perform and

  11. Highly abundant defense proteins in human sweat as revealed by targeted proteomics and label free quantification mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csősz, Éva; Emri, Gabriella; Kalló, Gergő; Tsaprailis, George; Tőzsér, József

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The healthy human skin with its effective antimicrobial defense system forms an efficient barrier against invading pathogens. There is evidence suggesting that the composition of this chemical barrier varies between diseases, making the easily-collected sweat an ideal candidate for biomarker discoveries. OBJECTIVE Our aim was to provide information about the normal composition of the sweat, and to study the chemical barrier found at the surface of skin. METHODS Sweat samples from healthy individuals were collected during sauna bathing, and the global protein panel was analyzed by label-free mass spectrometry. SRM-based targeted proteomic methods were designed and stable isotope labeled reference peptides were used for method validation. RESULTS 95 sweat proteins were identified, 20 of them were novel proteins. It was shown that dermcidin is the most abundant sweat protein, and along with apolipoprotein D, clusterin, prolactin inducible protein and serum albumin, they make up 91% of secreted sweat proteins. The roles of these highly abundant proteins were reviewed; all of which have protective functions, highlighting the importance of sweat glands in composing the first line of innate immune defense system, and maintaining the epidermal barrier integrity. CONCLUSION Our findings in regards to the proteins forming the chemical barrier of the skin as determined by label free quantification and targeted proteomics methods are in accordance with previous studies, and can be further used as a starting point for non-invasive sweat biomarker research. PMID:26307449

  12. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, van C.; Gerritsen, L.J.M.; Cornelissen, B.; Steen, van der J.J.M.; Langevelde, van F.; Blacquiere, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to

  13. 3D bioprinted extracellular matrix mimics facilitate directed differentiation of epithelial progenitors for sweat gland regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Yao, Bin; Xie, Jiangfan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    Sweat glands perform a vital thermoregulatory function in mammals. Like other skin appendages, they originate from epidermal progenitors. However, they have low regenerative potential in response to injury, and whether adult epidermal progenitors could be specified to differentiate to a sweat gland cell lineage remains largely unexplored. We used bioprinting technology to create a functional in vitro cell-laden 3D extracellular matrix mimics (3D-ECM) with composite hydrogels based on gelatin and sodium alginate because of chemical and structural similarity to ECM components. To achieve specific cell differentiation, mouse plantar dermis and epidermal growth factor were synchronously incorporated into the 3D-ECM mimics to create an inductive niche for epidermal progenitor cells obtained from mice. The biological 3D construct could maintain cell viability, thereby facilitating cell spreading and matrix formation. In vitro data by immunofluorescence and gene expression assay of key cell-surface markers demonstrated that the bioprinted 3D-ECM could effectively create a restrictive niche for epidermal progenitors that ensures unilateral differentiation into sweat gland cells. Furthermore, direct delivery of bioprinted 3D-ECM into burned paws of mice resulted in functional restoration of sweat glands. This study represents the rational design to enhance the specific differentiation of epidermal lineages using 3D bioprinting and may have clinical and translational implications in regenerating sweat glands. Sweat gland regeneration after injury is of clinical importance but remains largely unsolved because of low regenerative potential and lack of a definite niche. Some studies have shown sweat gland regeneration with gene-based interventions or cell-based induction via embryonic components, but translation to clinic is challenging. The novelty and significance of the work lies in the fact that we design a 3D bioprinted extracellular matrix that provides the spatial

  14. Real-time sweat analysis: Concept and development of an autonomous wearable micro-fluidic platform

    OpenAIRE

    Curto, Vincenzo F.; Coyle, Shirley; Byrne, Robert; Diamond, Dermot; Benito-Lopez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In this work the development of an autonomous, robust and wearable micro-fluidic platform capable of performing on-line analysis of pH in sweat is discussed. Through the means of an optical detection system based on a surface mount light emitting diode (smLED) and a photodiode as a detector, a wearable system was achieved in which realtime monitoring of sweat pH can be performed during sport activity. We show how through systems engineering, integrating miniaturised electrical com...

  15. Desynchronizations in bee-plant interactions cause severe fitness losses in solitary bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Mariela; Krauss, Jochen; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Global warming can disrupt mutualistic interactions between solitary bees and plants when increasing temperature differentially changes the timing of interacting partners. One possible scenario is for insect phenology to advance more rapidly than plant phenology. However, empirical evidence for fitness consequences due to temporal mismatches is lacking for pollinators and it remains unknown if bees have developed strategies to mitigate fitness losses following temporal mismatches. We tested the effect of temporal mismatches on the fitness of three spring-emerging solitary bee species, including one pollen specialist. Using flight cages, we simulated (i) a perfect synchronization (from a bee perspective): bees and flowers occur simultaneously, (ii) a mismatch of 3 days and (iii) a mismatch of 6 days, with bees occurring earlier than flowers in the latter two cases. A mismatch of 6 days caused severe fitness losses in all three bee species, as few bees survived without flowers. Females showed strongly reduced activity and reproductive output compared to synchronized bees. Fitness consequences of a 3-day mismatch were species-specific. Both the early-spring species Osmia cornuta and the mid-spring species Osmia bicornis produced the same number of brood cells after a mismatch of 3 days as under perfect synchronization. However, O. cornuta decreased the number of female offspring, whereas O. bicornis spread the brood cells over fewer nests, which may increase offspring mortality, e.g. due to parasitoids. The late-spring specialist Osmia brevicornis produced fewer brood cells even after a mismatch of 3 days. Additionally, our results suggest that fitness losses after temporal mismatches are higher during warm than cold springs, as the naturally occurring temperature variability revealed that warm temperatures during starvation decreased the survival rate of O. bicornis. We conclude that short temporal mismatches can cause clear fitness losses in solitary bees

  16. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dainat

    Full Text Available Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  17. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainat, Benjamin; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yan Ping; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  18. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-06-15

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting. We then determined the mechanism behind this preference. We show that this preference maximizes Varroa fitness, although due to the fact that each mite must find a second host (a pupa) to reproduce, the fitness benefit to the mites is not immediate but delayed. Our results suggest that the Varroa mite is a highly adapted parasite for honey bees.

  19. Large Carpenter Bees as Agricultural Pollinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Keasar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Large carpenter bees (genus Xylocopa are wood-nesting generalist pollinators of broad geographical distribution that exhibit varying levels of sociality. Their foraging is characterized by a wide range of food plants, long season of activity, tolerance of high temperatures, and activity under low illumination levels. These traits make them attractive candidates for agricultural pollination in hot climates, particularly in greenhouses, and of night-blooming crops. Carpenter bees have demonstrated efficient pollination service in passionflower, blueberries, greenhouse tomatoes and greenhouse melons. Current challenges to the commercialization of these attempts lie in the difficulties of mass-rearing Xylocopa, and in the high levels of nectar robbing exhibited by the bees.

  20. The Effect of Varying the Composition of Fingerprint Sweat Deposits on the Corrosion of Brass and Fingerprint Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Dunn, Alice; Jones, Owen; Bond, John W

    2017-09-01

    Corrosion of α-phase brass by sebaceous sweat fingerprint deposits produced identifiable impressions in a majority of samples (n = 40) 4 days after deposition. Combining sebaceous with eccrine sweat yielded a greater percentage of identifiable fingerprint deposits, although this increase was not statistically significant. Production of identifiable fingerprints from eccrine sweat deposits was dependent on the sampling time of year with deposits taken during summer months giving similar percentages of identifiable fingerprints to sebaceous deposits. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between elapsed days after deposition and identifiable eccrine (ρ = 0.787, p sweat deposits was statistically significant compared to winter eccrine deposits (p sweat. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    and after weight loss. Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen age-matched nonobese women served as controls. The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We......Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before...

  2. Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, R. Scott; Tarpy, David R.; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees. PMID:22927991

  3. Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scott Cornman

    Full Text Available Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees.

  4. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3–poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3–rich diets, or omega-3–rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal. PMID:26644556

  5. Yoghurt enrichment with natural bee farming products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lomova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bee pollen is a unique and unparalleled natural bioactive substances source. Using it in conjunction with the popular functional fermented milk product -yogurt will expand its product range and increase the biological value. Materials and Methods. Dried bee pollen’s moisture determination was made by gravimetry methods, based on the sample weight loss due to desiccation, until constant weight was reached.Test and control yogurt samples were studied by applying standard techniques for milk and milk products set forth in the regulations of Ukraine. Results and discussion. It is found that bee pollen pellet drying to a moisture content of 2 -4%, increases the flow rate of powder almost by 90%. The sample having moisture content of 2% will have a bulk density exceeding 12.5% compared to the sample having moisture content of 10%. Raw output will also increase by 3.7%. By contrast, apparent density and weight fraction of losses decreases, which has a positive impact on pollen efficiency of use and distribution in bulk yogurt. Moreover, the weight fraction of losses decreases by fourfold (4.6% vs. 1%. It was experimentally determined that pollen can deteriorate microbiological characteristics of yogurt. It was proved that treatment of crushed bee pollen pellet sample with ultraviolet allows improving yogurt microbiological safety indicators. Namely, to reduce the presence of coli-forms to 0, mould –to 10 CFU/cm³. Conclusions. The proposed bee pollen pellet treatment method will improve the technological and microbiological characteristics of pollen powder. This provides for yoghurt production biotechnology using bee farming products.

  6. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania; Shafir, Sharoni

    2015-12-22

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3-poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3-rich diets, or omega-3-rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal.

  7. Study on Bee venom and Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Seok Yun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study Bee venom and Pain, We searched Journals and Internet. The results were as follows: 1. The domestic papers were total 13. 4 papers were published at The journal of korean acupuncture & moxibustion society, 3 papers were published at The journal of korean oriental medical society, Each The journal of KyoungHee University Oriental Medicine and The journal of korean sports oriental medical society published 1 papers and Unpublished desertations were 3. The clinical studies were 4 and the experimental studies were 9. 2. The domestic clinical studies reported that Bee venom Herbal Acupuncture therapy was effective on HIVD, Subacute arthritis of Knee Joint and Sequale of sprain. In the domestic experimental studies, 5 were related to analgesic effect of Bee vnom and 4 were related to mechanism of analgesia. 3. The journals searched by PubMed were total 18. 5 papers were published at Pain, Each 2 papers were published at Neurosci Lett. and Br J Pharmacol, and Each Eur J Pain, J Rheumatol, Brain Res, Neuroscience, Nature and Toxicon et al published 1 paper. 4. In the journals searched by PubMed, Only the experimental studies were existed. 8 papers used Bee Venom as pain induction substance and 1 paper was related to analgesic effects of Bee venom. 5. 15 webpage were searched by internet related to Bee Venom and pain. 11 were the introduction related to arthritis, 1 was the advertisement, 1 was the patient's experience, 1 was the case report on RA, 1 was review article.

  8. Sauna, sweat and science - quantifying the proportion of condensation water versus sweat using a stable water isotope ((2)H/(1)H and (18)O/(16)O) tracer experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Michael; Bösel, Stefanie; Tuthorn, Mario; Benesch, Marianne; Dubbert, Maren; Cuntz, Matthias; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Most visitors of a sauna appreciate the heat pulse that is perceived when water is poured on the stones of a sauna stove. However, probably only few bathers are aware that this pleasant heat pulse is caused by latent heat being released onto our skin due to condensation of water vapour. In order to quantify the proportion of condensation water versus sweat to dripping water of test persons we conducted sauna experiments using isotopically labelled (δ(18)O and δ(2)H) thrown water as tracer. This allows differentiating between 'pure sweat' and 'condensation water'. Two ways of isotope mass balance calculations were applied and yielded similar results for both water isotopes. Accordingly, condensation contributed considerably to dripping water with mean proportions of 52 ± 12 and 54 ± 7% in a sauna experiment in winter semester 2011/12 and 30 ± 13 and 33 ± 6% in a sauna experiment in winter semester 2012/13, respectively, depending on the way of calculating the isotope mass balance. It can be concluded from the results of our dual isotope labelling sauna experiment that it is not all about sweat in the sauna.

  9. Store-operated Ca2+ entry regulates Ca2+-activated chloride channels and eccrine sweat gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, Axel R; Vaeth, Martin; Wagner, Larry E; Eckstein, Miriam; Hecht, Lee; Yang, Jun; Crottes, David; Seidl, Maximilian; Shin, Hyosup P; Weidinger, Carl; Cameron, Scott; Turvey, Stuart E; Issekutz, Thomas; Meyts, Isabelle; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Cuk, Mario; Yule, David I; Feske, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are essential for sweating and thermoregulation in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and patients with these CRAC channel mutations suffer from anhidrosis and hyperthermia at high ambient temperatures. Here we have shown that CRAC channel-deficient patients and mice with ectodermal tissue-specific deletion of Orai1 (Orai1K14Cre) or Stim1 and Stim2 (Stim1/2K14Cre) failed to sweat despite normal sweat gland development. SOCE was absent in agonist-stimulated sweat glands from Orai1K14Cre and Stim1/2K14Cre mice and human sweat gland cells lacking ORAI1 or STIM1 expression. In Orai1K14Cre mice, abolishment of SOCE was associated with impaired chloride secretion by primary murine sweat glands. In human sweat gland cells, SOCE mediated by ORAI1 was necessary for agonist-induced chloride secretion and activation of the Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also known as TMEM16A). By contrast, expression of TMEM16A, the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and other regulators of sweat gland function was normal in the absence of SOCE. Our findings demonstrate that Ca2+ influx via store-operated CRAC channels is essential for CaCC activation, chloride secretion, and sweat production in humans and mice.

  10. BEES, HONEY AND HEALTH IN ANTIQUITY

    OpenAIRE

    L. Cilliers; Retief, F.P.

    2012-01-01

    In antiquity bees and honey had a very special significance. Honey was indeed considered to drip from heaven as the food of the gods. As an infant Zeus was fed on honey in the cave of Dicte, by bees and the beautiful Melissa, whose name became the Greek word for “bee”. When the ancient Romans wished you luck they said “May honey drip on you!” and for the Israelites Palestine was a “land of milk and honey” (Forbes 1957:85-87). In his Georgics Vergil likened the inhabitants of the new ...

  11. A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus and Nosema ceranae Experimental Co-Infection of Winter Honey Bee Workers (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Gregorc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. Despite comprehensive research, only limited data is available from experimental infection for this virus. In the present study winter worker bees were experimentally infected in three different experiments. Bees were first inoculated per os (p/o or per cuticle (p/c with CBPV field strain M92/2010 in order to evaluate the virus replication in individual bees. In addition, potential synergistic effects of co-infection with CBPV and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae on bees were investigated. In total 558 individual bees were inoculated in small cages and data were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR. Our results revealed successful replication of CBPV after p/o inoculation, while it was less effective when bees were inoculated p/c. Dead bees harbored about 1,000 times higher copy numbers of the virus than live bees. Co-infection of workers with CBPV and N. ceranae using either method of virus inoculation (p/c or p/o showed increased replication ability for CBPV. In the third experiment the effect of inoculation on bee mortality was evaluated. The highest level of bee mortality was observed in a group of bees inoculated with CBPV p/o, followed by a group of workers simultaneously inoculated with CBPV and N. ceranae p/o, followed by the group inoculated with CBPV p/c and the group with only N. ceranae p/o. The experimental infection with CBPV showed important differences after p/o or p/c inoculation in winter bees, while simultaneous infection with CBPV and N. ceranae suggesting a synergistic effect after inoculation.

  13. Chronic bee paralysis virus and Nosema ceranae experimental co-infection of winter honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Ivan; Jamnikar Ciglenečki, Urška; Aronstein, Katherine; Gregorc, Aleš

    2013-09-19

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. Despite comprehensive research, only limited data is available from experimental infection for this virus. In the present study winter worker bees were experimentally infected in three different experiments. Bees were first inoculated per os (p/o) or per cuticle (p/c) with CBPV field strain M92/2010 in order to evaluate the virus replication in individual bees. In addition, potential synergistic effects of co-infection with CBPV and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae) on bees were investigated. In total 558 individual bees were inoculated in small cages and data were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Our results revealed successful replication of CBPV after p/o inoculation, while it was less effective when bees were inoculated p/c. Dead bees harbored about 1,000 times higher copy numbers of the virus than live bees. Co-infection of workers with CBPV and N. ceranae using either method of virus inoculation (p/c or p/o) showed increased replication ability for CBPV. In the third experiment the effect of inoculation on bee mortality was evaluated. The highest level of bee mortality was observed in a group of bees inoculated with CBPV p/o, followed by a group of workers simultaneously inoculated with CBPV and N. ceranae p/o, followed by the group inoculated with CBPV p/c and the group with only N. ceranae p/o. The experimental infection with CBPV showed important differences after p/o or p/c inoculation in winter bees, while simultaneous infection with CBPV and N. ceranae suggesting a synergistic effect after inoculation.

  14. Solitary invasive orchid bee outperforms co-occurring native bees to promote fruit set of an invasive Solanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Pemberton, Robert W

    2009-03-01

    Our understanding of the effects of introduced invasive pollinators on plants has been exclusively drawn from studies on introduced social bees. One might expect, however, that the impacts of introduced solitary bees, with much lower population densities and fewer foragers, would be small. Yet little is known about the potential effects of naturalized solitary bees on the environment. We took advantage of the recent naturalization of an orchid bee, Euglossa viridissima, in southern Florida to study the effects of this solitary bee on reproduction of Solanum torvum, an invasive shrub. Flowers of S. torvum require specialized buzz pollination. Through timed floral visitor watches and two pollination treatments (control and pollen supplementation) at three forest edge and three open area sites, we found that the fruit set of S. torvum was pollen limited at the open sites where the native bees dominate, but was not pollen limited at the forest sites where the invasive orchid bees dominate. The orchid bee's pollination efficiency was nearly double that of the native halictid bees, and was also slightly higher than that of the native carpenter bee. Experiments using small and large mesh cages (to deny or allow E. viridissima access, respectively) at one forest site indicated that when the orchid bee was excluded, the flowers set one-quarter as many fruit as when the bee was allowed access. The orchid bee was the most important pollinator of the weed at the forest sites, which could pose additional challenges to the management of this weed in the fragmented, endangered tropical hardwood forests in the region. This specialized invasive mutualism may promote populations of both the orchid bee and this noxious weed. Invasive solitary bees, particularly species that are specialized pollinators, appear to have more importance than has previously been recognized.

  15. Nutrigenomics in honey bees: digital gene expression analysis of pollen's nutritive effects on healthy and varroa-parasitized bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaux, Cédric; Dantec, Christelle; Parrinello, Hughes; Le Conte, Yves

    2011-10-10

    Malnutrition is a major factor affecting animal health, resistance to disease and survival. In honey bees (Apis mellifera), pollen, which is the main dietary source of proteins, amino acids and lipids, is essential to adult bee physiological development while reducing their susceptibility to parasites and pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pollen's nutritive impact on honey bee health remained to be determined. For that purpose, we investigated the influence of pollen nutrients on the transcriptome of worker bees parasitized by the mite Varroa destructor, known for suppressing immunity and decreasing lifespan. The 4 experimental groups (control bees without a pollen diet, control bees fed with pollen, varroa-parasitized bees without a pollen diet and varroa-parasitized bees fed with pollen) were analyzed by performing a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis on bee abdomens. Around 36, 000 unique tags were generated per DGE-tag library, which matched about 8, 000 genes (60% of the genes in the honey bee genome). Comparing the transcriptome of bees fed with pollen and sugar and bees restricted to a sugar diet, we found that pollen activates nutrient-sensing and metabolic pathways. In addition, those nutrients had a positive influence on genes affecting longevity and the production of some antimicrobial peptides. However, varroa parasitism caused the development of viral populations and a decrease in metabolism, specifically by inhibiting protein metabolism essential to bee health. This harmful effect was not reversed by pollen intake. The DGE-tag profiling methods used in this study proved to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to nutrient intake in honey bees. Ultimately, with such an approach, applying genomics tools to nutrition research, nutrigenomics promises to offer a better understanding of how nutrition influences body homeostasis and may help reduce the susceptibility of bees to (less virulent) pathogens.

  16. Nutrigenomics in honey bees: digital gene expression analysis of pollen's nutritive effects on healthy and varroa-parasitized bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parrinello Hughes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a major factor affecting animal health, resistance to disease and survival. In honey bees (Apis mellifera, pollen, which is the main dietary source of proteins, amino acids and lipids, is essential to adult bee physiological development while reducing their susceptibility to parasites and pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pollen's nutritive impact on honey bee health remained to be determined. For that purpose, we investigated the influence of pollen nutrients on the transcriptome of worker bees parasitized by the mite Varroa destructor, known for suppressing immunity and decreasing lifespan. The 4 experimental groups (control bees without a pollen diet, control bees fed with pollen, varroa-parasitized bees without a pollen diet and varroa-parasitized bees fed with pollen were analyzed by performing a digital gene expression (DGE analysis on bee abdomens. Results Around 36, 000 unique tags were generated per DGE-tag library, which matched about 8, 000 genes (60% of the genes in the honey bee genome. Comparing the transcriptome of bees fed with pollen and sugar and bees restricted to a sugar diet, we found that pollen activates nutrient-sensing and metabolic pathways. In addition, those nutrients had a positive influence on genes affecting longevity and the production of some antimicrobial peptides. However, varroa parasitism caused the development of viral populations and a decrease in metabolism, specifically by inhibiting protein metabolism essential to bee health. This harmful effect was not reversed by pollen intake. Conclusions The DGE-tag profiling methods used in this study proved to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to nutrient intake in honey bees. Ultimately, with such an approach, applying genomics tools to nutrition research, nutrigenomics promises to offer a better understanding of how nutrition influences body homeostasis and may help reduce

  17. Nutrigenomics in honey bees: digital gene expression analysis of pollen's nutritive effects on healthy and varroa-parasitized bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is a major factor affecting animal health, resistance to disease and survival. In honey bees (Apis mellifera), pollen, which is the main dietary source of proteins, amino acids and lipids, is essential to adult bee physiological development while reducing their susceptibility to parasites and pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pollen's nutritive impact on honey bee health remained to be determined. For that purpose, we investigated the influence of pollen nutrients on the transcriptome of worker bees parasitized by the mite Varroa destructor, known for suppressing immunity and decreasing lifespan. The 4 experimental groups (control bees without a pollen diet, control bees fed with pollen, varroa-parasitized bees without a pollen diet and varroa-parasitized bees fed with pollen) were analyzed by performing a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis on bee abdomens. Results Around 36, 000 unique tags were generated per DGE-tag library, which matched about 8, 000 genes (60% of the genes in the honey bee genome). Comparing the transcriptome of bees fed with pollen and sugar and bees restricted to a sugar diet, we found that pollen activates nutrient-sensing and metabolic pathways. In addition, those nutrients had a positive influence on genes affecting longevity and the production of some antimicrobial peptides. However, varroa parasitism caused the development of viral populations and a decrease in metabolism, specifically by inhibiting protein metabolism essential to bee health. This harmful effect was not reversed by pollen intake. Conclusions The DGE-tag profiling methods used in this study proved to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to nutrient intake in honey bees. Ultimately, with such an approach, applying genomics tools to nutrition research, nutrigenomics promises to offer a better understanding of how nutrition influences body homeostasis and may help reduce the susceptibility of bees

  18. Disentangling urban habitat and matrix effects on wild bee species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie K. Fischer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In face of a dramatic decline of wild bee species in many rural landscapes, potential conservation functions of urban areas gain importance. Yet effects of urbanization on pollinators, and in particular on wild bees, remain ambiguous and not comprehensively understood. This is especially true for amenity grassland and extensively managed wastelands within large-scale residential housing areas. Using Berlin as a study region, we aimed to investigate (a if these greenspaces are accepted by wild bee assemblages as foraging habitats; (b how assemblage structure of bees and individual bee species are affected by different habitat (e.g., management, flower density and urban matrix variables (e.g., isolation, urbanization; and (c to what extent grassland restoration can promote bees in urban environments. In summer 2012, we collected 62 bee species belonging to more than 20% of the taxa known for Berlin. Urbanization significantly affected species composition of bees; 18 species were affiliated to different levels of urbanization. Most bee species were not affected by any of the environmental variables tested, and urbanization had a negative effect only for one bee species. Further, we determined that restoration of diverse grasslands positively affected bee species richnesss in urban environments. We conclude that differently structured and managed greenspaces in large-scale housing areas can provide additional foraging habitats and refuges for pollinators. This supports approaches towards a biodiversity friendly management within urban regions and may be of particular importance given that anthropogenic pressure is increasing in many rural landscapes.

  19. Bats and bees are pollinating Parkia biglobosa in the Gambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Ræbild, Anders; Hansen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A pollination experiment was conducted with Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae) in The Gambia. P. biglobosa is integrated in the farming systems and produces fruit pulp and seeds used in cooking. The species is bat-pollinated, and in areas with few bats the main pollinators are assumed to be honey bees...... as replicates. The pollinators’ identity, efficiency, and relative effect were determined. Bats, honey bees, and stingless bees were able to pollinate the species. Bat-visited capitula produced more pods, but not significantly more than honey bees. Honey bees were more efficient than stingless bees, resulting...... in significantly less aborted seeds. The treatment which excluded all flower visitors developed no mature pods, indicating that P. biglobosa was not autonomous autogamous, apomictic, or parthenocarpic, while the treatment with confined honey bees showed that geitonogamy is possible. Sugar content of fruit pulp...

  20. Nosema ceranae in European honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Ingemar

    2010-01-01

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian parasite described from the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. The parasite is cross-infective with the European honey bee, Apis mellifera. It is not known when or where N. ceranae first infected European bees, but N. ceranae has probably been infecting European bees for at least two decades. N. ceranae appears to be replacing Nosema apis, at least in some populations of European honey bees. This replacement is an enigma because the spores of the new parasite are less durable than those of N. apis. Virulence data at both the individual bee and at the colony level are conflicting possibly because the impact of this parasite differs in different environments. The recent advancements in N. ceranae genetics, with a draft assembly of the N. ceranae genome available, are discussed and the need for increased research on the impacts of this parasite on European honey bees is emphasized. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Local bumble bee decline linked to recovery of honey bees, drought effects on floral resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Diane M

    2016-10-01

    Time series of abundances are critical for understanding how abiotic factors and species interactions affect population dynamics, but are rarely linked with experiments and also scarce for bee pollinators. This gap is important given concerns about declines in some bee species. I monitored honey bee (Apis mellifera) and bumble bee (Bombus spp.) foragers in coastal California from 1999, when feral A. mellifera populations were low due to Varroa destructor, until 2014. Apis mellifera increased substantially, except between 2006 and 2011, coinciding with declines in managed populations. Increases in A. mellifera strongly correlated with declines in Bombus and reduced diet overlap between them, suggesting resource competition consistent with past experimental results. Lower Bombus numbers also correlated with diminished floral resources. Declines in floral abundances were associated with drought and reduced spring rainfall. These results illustrate how competition with an introduced species may interact with climate to drive local decline of native pollinators. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry J Bromenshenk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV (Iridoviridae associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1 bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2 bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3 bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey

  3. Iridovirus and Microsporidian Linked to Honey Bee Colony Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.; Wick, Charles H.; Stanford, Michael F.; Zulich, Alan W.; Jabbour, Rabih E.; Deshpande, Samir V.; McCubbin, Patrick E.; Seccomb, Robert A.; Welch, Phillip M.; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R.; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M.; Bilimoria, Shan L.; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W.; Cramer, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006–2007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. Conclusions/Significance These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses

  4. Effects of stingless bee and honey bee propolis on four species of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    FARNESI, A. P.; AQUINO-FERREIRA, R.; JONG, D. De; BASTOS, J. K.; SOARES, A. E. E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the antibacterial activities of several types of propolis, including Africanized honey bee green propolis and propolis produced by meliponini bees. The antibacterial activity of green propolis against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus was superior to that of Melipona quadrifasciata and Scaptotrigona sp propolis. Only two samples of propolis (green propolis and Scaptotrigona sp propolis) were efficient against Escherichia coli. Melipona quadrifasciata propolis was better...

  5. Native and Non-Native Supergeneralist Bee Species Have Different Effects on Plant-Bee Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tereza C Giannini; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Acosta, Andre L.; Silva, Juliana S.; Maia, Kate P.; Saraiva,Antonio M.; Guimarães, Paulo R; Kleinert,Astrid M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Supergeneralists, defined as species that interact with multiple groups of species in ecological networks, can act as important connectors of otherwise disconnected species subsets. In Brazil, there are two supergeneralist bees: the honeybee Apis mellifera, a non-native species, and Trigona spinipes, a native stingless bee. We compared the role of both species and the effect of geographic and local factors on networks by addressing three questions: 1) Do both species have similar abundance an...

  6. Chem I Supplement: Bee Sting: The Chemistry of an Insect Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rod; Peck, Larry

    1980-01-01

    Considers various aspects of bee stings including the physical mechanism of the venom apparatus in the bee, categorization of physiological responses of nonprotected individuals to bee sting, chemical composition of bee venom and the mechanisms of venom action, and areas of interest in the synthesis of bee venom. (CS)

  7. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

  8. Determination of silver nanoparticle release from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulthong Kornphimol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silver nanoparticles have been used in numerous commercial products, including textiles, to prevent bacterial growth. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern that exposure to these nanoparticles may cause potential adverse effects on humans as well as the environment. This study determined the quantity of silver released from commercially claimed nanosilver and laboratory-prepared silver coated fabrics into various formulations of artificial sweat, each made according to AATCC, ISO and EN standards. For each fabric sample, the initial amount of silver and the antibacterial properties against the model Gram-positive (S. aureus and Gram-negative (E. coli bacteria on each fabric was investigated. The results showed that silver was not detected in some commercial fabrics. Furthermore, antibacterial properties of the fabrics varied, ranging from 0% to greater than 99%. After incubation of the fabrics in artificial sweat, silver was released from the different fabrics to varying extents, ranging from 0 mg/kg to about 322 mg/kg of fabric weight. The quantity of silver released from the different fabrics was likely to be dependent on the amount of silver coating, the fabric quality and the artificial sweat formulations including its pH. This study is the unprecedented report on the release of silver nanoparticles from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat. This information might be useful to evaluate the potential human risk associated with the use of textiles containing silver nanoparticles.

  9. Sweating rates of dairy cows and beef heifers in hot conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a “Portable Calorimeter” and a “Bovine Evaporation Meter” designed and fabricated for the studies reported herein. Measurements were taken when cows were in their natural habitat. The focus of the study was to compare swea...

  10. Cation transport by sweat ducts in primary culture. Ionic mechanism of cholinergically evoked current oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, I; Pedersen, P S

    1990-01-01

    1. The coiled reabsorptive segment of human sweat ducts was cultured in vitro. Cells were then harvested and plated onto a dialysis membrane which was glued over a hole in a small disc. Cultures were maintained in a low serum, hormone-supplemented medium that allowed the cells to grow to confluency...

  11. The Italian pilot external quality assessment program for cystic fibrosis sweat test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Marco; Floridia, Giovanna; Amato, Annalisa; Censi, Federica; Carta, Claudio; de Stefano, Maria Chiara; Ferrari, Gianluca; Tosto, Fabrizio; Capoluongo, Ettore; Caruso, Ubaldo; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Cirilli, Natalia; Corbetta, Carlo; Padoan, Rita; Raia, Valeria; Taruscio, Domenica

    2016-05-01

    Sweat chloride test is the gold standard test for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. In 2014 the Istituto Superiore di Sanità established the Italian pilot external quality assessment program for CF sweat test (IEQA-ST). Ten laboratories, included among the 33 Italian CF Referral Centers, were selected and enrolled on the basis of their attitude to perform sweat test (ST) analysis by using methods recommended by the Italian Guidelines. They received three different sweat-like samples (normal, borderline and pathologic chloride concentration), with mock clinical indications, for analysis according to routine procedures. Assessment, performed by a panel of experts, covered analytical performance, interpretation and reporting of results; categories of "poor" and "satisfactory" performance were not defined. All data were managed through a web utility. The program identified important areas of interest and, in some case, of concern. It is important to underline that results are referred to a small proportion, i.e. about 30%, of Italian laboratories performing CF ST in the context of the Referral Centers. Data collected highlight the importance of participation in EQA programs as it may improve laboratory/clinical performance; our study represents a model for the setting up of a large-scale EQA scheme for ST. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sweating Rates of Dairy and Feedlot Cows in Stressful Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  13. Human communication of emotion via sweat : How specific is it? (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, M.A.M.; Toet, A.; Duinkerken, R.; Groot, J. de; Kaldewaij, A.; Hout, M.A. van den; et al

    2011-01-01

    Females evaluate ambiguous facial expression – morphed between happy and fearful – faces as more fearful when exposed to fear sweat as compared to control odor (Zhou & Chen, 2009). We investigated the specificity of this effect, i.e. whether processing of fearful faces is affected specifically by

  14. Morphological study of human sweat ducts for the investigation of THz-wave interaction (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kodo; Tripathi, Saroj R.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, some studies reported that the sweat ducts act as a low-Q-factor helical antenna due to their helical structure, and resonate in the terahertz frequency range according to their structural parameters. According to the antenna theory, when the duct works as a helical antenna, the dimension of the helix plays a key role to determine the frequency of resonance. Therefore, the accurate determination of structural parameters of sweat duct is crucially important to obtain the reliable frequency of resonance and modes of operations. Therefore, here we performed the optical coherence tomography (OCT) of human subjects on their palm and foot to investigate the density, distribution and morphological features of sweat ducts. Moreover, we measured the dielectric properties of stratum corneum using terahertz time domain spectroscopy and based upon this information, we determined the frequency of resonance. We recruited 32 subjects for the measurement and the average duct diameter was 95±11μm. Based upon this information on diameter of duct and THz dielectric properties of stratum corneum (ɛ=5.1±1.3), we have calculated the frequency of resonance of sweat duct. Finally, we determined that the center frequency of resonance was 442±76 GHz. We believe that these findings will facilitate further investigation of the THz-skin interaction and provide guidelines for safety levels with respect to human exposure. We will also report on the EEG measurement while being shined by micro watt order THz waves.

  15. Genotoxicological assessment of two reactive dyes extracted from cotton fibres using artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Meireles, Gabriela; dos Santos, Tuane Cristina; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2014-02-01

    Human eyes have a remarkable ability to recognize hundreds of colour shades, which has stimulated the use of colorants, especially for clothing, but toxicological studies have shown that some textile dyes can be hazardous to human health. Under conditions of intense perspiration, dyes can migrate from coloured clothes and penetrate into human skin. Garments made from cotton fabrics are the most common clothing in tropical countries, due to their high temperatures. Aiming to identify safe textile dyes for dyeing cotton fabrics, the genotoxicity [in vitro Comet assay with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF), Tail Intensity] and mutagenicity [Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay (30min), tester strains TA98, TA100, YG1041 and YG1042] of Reactive Blue 2 (RB2, CAS No. 12236-82-7, C.I. 61211) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19, CAS No. 61931-49-5, C.I. 205075) were evaluated both in the formulated form and as extracted from cotton fibres using different artificial sweats. Both the dyes could migrate from cotton fibres to sweat solutions, the sweat composition and pH being important factors during this extraction. However, the dye sweat solutions showed no genotoxic/mutagenic effects, whereas a weak mutagenic potential was detected by the Ames test for both dyes in their formulated form. These findings emphasize the relevance of textile dyes assessment under conditions that more closely resemble human exposure, in order to recognize any hazard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regional and circadian variations of sweating rate and body surface temperature in camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Khalid A; Samara, Emad M; Okab, Aly B; Al-Haidary, Ahmed A

    2012-07-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate the regional variations in surface temperature and sweating rate and to visualize body thermal windows responsible for the dissipation of excess body heat in dromedary camels. This study was conducted on five dromedary camels with mean body weight of 450 ± 20.5 kg and 2 years of age. Sweating rate, skin and body surface temperature showed significant (P surface temperature measured on seven regions of the camel body did not significantly differ. The variation in body surface temperature compared to the variation in skin temperature was higher in the hump compared to the axillary and flank regions, indicating the significance of camel's fur in protecting the skin from daily variation in ambient temperature. Infrared thermography revealed that flank and axillary regions had lower thermal gradients at higher ambient temperature (T(a) ) and higher thermal gradients at lower T(a) , which might indicate the working of flank and axillary regions as thermal windows dissipating heat during the night. Sweating rate showed moderate correlation to skin and body surface temperatures, which might indicate their working as potential thermal drivers of sweating in camels. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Using the Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Group Therapy for Navajo Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the sweat lodge ceremony used at a residential treatment center located on the Navajo Nation and compares the ceremony to modern group work identifying Yalom's (1995) 11 therapeutic factors of group therapy within the ceremony. Considers widespread use of the ceremony with Native Americans and nonnative Americans as well as…

  18. Measurements of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating thermal manikin: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Faming

    2017-01-01

    Evaporative resistance has been widely used to describe the evaporative heat transfer property of clothing. It is also a critical variable in heat stress models for predicting human physiological responses in various environmental conditions. At present, sweating thermal manikins provide a fast and cost-effective way to determine clothing evaporative resistance. Unfortunately, the measurement repeatability and reproducibility of evaporative resistance are rather low due to the complicated moisture transfer processes through clothing. This review article presents a systematical overview on major influential factors affecting the measurement precision of clothing evaporative resistance measurements. It also illustrates the state-of-the-art knowledge on the development of test protocol to measure clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. Some feasible and robust test procedures for measurement of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating manikin are described. Recommendations on how to improve the measurement accuracy of clothing evaporative resistance are addressed and expected future trends on development of advanced sweating thermal manikins are finally presented. PMID:28566566

  19. Utility of No-Sweat Labels for Apparel Consumers: Profiling Label Users and Predicting Their Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Marsha A.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 547 of 2,000 consumers indicated consumer support for socially responsible purchasing. For 16%, "No-Sweat" labels indicating the working conditions of apparel makers were a strong purchasing influence. Women, especially unmarried females with lower educational attainment, were most likely to purchase clothing with No-Sweat…

  20. Corrections to the Shapiro Equation used to Predict Sweating and Water Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T07-## CORRECTIONS TO THE SHAPIRO EQUATION USED TO PREDICT SWEATING AND WATER REQUIREMENTS Richard R...daily water requirements based on metabolic rate, climatic conditions, and clothing” as a research priority. Adequate hydration and core temperature...work/rest cycles, water requirements , and maximum endurance times for a given environmental activity and clothing system scenario. The second

  1. The comfort, measured by means of a sweating manikin (WalterTM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the growing importance of clothing comfort in South African and overseas markets for locally produced clothing, the Council for Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR) acquired an advanced sweating fabric manikin for measuring clothing comfort. This preliminary investigation covers the comfort related properties, ...

  2. COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL TREATMENTS OF FEAR OF BLUSHING, SWEATING OR TREMBLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLING, A; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    Social phobic patients (n = 30) with fear of blushing, sweating or trembling as the predominant complaint were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions: (1) exposure in vivo followed by cognitive therapy, (2) cognitive therapy followed by exposure in vivo, or (3) a cognitive-behavioural

  3. Determination of silver nanoparticle release from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulthong, Kornphimol; Srisung, Sujittra; Boonpavanitchakul, Kanittha; Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong; Maniratanachote, Rawiwan

    2010-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been used in numerous commercial products, including textiles, to prevent bacterial growth. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern that exposure to these nanoparticles may cause potential adverse effects on humans as well as the environment. This study determined the quantity of silver released from commercially claimed nanosilver and laboratory-prepared silver coated fabrics into various formulations of artificial sweat, each made according to AATCC, ISO and EN standards. For each fabric sample, the initial amount of silver and the antibacterial properties against the model Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria on each fabric was investigated. The results showed that silver was not detected in some commercial fabrics. Furthermore, antibacterial properties of the fabrics varied, ranging from 0% to greater than 99%. After incubation of the fabrics in artificial sweat, silver was released from the different fabrics to varying extents, ranging from 0 mg/kg to about 322 mg/kg of fabric weight. The quantity of silver released from the different fabrics was likely to be dependent on the amount of silver coating, the fabric quality and the artificial sweat formulations including its pH. This study is the unprecedented report on the release of silver nanoparticles from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat. This information might be useful to evaluate the potential human risk associated with the use of textiles containing silver nanoparticles.

  4. Sweating responses and the muscle metaboreflex under mildly hyperthermic conditions in sprinters and distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Ichinose, Masashi; Koga, Shunsaku; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Kondo, Narihiko

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effects of different training methods on nonthermal sweating during activation of the muscle metaboreflex, we compared sweating responses during postexercise muscle occlusion in endurance runners, sprinters, and untrained men under mild hyperthermia (ambient temperature, 35°C; relative humidity, 50%). Ten endurance runners, nine sprinters, and ten untrained men (maximal oxygen uptakes: 57.5 ± 1.5, 49.3 ± 1.5, and 36.6 ± 1.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P sprinters than in untrained men (32.2 ± 4.4 vs. 17.3 ± 2.6 mmHg, respectively; P sprinters and untrained men (0.38 ± 0.07, 0.19 ± 0.03, and 0.11 ± 0.04 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), respectively; P sprinters and untrained men. Our results suggest that the specificity of training modalities influences the sweating response during activation of the muscle metaboreflex. In addition, these results imply that a greater activation of the muscle metaboreflex does not cause a greater sweating response in sprinters.

  5. Way-finding in displaced clock-shifted bees proves bees use a cognitive map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, James F; Millar, Craig D; Greggers, Uwe; Lehmann, Konstantin; Pawley, Matthew D M; Gallistel, Charles R; Warman, Guy R; Menzel, Randolf

    2014-06-17

    Mammals navigate by means of a metric cognitive map. Insects, most notably bees and ants, are also impressive navigators. The question whether they, too, have a metric cognitive map is important to cognitive science and neuroscience. Experimentally captured and displaced bees often depart from the release site in the compass direction they were bent on before their capture, even though this no longer heads them toward their goal. When they discover their error, however, the bees set off more or less directly toward their goal. This ability to orient toward a goal from an arbitrary point in the familiar environment is evidence that they have an integrated metric map of the experienced environment. We report a test of an alternative hypothesis, which is that all the bees have in memory is a collection of snapshots that enable them to recognize different landmarks and, associated with each such snapshot, a sun-compass-referenced home vector derived from dead reckoning done before and after previous visits to the landmark. We show that a large shift in the sun-compass rapidly induced by general anesthesia does not alter the accuracy or speed of the homeward-oriented flight made after the bees discover the error in their initial postrelease flight. This result rules out the sun-referenced home-vector hypothesis, further strengthening the now extensive evidence for a metric cognitive map in bees.

  6. Can we disrupt the sensing of honey bees by the bee parasite Varroa destructor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliash, Nurit; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Kamer, Yosef; Pinnelli, Govardhana Reddy; Plettner, Erika; Soroker, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is considered to be one of the most significant threats to apiculture around the world. Chemical cues are known to play a significant role in the host-finding behavior of Varroa. The mites distinguish between bees from different task groups, and prefer nurses over foragers. We examined the possibility of disrupting the Varroa--honey bee interaction by targeting the mite's olfactory system. In particular, we examined the effect of volatile compounds, ethers of cis 5-(2'-hydroxyethyl) cyclopent-2-en-1-ol or of dihydroquinone, resorcinol or catechol. We tested the effect of these compounds on the Varroa chemosensory organ by electrophysiology and on behavior in a choice bioassay. The electrophysiological studies were conducted on the isolated foreleg. In the behavioral bioassay, the mite's preference between a nurse and a forager bee was evaluated. We found that in the presence of some compounds, the response of the Varroa chemosensory organ to honey bee headspace volatiles significantly decreased. This effect was dose dependent and, for some of the compounds, long lasting (>1 min). Furthermore, disruption of the Varroa volatile detection was accompanied by a reversal of the mite's preference from a nurse to a forager bee. Long-term inhibition of the electrophysiological responses of mites to the tested compounds was a good predictor for an alteration in the mite's host preference. These data indicate the potential of the selected compounds to disrupt the Varroa--honey bee associations, thus opening new avenues for Varroa control.

  7. Sequence and expression pattern of the germ line marker vasa in honey bees and stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Donato Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Queens and workers of social insects differ in the rates of egg laying. Using genomic information we determined the sequence of vasa, a highly conserved gene specific to the germ line of metazoans, for the honey bee and four stingless bees. The vasa sequence of social bees differed from that of other insects in two motifs. By RT-PCR we confirmed the germ line specificity of Amvasa expression in honey bees. In situ hybridization on ovarioles showed that Amvasa is expressed throughout the germarium, except for the transition zone beneath the terminal filament. A diffuse vasa signal was also seen in terminal filaments suggesting the presence of germ line cells. Oocytes showed elevated levels of Amvasa transcripts in the lower germarium and after follicles became segregated. In previtellogenic follicles, Amvasa transcription was detected in the trophocytes, which appear to supply its mRNA to the growing oocyte. A similar picture was obtained for ovarioles of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, except that Amvasa expression was higher in the oocytes of previtellogenic follicles. The social bees differ in this respect from Drosophila, the model system for insect oogenesis, suggesting that changes in the sequence and expression pattern of vasa may have occurred during social evolution.

  8. In vivo single human sweat gland activity monitoring using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and two-photon excited autofluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Gasecka, P; Formanek, F; Galey, J-B; Rigneault, H

    2016-04-01

    Eccrine sweat secretion is of central importance for control of body temperature. Although the incidence of sweat gland dysfunction might appear of minor importance, it can be a real concern for people with either hypohidrosis or hyperhidrosis. However, sweat gland function remains relatively poorly explored. To investigate the function of single human sweat glands. We describe a new approach for noninvasive imaging of single sweat gland activity in human palms in vivo up to a depth of 100 μm, based on nonlinear two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). These techniques appear to be useful compared with approaches already described for imaging single sweat gland activity, as they allow better three-dimensional spatial resolution of sweat pore inner morphology and real-time monitoring of individual sweat events. By filling the sweat pore with oil and tuning the CARS contrast at 2845 cm(-1) , we imaged the ejection of sweat droplets from a single sweat gland when oil is pushed out by sweat flow. On average, sweat events lasted for about 30 s every 3 min under the conditions studied. On the other hand, about 20% of sweat glands were found inactive. TPEF and CARS were also used to study, at the single pore level, the antiperspirant action of aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH) and to reveal, for the first time in vivo, the formation of a plug at the pore entrance, in agreement with reported ACH antiperspirant mechanisms. Although data were acquired on human palms, these techniques show great promise for a better understanding of sweat secretion physiology and should be helpful to improve the efficacy of antiperspirant formulations. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Electrophysiological effects of the solitary bee " Anthophora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Effects of the crude venom of the solitary bee (Anthophora pauperata) on cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscles were studied to reveal the mechanism of action of this venom. The main toxic effects on the ECG of isolated toads' hearts noticed after perfusion with different concentrations of this venom.

  10. Reproduction in eusocial bees (Apidae: Apini, Meliponini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinh, T.X.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents some key aspects of the regulation and the mechanisms of colony reproduction in honeybees and stingless bees. Special attention is paid to key questions about how the production of males, gynes and swarms takes place, and what intranidal and extranidal factors are related to

  11. bees of southern Africa (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Fideliidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drop briefly into them to collect pollen or nectar. Pollen is not transported on the legs but on a dense mat of specially modified hairs on the underside of the abdomen. The leaf- cutter bees and their relatives (Megachilidae) also have this ab- dominal scopa but can be distinguished from the fideliids by several morphological ...

  12. Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2004-08-07

    In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies.

  13. Tragedy of the commons in Melipona bees.

    OpenAIRE

    Wenseleers, Tom; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2004-01-01

    In human society selfish use of common resources can lead to disaster, a situation known as the 'tragedy of the commons' (TOC). Although a TOC is usually prevented by coercion, theory predicts that close kinship ties can also favour reduced exploitation. We test this prediction using data on a TOC occurring in Melipona bee societies.

  14. Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of bee pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyman, J P

    1994-01-01

    Bee pollen allergy, although relatively rare, can present a life-threatening medical emergency. Conventional treatment of anaphylaxis is indicated, and further allergic workup is not necessary. There is little awareness of this hazard among the general population. Warnings to include product labeling of potential adverse reactions in sensitive individuals are urgently needed to protect the public from this hazard.

  15. USDA research and honey bee health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA - Agricultural Research Service Bee Research Laboratory (BRL) is comprised of nine full-time federal employees and a team of 20+ students and collaborators from the U.S., England, Thailand, Spain, and China. The mission of the BRL is to provide innovative tools and insights for building and...

  16. HomePort ZigBee Adapter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Smedegaard, Jacob Haubach; Hansen, Rene

    the existing tool, Homeport, to act as a middleware and bridge between ConLAN's existing network and the ZigBee network. This report primarily discusses three possible solutions for constructing this bridge and current status on the implementation of a Develco SmartAMM and Zigbee stack for HomePort....

  17. bees of southern Africa (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Fideliidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    end of the tunnels and are provisioned with a ball of pollen and nectar into which an egg is laid (Rozen 1977). The larva develops by feeding inside the brood ball and goes into a resting stage on reaching maturity. Pupation .... Fidelia braunsiana does not fIt with any of the bee - plant groupings as it visits only the flowers of ...

  18. Testing Honey Bees' Avoidance of Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jesse Wade; Nieh, James C.; Goodale, Eben

    2012-01-01

    Many high school science students do not encounter opportunities for authentic science inquiry in their formal coursework. Ecological field studies can provide such opportunities. The purpose of this project was to teach students about the process of science by designing and conducting experiments on whether and how honey bees (Apis mellifera)…

  19. Parkinsonism following Bee Sting: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting here a rare case of Parkinsonism (Hypokinetic dysarthria caused after a bee stung, a member of the hymenoptera order. The main aim of this report is to orient the clinicians with the possibility of extrapyramidal syndromes because of hymenoptera stings.

  20. Comparison of sweat loss estimates for women during prolonged high-intensity running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Haymes, Emily M; Sawka, Michael N

    2002-08-01

    This study evaluated the error produced by four commonly used field estimates and two prediction equations of total body sweat loss. Eight women distance runners were studied during a 30-km treadmill run (approximately 70% .VO(2max)) in a warm (30 degrees C T(db)) and a cool (14 degrees C T(db)) environment. Total sweat loss (TSL) was determined from changes in body mass corrected for fluid intake (FI), urine losses (UL), clothing (trapped sweat, TS), CO(2)-O(2) exchange (metabolic mass loss, MML), and respiratory water loss (RWL). TSL was compared with four estimates of sweat losses (often employed in the field) from body mass changes corrected for: a) FI only (F-1); b) FI and TS (F-2); c) FI and UL (F-3); or d) FI, TS, and UL (F-4). Two prediction equations were used also for comparison to TSL values. In the warm environment, F-1, F-3, and F-4 accurately estimated (0.2-6.9%; P > 0.05) TSL, whereas F-2 produced a large error (15.3%; P equations markedly underestimated (20-22%) TSL in the warm environment and underestimated (41%) or overestimated (20%) TSL in the cool environment. TSL can be accurately estimated from changes in body mass using F-1, F-3, or F-4 methods in hot environments; however, none of the methods accurately estimated actual TSL values in a cool environment. Neither prediction equation provided accurate estimates of TSL in warm or cool conditions for women runners. These results illustrate the difficulty of accurately estimating and predicting sweat losses in the field.

  1. Physiological processes related to the bee swarming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Svoboda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential genetically subjected behaviours of a bee-colony is swarming. However, in the time of queen breeding and technical approach to colony division, swarming constitutes a problem in the effectiveness of controlled beekeeping and subsequently in decreasing of the attainable economic profits. The intensity of swarming is a polyfactorial phenomenon whose characteristic feature is seasonality (the availability of breed, course of weather so the swarming intensity is different in particular years. This study is connected with the research carried out at the Department of Zoo­lo­gy, Fisheries, Hydrobiology and Apiculture at Mendel University in Brno. The experiment focused on the relationship between the swarming and biological state of bee-colony was realized in three seasons of the period 2003–2005. Experimental bee-colonies were stimulated to the swarming fever by zoo-technical practices, at the same time the biological status of given bee-colony was observed. Within the process of marking of newly emerged workers there was observed their number continuously during the particular season. The samples of 3- and 4-week-old workers were instrumental to the analysis of the development of their hypopharyngeal glands. The study has proved that a bee-colonies building higher number of queen cells are likely expected to be in swarming fever, b 3-week-old workers have hypopharyngeal glands in higher stage of development than 4-week-old workers, c higher stage of swarming fever is closely correlated with higher stage of de­ve­lop­ment of hypopharyngeal glands. These facts can contribute to the comprehension of the reason and relationships of the swarming.

  2. Bilabiate flowers: the ultimate response to bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerkamp, Christian; Classen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2007-08-01

    Bilabiate flowers have evolved in many lineages of the angiosperms, thus representing a convincing example of parallel evolution. Similar to keel blossoms, they have obviously evolved in order to protect pollen against pollen-collecting bees. Although many examples are known, a comprehensive survey on floral diversity and functional constraints of bilabiate flowers is lacking. Here, the concept is widened and described as a general pattern. The present paper is a conceptional review including personal observations of the authors. To form a survey on the diversity of bilabiate blossoms, a search was made for examples across the angiosperms and these were combined with personal observations collected during the last 25 years, coupled with knowledge from the literature. New functional terms are introduced that are independent of morphological and taxonomic associations. Bilabiate constructions occur in at least 38 angiosperm families. They are characterized by dorsiventral organization and dorsal pollen transfer. They are most often realised on the level of a single flower, but may also be present in an inflorescence or as part of a so-called 'walk-around flower'. Interestingly, in functional terms all nototribic blossoms represent bilabiate constructions. The great majority of specialized bee-flowers can thus be included under bilabiate and keel blossoms. The syndrome introduced here, however, also paves the way for the inclusion of larger animals such as birds and bats. The most important evolutionary trends appear to be in the saving of pollen and the precision of its transfer. With special reference to the Lamiales, selected examples of bilabiate flowers are presented and their functional significance is discussed. Bilabiate blossoms protect their pollen against pollen-collecting bees and at the same time render their pollination more precisely. The huge diversity of realised forms indicate the high selection pressure towards the bilabiate syndrome. As bees are

  3. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Andreas; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2010-01-01

    Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from 6 weeks (summer bees) to 6 months (winter bees). We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight/no flight opportunity) to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  4. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  5. Learning at Old Age: A Study on Winter Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Andreas; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2010-01-01

    Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from 6 weeks (summer bees) to 6 months (winter bees). We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight/no flight opportunity) to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning. PMID:20428511

  6. Leaching from the stratum corneum does not explain the previously reported elevated potassium ion concentration in sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J; Stone, Michael; Cannon, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if K+ is leached from the stratum corneum when sweat is present on the skin's surface. The results will help address whether sweat [K+] previously reported in the literature are artifactually elevated as a result of K+ leaching. Twelve (six female, six male) healthy volunteers participated in this study. After thorough skin cleansing and preparation with isopropyl alcohol and high-performance liquid chromatography-grade distilled water, three sites were chosen and a 50 μL drop of artificial sweat was pipetted directly onto the skin. The artificial sweat had a [K+] of 4 mEq·L-1, an osmolality of 120 mosm·L-1, and a pH of 6.0. Immediately following, a clear plastic cover slip (~6 cm2) with a shallow 0.8 cm2 convex impression in the center was applied over each drop, preventing evaporation. Each sample was allowed to sit on the forearm, under the plastic cover slip, for 10 min. The mean (±SD) [K+] in 'artificial' sweat not exposed to the skin was measured to be 4.2±0.4 mEq·L-1. After 10 min of exposure to the stratum corneum of the forearm, the artificial sweat had a mean (±SD) [K+] of 3.9±0.3 mEq·L-1. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the [K+] between the control artificial sweat and the samples collected after 10 min of exposure to forearm skin. These results do not support the hypothesis that significant K+ leaching from the stratum corneum into standing sweat is the cause for the previously reported elevated sweat [K+].

  7. Effect of periglandular ionic composition and transport inhibitors on rhesus monkey eccrine sweat gland function in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, F; Sato, K

    1987-12-01

    1. The effects of peritubular ions and transport inhibitors were studied on methacholine (MCH)-induced sweat secretion by the isolated, cannulated monkey palm sweat glands in vitro and on the transepithelial and basolateral membrane potential (p.d.). 2. Sweat secretory rate was a curvilinear function of peritubular Na+ and Cl- concentration. Among the anion substitutes only Br- was able to totally substitute for Cl-. Presence of HCO3- or H2PO4- in the bath was not essential. 3. Both bumetanide and furosemide inhibited sweat secretion in a dose-dependent manner with the median effective concentration (EC50) of 3 X 10(-6) and 3 X 10(-5) M, respectively. 4. Bumetanide (10(-4) M) had no significant effect on basolateral membrane p.d. but nearly abolished the transepithelial p.d. 5. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, 3 X 10(-4) M) inhibited sweat secretion by only 35%. Inhibitors of ion exchangers amiloride (10(-4) M) and DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid, 10(-4) M) lowered sweat secretion by less than 20%. 6. Removal of peritubular K+ as well as addition of 5 mM-Ba2+ also inhibited sweat rate. 5 mM-Ba2+ abolished the transepithelial p.d. and depolarized the basolateral p.d. by 26 mV, although the effects of Ba2+ on sweating and the transepithelial p.d. were only transient. 7. The data raise a possibility that either the NaCl or Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transport system or both may be involved in MCH-induced sweat secretion, whereas the role of parallel ion exchangers, if any, may be rather minor.

  8. Accumulation of FDG in axillary sweat glands in hyperhidrosis: a pitfall in whole-body PET examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, H. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Celsing, F. [Department of Haematology and Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ingvar, M. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, S. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Karolinska Pharmacy, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, S.A. [Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-03-27

    A diabetic male with severe autonomic neuropathy and recently discovered Hodgkin`s disease demonstrated bilateral uptake of [2-{sup 18}F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in the axillary sweat glands during profuse sweating caused by hypoglycaemia at positron emission tomography examination. It is not yet clear whether the sweating interfered with the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Regardless of the cause or mechanism for the uptake, the finding is clinically relevant. A bilateral symmetrical accumulation of FDG in the axillae of a tumour patient does not necessarily indicate malignant involvement of the lymph nodes. (orig.) With 1 fig., 9 refs.

  9. The bee microbiome: Impact on bee health and model for evolution and ecology of host-microbe interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Kwong, Waldan K.; McFrederick, Quinn; Anderson, Kirk E.; Barribeau, Seth Michael; Chandler, James Angus; Cornman, Robert S.; Dainat, Jacques; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Doublet, Vincent; Emery, Olivier; Evans, Jay D.; Farinelli, Laurent; Flenniken, Michelle L.; Granberg, Fredrik; Grasis, Juris A.; Gauthier, Laurent; Hayer, Juliette; Koch, Hauke; Kocher, Sarah; Martinson, Vincent G.; Moran, Nancy; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Newton, Irene; Paxton, Robert J.; Powell, Eli; Sadd, Ben M.; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Song, Se Jin; Schwarz, Ryan S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Dainat, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    As pollinators, bees are cornerstones for terrestrial ecosystem stability and key components in agricultural productivity. All animals, including bees, are associated with a diverse community of microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. The bee microbiome is likely to be a crucial factor affecting host health. However, with the exception of a few pathogens, the impacts of most members of the bee microbiome on host health are poorly understood. Further, the evolutionary and ecological forces that shape and change the microbiome are unclear. Here, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the bee microbiome, and we present challenges associated with its investigation. We conclude that global coordination of research efforts is needed to fully understand the complex and highly dynamic nature of the interplay between the bee microbiome, its host, and the environment. High-throughput sequencing technologies are ideal for exploring complex biological systems, including host-microbe interactions. To maximize their value and to improve assessment of the factors affecting bee health, sequence data should be archived, curated, and analyzed in ways that promote the synthesis of different studies. To this end, the BeeBiome consortium aims to develop an online database which would provide reference sequences, archive metadata, and host analytical resources. The goal would be to support applied and fundamental research on bees and their associated microbes and to provide a collaborative framework for sharing primary data from different research programs, thus furthering our understanding of the bee microbiome and its impact on pollinator health.

  10. Socially transmitted gut microbiota protect bumble bees against an intestinal parasite

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, H.; Schmid-Hempel, P.

    2011-01-01

    Populations of important pollinators, such as bumble bees and honey bees, are declining at alarming rates worldwide. Parasites are likely contributing to this phenomenon. A distinct resident community of bacteria has recently been identified in bumble bees and honey bees that is not shared with related solitary bee species. We now show that the presence of these microbiota protects bee hosts against a widespread and highly virulent natural parasite (Crithidia bombi) in an experimental setting...

  11. Immunological studies on bee-keepers: specific IgG and subclass typing IgG against bee venom and bee venom components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, R; Forster, J; Ziupa, J; Karitzky, D

    1980-11-17

    Specific IgE antibodies against bee venom and its components were studied in 23 bee-keepers. The highest IgG serum levels were observed for whole bee venom followed by phospholipase A. The serum levels of specific IgG antibodies against melittin and MCD-peptide were lower, the lowest serum levels being observed for apamin. After a 5 month absence from bee-keeping a fall in the serum levels of IgG antibodies was observed in all the bee-keepers studied. The investigation of the IgG subclass antibodies 1-4 against bee venom and phospholipase A demonstrated the highest serum levels for IgG 4 and IgG 2, the lowest levels were observed for IgG 1. The lowest IgG serum levels were associated with the least effective protection to bee stings. These findings support the concept that specific IgG antibodies prevent the development of allergic symptoms after bee sting.

  12. Predator deterrence by mandibular gland secretions of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, J H

    1986-06-01

    Volatile lipids from the mandibular gland secretions of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) are potent olfactory repellents of foraging ants (Formica, Crematogaster) in biologically relevant contexts and quantities. In contrast, differential success in capture of bee and fly prey by predatory asilid flies (Efferia), reduviid bugs (Apiomerus), and arachnids (Agelenopsis, Argiope) is better explained by prey size than by chemical repellence, aposematism, or possession of a sting. Supernormal doses of some allomones, applied to worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) that were fed toArgiope aurantia spiders, elicted more frequent preenvenomation pauses following ensnarement but did not significantly increase other prey-handling times. These pauses merely delayed the bee's demise. Mandibular gland secretions of solitary bees augment their other secondary defenses in at least two contexts: (1) during intranest encounters when repelling intruding ants, and (2) retaliation delivered to their arthropodan predators which, if the bee is nearly too large for the predator to handle, may allow the bee to escape.

  13. SOCIAL COMPLEXITY AND LEARNING FORAGING TASKS IN BEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAYA-MÁRQUEZ MARISOL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Social complexity and models concerning central place foraging were tested with respect to learning predictions using the social honey bee (Apis mellifera and solitary blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria when given foraging problems. Both species were presented the same foraging problems, where 1 only reward molarity varied between flower morphs, and 2 only reward volume varied between flower morphs. Experiments utilized blue vs. white flower patches to standardize rewards in each experimental situation. Although honey bees learned faster than blue orchard bees when given a molarity difference reward problem, there was no significant difference in learning rate when presented a volume difference reward problem. Further, the rate at which blue orchard bees learned the volume difference problem was not significantly different from that with which honey bees learned about reward molarity differences. The results do not support the predictions of the social complexity theory, but do support those of the central place model

  14. Honey Bees, Satellites and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaias, W.

    2008-05-01

    Life isn't what it used to be for honey bees in Maryland. The latest changes in their world are discussed by NASA scientist Wayne Esaias, a biological oceanographer with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. At Goddard, Esaias has examined the role of marine productivity in the global carbon cycle using visible satellite sensors. In his personal life, Esaias is a beekeeper. Lately, he has begun melding his interest in bees with his professional expertise in global climate change. Esaias has observed that the period when nectar is available in central Maryland has shifted by one month due to local climate change. He is interested in bringing the power of global satellite observations and models to bear on the important but difficult question of how climate change will impact bees and pollination. Pollination is a complex, ephemeral interaction of animals and plants with ramifications throughout terrestrial ecosystems well beyond the individual species directly involved. Pollinators have been shown to be in decline in many regions, and the nature and degree of further impacts on this key interaction due to climate change are very much open questions. Honey bee colonies are used to quantify the time of occurrence of the major interaction by monitoring their weight change. During the peak period, changes of 5-15 kg/day per colony represent an integrated response covering thousands of hectares. Volunteer observations provide a robust metric for looking at spatial and inter-annual variations due to short term climate events, complementing plant phenology networks and satellite-derived vegetation phenology data. In central Maryland, the nectar flows are advancing by about -0.6 d/y, based on a 15 yr time series and a small regional study. This is comparable to the regional advancement in the spring green-up observed with MODIS and AVHRR. The ability to link satellite vegetation phenology to honey bee forage using hive weight changes provides a basis for applying satellite

  15. Habitat Fragmentation and Native Bees: a Premature Verdict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Cane

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies directly address the consequences of habitat fragmentation for communities of pollinating insects, particularly for the key pollinator group, bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes. Bees typically live in habitats where nesting substrates and bloom are patchily distributed and spatially dissociated. Bee studies have all defined habitat fragments as remnant patches of floral hosts or forests, overlooking the nesting needs of bees. Several authors conclude that habitat fragmentation is broadly deleterious, but their own data show that some native species proliferate in sampled fragments. Other studies report greater densities and comparable diversities of native bees at flowers in some fragment size classes relative to undisrupted habitats, but find dramatic shifts in species composition. Insightful studies of habitat fragmentation and bees will consider fragmentation, alteration, and loss of nesting habitats, not just patches of forage plants, as well as the permeability of the surrounding matrix to interpatch movement. Inasmuch as the floral associations and nesting habits of bees are often attributes of species or subgenera, ecological interpretations hinge on authoritative identifications. Study designs must accommodate statistical problems associated with bee community samples, especially non-normal data and frequent zero values. The spatial scale of fragmentation must be appreciated: bees of medium body size can regularly fly 1-2 km from nest site to forage patch. Overall, evidence for prolonged persistence of substantial diversity and abundances of native bee communities in habitat fragments of modest size promises practical solutions for maintaining bee populations. Provided that reserve selection, design, and management can address the foraging and nesting needs of bees, networks of even small reserves may hold hope for sustaining considerable pollinator diversity and the ecological services pollinators provide.

  16. Bee bread - perspective source of bioactive compounds for future

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Ivanišová; Miroslava Kačániová; Helena Frančáková; Jana Petrová; Jana Hutková; Valeryii Brovarskyi; Serhii Velychko; Leonora Adamchuk; Zuzana Schubertová; Janette Musilová

    2015-01-01

    Bee bread is product with long history used mainly in folk medicine. Nowadays, bee bread is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. The objective of this study was to determine biological activity of ethanolic extract of bee bread obtained from selected region of Ukraine - Poltava oblast, Kirovohrad oblast, Vinnica oblast, Kyiv oblast, Dnepropetrovsk oblast. The antioxidant activity was measured with the radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2...

  17. Flight of the bumble bee: Buzzes predict pollination services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E Miller-Struttmann

    Full Text Available Multiple interacting factors drive recent declines in wild and managed bees, threatening their pollination services. Widespread and intensive monitoring could lead to more effective management of wild and managed bees. However, tracking their dynamic populations is costly. We tested the effectiveness of an inexpensive, noninvasive and passive acoustic survey technique for monitoring bumble bee behavior and pollination services. First, we assessed the relationship between the first harmonic of the flight buzz (characteristic frequency and pollinator functional traits that influence pollination success using flight cage experiments and a literature search. We analyzed passive acoustic survey data from three locations on Pennsylvania Mountain, Colorado to estimate bumble bee activity. We developed an algorithm based on Computational Auditory Scene Analysis that identified and quantified the number of buzzes recorded in each location. We then compared visual and acoustic estimates of bumble bee activity. Using pollinator exclusion experiments, we tested the power of buzz density to predict pollination services at the landscape scale for two bumble bee pollinated alpine forbs (Trifolium dasyphyllum and T. parryi. We found that the characteristic frequency was correlated with traits known to affect pollination efficacy, explaining 30-52% of variation in body size and tongue length. Buzz density was highly correlated with visual estimates of bumble bee density (r = 0.97, indicating that acoustic signals are predictive of bumble bee activity. Buzz density predicted seed set in two alpine forbs when bumble bees were permitted access to the flowers, but not when they were excluded from visiting. Our results indicate that acoustic signatures of flight can be deciphered to monitor bee activity and pollination services to bumble bee pollinated plants. We propose that applications of this technique could assist scientists and farmers in rapidly detecting and

  18. Flight of the bumble bee: Buzzes predict pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Struttmann, Nicole E; Heise, David; Schul, Johannes; Geib, Jennifer C; Galen, Candace

    2017-01-01

    Multiple interacting factors drive recent declines in wild and managed bees, threatening their pollination services. Widespread and intensive monitoring could lead to more effective management of wild and managed bees. However, tracking their dynamic populations is costly. We tested the effectiveness of an inexpensive, noninvasive and passive acoustic survey technique for monitoring bumble bee behavior and pollination services. First, we assessed the relationship between the first harmonic of the flight buzz (characteristic frequency) and pollinator functional traits that influence pollination success using flight cage experiments and a literature search. We analyzed passive acoustic survey data from three locations on Pennsylvania Mountain, Colorado to estimate bumble bee activity. We developed an algorithm based on Computational Auditory Scene Analysis that identified and quantified the number of buzzes recorded in each location. We then compared visual and acoustic estimates of bumble bee activity. Using pollinator exclusion experiments, we tested the power of buzz density to predict pollination services at the landscape scale for two bumble bee pollinated alpine forbs (Trifolium dasyphyllum and T. parryi). We found that the characteristic frequency was correlated with traits known to affect pollination efficacy, explaining 30-52% of variation in body size and tongue length. Buzz density was highly correlated with visual estimates of bumble bee density (r = 0.97), indicating that acoustic signals are predictive of bumble bee activity. Buzz density predicted seed set in two alpine forbs when bumble bees were permitted access to the flowers, but not when they were excluded from visiting. Our results indicate that acoustic signatures of flight can be deciphered to monitor bee activity and pollination services to bumble bee pollinated plants. We propose that applications of this technique could assist scientists and farmers in rapidly detecting and responding to bee

  19. Studies on Bee Venom and Its Medical Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mahmoud Abdu Al-Samie Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Use of honey and other bee products in human treatments traced back thousands of years and healing properties are included in many religious texts including the Veda, Bible and Quran. Apitherapy is the use of honey bee products for medical purposes, this include bee venom, raw honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, and beeswax. Whereas bee venom therapy is the use of live bee stings (or injectable venom) to treat various diseases such as arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus, sciatica, low back pain, and tennis elbow to name a few. It refers to any use of venom to assist the body in healing itself. Bee venom contains at least 18 pharmacologically active components including various enzymes, peptides and amines. Sulfur is believed to be the main element in inducing the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands and in protecting the body from infections. Contact with bee venom produces a complex cascade of reactions in the human body. The bee venom is safe for human treatments, the median lethal dose (LD50) for an adult human is 2.8 mg of venom per kg of body weight, i.e. a person weighing 60 kg has a 50% chance of surviving injections totaling 168 mg of bee venom. Assuming each bee injects all its venom and no stings are quickly removed at a maximum of 0.3 mg venom per sting, 560 stings could well be lethal for such a person. For a child weighing 10 kg, as little as 93.33 stings could be fatal. However, most human deaths result from one or few bee stings due to allergic reactions, heart failure or suffocation from swelling around the neck or the mouth. As compare with other human diseases, accidents and other unusual cases, the bee venom is very safe for human treatments.

  20. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gastauer, Markus; Campos, Lucio A. O.; WITTMANN, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini) collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of t...

  1. Anti-arthritic effects of microneedling with bee venom gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengdi Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Bee venom can significantly suppress the occurrence of gouty arthritis inflammation in rats and mice LPS inflammatory reaction. Choose the 750 μm microneedle with 10N force on skin about 3 minutes, bee venom can play the optimal role, and the anti-inflammatory effect is obvious. Microneedles can promote the percutaneous absorption of the active macromolecules bee venom gel.

  2. Optimizing ZigBee Security using Stochastic Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    ZigBee is a fairly new but promising wireless sensor network standard that offers the advantages of simple and low resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of great concern to ZigBee, and enhancements are prescribed in the latest ZigBee specication: ZigBee-2007. In this technical report......, we identify an important gap in the specification on key updates, and present a methodology for determining optimal key update policies and security parameters. We exploit the stochastic model checking approach using the probabilistic model checker PRISM, and assess the security needs for realistic...

  3. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS QUEEN BEES MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern queens maintenance systems are based on the use of artificial insemination, queens’ maintenance in the so called „queens bank” , in this way assuring an increased economic efficiency in beekeeping. This study aimed to compare the economic efficiency of the implementation of A.I. to various queen bees maintenance systems. Three alternatives have been taken into account: V1-a queen bee in a cage together with her bees, V2- a queen bank system and V3 – a queen bee in a nucleus. For each queen bee maintenance alternative have been evaluated the most important indicators such as: expenses, incomes, profit, number of marketable inseminated and selected queen bees, honey production, cost/queen, revenue/queen, profit/queen, profit rate. The most effective alternative was the queen bank system assuring 2,400 marketable queen bees and 20 kg honey delivered yearly, USD 12,442 incomes, USD 3,400 expenses, USD 9,042 profit, that is USD 3.77/queen bee and 265.72 % profit rate under the condition as A.I. costs are just USD 1,058, representing 31.1 % of total queen bees maintenance costs.

  4. Factors limiting the species richness of bees in Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiny, S; Michez, D; Kuhlmann, M; Pauly, A; Barbier, Y

    2009-08-01

    There is a severe shortage of knowledge of bee biogeography. Some former studies have highlighted a link between bee diversity and xeric ecosystems, but we know practically nothing of the macro-ecological factors driving bee diversity. The present study aims to analyse the main macro-ecological factors driving bee species-richness in the Saharan region. Our dataset includes 25,000+ records for localities in Africa, between 37 degrees and 10 degrees N. Maps and GIS were used to get a first overview of the distribution of the studied taxa. Partial least squares analysis (PLS) was used to study the impact of a set of ecological factors on the bee species richness (SR). The mapping highlighted the clustering of the highest bee SR values in some parts of the Saharan area (e.g. Maghreb, western Africa). In Central Sahara, there is an obvious topological coincidence of the high SR, the local mountain chains and the inland waters. The PLS helped to quantify the relationships between bee SR and a set of eco-climatic variables. It also highlighted a residual variance not explained by the considered descriptors. Our results recover the tight link between bee SR and xeric ecosystems. They also suggest that, within these ecosystems, bee SR is driven by an optimum of the energy-water balance (on which adjustment is allowed by the above gradients).

  5. Comparative bioacoustical studies on flight and buzzing of neotropical bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Burkart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bees is typically accompanied by the humming sound of their flight. Bees of several tribes are also capable of pollen collecting by vibration, known as buzzing behaviour, which produces a buzzing sound, different from the flight sound. An open question is whether bee species have species-specific buzzing patterns or frequencies dependent of the bees' morphology or are capable to adjust their indivudual buzzing sound to optimize pollen return. The investigations to approach this issue were performed in northeastern Brazil near Recife in the state of Pernambuco. We present a new field method using a commercially available portable system able to record the sound of bees during flight and buzzing at flowers. Further, we describe computer linguistical algorithms to analyse the frequency of the recorded sound sequences. With this method, we recorded the flight and buzzing sequences of 59 individual bees out of 12 species visiting the flowers of Solanum stramoniifolium and S. paniculatum. Our findings demonstrate a typical frequency range for the sounds produced by the bees of a species. Our statistical analysis shows a strong correlation of bee size and flight frequency and demonstrate that bee species use different frequency patterns.

  6. Parasite infection accelerates age polyethism in young honey bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Kryger, Per

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are important pollinators and their health is threatened worldwide by persistent exposure to a wide range of factors including pesticides, poor nutrition, and pathogens. Nosema ceranae is a ubiquitous microsporidian associated with high colony mortality. We used lab...... micro-colonies of honey bees and video analyses to track the effects of N. ceranae infection and exposure on a range of individual and social behaviours in young adult bees. We provide detailed data showing that N. ceranae infection significantly accelerated the age polyethism of young bees, causing...

  7. The Potential Influence of Bumble Bee Visitation on Foraging Behaviors and Assemblages of Honey Bees on Squash Flowers in Highland Agricultural Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghua Xie

    Full Text Available Bee species interactions can benefit plant pollination through synergistic effects and complementary effects, or can be of detriment to plant pollination through competition effects by reducing visitation by effective pollinators. Since specific bee interactions influence the foraging performance of bees on flowers, they also act as drivers to regulate the assemblage of flower visitors. We selected squash (Cucurbita pepo L. and its pollinators as a model system to study the foraging response of honey bees to the occurrence of bumble bees at two types of sites surrounded by a high amount of natural habitats (≥ 58% of land cover and a low amount of natural habitats (≤ 12% of land cover in a highland agricultural ecosystem in China. At the individual level, we measured the elapsed time from the departure of prior pollinator(s to the arrival of another pollinator, the selection of honey bees for flowers occupied by bumble bees, and the length of time used by honey bees to explore floral resources at the two types of sites. At the community level, we explored the effect of bumble bee visitation on the distribution patterns of honey bees on squash flowers. Conclusively, bumble bee visitation caused an increase in elapsed time before flowers were visited again by a honey bee, a behavioral avoidance by a newly-arriving honey bee to select flowers occupied by bumble bees, and a shortened length of time the honey bee takes to examine and collect floral resources. The number of overall bumble bees on squash flowers was the most important factor explaining the difference in the distribution patterns of honey bees at the community level. Furthermore, decline in the number of overall bumble bees on the squash flowers resulted in an increase in the number of overall honey bees. Therefore, our study suggests that bee interactions provide an opportunity to enhance the resilience of ecosystem pollination services against the decline in pollinator diversity.

  8. Do bees like Van Gogh's Sunflowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Walker, Julian

    2006-06-01

    Flower colours have evolved over 100 million years to address the colour vision of their bee pollinators. In a much more rapid process, cultural (and horticultural) evolution has produced images of flowers that stimulate aesthetic responses in human observers. The colour vision and analysis of visual patterns differ in several respects between humans and bees. Here, a behavioural ecologist and an installation artist present bumblebees with reproductions of paintings highly appreciated in Western society, such as Van Gogh's Sunflowers. We use this unconventional approach in the hope to raise awareness for between-species differences in visual perception, and to provoke thinking about the implications of biology in human aesthetics and the relationship between object representation and its biological connotations.

  9. Tactile cues significantly modulate the perception of sweat-induced skin wetness independently of the level of physical skin wetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2015-06-01

    Humans sense the wetness of a wet surface through the somatosensory integration of thermal and tactile inputs generated by the interaction between skin and moisture. However, little is known on how wetness is sensed when moisture is produced via sweating. We tested the hypothesis that, in the absence of skin cooling, intermittent tactile cues, as coded by low-threshold skin mechanoreceptors, modulate the perception of sweat-induced skin wetness, independently of the level of physical wetness. Ten males (22 yr old) performed an incremental exercise protocol during two trials designed to induce the same physical skin wetness but to induce lower (TIGHT-FIT) and higher (LOOSE-FIT) wetness perception. In the TIGHT-FIT, a tight-fitting clothing ensemble limited intermittent skin-sweat-clothing tactile interactions. In the LOOSE-FIT, a loose-fitting ensemble allowed free skin-sweat-clothing interactions. Heart rate, core and skin temperature, galvanic skin conductance (GSC), and physical (w(body)) and perceived skin wetness were recorded. Exercise-induced sweat production and physical wetness increased significantly [GSC: 3.1 μS, SD 0.3 to 18.8 μS, SD 1.3, P FIT and LOOSE-FIT (P > 0.05). However, the limited intermittent tactile inputs generated by the TIGHT-FIT ensemble reduced significantly whole-body and regional wetness perception (P < 0.01). This reduction was more pronounced when between 40 and 80% of the body was covered in sweat. We conclude that the central integration of intermittent mechanical interactions between skin, sweat, and clothing, as coded by low-threshold skin mechanoreceptors, significantly contributes to the ability to sense sweat-induced skin wetness. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Infestation of Japanese native honey bees by tracheal mite and virus from non-native European honey bees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yuriko; Toki, Taku; Morimoto, Tomomi; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2011-11-01

    Invasion of alien species has been shown to cause detrimental effects on habitats of native species. Insect pollinators represent such examples; the introduction of commercial bumble bee species for crop pollination has resulted in competition for an ecological niche with native species, genetic disturbance caused by mating with native species, and pathogen spillover to native species. The European honey bee, Apis mellifera, was first introduced into Japan for apiculture in 1877, and queen bees have been imported from several countries for many years. However, its effects on Japanese native honey bee, Apis cerana japonica, have never been addressed. We thus conducted the survey of honey bee viruses and Acarapis mites using both A. mellifera and A. c. japonica colonies to examine their infestation in native and non-native honey bee species in Japan. Honey bee viruses, Deformed wing virus (DWV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and Sacbrood virus (SBV), were found in both A. mellifera and A. c. japonica colonies; however, the infection frequency of viruses in A. c. japonica was lower than that in A. mellifera colonies. Based on the phylogenies of DWV, BQCV, and SBV isolates from A. mellifera and A. c. japonica, DWV and BQCV may infect both honey bee species; meanwhile, SBV has a clear species barrier. For the first time in Japan, tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) was specifically found in the dead honey bees from collapsing A. c. japonica colonies. This paper thus provides further evidence that tracheal-mite-infested honey bee colonies can die during cool winters with no other disease present. These results demonstrate the infestation of native honey bees by parasite and pathogens of non-native honey bees that are traded globally.

  11. Study on moisture absorption and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Aifen; Zhang, Yongjiu

    2015-07-01

    The moisture absorption and liberation properties of honeycomb polyester fiber were studied in order to understand its moisture absorption and sweat discharge. Through testing moisture absorption and liberation regains of honeycomb polyester fiber and normal polyester fiber in standard atmospheric conditions, their moisture absorption and liberation curves were depicted, and the regression equations of moisture regains to time during their reaching the balance of moisture absorption and moisture liberation were obtained according to the curves. Their moisture absorption and liberation rate curves were analyzed and the regression equations of the rates to time were obtained. The results shows that the moisture regain of honeycomb polyester fiber is much bigger than the normal polyester fiber's, and the initial moisture absorption and moisture liberation rates of the former are much higher than the latter's, so that the moisture absorbance and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber are excellent.

  12. A comparison of fingerprint sweat corrosion of different alloys of brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Stephanie; Bond, John W

    2013-01-01

    Fingerprint sweat from 40 donors was deposited onto samples of five α and α + β phase brasses, comprising five alloys with different copper and zinc concentrations, two of which also had the addition of small concentrations of lead. Visual grading of the visibility of the corrosion revealed that brasses with the least amount of zinc produced the most visible and fully formed fingerprints from the most donors. Consideration of previously reported mechanisms for the corrosion of brass suggests red copper (I) oxide as a likely corrosion product for low zinc brasses, and a consideration of the color, composition, and solubility of fingerprint sweat corrosion products suggests that copper (I) oxide produces good contrast and visibility with the brass substrate. Scanning electron microscope images of the corrosion of all five alloys confirmed the enhanced contrast between corroded and uncorroded areas for low zinc alloys. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Repellent foraging scent recognition across bee families

    OpenAIRE

    Gawleta, Nadine; Zimmermann, Yvonne; Eltz, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Honeybees and bumblebees avoid probing flowers that have been recently depleted by conspecifics, presumably repelled by odours deposited by the previous visitor (foraging scent marks). Here we show that females of the solitary wool-carder bee Anthidium manicatum (Megachilidae) discriminate against previously visited inflorescences (Stachys officinalis), and that discrimination is equally strong regardless of whether the previous visitor is conspecific or belongs to a d...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available honey bee Apis mellifera Arthropoda Apis_mellifera_L.png Apis_mellifera_NL.png Apis_mellife...ra_S.png Apis_mellifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellife...ra&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NS ...

  15. Optimization study for metabolomics analysis of human sweat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in high resolution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Jurado-Gámez, B; Luque de Castro, M D

    2014-03-14

    Sweat has recently gained popularity as a potential tool for diagnostics and biomarker monitoring as it is a non-invasive biofluid the composition of which could be modified by certain pathologies, as is the case with cystic fibrosis, which increases chloride levels in sweat. The aim of the present study was to develop an analytical method for analysis of human sweat by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS/MS) in high resolution mode. Thus, different sample preparation strategies and different chromatographic modes (HILIC and C18 reverse modes) were compared to check their effect on the profile of sweat metabolites. Forty-one compounds were identified by the MS/MS information obtained with a mass tolerance window below 4 ppm. Amino acids, dicarboxylic acids and other interesting metabolites such as inosine, choline, uric acid and tyramine were identified. Among the tested protocols, direct analysis after dilution was a suited option to obtain a representative snapshot of sweat metabolome. In addition, sample clean up by C18 SpinColumn SPE cartridges improved the sensitivity of most identified compounds and reduced the number of interferents. As most of the identified metabolites are involved in key biochemical pathways, this study opens new possibilities to the use of sweat as a source of metabolite biomarkers of specific disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tropical Malaysians and temperate Koreans exhibit significant differences in sweating sensitivity in response to iontophoretically administered acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Bae, Jun-Sang; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Yang, Hun-Mo; Min, Young-Ki

    2009-03-01

    Natives of the tropics are able to tolerate high ambient temperatures. This results from their long-term residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. This study was designed to compare the peripheral mechanisms of thermal sweating in tropical natives with that of their temperate counterparts. Fifty-five healthy male subjects including 20 native Koreans who live in the temperate Korean climate (Temperate-N) and 35 native tropical Malaysian men that have lived all of their lives in Malaysia (Tropical-N) were enrolled in this study after providing written informed consent to participate. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with 10% acetylcholine (ACh) was used to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, and oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The sweat onset time of AXR (nicotinic-receptor-mediated) was 56 s shorter in the Temperate-N than in the Tropical-N subjects ( P stress.

  17. Prediction of mean skin temperature for use as a heat strain scale by introducing an equation for sweating efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, H.; Kuwabara, K.; Hamada, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The present paper made the heat balance equation (HBE) for nude or minimally clad subjects a linear function of mean skin temperature ( t sk) by applying new equations for sweating efficiency ( η sw) and thermoregulatory sweat rate ( S wR). As the solution of the HBE, the equation predicting t sk was derived and used for a heat strain scale of subjects. The η sw was proportional to the reciprocal of S w/ E max ( S w, sweat rate; E max maximum evaporative capacity) and the S wR was proportional to t sk with a parameter of the sweating capacity of the subject. The errors of predicted t sk from observations due to the approximation of η sw were examined based on experimental data conducted on eight young male subjects. The value of errors of t sk was -0.10 ± 0.42 °C (mean ± sample standard deviation (SSD)). We aim to apply the predicted t sk of a subject at a level of sweating capacity as a heat strain scale of a function of four environmental factors (dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, radiation, and air velocity) and three human factors (metabolic rate, sweating capacity, and clothing (≤0.2clo)).

  18. Nanoduct Sweat Conductivity Measurements in 2664 Patients: Relationship to Age, Arterial Blood Gas, Serum Electrolyte Profiles and Clinical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Rabia Gonul; Aydemir, Gokhan; Akcan, Abdullah Baris; Paketci, Cem; Karaoglu, Abdulbaki; Aydinoz, Secil; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Background The Nanoduct® device has acceptable diagnostic accuracy, but there is not enough systematic data supporting its usage in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods A retrospective review of patients with an indication for the sweat test was conducted. The conductivity test was repeated in patients who had values higher than 60 mmol/L, and they were referred for sweat chloride measurements. Associations between sweat conductivity measurements and age, gender, (pH, HCO3, pCO2, Na, K, Cl), family history, consanguinity, indications for the test and number of hospitalization were studied. Results Among 2,664 patients, 16 children had sweat conductivity values higher than 80. The median age of patients diagnosed with CF was 4 months old. Age, pH, HCO3, Na, Cl, K and the sweat conductivity test were statistically related (P conductivity test and the sweat test. Conclusions Patients suspected to have CF can be screened using the Nanoduct® conductivity device in non-qualified centers. PMID:23390474

  19. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Even

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine, neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone. Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop. We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress.

  20. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Naïla; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Barron, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine), neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin) and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone). Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop). We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress. PMID:26466739