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Sample records for swd drosophila suzukii

  1. Erythritol and Lufenuron detrimentally alter age structure of Wild Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) populations in blueberry and blackberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on the efficacy of 0.5 M (61,000 ppm) Erythritol (E) in Truvia Baking Blend®, 10 ppm Lufenuron (L), and their combination (LE) to reduce egg and larval densities of wild populations of spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (SWD) infesting fields of rabbiteye blueberries (...

  2. New record for the invasive Spotted Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Anillaco, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is reported for the first time in La Rioja, Argentina. This represents a major range expansion for this species. The natural enemies of SWD, Leptopilina clavipes and Ganaspis hookeri were also collected with the SWD at the s...

  3. A four-component synthetic attractant for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) isolated from fermented bait headspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: A mixture of wine and vinegar is highly attractive to spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and ethanol and acetic acid are considered key to SWD attraction to such materials. In addition to ethanol and acetic acid, thirteen other wine an...

  4. Rapid and highly accurate detection of Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii, the spotted wing drosophila (SWD), is currently a major pest that causes severe economic losses to thin-skinned, small fruit growers in North America and Europe. The monitoring and early detection of SWD in the field is of the utmost importance for its proper management. Althou...

  5. Evaluation of Attractants for Monitoring Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewin, Andrew J; Renkema, Justin; Fraser, Hannah; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2017-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is an economically important pest of soft and small fruit crops. Unlike other drosophilid flies, D. suzukii is capable of infesting ripe and partially ripe fruit, which poses a significant pest management challenge, as there is no tolerance for infested or damaged fruit in the marketplace. As a result, producers in many regions rely on calendar-scheduled insecticide applications for D. suzukii management. In order to develop an integrated pest management approach, better tools for monitoring adult fly populations are needed. Over two growing seasons in southern Ontario, we evaluated three commercial (Pherocon SWD dual-lure, Suzukii Trap, and Scentry Lure) and two homemade baits (apple cider vinegar and yeast + sugar water) for their ability to capture D. suzukii in raspberry and highbush blueberry fields. In general, commercial attractants captured D. suzukii earlier in the growing season and in greater numbers, with fewer nontarget captures, compared with homemade baits. Scentry Lure tended to perform better than other attractants, capturing D. suzukii earlier and in larger numbers during peak harvest. Pherocon SWD dual-lure was highly specific to D. suzukii. The combination of Scentry Lure with Suzukii Trap had possible synergistic effects, as numbers of D. suzukii captured to the combined treatment were more than additive. Using commercial attractants improves D. suzukii monitoring and will allow growers to improve the timing of insecticide applications with D. suzukii activity in the field. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Comparison of a synthetic chemical lure and standard fermented baits for trapping Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Cowles, Richard S; Vogt, Heidrun; Loeb, Gregory M; Landolt, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were compared in two types of traps: the dome trap and a cup trap. Regardless of trap type, numbers of male and female D. suzukii trapped were greater with the SWD lure compared with apple cider vinegar (ACV) baits at the Washington and New York sites, and were comparable with numbers of D. suzukii captured with a wine plus vinegar bait (W + V) at Germany site and a combination bait meant to mimic W + V at the Connecticut site. Averaged over both types of attractants, the numbers of D. suzukii captured were greater in dome traps than in cup traps in New York and Connecticut for both male and female D. suzukii and in Washington for male D. suzukii. No such differences were found between trap types at the Washington site for female and Germany for male and female D. suzukii. Assessments were also made of the number of large (>0.5 cm) and small (<0.5 cm) nontarget flies trapped. The SWD lure captured fewer nontarget small flies and more large flies compared with ACV bait in New York and fewer nontarget small flies compared with W + V in Germany, although no such differences were found in Washington for the SWD lure versus ACV bait and in Connecticut for the SWD lure versus the combination bait, indicating that these effects are likely influenced by the local nontarget insect community active at the time of trapping. In New York, Connecticut, and Germany, dome traps caught more nontarget flies compared with cup traps. Our results suggest that the four-component SWD chemical lure is an effective attractant for D. suzukii and could be used in place of fermented food-type baits.

  7. 454-Pyrosequencing survey of microbiota in adult Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) corroborates a core microbiome and additional symbiotic and entomopathogenic bacterial associates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete surveys of insect endosymbionts including species of economic importance have until recently been hampered by a lack of high-throughput genetic assays. We used 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicon of adult spotted wing Drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) from souther...

  8. First foreign exploration for asian parasitoids of Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Dipt.: Drosophilidae), is a native of East Asia and is now widely established in North America and Europe, where it is a serious pest of small and stone fruit crops. The lack of effective indigenous parasitoids of D. suzukii in the ...

  9. Drosophila suzukii population response to environment and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, quickly emerged as a devastating invasive pest of small and stone fruits in the Americas and Europe. To better understand the population dynamics of D. suzukii, we reviewed recent work on juvenile development, adult reproduction, and seasonal variation in...

  10. Quantifying host potentials: indexing postharvest fresh fruits for spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Bellamy

    Full Text Available Novel methodology is presented for indexing the relative potential of hosts to function as resources. A Host Potential Index (HPI was developed as a practical framework to express relative host potential based on combining results from one or more independent studies, such as those examining host selection, utilization, and physiological development of the organism resourcing the host. Several aspects of the HPI are addressed including: 1 model derivation; 2 influence of experimental design on establishing host rankings for a study type (no choice, two-choice, and multiple-choice; and, 3 variable selection and weighting associated with combining multiple studies. To demonstrate application of the HPI, results from the interactions of spotted wing drosophila (SWD, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae, with seven "reported" hosts (blackberries, blueberries, sweet cherries, table grapes, peaches, raspberries, and strawberries in a postharvest scenario were analyzed. Four aspects of SWD-host interaction were examined: attraction to host volatiles; population-level oviposition performance; individual-level oviposition performance; and key developmental factors. Application of HPI methodology indicated that raspberries ( (meanHPIvaried  = 301.9±8.39; rank 1 of 7 have the greatest potential to serve as a postharvest host for SWD relative to the other fruit hosts, with grapes ( (meanHPIvaried  = 232.4±3.21; rank 7 of 7 having the least potential.

  11. Economic analysis of revenue losses and control costs associated with the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), in the California raspberry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Derek; Hamby, Kelly A; Bolda, Mark; Goodhue, Rachael E; Williams, Jeffrey C; Zalom, Frank G

    2017-06-01

    The spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is an invasive vinegar fly with a preference for infesting commercially viable berries and stone fruits. SWD infestations can reduce yields significantly, necessitating additional management activities. This analysis estimates economic losses in the California raspberry industry that have resulted from the SWD invasion. California raspberry producers experienced considerable revenue losses and management costs in the first years following SWD's invasion of North America. Conventional producers have since developed effective chemical management programs, virtually eliminating revenue losses due to SWD and reducing the cost of management to that of purchasing and applying insecticides more often. Organic raspberry producers, who do not have access to the same chemical controls, continue to confront substantial SWD-related revenue losses. These losses can be mitigated only by applying expensive insecticides registered for organic use and by performing labor-intensive field sanitation. SWD's invasion into North America has caused extensive crop losses to berry and cherry crops in California and elsewhere. Agricultural producers and researchers have responded quickly to this pest by developing management programs that significantly reduce revenue losses. Economic losses are expected to continue to fall as producers learn to manage SWD more efficiently and as new control tactics become available. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Biological activity of Myrtaceae plant essential oils and their major components against Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Miyeon; Kim, Junheon; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew; Lee, Si Hyeock; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2017-02-01

    The spotted-wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), is a globally invasive and serious pest of numerous soft-skinned fruit crops. Assessments were made of fumigant and contact toxicities of 12 Myrtaceae plant essential oils (EOs) and their components. For determining the mode of action of major components of active EOs, their activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) were also assessed. Strong fumigant and contact toxicities were observed from EOs of Eucalyptus citriodora and Melaleuca teretifolia. The main components of E. citriodora were citronellal and isopulegol, whereas those of M. teretifolia were neral and geranial. Geranial showed the strongest fumigant activity, followed by citronellal or neral, M. teretifolia EO, isopulegol and E. citriodora EO. In contact toxicity assays, geranial also exhibited the strongest insecticidal activity, followed by neral or M. teretifolia EO, citronellol, citronellal, isopulegol and E. citriodora EO. Among the major components, all compounds showed low AChE inhibitory activity, while neral and geranial showed GST inhibitory activity against SWD. Myrtaceae plant EOs and their components have an excellent potential for being used in the control of SWD adults and could be useful in the development of more effective natural compounds as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Olfactory attraction of Drosophila suzukii by symbiotic acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzetto, Fabio

    2016-03-24

    Some species of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play relevant roles in the metabolism and physiology of Drosophila spp. and in some cases convey benefits to their hosts. The pest Drosophila suzukii harbors a set of AAB similar to those of other Drosophila species. Here, we investigate the potential to exploit the ability of AAB to produce volatile substances that attract female D. suzukii. Using a two-way olfactometer bioassay, we investigate the preference of D. suzukii for strains of AAB, and using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry we specifically characterize their volatile profiles to identify attractive and non-attractive components produced by strains from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Komagataeibacter. Flies had a preference for one strain of Komagataeibacter and two strains of Gluconobacter. Analyses of the volatile profiles from the preferred Gluconobacter isolates found that acetic acid is distinctively emitted even after 2 days of bacterial growth, confirming the relevance of this volatile in the profile of this isolate for attracting flies. Analyses of the volatile profile from the preferred Komagataeibacter isolate showed that a different volatile in its profile could be responsible for attracting D. suzukii. Moreover, variation in the concentration of butyric acid derivatives found in some strains may influence the preference of D. suzukii. Our results indicate that Gluconobacter and Komagataeibacter strains isolated from D. suzukii have the potential to provide substances that could be exploited to develop sustainable mass-trapping-based control approaches. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  14. Pupation behavior and larval and pupal biocontrol of Drosophila suzukii in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii is a worldwide pest of fruit crops. Biological control may play an important role in D. suzukii IPM, and suppressing populations in unmanaged areas. While predation has been observed in the field, nothing is known about the potential for natural enemies to reduce D. suzukii popula...

  15. Biotic and abiotic factors impacting development, behavior, phenology, and reproductive biology of Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, quickly emerged as a devastating invasive pest of small and stone fruits in the Americas and Europe. To better understand the population dynamics of D. suzukii, we reviewed recent work on juvenile development, adult reproduction, and seasonal variation in...

  16. Cold hardiness of winter-acclimated Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.R. Stephens; M.K. Asplen; W.D. Hutchison; Robert C. Venette

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, often called spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic vinegar fly that is native to Southeast Asia and was first detected in the continental United States in 2008. Previous modeling studies have suggested that D. suzukii might not survive in portions of the northern United States or southern Canada...

  17. Trap designs for monitoring Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Shearer, Peter W; Barrantes, Luz D; Beers, Elizabeth H; Burrack, Hannah J; Dalton, Daniel T; Dreves, Amy J; Gut, Larry J; Hamby, Kelly A; Haviland, David R; Isaacs, Rufus; Nielsen, Anne L; Richardson, Tamara; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R; Stanley, Cory A; Walsh, Doug B; Walton, Vaughn M; Yee, Wee L; Zalom, Frank G; Bruck, Denny J

    2013-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), an invasive pest of small and stone fruits, has been recently detected in 39 states of the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Europe. This pest attacks ripening fruit, causing economic losses including increased management costs and crop rejection. Ongoing research aims to improve the efficacy of monitoring traps. Studies were conducted to evaluate how physical trap features affect captures of D. suzukii. We evaluated five colors, two bait surface areas, and a top and side position for the fly entry point. Studies were conducted at 16 sites spanning seven states and provinces of North America and nine crop types. Apple cider vinegar was the standard bait in all trap types. In the overall analysis, yellow-colored traps caught significantly more flies than clear, white, and black traps; and red traps caught more than clear traps. Results by color may be influenced by crop type. Overall, the trap with a greater bait surface area caught slightly more D. suzukii than the trap with smaller area (90 vs. 40 cm(2)). Overall, the two traps with a side-mesh entry, with or without a protective rain tent, caught more D. suzukii than the trap with a top-mesh entry and tent.

  18. Effect of non-nutritive sugars to decrease the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially toxic to the fly. In a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly ...

  19. Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura)(Diptera: drosophilidae), trapped with combinations of wines and vinegars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trapping experiments evaluated wine and vinegar baits for spotted wing drosophila flies, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), and assessed variance in biat attractiveness with wit type, vinegar type, and bait age. A mixture of apple cider vinegar and a Merlot wine attracted more flies than a mixtur...

  20. Myrtaceae Plant Essential Oils and their β-Triketone Components as Insecticides against Drosophila suzukii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Gyoo Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spotted wing drosophila (SWD, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, Diptera: Drosophilidae is recognized as an economically important pest in North America and Europe as well as in Asia. Assessments were made for fumigant and contact toxicities of six Myrtaceae plant essential oils (EOs and their components to find new alternative types of insecticides active against SWD. Among the EOs tested, Leptospermum citratum EO, consisting mainly of geranial and neral, exhibited effective fumigant activity. Median lethal dose (LD50; mg/L values of L. citratum were 2.39 and 3.24 for males and females, respectively. All tested EOs except Kunzea ambigua EO exhibited effective contact toxicity. LD50 (µg/fly values for contact toxicity of manuka and kanuka were 0.60 and 0.71, respectively, for males and 1.10 and 1.23, respectively, for females. The LD50 values of the other 3 EOs-L. citratum, allspice and clove bud were 2.11–3.31 and 3.53–5.22 for males and females, respectively. The non-polar fraction of manuka and kanuka did not show significant contact toxicity, whereas the polar and triketone fractions, composed of flavesone, isoleptospermone and leptospermone, exhibited efficient activity with the LD50 values of 0.13–0.37 and 0.22–0.57 µg/fly for males and females, respectively. Our results indicate that Myrtaceae plant EOs and their triketone components can be used as alternatives to conventional insecticides.

  1. Behavioral responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to visual stimuli under laboratory, semifield, and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...

  2. Baseline susceptibility of spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) to four key insecticide classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Timmeren, Steven; Mota-Sanchez, David; Wise, John C; Isaacs, Rufus

    2018-01-01

    The invasive drosophilid pest, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is affecting berry production in most fruit-producing regions of the world. Chemical control is the dominant management approach, creating concern for insecticide resistance in this pest. We compared the insecticide susceptibility of D. suzukii populations collected from conventional, organic or insecticide-free blueberry sites. The sensitivity of D. suzukii to malathion and spinetoram declined slightly across the 3 years of monitoring, whereas it was more consistent for methomyl and zeta-cypermethrin. The sensitivity of D. suzukii to all four insecticides (LC 50 and LC 90 values) did not differ significantly among the blueberry fields using different management practices. The baseline sensitivity of D. suzukii has been characterized, allowing future comparisons if field failures of chemical control are reported. The concentration achieving high control indicates that effective levels of control can still be achieved with field rates of these four insecticides. However, declining susceptibility of some populations of D. suzukii to some key insecticides highlights the need for resistance monitoring. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Peptidergic control of a fruit crop pest: the spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding in insects and offer potential targets for the development of new chemicals to control insect pests. A pest that has attracted much recent attention is the highly invasive Drosophila suzukii, a polyphagous pest that can cause serious...

  4. Spotted wing drosophila prefer low hanging fruit: insights into foraging behavior for management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive insect that attacks ripe, small fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known about SWD foraging ecology, and current trapping and monitoring systems are ineffective at commercial scales. In caged foragin...

  5. Preliminary Screening of Potential Control Products against Drosophila suzukii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first recording of Drosophila suzukii in the UK occurred in the south of England during August 2012. Since then sticky traps have continued to record the presence of individuals. Several products (both chemical and biological were investigated for their efficacy against different life-stages of the pest. Both direct and indirect exposure to control products was assessed. Spinosad, chlorantraniliprole and the experimental product, TA2674, showed excellent potential as control agents when used as either a pre- or post-dipping treatment for blueberries with mortalities of 100%, 93% and 98% mortality, respectively, being achieved following pre-treatment. Direct spray application of all products tested had limited impact upon adult flies. Highest mortality (68% was achieved following direct application of TA2674. Entomopathogenic agents (nematodes and fungi tested appeared to reduce fly population development (ranges of 34–44% mortality obtained but would seem unable to eradicate outbreaks. The potential of the tested products to control D. suzukii is discussed.

  6. Thermal Tolerances of the Spotted-Wing Drosophila Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Geraldine D; Emiljanowicz, Lisa; Wilkinson, Francesca; Kornya, Melanie; Newman, Jonathan A

    2016-04-01

    The spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura) is an invasive species of Asian origin that is now widely distributed in North America and Europe. Because of the female’s serrated ovipositor, eggs are laid in preharvest fruit, causing large economic losses in cultivated berries and stone fruit. Modeling D. suzukii population dynamics and potential distribution will require information on its thermal tolerance. Large summer populations have been found in regions with severe winter conditions, though little is known about responses to prolonged low-temperature exposure. We used controlled chambers to examine D. suzukii fecundity, development rate, and mortality across a range of temperatures encompassing the upper and lower thresholds (5–35°C). Optimal temperatures (Topt) were found to be 28.2°C for the development of the egg-to-adult stage, and 22.9°C for reproductive output. No adult eclosion occurred below 8.1°C (Tlower) or above 30.9°C (Tupper). We also investigated survival outcomes following prolonged (42-d) low-temperature exposure to a simulated cold winter (−5, −3, −1, 1, 3, and 5°C). Adult survival was dependent on temperature, with a mean LT50 of 4.9°C. There were no effects of sex, mating status, geographic strain, and photoperiod preexposure on overwintering survival. Thirty-eight percent of females that were mated prior, but not after, prolonged low-temperature exposure produced viable offspring, suggesting that this species may undergo sperm storage. This study provides data on the thermal tolerances of D. suzukii, which can be used for models of D. suzukii population dynamics, degree-day, and distribution models.

  7. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  8. Further Screening of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes as Control Agents for Drosophila suzukii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii populations remain low in the UK. To date, there have been no reports of widespread damage. Previous research demonstrated that various species of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes could potentially suppress D. suzukii population development under laboratory trials. However, none of the given species was concluded to be specifically efficient in suppressing D. suzukii. Therefore, there is a need to screen further species to determine their efficacy. The following entomopathogenic agents were evaluated for their potential to act as control agents for D. suzukii: Metarhizium anisopliae; Isaria fumosorosea; a non-commercial coded fungal product (Coded B; Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, S. kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The fungi were screened for efficacy against the fly on fruit while the nematodes were evaluated for the potential to be applied as soil drenches targeting larvae and pupal life-stages. All three fungi species screened reduced D. suzukii populations developing from infested berries. Isaria fumosorosea significantly (p < 0.001 reduced population development of D. suzukii from infested berries. All nematodes significantly reduced adult emergence from pupal cases compared to the water control. Larvae proved more susceptible to nematode infection. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora proved the best from the four nematodes investigated; readily emerging from punctured larvae and causing 95% mortality. The potential of the entomopathogens to suppress D. suzukii populations is discussed.

  9. The influence of temperature and photoperiod on the reproductive diapause and cold tolerance of spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge regarding the reproductive status of spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura)(Diptera: Drosophilidae) is of critical importance in predicting potential infestations of this invasive pest, as eggs are laid in ripe or ripening fruit of several commercially important small frui...

  10. Plant essential oils and potassium metabisulfite as repellents for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Justin M.; Wright, Derek; Buitenhuis, Rose; Hallett, Rebecca H.

    2016-01-01

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is a globally invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit. Females oviposit into ripening fruit and larvae cause direct destruction of tissues. As many plant essential oils are permitted food additives, they may provide a safe means of protecting fruit from D. suzukii infestation in both conventional and organic production systems. Twelve oils and potassium metabisulfite (KMS) were screened in the laboratory as repellents for D. suzukii flies. Most essential oils deterred D. suzukii flies from cotton wicks containing attractive raspberry juice. Peppermint oil was particularly effective, preventing almost all flies from contacting treated wicks and remaining 100% repellent for 6 d post-application. Thyme oil was unique because it caused high male mortality and reduced the number of responding flies compared to other oils. KMS was not found to be repellent to D. suzukii, but may have fumigant properties, particularly at high concentrations. Peppermint oil appears to be the best candidate for field testing to determine the effectiveness and feasibility of using essential oils as part of a push-pull management strategy against D. suzukii. This is the first time that essential oils have been evaluated and proven effective in preventing fruit-infesting flies from contacting attractive stimuli. PMID:26893197

  11. Integrating circadian activity and gene expression profiles to predict chronotoxicity of Drosophila suzukii response to insecticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Hamby

    Full Text Available Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura is a recent invader that infests intact ripe and ripening fruit, leading to significant crop losses in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Since current D. suzukii management strategies rely heavily on insecticide usage and insecticide detoxification gene expression is under circadian regulation in the closely related Drosophila melanogaster, we set out to determine if integrative analysis of daily activity patterns and detoxification gene expression can predict chronotoxicity of D. suzukii to insecticides. Locomotor assays were performed under conditions that approximate a typical summer or winter day in Watsonville, California, where D. suzukii was first detected in North America. As expected, daily activity patterns of D. suzukii appeared quite different between 'summer' and 'winter' conditions due to differences in photoperiod and temperature. In the 'summer', D. suzukii assumed a more bimodal activity pattern, with maximum activity occurring at dawn and dusk. In the 'winter', activity was unimodal and restricted to the warmest part of the circadian cycle. Expression analysis of six detoxification genes and acute contact bioassays were performed at multiple circadian times, but only in conditions approximating Watsonville summer, the cropping season, when most insecticide applications occur. Five of the genes tested exhibited rhythmic expression, with the majority showing peak expression at dawn (ZT0, 6am. We observed significant differences in the chronotoxicity of D. suzukii towards malathion, with highest susceptibility at ZT0 (6am, corresponding to peak expression of cytochrome P450s that may be involved in bioactivation of malathion. High activity levels were not found to correlate with high insecticide susceptibility as initially hypothesized. Chronobiology and chronotoxicity of D. suzukii provide valuable insights for monitoring and control efforts, because insect activity as well as

  12. Effect of chemical ratios of a microbial-based feeding attractant on trap catch of spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (SWD) can be trapped with a feeding attractant based on wine and vinegar volatiles and consisting of acetic acid, ethanol, acetoin and methionol. Using that 4-component blend, we found that the catch of SWD increased with increases in the release rate of acetoin (from 0...

  13. Further Screening of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes as Control Agents for Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Audsley, Neil

    2016-06-09

    Drosophila suzukii populations remain low in the UK. To date, there have been no reports of widespread damage. Previous research demonstrated that various species of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes could potentially suppress D. suzukii population development under laboratory trials. However, none of the given species was concluded to be specifically efficient in suppressing D. suzukii. Therefore, there is a need to screen further species to determine their efficacy. The following entomopathogenic agents were evaluated for their potential to act as control agents for D. suzukii: Metarhizium anisopliae; Isaria fumosorosea; a non-commercial coded fungal product (Coded B); Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, S. kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The fungi were screened for efficacy against the fly on fruit while the nematodes were evaluated for the potential to be applied as soil drenches targeting larvae and pupal life-stages. All three fungi species screened reduced D. suzukii populations developing from infested berries. Isaria fumosorosea significantly (p entomopathogens to suppress D. suzukii populations is discussed.

  14. Effect of erythritol formulation on the mortality, fecundity and physiological excretion in Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we studied various combinations of non-nutritive sugars including erythritol and erythrose having a potentially insecticidal effect on Drosophila suzukii. The study suggested two potential physiological changes causing fly mortality: 1) starvation from the feeding of non-metabolizable er...

  15. Germline transformation of the spotted wing drosophilid, Drosophila suzukii, with a piggyBac transposon vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii is a pest of small fruits in many parts of the world, whose management is limited to cultural practices and the use of insecticides. Here we describe a method to genetically manipulate this species in the first step to create female lethality strains useful for the sterile insect ...

  16. Humidity implications for populations of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature and humidity affect insect physiology, survival, fecundity, reproductive status and behavior. Drosophila suzukii is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit and can cause severe economic losses in a wide range of susceptible crops. This study was conducted on blueberries to determine the e...

  17. Multistate Comparison of Attractants for Monitoring Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Blueberries and Caneberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Hannah J; Asplen, Mark; Bahder, Luz; Collins, Judith; Drummond, Francis A; Guédot, Christelle; Isaacs, Rufus; Johnson, Donn; Blanton, Anna; Lee, Jana C; Loeb, Gregory; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; van Timmeren, Steven; Walsh, Douglas; McPhie, Douglas R

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumara, also referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, has recently expanded its global range with significant consequences for its primary host crops: blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, cherries, and strawberries. D. suzukii populations can increase quickly, and their infestation is difficult to predict and prevent. The development of effective tools to detect D. suzukii presence in new areas, to time the beginning of activity within a crop, to track seasonal activity patterns, and to gauge the effectiveness of management efforts has been a key research goal. We compared the efficiency, selectivity, and relationship to fruit infestation of a range of commonly used homemade baits and a synthetic formulated lure across a wide range of environments in 10 locations throughout the United States. Several homemade baits were more efficient than apple cider vinegar, a commonly used standard, and a commercially formulated lure was, in some configurations and environments, comparable with the most effective homemade attractant as well as potentially more selective. All alternative attractants also captured flies between 1 and 2 wk earlier than apple cider vinegar, and detected the presence of D. suzukii prior to the development of fruit infestation. Over half the Drosophila spp. flies captured in traps baited with any of the attractants were not D. suzukii, which may complicate their adoption by nonexpert users. The alternative D. suzukii attractants tested are improvement on apple cider vinegar and may be useful in the development of future synthetic lures. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Basal tolerance to heat and cold exposure of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Enriquez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is a new pest in Europe and America which causes severe damages, mostly to stone fruit crops. Temperature and humidity are among the most important abiotic factors governing insect development and fitness. In many situations, temperature can become stressful thus compromising survival. The ability to cope with thermal stress depends on basal level of thermal tolerance. Basic knowledge on temperature-dependent mortality of D. suzukii is essential to facilitate management of this pest. The objective of the present study was to investigate D. suzukii basal cold and heat tolerance. Adults and pupae were subjected to six low temperatures (−5–7.5 °C and seven high temperatures (30–37 °C for various durations, and survival-time-temperature relationships were investigated. Data showed that males were globally more cold tolerant than females. At temperature above 5 °C, adult cold mortality became minor even after prolonged exposures (e.g., only 20% mortality after one month at 7.5 °C. Heat tolerance of males was lower than that of females at the highest tested temperatures (34, 35 and 37 °C. Pupae appeared much less cold tolerant than adults at all temperatures (e.g., Lt50 at 5° C: 4–5 d for adults vs. 21 h for pupae. Pupae were more heat tolerant than adults at the most extreme high temperatures (e.g., Lt50 at 37 °C: 30 min for adults vs. 4 h for pupae. The pupal thermal tolerance was further investigated under low vs. high humidity. Low relative humidity did not affect pupal cold survival, but it reduced survival under heat stress. Overall, this study shows that survival of D. suzukii under heat and cold conditions can vary with stress intensity, duration, humidity, sex and stage, and the methodological approach used here, which was based on thermal tolerance landscapes, provides a comprehensive description of D. suzukiithermal tolerance and limits.

  19. Seasonal cues induce phenotypic plasticity of Drosophila suzukii to enhance winter survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Peter W; West, Jessica D; Walton, Vaughn M; Brown, Preston H; Svetec, Nicolas; Chiu, Joanna C

    2016-03-22

    As global climate change and exponential human population growth intensifies pressure on agricultural systems, the need to effectively manage invasive insect pests is becoming increasingly important to global food security. Drosophila suzukii is an invasive pest that drastically expanded its global range in a very short time since 2008, spreading to most areas in North America and many countries in Europe and South America. Preliminary ecological modeling predicted a more restricted distribution and, for this reason, the invasion of D. suzukii to northern temperate regions is especially unexpected. Investigating D. suzukii phenology and seasonal adaptations can lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms through which insects express phenotypic plasticity, which likely enables invasive species to successfully colonize a wide range of environments. We describe seasonal phenotypic plasticity in field populations of D. suzukii. Specifically, we observed a trend of higher proportions of flies with the winter morph phenotype, characterized by darker pigmentation and longer wing length, as summer progresses to winter. A laboratory-simulated winter photoperiod and temperature (12:12 L:D and 10 °C) were sufficient to induce the winter morph phenotype in D. suzukii. This winter morph is associated with increased survival at 1 °C when compared to the summer morph, thus explaining the ability of D. suzukii to survive cold winters. We then used RNA sequencing to identify gene expression differences underlying seasonal differences in D. suzukii physiology. Winter morph gene expression is consistent with known mechanisms of cold-hardening such as adjustments to ion transport and up-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, transcripts involved in oogenesis and DNA replication were down-regulated in the winter morph, providing the first molecular evidence of a reproductive diapause in D. suzukii. To date, D. suzukii cold resistance studies suggest that this

  20. Oviposition efficacy of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on different cultivars of blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hirotoshi; Kunimi, Yasuhisa; Ban, Takuya; Nakai, Madoka

    2013-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an important pest of thin-skinned fruits including blueberry, raspberry, strawberry, and cherry. Blueberry was introduced into Japan in the 1950s, and severe economic losses attributable to D. suzukii were first reported in 2002. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether oviposition behavior varies among blueberry cultivars having different firmness of fruit. Fruit firmness in 12 cultivars of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) was determined using a rheometer. More eggs tended to be laid in berries of cultivars possessing softer fruits than in those having firmer fruits. Choice tests, where one female was allowed to oviposit on blueberry fruits with different firmness, showed that softer fruits were more vulnerable to D. suzukii females than firmer fruits.

  1. First field records of Pachycrepoideus vindemiae as a parasitoid of Drosophila suzukii in European and Oregon small fruit production areas

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    M.V. Rossi Stacconi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae is a destructive crop pest native to Southeast Asia that recently invaded countries in Europe and North America, severely impacting commercial fruit production in its new host range. Here we report the results of a survey aimed at determining the presence of indigenous D. suzukii parasitoid populations carried out from May to October 2012 in two areas negatively affected by this fruit pest: Trento Province, Northern Italy, and Oregon in the Pacific Northwest of the USA. We conducted field and laboratory studies in order to determine the status of biological control agents utilizing D. suzukii as a host. Our study sites included a range of commercial soft fruits and natural non-commercial habitats. In each site, sentinel traps were baited with either D. suzukii or Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae larvae in different food substrates. The generalist parasitoid, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, was collected from both D. suzukii and D. melanogaster pupae in traps deployed in a selection of these sites. This report of P. vindemiae in 2012 represents the first identification of D. suzukii parasitoids in Europe. A successive parasitism efficacy test was set up under controlled laboratory conditions confirming the ability of P. vindemiae to attack D. suzukii pupae. In addition, an historical digression with analysis of the original documents in the Italian archives has been provided in order to unravel the correct species name. We finally discuss the possible practical implications of this finding for the biological control of D. suzukii.

  2. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF DROSOPHILA SUZUKII (DIPTERA: DROSOPHILIDAE) IN BELGIUM IN 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belien, T; Thys, T; Fassotte, C; Walrant, C; Tomme, M; Bolen, M; Bylemans, D

    2014-01-01

    The vinegar fly Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is a new invasive fruit pest that recently became established in Europe. Unlike other fruit flies that typically only infest overripe and rotten fruit, D. suzukii females oviposit in ripe fruit leading to considerable economic losses of fruit during production. In 2011 and 2012 D. suzukii was detected at several places in Belgium. In 2013, a large-scale monitoring in frame of the project "FLY ALERT" (FOD) was executed using traps with liquid attractant (apple cider vinegar) at more than 100 locations across Belgium during the whole fruit growing season. At 16 locations we also compared the efficacy of a 'bottle type' trap with a 'cup type' trap. The results show that D. suzukii has expanded its distribution in Belgium. Remarkably, in 2013 as well as in 2012 the first detections were made only in the second part of the growing season (August) and the populations reached their peak only at the very end of the season (November). In the bottle type trap the first flies were caught 2-3 weeks earlier than in the cup type trap. In addition, also the population peaks were on average 1 week earlier when monitored with the bottle trap compared to when monitored with the cup trap. In 2014, after an exceptional mild winter adult D. suzukii flies were continuously detected throughout the winter and early spring. The implications of these findings for the phenology of D. suzukii in the Northwest climate region of Europe are discussed.

  3. Seasonal monitoring for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in California commercial raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, K A; Bolda, M P; Sheehan, M E; Zalom, F G

    2014-08-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) prefer to oviposit on ripe fruit and have become an important pest of California raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) since their detection in Santa Cruz County, CA, in 2008. Preliminary management guidelines included D. suzukii monitoring recommendations, though there was little available information on seasonal occurrence and potential lures for use in raspberries. To address this issue, we trapped adult D. suzukii weekly for 2 yr (including both spring and fall harvests) in multiple raspberry varieties using apple cider vinegar and a yeast-sugar-water mixture as liquid lures, and measured fruit infestation when commercially ripe fruit were available. D. suzukii pressure as measured by larval infestation and adult trap captures was higher during the fall raspberry harvest season. The yeast lure captured significantly more D. suzukii during the fall harvest than the apple cider vinegar, and while both lures tended to capture more females than males, this varied by month of the year and was more pronounced for the yeast lure. Trap captures from each lure correlated well to one another, and often exhibited significant correlation to larval infestation. However, during all seasons and under both conventional and organic management, worrisome outliers were present (high larval infestation with low trap captures) that call into question the reliability of using the systems presented here as a basis for management decisions at this time.

  4. Adaptation to new nutritional environments: larval performance, foraging decisions, and adult oviposition choices in Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Soares, Nuno F; Nogueira-Alves, A; Beldade, P; Mirth, Christen Kerry

    2017-06-07

    Understanding how species adapt to new niches is a central issue in evolutionary ecology. Nutrition is vital for the survival of all organisms and impacts species fitness and distribution. While most Drosophila species exploit rotting plant parts, some species have diversified to use ripe fruit, allowing earlier colonization. The decomposition of plant material is facilitated by yeast colonization and proliferation. These yeasts serve as the main protein source for Drosophila larvae. This dynamic rotting process entails changes in the nutritional composition of the food and other properties, and animals feeding on material at different stages of decay are expected to have behavioural and nutritional adaptations. We compared larval performance, feeding behaviour and adult oviposition site choice between the ripe fruit colonizer and invasive pest Drosophila suzukii, and a closely-related rotting fruit colonizer, Drosophila biarmipes. Through the manipulation of protein:carbohydrate ratios in artificial diets, we found that D. suzukii larvae perform better at lower protein concentrations and consume less protein rich diets relative to D. biarmipes. For adult oviposition, these species differed in preference for substrate hardness, but not for the substrate nutritional composition. Our findings highlight that rather than being an exclusive specialist on ripe fruit, D. suzukii's adaptation to use ripening fruit allow it to colonize a wider range of food substrates than D. biarmipes, which is limited to soft foods with higher protein concentrations. Our results underscore the importance of nutritional performance and feeding behaviours in the colonization of new food niches.

  5. Seasonal cues induce phenotypic plasticity of Drosophila suzukii to enhance winter survival

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Peter W.; West, Jessica D.; Walton, Vaughn M.; Brown, Preston H.; Svetec, Nicolas; Chiu, Joanna C.

    2016-01-01

    Background As global climate change and exponential human population growth intensifies pressure on agricultural systems, the need to effectively manage invasive insect pests is becoming increasingly important to global food security. Drosophila suzukii is an invasive pest that drastically expanded its global range in a very short time since 2008, spreading to most areas in North America and many countries in Europe and South America. Preliminary ecological modeling predicted a more restricte...

  6. Primer registro de Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) asociado al cultivo de arándanos (Vaccinium spp.) de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marina V. SANTADINO; María B. Riquelme Virgala; María A. ANSA; Bruno, Martín; Gisela DI SILVESTRO; Elio G. LUNAZZI

    2015-01-01

    La presencia de la especie de origen asiático Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), conocida como “drosophila de las alas manchadas”, fue detectada alimentándose de frutos de arándano (Ericaceae) en la localidad de Lobos, provincia de Buenos Aires. Esto constituye el primer registro de esta importante plaga sobre este cultivo en Argentina.

  7. Oviposition activity of Drosophila suzukii as mediated by ambient and fruit temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian N Zerulla

    Full Text Available The invasive pest Drosophila suzukii was introduced to southern Europe in 2008 and spread throughout Central Europe in the following years. Precise reliable data on the temperature-dependent behavior of D. suzukii are scarce but will help forecasting and cultivation techniques. Depending on physico-chemical properties, surface temperature of objects may differ from ambient temperatures, determining physical activity, and affect oviposition on or into substrate, determining preimaginal development later. Therefore, the preferred ambient temperatures of D. suzukii and fruit temperature for oviposition were examined on a linear temperature gradient device. Thirty adults (15 ♀; 15 ♂ were adapted to different temperatures (10, 20, 30°C for six days and then exposed to different temperature gradients (10-25, 20-35, 25-40°C. D. suzukii adapted to 10°C remained in cooler regions and suffered from a significantly higher mortality at the 25-40°C gradient. Animals adapted to warmer temperatures had a wider temperature preference on the gradient device. Acclimation to lower temperatures and the resulting lower temperature preferences may allow the flies to disperse better in spring to search for oviposition sites. The oviposition activity decreased continuously at a fruit temperature above 28°C and below 15°C, with highest oviposition activity in fruits with temperatures between 19.7°C and 24.8°C. The preferred fruit temperature is in accordance with the temperature optimum of reproduction biology and preimaginal development of D. suzukii reported in the literature.

  8. Improved capture of Drosophila suzukii by a trap baited with two attractants in the same device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, Rodrigo; Tadeo, Eduardo; Toledo-Hérnandez, Ricardo A; Carmona, Lino; Lima, Itzel; Williams, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    The improvement of trap-lure combinations is an important part of integrated pest management programs that involve monitoring pests for timely insecticide applications, or for their use in control strategies such as mass trapping or bait stations. In this study improvements in the capture of Drosophila suzukii were not observed following the inclusion of different color stimuli with respect to a red-black stripe cup trap. This red-black stripe trap with a hemispherical dome-shaped lid had a significantly improved physical retention of flies compared to traps fitted with a flat lid. Retention was further improved when an additional tube device, which could be baited with a supplemental attractant, was introduced through the dome-shaped lid. Under laboratory conditions, this trap, in which apple cider vinegar + 10% ethanol was present as the drowning solution and the additional tube device was baited with a fermenting mixture of sugar and yeast, was significantly more effective in catching D. suzukii flies than other conventional attractants or a commercial lure. The capture rate of this trap-lure combination remained higher than that of a commercial lure, even after 20 days of use under laboratory conditions. In a guava orchard this trap was 15-fold more effective in catching D. suzukii flies than similar traps baited with apple cider vinegar alone, 4 to 7 fold more effective than similar traps baited with a commercial lure, and 1.7-fold more effective than a fermenting mixture of yeasts and wheat flour. In commercial blackberry orchards, this trap was 6-fold more effective in trapping D. suzukii flies than the clear trap baited with apple cider vinegar used by growers. The efficacy of this trap presents a promising line of future research for monitoring and control of D. suzukii and likely other drosophilid pests.

  9. Improved capture of Drosophila suzukii by a trap baited with two attractants in the same device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lasa

    Full Text Available The improvement of trap-lure combinations is an important part of integrated pest management programs that involve monitoring pests for timely insecticide applications, or for their use in control strategies such as mass trapping or bait stations. In this study improvements in the capture of Drosophila suzukii were not observed following the inclusion of different color stimuli with respect to a red-black stripe cup trap. This red-black stripe trap with a hemispherical dome-shaped lid had a significantly improved physical retention of flies compared to traps fitted with a flat lid. Retention was further improved when an additional tube device, which could be baited with a supplemental attractant, was introduced through the dome-shaped lid. Under laboratory conditions, this trap, in which apple cider vinegar + 10% ethanol was present as the drowning solution and the additional tube device was baited with a fermenting mixture of sugar and yeast, was significantly more effective in catching D. suzukii flies than other conventional attractants or a commercial lure. The capture rate of this trap-lure combination remained higher than that of a commercial lure, even after 20 days of use under laboratory conditions. In a guava orchard this trap was 15-fold more effective in catching D. suzukii flies than similar traps baited with apple cider vinegar alone, 4 to 7 fold more effective than similar traps baited with a commercial lure, and 1.7-fold more effective than a fermenting mixture of yeasts and wheat flour. In commercial blackberry orchards, this trap was 6-fold more effective in trapping D. suzukii flies than the clear trap baited with apple cider vinegar used by growers. The efficacy of this trap presents a promising line of future research for monitoring and control of D. suzukii and likely other drosophilid pests.

  10. Olfactory specialization in Drosophila suzukii supports an ecological shift in host preference from rotten to fresh fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesey, Ian W; Knaden, Markus; Hansson, Bill S

    2015-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that Drosophila suzukii is capable of attacking ripening fruit, making it a unique species within a fly family named for their attraction towards the fermentation products associated with rotten fruits, vinegar, and yeast. It also has been hypothesized that D. suzukii is more attracted to the volatiles associated with the earlier ripening stages of fruit development, and in turn, that D. suzukii is less attracted to fermented food resources, especially when compared with D. melanogaster. Here, we demonstrate that D. suzukii and its close relative D. biarmipes are in fact more sensitive to volatiles associated with the fruit-ripening process; however, in choice-assays, both spotted-wing species are more attracted to fermented fruit than to earlier stages of fruit development, which is similar to the behavioral preferences of D. melanogaster, and thus, fruit developmental stage alone does not explain the ecological niche observed for D. suzukii. In contrast, we show that both D. suzukii and D. biarmipes are more attracted to leaf odors than D. melanogaster in behavioral trials. For D. suzukii, this differential behavioral preference towards leaves appears to be linked to β-cyclocitral, a volatile isoprenoid that we show is most likely a novel ligand for the "ab3A" neuron. In addition, this compound is not detected by either of the other two tested fly species.

  11. Economic Impact of the Introduction and Establishment of Drosophila suzukii on Sweet Cherry Production in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzi, Dominique; Bravin, Esther; Meraner, Manuela; Finger, Robert; Kuske, Stefan

    2017-02-08

    First detected in Switzerland in 2011, the invasive Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing drosophila, has caused recurring costs for growers of berries and fruit. Recommended management approaches rely on a set of methods, tailored to suit crop requirements under the prevailing local conditions. Control of D. suzukii represents a substantial economic burden for growers, in terms of material, equipment, new infrastructure and extra labour. However, those growers who invest wisely to deliver unblemished produce are rewarded with high payoffs. We present insights from a growers' survey conducted in 2015 and 2016 to gauge the impact of the introduction and establishment of D. suzukii on Swiss sweet cherry production. The surveyed growers (111 in 2015 and 298 in 2016) observed the recommended surveillance, sanitation and control measures. The use of insecticides (78% and 79% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively) and the harvest of all fruits (93% and 59% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively) were the most widespread methods used to reduce damage. Nearly one-third of the respondents set up enclosure nets. Our economic evaluation of different scenarios provides a quantitative indication of the potentially incurred costs. We argue for enhanced stakeholder involvement to raise the acceptance of integrated pest management practices, and to inform research and outreach by providing insights into the motivations and barriers to adoption.

  12. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in fresh commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Swedman, Allison; Prices, Donald K

    2014-06-01

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option for exported commodities such as stone fruits and small fruits to prevent movement of the new invasive pest spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Walker) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The effects of irradiation on larval and pupal development and adult reproduction in D. suzukii were examined. Larvae (first, second, and third instars) and pupae (1-2-d-old, 3-5-d-old, and 7-8-d-old) on diet were irradiated at target doses of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. Males and females were equally susceptible. A radiation dose of 40 Gy applied to first- and second-instar larvae prevented adult emergence. The late-stage pupa was the most radiation-tolerant stage that occurs in fruit, and individuals irradiated at this stage readily emerged as adults; therefore, prevention of F1 adults was the desired treatment response for large-scale validation tests with naturally infested fruit. In large-scale tests, a radiation dose of 80 Gy applied to late-stage pupae in sweet cherries or grapes resulted in no production of F1 adults in > 33,000 treated individuals, which meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. A minimum absorbed dose of 80 Gy is recommended for quarantine control of D. suzukii.

  13. Economic Impact of the Introduction and Establishment of Drosophila suzukii on Sweet Cherry Production in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Mazzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available First detected in Switzerland in 2011, the invasive Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing drosophila, has caused recurring costs for growers of berries and fruit. Recommended management approaches rely on a set of methods, tailored to suit crop requirements under the prevailing local conditions. Control of D. suzukii represents a substantial economic burden for growers, in terms of material, equipment, new infrastructure and extra labour. However, those growers who invest wisely to deliver unblemished produce are rewarded with high payoffs. We present insights from a growers’ survey conducted in 2015 and 2016 to gauge the impact of the introduction and establishment of D. suzukii on Swiss sweet cherry production. The surveyed growers (111 in 2015 and 298 in 2016 observed the recommended surveillance, sanitation and control measures. The use of insecticides (78% and 79% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively and the harvest of all fruits (93% and 59% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively were the most widespread methods used to reduce damage. Nearly one-third of the respondents set up enclosure nets. Our economic evaluation of different scenarios provides a quantitative indication of the potentially incurred costs. We argue for enhanced stakeholder involvement to raise the acceptance of integrated pest management practices, and to inform research and outreach by providing insights into the motivations and barriers to adoption.

  14. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of the white and Sex lethal loci in the invasive pest, Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Scott, Maxwell J

    2016-01-22

    Drosophila suzukii (commonly called spotted wing Drosophila) is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit (e.g. blueberries, strawberries). A high quality reference genome sequence is available but functional genomic tools, such as used in Drosophila melanogaster, remain to be developed. In this study we have used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to introduce site-specific mutations in the D. suzukii white (w) and Sex lethal (Sxl) genes. Hemizygous males with w mutations develop white eyes and the mutant genes are transmissible to the next generation. Somatic mosaic females that carry mutations in the Sxl gene develop abnormal genitalia and reproductive tissue. The D. suzukii Sxl gene could be an excellent target for a Cas9-mediated gene drive to suppress populations of this highly destructive pest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Peaches: is it a problem?

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    Felipe Andreazza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Healthy peach fruit is not considered a preferred host for Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; however, it becomes a more preferable host when damaged. Thus, damaged peach fruit is of importance not only in terms of economic losses, but also because it serves as a reservoir for this fly species. This work aimed to evaluate the suitability of peaches mechanically damaged or harboring the brown rot disease as hosts for D. suzukii compared to hosts for which they have a low (undamaged peach and high (undamaged strawberry preference. Damaged peaches were as susceptible as undamaged strawberries. Fungus infection alone did not increase the susceptibility of peaches compared to undamaged peaches. This information should be considered when an Integrated Pest Management program is defined in a scenario of different species of fruit production.

  16. Pupation Behavior and Predation on Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Pupae in Maine Wild Blueberry Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballman, Elissa S; Collins, Judith A; Drummond, Francis A

    2017-09-27

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive vinegar fly and pest of soft fruits in North America, including wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) in Maine. Despite its presence in the continental United States for 9 yr, little is known about its natural enemy complex. Here we report the results of a 3-yr study designed to identify naturally-occurring predators in Maine's wild blueberry fields. Experiments were conducted to determine pupation site and pupation depth to understand D. suzukii's predation vulnerability. Predation rates in the field of fully-exposed, caged, and buried pupae were measured. Pitfall traps were deployed to identify the potential predator assemblage, and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how many pupae were consumed by commonly occurring ground beetle species (Carabidae) and field crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burmeister). The most commonly collected predators were ants, ground beetles, harvestmen, and field crickets. Significantly more pupae were found to occur in the soil compared to blueberry fruit, with most pupae in the top 0.5 cm layer of soil. Pupal predation rates in the field were high, with higher rates of predation on exposed pupae compared to buried pupae. Laboratory studies revealed that ground beetles and field crickets are likely predators of D. suzukii pupae. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Reduced Drosophila suzukii Infestation in Berries Using Deterrent Compounds and Laminate Polymer Flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Justin M; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2017-10-31

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a recent invasive pest of soft fruits in North and South America and Europe. Control relies on frequent applications of synthetic insecticides. Additional tactics are needed for development of an effective integrated pest management program. Study objectives were to evaluate the repellency and oviposition deterrent capability of compounds in plant essential oils and the effect of select compounds on infestation rates in strawberries, using laminate polymer flakes as a carrier. Of 14 compounds from 5 essential oils, thymol was the most repellent to adult D. suzukii males and females for up to 24 h in the laboratory. Citronellol, geraniol and menthol were moderately repellent. In a choice assay, thymol on cotton wicks adjacent to ripe raspberries reduced female fly landings and larval infestation levels. In a no-choice assay, thymol reduced female fly landings by 60%, larval infestation by 50% and increased fly mortality compared to controls. Neither citronellol alone nor a blend of four repellent compounds was as effective as thymol alone at reducing fly landing, larval infestation, or increasing fly mortality. In a choice assay using polymer flakes, larval infestation was greater in raspberries near untreated flakes than in raspberries near flakes treated with thymol or peppermint oil. In the field, thymol and peppermint flakes reduced larval infestation levels by 25% in strawberries at 4, but not 7, days after application, compared to untreated flakes. With future improvements in application strategies, deterrent compounds may have a role in improving the management of D. suzukii.

  18. The biochemical adaptations of spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to fresh fruits reduced fructose concentrations and glutathione-S transferase activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive and economically damaging pest in Europe and North America, because the females have a serrated ovipositor enabling them to infest ripening almost all small fruits before harvest. Also flies are strongly attracted to fresh fruits rath...

  19. Comparison of Commercial Lures and Food Baits for Early Detection of Fruit Infestation Risk by Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Wallingford, Anna K; Zaman, Faruque; Jentsch, Peter; Nyrop, Jan; Loeb, Gregory M

    2018-01-21

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is one of the most serious invasive pests of berries and cherries worldwide. Several adult monitoring systems are available to time foliar application of insecticides with the expectation of detecting the presence of D. suzukii before they infest susceptible crops. We tested this by comparing four different trapping systems based on two homemade baits, apple cider vinegar (ACV) or fermenting dough, and two fermentation volatile-based commercial lures, Scentry and Trécé. Traps baited with dough or Scentry captured more D. suzukii than traps baited with ACV or Trécé in blueberries and traps baited with Trécé in raspberries. In blueberries, traps baited with Scentry, Trécé and dough provided 11-21 d of warning prior to first detection of fruit infestation. However, these traps were not as effective in summer floricane raspberries. The Scentry lure baited traps detected D. suzukii on the same week as the first detection of fruit infestation and other trapping systems detected the fly 4 to 11 d after the first detection, suggesting the need for an improved D. suzukii detection system in raspberries. Both synthetic lures (Scentry and Trécé) were significantly more selective for D. suzukii than dough bait, although the selectivity of all four tested lures/baits were relatively low at <20%. Our results suggest that in locations where D. suzukii adults are not trapped in late winter and spring, adult monitoring of D. suzukii using a sensitive trapping system may provide early warning of pending infestation risk thereby potentially reducing unnecessary insecticide applications. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2018. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Temperature-dependent sex-reversal by a transformer-2 gene-edited mutation in the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female to male sex reversal was achieved in an emerging agricultural insect pest, Drosophila suzukii, by creating a temperature-sensitive point mutation in the sex-determination gene, transformer-2 (tra-2) using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/ CRISPR-associated) hom...

  1. Developmental Acclimation of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Its Effect on Diapause and Winter Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Anna K; Loeb, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the influence of developmental conditions on adult morphology, reproductive arrest, and winter stress tolerance of the invasive pest of small fruit, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Cooler rearing temperatures (15 °C) resulted in larger, darker "winter morph" (WM) adults than "summer morph" flies reared at optimal temperatures (25 °C). Abdominal pigmentation scores and body size measurements of laboratory-reared WMs were similar to those of D. suzukii females captured in late autumn in Geneva, NY. We evaluated reproductive diapause and cold hardiness in live-captured D. suzukii WMs as well as WMs reared in the laboratory from egg to adult under four developmental conditions: static cool temperatures (SWM; 15 °C, 12:12 h L:D), fluctuating temperatures (FWM; 20 °C L: 10 °C D, 12:12 h L:D), and static cool temperatures (15 °C, 12:12 h L:D) followed by posteclosion chilling (CWM; 10 °C) under short-day (SD; 12:12 h L:D) or long-day photoperiods (LD; 16:8 h L:D). Live-captured D. suzukii WMs and CWMs had longer preoviposition times than newly eclosed summer morph adults, indicating a reproductive diapause that was not observed in SWMs or FWMs. Additionally, recovery after acute freeze stress was not different between CWM-SD females and live captured WM females. More 7-d-old CWMs survived 0, -1, or - 3 °C freeze stress than summer morph adults, and more CWM-SD adults survived -3 °C freeze stress than CWM-LD adults. Survival after -3 °C freeze stress was significantly higher in diapausing, CWMs than nondiapausing SWMs and FWMs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Control of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii [Matsumura], Diptera, Drosophilidae with the emphasis on environmentally acceptable methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja BOHINC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii is an economically important insect pest, which causes damage on cultivated and wild-growing fruit plants. The pest, which is placed in A2 EPPO list, occurred in Slovenia since 2010 and it is spreading progressively. Since its first record in Spain and Italy (2008, it is now present in the majority of Mediterranean countries. In the review paper the most important control methods against the spotted wing drosophila are presented. In some parts of the world the pest is efficiently controlled with synthetic insecticides, however their use is questionable owing to waiting period, since the insect occurs on fruits in the time of ripening and before harvesting. Thus, more and more researches are focused in the studies of alternative (environmentally sound control methods of this pest. So far, biological control of spotted wing drosophila is more effective in Asia than in Europe. In the upcoming years it is therefore important to investigate the distribution and efficiency of indigenous biological control agents in the Old continent. Among them we suggest to investigate how effective are the predatory bug Orius majusculus and entomopathogenic nematodes against this pest. For everyday practice, we recommend the use of traps filled with attractants for the massive trapping of adults, plant hygiene in plantations, covering the plants with dense net etc.

  3. Evaluation of Off-season Potential Breeding Sources for Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura) in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Harit K; Adams, Christopher; Grieshop, Matthew

    2017-12-05

    It has been suggested that fruit wastes including dropped and unharvested fruits, and fruit byproducts (i.e., pomace) found in fruit plantings and cideries or wine-making facilities could serve as potential off-season breeding sites for spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae)). This idea, however, has yet to be widely tested. The goal of our study was to determine the potential of dropped fruit and fruit wastes as Fall spotted wing Drosophila breeding resources in Michigan, USA. Fruit waste samples were collected from 15 farms across the lower peninsula of Michigan and were evaluated for spotted wing Drosophila and other drosophilid emergence and used in host suitability bioassays. All of the dropped apples, pears, grapes, and raspberries and 40% of apple and 100% of grape fruit pomace evaluated were found to contain spotted wing Drosophila with the highest numbers collected from dropped grapes and pears. Greater spotted wing Drosophila recovery was found in fruit wastes at sites attached with cideries and wine-making facilities and with multiple cultivated fruit crops than sites with no cideries and only one crop. Females oviposited in raspberry, pear, apple, grape, apple pomace and grape pomace samples with the highest rates of reproduction in raspberries. Our results demonstrate that fruit wastes including dropped berry, pomme and stone fruits, as well as fruit compost may be important late season reproductive resources for spotted wing Drosophila. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Reproductive Status of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Females Influences Attraction to Fermentation-Based Baits and Ripe Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda-Bhattarai, Katharine A; McPhie, Douglas R; Burrack, Hannah J

    2017-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an invasive species that is a devastating pest of soft-skinned fruit crops. Although much effort has been directed toward developing traps and attractants to monitor for D. suzukii, current monitoring tools do not reliably predict fruit infestation. The objective of this study was to determine if D. suzukii females at different developmental stages are differentially attracted to monitoring traps with fermentation-based baits and ripe fruits. Females were collected on the surface of traps, within traps, and on ripe fruits during three experiments at field locations in North Carolina, USA, and were dissected to determine their reproductive status. In general, females collected on ripe fruits were more likely to have mature eggs present in their ovaries and had higher numbers of mature eggs than females collected on the surface of or within monitoring traps. The results of this study have implications for D. suzukii monitoring and the development of effective baits for use in integrated pest management programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Integrating temperature-dependent life table data into a matrix projection model for Drosophila suzukii population estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik G Wiman

    Full Text Available Temperature-dependent fecundity and survival data was integrated into a matrix population model to describe relative Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae population increase and age structure based on environmental conditions. This novel modification of the classic Leslie matrix population model is presented as a way to examine how insect populations interact with the environment, and has application as a predictor of population density. For D. suzukii, we examined model implications for pest pressure on crops. As case studies, we examined model predictions in three small fruit production regions in the United States (US and one in Italy. These production regions have distinctly different climates. In general, patterns of adult D. suzukii trap activity broadly mimicked seasonal population levels predicted by the model using only temperature data. Age structure of estimated populations suggest that trap and fruit infestation data are of limited value and are insufficient for model validation. Thus, we suggest alternative experiments for validation. The model is advantageous in that it provides stage-specific population estimation, which can potentially guide management strategies and provide unique opportunities to simulate stage-specific management effects such as insecticide applications or the effect of biological control on a specific life-stage. The two factors that drive initiation of the model are suitable temperatures (biofix and availability of a suitable host medium (fruit. Although there are many factors affecting population dynamics of D. suzukii in the field, temperature-dependent survival and reproduction are believed to be the main drivers for D. suzukii populations.

  6. The Wide Potential Trophic Niche of the Asiatic Fruit Fly Drosophila suzukii: The Key of Its Invasion Success in Temperate Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Poyet

    Full Text Available The Asiatic fruit fly Drosophila suzukii has recently invaded Europe and North and South America, causing severe damage to fruit production systems. Although agronomic host plants of that fly are now well documented, little is known about the suitability of wild and ornamental hosts in its exotic area. In order to study the potential trophic niche of D. suzukii with relation to fruit characteristics, fleshy fruits from 67 plant species were sampled in natural and anthropic ecosystems (forests, hedgerows, grasslands, coastal areas, gardens and urban areas of the north of France and submitted to experimental infestations. A set of fruit traits (structure, colour, shape, skin texture, diameter and weight, phenology potentially interacting with oviposition choices and development success of D. suzukii was measured. Almost half of the tested plant species belonging to 17 plant families allowed the full development of D. suzukii. This suggests that the extreme polyphagy of the fly and the very large reservoir of hosts producing fruits all year round ensure temporal continuity in resource availability and contribute to the persistence and the exceptional invasion success of D. suzukii in natural habitats and neighbouring cultivated systems. Nevertheless, this very plastic trophic niche is not systematically beneficial to the fly. Some of the tested plants attractive to D. suzukii gravid females stimulate oviposition but do not allow full larval development. Planted near sensitive crops, these "trap plants" may attract and lure D. suzukii, therefore contributing to the control of the invasive fly.

  7. The Wide Potential Trophic Niche of the Asiatic Fruit Fly Drosophila suzukii: The Key of Its Invasion Success in Temperate Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyet, Mathilde; Le Roux, Vincent; Gibert, Patricia; Meirland, Antoine; Prévost, Geneviève; Eslin, Patrice; Chabrerie, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic fruit fly Drosophila suzukii has recently invaded Europe and North and South America, causing severe damage to fruit production systems. Although agronomic host plants of that fly are now well documented, little is known about the suitability of wild and ornamental hosts in its exotic area. In order to study the potential trophic niche of D. suzukii with relation to fruit characteristics, fleshy fruits from 67 plant species were sampled in natural and anthropic ecosystems (forests, hedgerows, grasslands, coastal areas, gardens and urban areas) of the north of France and submitted to experimental infestations. A set of fruit traits (structure, colour, shape, skin texture, diameter and weight, phenology) potentially interacting with oviposition choices and development success of D. suzukii was measured. Almost half of the tested plant species belonging to 17 plant families allowed the full development of D. suzukii. This suggests that the extreme polyphagy of the fly and the very large reservoir of hosts producing fruits all year round ensure temporal continuity in resource availability and contribute to the persistence and the exceptional invasion success of D. suzukii in natural habitats and neighbouring cultivated systems. Nevertheless, this very plastic trophic niche is not systematically beneficial to the fly. Some of the tested plants attractive to D. suzukii gravid females stimulate oviposition but do not allow full larval development. Planted near sensitive crops, these "trap plants" may attract and lure D. suzukii, therefore contributing to the control of the invasive fly.

  8. Short communication: Laboratory approach to the use of sulphur and kaolin as preventive control against Drosophila suzukii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Guerrero, S.; Molina, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) is an invasive pest from South East Asia that was detected for the first time in Southern Europe in 2008. This species can damage a wide range of soft-skinned fruits crops affecting ripening fruits and causing important economic losses. Since the exclusive use of chemical insecticides for controlling D. suzukii may prompt the appearance of resistance and environmental pollution, alternative methods compatible with sustainable management are required. In this study, commercial formulations of powdered sulphur and kaolin were tested as a preventive method applied to blueberry fruits under laboratory conditions. In no-choice assay, powdered sulphur had a significant effect on oviposition and adult emergency with reductions of 76% and 77%, respectively. In addition, sulphur displayed a significant toxicity on males and lethal effect with over 40% adult mortality seven days after exposure. The choice assay confirmed and improved the powdered sulphur effects, with reductions of 98% and 96% in oviposition and adult emergence, respectively. In contrast, kaolin produced no significant reduction in infestation and adult mortality during no-choice and choice assays. These outcomes suggest that preventive use of powdered sulphur could be considered for sustainable control of D. suzukii in some berry crops. (Author)

  9. Short communication: Laboratory approach to the use of sulphur and kaolin as preventive control against Drosophila suzukii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Pérez-Guerrero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931 is an invasive pest from South East Asia that was detected for the first time in Southern Europe in 2008. This species can damage a wide range of soft-skinned fruits crops affecting ripening fruits and causing important economic losses. Since the exclusive use of chemical insecticides for controlling D. suzukii may prompt the appearance of resistance and environmental pollution, alternative methods compatible with sustainable management are required. In this study, commercial formulations of powdered sulphur and kaolin were tested as a preventive method applied to blueberry fruits under laboratory conditions. In no-choice assay, powdered sulphur had a significant effect on oviposition and adult emergency with reductions of 76% and 77%, respectively. In addition, sulphur displayed a significant toxicity on males and lethal effect with over 40% adult mortality seven days after exposure. The choice assay confirmed and improved the powdered sulphur effects, with reductions of 98% and 96% in oviposition and adult emergence, respectively. In contrast, kaolin produced no significant reduction in infestation and adult mortality during no-choice and choice assays. These outcomes suggest that preventive use of powdered sulphur could be considered for sustainable control of D. suzukii in some berry crops.

  10. Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and its Potential Impact to Wine Grapes During Harvest in Two Cool Climate Wine Grape Production Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, C; Walton, V; Dalton, D; Anfora, G; Grassi, A; Maistri, S; Mazzoni, V

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a global pest attacking various berry crops. D. suzukii lays eggs in damaged and in intact wine grape berries of the most soft-skinned varieties. Here, we describe the relative host utilization of different wine grape cultivars grown in Northern Italy and Oregon. Assessments of host berry utilization were performed in both field and laboratory settings. Results were correlated to physiological changes occurring during grape berry development starting at véraison and concluding during harvest. We found that oviposition increased with an increase in sugar content and a decrease of acidity levels. Oviposition increased with a decrease of penetration force. Penetration force, as a measure of skin hardness, is a critical component of host selection among the D. suzukii-exposed cultivars. We demonstrated that incised berries are more favorable for D. suzukii oviposition and as a nutrient substrate. Increased presence on wine grapes, as indicated by egg laying and increased longevity, was observed for flies that were exposed to incised berries as opposed to fully intact berries. D. suzukii flies can be found feeding on damaged wine grapes during the harvest period, especially when the skins of berries are negatively impacted due to cracking, disease, hail injury, and bird damage. Such an increase of feeding and oviposition may increase the likelihood of spoilage bacteria vectoring due to D. suzukii. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of Chemical Ratios of a Microbial-Based Feeding Attractant on Trap Catch of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Landolt, Peter J; Adams, Todd B

    2017-08-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila, can be trapped with a feeding attractant based on wine and vinegar volatiles and consisting of acetic acid, ethanol, acetoin, and methionol. Using that four-component blend, we found that the catch of spotted wing drosophila increased with increases in the release rate of acetoin (from 0.5 mg/d to 34 mg/d) from polyethylene sachet dispensers, and with increases in the concentrations of acetic acid (from 0.25% to 4%) or ethanol (from 0.08% to 2%) when dispensed in the trap drowning solution. However, we saw no increase in spotted wing drosophila trapped with increase of the methionol release rate from 0.4 mg/d to 4.9 mg/d or from 0.19 mg/d to 0.8 mg/d, from sachets. A new formulation based on optimized amounts of these four chemicals yielded a doubling of spotted wing drosophila trapped compared to a previously reported formulation. Further field testing confirmed that the simultaneous increases in the release rate of acetoin from a dispenser and the amount of acetic acid in the trap drowning solution provided the increased spotted wing drosophila trap response to the new formulation. These findings provide a practical means to improve the power of this lure to detect and monitor D. suzukii. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Zhai

    Full Text Available To accurately evaluate gene expression levels and obtain more accurate quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to reliable reference gene(s is required. Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive fruit pest native to East Asia, and recently invaded Europe and North America, the stability of its reference genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (RPL18, RPS3, AK, EF-1β, TBP, NADH, HSP22, GAPDH, Actin, α-Tubulin, were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different biotic (developmental stage, tissue and population, and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature conditions. The three statistical approaches (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder were used to normalize analysis of the ten candidate reference genes identified α-Tubulin, TBP and AK as the most stable candidates, while HSP22 and Actin showed the lowest expression stability. We used three most stable genes (α-Tubulin, TBP and AK and one unstably expressed gene to analyze the expression of P-glycoprotein in abamectin-resistant and sensitive strains, and the results were similar to reference genes α-Tubulin, TBP and AK, which show good stability, while the result of HSP22 has a certain bias. The three validated reference genes can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with qRT-PCR technology in D.suzukii.

  13. Evaluating a push-pull strategy for management of Drosophila suzukii Matsumura in red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophilia suzukii Matsumura is a serious pest of small fruits and cherries that lays its eggs in ripe and ripening fruit. Current management strategies rely on an unsustainable schedule of foliar applications of chemical insecticides. Alternative approaches to suppressing oviposition are under inv...

  14. Effect of Low-Oxygen Conditions Created by Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Radiation Tolerance in Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Sweet Cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Swedman, Allison; Mackey, Bruce

    2017-12-18

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) creates a low-oxygen (O2) environment that can increase the shelf life of fresh produce by decreasing respiration and the growth of pathogens. Low oxygen may also increase insect tolerance to irradiation (IR), and the use of MAP with products treated by IR to control quarantine pests before export may inadvertently compromise treatment efficacy. Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a quarantine pest of stone and small fruits and a potential target for postharvest IR treatment. The effect of low oxygen generated by MAP at ambient temperatures on the radiation tolerance of D. suzukii infesting sweet cherries was examined. Early pupal stage D. suzukii were inserted into ripe sweet cherries and treated by 1) MAP + IR, 2) IR alone, 3) MAP alone, or 4) no MAP and no IR and held for adult emergence. Three types of commercially available MAP products were tested that produced different oxygen concentrations between 3 and 15%, and a sublethal radiation dose (60 Gy) was used to allow comparisons between the treatments. Xtend PP61 bags (3.2-4.8% O2), Xtend PP71 bags (5.4-8.6% O2), and Xtend PP53 bags (13.6-15.4% O2) did not enhance survivorship to the adult stage in D. suzukii pupae irradiated at 60 Gy in sweet cherries. MAP use should not compromise phytosanitary IR treatment against D. suzukii in exported sweet cherries or other fruit. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Temperature-dependent sex-reversal by a transformer-2 gene-edited mutation in the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianwei; Handler, Alfred M

    2017-09-28

    Female to male sex reversal was achieved in an emerging agricultural insect pest, Drosophila suzukii, by creating a temperature-sensitive point mutation in the sex-determination gene, transformer-2 (tra-2), using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) homology-directed repair gene-editing. Ds-tra-2 ts2 mutants developed as normal fertile XX and XY adults at permissive temperatures below 20 °C, but at higher restrictive temperatures (26 to 29 °C) chromosomal XX females developed as sterile intersexuals with a predominant male phenotype, while XY males developed with normal morphology, but were sterile. The temperature-dependent function of the Ds-TRA-2 ts2 protein was also evident by the up- and down-regulation of female-specific Ds-Yolk protein 1 (Ds-Yp1) gene expression by temperature shifts during adulthood. This study confirmed the temperature-dependent function of a gene-edited mutation and provides a new method for the more general creation of conditional mutations for functional genomic analysis in insects, and other organisms. Furthermore, it provides a temperature-dependent system for creating sterile male populations useful for enhancing the efficacy of biologically-based programs, such as the sterile insect technique (SIT), to control D. suzukii and other insect pest species of agricultural and medical importance.

  16. Effect of trap design, bait type, and age on captures of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in berry crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Lindsy E; Nyoike, Teresia W; Liburd, Oscar E

    2014-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in commercial southern highbush blueberries and wild blackberries to evaluate the attractiveness of different trap designs, bait types, and bait age on captures of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During the 2012 trap design study, the five treatments evaluated were four 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (with and without a yellow visual stimulus or odorless dish detergent) and the fifth treatment was a Pherocon AM yellow sticky card trap. Cup traps were baited with 150 ml of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and the Pherocon AM trap had a 7.4-ml glass vial containing ACV. In 2013, the Pherocon AM yellow sticky card was omitted because of low spotted wing drosophila captures in 2012. The four treatments evaluated were four 1-liter cup traps with and without a yellow visual stimulus. One cup trap (with a yellow stimulus) was baited with yeast + sugar in place of ACV and the other cup traps were baited with ACV. In both years, there were no differences in spotted wing drosophila captures among cup traps baited with ACV with and without yellow visual stimulus. However, the cup trap baited with yeast + sugar and yellow visual stimulus captured more spotted wing drosophila than the ACV-baited cup traps irrespective of visual stimulus or detergent. In another study, four baits including 1) ACV, 2) yeast + sugar mixture, 3) yeast + flour mixture (yeast, sugar, water, whole wheat flour, and ACV), and 4) wine + vinegar mixture (rice vinegar and merlot wine) were evaluated in a commercial blueberry planting using 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (as described above). The experiment was repeated in wild blackberries but the yeast + flour bait was replaced with ACV + merlot wine + sugar. Results indicated that the two yeast baits captured significantly more spotted wing drosophila and more nontarget organisms than the vinegar baits. In the final study, although we found that the attraction of ACV and

  17. Fat storage in Drosophila suzukii is influenced by different dietary sugars in relation to their palatability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Biolchini

    Full Text Available The peripheral sensitivity and palatability of different carbohydrates was evaluated and their nutritional value assessed in adult females of D. suzukii by means of an electrophysiological, behavioural and metabolic approach. The electrophysiological responses were recorded from the labellar "l" type sensilla stimulated with metabolizable mono- and disaccharides (glucose and maltose and a non-metabolizable sugar (sucralose; the response rating and the palatability to the same sugars, evaluated by recording the proboscis extension reflex (PER, was maltose>glucose>sucralose. The nutritional value of carbohydrates was assessed by means of survival trials and fatty acids profile. Flies fed on a diet containing maltose had a longer lifespan than flies on monosaccharides, while flies fed on a diet containing sucralose had a shorter one. In addition, the ability to store fat seems to be influenced by the different sugars in the diet and is in relationship with their palatability. In fact, data showed a higher synthesis of palmitic and palmitoleic acids, most likely derived from de-novo lipogenesis with glucose as precursor, in flies fed with maltose and glucose than with non-metabolizable sucralose. In conclusion, these results suggest that the ability to select different sugars on the basis of their palatability may favour the storage of energy reserves such as fat by de-novo lipogenesis, determining a longer survival capability during prolonged periods of fasting.

  18. Bacterial diversity shift determined by different diets in the gut of the spotted wing fly Drosophila suzukii is primarily reflected on acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Vacchini, Violetta

    2016-11-25

    The pivotal role of diet in shaping gut microbiota has been evaluated in different animal models, including insects. Drosophila flies harbour an inconstant microbiota among which acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important components. Here, we investigated the bacterial and AAB components of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii microbiota, by studying the same insect population separately grown on fruit-based or non-fruit artificial diet. AAB were highly prevalent in the gut under both diets (90 and 92% infection rates with fruits and artificial diet, respectively). Fluorescent in situ hybridization and recolonization experiments with green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-labelled strains showed AAB capability to massively colonize insect gut. High-throughput sequencing on 16S rRNA gene indicated that the bacterial microbiota of guts fed with the two diets clustered separately. By excluding AAB-related OTUs from the analysis, insect bacterial communities did not cluster separately according to the diet, suggesting that diet-based diversification of the community is primarily reflected on the AAB component of the community. Diet influenced also AAB alpha-diversity, with separate OTU distributions based on diets. High prevalence, localization and massive recolonization, together with AAB clustering behaviour in relation to diet, suggest an AAB role in the D. suzukii gut response to diet modification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of Early Ripening Cultivars to Avoid Infestation and Mass Trapping to Manage Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericales: Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Emily; Koski, Carissa; Barsoian, Olivia; Faubert, Heather; Cowles, Richard S; Alm, Steven R

    2014-10-01

    Use of early ripening highbush blueberry cultivars to avoid infestation and mass trapping were evaluated for managing spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Fourteen highbush blueberry cultivars were sampled for spotted wing drosophila infestation. Most 'Earliblue', 'Bluetta', and 'Collins' fruit were harvested before spotted wing drosophila oviposition commenced, and so escaped injury. Most fruit from 'Bluejay', 'Blueray', and 'Bluehaven' were also harvested before the first week of August, after which spotted wing drosophila activity led to high levels of blueberry infestation. In a separate experiment, damage to cultivars was related to the week in which fruit were harvested, with greater damage to fruit observed as the season progressed. Attractant traps placed within blueberry bushes increased nearby berry infestation by 5%, irrespective of cultivar and harvest date. The significant linear reduction in infestation with increasing distance from the attractant trap suggests that traps are influencing fly behavior to at least 5.5 m. Insecticides applied to the exterior of traps, compared with untreated traps, revealed that only 10-30% of flies visiting traps enter the traps and drown. Low trap efficiency may jeopardize surrounding fruits by increasing local spotted wing drosophila activity. To protect crops, traps for mass trapping should be placed in a perimeter outside fruit fields and insecticides need to be applied to the surface of traps or on nearby fruit to function as an attract-and-kill strategy. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  20. The impacts of climate change on the abundance and distribution of the Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B. Langille

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available D. suzukii is a relatively recent and destructive pest species to the North American soft-skinned fruit industry. Understanding this species’ potential to shift in abundance and range due to changing climate is an important part of an effective mitigation and management strategy. We parameterized a temperature-driven D. suzukii population dynamics model using temperature data derived from several Global Circulation Models (CMIP5 with a range of relative concentration pathway (RCP predictions. Mean consensus between the models suggest that without adaptation to both higher prolonged temperatures and higher short-term temperature events D. suzukii population levels are likely to drop in currently higher-risk regions. The potential drop in population is evident both as time progresses and as the severity of the RCP scenario increases. Some regions, particularly in northern latitudes, may experience increased populations due to milder winter and more developmentally-ideal summer conditions, but many of these regions are not currently known for soft-skinned fruit production and so the effects of this population increase may not have a significant impact.

  1. Laboratory survival of Drosophila suzukii under simulated winter conditions of the Pacific Northwest and seasonal field trapping in five primary regions of small and stone fruit production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Daniel T; Walton, Vaughn M; Shearer, Peter W; Walsh, Douglas B; Caprile, Janet; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-11-01

    Drosophila suzukii was first found in Oregon in August 2009. The threat of this pest to regional small and stone fruit production industries led to investigations on its overwintering capabilities in fruit-growing regions in the Pacific Northwest. Knowledge of its cold tolerance will help in the development of computer models to forecast seasonal population growth and decline. Of 1500 adults or pupae, 22 (1.4%) individuals survived the 84 day experimental chilling period. Most (86%) of the survivors were subjected to 10 °C temperature treatments. Survival decreased significantly at lower temperature treatments. Freezing temporarily increased the mortality rate but did not significantly affect overall mortality over the trial period. Flies that emerged from pupae are estimated to survive for up to 103-105 days at 10 °C and for shorter periods at lower temperatures. Field trapping in five fruit production areas has demonstrated overwintering survival in California and Oregon, but lower survival is predicted in Eastern Washington and Michigan. The experiments reported here indicate that long-term survival of D. suzukii is unlikely at temperatures below 10 °C. Field data from five climatic regions indicated extended low initial D. suzukii field presence in 2010 in all regions except California, where field presence was recorded earlier. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Polyamines in brown rice vinegar function as potent attractants for the spotted wing drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Naoki; Higashikubo, Haruka; Ishii, Yuri; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    Vinegar produced by acetic acid bacteria is used as an attractant for fruit flies. Apple cider vinegar (ACV) and brown rice vinegar (BRV) are used as lures to detect Drosophila suzukii (also known as the spotted wing drosophila [SWD], a newly emerging invasive pest of soft-skinned fruits) and to capture Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the attractiveness of BRV and ACV to SWD in laboratory trapping experiments using an upturned microcentrifuge tube with a pipette tip as a trap. We transferred SWD (approximately 20, 7-10 days old) to a glass vial containing a trap baited with BRV or ACV and counted the captured flies. BRV attracted more flies (52.88 ± 9.75%) than ACV (35.78 ± 7.47%) in 6 h. Based on high-performance liquid chromatography, we found that BRV contained greater amounts of putrescine (12.36 ± 0.44 μM) and spermidine (35.08 ± 4.34 μM) than ACV (putrescine, 0.31 ± 0.067 μM; spermidine, not detected). The attractiveness of ACV supplemented with putrescine (12 μM) and spermidine (35 μM) (68.56 ± 4.69%) was significantly higher than that of ACV, indicating that the enhanced attractiveness of BRV to SWD was accomplished by the additive effects of polyamines and other known attractive volatiles, such as acetic acid and acetoin. BRV is expected to be a powerful tool for the efficient management of SWD. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Active SWD using monochromatic source wavelet; Tan`itsu shuhasu no shingen hakei wo mochiita active SWD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, T.; Kozawa, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Taniguchi, R. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nishikawa, N. [Fuji Research Institute Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuhashi, K.

    1997-05-27

    As part of developing efforts for physical exploration technologies for oil reservoirs, this paper describes development of an active seismic while drilling (SWD). The SWD is a seismic exploration method to acquire records equivalent to VSP using seismic waves generated from a bit executing excavation, and is capable of detection and control on a real time basis during the excavation. However, the drawback is that it is subjected to a limitation in the bit. To eliminate this limitation, an artificial seismic source method was devised. In other words, this is an SWD utilizing an artificial seismic source. The contrivance is such that a shot sub containing a magnetic distortion oscillator is attached directly above a bit to generate vibration artificially, and try to utilize larger seismic energy by combining this vibration with that generated from the excavating bit. Frequency band in the seismic source is as narrow as nearly a single frequency waveform. Preparing a time-depth curve from the data and identifying position of a bit making excavation requires reading the initial travel time. A waveform recognition technology was applied, which utilizes a matching evaluation function used in pattern recognition. This made waveform recognition possible at high accuracy. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Fermentation for Disinfesting Fruit Waste From Drosophila Species (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, R; Dobrovin-Pennington, A; Shaw, B; Buss, D S; Cross, J V; Fountain, M T

    2017-08-01

    Economic losses in a range of fruit crops due to the Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) have become severe. Removal and treatment of fruit waste, which may harbor D. suzukii, is a key step in preventing reinfestation of fruit production. Natural fermentation for disinfesting fruit wastes from D. suzukii was examined at ambient air temperatures of 12-20 °C. Soft and stone fruit wastes infested with eggs, larvae, and pupae of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) or D. suzukii were placed in sealed vessels containing fruit wastes, and samples were retrieved at intervals and tested for the emergence of adults. Mean temperatures of the fruit waste in the sealed vessels during fermentation were 15-23 °C. Fermentation for 3 d was effective in disinfesting waste from different life stages of D. suzukii. Treatment for 4 d also ensured that the waste was free of viable life stages of D. melanogaster, which could be used as an indicator species for disinfestation of waste from D. suzukii owing to its greater tolerance of fermentation. The O2 concentration of the headspace air in the vessels became undetectable after 13-16 h, with a corresponding increase in CO2 concentration, which exceeded 80% vol/vol. The resulting hypoxia and hypercapnia may explain the efficacy of the fermentation treatment in disinfesting the waste. Fermented fruit remained attractive to D. suzukii and retained its capacity to rear a life cycle. Covering or mixing fermented fruit with a sufficient depth (0.1 m) or volume (×9) of soil or coir prevented the reinfestation of treated waste. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumpekos, Giorgos; Nemetschke, Linda; Knust, Elisabeth

    2018-01-11

    Growth of epithelial tissues is regulated by a plethora of components, including signaling and scaffolding proteins, but also by junctional tension, mediated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. However, how these players are spatially organized and functionally coordinated is not well understood. Here, we identify the Drosophila melanogaster scaffolding protein Big bang as a novel regulator of growth in epithelial cells of the wing disc by ensuring proper junctional tension. Loss of big bang results in the reduction of the regulatory light chain of nonmuscle myosin, Spaghetti squash. This is associated with an increased apical cell surface, decreased junctional tension, and smaller wings. Strikingly, these phenotypic traits of big bang mutant discs can be rescued by expressing constitutively active Spaghetti squash. Big bang colocalizes with Spaghetti squash in the apical cytocortex and is found in the same protein complex. These results suggest that in epithelial cells of developing wings, the scaffolding protein Big bang controls apical cytocortex organization, which is important for regulating cell shape and tissue growth. © 2018 Tsoumpekos et al.

  6. Trial to active seismic while drilling; Jinko shingen wo mochiita SWD eno kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, T.; Kozawa, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a more stable SWD system with larger energy by adding an artificial seismic source near the bit. SWD is a technique by which the seismic wave generated while drilling of rocks by bit can be observed on the ground surface and the records equivalent to the reverse VSP can be obtained. For this system, a shell with a vibrator was fixed immediately on the bit as a sub-generator, and total energy of usual impact by the bit and vibration by the vibrator was used as a seismic source for SWD. For the seismic wave generation mechanism of this vibrator, the shell was resonated by the magnetostrictive element, and vibration was given to the bit and drilling pipe. When this seismic source is used, only single frequency is obtained for each vibration due to the utilization of resonance of shell. Therefore, the generation patterns should be made, by which wide band energy can be obtained after the interaction. Since the survey was conducted using this bottom hole seismic source at the drilling depth more than 3,000 m, it was necessary to enhance the vibration energy. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Switchable insulation for using solar energy in buildings. Final report; Schaltbare Waermedaemmung (SWD) zur Nutzung der Sonnenenergie in Gebaeuden. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, C.; Horn, R.; Hetfleisch, J.; Fricke, J.

    2003-02-25

    Solar energy can be used in buildings via use of transparent insulations. But thereby problems occur, like overheating of building walls in summer and heat losses in the cold season. To solve these problems ZAE Bayern has designed and optimized the switchable insulation SWD, the thermal conductivity of which can be changed from highly insulating to conducting. A computer routine was developed to calculate and to optimize the heat gains. The SWD is switched by desorbing/adsorbing as small amount of hydrogen gas. Desorption is facilitated with an electric heating element. The thermal conductivity of the filling can be varied by about a factor of 40. Several SWD-modules were produced and installed in an outside measuring facility. The heat gains and the durability were investigated for three years. The results of the simulation could be verified and ageing did not occur. For an optimal system the heat gains are in the range of 150 kWh/(m{sup 2}a). The mounting of these panels at south facades is simple, especially for post bolt systems. Contrary to transparent systems the loss of heat in winter is very small and the overheating of the walls behind the SWD in summer can be avoided. (orig.) [German] Zur Nutzung der Sonnenenergie in Gebaeuden werden bisher transparente Waermedaemmsysteme eingebaut, die jedoch oft mit Problemen wie Wandueberhitzung im Sommer und Waermeverlusten in der kalten Jahreszeit behaftet sind. Zur Loesung dieser Probleme wurde am ZAE Bayern eine schaltbare Waermedaemmung entwickelt und optimiert, deren Daemmeigenschaft je nach Sonneneinstrahlung und Waermebedarf variiert werden kann. Es wurde ein Programm entwickelt, mit dem die Waermegewinne berechnet und optimiert werden koennen. Die Schaltbarkeit wird durch einen Getter ermoeglicht, der eine ungefaehrliche Menge Wasserstoffgas reversibel aufnehmen und abgeben kann. Die Wasserstoff-Austreibung erfolgt mittels elektrischer Heizung und veraendert die Waermeleitfaehigkeit der Fuellung um einen

  8. RNA processing factors Swd2.2 and Sen1 antagonize RNA Pol III-dependent transcription and the localization of condensin at Pol III genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Pénélope; Malapert, Amélie; Niinuma, Sho; Bernard, Pascal; Vanoosthuyse, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Condensin-mediated chromosome condensation is essential for genome stability upon cell division. Genetic studies have indicated that the association of condensin with chromatin is intimately linked to gene transcription, but what transcription-associated feature(s) direct(s) the accumulation of condensin remains unclear. Here we show in fission yeast that condensin becomes strikingly enriched at RNA Pol III-transcribed genes when Swd2.2 and Sen1, two factors involved in the transcription process, are simultaneously deleted. Sen1 is an ATP-dependent helicase whose orthologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae contributes both to terminate transcription of some RNA Pol II transcripts and to antagonize the formation of DNA:RNA hybrids in the genome. Using two independent mapping techniques, we show that DNA:RNA hybrids form in abundance at Pol III-transcribed genes in fission yeast but we demonstrate that they are unlikely to faciliate the recruitment of condensin. Instead, we show that Sen1 forms a stable and abundant complex with RNA Pol III and that Swd2.2 and Sen1 antagonize both the interaction of RNA Pol III with chromatin and RNA Pol III-dependent transcription. When Swd2.2 and Sen1 are lacking, the increased concentration of RNA Pol III and condensin at Pol III-transcribed genes is accompanied by the accumulation of topoisomerase I and II and by local nucleosome depletion, suggesting that Pol III-transcribed genes suffer topological stress. We provide evidence that this topological stress contributes to recruit and/or stabilize condensin at Pol III-transcribed genes in the absence of Swd2.2 and Sen1. Our data challenge the idea that a processive RNA polymerase hinders the binding of condensin and suggest that transcription-associated topological stress could in some circumstances facilitate the association of condensin.

  9. Efficacy and residue analysis of nitric oxide fumigation of strawberries for control of Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated as an effective fumigant against various insect pests on postharvest products under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions. NO showed efficacy against all life stages of insect pests with varied fumigation time and temperature, and had feasible cost-effectiveness to...

  10. Infection of Drosophila suzukii with the obligate insect-pathogenic fungus Entomophthora muscae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Paul G.; Jensen, Rasmus Eskild; Natsopoulou, Myrsini Eirini

    2018-01-01

    Physiological constraints restrict specialist pathogens from infecting new hosts. From an applied perspective, a narrow host range makes specialist pathogens interesting for targeting specific pest insects since they have minimal direct effects on non-target species. Entomopathogenic fungi...

  11. Identification and characterization of pyrokinin and CAPA peptides, and corresponding GPCRs from spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    To date, some biological activities have been confirmed as different named peptides, however, most FXPRLamide peptides are still poorly understood although these peptides are found in all insects. So, the study of receptors for these peptides is particularly important. Receptors of FXPRLamide peptid...

  12. Macrogenomic evidence for the origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii (Diptera: Simuliidae on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Adler

    Full Text Available To determine the geographic origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii on Okinawa Island, Japan, macrogenomic profiles derived from its polytene chromosomes were compared with those of mainland and other insular populations of S. suzukii and of the isomorphic Simulium tani species complex. The Okinawan population is a chromosomally unique cytoform, designated 'D,' which is essentially monomorphic and differs by about 27 fixed rearrangements from the chromosomal standard sequence for the subgenus Simulium and by two fixed differences from its nearest known relative, representing the type of S. suzukii, on the main islands of Japan. Chromosomal band sequences revealed two additional, sympatric cytoforms of S. suzukii, designated 'A' and 'B,' each with species status, in Korea, and a third cytoform, designated 'C,' on Hokkaido, Japan. A new cytoform, 'K,' of S. tani from Malaysia, representing the type of S. tani, is more closely related to cytoforms in Thailand, as are populations from Taiwan previously treated as S. suzukii but more closely aligned with S. tani and newly recognized as cytoform 'L' of the latter nominal species. Rooting of chromosomal band sequences by outgroup comparisons allowed directionality of chromosomal rearrangements to be established, enabling phylogenetic inference of cytoforms. Of 41 macrogenomic rearrangements discovered in the five new cytoforms, four provide evidence for a stepwise origin of the Okinawan population from populations characteristic of the main islands of Japan. The macrogenomic approach applied to black flies on Okinawa Island illustrates its potential utility in defining source areas for other species of flies including those that might pose medical and veterinary risks.

  13. Drosophila Male Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Silvia; Gatti, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    In Drosophila males, there is no synaptonemal complex and recombination does not occur. Thus, Drosophila male meiosis is a good model system for the analysis of achiasmate chromosome segregation. In addition, due to their large size, the meiotic spindles of Drosophila males are an excellent system for mutational dissection of the mechanisms of spindle assembly. Here, we describe the main techniques for visualization of live Drosophila testes and for preparation of fixed meiotic chromosomes and spindles.

  14. The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931, the cherry fly or spotted-wing Drosophila, a pest species from the Oriental and southeastern Palaearctic regions belonging to the melanogaster group, invaded the Nearctic and western countries of the Palaearctic regions late last decade (2008 and, more recently (2013, the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Early in 2014 it was reared from blueberries produced in São Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, that were bought at a São Paulo city grocery store. Despite being a cold-adapted species, after having arrived to the southeastern state of São Paulo, this invasive fly will probably expand its territory to other Brazilian states and South American countries through trade of cultivated soft skin small fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, as well as naturally through the use of small wild fruits as breeding sites.

  15. The Drosophila visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    A compact genome and a tiny brain make Drosophila the prime model to understand the neural substrate of behavior. The neurogenetic efforts to reveal neural circuits underlying Drosophila vision started about half a century ago, and now the field is booming with sophisticated genetic tools, rich behavioral assays, and importantly, a greater number of scientists joining from different backgrounds. This review will briefly cover the structural anatomy of the Drosophila visual system, the animal’s visual behaviors, the genes involved in assembling these circuits, the new and powerful techniques, and the challenges ahead for ultimately identifying the general principles of biological computation in the brain.   A typical brain utilizes a great many compact neural circuits to collect and process information from the internal biological and external environmental worlds and generates motor commands for observable behaviors. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, despite of its miniature body and tiny brain, can survive in almost any corner of the world.1 It can find food, court mate, fight rival conspecific, avoid predators, and amazingly fly without crashing into trees. Drosophila vision and its underlying neuronal machinery has been a key research model for at least half century for neurogeneticists.2 Given the efforts invested on the visual system, this animal model is likely to offer the first full understanding of how visual information is computed by a multi-cellular organism. Furthermore, research in Drosophila has revealed many genes that play crucial roles in the formation of functional brains across species. The architectural similarities between the visual systems of Drosophila and vertebrate at the molecular, cellular, and network levels suggest new principles discovered at the circuit level on the relationship between neurons and behavior in Drosophila shall also contribute greatly to our understanding of the general principles for how bigger brains work.3

  16. Metabolomic Studies in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James E; Thummel, Carl S; Tennessen, Jason M

    2017-07-01

    Metabolomic analysis provides a powerful new tool for studies of Drosophila physiology. This approach allows investigators to detect thousands of chemical compounds in a single sample, representing the combined contributions of gene expression, enzyme activity, and environmental context. Metabolomics has been used for a wide range of studies in Drosophila, often providing new insights into gene function and metabolic state that could not be obtained using any other approach. In this review, we survey the uses of metabolomic analysis since its entry into the field. We also cover the major methods used for metabolomic studies in Drosophila and highlight new directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Attractiveness of fermentation and related products to spotted wing Drosophila (Diptera: drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, Joseph R; Unelius, C Rikard; Lee, Jana C; Suckling, David Maxwell; Qian, Michael C; Bruck, Denny J

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory screening bioassays and field trapping experiments of spotted wing drosophila flies, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), were conducted to determine the attractiveness of 17 compounds as well as to compare attractant efficiency during peak fruit ripeness and postharvest captures late in the season. Compounds structurally related to each of the fermentation products acetic acid, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and 2-phenethyl alcohol were screened for attractiveness compared with a soap water control in greenhouse cage bioassays. The compounds determined to be attractive in the greenhouse bioassay (methanol, ethanol, propanol, formic acid, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, phenethyl acetate, phenethyl propionate, and phenethyl butyrate) were individually tested in the field added to apple cider vinegar (ACV). The acids were also tested individually in neutralized ACV (NACV; pH ≍7). Combinations of the compounds were tested in NACV. The capture numbers in ACV traps were not significantly increased by the addition of any of the compounds tested, although significant deterrent effects of some of the compounds allowed differences between treatments to be observed. Compounds that are most prevalent in wine and vinegar (methanol, ethanol, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate) as well as phenethyl propionate and phenethyl butyrate were less deterrent than the other compounds tested in the field. Captures during peak fruit ripeness were compared with the postharvest period when fruit hosts were not available or were overripe. Although the total number of flies captured late in the season was lower, the trends in treatment performance were similar, indicating a consistent performance of these baits from peak fruit ripeness through postharvest.

  18. Positive Selection of Iris, a Retroviral Envelope-Derived Host Gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes can usurp enzymatic functions encoded by mobile elements for their own use. A particularly interesting kind of acquisition involves the domestication of retroviral envelope genes, which confer infectious membrane-fusion ability to retroviruses. So far, these examples have been limited to vertebrate genomes, including primates where the domesticated envelope is under purifying selection to assist placental function. Here, we show that in Drosophila genomes, a previously unannotated gene (CG4715, renamed Iris was domesticated from a novel, active Kanga lineage of insect retroviruses at least 25 million years ago, and has since been maintained as a host gene that is expressed in all adult tissues. Iris and the envelope genes from Kanga retroviruses are homologous to those found in insect baculoviruses and gypsy and roo insect retroviruses. Two separate envelope domestications from the Kanga and roo retroviruses have taken place, in fruit fly and mosquito genomes, respectively. Whereas retroviral envelopes are proteolytically cleaved into the ligand-interaction and membrane-fusion domains, Iris appears to lack this cleavage site. In the takahashii/suzukii species groups of Drosophila, we find that Iris has tandemly duplicated to give rise to two genes (Iris-A and Iris-B. Iris-B has significantly diverged from the Iris-A lineage, primarily because of the "invention" of an intron de novo in what was previously exonic sequence. Unlike domesticated retroviral envelope genes in mammals, we find that Iris has been subject to strong positive selection between Drosophila species. The rapid, adaptive evolution of Iris is sufficient to unambiguously distinguish the phylogenies of three closely related sibling species of Drosophila (D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana, a discriminative power previously described only for a putative "speciation gene." Iris represents the first instance of a retroviral envelope-derived host gene

  19. Positive selection of Iris, a retroviral envelope-derived host gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmit S Malik

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes can usurp enzymatic functions encoded by mobile elements for their own use. A particularly interesting kind of acquisition involves the domestication of retroviral envelope genes, which confer infectious membrane-fusion ability to retroviruses. So far, these examples have been limited to vertebrate genomes, including primates where the domesticated envelope is under purifying selection to assist placental function. Here, we show that in Drosophila genomes, a previously unannotated gene (CG4715, renamed Iris was domesticated from a novel, active Kanga lineage of insect retroviruses at least 25 million years ago, and has since been maintained as a host gene that is expressed in all adult tissues. Iris and the envelope genes from Kanga retroviruses are homologous to those found in insect baculoviruses and gypsy and roo insect retroviruses. Two separate envelope domestications from the Kanga and roo retroviruses have taken place, in fruit fly and mosquito genomes, respectively. Whereas retroviral envelopes are proteolytically cleaved into the ligand-interaction and membrane-fusion domains, Iris appears to lack this cleavage site. In the takahashii/suzukii species groups of Drosophila, we find that Iris has tandemly duplicated to give rise to two genes (Iris-A and Iris-B. Iris-B has significantly diverged from the Iris-A lineage, primarily because of the "invention" of an intron de novo in what was previously exonic sequence. Unlike domesticated retroviral envelope genes in mammals, we find that Iris has been subject to strong positive selection between Drosophila species. The rapid, adaptive evolution of Iris is sufficient to unambiguously distinguish the phylogenies of three closely related sibling species of Drosophila (D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana, a discriminative power previously described only for a putative "speciation gene." Iris represents the first instance of a retroviral envelope-derived host gene

  20. Cancer in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herranz, Héctor; Eichenlaub, Teresa; Cohen, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Cancer genomics has greatly increased our understanding of the complexity of the genetic and epigenetic changes found in human tumors. Understanding the functional relationships among these elements calls for the use of flexible genetic models. We discuss the use of Drosophila models to study...

  1. Modeling Human Cancers in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoshita, M; Cagan, R L

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that affects multiple organs. Whole-body animal models provide important insights into oncology that can lead to clinical impact. Here, we review novel concepts that Drosophila studies have established for cancer biology, drug discovery, and patient therapy. Genetic studies using Drosophila have explored the roles of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that when dysregulated promote cancer formation, making Drosophila a useful model to study multiple aspects of transformation. Not limited to mechanism analyses, Drosophila has recently been showing its value in facilitating drug development. Flies offer rapid, efficient platforms by which novel classes of drugs can be identified as candidate anticancer leads. Further, we discuss the use of Drosophila as a platform to develop therapies for individual patients by modeling the tumor's genetic complexity. Drosophila provides both a classical and a novel tool to identify new therapeutics, complementing other more traditional cancer tools. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aging studies in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaning; Yolitz, Jason; Wang, Cecilia; Spangler, Edward; Zhan, Ming; Zou, Sige

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila is a genetically tractable system ideal for investigating the mechanisms of aging and developing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Here we describe methods commonly used in Drosophila aging research. These include basic approaches for preparation of diets and measurements of lifespan, food intake, and reproductive output. We also describe some commonly used assays to measure changes in physiological and behavioral functions of Drosophila in aging, such as stress resistance and locomotor activity.

  3. Drosophila by the dozen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celniker, Susan E.; Hoskins, Roger A.

    2007-07-13

    This year's conference on Drosophila research illustratedwell the current focus of Drosophila genomics on the comprehensiveidentification of functional elements in the genome sequence, includingmRNA transcripts arising from multiple alternative start sites and splicesites, a multiplicity of noncoding transcripts and small RNAs,identification of binding sites for transcription factors, sequenceconservation in related species and sequence variation within species.Resources and technologies for genetics and functional genomics aresteadily being improved, including the building of collections oftransposon insertion mutants and hairpin constructs for RNA interference(RNAi). The conference also highlighted progress in the use of genomicinformation by many laboratories to study diverse aspects of biology andmodels of human disease. Here we will review a few highlights of especialinterest to readers of Genome Biology.

  4. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O.; Griffen, Ann L.; Leys, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed. PMID:22368770

  5. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Intrinsic Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Advanced Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (ASWPD), Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24SWD), and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (ISWRD). An Update for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, R. Robert; Burgess, Helen J.; Emens, Jonathan S.; Deriy, Ludmila V.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Sharkey, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed and the GRADE approach was used to update the previous American Academy of Sleep Medicine Practice Parameters on the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Available data allowed for positive endorsement (at a second-tier degree of confidence) of strategically timed melatonin (for the treatment of DSWPD, blind adults with N24SWD, and children/ adolescents with ISWRD and comorbid neurological disorders), and light therapy with or without accompanying behavioral interventions (adults with ASWPD, children/adolescents with DSWPD, and elderly with dementia). Recommendations against the use of melatonin and discrete sleep-promoting medications are provided for demented elderly patients, at a second- and first-tier degree of confidence, respectively. No recommendations were provided for remaining treatments/ populations, due to either insufficient or absent data. Areas where further research is needed are discussed. Citation: Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1199–1236. PMID:26414986

  6. The Drosophila anatomy ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marta; Reeve, Simon; Grumbling, Gary; Osumi-Sutherland, David

    2013-10-18

    Anatomy ontologies are query-able classifications of anatomical structures. They provide a widely-used means for standardising the annotation of phenotypes and expression in both human-readable and programmatically accessible forms. They are also frequently used to group annotations in biologically meaningful ways. Accurate annotation requires clear textual definitions for terms, ideally accompanied by images. Accurate grouping and fruitful programmatic usage requires high-quality formal definitions that can be used to automate classification and check for errors. The Drosophila anatomy ontology (DAO) consists of over 8000 classes with broad coverage of Drosophila anatomy. It has been used extensively for annotation by a range of resources, but until recently it was poorly formalised and had few textual definitions. We have transformed the DAO into an ontology rich in formal and textual definitions in which the majority of classifications are automated and extensive error checking ensures quality. Here we present an overview of the content of the DAO, the patterns used in its formalisation, and the various uses it has been put to. As a result of the work described here, the DAO provides a high-quality, queryable reference for the wild-type anatomy of Drosophila melanogaster and a set of terms to annotate data related to that anatomy. Extensive, well referenced textual definitions make it both a reliable and useful reference and ensure accurate use in annotation. Wide use of formal axioms allows a large proportion of classification to be automated and the use of consistency checking to eliminate errors. This increased formalisation has resulted in significant improvements to the completeness and accuracy of classification. The broad use of both formal and informal definitions make further development of the ontology sustainable and scalable. The patterns of formalisation used in the DAO are likely to be useful to developers of other anatomy ontologies.

  7. Assortative fertilization in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markow, T A

    1997-07-22

    The concept of gametic isolation has its origins in the 1937 edition of T. Dobzhansky's Genetics and the Origin of Species. Involving either positive assortative fertilization (as opposed to self-incompatibility) or negative assortative fertilization, it occurs after mating but prior to fertilization. Gametic isolation is generally subsumed under either prezygotic or postmating isolation and thus has not been the subject of extensive investigation. Examples of assortative fertilization in Drosophila are reviewed and compared with those of other organisms. Potential mechanisms leading to assortative fertilization are discussed, as are their evolutionary implications.

  8. SUMOylation in Drosophila Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert J. Courey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO, an ~90 amino acid ubiquitin-like protein, is highly conserved throughout the eukaryotic domain. Like ubiquitin, SUMO is covalently attached to lysine side chains in a large number of target proteins. In contrast to ubiquitin, SUMO does not have a direct role in targeting proteins for proteasomal degradation. However, like ubiquitin, SUMO does modulate protein function in a variety of other ways. This includes effects on protein conformation, subcellular localization, and protein–protein interactions. Significant insight into the in vivo role of SUMOylation has been provided by studies in Drosophila that combine genetic manipulation, proteomic, and biochemical analysis. Such studies have revealed that the SUMO conjugation pathway regulates a wide variety of critical cellular and developmental processes, including chromatin/chromosome function, eggshell patterning, embryonic pattern formation, metamorphosis, larval and pupal development, neurogenesis, development of the innate immune system, and apoptosis. This review discusses our current understanding of the diverse roles for SUMO in Drosophila development.

  9. Transposable elements in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullers, Tabitha J.; Steiniger, Mindy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements that can mobilize within host genomes. As TEs comprise more than 40% of the human genome and are linked to numerous diseases, understanding their mechanisms of mobilization and regulation is important. Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal model organism for the study of eukaryotic TEs as its genome contains a diverse array of active TEs. TEs universally impact host genome size via transposition and deletion events, but may also adopt unique functional roles in host organisms. There are 2 main classes of TEs: DNA transposons and retrotransposons. These classes are further divided into subgroups of TEs with unique structural and functional characteristics, demonstrating the significant variability among these elements. Despite this variability, D. melanogaster and other eukaryotic organisms utilize conserved mechanisms to regulate TEs. This review focuses on the transposition mechanisms and regulatory pathways of TEs, and their functional roles in D. melanogaster. PMID:28580197

  10. Cytokines in Drosophila immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanha-Aho, Leena-Maija; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2016-02-01

    Cytokines are a large and diverse group of small proteins that can affect many biological processes, but most commonly cytokines are known as mediators of the immune response. In the event of an infection, cytokines are produced in response to an immune stimulus, and they function as key regulators of the immune response. Cytokines come in many shapes and sizes, and although they vary greatly in structure, their functions have been well conserved in evolution. The immune signaling pathways that respond to cytokines are remarkably conserved from fly to man. Therefore, Drosophila melanogaster, provides an excellent platform for studying the biology and function of cytokines. In this review, we will describe the cytokines and cytokine-like molecules found in the fly and discuss their roles in host immunity. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Humidity Sensing in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjin, Anders; Zaharieva, Emanuela E; Frank, Dominic D; Mansourian, Suzan; Suh, Greg S B; Gallio, Marco; Stensmyr, Marcus C

    2016-05-23

    Environmental humidity influences the fitness and geographic distribution of all animals [1]. Insects in particular use humidity cues to navigate the environment, and previous work suggests the existence of specific sensory mechanisms to detect favorable humidity ranges [2-5]. Yet, the molecular and cellular basis of humidity sensing (hygrosensation) remains poorly understood. Here we describe genes and neurons necessary for hygrosensation in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. We find that members of the Drosophila genus display species-specific humidity preferences related to conditions in their native habitats. Using a simple behavioral assay, we find that the ionotropic receptors IR40a, IR93a, and IR25a are all required for humidity preference in D. melanogaster. Yet, whereas IR40a is selectively required for hygrosensory responses, IR93a and IR25a mediate both humidity and temperature preference. Consistent with this, the expression of IR93a and IR25a includes thermosensory neurons of the arista. In contrast, IR40a is excluded from the arista but is expressed (and required) in specialized neurons innervating pore-less sensilla of the sacculus, a unique invagination of the third antennal segment. Indeed, calcium imaging showed that IR40a neurons directly respond to changes in humidity, and IR40a knockdown or IR93a mutation reduced their responses to stimuli. Taken together, our results suggest that the preference for a specific humidity range depends on specialized sacculus neurons, and that the processing of environmental humidity can happen largely in parallel to that of temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolutionary genetics: the Drosophila model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Evolutionary genetics straddles the two fundamental processes of life, development (the transition from egg to adult) and reproduction (the generation of eggs from adults), and scrutinizes, from an evolu- tionary perspective, the nature .... script profiles in aging and calorically restricted Drosophila melanogaster. Curr. Biol.

  13. A DNA virus of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Unckless

    Full Text Available Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV. PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (∼80-90% loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan.

  14. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanis Missirlis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import, the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage. We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration.

  15. Iron Absorption in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Pathmanathan, Tharse; Missirlis, Fanis

    2013-01-01

    The way in which Drosophila melanogaster acquires iron from the diet remains poorly understood despite iron absorption being of vital significance for larval growth. To describe the process of organismal iron absorption, consideration needs to be given to cellular iron import, storage, export and how intestinal epithelial cells sense and respond to iron availability. Here we review studies on the Divalent Metal Transporter-1 homolog Malvolio (iron import), the recent discovery that Multicopper Oxidase-1 has ferroxidase activity (iron export) and the role of ferritin in the process of iron acquisition (iron storage). We also describe what is known about iron regulation in insect cells. We then draw upon knowledge from mammalian iron homeostasis to identify candidate genes in flies. Questions arise from the lack of conservation in Drosophila for key mammalian players, such as ferroportin, hepcidin and all the components of the hemochromatosis-related pathway. Drosophila and other insects also lack erythropoiesis. Thus, systemic iron regulation is likely to be conveyed by different signaling pathways and tissue requirements. The significance of regulating intestinal iron uptake is inferred from reports linking Drosophila developmental, immune, heat-shock and behavioral responses to iron sequestration. PMID:23686013

  16. INBRED AND OUTBRED DROSOPHILA SUBOBSCURA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 84; Issue 1. Acclimatization to High Temperatures in Inbred and Outbred Drosophila Subobscura (Published on 1956 J. Genet. 54, 497-505). J. Maynard Smith. J. Genet. Classic Volume 84 Issue 1 April 2005 pp 37-45 ...

  17. Semi-automated quantitative Drosophila wings measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sheng Yang Michael; Ogawa, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Sara; Tamura, Koichiro; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2017-06-28

    Drosophila melanogaster is an important organism used in many fields of biological research such as genetics and developmental biology. Drosophila wings have been widely used to study the genetics of development, morphometrics and evolution. Therefore there is much interest in quantifying wing structures of Drosophila. Advancement in technology has increased the ease in which images of Drosophila can be acquired. However such studies have been limited by the slow and tedious process of acquiring phenotypic data. We have developed a system that automatically detects and measures key points and vein segments on a Drosophila wing. Key points are detected by performing image transformations and template matching on Drosophila wing images while vein segments are detected using an Active Contour algorithm. The accuracy of our key point detection was compared against key point annotations of users. We also performed key point detection using different training data sets of Drosophila wing images. We compared our software with an existing automated image analysis system for Drosophila wings and showed that our system performs better than the state of the art. Vein segments were manually measured and compared against the measurements obtained from our system. Our system was able to detect specific key points and vein segments from Drosophila wing images with high accuracy.

  18. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-06-06

    Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Effect of Hawthorn on Drosophila Melanogaster Antioxidant-Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on Drosophila melanogaster antioxidant related gene expression were investigated by lifespan tests of. Drosophila, antioxidant enzyme ... Results: The results indicate that hawthorn extract prolonged the life span of Drosophila, with 50 % survival time of 0.8 and 4 ... Drosophila's aging gene is highly similar to humans [4,5].

  20. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia). –. (c) Details of the laboratory stocks of D. malerkotliana ..... Bock I. R. 1971a Taxonomy of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Univ. Tex. Publ. 6, 273–280. Bock I. R. 1971b Intra and interspecific chromosomal inversions in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Chromosoma 34,.

  1. Chromosomal localization of autosomal mutations in Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We studied two eye colour and two wing mutants (sepia, brown, crossveinless and Curly) in Drosophila nasuta nasuta and four eye colour mutants (brown, carmine, pur- ple and bright eyes) in Drosophila nasuta albomicans. Most mutations were isolated from natural populations whereas two (crossveinless and Curly in D.

  2. Drosophila Modeling of Heritable Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Cheryl L.; Broadie, Kendal

    2011-01-01

    Heritable neurodevelopmental disorders are multifaceted disease conditions encompassing a wide range of symptoms including intellectual disability, cognitive dysfunction, autism and myriad other behavioral impairments. In cases where single, causative genetic defects have been identified, such as Angelman syndrome, Rett syndrome, Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Fragile X syndrome, the classical Drosophila genetic system has provided fruitful disease models. Recent Drosophila studies have advance...

  3. Drosophila modeling of heritable neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Cheryl L; Broadie, Kendal

    2011-12-01

    Heritable neurodevelopmental disorders are multifaceted disease conditions encompassing a wide range of symptoms including intellectual disability, cognitive dysfunction, autism and myriad other behavioral impairments. In cases where single, causative genetic defects have been identified, such as Angelman syndrome, Rett syndrome, Neurofibromatosis Type 1 and Fragile X syndrome, the classical Drosophila genetic system has provided fruitful disease models. Recent Drosophila studies have advanced our understanding of UBE3A, MECP2, NF1 and FMR1 function, respectively, in genetic, biochemical, anatomical, physiological and behavioral contexts. Investigations in Drosophila continue to provide the essential mechanistic understanding required to facilitate the conception of rational therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Genome Sequence of Drosophila melanogaster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ...; Mark D. Adams; Susan E. Celniker; Robert A. Holt; Cheryl A. Evans; Jeannine D. Gocayne; Peter G. Amanatides; Steven E. Scherer; Peter W. Li; Roger A. Hoskins; Richard F. Galle; Reed A. George; Suzanna E. Lewis; Stephen Richards; Michael Ashburner; Scott N. Henderson; Granger G. Sutton; Jennifer R. Wortman; Mark D. Yandell; Qing Zhang; Lin X. Chen; Rhonda C. Brandon; Yu-Hui C. Rogers; Robert G. Blazej; Mark Champe; Barret D. Pfeiffer; Kenneth H. Wan; Clare Doyle; Evan G. Baxter; Gregg Helt; Catherine R. Nelson; George L. Gabor; Miklos; Josep F. Abril; Anna Agbayani; Hui-Jin An; Cynthia Andrews-Pfannkoch; Danita Baldwin; Richard M. Ballew; Anand Basu; James Baxendale; Leyla Bayraktaroglu; Ellen M. Beasley; Karen Y. Beeson; P. V. Benos; Benjamin P. Berman; Deepali Bhandari; Slava Bolshakov; Dana Borkova; Michael R. Botchan; John Bouck; Peter Brokstein; Phillipe Brottier; Kenneth C. Burtis; Dana A. Busam; Heather Butler; Edouard Cadieu; Angela Center; Ishwar Chandra; J. Michael Cherry; Simon Cawley; Carl Dahlke; Lionel B. Davenport; Peter Davies; Beatriz de Pablos; Arthur Delcher; Zuoming Deng; Anne Deslattes Mays; Ian Dew; Suzanne M. Dietz; Kristina Dodson; Lisa E. Doup; Michael Downes; Shannon Dugan-Rocha; Boris C. Dunkov; Patrick Dunn; Kenneth J. Durbin; Carlos C. Evangelista; Concepcion Ferraz; Steven Ferriera; Wolfgang Fleischmann; Carl Fosler; Andrei E. Gabrielian; Neha S. Garg; William M. Gelbart; Ken Glasser; Anna Glodek; Fangcheng Gong; J. Harley Gorrell; Zhiping Gu; Ping Guan; Michael Harris; Nomi L. Harris; Damon Harvey; Thomas J. Heiman; Judith R. Hernandez; Jarrett Houck; Damon Hostin; Kathryn A. Houston; Timothy J. Howland; Ming-Hui Wei

    2000-01-01

    ... of the ∼120-megabase euchromatic portion of the Drosophila genome using a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy supported by extensive clone-based sequence and a high-quality bacterial artificial chromosome physical map...

  5. Modeling tumor invasion and metastasis in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne O. Miles

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of major signaling pathways between humans and flies has made Drosophila a useful model organism for cancer research. Our understanding of the mechanisms regulating cell growth, differentiation and development has been considerably advanced by studies in Drosophila. Several recent high profile studies have examined the processes constraining the metastatic growth of tumor cells in fruit fly models. Cell invasion can be studied in the context of an in vivo setting in flies, enabling the genetic requirements of the microenvironment of tumor cells undergoing metastasis to be analyzed. This Perspective discusses the strengths and limitations of Drosophila models of cancer invasion and the unique tools that have enabled these studies. It also highlights several recent reports that together make a strong case for Drosophila as a system with the potential for both testing novel concepts in tumor progression and cell invasion, and for uncovering players in metastasis.

  6. Gene Regulation Networks for Modeling Drosophila Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjolsness, E.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter will very briefly introduce and review some computational experiments in using trainable gene regulation network models to simulate and understand selected episodes in the development of the fruit fly, Drosophila Melanogaster.

  7. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  8. On the Morphology of the Drosophila Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rotstein

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The circulatory system of Drosophila melanogaster represents an easily amenable genetic model whose analysis at different levels, i.e., from single molecules up to functional anatomy, has provided new insights into general aspects of cardiogenesis, heart physiology and cardiac aging, to name a few examples. In recent years, the Drosophila heart has also attracted the attention of researchers in the field of biomedicine. This development is mainly due to the fact that several genes causing human heart disease are also present in Drosophila, where they play the same or similar roles in heart development, maintenance or physiology as their respective counterparts in humans. This review will attempt to briefly introduce the anatomy of the Drosophila circulatory system and then focus on the different cell types and non-cellular tissue that constitute the heart.

  9. The Role of AMPK in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Sarah E; Brenman, Jay E

    2016-01-01

    In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, mono-allelic expression of AMPK-α, -β, and -γ yields a single heterotrimeric energy sensor that regulates cellular and whole-body energetic homeostasis. The genetic simplicity of Drosophila, with only a single gene for each subunit, makes the fruit fly an appealing organism for elucidating the effects of AMPK mutations on signaling pathways and phenotypes. In addition, Drosophila presents researchers with an opportunity to use straightforward genetic approaches to elucidate metabolic signaling pathways that contain a level of complexity similar to that observed in mammalian pathways. Just as in mammals, however, the regulatory realm of AMPK function extends beyond metabolic rates and lipid metabolism. Indeed, experiments using Drosophila have shown that AMPK may exert protective effects with regard to life span and neurodegeneration. This chapter addresses a few of the research areas in which Drosophila has been used to elucidate the physiological functions of AMPK. In doing so, this chapter provides a primer for basic Drosophila nomenclature, thereby eliminating a communication barrier that persists for AMPK researchers trained in mammalian genetics.

  10. Characterization of Autophagic Responses in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Kumar, S; Denton, D

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila is an excellent model system for studying autophagy during animal development due to the availability of genetic reagents and opportunity for in vivo cell biological analysis. The regulation and mechanism of autophagy are highly evolutionarily conserved and the role of autophagy has been characterized during various stages of Drosophila development as well as following starvation. Studies in Drosophila have revealed novel insights into the role of distinct components of the autophagy machinery. This chapter describes protocols for examining autophagy during Drosophila development. A crucial step in the induction of autophagy is the incorporation of Atg8a into the autophagosome. This can be measured as autophagic puncta using live fluorescent imaging, immunostaining, or immunoblot analysis of LC3/Atg8a processing. The level of autophagy can also be examined using other specific components of the autophagy pathway as markers detected by immunofluorescent imaging. Based on the distinct morphology of autophagy, it can also be examined by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, one of the advantages of using Drosophila as a model is the ability to undertake genetic analysis of individual components of the autophagy machinery. Current approaches that can be used to monitor autophagy, including the overall flux and individual steps in Drosophila melanogaster, will be discussed. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular neurobiology of Drosophila taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Erica Gene; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila is a powerful model in which to study the molecular and cellular basis of taste coding. Flies sense tastants via populations of taste neurons that are activated by compounds of distinct categories. The past few years have borne witness to studies that define the properties of taste neurons, identifying functionally distinct classes of sweet and bitter taste neurons that express unique subsets of gustatory receptor (Gr) genes, as well as water, salt, and pheromone sensing neurons that express members of the pickpocket (ppk) or ionotropic receptor (Ir) families. There has also been significant progress in terms of understanding how tastant information is processed and conveyed to higher brain centers, and modulated by prior dietary experience or starvation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Involvement of cytochrome P450 in host-plant utilization by Sonoran Desert Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, M. R.; Fogleman, J C

    1992-01-01

    The four Drosophila species endemic to the Sonoran Desert (Drosophila mettleri, Drosophila mojavensis, Drosophila nigrospiracula, and Drosophila pachea) utilize necrotic cactus tissue or soil soaked by rot exudate as breeding substrates. Each Drosophila species uses a different cactus species as its primary host. D. pachea is limited to senita cactus by a biochemical dependency on unusual sterols available only in that cactus. For the other Drosophila species, no such chemical dependencies ex...

  13. Effect of Hawthorn on Drosophila Melanogaster Antioxidant-Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effects of various doses of hawthorn extract on Drosophila lifespan, antioxidant enzyme activity and expression of antioxidant-related regulation genes. Methods: Experiments with Drosophila as an animal model were conducted. The effects of hawthorn on Drosophila melanogaster antioxidant related ...

  14. Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The swift clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs (efferocytosis by phagocytes is a critical event during development of all multicellular organisms. It is achieved through phagocytosis by professional or amateur phagocytes. Failure in this process can lead to the development of inflammatory autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases. AC clearance has been conserved throughout evolution, although many details in its mechanisms remain to be explored. It has been studied in the context of mammalian macrophages, and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which lacks “professional” phagocytes such as macrophages, but in which other cell types can engulf apoptotic corpses. In Drosophila melanogaster, ACs are engulfed by macrophages, glial, and epithelial cells. Drosophila macrophages perform similar functions to those of mammalian macrophages. They are professional phagocytes that participate in phagocytosis of ACs and pathogens. Study of AC clearance in Drosophila has identified some key elements, like the receptors Croquemort and Draper, promoting Drosophila as a suitable model to genetically dissect this process. In this review, we survey recent works of AC clearance pathways in Drosophila, and discuss the physiological outcomes and consequences of this process.

  15. Development of dendrite polarity in Drosophila neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila neurons have dendrites that contain minus-end-out microtubules. This microtubule arrangement is different from that of cultured mammalian neurons, which have mixed polarity microtubules in dendrites. Results To determine whether Drosophila and mammalian dendrites have a common microtubule organization during development, we analyzed microtubule polarity in Drosophila dendritic arborization neuron dendrites at different stages of outgrowth from the cell body in vivo. As dendrites initially extended, they contained mixed polarity microtubules, like mammalian neurons developing in culture. Over a period of several days this mixed microtubule array gradually matured to a minus-end-out array. To determine whether features characteristic of dendrites were localized before uniform polarity was attained, we analyzed dendritic markers as dendrites developed. In all cases the markers took on their characteristic distribution while dendrites had mixed polarity. An axonal marker was also quite well excluded from dendrites throughout development, although this was perhaps more efficient in mature neurons. To confirm that dendrite character could be acquired in Drosophila while microtubules were mixed, we genetically disrupted uniform dendritic microtubule organization. Dendritic markers also localized correctly in this case. Conclusions We conclude that developing Drosophila dendrites initially have mixed microtubule polarity. Over time they mature to uniform microtubule polarity. Dendrite identity is established before the mature microtubule arrangement is attained, during the period of mixed microtubule polarity.

  16. Gut-associated microbes of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Nichole; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in using Drosophila melanogaster to elucidate mechanisms that underlie the complex relationships between a host and its microbiota. In addition to the many genetic resources and tools Drosophila provides, its associated microbiota is relatively simple (1–30 taxa), in contrast to the complex diversity associated with vertebrates (> 500 taxa). These attributes highlight the potential of this system to dissect the complex cellular and molecular interactions that occur between a host and its microbiota. In this review, we summarize what is known regarding the composition of gut-associated microbes of Drosophila and their impact on host physiology. We also discuss these interactions in the context of their natural history and ecology and describe some recent insights into mechanisms by which Drosophila and its gut microbiota interact. “Workers with Drosophila have been considered fortunate in that they deal with the first multicellular invertebrate to be cultured monoxenically (Delcourt and Guyenot, 1910); the first to be handled axenically on a semisynthetic diet (Guyenot, 1917); and the first to be grown on a defined diet (Schultz et al., 1946). This list of advantages is somewhat embarrassing, since it implies an interest in nutrition that, in reality, was only secondary. The very first studies were concerned with the reduction of variability in genetic experiments (Delcourt and Guyenot, 1910) and standardization of the nutritional environment.” -James Sang, 1959 Ann NY Acad 1 PMID:22572876

  17. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  18. Viruses and Antiviral Immunity in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Cherry, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Viral pathogens present many challenges to organisms, driving the evolution of a myriad of antiviral strategies to combat infections. A wide variety of viruses infect invertebrates, including both natural pathogens that are insect-restricted, and viruses that are transmitted to vertebrates. Studies using the powerful tools available in the model organism Drosophila have expanded our understanding of antiviral defenses against diverse viruses. In this review, we will cover three major areas. First, we will describe the tools used to study viruses in Drosophila. Second, we will survey the major viruses that have been studied in Drosophila. And lastly, we will discuss the well-characterized mechanisms that are active against these diverse pathogens, focusing on non-RNAi mediated antiviral mechanisms. Antiviral RNAi is discussed in another paper in this issue. PMID:23680639

  19. Apoptosis in Drosophila: which role for mitochondria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavier, Amandine; Rincheval-Arnold, Aurore; Colin, Jessie; Mignotte, Bernard; Guénal, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    It is now well established that the mitochondrion is a central regulator of mammalian cell apoptosis. However, the importance of this organelle in non-mammalian apoptosis has long been regarded as minor, mainly because of the absence of a crucial role for cytochrome c in caspase activation. Recent results indicate that the control of caspase activation and cell death in Drosophila occurs at the mitochondrial level. Numerous proteins, including RHG proteins and proteins of the Bcl-2 family that are key regulators of Drosophila apoptosis, constitutively or transiently localize in mitochondria. These proteins participate in the cell death process at different levels such as degradation of Diap1, a Drosophila IAP, production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species or stimulation of the mitochondrial fission machinery. Here, we review these mitochondrial events that might have their counterpart in human.

  20. Viruses and antiviral immunity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Cherry, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Viral pathogens present many challenges to organisms, driving the evolution of a myriad of antiviral strategies to combat infections. A wide variety of viruses infect invertebrates, including both natural pathogens that are insect-restricted, and viruses that are transmitted to vertebrates. Studies using the powerful tools in the model organism Drosophila have expanded our understanding of antiviral defenses against diverse viruses. In this review, we will cover three major areas. First, we will describe the tools used to study viruses in Drosophila. Second, we will survey the major viruses that have been studied in Drosophila. And lastly, we will discuss the well-characterized mechanisms that are active against these diverse pathogens, focusing on non-RNAi mediated antiviral mechanisms. Antiviral RNAi is discussed in another paper in this issue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Drosophila melanogaster Models of Galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenzer, J M I; Fridovich-Keil, J L

    2017-01-01

    The galactosemias are a family of autosomal recessive genetic disorders resulting from impaired function of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Type I, or classic galactosemia, results from profound deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, the second enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Type II galactosemia results from profound deficiency of galactokinase, the first enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Type III galactosemia results from partial deficiency of UDP galactose 4'-epimerase, the third enzyme in the Leloir pathway. Although at least classic galactosemia has been recognized clinically for more than 100 years, and detectable by newborn screening for more than 50 years, all three galactosemias remain poorly understood. Early detection and dietary restriction of galactose prevent neonatal lethality, but many affected infants grow to experience a broad range of developmental and other disabilities. To date, there is no intervention known that prevents or reverses these long-term complications. Drosophila melanogaster provides a genetically and biochemically facile model for these conditions, enabling studies that address mechanism and open the door for novel approaches to intervention. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The lamin B receptor of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nicole; Weber, Daniela; Seitz, Sabine; Krohne, Georg

    2004-04-15

    The lamin B receptor (LBR) is an integral membrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane that has so far been characterized only in vertebrates. Here, we describe the Drosophila melanogaster protein encoded by the annotated gene CG17952 that is the putative ortholog to the vertebrate LBR. The Drosophila lamin B receptor (dLBR) has the following properties in common with the vertebrate LBR. First, structure predictions indicate that the 741 amino acid dLBR protein possesses a highly charged N-terminal domain of 307 amino acids followed by eight transmembrane segments in the C-terminal domain of the molecule. Second, immunolocalization and cell fractionation reveal that the dLBR is an integral membrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane. Third, dLBR can be shown by co-immunoprecipitations and in vitro binding assays to bind to the Drosophila B-type lamin Dm0. Fourth, the N-terminal domain of dLBR is sufficient for in vitro binding to sperm chromatin and lamin Dm0. In contrast to the human LBR, dLBR does not possess sterol C14 reductase activity when it is expressed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae erg24 mutant, which lacks sterol C14 reductase activity. Our data raise the possibility that, during evolution, the enzymatic activity of this insect protein had been lost. To determine whether the dLBR is an essential protein, we depleted it by RNA interference in Drosophila embryos and in cultured S2 and Kc167 cells. There is no obvious effect on the nuclear architecture or viability of treated cells and embryos, whereas the depletion of Drosophila lamin Dm0 in cultured cells and embryos caused morphological alterations of nuclei, nuclear fragility and the arrest of embryonic development. We conclude that dLBR is not a limiting component of the nuclear architecture in Drosophila cells during the first 2 days of development.

  3. Protocols to Study Aging in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Matthew D W; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster offers a host of advantages for studying the biology of aging: a well-understood biology, a wide range of genetic reagents, well-defined dietary requirements, and a relatively short life span, with a median of ~80 days and maximum ~100 days. Several phenotypes can be used to assess the aging process, but the simplest and most widely used metric is length of life. Here we describe a standard life span assay for Drosophila housed on a simple sugar/yeast diet.

  4. Rosa damascena decreased mortality in adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mahtab; Zarban, Asghar; Pham, Steven; Wang, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The effects of a rose-flower extract, Rosa damascena, on the mortality rate of Drosophila melanogaster was evaluated in this study. R. damascena is a potent antioxidant that has many therapeutic uses in addition to its perfuming effects. Supplementing Drosophila with this rose extract resulted in a statistically significant decrease in mortality rate in male and female flies. Moreover, the observed anti-aging effects were not associated with common confounds of anti-aging properties, such as a decrease in fecundity or metabolic rate.

  5. Longevity and the stress response in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2007-01-01

    briefly review the state of the art of research on ageing and longevity in the model organism Drosophila, with focus on the role of the general stress response. We will conclude by contemplating some of the implications of the findings in this research and will suggest several directions for future...... research. Keywords: Ageing; Stress response; Hsp; Drosophila; Stress......The concept that lifespan is a function of the capacity to withstand extrinsic stress is very old. In concordance with this, long-lived individuals often have increased resistance against a variety of stresses throughout life. Genes underlying the stress response may therefore have the ability...

  6. Drosophila bitter taste(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eFrench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called bitter. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induce aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to inhibitory pheromones such as 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different categories of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction

  7. Automated measurement of Drosophila wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezey Jason

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies in evolutionary biology and genetics are limited by the rate at which phenotypic information can be acquired. The wings of Drosophila species are a favorable target for automated analysis because of the many interesting questions in evolution and development that can be addressed with them, and because of their simple structure. Results We have developed an automated image analysis system (WINGMACHINE that measures the positions of all the veins and the edges of the wing blade of Drosophilid flies. A video image is obtained with the aid of a simple suction device that immobilizes the wing of a live fly. Low-level processing is used to find the major intersections of the veins. High-level processing then optimizes the fit of an a priori B-spline model of wing shape. WINGMACHINE allows the measurement of 1 wing per minute, including handling, imaging, analysis, and data editing. The repeatabilities of 12 vein intersections averaged 86% in a sample of flies of the same species and sex. Comparison of 2400 wings of 25 Drosophilid species shows that wing shape is quite conservative within the group, but that almost all taxa are diagnosably different from one another. Wing shape retains some phylogenetic structure, although some species have shapes very different from closely related species. The WINGMACHINE system facilitates artificial selection experiments on complex aspects of wing shape. We selected on an index which is a function of 14 separate measurements of each wing. After 14 generations, we achieved a 15 S.D. difference between up and down-selected treatments. Conclusion WINGMACHINE enables rapid, highly repeatable measurements of wings in the family Drosophilidae. Our approach to image analysis may be applicable to a variety of biological objects that can be represented as a framework of connected lines.

  8. Place memory retention in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Daniela; Kahsai, Lily; Kramer, Elizabeth F; Knutson, Patrick; Zars, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Some memories last longer than others, with some lasting a lifetime. Using several approaches memory phases have been identified. How are these different phases encoded, and do these different phases have similar temporal properties across learning situations? Place memory in Drosophila using the heat-box provides an excellent opportunity to examine the commonalities of genetically-defined memory phases across learning contexts. Here we determine optimal conditions to test place memories that last up to three hours. An aversive temperature of 41°C was identified as critical for establishing a long-lasting place memory. Interestingly, adding an intermittent-training protocol only slightly increased place memory when intermediate aversive temperatures were used, and slightly extended the stability of a memory. Genetic analysis of this memory identified four genes as critical for place memory within minutes of training. The role of the rutabaga type I adenylyl cyclase was confirmed, and the latheo Orc3 origin of recognition complex component, the novel gene encoded by pastrel, and the small GTPase rac were all identified as essential for normal place memory. Examination of the dopamine and ecdysone receptor (DopEcR) did not reveal a function for this gene in place memory. When compared to the role of these genes in other memory types, these results suggest that there are genes that have both common and specific roles in memory formation across learning contexts. Importantly, contrasting the timing for the function of these four genes, plus a previously described role of the radish gene, in place memory with the temporal requirement of these genes in classical olfactory conditioning reveals variability in the timing of genetically-defined memory phases depending on the type of learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative genetics of functional characters in Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    line-cross analysis; epistasis; dominance; adaptation; experimental evolution; reverse evolution; life-history evolution; quantitative genetics; Drosophila. ... set of five populations maintained for several hundred generations on a two-week discrete-generation life cycle and a set of five populations adapted to starvation stress.

  10. Measurement of Cytoplasmic Streaming in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sujoy; Williams, Lucy; Palacios, Isabel; Goldstein, Raymond

    2010-11-01

    During stage 9 of Drosophila melanogastor oogenesis flow of the oocyte cytoplasm, driven by kinesin 1 motor protein is observed. This cytoplasmic streaming is analyzed by PIV in both wild type and kinesin light chain mutants, revealing striking statistical differences. Further measurements of the rheology of the oocyte allow for estimations of the mechanical energy needed to generate the observed flows.

  11. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, N.E.; Clausen, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 angstrom resolution...

  12. Functional Neuroanatomy of "Drosophila" Olfactory Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying "Drosophila" learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive…

  13. Second-Order Conditioning in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Christopher J.; de Belle, J. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Associative conditioning in "Drosophila melanogaster" has been well documented for several decades. However, most studies report only simple associations of conditioned stimuli (CS, e.g., odor) with unconditioned stimuli (US, e.g., electric shock) to measure learning or establish memory. Here we describe a straightforward second-order conditioning…

  14. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Making interspecific hybridizations, where possible remains an unparalleled option for studying the intricacies of speciation. In the Drosophila bipectinata species complex comprising of four species, namely D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata, D. malerkotliana and D. pseudoananassae, interspecific hybrids can be obtained ...

  15. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARUL BANERJEE

    [Banerjee P. and Singh B. N. 2017 The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic relationship among different members based on chromosomal variations. ... understanding the intricacies of speciation (Yang et al. 1972;. Bock 1978 .... tures more number of larvae needs to be checked to confirm homozygosity.

  16. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive research has been carried out to understand how circadian clocks regulate various physiological processes in organisms. The discovery of clock genes and the molecular clockwork has helped researchers to understand the possible role of these genes in regulating various metabolic processes. In Drosophila ...

  17. Polarity and intracellular compartmentalization of Drosophila neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henner Astra L

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper neuronal function depends on forming three primary subcellular compartments: axons, dendrites, and soma. Each compartment has a specialized function (the axon to send information, dendrites to receive information, and the soma is where most cellular components are produced. In mammalian neurons, each primary compartment has distinctive molecular and morphological features, as well as smaller domains, such as the axon initial segment, that have more specialized functions. How neuronal subcellular compartments are established and maintained is not well understood. Genetic studies in Drosophila have provided insight into other areas of neurobiology, but it is not known whether flies are a good system in which to study neuronal polarity as a comprehensive analysis of Drosophila neuronal subcellular organization has not been performed. Results Here we use new and previously characterized markers to examine Drosophila neuronal compartments. We find that: axons and dendrites can accumulate different microtubule-binding proteins; protein synthesis machinery is concentrated in the cell body; pre- and post-synaptic sites localize to distinct regions of the neuron; and specializations similar to the initial segment are present. In addition, we track EB1-GFP dynamics and determine microtubules in axons and dendrites have opposite polarity. Conclusion We conclude that Drosophila will be a powerful system to study the establishment and maintenance of neuronal compartments.

  18. Drosophila Melanogaster as an Experimental Organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Gerald M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the role of the fruit fly in genetics research requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Describes embryological and genetic methods used in the experimental analysis of this organism. Outlines the use of Drosophila in the study of the development and function of the nervous system. (RT)

  19. Vision: the retinoid cycle in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshavsky, Vadim Y

    2010-02-09

    It was commonly accepted that the enzymatic pathway regenerating bleached visual pigments is present in vertebrate but not invertebrate animals. New studies indicate that this pathway is present in Drosophila and is vital for maintaining both the amount of visual pigment and photoreceptor health in light-exposed flies.

  20. Developing a Drosophila Model of Schwannomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Schneider DS (2008) Identification of Drosophila mutants altering defense of and endurance to Listeria monocytogenes infection. Genetics 178: 1807–1815. 53... Plant L, Gudmundsson GH, et al. (2005) Neisseria gonorrhoeae downregulates expression of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Cell Microbiol 7

  1. Mapping selection within Drosophila melanogaster embryo's anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvador-Martínez, Irepan; Coronado-Zamora, Marta; Castellano, David

    2018-01-01

    We present a survey of selection across Drosophila melanogaster embryonic anatomy. Our approach integrates genomic variation, spatial gene expression patterns and development, with the aim of mapping adaptation over the entire embryo's anatomy. Our adaptation map is based on analyzing spatial gene...

  2. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila models (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Penghe; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Tans, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-02-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster shares many similarities with vertebrates in heart development. Comparison of heart structural and functional characteristic between male and female Drosophila melanogaster at different developmental stages is helpful to understand heart morphogenesis and function for different genders. And also, it opens up the possibility to uncover the role of sex-related genes in heart development. In this longitudinal study, we cultured and tracked dozens of individually labeled flies throughout their lifecycle. The heart characteristic was measured at different developmental stages during culturing. The gender of each individual fly was determined by adult stage so that the collected data of early stages could be classified to male or female group. We adapted a high-speed optical coherence microscopy (OCM) system with axial and transverse resolution of 2um and 4um, respectively, to perform non-invasive M-mode imaging at a frame rate of 132Hz in Drosophila heart at third instar larva, early pupa and adult stage. Based on those GPU processed M-mode OCM images, we segmented the fly heart region and then quantified the cardiac structural and functional parameters such as heart rate, heart chamber size and so on. Despite large variances of wild type Drosophila in terms of some cardiac characteristic, our results suggest that the heart rate is lower for male flies than for female flies, especially at third instar larva stage. The end diastolic area (EDA) and end systolic area (ESA) of the heart are both slightly larger in female flies than in male flies at larva and adult stage. In summary, we showed gender differences of wild type drosophila in heart functional and structural characteristic.

  3. Drosophila increase exploration after visually detecting predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de la Flor

    Full Text Available Novel stimuli elicit behaviors that are collectively known as specific exploration. These behaviors allow the animal to become more familiar with the novel objects within its environment. Specific exploration is frequently suppressed by defensive reactions to predator cues. Herein, we examine if this suppression occurs in Drosophila melanogaster by measuring the response of these flies to wild harvested predators. The flies used in our experiments have been cultured and had not lived under predator threat for multiple decades. In a circular arena with centrally-caged predators, wild type Drosophila actively avoided the pantropical jumping spider, Plexippus paykulli, and the Texas unicorn mantis, Phyllovates chlorophaena, indicating an innate defensive reaction to these predators. Interestingly, wild type Drosophila males also avoided a centrally-caged mock spider, and the avoidance of the mock spider became exaggerated when it was made to move within the cage. Visually impaired Drosophila failed to detect and avoid the Plexippus paykulli and the moving mock spider, while the broadly anosmic orco2 mutants were fully capable of detecting and avoiding Plexippus paykulli, indicating that these flies principally relied upon vison to perceive the predator stimuli. During early exploration of the arena, exploratory activity increased in the presence of Plexippus paykulli and the moving mock spider. The elevated activity induced by Plexippus paykulli disappeared after the fly had finished exploring, suggesting the flies were capable of habituating the predator cues. Taken together, these results indicate that despite being isolated from predators for decades Drosophila will visually detect these predators, retain innate defensive behaviors, respond by increasing exploratory activity in the arena rather than suppressing activity, and may habituate to normal predator cues.

  4. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive, contact-less cardiac pacing technology can be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research and in clinics. Currently, electrical pacing is the gold standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling the cardiac function, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its capabilities. Optical pacing of heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Optical coherence tomography has been proved to be an effective technique in non-invasive imaging in vivo with ultrahigh resolution and imaging speed. In the last several years, non-invasive specific optical pacing in animal hearts has been reported in quail, zebrafish, and rabbit models. However, Drosophila Melanogaster, which is a significant model with orthologs of 75% of human disease genes, has rarely been studied concerning their optical pacing in heart. Here, we combined optogenetic control of Drosophila heartbeat with optical coherence microscopy (OCM) technique for the first time. The light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was specifically expressed by transgene as a pacemaker in drosophila heart. By stimulating the pacemaker with 472 nm pulsed laser light at different frequencies, we achieved non-invasive and more specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm, which demonstrates the wide potential of optical pacing for studying cardiac dynamics and development. Imaging capability of our customized OCM system was also involved to observe the pacing effect visually. No tissue damage was found after long exposure to laser pulses, which proved the safety of optogenetic control of Drosophila heart.

  5. Organization and evolution of Drosophila terminin: similarities and differences between Drosophila and human telomeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Daniela Raffa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila lacks telomerase and fly telomeres are elongated by occasional transposition of three specialized retroelements. Drosophila telomeres do not terminate with GC-rich repeats and are assembled independently of the sequence of chromosome ends. Recent work has shown that Drosophila telomeres are capped by the terminin complex, which includes the fast-evolving proteins HOAP, HipHop, Moi and Ver. These proteins are not conserves outside Drosophilidae and localize and function exclusively at telomeres, protecting them from fusion events. Other proteins required to prevent end-to-end fusion in flies include HP1, Eff/UbcD1, ATM, the components of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs (MRN complex, and the Woc transcription factor. These proteins do not share the terminin properties; they are evolutionarily conserved non-fast-evolving proteins that do not accumulate only telomeres and do not serve telomere-specific functions. We propose that following telomerase loss, Drosophila rapidly evolved terminin to bind chromosome ends in a sequence-independent manner. This hypothesis suggests that terminin is the functional analog of the shelterin complex that protects human telomeres. The non-terminin proteins are instead likely to correspond to ancestral telomere-associated proteins that did not evolve as rapidly as terminin because of the functional constraints imposed by their involvement in diverse cellular processes. Thus, it appears that the main difference between Drosophila and human telomeres is in the protective complexes that specifically associate with the DNA termini. We believe that Drosophila telomeres offer excellent opportunities for investigations on human telomere biology. The identification of additional Drosophila genes encoding non-terminin proteins involved in telomere protection might lead to the discovery of novel components of human telomeres.

  6. Tolerance of Drosophila flies to ibotenic acid poisons in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuno, Nobuko; Takahashi, Kazuo H; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Osawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Chihiro

    2007-02-01

    The mushroom genus Amanita has a spectrum of chemical compounds affecting survival and performance of animals. Ibotenic acid is one of such compounds found in some Amanita mushrooms. We studied the effects of ibotenic acid and its derivative, muscimol, on egg-to-pupa survival, pupation time, and pupal size in five Drosophila species (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Drosophila bizonata, Drosophila angularis, Drosophila brachynephros, Drosophila immigrans, and Drosophila melanogaster. The first three species are mycophagous and use a wide range of mushrooms for breeding, whereas D. immigrans and D. melanogaster are frugivorous. We reared fly larvae on artificial medium with 500, 250, 125, and 62.5 microg/ml of ibotenic acid and/or musimol. The three mycophagous species were not susceptible to ibotenic acid, whereas the two frugivorous species were affected. In experiments with D. melanogaster, muscimol was less toxic than ibotenic acid.

  7. Quantitative Genetics of Food Intake in Drosophila melanogaster: e0138129

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Megan E Garlapow; Wen Huang; Michael T Yarboro; Kara R Peterson; Trudy F C Mackay

    2015-01-01

    .... To gain insights in evolutionarily conserved genetic principles that regulate food intake, we took advantage of a model system, Drosophila melanogaster, in which food intake, environmental conditions...

  8. Quantitative Genetics of Food Intake in Drosophila melanogaster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garlapow, Megan E; Huang, Wen; Yarboro, Michael T; Peterson, Kara R; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-01-01

    .... To gain insights in evolutionarily conserved genetic principles that regulate food intake, we took advantage of a model system, Drosophila melanogaster, in which food intake, environmental conditions...

  9. Modelling Tauopathies in Drosophila: Insights from the Fruit Fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Cowan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster is an experimentally tractable model organism that has been used successfully to model aspects of many human neurodegenerative diseases. Drosophila models of tauopathy have provided valuable insights into tau-mediated mechanisms of neuronal dysfunction and death. Here we review the findings from Drosophila models of tauopathy reported over the past ten years and discuss how they have furthered our understanding of the pathogenesis of tauopathies. We also discuss the multitude of technical advantages that Drosophila offers, which make it highly attractive as a model for such studies.

  10. Drosophila VAMP7 regulates Wingless intracellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han; He, Fang; Lin, Xinhua; Wu, Yihui

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila Wingless (Wg) is a morphogen that determines cell fate during development. Previous studies have shown that endocytic pathways regulate Wg trafficking and signaling. Here, we showed that loss of vamp7, a gene required for vesicle fusion, dramatically increased Wg levels and decreased Wg signaling. Interestingly, we found that levels of Dally-like (Dlp), a glypican that can interact with Wg to suppress Wg signaling at the dorsoventral boundary of the Drosophila wing, were also increased in vamp7 mutant cells. Moreover, Wg puncta in Rab4-dependent recycling endosomes were Dlp positive. We hypothesize that VAMP7 is required for Wg intracellular trafficking and the accumulation of Wg in Rab4-dependent recycling endosomes might affect Wg signaling.

  11. Evidence for transgenerational metabolic programming in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Buescher

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide epidemiologic studies have repeatedly demonstrated an association between prenatal nutritional environment, birth weight and susceptibility to adult diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Despite advances in mammalian model systems, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear, but might involve programming mechanisms such as epigenetics. Here we describe a new system for evaluating metabolic programming mechanisms using a simple, genetically tractable Drosophila model. We examined the effect of maternal caloric excess on offspring and found that a high-sugar maternal diet alters body composition of larval offspring for at least two generations, augments an obese-like phenotype under suboptimal (high-calorie feeding conditions in adult offspring, and modifies expression of metabolic genes. Our data indicate that nutritional programming mechanisms could be highly conserved and support the use of Drosophila as a model for evaluating the underlying genetic and epigenetic contributions to this phenomenon.

  12. Adaptive Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita Nourmohammad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis.

  13. Plasticity in the Drosophila larval visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abud J Farca-Luna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable ability of the nervous system to modify its structure and function is mostly experience and activity modulated. The molecular basis of neuronal plasticity has been studied in higher behavioral processes, such as learning and memory formation. However, neuronal plasticity is not restricted to higher brain functions, but may provide a basic feature of adaptation of all neural circuits. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides a powerful genetic model to gain insight into the molecular basis of nervous system development and function. The nervous system of the larvae is again a magnitude simpler than its adult counter part, allowing the genetic assessment of a number of individual genetically identifiable neurons. We review here recent progress on the genetic basis of neuronal plasticity in developing and functioning neural circuits focusing on the simple visual system of the Drosophila larva.

  14. Motor Control of Drosophila Courtship Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. Shirangi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many animals utilize acoustic signals—or songs—to attract mates. During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males vibrate a wing to produce trains of pulses and extended tone, called pulse and sine song, respectively. Courtship songs in the genus Drosophila are exceedingly diverse, and different song features appear to have evolved independently of each other. How the nervous system allows such diversity to evolve is not understood. Here, we identify a wing muscle in D. melanogaster (hg1 that is uniquely male-enlarged. The hg1 motoneuron and the sexually dimorphic development of the hg1 muscle are required specifically for the sine component of the male song. In contrast, the motoneuron innervating a sexually monomorphic wing muscle, ps1, is required specifically for a feature of pulse song. Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a “modular” anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs.

  15. Counting Calories in Drosophila Diet Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span. PMID:17125951

  16. Predatory cannibalism in Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijendravarma, Roshan K; Narasimha, Sunitha; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2013-01-01

    Hunting live prey is risky and thought to require specialized adaptations. Therefore, observations of predatory cannibalism in otherwise non-carnivorous animals raise questions about its function, adaptive significance and evolutionary potential. Here we document predatory cannibalism on larger conspecifics in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and address its evolutionary significance. We found that under crowded laboratory conditions younger larvae regularly attack and consume 'wandering-stage' conspecifics, forming aggregations mediated by chemical cues from the attacked victim. Nutrition gained this way can be significant: an exclusively cannibalistic diet was sufficient for normal development from eggs to fertile adults. Cannibalistic diet also induced plasticity of larval mouth parts. Finally, during 118 generations of experimental evolution, replicated populations maintained under larval malnutrition evolved enhanced propensity towards cannibalism. These results suggest that, at least under laboratory conditions, predation on conspecifics in Drosophila is a functional, adaptive behaviour, which can rapidly evolve in response to nutritional conditions.

  17. Exquisite light sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Vinayak

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster shows exquisite light sensitivity for modulation of circadian functions in vivo, yet the activities of the Drosophila circadian photopigment cryptochrome (CRY have only been observed at high light levels. We studied intensity/duration parameters for light pulse induced circadian phase shifts under dim light conditions in vivo. Flies show far greater light sensitivity than previously appreciated, and show a surprising sensitivity increase with pulse duration, implying a process of photic integration active up to at least 6 hours. The CRY target timeless (TIM shows dim light dependent degradation in circadian pacemaker neurons that parallels phase shift amplitude, indicating that integration occurs at this step, with the strongest effect in a single identified pacemaker neuron. Our findings indicate that CRY compensates for limited light sensitivity in vivo by photon integration over extraordinarily long times, and point to select circadian pacemaker neurons as having important roles.

  18. The translation factors of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marygold, Steven J; Attrill, Helen; Lasko, Paul

    2017-01-02

    Synthesis of polypeptides from mRNA (translation) is a fundamental cellular process that is coordinated and catalyzed by a set of canonical 'translation factors'. Surprisingly, the translation factors of Drosophila melanogaster have not yet been systematically identified, leading to inconsistencies in their nomenclature and shortcomings in functional (Gene Ontology, GO) annotations. Here, we describe the complete set of translation factors in D. melanogaster, applying nomenclature already in widespread use in other species, and revising their functional annotation. The collection comprises 43 initiation factors, 12 elongation factors, 3 release factors and 6 recycling factors, totaling 64 of which 55 are cytoplasmic and 9 are mitochondrial. We also provide an overview of notable findings and particular insights derived from Drosophila about these factors. This catalog, together with the incorporation of the improved nomenclature and GO annotation into FlyBase, will greatly facilitate access to information about the functional roles of these important proteins.

  19. Towards a molecular understanding of Drosophila hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jason C; Eberl, Daniel F

    2002-11-05

    The Drosophila auditory system is presented as a powerful new genetic model system for understanding the molecular aspects of development and physiology of hearing organs. The fly's ear resides in the antenna, with Johnston's organ serving as the mechanoreceptor. New approaches using electrophysiology and laser vibrometry have provided useful tools to apply to the study of mutations that disrupt hearing. The fundamental developmental processes that generate the peripheral nervous system are fairly well understood, although specific variations of these processes for chordotonal organs (CHO) and especially for Johnston's organ require more scrutiny. In contrast, even the fundamental physiologic workings of mechanosensitive systems are still poorly understood, but rapid recent progress is beginning to shed light. The identification and analysis of mutations that affect auditory function are summarized here, and prospects for the role of the Drosophila auditory system in understanding both insect and vertebrate hearing are discussed. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Odor-taste learning in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Annekathrin; Eichler, Katharina; Selcho, Mareike; Thum, Andreas S; Pauls, Dennis

    2017-08-18

    The Drosophila larva is an attractive model system to study fundamental questions in the field of neuroscience. Like the adult fly, the larva offers a seemingly unlimited genetic toolbox, which allows one to visualize, silence or activate neurons down to the single cell level. This, combined with its simplicity in terms of cell numbers, offers a useful system to study the neuronal correlates of complex processes including associative odor-taste learning and memory formation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge about odor-taste learning and memory at the behavioral level and integrate the recent progress on the larval connectome to shed light on the sub-circuits that allow Drosophila larvae to integrate present sensory input in the context of past experience and to elicit an appropriate behavioral response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Remembering components of food in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav eDas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Remembering features of past feeding experience can refine foraging and food choice. Insects can learn to associate sensory cues with components of food, such as sugars, amino acids, water, salt, alcohol, toxins and pathogens. In the fruit fly Drosophila some food components activate unique subsets of dopaminergic neurons that innervate distinct functional zones on the mushroom bodies. This architecture suggests that the overall dopaminergic neuron population could provide a potential cellular substrate through which the fly might learn to value a variety of food components. In addition, such an arrangement predicts that individual component memories reside in unique locations. Dopaminergic neurons are also critical for food memory consolidation and deprivation-state dependent motivational control of the expression of food-relevant memories. Here we review our current knowledge of how nutrient-specific memories are formed, consolidated and specifically retrieved in insects, with a particular emphasis on Drosophila.

  2. The Drosophila EKC/KEOPS complex

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas-Benítez, Diego; Ibar, Consuelo; Glavic, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    The TOR signaling pathway is crucial in the translation of nutritional inputs into the protein synthesis machinery regulation, allowing animal growth. We recently identified the Bud32 (yeast)/PRPK (human) ortholog in Drosophila, Prpk (p53-related protein kinase), and found that it is required for TOR kinase activity. Bud32/PRPK is an ancient and atypical kinase conserved in evolution from Archeae to humans, being essential for Archeae. It has been linked with p53 stabilization in human cell c...

  3. Three-dimensional imaging of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeanne McGurk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The major hindrance to imaging the intact adult Drosophila is that the dark exoskeleton makes it impossible to image through the cuticle. We have overcome this obstacle and describe a method whereby the internal organs of adult Drosophila can be imaged in 3D by bleaching and clearing the adult and then imaging using a technique called optical projection tomography (OPT. The data is displayed as 2D optical sections and also in 3D to provide detail on the shape and structure of the adult anatomy.We have used OPT to visualize in 2D and 3D the detailed internal anatomy of the intact adult Drosophila. In addition this clearing method used for OPT was tested for imaging with confocal microscopy. Using OPT we have visualized the size and shape of neurodegenerative vacuoles from within the head capsule of flies that suffer from age-related neurodegeneration due to a lack of ADAR mediated RNA-editing. In addition we have visualized tau-lacZ expression in 2D and 3D. This shows that the wholemount adult can be stained without any manipulation and that this stain penetrates well as we have mapped the localization pattern with respect to the internal anatomy.We show for the first time that the intact adult Drosophila can be imaged in 3D using OPT, also we show that this method of clearing is also suitable for confocal microscopy to image the brain from within the intact head. The major advantage of this is that organs can be represented in 3D in their natural surroundings. Furthermore optical sections are generated in each of the three planes and are not prone to the technical limitations that are associated with manual sectioning. OPT can be used to dissect mutant phenotypes and to globally map gene expression in both 2D and 3D.

  4. Second-order conditioning in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Tabone, Christopher J; de Belle, J. Steven

    2011-01-01

    Associative conditioning in Drosophila melanogaster has been well documented for several decades. However, most studies report only simple associations of conditioned stimuli (CS, e.g., odor) with unconditioned stimuli (US, e.g., electric shock) to measure learning or establish memory. Here we describe a straightforward second-order conditioning (SOC) protocol that further demonstrates the flexibility of fly behavior. In SOC, a previously conditioned stimulus (CS1) is used as reinforcement fo...

  5. System identification of Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Anmo J.; Lazar, Aurel A.; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of a deeper understanding of how olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) encode odors has hindered the progress in understanding the olfactory signal processing in higher brain centers. Here we employ methods of system identification to investigate the encoding of time-varying odor stimuli and their representation for further processing in the spike domain by Drosophila OSNs. In order to apply system identification techniques, we built a novel low-turbulence odor delivery system that allowe...

  6. Gametic incompatibilities between races of Drosophila melanogaster.

    OpenAIRE

    Alipaz, J. A.; Wu, C. I.; Karr, T. L.

    2001-01-01

    Reproductive-isolating mechanisms between nascent species may involve sperm-egg recognition and have been best described in externally fertilizing organisms where such recognition is essential in preventing undesirable fertilizations. However, reproductive barriers in internally fertilizing species differ in significant ways, and a direct role for sperm-egg interactions has yet to be demonstrated. Females of many strains of Drosophila melanogaster from Zimbabwe, Africa, do not mate readily wi...

  7. Towards a Molecular Understanding of Drosophila Hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Jason C; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2002-01-01

    The Drosophila auditory system is presented as a powerful new genetic model system for understanding the molecular aspects of development and physiology of hearing organs. The fly’s ear resides in the antenna, with Johnston’s organ serving as the mechanoreceptor. New approaches using electrophysiology and laser vibrometry have provided useful tools to apply to the study of mutations that disrupt hearing. The fundamental developmental processes that generate the peripheral nervous system are f...

  8. A Drosophila melanogaster model of classic galactosemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Rebekah F.; Ryan, Emily L.; Sefton, Jennifer M. I.; Sanders, Rebecca D.; Lucioni, Patricia Jumbo; Moberg, Kenneth H.; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Classic galactosemia is a potentially lethal disorder that results from profound impairment of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT). Despite decades of research, the underlying pathophysiology of classic galactosemia remains unclear, in part owing to the lack of an appropriate animal model. Here, we report the establishment of a Drosophila melanogaster model of classic galactosemia; this is the first whole-animal genetic model to mimic aspects of the patient phenotype. Analogous to humans, GALT-deficient D. melanogaster survive under conditions of galactose restriction, but accumulate elevated levels of galactose-1-phosphate and succumb during larval development following galactose exposure. As in patients, the potentially lethal damage is reversible if dietary galactose restriction is initiated early in life. GALT-deficient Drosophila also exhibit locomotor complications despite dietary galactose restriction, and both the acute and long-term complications can be rescued by transgenic expression of human GALT. Using this new Drosophila model, we have begun to dissect the timing, extent and mechanism(s) of galactose sensitivity in the absence of GALT activity. PMID:20519569

  9. Pervasive natural selection in the Drosophila genome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Sella

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four decades, the predominant view of molecular evolution saw little connection between natural selection and genome evolution, assuming that the functionally constrained fraction of the genome is relatively small and that adaptation is sufficiently infrequent to play little role in shaping patterns of variation within and even between species. Recent evidence from Drosophila, reviewed here, suggests that this view may be invalid. Analyses of genetic variation within and between species reveal that much of the Drosophila genome is under purifying selection, and thus of functional importance, and that a large fraction of coding and noncoding differences between species are adaptive. The findings further indicate that, in Drosophila, adaptations may be both common and strong enough that the fate of neutral mutations depends on their chance linkage to adaptive mutations as much as on the vagaries of genetic drift. The emerging evidence has implications for a wide variety of fields, from conservation genetics to bioinformatics, and presents challenges to modelers and experimentalists alike.

  10. Expression patterns of cardiac aging in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Leah; Zambon, Alexander C; Cammarato, Anthony; Zhang, Zhi; Vogler, Georg; Munoz, Matthew; Taylor, Erika; Cartry, Jérôme; Bernstein, Sanford I; Melov, Simon; Bodmer, Rolf

    2017-02-01

    Aging causes cardiac dysfunction, often leading to heart failure and death. The molecular basis of age-associated changes in cardiac structure and function is largely unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is well-suited to investigate the genetics of cardiac aging. Flies age rapidly over the course of weeks, benefit from many tools to easily manipulate their genome, and their heart has significant genetic and phenotypic similarities to the human heart. Here, we performed a cardiac-specific gene expression study on aging Drosophila and carried out a comparative meta-analysis with published rodent data. Pathway level transcriptome comparisons suggest that age-related, extra-cellular matrix remodeling and alterations in mitochondrial metabolism, protein handling, and contractile functions are conserved between Drosophila and rodent hearts. However, expression of only a few individual genes similarly changed over time between and even within species. We also examined gene expression in single fly hearts and found significant variability as has been reported in rodents. We propose that individuals may arrive at similar cardiac aging phenotypes via dissimilar transcriptional changes, including those in transcription factors and micro-RNAs. Finally, our data suggest the transcription factor Odd-skipped, which is essential for normal heart development, is also a crucial regulator of cardiac aging. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. ‘Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Niewalda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila.

  12. The Ran pathway in Drosophila melanogaster mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Wakefield

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the small GTPase Ran has emerged as a central regulator of both mitosis and meiosis, particularly in the generation, maintenance and regulation of the microtubule (MT-based bipolar spindle. Ran-regulated pathways in mitosis bear many similarities to the well-characterized functions of Ran in nuclear transport and, as with transport, the majority of these mitotic effects are mediated through affecting the physical interaction between karyopherins and Spindle Assembly Factors (SAFs - a loose term describing proteins or protein complexes involved in spindle assembly through promoting nucleation, stabilization, and/or depolymerization of MTs, through anchoring MTs to specific structures such as centrosomes, chromatin or kinetochores, or through sliding MTs along each other to generate the force required to achieve bipolarity. As such, the Ran-mediated pathway represents a crucial functional module within the wider spindle assembly landscape. Research into mitosis using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster has contributed substantially to our understanding of centrosome and spindle function. However, in comparison to mammalian systems, very little is known about the contribution of Ran-mediated pathways in Drosophila mitosis. This article sets out to summarize our understanding of the roles of the Ran pathway components in Drosophila mitosis, focusing on the syncytial blastoderm embryo, arguing that, far from being superfluous, it can provide important insights into the conserved functions on Ran during spindle formation.

  13. An automated paradigm for Drosophila visual psychophysics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations that cause learning and memory defects in Drosophila melanogaster have been found to also compromise visual responsiveness and attention. A better understanding of attention-like defects in such Drosophila mutants therefore requires a more detailed characterization of visual responsiveness across a range of visual parameters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed an automated behavioral paradigm for efficiently dissecting visual responsiveness in Drosophila. Populations of flies walk through multiplexed serial choice mazes while being exposed to moving visuals displayed on computer monitors, and infra-red fly counters at the end of each maze automatically score the responsiveness of a strain. To test our new design, we performed a detailed comparison between wild-type flies and a learning and memory mutant, dunce(1. We first confirmed that the learning mutant dunce(1 displays increased responsiveness to a black/green moving grating compared to wild type in this new design. We then extended this result to explore responses to a wide range of psychophysical parameters for moving gratings (e.g., luminosity, contrast, spatial frequency, velocity as well as to a different stimulus, moving dots. Finally, we combined these visuals (gratings versus dots in competition to investigate how dunce(1 and wild-type flies respond to more complex and conflicting motion effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that dunce(1 responds more strongly than wild type to high contrast and highly structured motion. This effect was found for simple gratings, dots, and combinations of both stimuli presented in competition.

  14. An automated paradigm for Drosophila visual psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Oliver; Paulk, Angelique C; van Swinderen, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Mutations that cause learning and memory defects in Drosophila melanogaster have been found to also compromise visual responsiveness and attention. A better understanding of attention-like defects in such Drosophila mutants therefore requires a more detailed characterization of visual responsiveness across a range of visual parameters. We designed an automated behavioral paradigm for efficiently dissecting visual responsiveness in Drosophila. Populations of flies walk through multiplexed serial choice mazes while being exposed to moving visuals displayed on computer monitors, and infra-red fly counters at the end of each maze automatically score the responsiveness of a strain. To test our new design, we performed a detailed comparison between wild-type flies and a learning and memory mutant, dunce(1). We first confirmed that the learning mutant dunce(1) displays increased responsiveness to a black/green moving grating compared to wild type in this new design. We then extended this result to explore responses to a wide range of psychophysical parameters for moving gratings (e.g., luminosity, contrast, spatial frequency, velocity) as well as to a different stimulus, moving dots. Finally, we combined these visuals (gratings versus dots) in competition to investigate how dunce(1) and wild-type flies respond to more complex and conflicting motion effects. We found that dunce(1) responds more strongly than wild type to high contrast and highly structured motion. This effect was found for simple gratings, dots, and combinations of both stimuli presented in competition.

  15. ‘Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila. PMID:24907371

  16. A Video Method to Study Drosophila Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John E.; Raizen, David M.; Maycock, Matthew H.; Maislin, Greg; Pack, Allan I.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To use video to determine the accuracy of the infrared beam-splitting method for measuring sleep in Drosophila and to determine the effect of time of day, sex, genotype, and age on sleep measurements. Design: A digital image analysis method based on frame subtraction principle was developed to distinguish a quiescent from a moving fly. Data obtained using this method were compared with data obtained using the Drosophila Activity Monitoring System (DAMS). The location of the fly was identified based on its centroid location in the subtracted images. Measurements and Results: The error associated with the identification of total sleep using DAMS ranged from 7% to 95% and depended on genotype, sex, age, and time of day. The degree of the total sleep error was dependent on genotype during the daytime (P video. Both video and DAMS detected a homeostatic response to sleep deprivation. Conclusions: Video digital analysis is more accurate than DAMS in fly sleep measurements. In particular, conclusions drawn from DAMS measurements regarding daytime sleep and sleep architecture should be made with caution. Video analysis also permits the assessment of fly position and brief movements during sleep. Citation: Zimmerman JE; Raizen DM; Maycock MH; Maislin G; Pack AI. A video method to study drosophila sleep. SLEEP 2008;31(11):1587–1598. PMID:19014079

  17. Behaviour genetics of Drosophila: Non-sexual behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    delayed response to future adverse conditions and can occur at any stage of development in an insect. .... ioural trait. Drosophila females exhibit gregarious ovi- position. The choice of an oviposition site is important to our understanding of adaptation by Drosophila ...... as heritable traits and proposed use of a multiple unit.

  18. Status of research on Drosophila ananassae at global level

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Drosophila, a dipteran insect, has been found to be the best biological model for different kinds of studies. D. melanogaster was first described by Meigen in 1830, is most extensively studied species of the genus Drosophila and a number of investigations employing this species have been documented in areas such as ...

  19. Changes in native alcohol dehydrogenase activity of Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    and within the Mexican populations of the insect after treatment with the denaturants. Keywords. Drosophila melanogaster; alcohol dehydrogenase; guanidine hydrochloride; urea; heat. Introduction. The existence of clines in the frequency of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) alleles in. Drosophila under various environmental ...

  20. Drosophila lacks C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila melanogaster has been considered an ideal model organism to investigate human diseases and genetic pathways. Whether Drosophila is an ideal model for nutrigenomics, especially for fatty acid metabolism, however, remains to be illustrated. This study was to examine the metabolism of C20 an...

  1. Genotype and environment shape the fitness of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam S. Meshrif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fitness traits of Drosophila are believed to be expressed under genetic control and the environment. This study focuses on the interaction between the genotype (expressing high and low fitness level of Drosophila melanogaster and the environment (diet and infection. The environmental factors are supposed to modify traits such as the survival rate, development time, adult dry weight and response to microbial infection. The results indicated that yeast species (nutrients, bacterial infection and the genotype of Drosophila affected the survival rates and the development time of Drosophila. The fit Drosophila produces more survivors and develops faster than the unfit one. The yeast, Pichia toletana induced the highest survival and the fastest development of Drosophila, while Metschnikowia pulcherrima induced the opposite. The origin also had an effect on the development time; the African lines developed faster than the European ones. The yeast species and its concentration appeared to affect the dry weight of Drosophila too. Following infection with Pseudomonas stutzeri, several antimicrobial peptides, such as drosomycin and metchnikowin have been activated in Drosophila adults when they feed on less nutritive yeast (M. pulcherrima. The above mentioned results support the capacity of genotype-by-environment interactions to shape the fitness of D. melanogaster, where the contribution of each factor may differ according to the trait observed and the population under investigation.

  2. The developmental transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Connecticut; Graveley, Brenton R.; Brooks, Angela N.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Duff, Michael O.; Landolin, Jane M.; Yang, Li; Artieri, Carlo G.; van Baren, Marijke J.; Boley, Nathan; Booth, Benjamin W.; Brown, James B.; Cherbas, Lucy; Davis, Carrie A.; Dobin, Alex; Li, Renhua; Lin, Wei; Malone, John H.; Mattiuzzo, Nicolas R.; Miller, David; Sturgill, David; Tuch, Brian B.; Zaleski, Chris; Zhang, Dayu; Blanchette, Marco; Dudoit, Sandrine; Eads, Brian; Green, Richard E.; Hammonds, Ann; Jiang, Lichun; Kapranov, Phil; Langton, Laura; Perrimon, Norbert; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Wan, Kenneth H.; Willingham, Aarron; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Yi; Andrews, Justen; Bicke, Peter J.; Brenner, Steven E.; Brent, Michael R.; Cherbas, Peter; Gingeras, Thomas R.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Oliver, Brian; Celniker, Susan E.

    2010-12-02

    Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most well studied genetic model organisms; nonetheless, its genome still contains unannotated coding and non-coding genes, transcripts, exons and RNA editing sites. Full discovery and annotation are pre-requisites for understanding how the regulation of transcription, splicing and RNA editing directs the development of this complex organism. Here we used RNA-Seq, tiling microarrays and cDNA sequencing to explore the transcriptome in 30 distinct developmental stages. We identified 111,195 new elements, including thousands of genes, coding and non-coding transcripts, exons, splicing and editing events, and inferred protein isoforms that previously eluded discovery using established experimental, prediction and conservation-based approaches. These data substantially expand the number of known transcribed elements in the Drosophila genome and provide a high-resolution view of transcriptome dynamics throughout development. Drosophila melanogaster is an important non-mammalian model system that has had a critical role in basic biological discoveries, such as identifying chromosomes as the carriers of genetic information and uncovering the role of genes in development. Because it shares a substantial genic content with humans, Drosophila is increasingly used as a translational model for human development, homeostasis and disease. High-quality maps are needed for all functional genomic elements. Previous studies demonstrated that a rich collection of genes is deployed during the life cycle of the fly. Although expression profiling using microarrays has revealed the expression of, 13,000 annotated genes, it is difficult to map splice junctions and individual base modifications generated by RNA editing using such approaches. Single-base resolution is essential to define precisely the elements that comprise the Drosophila transcriptome. Estimates of the number of transcript isoforms are less accurate than estimates of the number of genes

  3. Transposable elements from the mesophragmatica group of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Germanos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs are middle repetitive DNA sequences classified into families according to their sequence similarities, such elements can playing an important role in the evolutionary process of their host genomes. There are many reports on the distribution of TEs in the fruit fly genus Drosophila, although there is relatively little information relating to the Neotropical mesophragmatica group of Drosophila, probably the most typical cluster of species occurring almost exclusively in the Andes mountains. Dot Blot and PCR analyses was used to study the distribution of some TEs (I, mariner, hobo, gypsy, Tom/17.6, micropia and P elements within the mesophragmatica group of Drosophila. We found gypsy elements in all the mesophragmatica group species studied and mariner elements were absent only from Drosophila pavani but P element homologous sequences were present only in D. pavani and Drosophila gasici and the other TEs (I, hobo, Tom/17.6, micropia were not found in any of the species investigated.

  4. Isolation of protease-free alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Drosophila simulans and several homozygous and heterozygous Drosophila melanogaster variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilda, T; Lamme, DA; Collu, G; Jekel, PA; Reinders, P; Beintema, JJ

    The enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from several naturally occurring ADH variants of Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans Lc,as isolated. Affinity chromatography with the ligand Cibacron Blue and elution with NAD(+) showed similar behavior for D. melanogaster ADH-FF, ADH-71k, and D.

  5. Biological effects of radon in Drosophila; Efectos biologicos del radon en Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel P, A.E.; Tavera D, L.; Cruces M, M.P.; Arceo M, C.; Rosa D, M.E. de la

    1992-04-15

    The main objective of this investigation, is to study the biological effects of the Radon-222 at low dose in 'Drosophila melanogaster'. It is necessary to mention that these effects will analyze from the genetic point of view for: 1) To evaluate in which form the Radon-222 to low dose it influences in some genetic components of the adaptation in Drosophila, such as: fecundity, viability egg-adult and sex proportion. 2) To evaluate which is the genetic effect that induces the Radon to low dose by means of the SMART technique in Drosophila melanogaster, and this way to try of to identify which is the possible mechanism that causes the genetic damage to somatic level. The carried out investigation was divided in three stages: 1. Tests to the vacuum resistance. 2. Test of somatic mutation, and 3. Determination of the presence of radon daughters on the adult of Drosophila. It is necessary to point out that all the experiments were made by triplicate and in each one of them was placed detectors in preset places. Those obtained results are presented inside the 4 charts included in the present work. (Author)

  6. Nematocytes: Discovery and characterization of a novel anculeate hemocyte in Drosophila falleni and Drosophila phalerata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna Bozler

    Full Text Available Immune challenges, such as parasitism, can be so pervasive and deleterious that they constitute an existential threat to a species' survival. In response to these ecological pressures, organisms have developed a wide array of novel behavioral, cellular, and molecular adaptations. Research into these immune defenses in model systems has resulted in a revolutionary understanding of evolution and functional biology. As the field has expanded beyond the limited number of model organisms our appreciation of evolutionary innovation and unique biology has widened as well. With this in mind, we have surveyed the hemolymph of several non-model species of Drosophila. Here we identify and describe a novel hemocyte, type-II nematocytes, found in larval stages of numerous Drosophila species. Examined in detail in Drosophila falleni and Drosophila phalerata, we find that these remarkable cells are distinct from previously described hemocytes due to their anucleate state (lacking a nucleus and unusual morphology. Type-II nematocytes are long, narrow cells with spindle-like projections extending from a cell body with high densities of mitochondria and microtubules, and exhibit the ability to synthesize proteins. These properties are unexpected for enucleated cells, and together with our additional characterization, we demonstrate that these type-II nematocytes represent a biological novelty. Surprisingly, despite the absence of a nucleus, we observe through live cell imaging that these cells remain motile with a highly dynamic cellular shape. Furthermore, these cells demonstrate the ability to form multicellular structures, which we suggest may be a component of the innate immune response to macro-parasites. In addition, live cell imaging points to a large nucleated hemocyte, type-I nematocyte, as the progenitor cell, leading to enucleation through a budding or asymmetrical division process rather than nuclear ejection: This study is the first to report such a

  7. Nematocytes: Discovery and characterization of a novel anculeate hemocyte in Drosophila falleni and Drosophila phalerata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacsoh, Balint Z.; Bosco, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Immune challenges, such as parasitism, can be so pervasive and deleterious that they constitute an existential threat to a species’ survival. In response to these ecological pressures, organisms have developed a wide array of novel behavioral, cellular, and molecular adaptations. Research into these immune defenses in model systems has resulted in a revolutionary understanding of evolution and functional biology. As the field has expanded beyond the limited number of model organisms our appreciation of evolutionary innovation and unique biology has widened as well. With this in mind, we have surveyed the hemolymph of several non-model species of Drosophila. Here we identify and describe a novel hemocyte, type-II nematocytes, found in larval stages of numerous Drosophila species. Examined in detail in Drosophila falleni and Drosophila phalerata, we find that these remarkable cells are distinct from previously described hemocytes due to their anucleate state (lacking a nucleus) and unusual morphology. Type-II nematocytes are long, narrow cells with spindle-like projections extending from a cell body with high densities of mitochondria and microtubules, and exhibit the ability to synthesize proteins. These properties are unexpected for enucleated cells, and together with our additional characterization, we demonstrate that these type-II nematocytes represent a biological novelty. Surprisingly, despite the absence of a nucleus, we observe through live cell imaging that these cells remain motile with a highly dynamic cellular shape. Furthermore, these cells demonstrate the ability to form multicellular structures, which we suggest may be a component of the innate immune response to macro-parasites. In addition, live cell imaging points to a large nucleated hemocyte, type-I nematocyte, as the progenitor cell, leading to enucleation through a budding or asymmetrical division process rather than nuclear ejection: This study is the first to report such a process of

  8. The Drosophila EKC/KEOPS complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Benítez, Diego; Ibar, Consuelo; Glavic, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    The TOR signaling pathway is crucial in the translation of nutritional inputs into the protein synthesis machinery regulation, allowing animal growth. We recently identified the Bud32 (yeast)/PRPK (human) ortholog in Drosophila, Prpk (p53-related protein kinase), and found that it is required for TOR kinase activity. Bud32/PRPK is an ancient and atypical kinase conserved in evolution from Archeae to humans, being essential for Archeae. It has been linked with p53 stabilization in human cell culture and its absence in yeast causes a slow-growth phenotype. This protein has been associated to KEOPS (kinase, putative endopeptidase and other proteins of small size) complex together with Kae1p (ATPase), Cgi-121 and Pcc1p. This complex has been implicated in telomere maintenance, transcriptional regulation, bud site selection and chemical modification of tRNAs (tRNAs). Bud32p and Kae1p have been related with N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A) synthesis, a particular chemical modification that occurs at position 37 of tRNAs that pair A-starting codons, required for proper translation in most species. Lack of this modification causes mistranslations and open reading frame shifts in yeast. The core constituents of the KEOPS complex are present in Drosophila, but their physical interaction has not been reported yet. Here, we present a review of the findings regarding the function of this complex in different organisms and new evidence that extends our recent observations of Prpk function in animal growth showing that depletion of Kae1 or Prpk, in accordance with their role in translation in yeast, is able to induce the unfolded protein response (UPR) in Drosophila. We suggest that EKC/KEOPS complex could be integrating t6A-modified tRNA availability with translational rates, which are ultimately reflected in animal growth. PMID:23823807

  9. Temperature representation in the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Dominic D; Jouandet, Genevieve C; Kearney, Patrick J; Macpherson, Lindsey J; Gallio, Marco

    2015-03-19

    In Drosophila, rapid temperature changes are detected at the periphery by dedicated receptors forming a simple sensory map for hot and cold in the brain. However, flies show a host of complex innate and learned responses to temperature, indicating that they are able to extract a range of information from this simple input. Here we define the anatomical and physiological repertoire for temperature representation in the Drosophila brain. First, we use a photolabelling strategy to trace the connections that relay peripheral thermosensory information to higher brain centres, and show that they largely converge onto three target regions: the mushroom body, the lateral horn (both of which are well known centres for sensory processing) and the posterior lateral protocerebrum, a region we now define as a major site of thermosensory representation. Next, using in vivo calcium imaging, we describe the thermosensory projection neurons selectively activated by hot or cold stimuli. Fast-adapting neurons display transient ON and OFF responses and track rapid temperature shifts remarkably well, while slow-adapting cell responses better reflect the magnitude of simple thermal changes. Unexpectedly, we also find a population of broadly tuned cells that respond to both heating and cooling, and show that they are required for normal behavioural avoidance of both hot and cold in a simple two-choice temperature preference assay. Taken together, our results uncover a coordinated ensemble of neural responses to temperature in the Drosophila brain, demonstrate that a broadly tuned thermal line contributes to rapid avoidance behaviour, and illustrate how stimulus quality, temporal structure, and intensity can be extracted from a simple glomerular map at a single synaptic station.

  10. Whole genome phylogenies for multiple Drosophila species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetharam Arun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstructing the evolutionary history of organisms using traditional phylogenetic methods may suffer from inaccurate sequence alignment. An alternative approach, particularly effective when whole genome sequences are available, is to employ methods that don’t use explicit sequence alignments. We extend a novel phylogenetic method based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD to reconstruct the phylogeny of 12 sequenced Drosophila species. SVD analysis provides accurate comparisons for a high fraction of sequences within whole genomes without the prior identification of orthologs or homologous sites. With this method all protein sequences are converted to peptide frequency vectors within a matrix that is decomposed to provide simplified vector representations for each protein of the genome in a reduced dimensional space. These vectors are summed together to provide a vector representation for each species, and the angle between these vectors provides distance measures that are used to construct species trees. Results An unfiltered whole genome analysis (193,622 predicted proteins strongly supports the currently accepted phylogeny for 12 Drosophila species at higher dimensions except for the generally accepted but difficult to discern sister relationship between D. erecta and D. yakuba. Also, in accordance with previous studies, many sequences appear to support alternative phylogenies. In this case, we observed grouping of D. erecta with D. sechellia when approximately 55% to 95% of the proteins were removed using a filter based on projection values or by reducing resolution by using fewer dimensions. Similar results were obtained when just the melanogaster subgroup was analyzed. Conclusions These results indicate that using our novel phylogenetic method, it is possible to consult and interpret all predicted protein sequences within multiple whole genomes to produce accurate phylogenetic estimations of relatedness between

  11. Synergistic trap response of the false stable fly and little house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to acetic acid and ethanol, two principal sugar fermentation volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), an invasive pest of numerous fruit crops, is detected and monitored by growers and pest managers with the use of traps. Some fermented food type baits used for SWD traps attract large numbers of non-target insects, such as wasps, moths and other types of flies, making...

  12. The intimate genetics of Drosophila fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppin, Benjamin; Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Horard, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    The union of haploid gametes at fertilization initiates the formation of the diploid zygote in sexually reproducing animals. This founding event of embryogenesis includes several fascinating cellular and nuclear processes, such as sperm–egg cellular interactions, sperm chromatin remodelling, centrosome formation or pronuclear migration. In comparison with other aspects of development, the exploration of animal fertilization at the functional level has remained so far relatively limited, even in classical model organisms. Here, we have reviewed our current knowledge of fertilization in Drosophila melanogaster, with a special emphasis on the genes involved in the complex transformation of the fertilizing sperm nucleus into a replicated set of paternal chromosomes. PMID:26246493

  13. Second-order conditioning in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Christopher J; de Belle, J Steven

    2011-01-01

    Associative conditioning in Drosophila melanogaster has been well documented for several decades. However, most studies report only simple associations of conditioned stimuli (CS, e.g., odor) with unconditioned stimuli (US, e.g., electric shock) to measure learning or establish memory. Here we describe a straightforward second-order conditioning (SOC) protocol that further demonstrates the flexibility of fly behavior. In SOC, a previously conditioned stimulus (CS1) is used as reinforcement for a second conditioned stimulus (CS2) in associative learning. This higher-order context presents an opportunity for reassessing the roles of known learning and memory genes and neuronal networks in a new behavioral paradigm.

  14. ‘Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Niewalda; Ines Jeske; Birgit Michels; Bertram Gerber

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group ...

  15. The role of autophagy in Drosophila metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Kirsten; Baehrecke, Eric H

    2013-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a conserved catabolic process that targets cytoplasmic components to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagy is required for cellular homeostasis and cell survival in response to starvation and stress, and paradoxically, it also plays a role in programmed cell death during development. The mechanisms that regulate the relationship between autophagy, cell survival, and cell death are poorly understood. Here we review research in Drosophila that has provided insights into the regulation of autophagy by steroid hormones and nutrient restriction and discuss how autophagy influences cell growth, nutrient utilization, cell survival, and cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, Wolfgang [BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Mikkelsen, Nils Egil [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Centre, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Clausen, Anders Ranegaard [Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Soelvegatan 35, SE-22362 Lund (Sweden); Willer, Mette [ZGene A/S, Agern Alle 7, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark); Eklund, Hans [Department of Molecular Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Centre, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Gojkovic, Zoran [ZGene A/S, Agern Alle 7, DK-2970 Horsholm (Denmark); Piskur, Jure, E-mail: Jure.Piskur@cob.lu.se [BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Cell and Organism Biology, Lund University, Soelvegatan 35, SE-22362 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 A resolution structure of Dm-dNK in complex with gemcitabine shows that the residues Tyr70 and Arg105 play a crucial role in the firm positioning of gemcitabine by extra interactions made by the fluoride atoms. This explains why gemcitabine is a good substrate for Dm-dNK.

  17. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, Nils Egil; Clausen, Anders Ranegaard; Willer, Mette; Eklund, Hans; Gojković, Zoran; Piskur, Jure

    2009-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2A resolution structure of Dm-dNK in complex with gemcitabine shows that the residues Tyr70 and Arg105 play a crucial role in the firm positioning of gemcitabine by extra interactions made by the fluoride atoms. This explains why gemcitabine is a good substrate for Dm-dNK.

  18. Codon usage in twelve species of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell Jeffrey R

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Codon usage bias (CUB, the uneven use of synonymous codons, is a ubiquitous observation in virtually all organisms examined. The pattern of codon usage is generally similar among closely related species, but differs significantly among distantly related organisms, e.g., bacteria, yeast, and Drosophila. Several explanations for CUB have been offered and some have been supported by observations and experiments, although a thorough understanding of the evolutionary forces (random drift, mutation bias, and selection and their relative importance remains to be determined. The recently available complete genome DNA sequences of twelve phylogenetically defined species of Drosophila offer a hitherto unprecedented opportunity to examine these problems. We report here the patterns of codon usage in the twelve species and offer insights on possible evolutionary forces involved. Results (1 Codon usage is quite stable across 11/12 of the species: G- and especially C-ending codons are used most frequently, thus defining the preferred codons. (2 The only amino acid that changes in preferred codon is Serine with six species of the melanogaster group favoring TCC while the other species, particularly subgenus Drosophila species, favor AGC. (3 D. willistoni is an exception to these generalizations in having a shifted codon usage for seven amino acids toward A/T in the wobble position. (4 Amino acids differ in their contribution to overall CUB, Leu having the greatest and Asp the least. (5 Among two-fold degenerate amino acids, A/G ending amino acids have more selection on codon usage than T/C ending amino acids. (6 Among the different chromosome arms or elements, genes on the non-recombining element F (dot chromosome have the least CUB, while genes on the element A (X chromosome have the most. (7 Introns indicate that mutation bias in all species is approximately 2:1, AT:GC, the opposite of codon usage bias. (8 There is also evidence for some

  19. Crystal structure of enolase from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Congcong; Xu, Baokui; Liu, Xueyan; Zhang, Zhen; Su, Zhongliang

    2017-04-01

    Enolase is an important enzyme in glycolysis and various biological processes. Its dysfunction is closely associated with diseases. Here, the enolase from Drosophila melanogaster (DmENO) was purified and crystallized. A crystal of DmENO diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group R32. The structure was solved by molecular replacement. Like most enolases, DmENO forms a homodimer with conserved residues in the dimer interface. DmENO possesses an open conformation in this structure and contains conserved elements for catalytic activity. This work provides a structural basis for further functional and evolutionary studies of enolase.

  20. Drosophila-associated yeast species in vineyard ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel S T H; Howell, Kate S

    2015-10-01

    Yeast activity during wine fermentation directly contributes to wine quality, but the source and movement of yeasts in vineyards and winery environments have not been resolved. Here, we investigate the yeast species associated with the Drosophila insect vector to help understand yeast dispersal and persistence. Drosophila are commonly found in vineyards and are known to have a mutualistic relationship with yeasts in other ecosystems. Drosophilids were collected from vineyards, grape waste (marc) piles and wineries during grape harvest. Captured flies were identified morphologically, and their associated yeasts were identified. Drosophila melanogaster/D. simulans, D. hydei and Scaptodrosophila lativittata were identified in 296 captured Drosophila flies. These flies were associated with Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii and H. valbyensis yeasts. Yeast and Drosophila species diversity differed between collection locations (vineyard and marc: R = 0.588 for Drosophila and R = 0.644 for yeasts). Surprisingly, the primary wine fermentation yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was not isolated. Drosophila flies are preferentially associated with different yeast species in the vineyard and winery environments, and this association may help the movement and dispersal of yeast species in the vineyard and winery ecosystem. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantifying the Intercellular Forces during Drosophila Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Hutson, M. Shane

    2006-03-01

    In many models of morphogenesis, cellular movements are driven by differences in interfacial tension along cell-cell boundaries. We have developed a microsurgical method to determine these tensions in living fruit fly (Drosophila) embryos. Cell edges in these embryos are labeled with green fluorescent protein chimeras; and line scan images that intersect several cell edges are recorded with a laser-scanning confocal microscope at a time resolution of 2 ms. While recording these scans, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to cut a single cell edge. The recoil of adjacent cell edges is evident in the line scans and the time-dependent cell edge positions are extracted using custom ImageJ plugins based on the Lucas-Kanade algorithm. The post-incision recoil velocities of cell edges are determined by fitting the cell edge positions to a double exponential function. In addition, a power spectrum analysis of cell-edge position fluctuations is used to determine the viscous damping constant. In the regime of low Reynolds number, the tension along a cell-cell boundary is well-approximated by the product of the viscous damping constant and the initial recoil velocity of adjacent cell edges. We will present initial results from two stages of Drosophila development -- germ band retraction and early dorsal closure.

  2. Circadian clock genes in Drosophila: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, P; Balamurugan, E; Suthakar, G

    2003-08-01

    Circadian rhythms provide a temporal framework to living organisms and are established in a majority of eukaryotes and in a few prokaryotes. The molecular mechanisms of circadian clock is constantly being investigated in Drosophila melanogaster. The core of the clock mechanism was described by a transcription-translation feedback loop model involving period (per), timeless (tim), dclock and cycle genes. However, recent research has identified multiple feedback loops controlling rhythm generation and expression. Novel mutations of timeless throw more light on the functions of per and tim products. Analysis of pdf neuropeptide gene (expressed in circadian pacemaker cells in Drosophila), indicate that PDF acts as the principal circadian transmitter and is involved in output pathways. The product of cryptochrome is known to function as a circadian photoreceptor as well as component of the circadian clock. This review focuses on the recent progress in the field of molecular rhythm research in the fruit fly. The gene(s) and the gene product(s) that are involved in the transmission of environmental information to the clock, as well as the timing signals from the clock outward to cellular functions are remain to be determined.

  3. Silencing transposable elements in the Drosophila germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu; Xi, Rongwen

    2017-02-01

    Transposable elements or transposons are DNA pieces that can move around within the genome and are, therefore, potential threat to genome stability and faithful transmission of the genetic information in the germline. Accordingly, self-defense mechanisms have evolved in the metazoan germline to silence transposons, and the primary mechanism requires the germline-specific non-coding small RNAs, named Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNAs), which are in complex with Argonaute family of PIWI proteins (the piRNA-RISC complexes), to silence transposons. piRNA-mediated transposon silencing occurs at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. With the advantages of genetic manipulation and advances of sequencing technology, much progress has been made on the molecular mechanisms of piRNA-mediated transposon silencing in Drosophila melanogaster, which will be the focus of this review. Because piRNA-mediated transposon silencing is evolutionarily conserved in metazoan, model organisms, such as Drosophila, will continue to be served as pioneer systems towards the complete understanding of transposon silencing in the metazoan germline.

  4. Deconstructing host-pathogen interactions in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Ethan; Guichard, Annabel

    2012-01-01

    Many of the cellular mechanisms underlying host responses to pathogens have been well conserved during evolution. As a result, Drosophila can be used to deconstruct many of the key events in host-pathogen interactions by using a wealth of well-developed molecular and genetic tools. In this review, we aim to emphasize the great leverage provided by the suite of genomic and classical genetic approaches available in flies for decoding details of host-pathogen interactions; these findings can then be applied to studies in higher organisms. We first briefly summarize the general strategies by which Drosophila resists and responds to pathogens. We then focus on how recently developed genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screens conducted in cells and flies, combined with classical genetic methods, have provided molecular insight into host-pathogen interactions, covering examples of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Finally, we discuss novel strategies for how flies can be used as a tool to examine how specific isolated virulence factors act on an intact host. PMID:21979942

  5. The smell of love in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna B. eZiegler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Odors are key sensory signals for social communication and food search in animals including insects. Drosophila melanogaster, is a powerful neurogenetic model commonly used to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in odorant detection. Males use olfaction together with other sensory modalities to find their mates. Here, we review known olfactory signals, their related olfactory receptors, and the corresponding neuronal architecture impacting courtship. OR67d receptor detects 11-cis-Vaccenyl Acetate (cVA, a male specific pheromone transferred to the female during copulation. Transferred cVA is able to reduce female attractiveness for other males after mating, and is also suspected to decrease male-male courtship. cVA can also serve as an aggregation signal, maybe through another OR. OR47b was shown to be activated by fly odors, and to enhance courtship depending on taste pheromones. IR84a detects phenylacetic acid (PAA and phenylacetaldehyde. These two odors are not pheromones produced by flies, but are present in various fly food sources. PAA enhances male courtship, acting as a food aphrodisiac. Drosophila males have thus developed complementary olfactory strategies to help them to select their mates.

  6. Courtship song analysis of Drosophila muscle mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Samya; Wajda, Mathew P; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2012-01-01

    As part of the mating ritual, males of Drosophila species produce species-specific courtship songs through wing vibrations generated by the thoracic musculature. While previous studies have shown that indirect flight muscles (IFM) are neurally activated during courtship song production, the precise role of these muscles in song production has not been investigated. Fortunately, IFM mutants abound in Drosophila melanogaster and studies spanning several decades have shed light on the role of muscle proteins in IFM-powered flight. Analysis of courtship songs in these mutants offers the opportunity to uncover the role of the IFM in a behavior distinct than flight and subject to different evolutionary selection regimes. Here, we describe protocols for the recording and analysis of courtship behavior and mating song of D. melanogaster muscle transgenic and mutant strains. To record faint acoustic signal of courtship songs, an insulated mating compartment was used inside a recording device (INSECTAVOX) equipped with a modified electret microphone, a low-noise power supply, and noise filters. Songs recorded in the INSECTAVOX are digitized using Goldwave, whose several features enable extraction of critical song parameters, including carrier frequencies for pulse song and sine song. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by showing that deletion of the N-terminal region of the myosin regulatory light chain, a mutation known to decrease wing beat frequency and flight power, affects courtship song parameters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The respiratory basis of locomotion in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf; Schützner, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The respiratory system of insects has evolved to satisfy the oxygen supply during rest and energetically demanding processes such as locomotion. Flapping flight in particular is considered a key trait in insect evolution and requires an increase in metabolic activity of 10-15-fold the resting metabolism. Two major trade-offs are associated with the extensive development of the tracheal system and the function of spiracles in insects: the risk of desiccation because body water may leave the tracheal system when spiracles open for gas exchange and the risk of toxic tracheal oxygen levels at low metabolic activity. In resting animals there is an ongoing debate on the function and evolution of spiracle opening behavior, focusing mainly on discontinuous gas exchange patterns. During locomotion, large insects typically satisfy the increased respiratory requirements by various forms of ventilation, whereas in small insects such as Drosophila diffusive processes are thought to be sufficient. Recent data, however, have shown that during flight even small insects employ ventilatory mechanisms, potentially helping to balance respiratory currents inside the tracheal system. This review broadly summarizes our current knowledge on breathing strategies and spiracle function in the genus Drosophila, highlighting the gas exchange strategies in resting, running and flying animals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cellular Mechanisms of Drosophila Heart Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Vogler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many of the major discoveries in the fields of genetics and developmental biology have been made using the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. With regard to heart development, the conserved network of core cardiac transcription factors that underlies cardiogenesis has been studied in great detail in the fly, and the importance of several signaling pathways that regulate heart morphogenesis, such as Slit/Robo, was first shown in the fly model. Recent technological advances have led to a large increase in the genomic data available from patients with congenital heart disease (CHD. This has highlighted a number of candidate genes and gene networks that are potentially involved in CHD. To validate genes and genetic interactions among candidate CHD-causing alleles and to better understand heart formation in general are major tasks. The specific limitations of the various cardiac model systems currently employed (mammalian and fish models provide a niche for the fly model, despite its evolutionary distance to vertebrates and humans. Here, we review recent advances made using the Drosophila embryo that identify factors relevant for heart formation. These underline how this model organism still is invaluable for a better understanding of CHD.

  9. Functional Expression of Drosophila para Sodium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Reenan, Robert A.G.; Wang, Peiyi; Qian, Su; Arena, Joseph P.; Wang, Jixin; Wunderler, Denise; Liu, Ken; Kaczorowski, Gregory J.; Ploeg, Lex H.T. Van der; Ganetzky, Barry; Cohen, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    The Drosophila para sodium channel α subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd ≅ 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels. PMID:9236205

  10. Factors influencing the yield of satellite DNA in extractions from Drosophila virilis and Drosophila melanogaster adults and embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, P M; Barnett, T R; Babbitt, D G

    1976-05-03

    The application of different DNA extraction methods to identical batches of Drosophila virilis and Drosophila melanogaster flies or embryos has revealed that the ionic strength of a homogenization medium is of critical importance if chloroform extractions are performed. The low yield of satellite DNA after homogenization in low salt buffers is less severe if EDTA is included in the buffer. Phenol extraction procedures result in no such differential behavior of satellite and main band DNA, but under certain circumstances a particular satellite fraction of Drosophila virilis DNA may be lost.

  11. Molecular Cloning and Genomic Organization of a Novel Receptor from Drosophila melanogaster Structurally Related to Mammalian Galanin Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Camilla; Søndergaard, L.; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P.

    2000-01-01

    neurobiologi, molekylærbiologi, zoologi, neurohormonereceptor, allatostatin, galanin, insekt, Drosophila......neurobiologi, molekylærbiologi, zoologi, neurohormonereceptor, allatostatin, galanin, insekt, Drosophila...

  12. Genome-wide comparative analysis of four Indian Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sujata; Khanna, Radhika

    2017-12-01

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes of closely or distantly related Drosophila species undoubtedly creates excitement among evolutionary biologists in exploring the genomic changes with an ecology and evolutionary perspective. We present herewith the de novo assembled whole genome sequences of four Drosophila species, D. bipectinata, D. takahashii, D. biarmipes and D. nasuta of Indian origin using Next Generation Sequencing technology on an Illumina platform along with their detailed assembly statistics. The comparative genomics analysis, e.g. gene predictions and annotations, functional and orthogroup analysis of coding sequences and genome wide SNP distribution were performed. The whole genome of Zaprionus indianus of Indian origin published earlier by us and the genome sequences of previously sequenced 12 Drosophila species available in the NCBI database were included in the analysis. The present work is a part of our ongoing genomics project of Indian Drosophila species.

  13. Interaction between the Drosophila heterochromatin proteins SUUR and HP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.V. Pindyurin (Alexey); L.V. Boldyreva (Lidiya); V.V. Shloma (Victor); T.D. Kolesnikova (Tatiana); G.V. Pokholkova (Galina); E.N. Andreyeva (Evgeniya); E. Kozhevnikova (Elena); I.G. Ivanoschuk (Igor); E.A. Zarutskaya (Ekaterina); S.A. Demakov (Sergey); A.A. Gorchakov (Andrey); E.S. Belyaeva (Elena); I.F. Zhimulev (Igor)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSUUR (Suppressor of Under-Replication) protein is responsible for late replication and, as a consequence, for DNA underreplication of intercalary and pericentric heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes. However, the mechanism by which SUUR slows down the

  14. Specification of regional intestinal stem cell identity during Drosophila metamorphosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driver, Ian; Ohlstein, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In the adult Drosophila midgut the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway is required to specify and maintain the acid-secreting region of the midgut known as the copper cell region (CCR...

  15. Regulation of Drosophila metamorphosis by xenobiotic response regulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deng, Huai; Kerppola, Tom K

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian Nrf2-Keap1 and the homologous Drosophila CncC-dKeap1 protein complexes regulate both transcriptional responses to xenobiotic compounds as well as native cellular and developmental processes...

  16. Neurogenetics of female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laturney, Meghan; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Friedmann, T; Dunlap, JC; Goodwin, SF

    2014-01-01

    We follow an adult Drosophila melanogaster female through the major reproductive decisions she makes during her lifetime, including habitat selection, precopulatory mate choice, postcopulatory physiological changes, polyandry, and egg-laying site selection. In the process, we review the molecular

  17. Mechanisms of muscle growth and atrophy in mammals and Drosophila

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piccirillo, Rosanna; Demontis, Fabio; Perrimon, Norbert; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2014-01-01

    .... Although the pathogenesis of this condition has been primarily studied in mammals, Drosophila is emerging as an attractive system to investigate some of the mechanisms involved in muscle growth and atrophy. Results...

  18. Induction of morphological aberrations by enzyme inhibition in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Scharloo, W.; Bijlsma, R.; de Boer, I.M.; den Hollander, J.

    1969-01-01

    Zusatz zum Futter vonDrosophila melanogaster von 5-Fluoro-2-deoxyuridin oder Aminopterin induziert überzählige Skutellar- und Dorsozentralborsten sowie gekerbte Flügel. Diese Modifikationen wurden als Konsequenz von Enzymhemmung interpretiert.

  19. Phagocytic ability declines with age in adult Drosophila hemocytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horn, Lucas; Leips, Jeff; Starz‐Gaiano, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    .... However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these changes. We examined Drosophila melanogaster, an important model for identifying genes affecting innate immunity and senescence, to explore the role of phagocytosis in age...

  20. Sex ratios in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Salceda Victor M.; Arceo-Maldonado Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Most species show an equal proportion of individuals of both sexes. In diploid species sex ratio is determined by a genic balance between sex chromosomes. In Drosophila sex is determined by the ratio of X- chromosomes versus autosomes and in some species of the genus it is related to the presence of an inversion in the sex chromosome. The present work analyses the sex ratio in 27 natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura that inhabit Mexico. Female fl...

  1. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gokhman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896 is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862 and L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for L. boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979 (n = 9, whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the L. heterotoma clade. Like L. boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for G. xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insect communities.

  2. Growing bacteria shed elicitors of Drosophila humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jenny; Oldenvi, Sandra; Fahlander, Carina; Daenthanasanmak, Anusara; Steiner, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    It has been much debated how the Drosophila immune system can recognize bacterial peptidoglycan that is often hidden. We show that bacteria separated from Drosophila S2 cells by a semipermeable membrane can upregulate the Imd pathway. Supernatants from exponentially growing but not from stationary-phase bacterial cultures induce antimicrobial peptides. It is also made likely that the shed elicitors are of peptidoglycan nature. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Genotype and environment shape the fitness of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Wesam S. Meshrif; Samar E. Elkholy

    2015-01-01

    Fitness traits of Drosophila are believed to be expressed under genetic control and the environment. This study focuses on the interaction between the genotype (expressing high and low fitness level) of Drosophila melanogaster and the environment (diet and infection). The environmental factors are supposed to modify traits such as the survival rate, development time, adult dry weight and response to microbial infection. The results indicated that yeast species (nutrients), bacterial infection...

  4. Drosophila larvae: Thermal ecology in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George

    Temperature affects almost all aspects of life. Although much work has been done to assess the impact of temperature on organismal performance, relatively little is known about how organisms behaviorally regulate temperature, how these behaviors effect population fitness, or how changing climate may interact with these behaviors. I explore these questions with the model system Drosophila larvae. Larvae are small, with a low thermal mass and limited capacity for physiological thermoregulation. Mortality is generally high in larvae, with large potential impacts on population growth rate. Thus behavioral thermoregulation in larvae should be of critical selective importance. I present a review of the current knowledge of Drosophila thermal preference. I describe quantifiable thermoregulatory behaviors ( TMV and TW) unique to larvae. I show interspecific variation of these behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster and several close relatives, and intraspecific variation between populations collected from different environments. I also investigate these behaviors in two mutant lines, ssa and biz, to investigate the genetic basis of these behaviors. I show that larval thermoregulatory systems are independent of those of adults. Further these thermoregulatory behaviors differ between two sister species, D. yakuba and D. santomea. Although these two species readily hybridize in laboratory conditions, very few hybrids are observed in the field. The surprising result that hybrids of D. yakuba and D. santomea seem to inherit TMV from D. yakuba suggests a novel extrinsic isolation mechanism between the two species. I explore how fitness is the result of the interaction between genetics and the environment. I utilize Monte Carlo simulation to show how non-linear norms of reaction generate variation in populations even in the absence of behavior or epigenetic evolutionary mechanisms. Finally I investigate the global distribution of temperatures in which these organisms exist using

  5. Transcription Factor Networks in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Y. Rhee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific cellular fates and functions depend on differential gene expression, which occurs primarily at the transcriptional level and is controlled by complex regulatory networks of transcription factors (TFs. TFs act through combinatorial interactions with other TFs, cofactors, and chromatin-remodeling proteins. Here, we define protein-protein interactions using a coaffinity purification/mass spectrometry method and study 459 Drosophila melanogaster transcription-related factors, representing approximately half of the established catalog of TFs. We probe this network in vivo, demonstrating functional interactions for many interacting proteins, and test the predictive value of our data set. Building on these analyses, we combine regulatory network inference models with physical interactions to define an integrated network that connects combinatorial TF protein interactions to the transcriptional regulatory network of the cell. We use this integrated network as a tool to connect the functional network of genetic modifiers related to mastermind, a transcriptional cofactor of the Notch pathway.

  6. Adaptive genic evolution in the Drosophila genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Joshua A; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Chenhui

    2007-01-01

    . melanogaster and its close relatives were adaptive. (iv) This signature of adaptive evolution is observable only in regions of normal recombination. Hence, the low level of polymorphism observed in regions of reduced recombination may not be driven primarily by positive selection. Finally, we discuss......Determining the extent of adaptive evolution at the genomic level is central to our understanding of molecular evolution. A suitable observation for this purpose would consist of polymorphic data on a large and unbiased collection of genes from two closely related species, each having a large...... sites than expected, hinting at the action of selective sweeps. (ii) The level of polymorphism is negatively correlated with the rate of nonsynonymous divergence across loci. Thus, even under strict neutrality, the ratio of amino acid to silent nucleotide changes (A:S) between Drosophila species...

  7. Heritability of Directional Asymmetry in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J. R. Carter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directional asymmetry (DA, the consistent difference between a pair of morphological structures in which the same side is always larger than the other, presents an evolutionary mystery. Although many paired traits show DA, genetic variation for DA has not been unambiguously demonstrated. Artificial selection is a powerful technique for uncovering selectable genetic variation; we review and critique the limited number of previous studies that have been performed to select on DA and present the results of a novel artificial selection experiment on the DA of posterior crossvein location in Drosophila wings. Fifteen generations of selection in two genetically distinct lines were performed and none of the lines showed a significant response to selection. Our results therefore support and reconfirm previous findings; despite apparent natural variation and evolution of DA in nature, DA remains a paradoxical trait that does not respond to artificial selection.

  8. Multiscale modeling of dorsoventral patterning in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Shev

    2014-11-01

    The role of mathematical models of signaling networks is showcased by examples from Drosophila development. Three models of consecutive stages in dorsoventral patterning are presented. We begin with a compartmental model of intracellular reactions that generates a gradient of nuclear-localized Dorsal, exhibiting constant shape and dynamic amplitude. A simple thermodynamic model of equilibrium binding explains how a spatially uniform transcription factor, Zelda, can act in combination with a graded factor, Dorsal, to cooperatively regulate gene expression borders. Finally, we formulate a dynamic and stochastic model that predicts spatiotemporal patterns of Sog expression based on known patterns of its transcription factor, Dorsal. The future of coupling multifarious models across multiple temporal and spatial scales is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gustatory processing and taste memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Keene, Alex C

    2016-06-01

    Taste allows animals to discriminate the value and potential toxicity of food prior to ingestion. Many tastants elicit an innate attractive or avoidance response that is modifiable with nutritional state and prior experience. A powerful genetic tool kit, well-characterized gustatory system, and standardized behavioral assays make the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, an excellent system for investigating taste processing and memory. Recent studies have used this system to identify the neural basis for acquired taste preference. These studies have revealed a role for dopamine-mediated plasticity of the mushroom bodies that modulate the threshold of response to appetitive tastants. The identification of neural circuitry regulating taste memory provides a system to study the genetic and physiological processes that govern plasticity within a defined memory circuit.

  10. Gametic incompatibilities between races of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipaz, J A; Wu, C I; Karr, T L

    2001-04-22

    Reproductive-isolating mechanisms between nascent species may involve sperm-egg recognition and have been best described in externally fertilizing organisms where such recognition is essential in preventing undesirable fertilizations. However, reproductive barriers in internally fertilizing species differ in significant ways, and a direct role for sperm-egg interactions has yet to be demonstrated. Females of many strains of Drosophila melanogaster from Zimbabwe, Africa, do not mate readily with cosmopolitan males. This polymorphism in mate choice is postulated to represent incipient speciation. We now report that, in one direction, crosses between the above populations produce far fewer offspring than reciprocal crosses due to a lower rate of egg hatch. We established that egg inviability in these crosses was due to defects in fertilization. Thus, even in taxa with internal fertilization, gametic incompatibility may be a mechanism relevant to reproductive isolation during incipient speciation.

  11. Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Drosophila Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margot E

    2016-10-06

    Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis. These flows are implicated in two processes: polarity establishment and mixing. In this review, I discuss the underlying mechanism of streaming, how slow and fast streaming are differentiated, and what we know about the physiological roles of the two types of streaming.

  12. Antioxidants, metabolic rate and aging in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.; Fleming, J.; Economos, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolic rate-of-living theory of aging was investigated by determining the effect of several life-prolonging antioxidants on the metabolic rate and life span of Drosophila. The respiration rate of groups of continuously agitated flies was determined in a Gilson respirometer. Vitamin E, 2,4-dinitrophenol, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, and thiazolidine carboxylic acid were employed as antioxidants. Results show that all of these antioxidants reduced the oxygen consumption rate and increased the mean life span, and a significant negative linear correlation was found between the mean life span and the metabolic rate. It is concluded that these findings indicate that some antioxidants may inhibit respiration rate in addition to their protective effect against free radical-induced cellular damage.

  13. Studying cytokinesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, D; Bellaïche, Y

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial tissue cohesiveness is ensured through cell-cell junctions that maintain both adhesion and mechanical coupling between neighboring cells. During development, epithelial tissues undergo intensive cell proliferation. Cell division, and particularly cytokinesis, is coupled to the formation of new adhesive contacts, thereby preserving tissue integrity and propagating cell polarity. Remarkably, the geometry of the new interfaces is determined by the combined action of the dividing cell and its neighbors. To further understand the interplay between the dividing cell and its neighbors, as well as the role of cell division for tissue morphogenesis, it is important to analyze cytokinesis in vivo. Here we present methods to perform live imaging of cell division in Drosophila epithelial tissues and discuss some aspects of image processing and analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Drosophila TRP channels and animal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Melissa A.; Montell, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Multiple classes of cell surface receptors and ion channels participate in the detection of changes in environmental stimuli, and thereby influence animal behavior. Among the many classes of ion channels, Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) cation channels are notable in contributing to virtually every sensory modality, and in controlling a daunting array of behaviors. TRP channels appear to be conserved in all metazoan organisms including worms, insects and humans. Flies encode 13 TRPs, most of which are expressed and function in sensory neurons, and impact behaviors ranging from phototaxis to thermotaxis, gravitaxis, the avoidance of noxious tastants and smells and proprioception. Multiple diseases result from defects in TRPs, and flies provide an excellent animal model for dissecting the mechanisms underlying “TRPopathies.” Drosophila TRPs also function in the sensation of botanically derived insect repellents, and related TRPs in insect pests are potential targets for the development of improved repellents to combat insect-borne diseases. PMID:22877650

  15. Fascin regulates nuclear actin during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelpsch, Daniel J; Groen, Christopher M; Fagan, Tiffany N; Sudhir, Sweta; Tootle, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    Drosophila oogenesis provides a developmental system with which to study nuclear actin. During Stages 5-9, nuclear actin levels are high in the oocyte and exhibit variation within the nurse cells. Cofilin and Profilin, which regulate the nuclear import and export of actin, also localize to the nuclei. Expression of GFP-tagged Actin results in nuclear actin rod formation. These findings indicate that nuclear actin must be tightly regulated during oogenesis. One factor mediating this regulation is Fascin. Overexpression of Fascin enhances nuclear GFP-Actin rod formation, and Fascin colocalizes with the rods. Loss of Fascin reduces, whereas overexpression of Fascin increases, the frequency of nurse cells with high levels of nuclear actin, but neither alters the overall nuclear level of actin within the ovary. These data suggest that Fascin regulates the ability of specific cells to accumulate nuclear actin. Evidence indicates that Fascin positively regulates nuclear actin through Cofilin. Loss of Fascin results in decreased nuclear Cofilin. In addition, Fascin and Cofilin genetically interact, as double heterozygotes exhibit a reduction in the number of nurse cells with high nuclear actin levels. These findings are likely applicable beyond Drosophila follicle development, as the localization and functions of Fascin and the mechanisms regulating nuclear actin are widely conserved. © 2016 Kelpsch et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Riparbelli

    2013-09-01

    The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT, maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties.

  17. Bitter-sweet processing in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Christian; Schleyer, Michael; Leibiger, Judith; El-Keredy, Amira; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-07-01

    "Sweet-" and "bitter-" tasting substances distinctively support attractive and aversive choice behavior, respectively, and therefore are thought to be processed by distinct pathways. Interestingly, electrophysiological recordings in adult Drosophila suggest that bitter and salty tastants, in addition to activating bitter, salt, or bitter/salt sensory neurons, can also inhibit sweet-sensory neurons. However, the behavioral significance of such a potential for combinatorial coding is little understood. Using larval Drosophila as a study case, we find that the preference towards fructose is inhibited when assayed in the background of the bitter tastant quinine. When testing the influence of quinine on the preference to other, equally preferred sweet tastants, we find that these sweet tastants differ in their susceptibility to be inhibited by quinine. Such stimulus specificity argues that the inhibitory effect of quinine is not due to general effects on locomotion or nausea. In turn, not all bitter tastants have the same potency to inhibit sweet preference; notably, their inhibitory potency is not determined by the strength of the avoidance of them. Likewise, equally avoided concentrations of sodium chloride differ in their potency to inhibit sugar preference. Furthermore, Gr33a-Gal4-positive neurons, while being necessary for bitter avoidance, are dispensable for inhibition of the sweet pathway. Thus, interactions across taste modalities are behaviorally significant and, as we discuss, arguably diverse in mechanism. These results suggest that the coding of tastants and the organization of gustatory behavior may be more combinatorial than is generally acknowledged. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Chloride channels in the plasma membrane of a foetal Drosophila cell line, S2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Margit; Willumsen, Niels J.

    2000-01-01

    S2 cells, Cl- Channels, Expression system, Drosophila, Inward rectifier, Outward rectifier, Patch clamp......S2 cells, Cl- Channels, Expression system, Drosophila, Inward rectifier, Outward rectifier, Patch clamp...

  19. Genome-wide dissection of hybrid sterility in Drosophila confirms a polygenic threshold architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morán, Tomás; Fontdevila, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    .... Early work using hybrids between Drosophila koepferae (Dk) and Drosophila buzzatii (Db) was consistent with the idea that HMS requires the cooperation of several genetic factors, supporting a polygenic threshold...

  20. Inhibition of mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 in Drosophila neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Angale, P G; Staveley, B E

    2017-02-08

    The mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1) is a regulatory subunit of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter that plays an important role in calcium sensing. It contains two EF-hand domains that are well conserved across diverse species from protozoa to plants and metazoans. The loss of MICU1 function in mammals is attributed to several neurological disorders that involve movement dysfunction. The CG4495 gene in Drosophila melanogaster was identified as a putative homolog of MICU1 in the HomoloGene database of the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). In agreement with previous studies that have shown the development of neurological disorders and movement defects in MICU1 loss-of-function organisms, we attempted to identify the function of CG4495/MICU1 in Drosophila neurons. We analyzed survival and locomotor ability of these flies and additionally performed biometric analysis of the Drosophila developing eye. The inducible RNA interference-mediated inhibition of CG4495/MICU1 in the Ddc-Gal4-expressing neurons of Drosophila presented with reduction in survival coupled with a precocious loss of locomotor ability. Since the pro-survival Bcl-2 family genes have been shown to be protective towards mitochondria, and CG4495/MICU1 has a mitochondrial targeting sequence, we attempted to rescue the phenotypes resulting from the inhibition of CG4495/MICU1 by overexpressing Buffy, the sole Bcl-2 homologue in Drosophila. The co-expression of CG4495/MICU1-RNAi along with Buffy resulted in the suppression of the phenotypes induced by the inhibition of CG4495/MICU1. Subsequently, the inhibition of CG4495/MICU1 in the Drosophila developing eye, a neuron-rich organ, resulted in reduced number of ommatidia and a highly fused ommatidial array. These developmental eye defects were rescued by the overexpression of Buffy. Our study suggests an important role for MICU1 in the normal function of neurons in Drosophila.

  1. The dopaminergic system in the aging brain of Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E White

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila models of Parkinson’s disease are characterised by two principal phenotypes: the specific loss of dopaminergic neurons in the aging brain and defects in motor behavior. However, an age-related analysis of these baseline parameters in wildtype Drosophila is lacking. Here we analysed the dopaminergic system and motor behavior in aging Drosophila. Dopaminergic neurons in the adult brain can be grouped into bilateral symmetric clusters, each comprising a stereotypical number of cells. Analysis of TH>mCD8::GFP and cell type-specific MARCM clones revealed that dopaminergic neurons show cluster-specific, stereotypical projection patterns with terminal arborization in target regions that represent distinct functional areas of the adult brain. Target areas include the mushroom bodies, involved in memory formation and motivation, and the central complex, involved in the control of motor behavior, indicating that similar to the mammalian brain, dopaminergic neurons in the fly brain are involved in the regulation of specific behaviors. Behavioral analysis revealed that Drosophila show an age-related decline in startle-induced locomotion and negative geotaxis. Motion tracking however, revealed that walking activity and exploration behavior, but not centrophobism increase at late stages of life. Analysis of TH>Dcr2, mCD8::GFP revealed a specific effect of Dcr2 expression on walking activity but not on exploratory or centrophobic behavior, indicating that the siRNA pathway may modulate distinct dopaminergic behaviors in Drosophila. Moreover, dopaminergic neurons were maintained between early- and late life, as quantified by TH>mCD8::GFP and anti-TH labelling, indicating that adult onset, age-related degeneration of dopaminergic neurons does not occur in the aging brain of Drosophila. Taken together, our data establish baseline parameters in Drosophila for the study of Parkinson’s disease as well as other disorders affecting dopaminergic neurons

  2. 40 CFR 798.5955 - Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drosophila melanogaster. 798.5955 Section 798.5955 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5955 Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The heritable translocation test in Drosophila measures the induction of chromosomal translocations in germ cells of insects...

  3. big bang gene modulates gut immune tolerance in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnay, François; Cohen-Berros, Eva; Hoffmann, Martine; Kim, Sabrina Y; Boulianne, Gabrielle L; Hoffmann, Jules A; Matt, Nicolas; Reichhart, Jean-Marc

    2013-02-19

    Chronic inflammation of the intestine is detrimental to mammals. Similarly, constant activation of the immune response in the gut by the endogenous flora is suspected to be harmful to Drosophila. Therefore, the innate immune response in the gut of Drosophila melanogaster is tightly balanced to simultaneously prevent infections by pathogenic microorganisms and tolerate the endogenous flora. Here we describe the role of the big bang (bbg) gene, encoding multiple membrane-associated PDZ (PSD-95, Discs-large, ZO-1) domain-containing protein isoforms, in the modulation of the gut immune response. We show that in the adult Drosophila midgut, BBG is present at the level of the septate junctions, on the apical side of the enterocytes. In the absence of BBG, these junctions become loose, enabling the intestinal flora to trigger a constitutive activation of the anterior midgut immune response. This chronic epithelial inflammation leads to a reduced lifespan of bbg mutant flies. Clearing the commensal flora by antibiotics prevents the abnormal activation of the gut immune response and restores a normal lifespan. We now provide genetic evidence that Drosophila septate junctions are part of the gut immune barrier, a function that is evolutionarily conserved in mammals. Collectively, our data suggest that septate junctions are required to maintain the subtle balance between immune tolerance and immune response in the Drosophila gut, which represents a powerful model to study inflammatory bowel diseases.

  4. DNA Repair in Drosophila: Mutagens, Models, and Missing Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekelsky, Jeff

    2017-02-01

    The numerous processes that damage DNA are counterbalanced by a complex network of repair pathways that, collectively, can mend diverse types of damage. Insights into these pathways have come from studies in many different organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster Indeed, the first ideas about chromosome and gene repair grew out of Drosophila research on the properties of mutations produced by ionizing radiation and mustard gas. Numerous methods have been developed to take advantage of Drosophila genetic tools to elucidate repair processes in whole animals, organs, tissues, and cells. These studies have led to the discovery of key DNA repair pathways, including synthesis-dependent strand annealing, and DNA polymerase theta-mediated end joining. Drosophila appear to utilize other major repair pathways as well, such as base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and interstrand crosslink repair. In a surprising number of cases, however, DNA repair genes whose products play important roles in these pathways in other organisms are missing from the Drosophila genome, raising interesting questions for continued investigations. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. Drosophila wing modularity revisited through a quantitative genetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Carreira, Valeria Paula; Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Ortiz, Victoria; González-José, Rolando; Soto, Ignacio M

    2016-07-01

    To predict the response of complex morphological structures to selection it is necessary to know how the covariation among its different parts is organized. Two key features of covariation are modularity and integration. The Drosophila wing is currently considered a fully integrated structure. Here, we study the patterns of integration of the Drosophila wing and test the hypothesis of the wing being divided into two modules along the proximo-distal axis, as suggested by developmental, biomechanical, and evolutionary evidence. To achieve these goals we perform a multilevel analysis of covariation combining the techniques of geometric morphometrics and quantitative genetics. Our results indicate that the Drosophila wing is indeed organized into two main modules, the wing base and the wing blade. The patterns of integration and modularity were highly concordant at the phenotypic, genetic, environmental, and developmental levels. Besides, we found that modularity at the developmental level was considerably higher than modularity at other levels, suggesting that in the Drosophila wing direct developmental interactions are major contributors to total phenotypic shape variation. We propose that the precise time at which covariance-generating developmental processes occur and/or the magnitude of variation that they produce favor proximo-distal, rather than anterior-posterior, modularity in the Drosophila wing. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. A geometric method for contour extraction of Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gong, Yongyi

    2017-12-14

    High resolution images of Drosophila embryos in their developmental stages contain rich spatial and temporal information of gene expression. Automatic extraction of the contour of an embryo of interest in an embryonic image is a critical step of a computational system used to discover gene-gene interaction on Drosophila. We propose a geometric method for contour extraction of Drosophila embryos. The key of the proposed geometric method is k-dominant point extraction that is a generalization of 3-dominant point extraction proposed in our previous work. Based on k-dominant point extraction, we can approximate a connected component of edge pixels by a polygon that can be either convex or concave. The test on BDGP data shows that the proposed method outputforms two existing methods designed for contour extraction of Drosophila embryos. The main advantage of the proposed geometric method in the context of contour extraction of Drosophila embryos is its ability of segmenting embryos touching each other. The proposed geometric method can also be applied to applications relevant to contour extraction.

  7. Research progress on Drosophila visual cognition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, AiKe; Zhang, Ke; Peng, YueQin; Xi, Wang

    2010-03-01

    Visual cognition, as one of the fundamental aspects of cognitive neuroscience, is generally associated with high-order brain functions in animals and human. Drosophila, as a model organism, shares certain features of visual cognition in common with mammals at the genetic, molecular, cellular, and even higher behavioral levels. From learning and memory to decision making, Drosophila covers a broad spectrum of higher cognitive behaviors beyond what we had expected. Armed with powerful tools of genetic manipulation in Drosophila, an increasing number of studies have been conducted in order to elucidate the neural circuit mechanisms underlying these cognitive behaviors from a genes-brain-behavior perspective. The goal of this review is to integrate the most important studies on visual cognition in Drosophila carried out in mainland China during the last decade into a body of knowledge encompassing both the basic neural operations and circuitry of higher brain function in Drosophila. Here, we consider a series of the higher cognitive behaviors beyond learning and memory, such as visual pattern recognition, feature and context generalization, different feature memory traces, salience-based decision, attention-like behavior, and cross-modal leaning and memory. We discuss the possible general gain-gating mechanism implementing by dopamine - mushroom body circuit in fly's visual cognition. We hope that our brief review on this aspect will inspire further study on visual cognition in flies, or even beyond.

  8. Three new species of Drosophila tripunctata group (Diptera: Drosophilidae in the eastern Andes of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ramos Guillín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the Drosophila tripunctata group are described and illustrated. These new species were captured using plastic bottles containing pieces of fermented banana with yeast. The collections were from Napo Province, Ecuador at 2 200 m and 3 362 m above sea level. The new species are: Drosophila napoensis sp. nov., Drosophila cuyuja sp. nov. and Drosophila quijos sp. nov. The first two species belong to subgroup I and the latter species belong to subgroup III of the Drosophila tripunctata group.

  9. Temporal Stability of Molecular Diversity Measures in Natural Populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila persimilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hish, Alexander J.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Many molecular ecological and evolutionary studies sample wild populations at a single point in time, but that data represents genetic variation from a potentially unrepresentative snapshot in time. Variation across time in genetic parameters may occur quickly in species that produce multiple generations of offspring per year. Here, we compare genetic diversity in wild caught populations of Drosophila persimilis and Drosophila pseudoobscura collected 16 years apart at the same time of year and same site at 4 X-linked and 2 mitochondrial loci to assess genetic stability. We found no major changes in nucleotide diversity in either species, but we observed a drastic shift in Tajima’s D between D. pseudoobscura timepoints at 1 locus associated with increased abundance of a set of related haplotypes. Our data also suggests that D. persimilis may have recently accelerated its demographic expansion. While the changes we observed were modest, this study reinforces the importance of considering potential temporal variation in genetic parameters within single populations over short evolutionary timescales. PMID:25969560

  10. Penelope retroelements from Drosophila virilis are active after transformation of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatkov, Konstantin I.; Shostak, Natalia G.; Zelentsova, Elena S.; Lyozin, George T.; Melekhin, Michael I.; Finnegan, David J.; Kidwell, Margaret G.; Evgen'ev, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    The Penelope family of retroelements was first described in species of the Drosophila virilis group. Intact elements encode a reverse transcriptase and an endonuclease of the UvrC type, which may play a role in Penelope integration. Penelope is a key element in the induction of D. virilis hybrid dysgenesis, which involves the mobilization of several unrelated families of transposable elements. We here report the successful introduction of Penelope into the germ line of Drosophila melanogaster by P element-mediated transformation with three different constructs. Penelope is actively transcribed in the D. melanogaster genome only in lines transformed with a construct containing a full-length Penelope clone. The transcript is identical to that detected in D. virilis dysgenic hybrids. Most newly transposed Penelope elements have a very complex organization. Significant proliferation of Penelope copy number occurred in some lines during the 24-month period after transformation. The absence of copy number increase with two other constructs suggests that the 5′ and/or 3′ UTRs of Penelope are required for successful transposition in D. melanogaster. No insect retroelement has previously been reported to be actively transcribed and to increase in copy number after interspecific transformation. PMID:12451171

  11. Identification and characterization of novel natural pathogen of Drosophila melanogaster isolated from wild captured Drosophila spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karan; Zulkifli, Mohammad; Prasad, N G

    2016-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is an emerging model system for the study of evolutionary ecology of immunity. However, a large number of studies have used non natural pathogens as very few natural pathogens have been isolated and identified. Our aim was to isolate and characterize natural pathogen/s of D. melanogaster. A bacterial pathogen was isolated from wild caught Drosophila spp., identified as a new strain of Staphylococcus succinus subsp. succinus and named PK-1. This strain induced substantial mortality (36-62%) in adults of several laboratory populations of D. melanogaster. PK-1 grew rapidly within the body of the flies post infection and both males and females had roughly same number of colony forming units. Mortality was affected by mode of infection and dosage of the pathogen. However mating status of the host had no effect on mortality post infection. Given that there are very few known natural bacterial pathogens of D. melanogaster and that PK-1 can establish a sustained infection across various outbred and inbred populations of D. melanogaster this new isolate is a potential resource for future studies on immunity. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative population genomics of latitudinal variation in Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Heather E; Bergland, Alan O; O'Brien, Katherine R; Behrman, Emily L; Schmidt, Paul S; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2016-02-01

    Examples of clinal variation in phenotypes and genotypes across latitudinal transects have served as important models for understanding how spatially varying selection and demographic forces shape variation within species. Here, we examine the selective and demographic contributions to latitudinal variation through the largest comparative genomic study to date of Drosophila simulans and Drosophila melanogaster, with genomic sequence data from 382 individual fruit flies, collected across a spatial transect of 19 degrees latitude and at multiple time points over 2 years. Consistent with phenotypic studies, we find less clinal variation in D. simulans than D. melanogaster, particularly for the autosomes. Moreover, we find that clinally varying loci in D. simulans are less stable over multiple years than comparable clines in D. melanogaster. D. simulans shows a significantly weaker pattern of isolation by distance than D. melanogaster and we find evidence for a stronger contribution of migration to D. simulans population genetic structure. While population bottlenecks and migration can plausibly explain the differences in stability of clinal variation between the two species, we also observe a significant enrichment of shared clinal genes, suggesting that the selective forces associated with climate are acting on the same genes and phenotypes in D. simulans and D. melanogaster. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Drosophila melanogaster: a fly through its history and current use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, R; Metcalfe, N H

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly, has been used as a model organism in both medical and scientific research for over a century. Work by Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945) and his students at Columbia University at the beginning of the twentieth century led to great discoveries such as sex-linked inheritance and that ionising radiation causes mutations in genes. However, the use of Drosophila was not limited to genetic research. Experimentation with this model organism has also led to discoveries in neuroscience and neurodevelopment, including the basis of circadian rhythms. Its complex nervous system, conserved neurological function, and human disease-related loci allow Drosophila to be an ideal model organism for the study of neurodegenerative disease, for which it is used today, aiding research into diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, which are becoming more prevalent in today's ageing population.

  14. Drosophila as a genetic model for studying pathogenic human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tamara T; Allen, Amanda L; Bardin, Joseph E; Christian, Megan N; Daimon, Kansei; Dozier, Kelsey D; Hansen, Caom L; Holcomb, Lisa M; Ahlander, Joseph

    2012-02-05

    Viruses are infectious particles whose viability is dependent on the cells of living organisms, such as bacteria, plants, and animals. It is of great interest to discover how viruses function inside host cells in order to develop therapies to treat virally infected organisms. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studying the molecular mechanisms of replication, amplification, and cellular consequences of human viruses. In this review, we describe the advantages of using Drosophila as a model system to study human viruses, and highlight how Drosophila has been used to provide unique insight into the gene function of several pathogenic viruses. We also propose possible directions for future research in this area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Autophagy in Drosophila: From Historical Studies to Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulakkal, Nitha C.; Nagy, Peter; Takats, Szabolcs; Tusco, Radu; Juhász, Gábor; Nezis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy. PMID:24949430

  16. Analysis of Cell Cycle Switches in Drosophila Oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongyu; Huang, Yi-Chun; Deng, Wu-Min

    2015-01-01

    The study of Drosophila oogenesis provides invaluable information about signaling pathway regulation and cell cycle programming. During Drosophila oogenesis, a string of egg chambers in each ovariole progressively develops toward maturity. Egg chamber development consists of 14 stages. From stage 1 to stage 6 (mitotic cycle), main-body follicle cells undergo mitotic divisions. From stage 7 to stage 10a (endocycle), follicle cells cease mitosis but continue three rounds of endoreduplication. From stage 10b to stage 13 (gene amplification), instead of whole genome duplication, follicle cells selectively amplify specific genomic regions, mostly for chorion production. So far, Drosophila oogenesis is one of the most well studied model systems used to understand cell cycle switches, which furthers our knowledge about cell cycle control machinery and sheds new light on potential cancer treatments. Here, we give a brief summary of cell cycle switches, the associated signaling pathways and factors, and the detailed experimental procedures used to study the cell cycle switches.

  17. Detecting novel low-abundant transcripts in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sanggyu; Bao, Jingyue; Zhou, Guolin

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that low-abundant transcripts may play fundamental roles in biological processes. In an attempt to estimate the prevalence of low-abundant transcripts in eukaryotic genomes, we performed a transcriptome analysis in Drosophila using the SAGE technique. We collected 244......,313 SAGE tags from transcripts expressed in Drosophila embryonic, larval, pupae, adult, and testicular tissue. From these SAGE tags, we identified 40,823 unique SAGE tags. Our analysis showed that 55% of the 40,823 unique SAGE tags are novel without matches in currently known Drosophila transcripts......, and most of the novel SAGE tags have low copy numbers. Further analysis indicated that these novel SAGE tags represent novel low-abundant transcripts expressed from loci outside of currently annotated exons including the intergenic and intronic regions, and antisense of the currently annotated exons...

  18. Localized expression pattern of miR-184 in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Peng, Jianjian; Hu, Jiangbo; Xu, Zhongxin; Xie, Wei; Yuan, Liudi

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of endogenous non-coding small RNAs whose specific functions in animals are generally important. Although functions of some miRNAs have been identified, the role of miR-184 remains unknown. Here, we determined the temporal and spatial expression pattern of miR-184 during the different development stages and tissues in Drosophila. Strikingly, miR-184 is expressed ubiquitously in Drosophila embryos, larvae and adults, its expression pattern shows a dynamic changes during the development of embryo, especially in the central nervous system. This expression profile suggests that miR-184 may act important function in Drosophila development.

  19. RNA editing in Drosophila melanogaster: new targets and functionalconsequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, Mark; Carlson, Joseph W.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2006-09-05

    Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine in primary mRNA transcripts. These re-coding events affect coding potential, splice-sites, and stability of mature mRNAs. ADAR is an essential gene and studies in mouse, C. elegans, and Drosophila suggest its primary function is to modify adult behavior by altering signaling components in the nervous system. By comparing the sequence of isogenic cDNAs to genomic DNA, we have identified and experimentally verified 27 new targets of Drosophila ADAR. Our analyses lead us to identify new classes of genes whose transcripts are targets of ADAR including components of the actin cytoskeleton, and genes involved in ion homeostasis and signal transduction. Our results indicate that editing in Drosophila increases the diversity of the proteome, and does so in a manner that has direct functional consequences on protein function.

  20. Live imaging of Drosophila larval neuroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerit, Dorothy A; Plevock, Karen M; Rusan, Nasser M

    2014-07-07

    Stem cells divide asymmetrically to generate two progeny cells with unequal fate potential: a self-renewing stem cell and a differentiating cell. Given their relevance to development and disease, understanding the mechanisms that govern asymmetric stem cell division has been a robust area of study. Because they are genetically tractable and undergo successive rounds of cell division about once every hour, the stem cells of the Drosophila central nervous system, or neuroblasts, are indispensable models for the study of stem cell division. About 100 neural stem cells are located near the surface of each of the two larval brain lobes, making this model system particularly useful for live imaging microscopy studies. In this work, we review several approaches widely used to visualize stem cell divisions, and we address the relative advantages and disadvantages of those techniques that employ dissociated versus intact brain tissues. We also detail our simplified protocol used to explant whole brains from third instar larvae for live cell imaging and fixed analysis applications.

  1. Collective synchronization of divisions in Drosophila development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergassola, Massimo

    Mitoses in the early development of most metazoans are rapid and synchronized across the entire embryo. While diffusion is too slow, in vitro experiments have shown that waves of the cell-cycle regulator Cdk1 can transfer information rapidly across hundreds of microns. However, the signaling dynamics and the physical properties of chemical waves during embryonic development remain unclear. We develop FRET biosensors for the activity of Cdk1 and the checkpoint kinase Chk1 in Drosophila embryos and exploit them to measure waves in vivo. We demonstrate that Cdk1 chemical waves control mitotic waves and that their speed is regulated by the activity of Cdk1 during the S-phase (and not mitosis). We quantify the progressive slowdown of the waves with developmental cycles and identify its underlying control mechanism by the DNA replication checkpoint through the Chk1/Wee1 pathway. The global dynamics of the mitotic signaling network illustrates a novel control principle: the S-phase activity of Cdk1 regulates the speed of the mitotic wave, while the Cdk1 positive feedback ensures an invariantly rapid onset of mitosis. Mathematical modeling captures the speed of the waves and predicts a fundamental distinction between the S-phase Cdk1 trigger waves and the mitotic phase waves, which is illustrated by embryonic ablation experiments. In collaboration with Victoria Deneke1, Anna Melbinger2, and Stefano Di Talia1 1 Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center 2 Department of Physics, University of California San Diego.

  2. Is diapause an ancient adaptation in Drosophila?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonato, Valeria; Collins, Lewis; Pegoraro, Mirko; Tauber, Eran; Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2017-04-01

    D. melanogaster enters a state of reproductive arrest when exposed to low temperatures (12°C) and shorter photoperiods. A number of studies have suggested that diapause has recently evolved in European D. melanogaster populations, that it is not present in the sibling species D. simulans, that it is non-photoperiodic in American D. melanogaster populations, and that it spontaneously terminates after 6-8weeks. We have studied the overwintering phenotype under different conditions and observe that American, European and, surprisingly, African D. melanogaster populations can show photoperiodic diapause, as can European, but not African D. simulans. Surprisingly other Drosophila species from pan-tropical regions can also show significant levels of photoperiodic diapause. We observe that spontaneous termination of diapause after a few weeks can be largely avoided with a more realistic winter simulation for D. melanogaster, but not D. simulans. Examining metabolite accumulation during diapause reveals that the shallow diapause of D. melanogaster has similar features to that of other more robustly-diapausing species. Our results suggest that diapause may be an ancient character that emerged in the tropics to resist unfavourable seasonal conditions and which has been enhanced during D. melanogaster's colonisation of temperate regions. Our results also highlight how different methodologies to quantify diapause can lead to apparently conflicting results that we believe can now largely be resolved. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Prandiology of Drosophila and the CAFE assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ja, William W.; Carvalho, Gil B.; Mak, Elizabeth M.; de la Rosa, Noelle N.; Fang, Annie Y.; Liong, Jonathan C.; Brummel, Ted; Benzer, Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Studies of feeding behavior in genetically tractable invertebrate model systems have been limited by the lack of proper methodology. We introduce the Capillary Feeder (CAFE), a method allowing precise, real-time measurement of ingestion by individual or grouped fruit flies on the scale of minutes to days. Using this technique, we conducted the first quantitative analysis of prandial behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. Our results allow the dissection of feeding into discrete bouts of ingestion, defining two separate parameters, meal volume and frequency, that can be uncoupled and thus are likely to be independently regulated. In addition, our long-term measurements show that flies can ingest as much as 1.7× their body mass over 24 h. Besides the study of appetite, the CAFE can be used to monitor oral drug delivery. As an illustration, we used the CAFE to test the effects of dietary supplementation with two compounds, paraquat and ethanol, on food ingestion and preference. Paraquat, a prooxidant widely used in stress tests, had a strong anorexigenic effect. In contrast, in a feeding preference assay, ethanol-laced food, but not ethanol by itself, acted as an attractant. PMID:17494737

  4. Ferritin Assembly in Enterocytes of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Rosas-Arellano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ferritins are protein nanocages that accumulate inside their cavity thousands of oxidized iron atoms bound to oxygen and phosphates. Both characteristic types of eukaryotic ferritin subunits are present in secreted ferritins from insects, but here dimers between Ferritin 1 Heavy Chain Homolog (Fer1HCH and Ferritin 2 Light Chain Homolog (Fer2LCH are further stabilized by disulfide-bridge in the 24-subunit complex. We addressed ferritin assembly and iron loading in vivo using novel transgenic strains of Drosophila melanogaster. We concentrated on the intestine, where the ferritin induction process can be controlled experimentally by dietary iron manipulation. We showed that the expression pattern of Fer2LCH-Gal4 lines recapitulated iron-dependent endogenous expression of the ferritin subunits and used these lines to drive expression from UAS-mCherry-Fer2LCH transgenes. We found that the Gal4-mediated induction of mCherry-Fer2LCH subunits was too slow to effectively introduce them into newly formed ferritin complexes. Endogenous Fer2LCH and Fer1HCH assembled and stored excess dietary iron, instead. In contrast, when flies were genetically manipulated to co-express Fer2LCH and mCherry-Fer2LCH simultaneously, both subunits were incorporated with Fer1HCH in iron-loaded ferritin complexes. Our study provides fresh evidence that, in insects, ferritin assembly and iron loading in vivo are tightly regulated.

  5. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Davies

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays.

  6. Exploring strategies for protein trapping in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones-Coello, Ana T.; Petrella, Lisa N.; Ayers, Kathleen; Melillo, Anthony; Mazzalupo, Stacy; Hudson, Andrew M.; Wang, Shu; Castiblanco, Claudia; Buszczak, Michael; Hoskins, Roger A.; Cooley, Lynn

    2006-12-18

    The use of fluorescent protein tags has had a huge impact oncell biological studies in virtually every experimental system.Incorporation of coding sequence for fluorescent proteins such as greenfluorescent protein (GFP) into genes at their endogenous chromosomalposition is especially useful for generating GFP-fusion proteins thatprovide accurate cellular and subcellular expression data. We testedmodifications of a transposon-based protein trap screening procedure inDrosophila to optimize the rate of recovering useful protein traps andtheir analysis. Transposons carrying the GFP-coding sequence flanked bysplice acceptor and donor sequences were mobilized, and new insertionsthat resulted in production of GFP were captured using an automatedembryo sorter. Individual stocks were established, GFP expression wasanalyzed during oogenesis, and insertion sites were determined bysequencing genomic DNA flanking the insertions. The resulting collectionincludes lines with protein traps in which GFP was spliced into mRNAs andembedded within endogenous proteins or enhancer traps in which GFPexpression depended on splicing into transposon-derived RNA. We report atotal of 335 genes associated with protein or enhancer traps and aweb-accessible database for viewing molecular information and expressiondata for these genes.

  7. Healthy aging – insights from Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin G Iliadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human life expectancy has nearly doubled in the past century due, in part, to social and economic development, and a wide range of new medical technologies and treatments. As the number of elderly increase it becomes of vital importance to understand what factors contribute to healthy aging. Human longevity is a complex process that is affected by both environmental and genetic factors and interactions between them. Unfortunately, it is currently difficult to identify the role of genetic components in human longevity. In contrast, model organisms such as C. elegans, Drosophila and rodents have facilitated the search for specific genes that affect lifespan. Experimental evidence obtained from studies in model organisms suggests that mutations in a single gene may increase longevity and delay the onset of age-related symptoms including motor impairments, sexual and reproductive and immune dysfunction, cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. Furthermore, the high degree of conservation between diverse species in the genes and pathways that regulate longevity suggests that work in model organisms can both expand our theoretical knowledge of aging and perhaps provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of age-related disorders.

  8. Tracking individual nanodiamonds in Drosophila melanogaster embryos

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, David A; Kowarsky, Mark; Zeeshan, Nida F; Barson, Michael S J; Hall, Liam; Yan, Yan; Kaufmann, Stefan; Johnson, Brett C; Ohshima, Takeshi; Caruso, Frank; Scholten, Robert; Saint, Robert B; Murray, Michael J; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2013-01-01

    Tracking the dynamics of fluorescent nanoparticles during embryonic development allows insights into the physical state of the embryo and, potentially, molecular processes governing developmental mechanisms. In this work, we investigate the motion of individual fluorescent nanodiamonds micro-injected into Drosophila melanogaster embryos prior to cellularisation. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and wide-field imaging techniques are applied to individual fluorescent nanodiamonds in blastoderm cells during stage 5 of development to a depth of ~40 \\mu m. The majority of nanodiamonds in the blastoderm cells during cellularisation exhibit free diffusion with an average diffusion coefficient of (6 $\\pm$ 3) x 10$^{-3}$ \\mu m$^2$/s, (mean $\\pm$ SD). Driven motion in the blastoderm cells was also observed with an average velocity of 0.13 $\\pm$ 0.10 \\mu m/s (mean $\\pm$ SD) \\mu m/s and an average applied force of 0.07 $\\pm$ 0.05 pN (mean $\\pm$ SD). Nanodiamonds in the periplasm between the nuclei and yolk were also...

  9. Host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Castrezana

    Full Text Available The process of local adaptation creates diversity among allopatric populations, and may eventually lead to speciation. Plant-feeding insect populations that specialize on different host species provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate the causes of ecological specialization and the subsequent consequences for diversity. In this study, we used geographically separated Drosophila mettleri populations that specialize on different host cacti to examine oviposition preference for and larval performance on an array of natural and non-natural hosts (eight total. We found evidence of local adaptation in performance on saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea for populations that are typically associated with this host, and to chemically divergent prickly pear species (Opuntia spp. in a genetically isolated population on Santa Catalina Island. Moreover, each population exhibited reduced performance on the alternative host. This finding is consistent with trade-offs associated with adaptation to these chemically divergent hosts, although we also discuss alternative explanations for this pattern. For oviposition preference, Santa Catalina Island flies were more likely to oviposit on some prickly pear species, but all populations readily laid eggs on saguaro. Experiments with non-natural hosts suggest that factors such as ecological opportunity may play a more important role than host plant chemistry in explaining the lack of natural associations with some hosts.

  10. Structure of full-length Drosophila cryptochrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoltowski, Brian D.; Vaidya, Anand T.; Top, Deniz; Widom, Joanne; Young, Michael W.; Crane, Brian R. (Cornell); (Rockefeller)

    2011-12-15

    The cryptochrome/photolyase (CRY/PL) family of photoreceptors mediates adaptive responses to ultraviolet and blue light exposure in all kingdoms of life. Whereas PLs function predominantly in DNA repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 photolesions caused by ultraviolet radiation, CRYs transduce signals important for growth, development, magnetosensitivity and circadian clocks. Despite these diverse functions, PLs/CRYs preserve a common structural fold, a dependence on flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and an internal photoactivation mechanism. However, members of the CRY/PL family differ in the substrates recognized (protein or DNA), photochemical reactions catalysed and involvement of an antenna cofactor. It is largely unknown how the animal CRYs that regulate circadian rhythms act on their substrates. CRYs contain a variable carboxy-terminal tail that appends the conserved PL homology domain (PHD) and is important for function. Here, we report a 2.3-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of Drosophila CRY with an intact C terminus. The C-terminal helix docks in the analogous groove that binds DNA substrates in PLs. Conserved Trp536 juts into the CRY catalytic centre to mimic PL recognition of DNA photolesions. The FAD anionic semiquinone found in the crystals assumes a conformation to facilitate restructuring of the tail helix. These results help reconcile the diverse functions of the CRY/PL family by demonstrating how conserved protein architecture and photochemistry can be elaborated into a range of light-driven functions.

  11. How food controls aggression in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod S Lim

    Full Text Available How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs.

  12. Cerebral Innate Immunity in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Leung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modeling innate immunity in Drosophila melanogaster has a rich history that includes ground-breaking discoveries in pathogen detection and signaling. These studies revealed the evolutionary conservation of innate immune pathways and mechanisms of pathogen detection, resulting in an explosion of findings in the innate immunity field. In D. melanogaster, studies have focused primarily on responses driven by the larval fat body and hemocytes, analogs to vertebrate liver and macrophages, respectively. Aside from pathogen detection, many recent mammalian studies associate innate immune pathways with development and disease pathogenesis. Importantly, these studies stress that the innate immune response is integral to maintain central nervous system (CNS health. Microglia, which are the vertebrate CNS mononuclear phagocytes, drive vertebrate cerebral innate immunity. The invertebrate CNS contains microglial-like cells-ensheathing glia and reticular glia-that could be used to answer basic questions regarding the evolutionarily conserved innate immune processes in CNS development and health. A deeper understanding of the relationship between D. melanogaster phagocytic microglial-like cells and vertebrate microglia will be key to answering basic and translational questions related to cerebral innate immunity.

  13. Active forgetting of olfactory memories in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jacob A; Davis, Ronald L

    2014-01-01

    Failure to remember, or forgetting, is a phenomenon familiar to everyone and despite more than a century of scientific inquiry, why we forget what we once knew remains unclear. If the brain marshals significant resources to form and store memories, why is it that these memories become lost? In the last century, psychological studies have divided forgetting into decay theory, in which memory simply dissipates with time, and interference theory, in which additional learning or mental activity hinders memory by reducing its stability or retrieval (for review, Dewar et al., 2007; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, these psychological models of forgetting posit that forgetting is a passive property of the brain and thus a failure of the brain to retain memories. However, recent neuroscience research on olfactory memory in Drosophila has offered evidence for an alternative conclusion that forgetting is an "active" process, with specific, biologically regulated mechanisms that remove existing memories (Berry et al., 2012; Shuai et al., 2010). Similar to the bidirectional regulation of cell number by mitosis and apoptosis, protein concentration by translation and lysosomal or proteomal degradation, and protein phosphate modification by kinases and phosphatases, biologically regulated memory formation and removal would be yet another example in biological systems where distinct and separate pathways regulate the creation and destruction of biological substrates. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional neuroanatomy of Drosophila olfactory memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L

    2014-10-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying Drosophila learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive and aversive reinforcers: (1) Which neurons within the olfactory nervous system mediate the acquisition of memory? (2) What is the complete neural circuitry extending from the site(s) of acquisition to the site(s) controlling memory expression? (3) How is information processed across this circuit to consolidate early-forming, disruptable memories to stable, late memories? Much progress has been made and a few strong conclusions have emerged: (1) Acquisition occurs at multiple sites within the olfactory nervous system but is mediated predominantly by the γ mushroom body neurons. (2) The expression of long-term memory is completely dependent on the synaptic output of α/β mushroom body neurons. (3) Consolidation occurs, in part, through circuit interactions between mushroom body and dorsal paired medial neurons. Despite this progress, a complete and unified model that details the pathway from acquisition to memory expression remains elusive. © 2014 Guven-Ozkan and Davis; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Reproductive isolation among allopatric Drosophila montana populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jackson H; Snook, Rhonda R; Hoikkala, Anneli

    2014-11-01

    An outstanding goal in speciation research is to trace the mode and tempo of the evolution of barriers to gene flow. Such research benefits from studying incipient speciation, in which speciation between populations has not yet occurred, but where multiple potential mechanisms of reproductive isolation (RI: i.e., premating, postmating-prezygotic (PMPZ), and postzygotic barriers) may act. We used such a system to investigate these barriers among allopatric populations of Drosophila montana. In all heteropopulation crosses we found premating (sexual) isolation, which was either symmetric or asymmetric depending on the population pair compared. Postmating isolation was particularly strong in crosses involving males from one of the study populations, and while sperm were successfully transferred, stored, and motile, we experimentally demonstrated that the majority of eggs produced were unfertilized. Thus, we identified the nature of a PMPZ incompatibility. There was no evidence of intrinsic postzygotic effects. Measures of absolute and relative strengths of pre- and postmating barriers showed that populations differed in the mode and magnitude of RI barriers. Our results indicate that incipient RI among populations can be driven by different contributions of both premating and PMPZ barriers occurring between different population pairs and without the evolution of postzygotic barriers. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alex; Louis, Matthieu; Webb, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays. PMID:26600460

  17. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609

  18. Tools for neuroanatomy and neurogenetics in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, Barret D.; Jenett, Arnim; Hammonds, Ann S.; Ngo, Teri-T B.; Misra, Sima; Murphy, Christine; Scully, Audra; Carlson, Joseph W.; Wan, Kenneth H.; Laverty, Todd R.; Mungall, Chris; Svirskas, Rob; Kadonaga, James T.; Doe, Chris Q.; Eisen, Michael B.; Celniker, Susan E.; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2008-08-11

    We demonstrate the feasibility of generating thousands of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster lines in which the expression of an exogenous gene is reproducibly directed to distinct small subsets of cells in the adult brain. We expect the expression patterns produced by the collection of 5,000 lines that we are currently generating to encompass all neurons in the brain in a variety of intersecting patterns. Overlapping 3-kb DNA fragments from the flanking noncoding and intronic regions of genes thought to have patterned expression in the adult brain were inserted into a defined genomic location by site-specific recombination. These fragments were then assayed for their ability to function as transcriptional enhancers in conjunction with a synthetic core promoter designed to work with a wide variety of enhancer types. An analysis of 44 fragments from four genes found that >80% drive expression patterns in the brain; the observed patterns were, on average, comprised of <100 cells. Our results suggest that the D. melanogaster genome contains >50,000 enhancers and that multiple enhancers drive distinct subsets of expression of a gene in each tissue and developmental stage. We expect that these lines will be valuable tools for neuroanatomy as well as for the elucidation of neuronal circuits and information flow in the fly brain.

  19. Dynamic properties of Drosophila olfactory electroantennograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckel, Julia; Meisner, Shannon; Torkkeli, Päivi H; French, Andrew S

    2008-05-01

    Time-dependent properties of chemical signals are probably crucially important to many animals, but little is known about the dynamics of chemoreceptors. Behavioral evidence of dynamic sensitivity includes the control of moth flight by pheromone plume structure, and the ability of some blood-sucking insects to detect varying concentrations of carbon dioxide, possibly matched to host breathing rates. Measurement of chemoreceptor dynamics has been limited by the technical challenge of producing controlled, accurate modulation of olfactory and gustatory chemical concentrations over suitably wide ranges of amplitude and frequency. We used a new servo-controlled laminar flow system, combined with photoionization detection of surrogate tracer gas, to characterize electroantennograms (EAG) of Drosophila antennae during stimulation with fruit odorants or aggregation pheromone in air. Frequency response functions and coherence functions measured over a bandwidth of 0-100 Hz were well characterized by first-order low-pass linear filter functions. Filter time constant varied over almost a tenfold range, and was characteristic for each odorant, indicating that several dynamically different chemotransduction mechanisms are present. Pheromone response was delayed relative to fruit odors. Amplitude of response, and consequently signal-to-noise ratio, also varied consistently with different compounds. Accurate dynamic characterization promises to provide important new information about chemotransduction and odorant-stimulated behavior.

  20. Defects and Disorder in the Drosophila Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangwoo; Carthew, Richard; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    Cell division and differentiation tightly control the regular pattern in the normal eye of the Drosophila fruit fly while certain genetic mutations introduce disorder in the form of topological defects. Analyzing data from pupal retinas, we develop a model based on Voronoi construction that explains the defect statistics as a consequence of area variation of individual facets (ommatidia). The analysis reveals a previously unknown systematic long-range area variation that spans the entire eye, with distinct effects on topological disorder compared to local fluctuations. The internal structure of the ommatidia and the stiffness of their interior cells also plays a crucial role in the defect generation. Accurate predictions of the correlation between the area variation and the defect density in both normal and mutant animals are obtained without free parameters. This approach can potentially be applied to cellular systems in many other contexts to identify size-topology correlations near the onset of symmetry breaking. This work has been supported by the NIH (GM098077) and the NSF (Grant No. 1504301).

  1. Effects of Spaceflight on Drosophila Neural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, Haig S.

    1997-01-01

    The major goal from the animal side, however, has been achieved, namely to develop Drosophila lines where we can assay individual neuromuscular endings directly without dissection. This was achieved by means of using the GAL4-UAS system, where we have succeeded in establishing stocks of flies where the key neuromuscular connections can be assayed directly in undissected larvae by means of the expression of endogenously fluorescent reporters in the specific motor endings. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter allows scoring of neural anatomy en-masse in whole mount using fluorescent microscopy without the need for either dissection or specific labeling. Two stocks have been developed. The first, which we developed first, uses the S65T mutant form, which has a dramatically brighter expression than the native protein. This animal will use GAL4 drivers with expression under the control of the elav gene, and which will ensure expression in all neurons of the embryo and larva. The second transgenic animal we have developed is of a novel kind, and makes use of dicistronic design, so that two copies of the protein will be expressed per insert. We have also developed a tricistronic form, but this has not yet been transformed into flies, and we do not imagine that this third line will be ready in time for the flight.

  2. Caffeine taste signaling in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A Apostolopoulou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal and ventral organ. However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative coreceptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s. This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviours.

  3. Insulin signaling mediates sexual attractiveness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Kuo

    Full Text Available Sexually attractive characteristics are often thought to reflect an individual's condition or reproductive potential, but the underlying molecular mechanisms through which they do so are generally unknown. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS is known to modulate aging, reproduction, and stress resistance in several species and to contribute to variability of these traits in natural populations. Here we show that IIS determines sexual attractiveness in Drosophila through transcriptional regulation of genes involved in the production of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC, many of which function as pheromones. Using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS together with newly introduced laser desorption/ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-MS we establish that CHC profiles are significantly affected by genetic manipulations that target IIS. Manipulations that reduce IIS also reduce attractiveness, while females with increased IIS are significantly more attractive than wild-type animals. IIS effects on attractiveness are mediated by changes in CHC profiles. Insulin signaling influences CHC through pathways that are likely independent of dFOXO and that may involve the nutrient-sensing Target of Rapamycin (TOR pathway. These results suggest that the activity of conserved molecular regulators of longevity and reproductive output may manifest in different species as external characteristics that are perceived as honest indicators of fitness potential.

  4. Drosophila as a genetically tractable model for social insect behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Camiletti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relatively simple communication, breeding and egg-making systems that govern reproduction in female Drosophila retain homology to eusocial species in which these same systems are modified to the social condition. Despite having no parental care, division of labour or subfertile caste, Drosophila may nonetheless offer a living test of certain sociobiological hypotheses framed around gene function. In this review, we make this case, and do so around the recent discovery that the non-social fly, Drosophila melanogaster, can respond to the ovary-suppressing queen pheromone of the honey bee Apis meliffera. Here, we first explain the sociobiological imperative to reconcile kin theory with molecular biology, and qualify a potential role for Drosophila. Then, we offer three applications for the fly-pheromone assay. First, the availability and accessibility of massive mutant libraries makes immediately feasible any number of open or targeted gene screens against the ovary-inhibiting response. The sheer tractability of Drosophila may therefore help to accelerate the search for genes in pheromone-responsive pathways that regulate female reproduction, including potentially any that are preserved with modification to regulate worker sterility in response to queen pheromones in eusocial taxa. Secondly, Drosophila’s powerful Gal4/UAS expression system can complement the pheromone assay by driving target gene expression into living tissue, which could be well applied to the functional testing of genes presumed to drive ovary activation or de-activation in the honey bee or other eusocial taxa. Finally, coupling Gal4 with UAS-RNAi lines can facilitate loss-of-function experiments against perception and response to the ovary inhibiting pheromone, and do so for large numbers of candidates in systematic fashion. Drosophila's utility as an adjunct to the field of insect sociobiology is not ideal, but retains surprising potential.

  5. Polytene chromosome map and inversion polymorphism in Drosophila mediopunctata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananina Galina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila mediopunctata belongs to the tripunctata group, and is one of the commonest Drosophila species collected in some places in Brazil, especially in the winter. A standard map of the polytene chromosomes is presented. The breakpoints of the naturally occurring chromosomal rearrangements are marked on the map. The distribution of breaking points through the chromosomes of D. mediopunctata is apparently non-random. Chromosomes X, II and IV show inversion polymorphisms. Chromosome II is the most polymorphic, with 17 inversions, 8 inversions in the distal region and 9 in the proximal region. Chromosome X has four different gene arrangements, while chromosome IV has only two.

  6. Biosynthesis of drosopterins, the red eye pigments of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heuijong; Kim, Kiyoung; Yim, Jeongbin

    2013-04-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has red eyes. Scientists have been curious about the biosynthesis of the red eye pigments and have completed a number of investigations on these compounds. Scientific contributions made over the past 50 years have improved our understanding of the red eye pigments. Researchers have elucidated the chemical structures of some pigments and have successfully purified and identified the enzymes that participate in the biosynthesis of the red eye pigments. In this article, we will review the characteristics of the Drosophila red eye pigments and of the enzymes and genes involved in its biosynthetic pathway. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome engineering in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Andrew; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-09-01

    Genome engineering has revolutionised genetic analysis in many organisms. Here we describe a simple and efficient technique to generate and detect novel mutations in desired target genes in Drosophila melanogaster. We target double strand breaks to specific sites within the genome by injecting mRNA encoding the Cas9 endonuclease and in vitro transcribed synthetic guide RNA into Drosophila embryos. The small insertion and deletion mutations that result from inefficient non-homologous end joining at this site are detected by high resolution melt analysis of whole flies and individual wings, allowing stable lines to be made within 1 month. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Molecular population genetics of male accessory gland proteins in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Begun, D J; Whitley, P; Todd, B L; Waldrip-Dail, H M; Clark, A G

    2000-01-01

    Drosophila seminal proteins have an unusually high rate of molecular sequence evolution, suggesting either a high rate of neutral substitution or rapid adaptive evolution. To further quantify patterns of polymorphism and divergence in genes encoding seminal proteins, also called accessory gland proteins (Acp's), we conducted a sequencing survey of 10 Acp genes in samples of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans (Acp29AB, Acp32CD, Acp33A, Acp36DE, Acp53Ea, Acp62F, Acp63F, Acp76A, Acp95EF, an...

  9. The aerodynamics of hovering flight in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Steven N; Sayaman, Rosalyn; Dickinson, Michael H

    2005-06-01

    Using 3D infrared high-speed video, we captured the continuous wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, during hovering and slow forward flight. We then 'replayed' the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. Hovering animals generate a U-shaped wing trajectory, in which large drag forces during a downward plunge at the start of each stroke create peak vertical forces. Quasi-steady mechanisms could account for nearly all of the mean measured force required to hover, although temporal discrepancies between instantaneous measured forces and model predictions indicate that unsteady mechanisms also play a significant role. We analyzed the requirements for hovering from an analysis of the time history of forces and moments in all six degrees of freedom. The wing kinematics necessary to generate sufficient lift are highly constrained by the requirement to balance thrust and pitch torque over the stroke cycle. We also compare the wing motion and aerodynamic forces of free and tethered flies. Tethering causes a strong distortion of the stroke pattern that results in a reduction of translational forces and a prominent nose-down pitch moment. The stereotyped distortion under tethered conditions is most likely due to a disruption of sensory feedback. Finally, we calculated flight power based directly on the measurements of wing motion and aerodynamic forces, which yielded a higher estimate of muscle power during free hovering flight than prior estimates based on time-averaged parameters. This discrepancy is mostly due to a two- to threefold underestimate of the mean profile drag coefficient in prior studies. We also compared our values with the predictions of the same time-averaged models using more accurate kinematic and aerodynamic input parameters based on our high-speed videography measurements. In this case, the time-averaged models tended to overestimate flight

  10. Targeting determinants of dosage compensation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The dosage compensation complex (DCC in Drosophila melanogaster is responsible for up-regulating transcription from the single male X chromosome to equal the transcription from the two X chromosomes in females. Visualization of the DCC, a large ribonucleoprotein complex, on male larval polytene chromosomes reveals that the complex binds selectively to many interbands on the X chromosome. The targeting of the DCC is thought to be in part determined by DNA sequences that are enriched on the X. So far, lack of knowledge about DCC binding sites has prevented the identification of sequence determinants. Only three binding sites have been identified to date, but analysis of their DNA sequence did not allow the prediction of further binding sites. We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify a number of new DCC binding fragments and characterized them in vivo by visualizing DCC binding to autosomal insertions of these fragments, and we have demonstrated that they possess a wide range of potential to recruit the DCC. By varying the in vivo concentration of the DCC, we provide evidence that this range of recruitment potential is due to differences in affinity of the complex to these sites. We were also able to establish that DCC binding to ectopic high-affinity sites can allow nearby low-affinity sites to recruit the complex. Using the sequences of the newly identified and previously characterized binding fragments, we have uncovered a number of short sequence motifs, which in combination may contribute to DCC recruitment. Our findings suggest that the DCC is recruited to the X via a number of binding sites of decreasing affinities, and that the presence of high- and moderate-affinity sites on the X may ensure that lower-affinity sites are occupied in a context-dependent manner. Our bioinformatics analysis suggests that DCC binding sites may be composed of variable combinations of degenerate motifs.

  11. Energetics of metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkey, Allison B; Wong, Carrie K; Hoshizaki, Deborah K; Gibbs, Allen G

    2011-10-01

    We measured the energetic cost of metamorphosis in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. Metabolic rates decreased rapidly in the first 24h and remained low until shortly before eclosion, when the rates increased rapidly, thus creating a U-shaped metabolic curve. The primary fuel used during metamorphosis was lipid, which accounted for >80% of total metabolism. The total energy consumed during metamorphosis was lowest at 25°C, compared to 18 and 29°C, due to differences in metabolic rates and the length of pupal development. Temperature differentially affected metabolic rates during different stages of metamorphosis. Prepupal and late pupal stages exhibited typical increases in metabolic rate at high temperatures, whereas metabolic rates were independent of temperature during the first 2/3 of pupal development. We tested two hypotheses for the underlying cause of the U-shaped metabolic curve. The first hypothesis was that pupae become oxygen restricted as a result of remodeling of the larval tracheal system. We tested this hypothesis by exposing pupae to hypoxic and hyperoxic atmospheres, and by measuring lactic acid production during normoxic development. No evidence for oxygen limitation was observed. We also tested the hypothesis that the U-shaped metabolic curve follows changes in metabolically active tissue, such that the early decrease in metabolic rates reflects the histolysis of larval tissues, and the later increase in metabolic rates is associated with organogenesis and terminal differentiation of adult tissues. We assayed the activity of a mitochondrial indicator enzyme, citrate synthase, and correlated it with tissue-specific developmental events during metamorphosis. Citrate synthase activity exhibited a U-shaped curve, suggesting that the pattern of metabolic activity is related to changes in the amount of potentially active aerobic tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studying cell cycle checkpoints using Drosophila cultured cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; de Jong, Jannie; Sibon, Ody

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila cell lines are valuable tools to study a number of cellular processes, including DNA damage responses and cell cycle checkpoint control. Using an in vitro system instead of a whole organism has two main advantages: it saves time and simple and effective molecular techniques are available.

  13. Nearly Neutral Evolution Across the Drosophila melanogaster Genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteve, David Castellano; James, Jennifer; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Under the nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution the proportion of effectively neutral mutations is expected to depend upon the effective population size (Ne). Here we investigate whether this is the case across the genome of Drosophila melanogaster using polymorphism data from 128 North Am...

  14. Coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    [Yadav J. P. and Singh B. N. 2005 Coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling their life history traits in a natural population. J. Genet. .... to reschedule their life cycles through different life his- tory traits to avoid competition, ... and Thompson 1995) because metabolic waste products of the first species ...

  15. Species and genetic diversity in the genus Drosophila inhabiting the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. melanogaster has been used as the best biological model for the studies in areas such as genetics, behaviour, evolu- tion, development, molecular biology, ecology and popula- tion biology. Advantages of using Drosophila as a model organism in laboratory studies include: cosmopolitan distri- bution, short generation ...

  16. Medium-term changes in Drosophila subobscura chromosomal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Issue 2. Medium-term changes in Drosophila subobscura chromosomal inversion polymorphism: a possible relation with global warming? Goran Zivanovic Conxita Arenas Francesc Mestres. Research Note Volume 94 Issue ...

  17. Body size and mating success in Drosophila willistoni are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    affecting the reproductive success of wild-type individuals. The mating success of Drosophila males was studied in the field and in the laboratory, and appears to be related to body size in several species (Partridge et al. 1987a, b;. Wilkinson 1987; Markow 1988; Santos et al. 1988;. Markow and Ricker 1992; Markow and ...

  18. Ultradian rhythm unmasked in the Pdf clock mutant of Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A diverse range of organisms shows physiological and behavioural rhythms with various periods. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms with an approximately 24 h period in both Drosophila and mammals, while less attention has been paid to ultradian rhythms ...

  19. Investigating Biological Controls to Suppress Spotted Wing Drosophila Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spotted wing drosophila has become a major cherry pest in California. To develop sustainable management options for this highly mobile pest, we worked with cooperators at Oregon State University and the USDA to discover and import natural enemies of the fly from its native range in South Korea ...

  20. RNAi screening in Drosophila cells and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Stephanie E.

    2014-01-01

    Here, I discuss how RNAi screening can be used effectively to uncover gene function. Specifically, I discuss the types of high-throughput assays that can be done in Drosophila cells and in vivo, RNAi reagent design and available reagent collections, automated screen pipelines, analysis of screen results, and approaches to RNAi results verification. PMID:24576618

  1. Resources for Functional Genomics Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Stephanie E.; Hu, Yanhui; Kim, Kevin; Housden, Benjamin E.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has become a system of choice for functional genomic studies. Many resources, including online databases and software tools, are now available to support design or identification of relevant fly stocks and reagents or analysis and mining of existing functional genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, etc. datasets. These include large community collections of fly stocks and plasmid clones, “meta” information sites like FlyBase and FlyMine, and an increasing number of more specialized reagents, databases, and online tools. Here, we introduce key resources useful to plan large-scale functional genomics studies in Drosophila and to analyze, integrate, and mine the results of those studies in ways that facilitate identification of highest-confidence results and generation of new hypotheses. We also discuss ways in which existing resources can be used and might be improved and suggest a few areas of future development that would further support large- and small-scale studies in Drosophila and facilitate use of Drosophila information by the research community more generally. PMID:24653003

  2. Coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present evidence for coexistence of three different Drosophila species by rescheduling their life history traits in a natural population using the same resource, at the same time and same place. D. ananassae has faster larval development time (DT) and faster DT(egg-fly) than other two species thus utilizing the resources ...

  3. Dynamics of genetic rescue in inbred Drosophila melanogaster populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, R.; Westerhof, M. D. D.; Roekx, L. P.; Pen, I.

    Genetic rescue has been proposed as a management strategy to improve the fitness of genetically eroded populations by alleviating inbreeding depression. We studied the dynamics of genetic rescue in inbred populations of Drosophila. Using balancer chromosomes, we show that the force of heterosis that

  4. Recongition and sexual selection in Drosophila: classification, quantification, and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J E; Ehrman, L

    1976-08-20

    Drosophila pseudoobscura females show a positive bias toward mating with males whose proportion in the population is low. They can perform this discrimination even when three strains of males are present. The olfactory recognition required for this discrimination entails a hierarchically ordered recognition system and a natural unit of olfactory strength.

  5. Late replication domains are evolutionary conserved in the Drosophila genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya G Andreyenkova

    Full Text Available Drosophila chromosomes are organized into distinct domains differing in their predominant chromatin composition, replication timing and evolutionary conservation. We show on a genome-wide level that genes whose order has remained unaltered across 9 Drosophila species display late replication timing and frequently map to the regions of repressive chromatin. This observation is consistent with the existence of extensive domains of repressive chromatin that replicate extremely late and have conserved gene order in the Drosophila genome. We suggest that such repressive chromatin domains correspond to a handful of regions that complete replication at the very end of S phase. We further demonstrate that the order of genes in these regions is rarely altered in evolution. Substantial proportion of such regions significantly coincide with large synteny blocks. This indicates that there are evolutionary mechanisms maintaining the integrity of these late-replicating chromatin domains. The synteny blocks corresponding to the extremely late-replicating regions in the D. melanogaster genome consistently display two-fold lower gene density across different Drosophila species.

  6. Drosophila Females Undergo Genome Expansion after Interspecific Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Soriano, Valèria; Burlet, Nelly; Vela, Doris; Fontdevila, Antonio; Vieira, Cristina; García Guerreiro, María Pilar

    2016-02-12

    Genome size (or C-value) can present a wide range of values among eukaryotes. This variation has been attributed to differences in the amplification and deletion of different noncoding repetitive sequences, particularly transposable elements (TEs). TEs can be activated under different stress conditions such as interspecific hybridization events, as described for several species of animals and plants. These massive transposition episodes can lead to considerable genome expansions that could ultimately be involved in hybrid speciation processes. Here, we describe the effects of hybridization and introgression on genome size of Drosophila hybrids. We measured the genome size of two close Drosophila species, Drosophila buzzatii and Drosophila koepferae, their F1 offspring and the offspring from three generations of backcrossed hybrids; where mobilization of up to 28 different TEs was previously detected. We show that hybrid females indeed present a genome expansion, especially in the first backcross, which could likely be explained by transposition events. Hybrid males, which exhibit more variable C-values among individuals of the same generation, do not present an increased genome size. Thus, we demonstrate that the impact of hybridization on genome size can be detected through flow cytometry and is sex-dependent. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Dynamical Analysis of bantam-Regulated Drosophila Circadian Rhythm Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Zengrong

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interact with 3‧untranslated region (UTR) elements of target genes to regulate mRNA stability or translation, and play a crucial role in regulating many different biological processes. bantam, a conserved miRNA, is involved in several functions, such as regulating Drosophila growth and circadian rhythm. Recently, it has been discovered that bantam plays a crucial role in the core circadian pacemaker. In this paper, based on experimental observations, a detailed dynamical model of bantam-regulated circadian clock system is developed to show the post-transcriptional behaviors in the modulation of Drosophila circadian rhythm, in which the regulation of bantam is incorporated into a classical model. The dynamical behaviors of the model are consistent with the experimental observations, which shows that bantam is an important regulator of Drosophila circadian rhythm. The sensitivity analysis of parameters demonstrates that with the regulation of bantam the system is more sensitive to perturbations, indicating that bantam regulation makes it easier for the organism to modulate its period against the environmental perturbations. The effectiveness in rescuing locomotor activity rhythms of mutated flies shows that bantam is necessary for strong and sustained rhythms. In addition, the biological mechanisms of bantam regulation are analyzed, which may help us more clearly understand Drosophila circadian rhythm regulated by other miRNAs.

  8. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Aceves-Pina and Quinn also described aversive learning with electric shock in normal and mutant larvae and Tully ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of ..... The key observation is that the half lives of STM and LTM do not change during ...

  9. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  10. T-Box Genes in Drosophila Mesoderm Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reim, I; Frasch, M; Schaub, C

    2017-01-01

    In Drosophila there are eight genes encoding transcription factors of the T-box family, which are known to exert a variety of crucial developmental functions during ectodermal patterning processes, neuronal cell specification, mesodermal tissue development, and the development of extraembryonic tissues. In this review, we focus on the prominent roles of Drosophila T-box genes in mesodermal tissues. First, we describe the contributions of brachyenteron (byn) and optomotor-blind-related-gene-1 (org-1) to the development of the visceral mesoderm. Second, we provide an overview on the functions of the three Dorsocross paralogs (Doc1-3) and the two Tbx20-related paralogs (midline and H15) during Drosophila heart development. Third, we portray the roles of org-1 and midline/H15 in the specification of individual body wall and organ-attached muscles, including the function of org-1 in the transdifferentiation of certain heart-attached muscles during metamorphosis. The functional analysis of these evolutionarily conserved T-box genes, along with their interactions with other types of transcription factors and various signaling pathways, has provided key insights into the regulation of Drosophila visceral mesoderm, muscle, and heart development. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-11

    Dec 11, 2008 ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of aversive conditioning and a procedure for decomposing learning retention curve that enables us to do a quantitative analysis of memory phases, short term (STM), middle term (MTM) ...

  12. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: degree of sterility and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interspecific hybridization; dystrophied ovaries; female sterility; Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Author Affiliations. Parul Banerjee1 Bashisth N. Singh1. Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. Dates. Manuscript received: 7 May 2015; Manuscript revised: 12 ...

  13. Fluctuation-Driven Neural Dynamics Reproduce Drosophila Locomotor Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maesani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms determining the timing of even simple actions, such as when to walk or rest, are largely mysterious. One intriguing, but untested, hypothesis posits a role for ongoing activity fluctuations in neurons of central action selection circuits that drive animal behavior from moment to moment. To examine how fluctuating activity can contribute to action timing, we paired high-resolution measurements of freely walking Drosophila melanogaster with data-driven neural network modeling and dynamical systems analysis. We generated fluctuation-driven network models whose outputs-locomotor bouts-matched those measured from sensory-deprived Drosophila. From these models, we identified those that could also reproduce a second, unrelated dataset: the complex time-course of odor-evoked walking for genetically diverse Drosophila strains. Dynamical models that best reproduced both Drosophila basal and odor-evoked locomotor patterns exhibited specific characteristics. First, ongoing fluctuations were required. In a stochastic resonance-like manner, these fluctuations allowed neural activity to escape stable equilibria and to exceed a threshold for locomotion. Second, odor-induced shifts of equilibria in these models caused a depression in locomotor frequency following olfactory stimulation. Our models predict that activity fluctuations in action selection circuits cause behavioral output to more closely match sensory drive and may therefore enhance navigation in complex sensory environments. Together these data reveal how simple neural dynamics, when coupled with activity fluctuations, can give rise to complex patterns of animal behavior.

  14. Embryonic multipotent progenitors remodel the Drosophila airways during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Perrimon, Norbert

    2010-11-01

    Adult structures in holometabolous insects such as Drosophila are generated by groups of imaginal cells dedicated to the formation of different organs. Imaginal cells are specified in the embryo and remain quiescent until the larval stages, when they proliferate and differentiate to form organs. The Drosophila tracheal system is extensively remodeled during metamorphosis by a small number of airway progenitors. Among these, the spiracular branch tracheoblasts are responsible for the generation of the pupal and adult abdominal airways. To understand the coordination of proliferation and differentiation during organogenesis of tubular organs, we analyzed the remodeling of Drosophila airways during metamorphosis. We show that the embryonic spiracular branch tracheoblasts are multipotent cells that express the homeobox transcription factor Cut, which is necessary for their survival and normal development. They give rise to three distinct cell populations at the end of larval development, which generate the adult tracheal tubes, the spiracle and the epidermis surrounding the spiracle. Our study establishes the series of events that lead to the formation of an adult tubular structure in Drosophila.

  15. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We provide a map of the projections of taste neurons in the CNS of Drosophila. Using a collection of 67 GAL4 drivers representing the entire repertoire of Gr taste receptors, we systematically map the projections of neurons expressing these drivers in the thoracico-abdominal ganglion and the suboesophageal ganglion ...

  16. Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Andrew G; Eisen, Michael B; Smith, Douglas R

    2007-01-01

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the ...

  17. Muscarinic ACh Receptors Contribute to Aversive Olfactory Learning in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bryon; Molina-Fernández, Claudia; Ugalde, María Beatriz; Tognarelli, Eduardo I.; Angel, Cristian; Campusano, Jorge M.

    2015-01-01

    The most studied form of associative learning in Drosophila consists in pairing an odorant, the conditioned stimulus (CS), with an unconditioned stimulus (US). The timely arrival of the CS and US information to a specific Drosophila brain association region, the mushroom bodies (MB), can induce new olfactory memories. Thus, the MB is considered a coincidence detector. It has been shown that olfactory information is conveyed to the MB through cholinergic inputs that activate acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, while the US is encoded by biogenic amine (BA) systems. In recent years, we have advanced our understanding on the specific neural BA pathways and receptors involved in olfactory learning and memory. However, little information exists on the contribution of cholinergic receptors to this process. Here we evaluate for the first time the proposition that, as in mammals, muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs) contribute to memory formation in Drosophila. Our results show that pharmacological and genetic blockade of mAChRs in MB disrupts olfactory aversive memory in larvae. This effect is not explained by an alteration in the ability of animals to respond to odorants or to execute motor programs. These results show that mAChRs in MB contribute to generating olfactory memories in Drosophila. PMID:26380118

  18. Drosophila phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase is required for tissue morphogenesis during oogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld, Floris; Rana, Anil; Lemstra - Wierenga, Willemina; Kampinga, Harm; Sibon, Ody

    2008-01-01

    Background: Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential metabolite, synthesized from vitamin B5 by the subsequent action of five enzymes: PANK, PPCS, PPCDC, PPAT and DPCK. Mutations in Drosophila dPPCS disrupt female fecundity and in this study we analyzed the female sterile phenotype of dPPCS mutants in

  19. Progress and potential of Drosophila protein interaction maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanyon, C A; Finley, R L

    2000-11-01

    Protein-protein interactions mediate many important cellular processes and are central to the mechanisms by which most proteins function. Charting the interactions among the proteins involved in a process has been an essential step in characterising the function of proteins and pathways. The yeast two-hybrid system is one approach to detecting protein interactions that can now be scaled-up to assay large sets of proteins systematically, such as those being identified from genome sequencing efforts. The system has already been extensively used to acquire data that have enabled construction of large protein interaction maps (PIMs). When combined with other data, including data being generated by other functional genomics approaches, PIMs help assign function to new proteins and delineate functional networks. Hypotheses generated in such a manner often must be tested by additional experimentation, preferably in vivo. The model organism Drosophila melanogaster has a wealth of genetic and bioinformatic tools available for such analyses. The proteome predicted from the recently sequenced Drosophila genome indicates that humans have more genes in common with Drosophila than with any other invertebrate model organism characterised to date. Thus, the construction and characterisation of Drosophila PIMs will help define the functions of many conserved genes and pathways, and will provide the pharmaceutical research industry with invaluable data to assist with drug target identification and validation.

  20. SnapShot: Olfactory Classical Conditioning of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald L

    2015-10-08

    This SnapShot summarizes current knowledge about the molecules and circuitry that mediate olfactory memory formation in Drosophila, with emphasis on neural circuits carrying the learned sensory information; the molecular mechanisms for acquisition, memory storage, and forgetting; and the output pathways for memory expression. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is premating isolation in Drosophila overestimated due to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... give rise to statistically significant results in multiple-choice mating tests, leading to positive isolation values and the artifactual inference of sexual isolation between populations. This fact agrees with a nonrandom excess of significant positive tests found in a review of the literature of Drosophila intraspecific mating choice.

  2. Factors that differentially affect daytime and nighttime sleep in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eIshimoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rest in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has key characteristics of mammalian sleep and is thus considered as a fly version of sleep. Drosophila sleep has been studied extensively, with the aim of gaining fundamental insights into the evolutionarily conserved functions of sleep as well as the mechanisms that regulate it. An interesting question that has not yet been addressed is whether fly sleep can be classified into distinct sleep types, each having particular biological roles—like REM and non-REM sleep in birds and mammals. Typically, Drosophila sleep displays a bimodal pattern, consisting of distinct daytime and nighttime components. Notably, daytime and nighttime sleep differ with respect to a number of qualities, such as sleep bout lengths and arousal thresholds. In this short review, we describe several genetic and environmental factors that differentially affect daytime and nighttime sleep, highlighting the observations suggesting the notion that these temporally distinct components of Drosophila sleep may have unique biological functions and be regulated by different homeostatic regulatory mechanisms.

  3. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-18

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  4. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  5. Handling Alters Aggression and "Loser" Effect Formation in "Drosophila Melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannoy, Severine; Chowdhury, Budhaditya; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    In "Drosophila," prior fighting experience influences the outcome of later contests: losing a fight increases the probability of losing second contests, thereby revealing "loser" effects that involve learning and memory. In these experiments, to generate and quantify the behavioral changes observed as consequences of losing…

  6. P element excision in drosophila melanogaster and related drosophilids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frequency of P element excision and the structure of the resulting excision products were determined in three drosophilid species, Drosophila melanogaster, D. virilis, and Chymomyza procnemis. A transient P element mobility assay was conducted in the cells of developing insect embryos, but unlik...

  7. Genetic Analysis of Micro-environmental Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgante, Fabio; Sorensen, Daniel A; Sørensen, Peter

    be genetically variable. This study utilized the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to accurately estimate the genetic variance of micro-environmental plasticity for chill coma recovery time and startle response. Estimates of broad sense heritabilities for both traits are substantial (from 0.51 to 0...

  8. Antiviral immunity in Drosophila requires systemic RNA interference spread.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh, M.C.; Tassetto, M.; Rij, R.P. van; Goic, B.; Gausson, V.; Berry, B.; Jacquier, C.; Antoniewski, C.; Andino, R.

    2009-01-01

    Multicellular organisms evolved sophisticated defence systems to confer protection against pathogens. An important characteristic of these immune systems is their ability to act both locally at the site of infection and at distal uninfected locations. In insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster, RNA

  9. Characterization of reproductive dormancy in male Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubrak, O. I.; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, U.; Nylin, S.; Nässel, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 24 (2016), č. článku 572. ISSN 1664-042X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Drosophila melanogaster * diapause * reproduction Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2016 http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2016.00572/full

  10. DIRECT SELECTION ON LIFE-SPAN IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWAAN, B; BIJLSMA, R; HOEKSTRA, RE

    An important issue in the study of the evolution of aging in Drosophila melanogaster is whether decreased early fecundity is inextricably coupled with increased life span in selection experiments on age at reproduction. Here, this problem has been tackled using an experimental design in which

  11. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: degree of sterility and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetica 140, 75–81. Banerjee P. and Singh B. N. 2015 Interspecific hybridization does not affect the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the. Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Genetica 143, 459–471. Barbash B. A., Awadalla P. and Parone A. M. 2004 Functional divergence caused by ancient positive selection of ...

  12. A map of taste neuron projections in the Drosophila CNS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-08

    Jul 8, 2014 ... Taste allows the fly to evaluate potential food sources. The presence of nutritious sugars, which taste sweet, and toxins, which taste bitter, is detected by gustatory organs. Their input is integrated in the CNS and provides a basis for feeding decisions. Drosophila is a valuable system in which to investigate ...

  13. A model of bacterial intestinal infections in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine T Nehme

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens is an entomopathogenic bacterium that opportunistically infects a wide range of hosts, including humans. In a model of septic injury, if directly introduced into the body cavity of Drosophila, this pathogen is insensitive to the host's systemic immune response and kills flies in a day. We find that S. marcescens resistance to the Drosophila immune deficiency (imd-mediated humoral response requires the bacterial lipopolysaccharide O-antigen. If ingested by Drosophila, bacteria cross the gut and penetrate the body cavity. During this passage, the bacteria can be observed within the cells of the intestinal epithelium. In such an oral infection model, the flies succumb to infection only after 6 days. We demonstrate that two complementary host defense mechanisms act together against such food-borne infection: an antimicrobial response in the intestine that is regulated by the imd pathway and phagocytosis by hemocytes of bacteria that have escaped into the hemolymph. Interestingly, bacteria present in the hemolymph elicit a systemic immune response only when phagocytosis is blocked. Our observations support a model wherein peptidoglycan fragments released during bacterial growth activate the imd pathway and do not back a proposed role for phagocytosis in the immune activation of the fat body. Thanks to the genetic tools available in both host and pathogen, the molecular dissection of the interactions between S. marcescens and Drosophila will provide a useful paradigm for deciphering intestinal pathogenesis.

  14. Ultradian rhythm unmasked in the Pdf clock mutant of Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-20

    Jul 20, 2014 ... from the mutation. As a result, Pdf01 mutant flies locomote with precise rhythmicity generated by one ultradian oscilla- tor. In future studies, we would like to dissect this system using genetic tools available in Drosophila, for example by silencing a particular set of Pdf-positive neurons. Circadian rhythms are ...

  15. Functional Gustatory Role of Chemoreceptors in Drosophila Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, Hussein; Ferveur, Jean-François; Ledger, Neil; Capovilla, Maria; Robichon, Alain

    2016-05-17

    Neuroanatomical evidence argues for the presence of taste sensilla in Drosophila wings; however, the taste physiology of insect wings remains hypothetical, and a comprehensive link to mechanical functions, such as flight, wing flapping, and grooming, is lacking. Our data show that the sensilla of the Drosophila anterior wing margin respond to both sweet and bitter molecules through an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Conversely, genetically modified flies presenting a wing-specific reduction in chemosensory cells show severe defects in both wing taste signaling and the exploratory guidance associated with chemodetection. In Drosophila, the chemodetection machinery includes mechanical grooming, which facilitates the contact between tastants and wing chemoreceptors, and the vibrations of flapping wings that nebulize volatile molecules as carboxylic acids. Together, these data demonstrate that the Drosophila wing chemosensory sensilla are a functional taste organ and that they may have a role in the exploration of ecological niches. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lekker: rot of vers? de keuze van de fruitvlieg Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtkamp, R.; Dicke, M.; Hemerik, L.

    2003-01-01

    Proefopzet voor een keuze experiment van de fruitvlieg Drosophila voor in de klas. Het doel is om te bepalen tot welke voedingsmiddelen de fruitvlieg zich het meest aangetrokken voelt. Hiertoe laten leerlingen een groep fruitvliegjes kiezen tussen vers en gistend appelmateriaal

  17. Body saccades of Drosophila consist of stereotyped banked turns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijres, F.T.; Elzinga, M.J.; Iwasaki, N.A.; Dickinson, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The flight pattern of many fly species consists of straight flight segments interspersed with rapid turns called body saccades, a strategy that is thought to minimize motion blur. We analyzed the body saccades of fruit flies (Drosophila hydei), using high-speed 3D videography to track body and wing

  18. The mode of evolution of aggregation pheromones in Drosophila species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Symonds, MRE; Wertheim, B

    Aggregation pheromones are used by fruit flies of the genus Drosophila to assemble on breeding substrates, where they feed, mate and oviposit communally. These pheromones consist of species-specific blends of chemicals. Here, using a phylogenetic framework, we examine how differences among species

  19. Tandem Duplications and the Limits of Natural Selection in Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila simulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah L Rogers

    Full Text Available Tandem duplications are an essential source of genetic novelty, and their variation in natural populations is expected to influence adaptive walks. Here, we describe evolutionary impacts of recently-derived, segregating tandem duplications in Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila simulans. We observe an excess of duplicated genes involved in defense against pathogens, insecticide resistance, chorion development, cuticular peptides, and lipases or endopeptidases associated with the accessory glands across both species. The observed agreement is greater than expectations on chance alone, suggesting large amounts of convergence across functional categories. We document evidence of widespread selection on the D. simulans X, suggesting adaptation through duplication is common on the X. Despite the evidence for positive selection, duplicates display an excess of low frequency variants consistent with largely detrimental impacts, limiting the variation that can effectively facilitate adaptation. Standing variation for tandem duplications spans less than 25% of the genome in D. yakuba and D. simulans, indicating that evolution will be strictly limited by mutation, even in organisms with large population sizes. Effective whole gene duplication rates are low at 1.17 × 10-9 per gene per generation in D. yakuba and 6.03 × 10-10 per gene per generation in D. simulans, suggesting long wait times for new mutations on the order of thousands of years for the establishment of sweeps. Hence, in cases where adaptation depends on individual tandem duplications, evolution will be severely limited by mutation. We observe low levels of parallel recruitment of the same duplicated gene in different species, suggesting that the span of standing variation will define evolutionary outcomes in spite of convergence across gene ontologies consistent with rapidly evolving phenotypes.

  20. Image tracking study on courtship behavior of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yin Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years, there have been extensive studies aimed at decoding the DNA. Identifying the genetic cause of specific changes in a simple organism like Drosophila may help scientists recognize how multiple gene interactions may make some people more susceptible to heart disease or cancer. Investigators have devised experiments to observe changes in the gene networks in mutant Drosophila that responds differently to light, or have lower or higher locomotor activity. However, these studies focused on the behavior of the individual fly or on pair-wise interactions in the study of aggression or courtship. The behavior of these activities has been captured on film and inspected by a well-trained researcher after repeatedly watching the recorded film. Some studies also focused on ways to reduce the inspection time and increase the accuracy of the behavior experiment. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the behavior of drosophila during courtship was analyzed automatically by machine vision. We investigated the position and behavior discrimination during courtship using the captured images. Identification of the characteristics of drosophila, including sex, size, heading direction, and wing angles, can be computed using image analysis techniques that employ the Gaussian mixture model. The behavior of multiple drosophilae can also be analyzed simultaneously using the motion-prediction model and the variation constraint of heading direction. CONCLUSIONS: The overlapped fruit flies can be identified based on the relationship between body centers. Moreover, the behaviors and profiles can be correctly recognized by image processing based on the constraints of the wing angle and the size of the body. Therefore, the behavior of the male fruit flies can be discriminated when two or three fruit flies form a close cluster. In this study, the courtship behavior, including wing songs and attempts, can currently be distinguished with accuracies of 95.8% and

  1. Image tracking study on courtship behavior of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Yin; Huang, Yen-Wen

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been extensive studies aimed at decoding the DNA. Identifying the genetic cause of specific changes in a simple organism like Drosophila may help scientists recognize how multiple gene interactions may make some people more susceptible to heart disease or cancer. Investigators have devised experiments to observe changes in the gene networks in mutant Drosophila that responds differently to light, or have lower or higher locomotor activity. However, these studies focused on the behavior of the individual fly or on pair-wise interactions in the study of aggression or courtship. The behavior of these activities has been captured on film and inspected by a well-trained researcher after repeatedly watching the recorded film. Some studies also focused on ways to reduce the inspection time and increase the accuracy of the behavior experiment. In this study, the behavior of drosophila during courtship was analyzed automatically by machine vision. We investigated the position and behavior discrimination during courtship using the captured images. Identification of the characteristics of drosophila, including sex, size, heading direction, and wing angles, can be computed using image analysis techniques that employ the Gaussian mixture model. The behavior of multiple drosophilae can also be analyzed simultaneously using the motion-prediction model and the variation constraint of heading direction. The overlapped fruit flies can be identified based on the relationship between body centers. Moreover, the behaviors and profiles can be correctly recognized by image processing based on the constraints of the wing angle and the size of the body. Therefore, the behavior of the male fruit flies can be discriminated when two or three fruit flies form a close cluster. In this study, the courtship behavior, including wing songs and attempts, can currently be distinguished with accuracies of 95.8% and 90%, respectively.

  2. Drosophila melanogaster larvae as a model for blast lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Cameron R; Meyerhoff, Kevin P; Damon, Andrew M; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Salzar, Robert S; Rafaels, Karin A

    2010-07-01

    Primary blast injuries, specifically lung injuries, resulting from blast overpressure exposures are a major source of mortality for victims of blast events. However, existing pulmonary injury criteria are inappropriate for common exposure environments. This study uses Drosophila melanogaster larvae to develop a simple phenomenological model for human pulmonary injury from primary blast exposure. Drosophila larvae were exposed to blast overpressures generated by a 5.1-cm internal diameter shock tube and their mortality was observed after the exposure. To establish mortality thresholds, a survival analysis was conducted using survival data and peak incident pressures. In addition, a histologic analysis was performed on the larvae to establish the mechanisms of blast injury. The results of the survival analysis suggest that blast overpressure for 50% Drosophila survival is greater than human threshold lung injury and is similar to human 50% survival levels, in the range of overpressure durations tested (1-5 ms). A "parallel" analysis of the Bass et al. 50% human survival curves indicates that 50% Drosophila survival is equivalent to a human injury resulting in a 69% chance of survival. Histologic analysis of the blast-exposed larvae failed to demonstrate damage to the dorsal trunk of the tracheal system; however, the presence of flocculent material in the larvae body cavities and tracheas suggests tissue damage. This study shows that D. melanogaster survival can be correlated with large animal injury models to approximate a human blast lung injury tolerance. Within the range of durations tested, Drosophila larvae may be used as a simple model for blast injury.

  3. Cellular and developmental adaptations to hypoxia: a Drosophila perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria Magdalena; Dekanty, Andrés; Wappner, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a widely utilized genetic model, is highly resistant to oxygen starvation and is beginning to be used for studying physiological, developmental, and cellular adaptations to hypoxia. The Drosophila respiratory (tracheal) system has features in common with the mammalian circulatory system so that an angiogenesis-like response occurs upon exposure of Drosophila larvae to hypoxia. A hypoxia-responsive system homologous to mammalian hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) has been described in the fruit fly, where Fatiga is a Drosophila oxygen-dependent HIF prolyl hydroxylase, and the basic helix-loop-helix Per/ARNT/Sim (bHLH-PAS) proteins Sima and Tango are, respectively, the Drosophila homologues of mammalian HIF-alpha (alpha) and HIF-beta (beta). Tango is constitutively expressed regardless of oxygen tension and, like in mammalian cells, Sima is controlled at the level of protein degradation and subcellular localization. Sima is critically required for development in hypoxia, but, unlike mammalian model systems, it is dispensable for development in normoxia. In contrast, fatiga mutant alleles are all lethal; however, strikingly, viability to adulthood is restored in fatiga sima double mutants, although these double mutants are not entirely normal, suggesting that Fatiga has Sima-independent functions in fly development. Studies in cell culture and in vivo have revealed that Sima is activated by the insulin receptor (InR) and target-of-rapamycin (TOR) pathways. Paradoxically, Sima is a negative regulator of growth. This suggests that Sima is engaged in a negative feedback loop that limits growth upon stimulation of InR/TOR pathways.

  4. The Drosophila homolog of the mammalian imprint regulator, CTCF, maintains the maternal genomic imprint in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheva Vanya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CTCF is a versatile zinc finger DNA-binding protein that functions as a highly conserved epigenetic transcriptional regulator. CTCF is known to act as a chromosomal insulator, bind promoter regions, and facilitate long-range chromatin interactions. In mammals, CTCF is active in the regulatory regions of some genes that exhibit genomic imprinting, acting as insulator on only one parental allele to facilitate parent-specific expression. In Drosophila, CTCF acts as a chromatin insulator and is thought to be actively involved in the global organization of the genome. Results To determine whether CTCF regulates imprinting in Drosophila, we generated CTCF mutant alleles and assayed gene expression from the imprinted Dp(1;fLJ9 mini-X chromosome in the presence of reduced CTCF expression. We observed disruption of the maternal imprint when CTCF levels were reduced, but no effect was observed on the paternal imprint. The effect was restricted to maintenance of the imprint and was specific for the Dp(1;fLJ9 mini-X chromosome. Conclusions CTCF in Drosophila functions in maintaining parent-specific expression from an imprinted domain as it does in mammals. We propose that Drosophila CTCF maintains an insulator boundary on the maternal X chromosome, shielding genes from the imprint-induced silencing that occurs on the paternally inherited X chromosome. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/104

  5. System identification of Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anmo J; Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B

    2011-02-01

    The lack of a deeper understanding of how olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) encode odors has hindered the progress in understanding the olfactory signal processing in higher brain centers. Here we employ methods of system identification to investigate the encoding of time-varying odor stimuli and their representation for further processing in the spike domain by Drosophila OSNs. In order to apply system identification techniques, we built a novel low-turbulence odor delivery system that allowed us to deliver airborne stimuli in a precise and reproducible fashion. The system provides a 1% tolerance in stimulus reproducibility and an exact control of odor concentration and concentration gradient on a millisecond time scale. Using this novel setup, we recorded and analyzed the in-vivo response of OSNs to a wide range of time-varying odor waveforms. We report for the first time that across trials the response of OR59b OSNs is very precise and reproducible. Further, we empirically show that the response of an OSN depends not only on the concentration, but also on the rate of change of the odor concentration. Moreover, we demonstrate that a two-dimensional (2D) Encoding Manifold in a concentration-concentration gradient space provides a quantitative description of the neuron's response. We then use the white noise system identification methodology to construct one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) Linear-Nonlinear-Poisson (LNP) cascade models of the sensory neuron for a fixed mean odor concentration and fixed contrast. We show that in terms of predicting the intensity rate of the spike train, the 2D LNP model performs on par with the 1D LNP model, with a root mean-square error (RMSE) increase of about 5 to 10%. Surprisingly, we find that for a fixed contrast of the white noise odor waveforms, the nonlinear block of each of the two models changes with the mean input concentration. The shape of the nonlinearities of both the 1D and the 2D LNP model appears to be

  6. Asymmetrical reinforcement and Wolbachia infection in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jaenike

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement refers to the evolution of increased mating discrimination against heterospecific individuals in zones of geographic overlap and can be considered a final stage in the speciation process. One the factors that may affect reinforcement is the degree to which hybrid matings result in the permanent loss of genes from a species' gene pool. Matings between females of Drosophila subquinaria and males of D. recens result in high levels of offspring mortality, due to interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by Wolbachia infection of D. recens. Such hybrid inviability is not manifested in matings between D. recens females and D. subquinaria males. Here we ask whether the asymmetrical hybrid inviability is associated with a corresponding asymmetry in the level of reinforcement. The geographic ranges of D. recens and D. subquinaria were found to overlap across a broad belt of boreal forest in central Canada. Females of D. subquinaria from the zone of sympatry exhibit much stronger levels of discrimination against males of D. recens than do females from allopatric populations. In contrast, such reproductive character displacement is not evident in D. recens, consistent with the expected effects of unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility. Furthermore, there is substantial behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria, because females from populations sympatric with D. recens discriminate against allopatric conspecific males, whereas females from populations allopatric with D. recens show no discrimination against any conspecific males. Patterns of general genetic differentiation among populations are not consistent with patterns of behavioral discrimination, which suggests that the behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria results from selection against mating with Wolbachia-infected D. recens. Interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility may contribute not only to post-mating isolation, an effect already widely recognized, but also to

  7. Genome engineering: Drosophila melanogaster and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venken, Koen J T; Sarrion-Perdigones, Alejandro; Vandeventer, Paul J; Abel, Nicholas S; Christiansen, Audrey E; Hoffman, Kristi L

    2016-01-01

    A central challenge in investigating biological phenomena is the development of techniques to modify genomic DNA with nucleotide precision that can be transmitted through the germ line. Recent years have brought a boon in these technologies, now collectively known as genome engineering. Defined genomic manipulations at the nucleotide level enable a variety of reverse engineering paradigms, providing new opportunities to interrogate diverse biological functions. These genetic modifications include controlled removal, insertion, and substitution of genetic fragments, both small and large. Small fragments up to a few kilobases (e.g., single nucleotide mutations, small deletions, or gene tagging at single or multiple gene loci) to large fragments up to megabase resolution can be manipulated at single loci to create deletions, duplications, inversions, or translocations of substantial sections of whole chromosome arms. A specialized substitution of chromosomal portions that presumably are functionally orthologous between different organisms through syntenic replacement, can provide proof of evolutionary conservation between regulatory sequences. Large transgenes containing endogenous or synthetic DNA can be integrated at defined genomic locations, permitting an alternative proof of evolutionary conservation, and sophisticated transgenes can be used to interrogate biological phenomena. Precision engineering can additionally be used to manipulate the genomes of organelles (e.g., mitochondria). Novel genome engineering paradigms are often accelerated in existing, easily genetically tractable model organisms, primarily because these paradigms can be integrated in a rigorous, existing technology foundation. The Drosophila melanogaster fly model is ideal for these types of studies. Due to its small genome size, having just four chromosomes, the vast amount of cutting-edge genetic technologies, and its short life-cycle and inexpensive maintenance requirements, the fly is

  8. Molecular cloning and genomic organization of a second probable allatostatin receptor from Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, C; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    with a Drosophila genomic database clone that contained a DNA sequence coding for a protein having, again, structural similarities with the rat galanin receptors. Using PCR with primers coding for the presumed exons of this second Drosophila receptor gene, 5'- and 3'-RACE, and Drosophila cDNA as template, we...... at the right arm of the third chromosome, position 98 D-E. This is the first report on the existence of two different allatostatin receptors in an animal....

  9. Bacterial Communities of Diverse Drosophila Species: Ecological Context of a Host?Microbe Model System

    OpenAIRE

    James Angus Chandler; Jenna Morgan Lang; Srijak Bhatnagar; Eisen, Jonathan A; Artyom Kopp

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as an important model of non-pathogenic host-microbe interactions. The genetic and experimental tractability of Drosophila has led to significant gains in our understanding of animal-microbial symbiosis. However, the full implications of these results cannot be appreciated without the knowledge of the microbial communities associated with natural Drosophila populations. In particular, it is not clear whether laboratory cultures can serve as an accurate mode...

  10. Molecular cloning and genomic organization of an allatostatin preprohormone from Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, C; Williamson, M; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    2000-01-01

    insect allatostatins. This resulted in alignment with a DNA sequence coding for some Drosophila allatostatins (drostatins). Using PCR with oligonucleotide primers directed against the presumed exons of this Drosophila allatostatin gene and subsequent 3'- and 5'-RACE, we were able to clone its c....... Drostatins-1 and -4 are novel members of the insect allatostatin neuropeptide family. The Drosophila allatostatin preprohormone gene contains two introns and three exons. The gene is located on the right arm of the third chromosome, position 96A-B. The existence of at least four different Drosophila...

  11. Imaging a population code for odor identity in the Drosophila mushroom body

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Robert A A; Honegger, Kyle S; Qin, Hongtao; Li, Wanhe; Demir, Ebru; Turner, Glenn C

    2013-01-01

    ... from >100 neurons simultaneously in the Drosophila mushroom body (MB). For the first time, we demonstrate quantitatively that MB population responses contain substantial information on odor identity...

  12. Identification of differentially expressed genes in female Drosophila antonietae and Drosophila meridionalis in response to host cactus odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonove, Camila M; Cavallari, Carla B; Santos, Mateus H; Rossetti, Rafaela; Hartfelder, Klaus; Manfrin, Maura H

    2014-09-02

    Studies of insect-plant interactions have provided critical insights into the ecology and evolution of adaptive processes within and among species. Cactophilic Drosophila species have received much attention because larval development occurs in the necrotic tissues of cacti, and both larvae and adults feed on these tissues. Such Drosophila-cactus interactions include effects of the host plant on the physiology and behavior of the flies, especially so their nutritional status, mating condition and reproduction. The aim of this work was to compare the transcriptional responses of two species, Drosophila antonietae and Drosophila meridionalis, and identify genes potentially related to responses to odors released by their host cactus, Cereus hildmannianus. The two fly species are sympatric in most of their populations and use this same host cactus in nature. We obtained 47 unique sequences (USs) for D. antonietae in a suppression subtractive hybridization screen, 30 of these USs had matches with genes predicted for other Drosophila species. For D. meridionalis we obtained 81 USs, 46 of which were orthologous with genes from other Drosophila species. Functional information (Gene Ontology) revealed that these differentially expressed genes are related to metabolic processes, detoxification mechanisms, signaling, response to stimuli, and reproduction. The expression of 13 genes from D. meridionalis and 12 from D. antonietae were further analyzed by quantitative real time-PCR, showing that four genes were significantly overexpressed in D. antonietae and six in D. meridionalis. Our results revealed the differential expression of genes related to responses to odor stimuli by a cactus, in two associated fly species. Although the majority of activated genes were similar between the two species, we also observed that certain metabolic pathways were specifically activated, especially those related to signaling pathways and detoxification mechanisms. The activation of these genes

  13. Ultradian rhythm unmasked in the Pdf clock mutant of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yuuichi; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2014-09-01

    A diverse range of organisms shows physiological and behavioural rhythms with various periods. Extensive studies have been performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms with an approximately 24 h period in both Drosophila and mammals, while less attention has been paid to ultradian rhythms with shorter periods. We used a video-tracking method to monitor the movement of single flies, and clear ultradian rhythms were detected in the locomotor behaviour of wild type and clock mutant flies kept under constant dark conditions. In particular, the Pigment-dispersing factor mutant (Pdf 01) demonstrated a precise and robust ultradian rhythmicity, which was not temperature compensated. Our results suggest that Drosophila has an endogenous ultradian oscillator that is masked by circadian rhythmic behaviours.

  14. Learning the specific quality of taste reinforcement in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Michael; Miura, Daisuke; Tanimura, Teiichi; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-01-27

    The only property of reinforcement insects are commonly thought to learn about is its value. We show that larval Drosophila not only remember the value of reinforcement (How much?), but also its quality (What?). This is demonstrated both within the appetitive domain by using sugar vs amino acid as different reward qualities, and within the aversive domain by using bitter vs high-concentration salt as different qualities of punishment. From the available literature, such nuanced memories for the quality of reinforcement are unexpected and pose a challenge to present models of how insect memory is organized. Given that animals as simple as larval Drosophila, endowed with but 10,000 neurons, operate with both reinforcement value and quality, we suggest that both are fundamental aspects of mnemonic processing-in any brain.

  15. Uncoupling neurogenic gene networks in the Drosophila embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William A; Goyal, Yogesh; Yamaya, Kei; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Levine, Michael S

    2017-04-01

    The EGF signaling pathway specifies neuronal identities in the Drosophila embryo by regulating developmental patterning genes such as intermediate neuroblasts defective (ind). EGFR is activated in the ventral midline and neurogenic ectoderm by the Spitz ligand, which is processed by the Rhomboid protease. CRISPR/Cas9 was used to delete defined rhomboid enhancers mediating expression at each site of Spitz processing. Surprisingly, the neurogenic ectoderm, not the ventral midline, was found to be the dominant source of EGF patterning activity. We suggest that Drosophila is undergoing an evolutionary transition in central nervous system (CNS)-organizing activity from the ventral midline to the neurogenic ectoderm. © 2017 Rogers et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Stem cells, niches and cadherins: a view from Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reyes, Acaimo

    2003-03-15

    Stem cells are essential for the correct development and homeostasis of adult organisms, as well as having obvious potential therapeutic importance. Analysis of the biology of stem cells and their regulatory microenvironment in adult organs has, however, been hindered by the rarity of these cells in mature tissues and by the lack of positive markers for them. The ovary of the Drosophila melanogaster female is a stem cell niche in which such analyses can be performed. The stromal cells of the microenvironment act as a regulatory centre to control the proliferation and differentiation of the germline stem cells, using several signalling molecules, among them the protein DPP - a Drosophila homologue of the human bone morphogenetic proteins BMP2 and BMP4. Recent work shows that DE-cadherin-mediated adhesion is used for the initial recruitment and posterior anchoring of the germline-derived stem cells in their niche.

  17. Optogenetic inhibition of apical constriction during Drosophila embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, G; De Renzis, S

    2017-01-01

    Morphogenesis of multicellular organisms is driven by changes in cell behavior, which happen at precise locations and defined developmental stages. Therefore, the studying of morphogenetic events would greatly benefit from tools that allow the perturbation of cell activity with spatial and temporal precision. We recently developed an optogenetic approach to modulate cell contractility with cellular precision and on fast (seconds) timescales during Drosophila embryogenesis. We present here a protocol to handle genetically engineered photosensitive Drosophila embryos and achieve light-mediated inhibition of apical constriction during tissue invagination. The possibility to modulate the levels of optogenetic activation at different laser powers makes this method suited also for studying how mechanical stresses are sensed and interpreted in vivo. Given the conserved function of cell contractility during animal development, the application of this method to other morphogenetic processes will facilitate our understanding of tissue mechanics and cell-cell interaction during morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Somatic cell mutation induced by sunlight in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, T; Takinami, S; Nikaido, O; Mochizuki, M; Toyoshima, M

    1999-12-01

    There is ample epidemiological evidence showing that sunlight can cause skin cancer in the human. In experimental studies, simulated sunlight or UV lamps are used for demonstrating carcinogenesis and other biological effects. Little studies, however, have been performed using natural sunlight itself. In this work, we have examined the mutagenicity of natural sunlight in Drosophila. The Drosophila wing spot test is useful to detect somatic cell mutations. Third instar larvae in petri dishes were exposed to sunlight (ultraviolet region with induction of mutant spot observed was 1.98 total spots/wing on June 25, 1998, and the lowest was 0.64 on December 29, 1998, while non-exposure spontaneous spots were 0.29 and 0.32 on these days, respectively. Thus, solar radiation was mutagenic both in summer and in winter.

  19. Drosophila Cancer Models Identify Functional Differences between Ret Fusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Levinson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We generated and compared Drosophila models of RET fusions CCDC6-RET and NCOA4-RET. Both RET fusions directed cells to migrate, delaminate, and undergo EMT, and both resulted in lethality when broadly expressed. In all phenotypes examined, NCOA4-RET was more severe than CCDC6-RET, mirroring their effects on patients. A functional screen against the Drosophila kinome and a library of cancer drugs found that CCDC6-RET and NCOA4-RET acted through different signaling networks and displayed distinct drug sensitivities. Combining data from the kinome and drug screens identified the WEE1 inhibitor AZD1775 plus the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib as a synergistic drug combination that is specific for NCOA4-RET. Our work emphasizes the importance of identifying and tailoring a patient’s treatment to their specific RET fusion isoform and identifies a multi-targeted therapy that may prove effective against tumors containing the NCOA4-RET fusion.

  20. Sensory Conflict Disrupts Activity of the Drosophila Circadian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E.F. Harper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Periodic changes in light and temperature synchronize the Drosophila circadian clock, but the question of how the fly brain integrates these two input pathways to set circadian time remains unanswered. We explore multisensory cue combination by testing the resilience of the circadian network to conflicting environmental inputs. We show that misaligned light and temperature cycles can lead to dramatic changes in the daily locomotor activities of wild-type flies during and after exposure to sensory conflict. This altered behavior is associated with a drastic reduction in the amplitude of PERIOD (PER oscillations in brain clock neurons and desynchronization between light- and temperature-sensitive neuronal subgroups. The behavioral disruption depends heavily on the phase relationship between light and temperature signals. Our results represent a systematic quantification of multisensory integration in the Drosophila circadian system and lend further support to the view of the clock as a network of coupled oscillatory subunits.

  1. Monitoring membrane excitability in Drosophila expressing modified shaker constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Douglas P; Keshishian, Haig

    2012-02-01

    The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) ranks as one of the preeminent model systems for studying synaptic development, function, and plasticity. This protocol describes the use of the two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) to examine potassium (K(+)) currents mediated by voltage-gated ion channels, and gives several genetic and pharmacological methods that are used to study the currents. Drosophila larval muscle fibers possess three major K(+) currents. One of these, a fast voltage-activating and inactivating I(A) current, is mediated by the Shaker channel. The Shaker channel is characterized by its sensitivity to the drug 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Two useful transgenic tools for altering membrane excitability have been developed by making specific modifications of the Shaker channel; their use is described here.

  2. Epigenetic mechanisms modulate differences in Drosophila foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anreiter, Ina; Kramer, Jamie M; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2017-11-21

    Little is known about how genetic variation and epigenetic marks interact to shape differences in behavior. The foraging (for) gene regulates behavioral differences between the rover and sitter Drosophila melanogaster strains, but the molecular mechanisms through which it does so have remained elusive. We show that the epigenetic regulator G9a interacts with for to regulate strain-specific adult foraging behavior through allele-specific histone methylation of a for promoter (pr4). Rovers have higher pr4 H3K9me dimethylation, lower pr4 RNA expression, and higher foraging scores than sitters. The rover-sitter differences disappear in the presence of G9a null mutant alleles, showing that G9a is necessary for these differences. Furthermore, rover foraging scores can be phenocopied by transgenically reducing pr4 expression in sitters. This compelling evidence shows that genetic variation can interact with an epigenetic modifier to produce differences in gene expression, establishing a behavioral polymorphism in Drosophila.

  3. Dynamic hyper-editing underlies temperature adaptation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchumenski, Ilana; Bartok, Osnat; Ashwal-Fluss, Reut; Pandey, Varun; Porath, Hagit T; Levanon, Erez Y; Kadener, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    In Drosophila, A-to-I editing is prevalent in the brain, and mutations in the editing enzyme ADAR correlate with specific behavioral defects. Here we demonstrate a role for ADAR in behavioral temperature adaptation in Drosophila. Although there is a higher level of editing at lower temperatures, at 29°C more sites are edited. These sites are less evolutionarily conserved, more disperse, less likely to be involved in secondary structures, and more likely to be located in exons. Interestingly, hypomorph mutants for ADAR display a weaker transcriptional response to temperature changes than wild-type flies and a highly abnormal behavioral response upon temperature increase. In sum, our data shows that ADAR is essential for proper temperature adaptation, a key behavior trait that is essential for survival of flies in the wild. Moreover, our results suggest a more general role of ADAR in regulating RNA secondary structures in vivo.

  4. Dissecting neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila olfactory aversive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yichun; Hirokawa, Areekul; Ai, Yulian; Zhang, Min; Li, Wanhe; Zhong, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have identified molecular pathways driving forgetting and supported the notion that forgetting is a biologically active process. The circuit mechanisms of forgetting, however, remain largely unknown. Here we report two sets of Drosophila neurons that account for the rapid forgetting of early olfactory aversive memory. We show that inactivating these neurons inhibits memory decay without altering learning, whereas activating them promotes forgetting. These neurons, including a cluster of dopaminergic neurons (PAM-β'1) and a pair of glutamatergic neurons (MBON-γ4>γ1γ2), terminate in distinct subdomains in the mushroom body and represent parallel neural pathways for regulating forgetting. Interestingly, although activity of these neurons is required for memory decay over time, they are not required for acute forgetting during reversal learning. Our results thus not only establish the presence of multiple neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila but also suggest the existence of diverse circuit mechanisms of forgetting in different contexts.

  5. Dynamic hyper-editing underlies temperature adaptation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal-Fluss, Reut; Pandey, Varun; Levanon, Erez Y.; Kadener, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    In Drosophila, A-to-I editing is prevalent in the brain, and mutations in the editing enzyme ADAR correlate with specific behavioral defects. Here we demonstrate a role for ADAR in behavioral temperature adaptation in Drosophila. Although there is a higher level of editing at lower temperatures, at 29°C more sites are edited. These sites are less evolutionarily conserved, more disperse, less likely to be involved in secondary structures, and more likely to be located in exons. Interestingly, hypomorph mutants for ADAR display a weaker transcriptional response to temperature changes than wild-type flies and a highly abnormal behavioral response upon temperature increase. In sum, our data shows that ADAR is essential for proper temperature adaptation, a key behavior trait that is essential for survival of flies in the wild. Moreover, our results suggest a more general role of ADAR in regulating RNA secondary structures in vivo. PMID:28746393

  6. GABAA receptor-expressing neurons promote consumption in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Cheung

    Full Text Available Feeding decisions are highly plastic and bidirectionally regulated by neurons that either promote or inhibit feeding. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified four GABAergic interneurons that act as critical brakes to prevent incessant feeding. These GABAergic neurons may inhibit target neurons that drive consumption. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining GABA receptors and neurons that promote consumption. We find that Resistance to dieldrin (RDL, a GABAA type receptor, is required for proper control of ingestion. Knockdown of Rdl in a subset of neurons causes overconsumption of tastants. Acute activation of these neurons is sufficient to drive consumption of appetitive substances and non-appetitive substances and acute silencing of these neurons decreases consumption. Taken together, these studies identify GABAA receptor-expressing neurons that promote Drosophila ingestive behavior and provide insight into feeding regulation.

  7. Resolving the prevalence of somatic transposition inDrosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Christoph D; Waddell, Scott

    2017-07-25

    Somatic transposition in mammals and insects could increase cellular diversity and neural mobilization has been implicated in age-dependent decline. To understand the impact of transposition in somatic cells it is essential to reliably measure the frequency and map locations of new insertions. Here we identified thousands of putative somatic transposon insertions in neurons from individual Drosophila melanogaster using whole-genome sequencing. However, the number of de novo insertions did not correlate with transposon expression or fly age. Analysing our data with exons as 'immobile genetic elements' revealed a similar frequency of unexpected exon translocations. A new sequencing strategy that recovers transposon: chromosome junction information revealed most putative de novo transposon and exon insertions likely result from unavoidable chimeric artefacts. Reanalysis of other published data suggests similar artefacts are often mistaken for genuine somatic transposition. We conclude that somatic transposition is less prevalent in Drosophila than previously envisaged.

  8. Context generalization in Drosophila visual learning requires the mushroom bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wolf, Reinhard; Ernst, Roman; Heisenberg, Martin

    1999-08-01

    The world is permanently changing. Laboratory experiments on learning and memory normally minimize this feature of reality, keeping all conditions except the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli as constant as possible. In the real world, however, animals need to extract from the universe of sensory signals the actual predictors of salient events by separating them from non-predictive stimuli (context). In principle, this can be achieved ifonly those sensory inputs that resemble the reinforcer in theirtemporal structure are taken as predictors. Here we study visual learning in the fly Drosophila melanogaster, using a flight simulator,, and show that memory retrieval is, indeed, partially context-independent. Moreover, we show that the mushroom bodies, which are required for olfactory but not visual or tactile learning, effectively support context generalization. In visual learning in Drosophila, it appears that a facilitating effect of context cues for memory retrieval is the default state, whereas making recall context-independent requires additional processing.

  9. A Drosophila model of high sugar diet-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Na

    Full Text Available Diets high in carbohydrates have long been linked to progressive heart dysfunction, yet the mechanisms by which chronic high sugar leads to heart failure remain poorly understood. Here we combine diet, genetics, and physiology to establish an adult Drosophila melanogaster model of chronic high sugar-induced heart disease. We demonstrate deterioration of heart function accompanied by fibrosis-like collagen accumulation, insulin signaling defects, and fat accumulation. The result was a shorter life span that was more severe in the presence of reduced insulin and P38 signaling. We provide evidence of a role for hexosamine flux, a metabolic pathway accessed by glucose. Increased hexosamine flux led to heart function defects and structural damage; conversely, cardiac-specific reduction of pathway activity prevented sugar-induced heart dysfunction. Our data establish Drosophila as a useful system for exploring specific aspects of diet-induced heart dysfunction and emphasize enzymes within the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway as candidate therapeutic targets.

  10. Drosophila melanogaster as a Model Organism of Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Paulus

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has been utilized to model human brain diseases. In most of these invertebrate transgenic models, some aspects of human disease are reproduced. Although investigation of rodent models has been of significant impact, invertebrate models offer a wide variety of experimental tools that can potentially address some of the outstanding questions underlying neurological disease. This review considers what has been gleaned from invertebrate models of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, metabolic diseases such as Leigh disease, Niemann-Pick disease and ceroid lipofuscinoses, tumor syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and tuberous sclerosis, epilepsy as well as CNS injury. It is to be expected that genetic tools in Drosophila will reveal new pathways and interactions, which hopefully will result in molecular based therapy approaches.

  11. Drosophila DNA-Binding Proteins in Polycomb Repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Erokhin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of individual gene expression patterns in different cell types is required during differentiation and development of multicellular organisms. Polycomb group (PcG proteins are key epigenetic regulators responsible for gene repression, and dysregulation of their activities leads to developmental abnormalities and diseases. PcG proteins were first identified in Drosophila, which still remains the most convenient system for studying PcG-dependent repression. In the Drosophila genome, these proteins bind to DNA regions called Polycomb response elements (PREs. A major role in the recruitment of PcG proteins to PREs is played by DNA-binding factors, several of which have been characterized in detail. However, current knowledge is insufficient for comprehensively describing the mechanism of this process. In this review, we summarize and discuss the available data on the role of DNA-binding proteins in PcG recruitment to chromatin.

  12. GABAA receptor-expressing neurons promote consumption in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Samantha K; Scott, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Feeding decisions are highly plastic and bidirectionally regulated by neurons that either promote or inhibit feeding. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified four GABAergic interneurons that act as critical brakes to prevent incessant feeding. These GABAergic neurons may inhibit target neurons that drive consumption. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining GABA receptors and neurons that promote consumption. We find that Resistance to dieldrin (RDL), a GABAA type receptor, is required for proper control of ingestion. Knockdown of Rdl in a subset of neurons causes overconsumption of tastants. Acute activation of these neurons is sufficient to drive consumption of appetitive substances and non-appetitive substances and acute silencing of these neurons decreases consumption. Taken together, these studies identify GABAA receptor-expressing neurons that promote Drosophila ingestive behavior and provide insight into feeding regulation.

  13. A pulsed magnetic stress applied to Drosophila melanogaster flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Bozzetti, M. P.; Friscini, A.; Giuffreda, E.; Nassisi, V.; Specchia, V.; Velardi, L.

    2014-04-01

    We report the development of a system to feed pulsed magnetic stress to biological samples. The device is based on a RLC circuit that transforms the energy stored in a high voltage capacitor into a magnetic field inside a coil. The field has been characterized and we found that charging the capacitor with 24 kV results in a peak field of 0.4 T. In order to test its effect, we applied such a stress to the Drosophila melanogaster model and we examined its bio-effects. We analysed, in the germ cells, the effects on the control of specific DNA repetitive sequences that are activated after different environmental stresses. The deregulation of these sequences causes genomic instability and chromosomes breaks leading to sterility. The magnetic field treatment did not produce effects on repetitive sequences in the germ cells of Drosophila. Hence, this field doesn't produce deleterious effects linked to repetitive sequences derepression.

  14. Unraveling the Neurobiology of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Using Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, L; Moscato, E H; Kayser, M S

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders in humans are increasingly appreciated to be not only widespread but also detrimental to multiple facets of physical and mental health. Recent work has begun to shed light on the mechanistic basis of sleep disorders like insomnia, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, and a host of others, but a more detailed genetic and molecular understanding of how sleep goes awry is lacking. Over the past 15 years, studies in Drosophila have yielded new insights into basic questions regarding sleep function and regulation. More recently, powerful genetic approaches in the fly have been applied toward studying primary human sleep disorders and other disease states associated with dysregulated sleep. In this review, we discuss the contribution of Drosophila to the landscape of sleep biology, examining not only fundamental advances in sleep neurobiology but also how flies have begun to inform pathological sleep states in humans. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The anoctamin family channel subdued mediates thermal nociception in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Wijeong; Kim, Ji Young; Cui, Shanyu; Jo, Juyeon; Lee, Byoung-Cheol; Lee, Yeonwoo; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Park, Chul-Seung; Kim, Changsoo

    2015-01-23

    Calcium-permeable and thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediate the nociceptive transduction of noxious temperature in Drosophila nociceptors. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we find that Subdued, a calcium-activated chloride channel of the Drosophila anoctamin family, functions in conjunction with the thermo-TRPs in thermal nociception. Genetic analysis with deletion and the RNAi-mediated reduction of subdued show that subdued is required for thermal nociception in nociceptors. Further genetic analysis of subdued mutant and thermo-TRP mutants show that they interact functionally in thermal nociception. We find that Subdued expressed in heterologous cells mediates a strong chloride conductance in the presence of both heat and calcium ions. Therefore, our analysis suggests that Subdued channels may amplify the nociceptive neuronal firing that is initiated by thermo-TRP channels in response to thermal stimuli. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. The Anoctamin Family Channel Subdued Mediates Thermal Nociception in Drosophila*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Wijeong; Kim, Ji Young; Cui, Shanyu; Jo, Juyeon; Lee, Byoung-Cheol; Lee, Yeonwoo; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Park, Chul-Seung; Kim, Changsoo

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-permeable and thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels mediate the nociceptive transduction of noxious temperature in Drosophila nociceptors. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we find that Subdued, a calcium-activated chloride channel of the Drosophila anoctamin family, functions in conjunction with the thermo-TRPs in thermal nociception. Genetic analysis with deletion and the RNAi-mediated reduction of subdued show that subdued is required for thermal nociception in nociceptors. Further genetic analysis of subdued mutant and thermo-TRP mutants show that they interact functionally in thermal nociception. We find that Subdued expressed in heterologous cells mediates a strong chloride conductance in the presence of both heat and calcium ions. Therefore, our analysis suggests that Subdued channels may amplify the nociceptive neuronal firing that is initiated by thermo-TRP channels in response to thermal stimuli. PMID:25505177

  17. Immune stimulation reduces sleep and memory ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn B. Mallon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychoneuroimmunology studies the increasing number of connections between neurobiology, immunology and behaviour. We demonstrate the effects of the immune response on two fundamental behaviours: sleep and memory ability in Drosophila melanogaster. We used the Geneswitch system to upregulate peptidoglycan receptor protein (PGRP expression, thereby stimulating the immune system in the absence of infection. Geneswitch was activated by feeding the steroid RU486, to the flies. We used an aversive classical conditioning paradigm to quantify memory and measures of activity to infer sleep. Immune stimulated flies exhibited reduced levels of sleep, which could not be explained by a generalised increase in waking activity. Immune stimulated flies also showed a reduction in memory abilities. These results lend support to Drosophila as a model for immune–neural interactions and provide a possible role for sleep in the interplay between the immune response and memory.

  18. Fluorescent visualization of macromolecules in Drosophila whole mounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ricardo Guelerman Pinheiro; Machado, Luciana Claudia Herculano; Moda, Livia Maria Rosatto

    2010-01-01

    The ability to determine the expression dynamics of individual genes "in situ" by visualizing the precise spatial and temporal distribution of their products in whole mounts by histochemical and immunocytochemical reactions has revolutionized our understanding of cellular processes. Drosophila developmental genetics was one of the fields that benefited most from these technologies, and a variety of fluorescent methods were specifically designed for investigating the localization of developmentally important proteins and cell markers during embryonic and post embryonic stages of this model organism. In this chapter we present detailed protocols for fluorescence immunocytochemistry of whole mount embryos, imaginal discs, pupal retinas, and salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster, as well as methods for fluorescent visualization of specific subcellular structures in these tissues.

  19. Extracellular matrix and its receptors in Drosophila neural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadie, Kendal; Baumgartner, Stefan; Prokop, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) and matrix receptors are intimately involved in most biological processes. The ECM plays fundamental developmental and physiological roles in health and disease, including processes underlying the development, maintenance and regeneration of the nervous system. To understand the principles of ECM-mediated functions in the nervous system, genetic model organisms like Drosophila provide simple, malleable and powerful experimental platforms. This article provides an overview of ECM proteins and receptors in Drosophila. It then focuses on their roles during three progressive phases of neural development: 1) neural progenitor proliferation, 2) axonal growth and pathfinding and 3) synapse formation and function. Each section highlights known ECM and ECM-receptor components and recent studies done in mutant conditions to reveal their in vivo functions, all illustrating the enormous opportunities provided when merging work on the nervous system with systematic research into ECM-related gene functions. PMID:21688401

  20. Programmed cell death in salivary glands of Drosophila arizonae and Drosophila mulleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianella, P; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Itoyama, M M

    2008-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in insect metamorphosis assumes a great diversity of morphology and controlling processes that are still not well understood. With the objective of obtaining information about the PCD process, salivary glands of Drosophila arizonae and D. mulleri were studied during larval-pupal development. From the results, it can be concluded that the type of the PCD that occurs in these organs is morphologically typical of apoptosis (formation of apoptotic nuclei, followed by fragmentation into apoptotic bodies). Histolysis happens in both species, between 22 and 23 h after pupation. There were no significant differences between the species studied. Apoptosis does not occur simultaneously in all cells. Cytoplasmic acid phosphatase activity gradually increases during development, suggesting the existence of acid phosphatases that are only expressed during the apoptotic stage. Twenty hours after pupation, salivary glands already show biochemical alterations relative to nuclear permeability such as acidification, possibly due to the fusion of lysosomes with the nucleus a few hours before apoptosis. Autophagy seems to act together with apoptosis and has a secondary role in cell death.

  1. Inheritance of a secondary sexual character in Drosophila silvestris.

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, H L; Lande, R.

    1984-01-01

    Reciprocal crosses were carried out between laboratory stock specimens obtained from two races of Drosophila silvestris from the island of Hawaii that differ in a quantitative secondary sexual character. The race from the Hilo side of the island has a novel attribute, consisting of an extra row of cilia on the tibia of males, which is used during courtship. With regard to this character, sex-linked genes contribute about 30% of the difference, and the remaining 70% of the difference between t...

  2. A Modified Cooling Method and Its Application in "Drosophila" Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen-hui; Zhu, Tong-bo; Yang, Da-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Chilling is a cost-effective and safe method of immobilising flies in "Drosophila" experiments. However, should condensation form on the plate, it would be fatal to the flies. Here we describe a modified cooling method using reusable commercial ice pack(s) (ca. 400 ml, 2-3 cm tall) rather than crushed ice. The ice pack is covered with a…

  3. Maternal control of the Drosophila dorsal–ventral body axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David S.; Stevens, Leslie M.

    2016-01-01

    The pathway that generates the dorsal–ventral (DV) axis of the Drosophila embryo has been the subject of intense investigation over the previous three decades. The initial asymmetric signal originates during oogenesis by the movement of the oocyte nucleus to an anterior corner of the oocyte, which establishes DV polarity within the follicle through signaling between Gurken, the Drosophila Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-α homologue secreted from the oocyte, and the Drosophila Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) that is expressed by the follicular epithelium cells that envelop the oocyte. Follicle cells that are not exposed to Gurken follow a ventral fate and express Pipe, a sulfotransferase that enzymatically modifies components of the inner vitelline membrane layer of the eggshell, thereby transferring DV spatial information from the follicle to the egg. These ventrally sulfated eggshell proteins comprise a localized cue that directs the ventrally restricted formation of the active Spätzle ligand within the perivitelline space between the eggshell and the embryonic membrane. Spätzle activates Toll, a transmembrane receptor in the embryonic membrane. Transmission of the Toll signal into the embryo leads to the formation of a ventral-to-dorsal gradient of the transcription factor Dorsal within the nuclei of the syncytial blastoderm stage embryo. Dorsal controls the spatially specific expression of a large constellation of zygotic target genes, the Dorsal gene regulatory network, along the embryonic DV circumference. This article reviews classic studies and integrates them with the details of more recent work that has advanced our understanding of the complex pathway that establishes Drosophila embryo DV polarity. PMID:25124754

  4. Inbreeding Affects Locomotor Activity in Drosophila melanogaster at Different Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manenti, Tommaso; Pertoldi, Cino; Nasiri, Neda

    2015-01-01

    The ability to move is essential for many behavioural traits closely related to fitness. Here we studied the effect of inbreeding on locomotor activity (LA) of Drosophila melanogaster at different ages under both dark and light regimes. We expected to find a decreased LA in inbred lines compared...... lines but were lost in some inbred lines. The departure in the daily pattern of LA in inbred lines may contribute to the inbreeding depression observed in inbred natural populations....

  5. Intraspecific hybridization, developmental stability and fitness in Drosophila mercatorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, DH; Pertoldi, C; Scali, V

    2002-01-01

    One of the possible effects of intraspecific hybridization is outbreeding depression, due to a breakdown of coadapted gene complexes, which can lead to reduced fitness and decreased developmental stability in hybrids. Alternatively, increased fitness and increased developmental stability in hybrids...... (hybrid vigour) may be a result of hybridization, probably due to increased heterozygosity. Developmental stability is assumed to be correlated with fitness and is commonly measured as fluctuating asymmetry or phenotypic variance. Drosophila mercatorum is capable of reproducing sexually, but also...

  6. Stem cells, niches and cadherins: a view from Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    González-Reyes, Acaimo

    2003-01-01

    Stem cells are essential for the correct development and homeostasis of adult organisms, as well as having obvious potential therapeutic importance. Analysis of the biology of stem cells and their regulatory microenvironment in adult organs has, however, been hindered by the rarity of these cells in mature tissues and by the lack of positive markers for them. The ovary of the Drosophila melanogaster female is a stem cell niche in which such analyses can be performed. The stromal cells of the ...

  7. Transcriptional regulation in Drosophila: the post-genome challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggin, M D; Tjian, R

    2001-03-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has long been at the forefront of studies of transcriptional regulation in animals. Many fundamental ideas--such as cis control elements that act over long distances, the regulation of development by hierarchical cascades of transcription factors, dosage compensation, and position effect variegation--originated from studies of the fruit fly. The recent completion of the euchromatic DNA sequence of Drosophila is another breakthrough. The sequence data highlight important unanswered questions. For example, only one-fifth of the 124 Mb of Drosophila euchromatic DNA codes for protein. The function of the remaining 100 Mb of mostly unique DNA is largely unknown. Some proportion of this non-reading frame DNA must encode the functional recognition sites targeted by the approximately 700 sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription in Drosophila, but what proportion? Most or very little? Promoter sequences by definition contain all of the cis information that specifies how gene transcription is regulated. However, it has been difficult to decipher this information and predict the patterns of RNA expression. How do we break this "transcriptional code"? Mechanistic studies, using simple model promoters, indicate that transcription is controlled by the coordinate action of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins interacting with the general transcriptional machinery via intermediary adapters and chromatin remodeling activities. How can we integrate this biochemical information with data from genome-wide studies to describe the generation of highly complex patterns of transcription? Here, we discuss recent studies that may point the way ahead. We also highlight difficulties that the field faces in dissecting transcriptional control in the post-genome era.

  8. Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent...

  9. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We have identified the Drosophila homologue of the non-motor accessory subunit of kinesin-II motor complex. It is homologous to the SpKAP115 of the sea urchin, KAP3A and KAP3B of the mouse, and SMAP protein in humans. In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of ...

  10. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. Fungal diversity associated with Hawaiian Drosophila host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Ort

    Full Text Available Hawaiian Drosophila depend primarily, sometimes exclusively, on specific host plants for oviposition and larval development, and most specialize further on a particular decomposing part of that plant. Differences in fungal community between host plants and substrate types may establish the basis for host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila. Fungi mediate decomposition, releasing plant micronutrients and volatiles that can indicate high quality substrates and serve as cues to stimulate oviposition. This study addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free, DNA-based survey of fungal diversity associated with four ecologically important tree genera in the Hawaiian Islands. Three genera, Cheirodendron, Clermontia, and Pisonia, are important host plants for Drosophila. The fourth, Acacia, is not an important drosophilid host but is a dominant forest tree. We sampled fresh and rotting leaves from all four taxa, plus rotting stems from Clermontia and Pisonia. Based on sequences from the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA gene, we identified by BLAST search representatives from 113 genera in 13 fungal classes. A total of 160 operational taxonomic units, defined on the basis of ≥97% genetic similarity, were identified in these samples, but sampling curves show this is an underestimate of the total fungal diversity present on these substrates. Shannon diversity indices ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 among the Hawaiian samples, a slight reduction compared to continental surveys. We detected very little sharing of fungal taxa among the substrates, and tests of community composition confirmed that the structure of the fungal community differed significantly among the substrates and host plants. Based on these results, we hypothesize that fungal community structure plays a central role in the establishment of host preference in the Hawaiian Drosophila radiation.

  12. Long-term Live Imaging of Drosophila Eye Disc

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Chia-Kang; Ku, Hui-Yu; Sun, Y. Henry

    2017-01-01

    Live imaging provides the ability to continuously track dynamic cellular and developmental processes in real time. Drosophila larval imaginal discs have been used to study many biological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, migration, apoptosis, competition, cell-cell signaling, and compartmental boundary formation. However, methods for the long-term ex vivo culture and live imaging of the imaginal discs have not been satisfactory, despite many efforts. Recently, w...

  13. Paradoxical Physiological Transitions from Aging to Late Life in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrestani, Parvin; Quach, Julie; Mueller, Laurence D.; Rose, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    In a variety of organisms, adulthood is divided into aging and late life, where aging is a period of exponentially increasing mortality rates and late life is a period of roughly plateaued mortality rates. In this study we used ∼57,600 Drosophila melanogaster from six replicate populations to examine the physiological transitions from aging to late life in four functional characters that decline during aging: desiccation resistance, starvation resistance, time spent in motion, and negative ge...

  14. Adaptation of A-to-I RNA editing in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is hypothesized to facilitate adaptive evolution by expanding proteomic diversity through an epigenetic approach. However, it is challenging to provide evidences to support this hypothesis at the whole editome level. In this study, we systematically characterized 2,114 A-to-I RNA editing sites in female and male brains of D. melanogaster, and nearly half of these sites had events evolutionarily conserved across Drosophila species. We detected strong signatures of positive selection on the nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains, and the beneficial editing sites were significantly enriched in genes related to chemical and electrical neurotransmission. The signal of adaptation was even more pronounced for the editing sites located in X chromosome or for those commonly observed across Drosophila species. We identified a set of gene candidates (termed “PSEB” genes) that had nonsynonymous editing events favored by natural selection. We presented evidence that editing preferentially increased mutation sequence space of evolutionarily conserved genes, which supported the adaptive evolution hypothesis of editing. We found prevalent nonsynonymous editing sites that were favored by natural selection in female and male adults from five strains of D. melanogaster. We showed that temperature played a more important role than gender effect in shaping the editing levels, although the effect of temperature is relatively weaker compared to that of species effect. We also explored the relevant factors that shape the selective patterns of the global editomes. Altogether we demonstrated that abundant nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains were adaptive and maintained by natural selection during evolution. Our results shed new light on the evolutionary principles and functional consequences of RNA editing. PMID:28282384

  15. Antioxidants protect PINK1-dependent dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Danling; Qian, Li; Xiong, Hui; Liu, Jiandong; Neckameyer, Wendi S; Oldham, Sean; Xia, Kun; Wang, Jianzhi; Bodmer, Rolf; Zhang, Zhuohua

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most frequent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Mutations in the PINK1 gene are linked to the autosomal recessive early onset familial form of PD. The physiological function of PINK1 and pathological abnormality of PD-associated PINK1 mutants are largely unknown. We here show that inactivation of Drosophila PINK1 (dPINK1) using RNAi results in progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and in ommatidial degeneration of the compound eye, which is rescued by exp...

  16. Fungal Diversity Associated with Hawaiian Drosophila Host Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, Brian S.; Bantay, Roxanne M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Hawaiian Drosophila depend primarily, sometimes exclusively, on specific host plants for oviposition and larval development, and most specialize further on a particular decomposing part of that plant. Differences in fungal community between host plants and substrate types may establish the basis for host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila. Fungi mediate decomposition, releasing plant micronutrients and volatiles that can indicate high quality substrates and serve as cues to stimulate oviposition. This study addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free, DNA-based survey of fungal diversity associated with four ecologically important tree genera in the Hawaiian Islands. Three genera, Cheirodendron, Clermontia, and Pisonia, are important host plants for Drosophila. The fourth, Acacia, is not an important drosophilid host but is a dominant forest tree. We sampled fresh and rotting leaves from all four taxa, plus rotting stems from Clermontia and Pisonia. Based on sequences from the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA gene, we identified by BLAST search representatives from 113 genera in 13 fungal classes. A total of 160 operational taxonomic units, defined on the basis of ≥97% genetic similarity, were identified in these samples, but sampling curves show this is an underestimate of the total fungal diversity present on these substrates. Shannon diversity indices ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 among the Hawaiian samples, a slight reduction compared to continental surveys. We detected very little sharing of fungal taxa among the substrates, and tests of community composition confirmed that the structure of the fungal community differed significantly among the substrates and host plants. Based on these results, we hypothesize that fungal community structure plays a central role in the establishment of host preference in the Hawaiian Drosophila radiation. PMID:22911703

  17. The Coding of Temperature in the Drosophila Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gallio, Marco; Ofstad, Tyler A.; Macpherson, Lindsey J.; Wang, Jing W.; Zuker, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Thermosensation is an indispensable sensory modality. Here, we study temperature coding in Drosophila, and show that temperature is represented by a spatial map of activity in the brain. First, we identify new TRP channels and demonstrate they function in the fly antenna to mediate the detection of cold stimuli. Next, we identify the hot-sensing neurons and show that hot and cold antennal receptors project onto distinct, but adjacent glomeruli in the Proximal-Antennal-Protocerebrum (PAP) form...

  18. The Immune Phenotype of Three Drosophila Leukemia Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrul Arefin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many leukemia patients suffer from dysregulation of their immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and leading to general weakening (cachexia. Both adaptive and innate immunity are affected. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has an innate immune system, including cells of the myeloid lineage (hemocytes. To study Drosophila immunity and physiology during leukemia, we established three models by driving expression of a dominant-active version of the Ras oncogene (RasV12 alone or combined with knockdowns of tumor suppressors in Drosophila hemocytes. Our results show that phagocytosis, hemocyte migration to wound sites, wound sealing, and survival upon bacterial infection of leukemic lines are similar to wild type. We find that in all leukemic models the two major immune pathways (Toll and Imd are dysregulated. Toll–dependent signaling is activated to comparable extents as after wounding wild-type larvae, leading to a proinflammatory status. In contrast, Imd signaling is suppressed. Finally, we notice that adult tissue formation is blocked and degradation of cell masses during metamorphosis of leukemic lines, which is akin to the state of cancer-dependent cachexia. To further analyze the immune competence of leukemic lines, we used a natural infection model that involves insect-pathogenic nematodes. We identified two leukemic lines that were sensitive to nematode infections. Further characterization demonstrates that despite the absence of behavioral abnormalities at the larval stage, leukemic larvae show reduced locomotion in the presence of nematodes. Taken together, this work establishes new Drosophila models to study the physiological, immunological, and behavioral consequences of various forms of leukemia.

  19. Cadmium resistance in Drosophila: a small cadmium binding substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, K.B.; Williams, M.W.; Richter, L.J.; Holt, S.E.; Hook, G.J.; Knoop, S.M.; Sloop, F.V.; Faust, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A small cadmium-binding substance (CdBS) has been observed in adult Drosophila melanogaster that were raised for their entire growth cycle on a diet that contained 0.15 mM CdCl/sub 2/. Induction of CdBS was observed in strains that differed widely in their sensitivity of CdCl/sub 2/. This report describes the induction of CdBS and some of its characteristics. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforap...

  1. tirant, a newly discovered active endogenous retrovirus in Drosophila simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkouche, Abdou; Rebollo, Rita; Burlet, Nelly; Esnault, Caroline; Martinez, Sonia; Viginier, Barbara; Terzian, Christophe; Vieira, Cristina; Fablet, Marie

    2012-04-01

    Endogenous retroviruses have the ability to become permanently integrated into the genomes of their host, and they are generally transmitted vertically from parent to progeny. With the exception of gypsy, few endogenous retroviruses have been identified in insects. In this study, we describe the tirant endogenous retrovirus in a subset of Drosophila simulans natural populations. By focusing on the envelope gene, we show that the entire retroviral cycle (transcription, translation, and retrotransposition) can be completed for tirant within one population of this species.

  2. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  3. A high-quality catalog of the Drosophila melanogaster proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Erich; Ahrens, Christian H.; Mohanty, Sonaly

    2007-01-01

    % of the predicted Drosophila melanogaster proteome by detecting 9,124 proteins from 498,000 redundant and 72,281 distinct peptide identifications. This unprecedented high proteome coverage for a complex eukaryote was achieved by combining sample diversity, multidimensional biochemical fractionation and analysis...... matching approximately 50% of D. melanogaster gene models. This library of proteotypic peptides should enable fast, targeted and quantitative proteomic studies to elucidate the systems biology of this model organism....

  4. Expression patterns of cadherin genes in Drosophila oogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zartman, Jeremiah J.; Kanodia, Jitendra S.; Yakoby, Nir; Schafer, Xenia; Watson, Colin; Schlichting, Karin; Dahmann, Christian; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2008-01-01

    In Drosophila oogenesis, the follicular epithelium that envelops the oocyte is patterned by a small set of inductive signals and gives rise to an elaborate three-dimensional eggshell. Several eggshell structures provide sensitive readouts of the patterning signals, but the formation of these structures is still poorly understood. In other systems, epithelial morphogenesis is guided by the spatial patterning of cell adhesion and cytoskeleton genes. As a step towards developing a comprehensive ...

  5. Distinct types of glial cells populate the Drosophila antenna

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    Jhaveri Dhanisha

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of nervous systems involves reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia. In the Drosophila olfactory system, peripheral glial cells arise from sensory lineages specified by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Atonal. These glia wrap around the developing olfactory axons early during development and pattern the three distinct fascicles as they exit the antenna. In the moth Manduca sexta, an additional set of central glia migrate to the base of the antennal nerve where axons sort to their glomerular targets. In this work, we have investigated whether similar types of cells exist in the Drosophila antenna. Results We have used different P(Gal4 lines to drive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP in distinct populations of cells within the Drosophila antenna. Mz317::GFP, a marker for cell body and perineural glia, labels the majority of peripheral glia. An additional ~30 glial cells detected by GH146::GFP do not derive from any of the sensory lineages and appear to migrate into the antenna from the brain. Their appearance in the third antennal segment is regulated by normal function of the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor and small GTPases. We denote these distinct populations of cells as Mz317-glia and GH146-glia respectively. In the adult, processes of GH146-glial cells ensheath the olfactory receptor neurons directly, while those of the Mz317-glia form a peripheral layer. Ablation of GH146-glia does not result in any significant effects on the patterning of the olfactory receptor axons. Conclusion We have demonstrated the presence of at least two distinct populations of glial cells within the Drosophila antenna. GH146-glial cells originate in the brain and migrate to the antenna along the newly formed olfactory axons. The number of cells populating the third segment of the antenna is regulated by signaling through the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor. These glia share several features of the sorting

  6. Variation in Male Mate Choice in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Edward, Dominic A.; Tracey Chapman

    2013-01-01

    Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanatio...

  7. A cost of long-term memory in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mery, Frederic; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct forms of consolidated associative memory are known in Drosophila: long-term memory and so-called anesthesia-resistant memory. Long-term memory is more stable, but unlike anesthesia-resistant memory, its formation requires protein synthesis. We show that flies induced to form long-term memory become more susceptible to extreme stress (such as desiccation). In contrast, induction of anesthesia-resistant memory had no detectable effect on desiccation resistance. This finding may hel...

  8. Dietary modulation of Drosophila sleep-wake behaviour.

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    James H Catterson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A complex relationship exists between diet and sleep but despite its impact on human health, this relationship remains uncharacterized and poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster is an important model for the study of metabolism and behaviour, however the effect of diet upon Drosophila sleep remains largely unaddressed.Using automated behavioural monitoring, a capillary feeding assay and pharmacological treatments, we examined the effect of dietary yeast and sucrose upon Drosophila sleep-wake behaviour for three consecutive days. We found that dietary yeast deconsolidated the sleep-wake behaviour of flies by promoting arousal from sleep in males and shortening periods of locomotor activity in females. We also demonstrate that arousal from nocturnal sleep exhibits a significant ultradian rhythmicity with a periodicity of 85 minutes. Increasing the dietary sucrose concentration from 5% to 35% had no effect on total sucrose ingestion per day nor any affect on arousal, however it did lengthen the time that males and females remained active. Higher dietary sucrose led to reduced total sleep by male but not female flies. Locomotor activity was reduced by feeding flies Metformin, a drug that inhibits oxidative phosphorylation, however Metformin did not affect any aspects of sleep.We conclude that arousal from sleep is under ultradian control and regulated in a sex-dependent manner by dietary yeast and that dietary sucrose regulates the length of time that flies sustain periods of wakefulness. These findings highlight Drosophila as an important model with which to understand how diet impacts upon sleep and wakefulness in mammals and humans.

  9. Phagocytosis Assay for Apoptotic Cells in Drosophila Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Saori; Hori, Aki; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu; Kuraishi, Takayuki

    2017-08-03

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells need to be elucidated in more detail because of its role in immune and inflammatory intractable diseases. We herein developed an experimental method to investigate phagocytosis quantitatively using the fruit fly Drosophila, in which the gene network controlling engulfment reactions is evolutionally conserved from mammals. In order to accurately detect and count engulfing and un-engulfing phagocytes using whole animals, Drosophila embryos were homogenized to obtain dispersed cells including phagocytes and apoptotic cells. The use of dispersed embryonic cells enables us to measure in vivo phagocytosis levels as if we performed an in vitro phagocytosis assay in which it is possible to observe all phagocytes and apoptotic cells in whole embryos and precisely quantify the level of phagocytosis. We confirmed that this method reproduces those of previous studies that identified the genes required for the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. This method allows the engulfment of dead cells to be analyzed, and when combined with the powerful genetics of Drosophila, will reveal the complex phagocytic reactions comprised of the migration, recognition, engulfment, and degradation of apoptotic cells by phagocytes.

  10. Using FlyBase, a Database of Drosophila Genes & Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marygold, Steven J.; Crosby, Madeline A.; Goodman, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY For nearly 25 years, FlyBase (flybase.org) has provided a freely available online database of biological information about Drosophila species, focusing on the model organism D. melanogaster. The need for a centralized, integrated view of Drosophila research has never been greater as advances in genomic, proteomic and high-throughput technologies add to the quantity and diversity of available data and resources. FlyBase has taken several approaches to respond to these changes in the research landscape. Novel report pages have been generated for new reagent types and physical interaction data; Drosophila models of human disease are now represented and showcased in dedicated Human Disease Model Reports; other integrated reports have been established that bring together related genes, datasets or reagents; Gene Reports have been revised to improve access to new data types and to highlight functional data; links to external sites have been organized and expanded; and new tools have been developed to display and interrogate all these data, including improved batch processing and bulk file availability. In addition, several new community initiatives have served to enhance interactions between researchers and FlyBase, resulting in direct user contributions and improved feedback. This chapter provides an overview of the data content, organization and available tools within FlyBase, focusing on recent improvements. We hope it serves as a guide for our diverse user base, enabling efficient and effective exploration of the database and thereby accelerating research discoveries. PMID:27730573

  11. The annealing helicase and branch migration activities of Drosophila HARP.

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    George A Kassavetis

    Full Text Available HARP (SMARCAL1, MARCAL1 is an annealing helicase that functions in the repair and restart of damaged DNA replication forks through its DNA branch migration and replication fork regression activities. HARP is conserved among metazoans. HARP from invertebrates differs by the absence of one of the two HARP-specific domain repeats found in vertebrates. The annealing helicase and branch migration activity of invertebrate HARP has not been documented. We found that HARP from Drosophila melanogaster retains the annealing helicase activity of human HARP, the ability to disrupt D-loops and to branch migrate Holliday junctions, but fails to regress model DNA replication fork structures. A comparison of human and Drosophila HARP on additional substrates revealed that both HARPs are competent in branch migrating a bidirectional replication bubble composed of either DNA:DNA or RNA:DNA hybrid. Human, but not Drosophila, HARP is also capable of regressing a replication fork structure containing a highly stable poly rG:dC hybrid. Persistent RNA:DNA hybrids in vivo can lead to replication fork arrest and genome instability. The ability of HARP to strand transfer hybrids may signify a hybrid removal function for this enzyme, in vivo.

  12. Drosophila Cuticular Hydrocarbons Revisited: Mating Status Alters Cuticular Profiles

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    Cobb, Matthew; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs), or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA), affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential pheromonal compounds and simultaneously monitor their variation on a time scale. To overcome this limitation, we combined Solid Phase Micro-Extraction with gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry. This allowed us (i) to identify 59 cuticular compounds, including 17 new CHs; (ii) to precisely quantify the amount of each compound that could be detected by another fly, and (iii) to measure the variation of these substances as a function of aging and mating. Sex-specific variation appeared with age, while mating affected cuticular compounds in both sexes with three possible patterns: variation was (i) reciprocal in the two sexes, suggesting a passive mechanical transfer during mating, (ii) parallel in both sexes, such as for cVA which strikingly appeared during mating, or (iii) unilateral, presumably as a result of sexual interaction. We provide a complete reassessment of all Drosophila CHs and suggest that the chemical conversation between male and female flies is far more complex than is generally accepted. We conclude that focusing on individual compounds will not provide a satisfactory understanding of the evolution and function of chemical communication in Drosophila. PMID:20231905

  13. Dissecting social cell biology and tumors using Drosophila genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Xu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Cancer was seen for a long time as a strictly cell-autonomous process in which oncogenes and tumor-suppressor mutations drive clonal cell expansions. Research in the past decade, however, paints a more integrative picture of communication and interplay between neighboring cells in tissues. It is increasingly clear as well that tumors, far from being homogenous lumps of cells, consist of different cell types that function together as complex tissue-level communities. The repertoire of interactive cell behaviors and the quantity of cellular players involved call for a social cell biology that investigates these interactions. Research into this social cell biology is critical for understanding development of normal and tumoral tissues. Such complex social cell biology interactions can be parsed in Drosophila. Techniques in Drosophila for analysis of gene function and clonal behavior allow us to generate tumors and dissect their complex interactive biology with cellular resolution. Here, we review recent Drosophila research aimed at understanding tissue-level biology and social cell interactions in tumors, highlighting the principles these studies reveal.

  14. Human Intellectual Disability Genes Form Conserved Functional Modules in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oortveld, Merel A. W.; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Oti, Martin; Nijhof, Bonnie; Fernandes, Ana Clara; Kochinke, Korinna; Castells-Nobau, Anna; van Engelen, Eva; Ellenkamp, Thijs; Eshuis, Lilian; Galy, Anne; van Bokhoven, Hans; Habermann, Bianca; Brunner, Han G.; Zweier, Christiane; Verstreken, Patrik; Huynen, Martijn A.; Schenck, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual Disability (ID) disorders, defined by an IQ below 70, are genetically and phenotypically highly heterogeneous. Identification of common molecular pathways underlying these disorders is crucial for understanding the molecular basis of cognition and for the development of therapeutic intervention strategies. To systematically establish their functional connectivity, we used transgenic RNAi to target 270 ID gene orthologs in the Drosophila eye. Assessment of neuronal function in behavioral and electrophysiological assays and multiparametric morphological analysis identified phenotypes associated with knockdown of 180 ID gene orthologs. Most of these genotype-phenotype associations were novel. For example, we uncovered 16 genes that are required for basal neurotransmission and have not previously been implicated in this process in any system or organism. ID gene orthologs with morphological eye phenotypes, in contrast to genes without phenotypes, are relatively highly expressed in the human nervous system and are enriched for neuronal functions, suggesting that eye phenotyping can distinguish different classes of ID genes. Indeed, grouping genes by Drosophila phenotype uncovered 26 connected functional modules. Novel links between ID genes successfully predicted that MYCN, PIGV and UPF3B regulate synapse development. Drosophila phenotype groups show, in addition to ID, significant phenotypic similarity also in humans, indicating that functional modules are conserved. The combined data indicate that ID disorders, despite their extreme genetic diversity, are caused by disruption of a limited number of highly connected functional modules. PMID:24204314

  15. Tissue design: how Drosophila tumors remodel their neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Parthive H; Edgar, Bruce A

    2014-04-01

    Drosophila genetics has long been appreciated as a powerful approach for discovering the normal functions of genes that act as oncogenes and tumor suppressors in human cancer. Recent studies have also highlighted its advantages for deciphering how such genes function during tumorigenesis itself. Here we detail studies relating to how tumors, generated in developing organs and adult stem cell-based tissues, remodel the tissue landscape to their benefit. Like mammalian tumors, insect tumors can dissolve extracellular matrix, recruit blood cells, migrate and invade other tissues. While much is known about how mammalian fibroblasts, immune cells and vasculature promote late tumorigenesis, less is understood about the very earliest stages of tumor development in mammals. Because Drosophila has fewer mitotic cells and a simpler tissue architecture, it affords easy detection and analysis of early clonal tumor growth. Drosophila studies have revealed both cooperative and competitive interactions between tumor and normal cells during early tumor growth. During development, these interactions typically occur with other proliferative progenitor cells, but in adult stem cell-based tissues, the stem cell niche can fuel tumor growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulation of fat cell mass by insulin in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiAngelo, Justin R; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2009-12-01

    A phylogenetically conserved response to nutritional abundance is an increase in insulin signaling, which initiates a set of biological responses dependent on the species. Consequences of augmented insulin signaling include developmental progression, cell and organ growth, and the storage of carbohydrates and lipids. Here, we address the evolutionary origins of insulin's positive effects on anabolic lipid metabolism by selectively modulating insulin signaling in the fat body of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Analogous to the actions of insulin in higher vertebrates, those in Drosophila include expansion of the insect fat cell mass both by increasing the adipocyte number and by promoting lipid accumulation. The ability of insulin to accomplish the former depends on its capacity to bring about phosphorylation and inhibition of the transcription factor Drosophila FOXO (dFOXO) and the serine/threonine protein kinase shaggy, the fly ortholog of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Increasing the amount of triglyceride per cell also depends on the phosphorylation of shaggy but is independent of dFOXO. Thus, the findings of this study provide evidence that the control of fat mass by insulin is a conserved process and place dFOXO and shaggy/GSK3 downstream of the insulin receptor in controlling adipocyte cell number and triglyceride storage, respectively.

  17. Specialized Cortex Glial Cells Accumulate Lipid Droplets in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Viktor Kis

    Full Text Available Lipid droplets (LDs are common organelles of the majority of eukaryotic cell types. Their biological significance has been extensively studied in mammalian liver cells and white adipose tissue. Although the central nervous system contains the highest relative amount and the largest number of different lipid species, neither the spatial nor the temporal distribution of LDs has been described. In this study, we used the brain of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the neuroanatomy of LDs. We demonstrated that LDs are exclusively localised in glial cells but not in neurons in the larval nervous system. We showed that the brain's LD pool, rather than being constant, changes dynamically during development and reaches its highest value at the beginning of metamorphosis. LDs are particularly enriched in cortex glial cells located close to the brain surface. These specialized superficial cortex glial cells contain the highest amount of LDs among glial cell types and encapsulate neuroblasts and their daughter cells. Superficial cortex glial cells, combined with subperineurial glial cells, express the Drosophila fatty acid binding protein (Dfabp, as we have demonstrated through light- and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. To the best of our best knowledge this is the first study that describes LD neuroanatomy in the Drosophila larval brain.

  18. NOMPC is likely a key component of Drosophila mechanotransduction channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiaxin; Wang, Qingxiu; Wang, Zuoren

    2013-07-01

    Mechanotransduction is the basis of several sensory modalities, including touch, hearing, proprioception and gravity sensation. Despite its importance to sensory processing and behavior, the molecular mechanisms underlying mechanotransduction remain to be fully understood. In particular, the identity of the ion channels serving mechanotransduction is still unknown in many species. Drosophila melanogaster nompC (no mechanoreceptor potential C) has been shown to be essential for mechanotransduction in flies, yet there is no direct evidence demonstrating that NOMPC is indeed a mechanotransducing ion channel in Drosophila. To dissect the functional roles of NOMPC in mechanotransduction, we found that NOMPC-dependent transient adapting mechanoreceptor current (MRC) in the external bristle sensory organ was also chloride dependent. However, this chloride-dependent current was not necessary for spike generation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of wild-type NOMPC conferred mechanosensitivity on the interneurons in the antennal lobe (AL) and cation-mediated inward mechanocurrent was recorded, while a point mutation in the putative selective filter region of NOMPC failed to produce the mechanocurrent in the AL interneurons. These functional studies imply that NOMPC is likely to be a crucial component of mechanotransducers that accounts for mechanotransductions in mechanosensory neurons of Drosophila. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ack kinase regulates CTP synthase filaments during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strochlic, Todd I; Stavrides, Kevin P; Thomas, Sam V; Nicolas, Emmanuelle; O'Reilly, Alana M; Peterson, Jeffrey R

    2014-11-01

    The enzyme CTP synthase (CTPS) dynamically assembles into macromolecular filaments in bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells, but the role of this morphological reorganization in regulating CTPS activity is controversial. During Drosophila oogenesis, CTPS filaments are transiently apparent in ovarian germline cells during a period of intense genomic endoreplication and stockpiling of ribosomal RNA. Here, we demonstrate that CTPS filaments are catalytically active and that their assembly is regulated by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase DAck, the Drosophila homologue of mammalian Ack1 (activated cdc42-associated kinase 1), which we find also localizes to CTPS filaments. Egg chambers from flies deficient in DAck or lacking DAck catalytic activity exhibit disrupted CTPS filament architecture and morphological defects that correlate with reduced fertility. Furthermore, ovaries from these flies exhibit reduced levels of total RNA, suggesting that DAck may regulate CTP synthase activity. These findings highlight an unexpected function for DAck and provide insight into a novel pathway for the developmental control of an essential metabolic pathway governing nucleotide biosynthesis. © 2014 The Authors.

  20. The impact of host diet on Wolbachia titer in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R Serbus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While a number of studies have identified host factors that influence endosymbiont titer, little is known concerning environmental influences on titer. Here we examined nutrient impact on maternally transmitted Wolbachia endosymbionts in Drosophila. We demonstrate that Drosophila reared on sucrose- and yeast-enriched diets exhibit increased and reduced Wolbachia titers in oogenesis, respectively. The yeast-induced Wolbachia depletion is mediated in large part by the somatic TOR and insulin signaling pathways. Disrupting TORC1 with the small molecule rapamycin dramatically increases oocyte Wolbachia titer, whereas hyper-activating somatic TORC1 suppresses oocyte titer. Furthermore, genetic ablation of insulin-producing cells located in the Drosophila brain abolished the yeast impact on oocyte titer. Exposure to yeast-enriched diets altered Wolbachia nucleoid morphology in oogenesis. Furthermore, dietary yeast increased somatic Wolbachia titer overall, though not in the central nervous system. These findings highlight the interactions between Wolbachia and germline cells as strongly nutrient-sensitive, and implicate conserved host signaling pathways by which nutrients influence Wolbachia titer.

  1. Mechanical analysis of Drosophila indirect flight and jump muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Douglas M

    2012-01-01

    The genetic advantages of Drosophila make it a very appealing choice for investigating muscle development, muscle physiology and muscle protein structure and function. To take full advantage of this model organism, it has been vital to develop isolated Drosophila muscle preparations that can be mechanically evaluated. We describe techniques to isolate, prepare and mechanically analyze skinned muscle fibers from two Drosophila muscle types, the indirect flight muscle and the jump muscle. The function of the indirect flight muscle is similar to vertebrate cardiac muscle, to generate power in an oscillatory manner. The indirect flight muscle is ideal for evaluating the influence of protein mutations on muscle and cross-bridge stiffness, oscillatory power, and deriving cross-bridge rate constants. Jump muscle physiology and structure are more similar to skeletal vertebrate muscle than indirect flight muscle, and it is ideal for measuring maximum shortening velocity, force-velocity characteristics and steady-state power generation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heterogeneous expression of Drosophila gustatory receptors in enteroendocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Ho; Kwon, Jae Young

    2011-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is emerging as a major site of chemosensation in mammalian studies. Enteroendocrine cells are chemosensory cells in the gut which produce regulatory peptides in response to luminal contents to regulate gut physiology, food intake, and glucose homeostasis, among other possible functions. Increasing evidence shows that mammalian taste receptors and taste signaling molecules are expressed in enteroendocrine cells in the gut. Invertebrate models such as Drosophila can provide a simple and genetically tractable system to study the chemosensory functions of enteroendocrine cells in vivo. To establish Drosophila enteroendocrine cells as a model for studying gut chemosensation, we used the GAL4/UAS system to examine the expression of all 68 Gustatory receptors (Grs) in the intestine. We find that 12 Gr-GAL4 drivers label subsets of enteroendocrine cells in the midgut, and examine colocalization of these drivers with the regulatory peptides neuropeptide F (NPF), locustatachykinin (LTK), and diuretic hormone 31 (DH31). RT-PCR analysis provides additional evidence for the presence of Gr transcripts in the gut. Our results suggest that the Drosophila Grs have chemosensory roles in the intestine to regulate physiological functions such as food uptake, nutrient absorption, or sugar homeostasis.

  3. Electrophysiological Recordings from Lobula Plate Tangential Cells in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, Alex S; Borst, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila has emerged as an important model organism for the study of the neural basis of behavior. Its main asset is the experimental accessibility of identified neurons by genetic manipulation and physiological recordings. Drosophila therefore offers the opportunity to reach an integrative understanding of the development and neural underpinnings of behavior at all processing stages, from sensing to motor control, in a single species. Here, we will provide an account of the procedures involved in recording the electrical potential of individual neurons in the visual system of adult Drosophila using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. To this end, animals are fixed to a holder and mounted below a recording chamber. The head capsule is cut open and the glial sheath covering the brain is ruptured by a combination of shearing and enzymatic digest. Neuronal somata are thus exposed and targeted by low-resistance patch electrodes. After formation of a high resistance seal, electrical access to the cell is gained by small current pulses and suction. Stable recordings of large neurons are feasible for >1 h and can be combined with controlled visual stimulation as well as genetic and pharmacological manipulation of upstream circuit elements to infer circuit function in great detail.

  4. Antimutagenic profile of antioxidant vitamins in drosophila mulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, P K; Sinha, S P

    2008-04-01

    To assess the antimutagenicity of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins A, C, and E) as expressed by their efficacy to lower aflatoxin-induced mutations. The Muller-5 method for mutation detection was used to assay the frequency of X-chromosome linked recessive lethal mutations (XRLMs) in Drosophila. Larvae were exposed to dietary concentration of aflatoxins and/or the human therapeutic doses of any of the three antioxidant vitamins. Absence of normal eyed males among M2 progeny gave an indication of mutation induction. Aflatoxin supplimentation significantly increased the incidence of XRLMs in Drosophila. Mutation frequency was also raised a little above the control level in case of vitamin treatment. However, notable mitigation in mutation frequency was registered when aflatoxin-treated larvae were concomitantly fed with any of the three antioxidant vitamins. Aflatoxin exposure can enhance the frequency of gene mutation in Drosophila which is significantly lowered by each of the three antioxidant vitamins. The degree of amelioration produced by them is almost identical. This mitigation is based on the scavenging/trapping by antioxidant vitamins of DNA-reactive products (metabolites and radicals) emanating from aflatoxin metabolism.

  5. The ecdysteroidome of Drosophila: influence of diet and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrynenko, Oksana; Rodenfels, Jonathan; Carvalho, Maria; Dye, Natalie A; Lafont, Rene; Eaton, Suzanne; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2015-11-01

    Ecdysteroids are the hormones regulating development, physiology and fertility in arthropods, which synthesize them exclusively from dietary sterols. But how dietary sterol diversity influences the ecdysteroid profile, how animals ensure the production of desired hormones and whether there are functional differences between different ecdysteroids produced in vivo remains unknown. This is because currently there is no analytical technology for unbiased, comprehensive and quantitative assessment of the full complement of endogenous ecdysteroids. We developed a new LC-MS/MS method to screen the entire chemical space of ecdysteroid-related structures and to quantify known and newly discovered hormones and their catabolites. We quantified the ecdysteroidome in Drosophila melanogaster and investigated how the ecdysteroid profile varies with diet and development. We show that Drosophila can produce four different classes of ecdysteroids, which are obligatorily derived from four types of dietary sterol precursors. Drosophila makes makisterone A from plant sterols and epi-makisterone A from ergosterol, the major yeast sterol. However, they prefer to selectively utilize scarce ergosterol precursors to make a novel hormone 24,28-dehydromakisterone A and trace cholesterol to synthesize 20-hydroxyecdysone. Interestingly, epi-makisterone A supports only larval development, whereas all other ecdysteroids allow full adult development. We suggest that evolutionary pressure against producing epi-C-24 ecdysteroids might explain selective utilization of ergosterol precursors and the puzzling preference for cholesterol. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Transcriptomic Response of Drosophila Melanogaster Pupae Developed in Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Hateley, Shannon; Bhardwaj, Shilpa R.; Pachter, Lior; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The metamorphosis of Drosophila is evolutionarily adapted to Earth's gravity, and is a tightly regulated process. Deviation from 1g to microgravity or hypergravity can influence metamorphosis, and alter associated gene expression. Understanding the relationship between an altered gravity environment and developmental processes is important for NASA's space travel goals. In the present study, 20 female and 20 male synchronized (Canton S, 2 to 3day old) flies were allowed to lay eggs while being maintained in a hypergravity environment (3g). Centrifugation was briefly stopped to discard the parent flies after 24hrs of egg laying, and then immediately continued until the eggs developed into P6-staged pupae (25 - 43 hours after pupation initiation). Post hypergravity exposure, P6-staged pupae were collected, total RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy mini kits. We used RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile global transcriptomic changes in early pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity. During the pupal stage, Drosophila relies upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupa under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity dependent genetic pathways. A robust transcriptional response was observed in hypergravity-exposed pupae compared to controls, with 1,513 genes showing a significant (q Drosophila pupae in response to hypergravity.

  7. Drosophila Melanogaster as an Emerging Translational Model of Human Nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joe; Chi, Thomas; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kim, Man Su; Hirata, Taku; Romero, Michael F.; Dow, Julian A.T.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The limitations imposed by human clinical studies and mammalian models of nephrolithiasis have hampered the development of effective medical treatments and preventative measures for decades. The simple but elegant Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a powerful translational model of human disease, including nephrolithiasis and may provide important information essential to our understanding of stone formation. We present the current state of research using D. melanogaster as a model of human nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods A comprehensive review of the English language literature was performed using PUBMED. When necessary, authoritative texts on relevant subtopics were consulted. Results The genetic composition, anatomic structure and physiologic function of Drosophila Malpighian tubules are remarkably similar to those of the human nephron. The direct effects of dietary manipulation, environmental alteration, and genetic variation on stone formation can be observed and quantified in a matter of days. Several Drosophila models of human nephrolithiasis, including genetically linked and environmentally induced stones, have been developed. A model of calcium oxalate stone formation is among the most recent fly models of human nephrolithiasis. Conclusions The ability to readily manipulate and quantify stone formation in D. melanogaster models of human nephrolithiasis presents the urologic community with a unique opportunity to increase our understanding of this enigmatic disease. PMID:23500641

  8. Dopamine modulates metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ueno

    Full Text Available Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shi(ts induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine, which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation.

  9. Expression patterns of cadherin genes in Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartman, Jeremiah J; Kanodia, Jitendra S; Yakoby, Nir; Schafer, Xenia; Watson, Colin; Schlichting, Karin; Dahmann, Christian; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y

    2009-01-01

    In Drosophila oogenesis, the follicular epithelium that envelops the oocyte is patterned by a small set of inductive signals and gives rise to an elaborate three-dimensional eggshell. Several eggshell structures provide sensitive readouts of the patterning signals, but the formation of these structures is still poorly understood. In other systems, epithelial morphogenesis is guided by the spatial patterning of cell adhesion and cytoskeleton genes. As a step towards developing a comprehensive description of patterning events leading to eggshell morphogenesis, we report the expression of Drosophila cadherins, calcium-dependent adhesion molecules that are repeatedly used throughout development. We found that 9/17 of Drosophila cadherins are expressed in the follicular epithelium in dynamic patterns during oogenesis. In late oogenesis, the expression patterns of cadherin genes in the main body follicle cells is summarized using a compact set of simple geometric shapes, reflecting the integration of the EGFR and DPP inductive signals. The multi-layered composite patterning of the cadherins is hypothesized to play a key role in the formation of the eggshell. Of particular note is the complex patterning of the region of the follicular epithelium that gives rise to the dorsal appendages, which are tubular structures that serve as respiratory organs for the developing embryo.

  10. Pluripotency and a secretion mechanism of Drosophila Transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Toshio; Kawabata, Shun-Ichiro

    2017-09-05

    Transglutaminase (TG) catalyzes the formation of an isopeptide bond between glutamine and lysine residues and amine incorporation into specific glutamine residues. TG is conserved in all metazoans and functions both intracellularly and extracellularly. Here we review the existing knowledge of Drosophila TG with an emphasis on its pluripotency: Drosophila TG (i) plays a key role in cuticular morphogenesis, hemolymph coagulation, and entrapment against invading pathogens, (ii) suppresses the immune deficiency pathway to enable immune tolerance against commensal bacteria through the incorporation of polyamines into the NF-κB-like transcription factor Relish as well as through the protein-protein cross-linking of Relish, (iii) forms a physical matrix in the gut through cross-linking of chitin-binding proteins, and (iv) is involved in the maintenance of homeostasis in microbiota in the gut. Moreover, we review the evidence that TG-A, one of alternative splicing-derived isoforms of Drosophila TG, is secreted through an endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-independent pathway involving exosomes and fatty acylations. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  11. In situ hybridization to somatic chromosomes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernburg, Abby F

    2011-09-01

    In situ hybridization was originally developed as a technique for visualizing and physically mapping specific sequences on Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes. Hybridization techniques can also be used to localize sequences on smaller, diploid chromosomes, such as condensed mitotic chromosomes. Variations of the method also allow the hybridization of probes to chromosomes within intact cells and tissues, rather than to chromosomes isolated from their cellular context and flattened on slides. This article presents methods for hybridizing fluorescent probes to chromosomes in whole-mount Drosophila tissues. These methods allow the investigation of nuclear organization even at stages where chromosomes are decondensed (as in interphase) or, for other reasons, cannot be discriminated in the light microscope. Consequently, they are useful for addressing a variety of cell biological questions. In addition to enhancing our understanding of somatic chromosome organization, this experimental approach has also revealed interactions among meiotic chromosomes in Drosophila females, which spend much of meiosis in a compact ball called the karyosome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) methods can also be used to karyotype individual nuclei using chromosome-specific markers. With appropriate fixation conditions, hybridization to chromosomal DNA can be performed in conjunction with immunostaining, allowing the colocalization of cellular or chromosomal proteins.

  12. A computational model of conditioning inspired by Drosophila olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Heinrich, Ralf; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Drosophila melanogaster (briefly Drosophila) can successfully perform higher cognitive processes including second order olfactory conditioning. Understanding the neural mechanism of this behavior can help neuroscientists to unravel the principles of information processing in complex neural systems (e.g. the human brain) and to create efficient and robust robotic systems. In this work, we have developed a biologically-inspired spiking neural network which is able to execute both first and second order conditioning. Experimental studies demonstrated that volume signaling (e.g. by the gaseous transmitter nitric oxide) contributes to memory formation in vertebrates and invertebrates including insects. Based on the existing knowledge of odor encoding in Drosophila, the role of retrograde signaling in memory function, and the integration of synaptic and non-synaptic neural signaling, a neural system is implemented as Simulated fly. Simulated fly navigates in a two-dimensional environment in which it receives odors and electric shocks as sensory stimuli. The model suggests some experimental research on retrograde signaling to investigate neural mechanisms of conditioning in insects and other animals. Moreover, it illustrates a simple strategy to implement higher cognitive capabilities in machines including robots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A drosophila full-length cDNA resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, Mark; Carlson, Joseph; Brokstein, Peter; Yu, Charles; Champe, Mark; George, Reed; Guarin, Hannibal; Kronmiller, Brent; Pacleb, Joanne; Park, Soo; Rubin, Gerald M.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2003-05-09

    Background: A collection of sequenced full-length cDNAs is an important resource both for functional genomics studies and for the determination of the intron-exon structure of genes. Providing this resource to the Drosophila melanogaster research community has been a long-term goal of the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project. We have previously described the Drosophila Gene Collection (DGC), a set of putative full-length cDNAs that was produced by generating and analyzing over 250,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a variety of tissues and developmental stages. Results: We have generated high-quality full-insert sequence for 8,921 clones in the DGC. We compared the sequence of these clones to the annotated Release 3 genomic sequence, and identified more than 5,300 cDNAs that contain a complete and accurate protein-coding sequence. This corresponds to at least one splice form for 40 percent of the predicted D. melanogaster genes. We also identified potential new cases of RNA editing. Conclusions: We show that comparison of cDNA sequences to a high-quality annotated genomic sequence is an effective approach to identifying and eliminating defective clones from a cDNA collection and ensure its utility for experimentation. Clones were eliminated either because they carry single nucleotide discrepancies, which most probably result from reverse transcriptase errors, or because they are truncated and contain only part of the protein-coding sequence.

  14. Pengaruh suhu lingkungan tropis terhadap penentuan jenis kelamin drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Wayan Seregeg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on many research studies conducted it can be concluded that there are more than 250 theories of sex-determination. This means that there is not any single theory on sex-determination. This study aims at uncovering effects of the temperature of the tropical environment on sex-determination in Drosophila. The method undertaken was to collect and count the ratio of males to females, Drosophila directly caught in natural environment. The catching was conducted in three periods, ie.: April 2001, April 2002, and April 2004.The results were as follows: (1 The number of females caught at each periode was much more than males. The ratio of males to females was 1:2; (2 The ratios of males to females at three successive periodes were significantly different at p ≥ 5. The ratios vary due to the influence of several factor, outside the temperature of the environment, on the ratios of males to females in Drosophila.

  15. Dopamine Modulates Serotonin Innervation in the Drosophila Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Niens

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD results from a progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system leading to a decline in movement control, with resting tremor, rigidity and postural instability. Several aspects of PD can be modeled in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, including α-synuclein-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, or dopamine (DA loss by genetic elimination of neural DA synthesis. Defective behaviors in this latter model can be ameliorated by feeding the DA precursor L-DOPA, analogous to the treatment paradigm for PD. Secondary complication from L-DOPA treatment in PD patients are associated with ectopic synthesis of DA in serotonin (5-HT-releasing neurons, leading to DA/5-HT imbalance. Here we examined the neuro-anatomical adaptations resulting from imbalanced DA/5-HT signaling in Drosophila mutants lacking neural DA. We find that, similar to rodent models of PD, lack of DA leads to increased 5-HT levels and arborizations in specific brain regions. Conversely, increased DA levels by L-DOPA feeding leads to reduced connectivity of 5-HT neurons to their target neurons in the mushroom body (MB. The observed alterations of 5-HT neuron plasticity indicate that loss of DA signaling is not solely responsible for the behavioral disorders observed in Drosophila models of PD, but rather a combination of the latter with alterations of 5-HT circuitry.

  16. Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons revisited: mating status alters cuticular profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Everaerts

    Full Text Available Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs, or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA, affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential pheromonal compounds and simultaneously monitor their variation on a time scale. To overcome this limitation, we combined Solid Phase Micro-Extraction with gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry. This allowed us (i to identify 59 cuticular compounds, including 17 new CHs; (ii to precisely quantify the amount of each compound that could be detected by another fly, and (iii to measure the variation of these substances as a function of aging and mating. Sex-specific variation appeared with age, while mating affected cuticular compounds in both sexes with three possible patterns: variation was (i reciprocal in the two sexes, suggesting a passive mechanical transfer during mating, (ii parallel in both sexes, such as for cVA which strikingly appeared during mating, or (iii unilateral, presumably as a result of sexual interaction. We provide a complete reassessment of all Drosophila CHs and suggest that the chemical conversation between male and female flies is far more complex than is generally accepted. We conclude that focusing on individual compounds will not provide a satisfactory understanding of the evolution and function of chemical communication in Drosophila.

  17. DMPD: Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476918 Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect...fectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect models. PubmedID 154...76918 Title Infectious non-self recognition in invertebrates: lessons from Drosophila andother insect

  18. New yeast/E. coli/Drosophila triple shuttle vectors for efficient generation of Drosophila P element transformation constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paululat, Achim; Heinisch, Jürgen J

    2012-12-15

    We have generated a set of novel triple shuttle vectors that facilitate the construction of Drosophila-P-element transformations vectors. These YED-vectors allow the insertion of any kind of sequence at any chosen position due to the presence of a yeast casette which ensures replication and allows for homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a proof of principle we generated several reporter constructs and tested them in transgenic flies for expression and correct subcellular localization. YED-vectors can be used for many purposes including promoter analysis or the expression of tagged or truncated proteins. Thus, time-consuming conventional restriction site based multi-step cloning procedures can be circumvented by using the new YED-vectors. The new set of triple shuttle vectors will be highly beneficial for the rapid construction of complex Drosophila transformation plasmids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Is Drosophila-microbe association species-specific or region specific? A study undertaken involving six Indian Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Kopal; Khanna, Radhika; Mohanty, Sujata

    2017-06-01

    The present work aims to identify the microbial diversity associated with six Indian Drosophila species using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology and to discover the nature of their distribution across species and eco-geographic regions. Whole fly gDNA of six Drosophila species were used to generate sequences in an Illumina platform using NGS technology. De novo based assembled raw reads were blasted against the NR database of NCBI using BLASTn for identification of their bacterial loads. We have tried to include Drosophila species from different taxonomical groups and subgroups and from three different eco-climatic regions India; four species belong to Central India, while the rest two, D. melanogaster and D. ananassae, belong to West and South India to determine both their species-wise and region-wide distribution. We detected the presence of 33 bacterial genera across all six study species, predominated by the class Proteobacteria. Amongst all, D. melanogaster was found to be the most diverse by carrying around 85% of the bacterial diversity. Our findings infer both species-specific and environment-specific nature of the bacterial species inhabiting the Drosophila host. Though the present results are consistent with most of the earlier studies, they also remain incoherent with some. The present study outcome on the host-bacteria association and their species specific adaptation may provide some insight to understand the host-microbial interactions and the phenotypic implications of microbes on the host physiology. The knowledge gained may be importantly applied into the recent insect and pest population control strategy going to implement through gut microflora in India and abroad.

  20. CASK and CaMKII function in Drosophila memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal eMalik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca2+ and Calmodulin (CaM-dependent serine/threonine kinase II (CaMKII plays a central role in synaptic plasticity and memory due to its ability to phosphorylate itself and regulate its own kinase activity. Autophosphorylation at threonine 287 (T287 switches CaMKII to a Ca2+ independent and constitutively active state replicated by overexpression of a phosphomimetic CaMKII-T287D transgene or blocked by expression of a T287A transgene. A second pair of sites, T306 T307 in the CaM binding region once autophosphorylated, prevents CaM binding and inactivates the kinase during synaptic plasticity and memory, and can be blocked by a TT306/7AA transgene. Recently the synaptic scaffolding molecule called CASK (Ca2+/CaM-associated serine kinase has been shown to control both sets of CaMKII autophosphorylation events during neuronal growth, Ca2+ signalling and memory in Drosophila. Deletion of either full length CASK or just its CaMK-like and L27 domains removed middle-term memory (MTM and long-term memory (LTM, with CASK function in the α’/ß’ mushroom body neurons being required for memory. In a similar manner directly changing the levels of CaMKII autophosphorylation (T287D, T287A or TT306/7AA in the α’/ß’ neurons also removed MTM and LTM. In the CASK null mutant expression of either the Drosophila or human CASK transgene in the α’/ß’ neurons was found to completely rescue memory, confirming that CASK signalling in α’/β’ neurons is necessary and sufficient for Drosophila memory formation and that the neuronal function of CASK is conserved between Drosophila and human. Expression of human CASK in Drosophila also rescued the effect of CASK deletion on the activity state of CaMKII, suggesting that human CASK may also regulate CaMKII autophosphorylation. Mutations in human CASK have recently been shown to result in intellectual disability and neurological defects suggesting a role in plasticity and learning possibly via

  1. Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The heavy metal lead has been shown to be associated with a genotoxic risk. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism commonly utilized in genetic toxicology testing. The endosymbionts--Wolbachia are now very common in both wild populations and laboratory stocks of Drosophila. Wolbachia may induce resistance to pathogenic viruses, filarial nematodes and Plasmodium in fruit fly and mosquito hosts. However the effect of Wolbachia infection on the resistance of their hosts to heavy metal is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Manipulating the lead content in the diet of Drosophila melanogaster, we found that lead consumption had no different effects on developmental time between Wolbachia-infected (Dmel wMel and -uninfected (Dmel T flies. While in Pb-contaminated medium, significantly reduced amount of pupae and adults of Dmel wMel were emerged, and Dmel wMel adults had significantly shorter longevity than that of Dmel T flies. Lead infusion in diet resulted in significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in Dmel T flies (P<0.05, but not in Dmel wMel flies. Correspondingly, lead cultures induced a 10.8 fold increase in malonaldehyde (MDA contents in Dmel T larvae (P<0.05. While in Dmel wMel larvae, it resulted in only a 1.3 fold increase. By quantitative RT-PCR, we showed that lead infused medium caused significantly increased expression level of relish and CecA2 genes in Dmel T flies (P<0.01. Lead cultures did not change dramatically the expression of these genes in Dmel wMel flies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead likely by limiting the production of peroxides resulted from lead, thus being unable to activate the immunological pathway in the host to prevent them from lead damage. This represents a novel Wolbachia-host interaction and provides information that researchers working on Drosophila toxicology should take in

  2. The Drosophila melanogaster LEM-domain protein MAN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nicole; Kagermeier, Birgit; Loserth, Silke; Krohne, Georg

    2006-02-01

    Here we describe the Drosophila melanogaster LEM-domain protein encoded by the annotated gene CG3167 which is the putative ortholog to vertebrate MAN1. MAN1 of Drosophila (dMAN1) and vertebrates have the following properties in common. Firstly, both molecules are integral membrane proteins of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and share the same structural organization comprising an N-terminally located LEM motif, two transmembrane domains in the middle of the molecule, and a conserved RNA recognition motif in the C-terminal region. Secondly, dMAN1 has similar targeting domains as it has been reported for the human protein. Thirdly, immunoprecipitations with dMAN1-specific antibodies revealed that this Drosophila LEM-domain protein is contained in protein complexes together with lamins Dm0 and C. It has been previously shown that human MAN1 binds to A- and B-type lamins in vitro. During embryogenesis and early larval development LEM-domain proteins dMAN1 and otefin show the same expression pattern and are much more abundant in eggs and the first larval instar than in later larval stages and young pupae whereas the LEM-domain protein Bocksbeutel is uniformly expressed in all developmental stages. dMAN1 is detectable in the nuclear envelope of embryonic cells including the pole cells. In mitotic cells of embryos at metaphase and anaphase, LEM-domain proteins dMAN1, otefin and Bocksbeutel were predominantly localized in the region of the two spindle poles whereas the lamin B receptor and lamin Dm0 were more homogeneously distributed. Downregulation of dMAN1 by RNA interference (RNAi) in Drosophila cultured Kc167 cells has no obvious effect on nuclear architecture, viability of RNAi-treated cells and the intracellular distribution of the LEM-domain proteins Bocksbeutel and otefin. In contrast, the localization of dMAN1, Bocksbeutel and otefin at the INM is supported by lamin Dm0. We conclude that the dMAN1 protein is not a limiting component of the nuclear architecture

  3. Reproductive character displacement of epicuticular compounds and their contribution to mate choice in Drosophila subquinaria and Drosophila recens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kelly A; White, Brooke E; Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L; Bewick, Emily R; Rundle, Howard D

    2014-04-01

    Interactions between species can alter selection on sexual displays used in mate choice within species. Here we study the epicuticular pheromones of two Drosophila species that overlap partially in geographic range and are incompletely reproductively isolated. Drosophila subquinaria shows a pattern of reproductive character displacement against Drosophila recens, and partial behavioral isolation between conspecific sympatric versus allopatric populations, whereas D. recens shows no such variation in mate choice. First, using manipulative perfuming experiments, we show that females use pheromones as signals for mate discrimination both between species and among populations of D. subquinaria. Second, we show that patterns of variation in epicuticular compounds, both across populations and between species, are consistent with those previously shown for mating probabilities: pheromone compositions differ between populations of D. subquinaria that are allopatric versus sympatric with D. recens, but are similar across populations of D. recens regardless of overlap with D. subquinaria. We also identify differences in pheromone composition among allopatric regions of D. subquinaria. In sum, our results suggest that epicuticular compounds are key signals used by females during mate recognition, and that these traits have diverged among D. subquinaria populations in response to reinforcing selection generated by the presence of D. recens. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. The Drosophila gene brainiac encodes a glycosyltransferase putatively involved in glycosphingolipid synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwientek, Tilo; Keck, Birgit; Levery, Steven B

    2002-01-01

    The Drosophila genes fringe and brainiac exhibit sequence similarities to glycosyltransferases. Drosophila and mammalian fringe homologs encode UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:fucose-O-Ser beta1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modulate the function of Notch family receptors. The biological functi...

  5. Drosophila pallidosa: whether a separate species or a light form of D ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. N. SINGH

    2017-12-11

    Dec 11, 2017 ... fact that male genitalia are identical in both the cases and they lack postmating reproductive isolation since hybrids between them are normal and fully fertile. Keywords. sibling species; light and dark forms; Drosophila ananassae; D. pallidosa. Introduction. Drosophila pallidosa belongs to the D. ananassae ...

  6. The nutritional and hedonic value of food modulate sexual receptivity in Drosophila melanogaster females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, Jenke A; Jagadeesh, Samyukta; Gahr, Christoph; Boonekamp, Jelle J; Levine, Joel D; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Food and sex often go hand in hand because of the nutritional cost of reproduction. For Drosophila melanogaster females, this relationship is especially intimate because their offspring develop on food. Since yeast and sugars are important nutritional pillars for Drosophila, availability of these

  7. Positive diversifying selection is a pervasive adaptive force throughout the Drosophila radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cicconardi, Francesco; Marcatili, Paolo; Arthofer, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The growing genomic information on non-model organisms eases exploring the evolutionary history of biodiversity. This is particularly true for Drosophila flies, in which the number of sequenced species doubled recently. Because of its outstanding diversity of species, Drosophila has become one of...

  8. Drosophila-based in vivo assay for the validation of inhibitors of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Superimposed structure studies on the TK domain of Drosophila and Homo sapiens EGFR sequence. (A) RMSD plot derived as a result of superimposition studies of the four crystal structures (given in table 1) and the modelled Drosophila. EGFR-TK (dEGFR) domain (B) The summarized relational tree was calculated and ...

  9. Systematic Study of Drosophila MicroRNA Functions Using a Collection of Targeted Knockout Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Song, Shilin; Weng, Ruifen

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are abundant in animal genomes, yet little is known about their functions in vivo. Here, we report the production of 80 new Drosophila miRNA mutants by targeted homologous recombination. These mutants remove 104 miRNAs. Together with 15 previously reported mutants, this collection inclu...... analysis of the biological roles of Drosophila miRNAs....

  10. Widespread Prevalence of Wolbachia in Laboratory Stocks and the Implications for Drosophila Research

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E Clark; Anderson, Cort L.; Cande, Jessica; Timothy L. Karr

    2005-01-01

    Wolbachia is an intracellular microbe harbored by a wide variety of arthropods (including Drosophila) and filarial nematodes. Employing several different strategies including male killing, induced parthenogenesis, cytoplasmic incompatibility, and feminization, and acting by as-yet-unknown mechanisms, Wolbachia alters host reproduction to increase its representation within a population. Wolbachia is closely associated with gametic incompatibility but also interacts with Drosophila in other, li...

  11. Effect of tempol on redox homeostasis and stress tolerance in mimetically aged Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksu, Ugur; Yanar, Karolin; Terzioglu, Duygu; Erkol, Tugçe; Ece, Evrim; Aydin, Seval; Uslu, Ezel; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to test our hypothesis that scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) with tempol, a membrane permeable antioxidant, affects the type and magnitude of oxidative damage and stress tolerance through mimetic aging process in Drosophila. Drosophila colonies were randomly divided into three

  12. A common genetic target for environmental and heritable influences on aggressiveness in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liming; Dankert, Heiko; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental and genetic factors can modulate aggressiveness, but the biological mechanisms underlying their influence are largely unknown. Social experience with conspecifics suppresses aggressiveness in both vertebrate and invertebrate species, including Drosophila. We searched for genes whose expression levels correlate with the influence of social experience on aggressiveness in Drosophila by performing microarray analysis of head tissue from socially isolated (aggressive) vs. socially e...

  13. Effect of the gene transformer of Anastrepha on the somatic sexual development of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María-Fernanda; Sánchez, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    The gene transformer (tra) is the key regulatory memory device for sex determination in tephritid insects. The present manuscript addressed the question about the functional conservation of the tephritid Anastrepha Transformer protein to direct somatic sexual development in Drosophila (Drosophilidae). The transformer cDNA of Anastrepha encoding the putative full-length Tra protein was cloned in pUAST and introduced into Drosophila melanogaster. To express this protein, the GAL4-UAS system was used. The Anastrepha Tra protein induced the female-specific splicing of both dsx and fru pre-mRNAs in Drosophila XY male flies, so that these became transformed into females, though this transformation was incomplete (the sexually dimorphic foreleg basitarsus and the external terminalia were monitored). It was found that the degree of female transformation directly depended on the dose of Anastrepha tra and Drosophila transformer-2 (tra-2) genes, and that the Anastrepha Tra-Drosophila Tra2 complex is not as efficient as the Drosophila Tra-Tra2 complex at inducing the female-specific splicing of Drosophila dsx pre-mRNA. This can explain why the Anastrepha Tra protein cannot fully substitute for the endogenous Drosophila Tra protein.

  14. Genetic variation in parasitoid resistance in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The focus of my thesis is the variation in immunological resistance against parasitic wasps, that evolved in natural populations of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. These parasitoids lay their egg in Drosophila larva and the larva can only survive by successfully encapsulating this egg. I

  15. Glycosphingolipids with extended sugar chain have specialized functions in development and behavior of Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Pedersen, Johannes W; Wandall, Hans H

    2007-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSL) are glycosylated polar lipids in cell membranes essential for development of vertebrates as well as Drosophila. Mutants that impair enzymes involved in biosynthesis of GSL sugar chains provide a means to assess the functions of the sugar chains in vivo. The Drosophila gly...

  16. Golgi analysis of tangential neurons in the lobula plate of Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    possibly due to the shape of the compound eye of Drosophila which is reduced in the fronto-dorsal region as compared to larger flies. ... 1.2 Optomotor responses and lobula plate neurons in. Drosophila melanogaster ..... (c) A tangential element with three tufts of arbors (also see figure 3d). Two neurons of the twin vertical ...

  17. The Drosophila gene CG9918 codes for a pyrokinin-1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Torp, Malene; Hauser, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The database from the Drosophila Genome Project contains a gene, CG9918, annotated to code for a G protein-coupled receptor. We cloned the cDNA of this gene and functionally expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We tested a library of about 25 Drosophila and other insect neuropeptides......, and seven insect biogenic amines on the expressed receptor and found that it was activated by low concentrations of the Drosophila neuropeptide, pyrokinin-1 (TGPSASSGLWFGPRLamide; EC50, 5 x 10(-8) M). The receptor was also activated by other Drosophila neuropeptides, terminating with the sequence PRLamide...... (Hug-gamma, ecdysis-triggering-hormone-1, pyrokinin-2), but in these cases about six to eight times higher concentrations were needed. The receptor was not activated by Drosophila neuropeptides, containing a C-terminal PRIamide sequence (such as ecdysis-triggering-hormone-2), or PRVamide (such as capa...

  18. Rearing the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster Under Axenic and Gnotobiotic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyle, Melinda L; Veloz, Madeline; Judd, Alec M; Wong, Adam C-N; Newell, Peter D; Douglas, Angela E; Chaston, John M

    2016-07-30

    The influence of microbes on myriad animal traits and behaviors has been increasingly recognized in recent years. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model for understanding microbial interactions with animal hosts, facilitated by approaches to rear large sample sizes of Drosophila under microorganism-free (axenic) conditions, or with defined microbial communities (gnotobiotic). This work outlines a method for collection of Drosophila embryos, hypochlorite dechorionation and sterilization, and transfer to sterile diet. Sterilized embryos are transferred to sterile diet in 50 ml centrifuge tubes, and developing larvae and adults remain free of any exogenous microbes until the vials are opened. Alternatively, flies with a defined microbiota can be reared by inoculating sterile diet and embryos with microbial species of interest. We describe the introduction of 4 bacterial species to establish a representative gnotobiotic microbiota in Drosophila. Finally, we describe approaches for confirming bacterial community composition, including testing if axenic Drosophila remain bacteria-free into adulthood.

  19. Drosophila melanogaster--the model organism of choice for the complex biology of multi-cellular organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckingham, Kathleen M.; Armstrong, J. Douglas; Texada, Michael J.; Munjaal, Ravi; Baker, Dean A.

    2005-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has been intensely studied for almost 100 years. The sophisticated array of genetic and molecular tools that have evolved for analysis of gene function in this organism are unique. Further, Drosophila is a complex multi-cellular organism in which many aspects of development and behavior parallel those in human beings. These combined advantages have permitted research in Drosophila to make seminal contributions to the understanding of fundamental biological processes and ensure that Drosophila will continue to provide unique insights in the genomic era. An overview of the genetic methodologies available in Drosophila is given here, together with examples of outstanding recent contributions of Drosophila to our understanding of cell and organismal biology. The growing contribution of Drosophila to our knowledge of gravity-related responses is addressed.

  20. Parkin counteracts symptoms in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Annika F M; Staveley, Brian E

    2004-04-16

    Parkinson's disease, a prevalent neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the reduction of dopaminergic neurons resulting in the loss of motor control, resting tremor, the formation of neuronal inclusions and ultimately premature death. Two inherited forms of PD have been linked to mutations in the alpha-synuclein and parkin genes. The parkin protein functions as an ubiquitin ligase targeting specific proteins for degradation. Expression of human alpha-synuclein in Drosophila neurons recapitulates the loss of motor control, the development of neuronal inclusions, degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the ommatidial array to provide an excellent genetic model of PD. To investigate the role of parkin, we have generated transgenic Drosophila that conditionally express parkin under the control of the yeast UAS enhancer. While expression of parkin has little consequence, co-expression of parkin with alpha-synuclein in the dopaminergic neurons suppresses the alpha-synuclein-induced premature loss of climbing ability. In addition directed expression of parkin in the eye counteracts the alpha-synuclein-induced degeneration of the ommatidial array. These results show that parkin suppresses the PD-like symptoms observed in the alpha-synuclein-dependent Drosophila model of PD. The highly conserved parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase can suppress the damaging effects of human alpha-synuclein. These results are consistent with a role for parkin in targeting alpha-synuclein to the proteasome. If this relationship is conserved in humans, this suggests that up-regulation of parkin should suppress alpha-synucleinopathic PD. The development of therapies that regulate parkin activity may be crucial in the treatment of PD.

  1. Molecular characterization of the singed wings locus of Drosophila melanogaster

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    Boykova Tatiana

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hormones frequently guide animal development via the induction of cascades of gene activities, whose products further amplify an initial hormonal stimulus. In Drosophila the transformation of the larva into the pupa and the subsequent metamorphosis to the adult stage is triggered by changes in the titer of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. singed wings (swi is the only gene known in Drosophila melanogaster for which mutations specifically interrupt the transmission of the regulatory signal from early to late ecdysone inducible genes. Results We have characterized singed wings locus, showing it to correspond to EG:171E4.2 (CG3095. swi encodes a predicted 68.5-kDa protein that contains N-terminal histidine-rich and threonine-rich domains, a cysteine-rich C-terminal region and two leucine-rich repeats. The SWI protein has a close homolog in D. melanogaster, defining a new family of SWI-like proteins, and is conserved in D. pseudoobscura. A lethal mutation, swit476, shows a severe disruption of the ecdysone pathway and is a C>Y substitution in one of the two conserved CysXCys motifs that are common to SWI and the Drosophila Toll-4 protein. Conclusions It is not entirely clear from the present molecular analysis how the SWI protein may function in the ecdysone induced cascade. Currently all predictions agree in that SWI is very unlikely to be a nuclear protein. Thus it probably exercises its control of "late" ecdysone genes indirectly. Apparently the genetic regulation of ecdysone signaling is much more complex then was previously anticipated.

  2. Chemicals and chemoreceptors: ecologically relevant signals driving behavior in Drosophila.

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    Ana eDepetris-Chauvin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insects encounter a vast repertoire of chemicals in their natural environment, which can signal positive stimuli like the presence of a food source, a potential mate, or a suitable oviposition site as well as negative stimuli such as competitors, predators, or toxic substances reflecting danger. The presence of specialized chemoreceptors like taste and olfactory receptors allow animals to detect chemicals at short and long distances and accordingly, trigger proper behaviors towards these stimuli. Since the first description of olfactory and taste receptors in Drosophila fifteen years ago, our knowledge on the identity, properties, and function of specific chemoreceptors has increased exponentially. In the last years, multidisciplinary approaches combining genetic tools with electrophysiological techniques, behavioral recording, evolutionary analysis, and chemical ecology studies are shedding light on our understanding on the ecological relevance of specific chemoreceptors for the survival of Drosophila in their natural environment. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on chemoreceptors of both the olfactory and taste systems of the fruitfly. We focus on the relevance of particular receptors for the detection of ecologically relevant cues such as pheromones, food sources, and toxic compounds, and we comment on the behavioral changes that the detection of these chemicals induce in the fly. In particular, we give an updated outlook of the chemical communication displayed during one of the most important behaviors for fly survival, the courtship behavior. Finally, the ecological relevance of specific chemicals can vary depending on the niche occupied by the individual. In that regard, in this review we also highlight the contrast between adult and larval systems and we propose that these differences could reflect distinctive requirements depending on the change of ecological niche occupied by Drosophila along its life cycle.

  3. On the evolution of Yeti, a Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatin gene.

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    Roberta Moschetti

    Full Text Available Constitutive heterochromatin is a ubiquitous and still unveiled component of eukaryotic genomes, within which it comprises large portions. Although constitutive heterochromatin is generally considered to be transcriptionally silent, it contains a significant variety of sequences that are expressed, among which about 300 single-copy coding genes have been identified by genetic and genomic analyses in the last decades. Here, we report the results of the evolutionary analysis of Yeti, an essential gene of Drosophila melanogaster located in the deep pericentromeric region of chromosome 2R. By FISH, we showed that Yeti maintains a heterochromatin location in both D. simulans and D. sechellia species, closely related to D. melanogaster, while in the more distant species e.g., D. pseudoobscura and D. virilis, it is found within euchromatin, in the syntenic chromosome Muller C, that corresponds to the 2R arm of D. melanogaster chromosome 2. Thus, over evolutionary time, Yeti has been resident on the same chromosomal element, but it progressively moved closer to the pericentric regions. Moreover, in silico reconstruction of the Yeti gene structure in 19 Drosophila species and in 5 non-drosophilid dipterans shows a rather stable organization during evolution. Accordingly, by PCR analysis and sequencing, we found that the single intron of Yeti does not undergo major intraspecies or interspecies size changes, unlike the introns of other essential Drosophila heterochromatin genes, such as light and Dbp80. This implicates diverse evolutionary forces in shaping the structural organization of genes found within heterochromatin. Finally, the results of dS - dN tests show that Yeti is under negative selection both in heterochromatin and euchromatin, and indicate that the change in genomic location did not affected significantly the molecular evolution of the gene. Together, the results of this work contribute to our understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of

  4. Multifunctional glial support by Semper cells in the Drosophila retina.

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    Mark A Charlton-Perkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Glial cells play structural and functional roles central to the formation, activity and integrity of neurons throughout the nervous system. In the retina of vertebrates, the high energetic demand of photoreceptors is sustained in part by Müller glia, an intrinsic, atypical radial glia with features common to many glial subtypes. Accessory and support glial cells also exist in invertebrates, but which cells play this function in the insect retina is largely undefined. Using cell-restricted transcriptome analysis, here we show that the ommatidial cone cells (aka Semper cells in the Drosophila compound eye are enriched for glial regulators and effectors, including signature characteristics of the vertebrate visual system. In addition, cone cell-targeted gene knockdowns demonstrate that such glia-associated factors are required to support the structural and functional integrity of neighboring photoreceptors. Specifically, we show that distinct support functions (neuronal activity, structural integrity and sustained neurotransmission can be genetically separated in cone cells by down-regulating transcription factors associated with vertebrate gliogenesis (pros/Prox1, Pax2/5/8, and Oli/Olig1,2, respectively. Further, we find that specific factors critical for glial function in other species are also critical in cone cells to support Drosophila photoreceptor activity. These include ion-transport proteins (Na/K+-ATPase, Eaat1, and Kir4.1-related channels and metabolic homeostatic factors (dLDH and Glut1. These data define genetically distinct glial signatures in cone/Semper cells that regulate their structural, functional and homeostatic interactions with photoreceptor neurons in the compound eye of Drosophila. In addition to providing a new high-throughput model to study neuron-glia interactions, the fly eye will further help elucidate glial conserved "support networks" between invertebrates and vertebrates.

  5. Conserved mechanisms of tumorigenesis in the Drosophila adult midgut.

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    Òscar Martorell

    Full Text Available Whereas the series of genetic events leading to colorectal cancer (CRC have been well established, the precise functions that these alterations play in tumor progression and how they disrupt intestinal homeostasis remain poorly characterized. Activation of the Wnt/Wg signaling pathway by a mutation in the gene APC is the most common trigger for CRC, inducing benign lesions that progress to carcinomas due to the accumulation of other genetic alterations. Among those, Ras mutations drive tumour progression in CRC, as well as in most epithelial cancers. As mammalian and Drosophila's intestines share many similarities, we decided to explore the alterations induced in the Drosophila midgut by the combined activation of the Wnt signaling pathway with gain of function of Ras signaling in the intestinal stem cells. Here we show that compound Apc-Ras clones, but not clones bearing the individual mutations, expand as aggressive intestinal tumor-like outgrowths. These lesions reproduce many of the human CRC hallmarks such as increased proliferation, blockade of cell differentiation and cell polarity and disrupted organ architecture. This process is followed by expression of tumoral markers present in human lesions. Finally, a metabolic behavioral assay shows that these flies suffer a progressive deterioration in intestinal homeostasis, providing a simple readout that could be used in screens for tumor modifiers or therapeutic compounds. Taken together, our results illustrate the conservation of the mechanisms of CRC tumorigenesis in Drosophila, providing an excellent model system to unravel the events that, upon mutation in Apc and Ras, lead to CRC initiation and progression.

  6. The temporal requirements for insulin signaling during development in Drosophila.

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    Alexander W Shingleton

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that the insulin-signaling pathway controls body and organ size in Drosophila, and most metazoans, by signaling nutritional conditions to the growing organs. The temporal requirements for insulin signaling during development are, however, unknown. Using a temperature-sensitive insulin receptor (Inr mutation in Drosophila, we show that the developmental requirements for Inr activity are organ specific and vary in time. Early in development, before larvae reach the "critical size" (the size at which they commit to metamorphosis and can complete development without further feeding, Inr activity influences total development time but not final body and organ size. After critical size, Inr activity no longer affects total development time but does influence final body and organ size. Final body size is affected by Inr activity from critical size until pupariation, whereas final organ size is sensitive to Inr activity from critical size until early pupal development. In addition, different organs show different sensitivities to changes in Inr activity for different periods of development, implicating the insulin pathway in the control of organ allometry. The reduction in Inr activity is accompanied by a two-fold increase in free-sugar levels, similar to the effect of reduced insulin signaling in mammals. Finally, we find that varying the magnitude of Inr activity has different effects on cell size and cell number in the fly wing, providing a potential linkage between the mode of action of insulin signaling and the distinct downstream controls of cell size and number. We present a model that incorporates the effects of the insulin-signaling pathway into the Drosophila life cycle. We hypothesize that the insulin-signaling pathway controls such diverse effects as total developmental time, total body size and organ size through its effects on the rate of cell growth, and proliferation in different organs.

  7. The PIKE homolog Centaurin gamma regulates developmental timing in Drosophila.

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    Anna Lisa Gündner

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide-3-kinase enhancer (PIKE proteins encoded by the PIKE/CENTG1 gene are members of the gamma subgroup of the Centaurin superfamily of small GTPases. They are characterized by their chimeric protein domain architecture consisting of a pleckstrin homology (PH domain, a GTPase-activating (GAP domain, Ankyrin repeats as well as an intrinsic GTPase domain. In mammals, three PIKE isoforms with variations in protein structure and subcellular localization are encoded by the PIKE locus. PIKE inactivation in mice results in a broad range of defects, including neuronal cell death during brain development and misregulation of mammary gland development. PIKE -/- mutant mice are smaller, contain less white adipose tissue, and show insulin resistance due to misregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and insulin receptor/Akt signaling. here, we have studied the role of PIKE proteins in metabolic regulation in the fly. We show that the Drosophila PIKE homolog, ceng1A, encodes functional GTPases whose internal GAP domains catalyze their GTPase activity. To elucidate the biological function of ceng1A in flies, we introduced a deletion in the ceng1A gene by homologous recombination that removes all predicted functional PIKE domains. We found that homozygous ceng1A mutant animals survive to adulthood. In contrast to PIKE -/- mouse mutants, genetic ablation of Drosophila ceng1A does not result in growth defects or weight reduction. Although metabolic pathways such as insulin signaling, sensitivity towards starvation and mobilization of lipids under high fed conditions are not perturbed in ceng1A mutants, homozygous ceng1A mutants show a prolonged development in second instar larval stage, leading to a late onset of pupariation. In line with these results we found that expression of ecdysone inducible genes is reduced in ceng1A mutants. Together, we propose a novel role for Drosophila Ceng1A in regulating ecdysone signaling-dependent second to

  8. Genetic modifiers of MeCP2 function in Drosophila.

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    Holly N Cukier

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The levels of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2 are critical for normal post-natal development and function of the nervous system. Loss of function of MeCP2, a transcriptional regulator involved in chromatin remodeling, causes classic Rett syndrome (RTT as well as other related conditions characterized by autism, learning disabilities, or mental retardation. Increased dosage of MeCP2 also leads to clinically similar neurological disorders and mental retardation. To identify molecular mechanisms capable of compensating for altered MeCP2 levels, we generated transgenic Drosophila overexpressing human MeCP2. We find that MeCP2 associates with chromatin and is phosphorylated at serine 423 in Drosophila, as is found in mammals. MeCP2 overexpression leads to anatomical (i.e., disorganized eyes, ectopic wing veins and behavioral (i.e., motor dysfunction abnormalities. We used a candidate gene approach to identify genes that are able to compensate for abnormal phenotypes caused by MeCP2 increased activity. These genetic modifiers include other chromatin remodeling genes (Additional sex combs, corto, osa, Sex combs on midleg, and trithorax, the kinase tricornered, the UBE3A target pebble, and Drosophila homologues of the MeCP2 physical interactors Sin3a, REST, and N-CoR. These findings demonstrate that anatomical and behavioral phenotypes caused by MeCP2 activity can be ameliorated by altering other factors that might be more amenable to manipulation than MeCP2 itself.

  9. Microtubules are organized independently of the centrosome in Drosophila neurons

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    Nguyen Michelle M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best-studied arrangement of microtubules is that organized by the centrosome, a cloud of microtubule nucleating and anchoring proteins is clustered around centrioles. However, noncentrosomal microtubule arrays are common in many differentiated cells, including neurons. Although microtubules are not anchored at neuronal centrosomes, it remains unclear whether the centrosome plays a role in organizing neuronal microtubules. We use Drosophila as a model system to determine whether centrosomal microtubule nucleation is important in mature neurons. Results In developing and mature neurons, centrioles were not surrounded by the core nucleation protein γ-tubulin. This suggests that the centrioles do not organize functional centrosomes in Drosophila neurons in vivo. Consistent with this idea, centriole position was not correlated with a specific region of the cell body in neurons, and growing microtubules did not cluster around the centriole, even after axon severing when the number of growing plus ends is dramatically increased. To determine whether the centrosome was required for microtubule organization in mature neurons, we used two approaches. First, we used DSas-4 centriole duplication mutants. In these mutants, centrioles were present in many larval sensory neurons, but they were not fully functional. Despite reduced centriole function, microtubule orientation was normal in axons and dendrites. Second, we used laser ablation to eliminate the centriole, and again found that microtubule polarity in axons and dendrites was normal, even 3 days after treatment. Conclusion We conclude that the centrosome is not a major site of microtubule nucleation in Drosophila neurons, and is not required for maintenance of neuronal microtubule organization in these cells.

  10. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Coelho, Alexandra; Fraichard, Stephane; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Faure, Philippe; Artur, Yves; Ferveur, Jean-François; Heydel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine), an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents). A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs) that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone--an inhibitor of CYP enzymes--showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects.

  11. Drosophila Courtship Conditioning As a Measure of Learning and Memory.

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    Koemans, Tom S; Oppitz, Cornelia; Donders, Rogier A T; van Bokhoven, Hans; Schenck, Annette; Keleman, Krystyna; Kramer, Jamie M

    2017-06-05

    Many insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory have been elucidated through the use of simple behavioral assays in model organisms such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila is useful for understanding the basic neurobiology underlying cognitive deficits resulting from mutations in genes associated with human cognitive disorders, such as intellectual disability (ID) and autism. This work describes a methodology for testing learning and memory using a classic paradigm in Drosophila known as courtship conditioning. Male flies court females using a distinct pattern of easily recognizable behaviors. Premated females are not receptive to mating and will reject the male's copulation attempts. In response to this rejection, male flies reduce their courtship behavior. This learned reduction in courtship behavior is measured over time, serving as an indicator of learning and memory. The basic numerical output of this assay is the courtship index (CI), which is defined as the percentage of time that a male spends courting during a 10 min interval. The learning index (LI) is the relative reduction of CI in flies that have been exposed to a premated female compared to naïve flies with no previous social encounters. For the statistical comparison of LIs between genotypes, a randomization test with bootstrapping is used. To illustrate how the assay can be used to address the role of a gene relating to learning and memory, the pan-neuronal knockdown of Dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (Dhap-at) was characterized here. The human ortholog of Dhap-at, glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPT), is involved in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 2, an autosomal-recessive syndrome characterized by severe ID. Using the courtship conditioning assay, it was determined that Dhap-at is required for long-term memory, but not for short-term memory. This result serves as a basis for further investigation of the underlying molecular

  12. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Alexandra Coelho

    Full Text Available Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine, an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents. A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone--an inhibitor of CYP enzymes--showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects.

  13. The features of Drosophila core promoters revealed by statistical analysis

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    Trifonov Edward N

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental investigation of transcription is still a very labor- and time-consuming process. Only a few transcription initiation scenarios have been studied in detail. The mechanism of interaction between basal machinery and promoter, in particular core promoter elements, is not known for the majority of identified promoters. In this study, we reveal various transcription initiation mechanisms by statistical analysis of 3393 nonredundant Drosophila promoters. Results Using Drosophila-specific position-weight matrices, we identified promoters containing TATA box, Initiator, Downstream Promoter Element (DPE, and Motif Ten Element (MTE, as well as core elements discovered in Human (TFIIB Recognition Element (BRE and Downstream Core Element (DCE. Promoters utilizing known synergetic combinations of two core elements (TATA_Inr, Inr_MTE, Inr_DPE, and DPE_MTE were identified. We also establish the existence of promoters with potentially novel synergetic combinations: TATA_DPE and TATA_MTE. Our analysis revealed several motifs with the features of promoter elements, including possible novel core promoter element(s. Comparison of Human and Drosophila showed consistent percentages of promoters with TATA, Inr, DPE, and synergetic combinations thereof, as well as most of the same functional and mutual positions of the core elements. No statistical evidence of MTE utilization in Human was found. Distinct nucleosome positioning in particular promoter classes was revealed. Conclusion We present lists of promoters that potentially utilize the aforementioned elements/combinations. The number of these promoters is two orders of magnitude larger than the number of promoters in which transcription initiation was experimentally studied. The sequences are ready to be experimentally tested or used for further statistical analysis. The developed approach may be utilized for other species.

  14. Increased Sleep Promotes Survival during a Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

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    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The relationship between sleep and immune function is not well understood at a functional or molecular level. We therefore used a genetic approach in Drosophila to manipulate sleep and evaluated effects on the ability of flies to fight bacterial infection. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods and Results: We used a genetic approach to transiently alter neuronal excitability in the mushroom body, a region in the central brain that is known to regulate sleep. Flies with increased sleep for up to two days prior to a bacterial infection showed increased resistance to the infection and improved survival. These flies also had increased expression levels of a subset of anti-microbial peptide mRNA prior to infection, as well as increased NFκB activity during infection as indicated by in vivo luciferase reporter activity. In contrast, flies that experienced reduced sleep for up to two days prior to infection had no effect on survival or on NFκB activity during infection. However, flies with reduced sleep showed an altered defense mechanism, such that resistance to infection was increased, but at the expense of reduced tolerance. This effect was dependent on environmental condition. Conclusions: Increasing sleep enhanced activity of an NFκB transcription factor, increased resistance to infection, and strongly promoted survival. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that sleep is beneficial to the host by maintaining a robust immune system. Citation: Kuo TH, Williams JA. Increased sleep promotes survival during a bacterial infection in Drosophila. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1077-1086. PMID:24882902

  15. Faster-X Evolution of Gene Expression in Drosophila

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    Meisel, Richard P.; John H Malone; Clark, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequences on X chromosomes often have a faster rate of evolution when compared to similar loci on the autosomes, and well articulated models provide reasons why the X-linked mode of inheritance may be responsible for the faster evolution of X-linked genes. We analyzed microarray and RNA-seq data collected from females and males of six Drosophila species and found that the expression levels of X-linked genes also diverge faster than autosomal gene expression, similar to the "faster-X" effe...

  16. Genetic Analysis of Micro-environmental Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgante, Fabio; Sorensen, Daniel A; Sørensen, Peter

    Quantitative genetic models recognize the potential for genotype by environment interaction, whereby different genotypes have different plastic responses to changes in macro-environmental conditions. Recently, it has been recognized that micro-environmental plasticity (‘residual’ variance) may also...... be genetically variable. This study utilized the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) to accurately estimate the genetic variance of micro-environmental plasticity for chill coma recovery time and startle response. Estimates of broad sense heritabilities for both traits are substantial (from 0.51 to 0...

  17. Circadian Rhythms and Sleep inDrosophila melanogaster.

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    Dubowy, Christine; Sehgal, Amita

    2017-04-01

    The advantages of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster , including low genetic redundancy, functional simplicity, and the ability to conduct large-scale genetic screens, have been essential for understanding the molecular nature of circadian (∼24 hr) rhythms, and continue to be valuable in discovering novel regulators of circadian rhythms and sleep. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of these interrelated biological processes in Drosophila and the wider implications of this research. Clock genes period and timeless were first discovered in large-scale Drosophila genetic screens developed in the 1970s. Feedback of period and timeless on their own transcription forms the core of the molecular clock, and accurately timed expression, localization, post-transcriptional modification, and function of these genes is thought to be critical for maintaining the circadian cycle. Regulators, including several phosphatases and kinases, act on different steps of this feedback loop to ensure strong and accurately timed rhythms. Approximately 150 neurons in the fly brain that contain the core components of the molecular clock act together to translate this intracellular cycling into rhythmic behavior. We discuss how different groups of clock neurons serve different functions in allowing clocks to entrain to environmental cues, driving behavioral outputs at different times of day, and allowing flexible behavioral responses in different environmental conditions. The neuropeptide PDF provides an important signal thought to synchronize clock neurons, although the details of how PDF accomplishes this function are still being explored. Secreted signals from clock neurons also influence rhythms in other tissues. SLEEP is, in part, regulated by the circadian clock, which ensures appropriate timing of sleep, but the amount and quality of sleep are also determined by other mechanisms that ensure a homeostatic balance between sleep and wake. Flies have been useful

  18. Cryptochrome mediates light-dependent magnetosensitivity of Drosophila's circadian clock.

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    Taishi Yoshii

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960, magnetic fields have been discussed as Zeitgebers for circadian clocks, but the mechanism by which clocks perceive and process magnetic information has remained unknown. Recently, the radical-pair model involving light-activated photoreceptors as magnetic field sensors has gained considerable support, and the blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY has been proposed as a suitable molecule to mediate such magnetosensitivity. Since CRY is expressed in the circadian clock neurons and acts as a critical photoreceptor of Drosophila's clock, we aimed to test the role of CRY in magnetosensitivity of the circadian clock. In response to light, CRY causes slowing of the clock, ultimately leading to arrhythmic behavior. We expected that in the presence of applied magnetic fields, the impact of CRY on clock rhythmicity should be altered. Furthermore, according to the radical-pair hypothesis this response should be dependent on wavelength and on the field strength applied. We tested the effect of applied static magnetic fields on the circadian clock and found that flies exposed to these fields indeed showed enhanced slowing of clock rhythms. This effect was maximal at 300 muT, and reduced at both higher and lower field strengths. Clock response to magnetic fields was present in blue light, but absent under red-light illumination, which does not activate CRY. Furthermore, cry(b and cry(OUT mutants did not show any response, and flies overexpressing CRY in the clock neurons exhibited an enhanced response to the field. We conclude that Drosophila's circadian clock is sensitive to magnetic fields and that this sensitivity depends on light activation of CRY and on the applied field strength, consistent with the radical pair mechanism. CRY is widespread throughout biological systems and has been suggested as receptor for magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds. The present data establish the circadian clock of Drosophila as a model system

  19. Host-microbe interactions in the gut of Drosophila melanogaster

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    Takayuki eKuraishi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many insect species subsist on decaying and contaminated matter and are thus exposed to large quantities of microorganisms. To control beneficial commensals and combat infectious pathogens, insects must be armed with efficient systems for microbial recognition, signaling pathways, and effector molecules. The molecular mechanisms regulating these host-microbe interactions in insects have been largely clarified in Drosophila melanogaster with its powerful genetic and genomic tools. Here we review recent advances in this field, focusing mainly on the relationships between microbes and epithelial cells in the intestinal tract where the host exposure to the external environment is most frequent.

  20. Live Imaging of mRNA Synthesis in Drosophila.

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    Garcia, Hernan G; Gregor, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    mRNA synthesis is one of the earliest readouts of the activity of a transcribed gene, which is of particular interest in the context of metazoan cell fate specification. These processes are intrinsically dynamic and stochastic, which makes in vivo single-cell measurements inevitable. Here, we present the application of a technology that has been widely used in single celled organisms to measure transcriptional activity in developing embryos of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The method allows for quantification of instantaneous polymerase occupancy of active gene loci and thereby enables the development and testing of models of gene regulation in development.