WorldWideScience

Sample records for swaziland

  1. Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Swaziland is a country of 17,363 sq km with 860,000 inhabitants, of whom 64% are literate. Independence was gained on September 6, 1968. The terrain consists of mountains and plateaus, with a climate variously near-temperature, subtropical, and semi-arid. English and SiSwati are spoken by Swazi, Zulu, and non-African ethnic groups, who variously hold Christian and indigenous beliefs. Life expectancy ranges between 53 and 60 years, GDP is $704 million, growing at a rate of 7%. Per capita income is $900. The country's natural resources include asbestos, coal, diamonds, timber, hydroelectric power, and clay. Sugar cane, corn, citrus, fruit, livestock, wood, pineapple, cotton, tobacco, and light manufactured and processed goods are areas of economic production. Motor vehicles, heavy machinery, fuel and lubricants, foodstuffs, and clothing are imported, and sugar, soft drink concentrate, woodpulp and wood products, manufactures, canned fruit, asbestos, and meat products are exported. In-depth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the US, and names of US officials in the country.

  2. Initiatives: Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdluli, N

    1996-04-01

    Men in Swaziland have many misconceptions and fears about the use of modern contraception. The Family Life Association of Swaziland (FLAS) operates in that context to increase men's level of awareness of the importance of family planning, while assuring them that contraceptive use is safe. FLAS has undertaken a number of interventions to help increase male involvement in family planning, to increase family planning knowledge, to address men's fears and negative attitudes toward the family planning concept and certain contraceptive methods, and to assure them that family planning is a universal practice. Approximately 2000 men were reached annually through education interventions in army barracks on family planning, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS; a comprehensive educational program was established in Usuthu Pulp, Big Bend, Mhlume, Shiselweni Forest, and Cadbury industries; roadshows reached out to a number of target audiences; and a male symposium of 60 men from the Manzini region was held to discuss the importance of family planning, STDs, and AIDS in the country.

  3. Swaziland: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, L

    1988-06-01

    Although Swaziland had been independent from colonialism for 20 years, a powerful monarch, King Mswati II, continues to control the country's political, religious, and social system. Swaziland has a population of 676,000, half of whom are under 15 years of age. The infant mortality rate is 105/1000 live births and 25% of children die before they reach their 5th birthday. Life expectancy is 54 years. Tribal chiefs, representing the king, hold and distribute about half of the national land. Most of the fertile land remains in the hands of white settler farmers. The concentration of income in foreign companies and urban centers has exacerbated poverty in rural areas. Depreciation of rand-linked local currency has boosted export earnings, but it has also raised the price of food and medical imports. Swaziland's main exports are sugar, wood pulp, chemicals, and fruit, most of which go to the UK and South Africa. The major food crops are maize, beans, groundnuts, and sorghum. About half of the working population is engaged in small-scale subsistence farming, but food yields are declining. The major producers are foreign companies attracted by Swaziland's low taxes and cheap labor supply.

  4. World Small Hydropower Development Report 2013 - Swaziland

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Power in Swaziland is supplied and distributed by the Swaziland Electricity Company (SEC), which was established in 2007 by the Swaziland Electricity Company Act. SEC currently has a monopoly on the import, distribution and supply of electricity via...

  5. Swaziland's traditional birth attendants survey | Lech | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) Survey in Swaziland was undertaken between March 27th 1996 and April 8th 1996. The objective of the survey was to generate reliable information regarding activities of TBAs in Swaziland. The survey was conducted in 25 Chiefdoms sampled out of a total of 206 Chiefdoms ...

  6. Swaziland : Reducing Poverty Through Shared Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The people of Swaziland are its greatest resource. Yet, social and economic indicators of household welfare converge to confirm fundamental inequalities in access to incomes and assets, and the existence of significant poverty and deprivation. Furthermore, as the regional economic and social climate is transformed, the fragile gains of the past are being fast eroded. At this historic junct...

  7. Garment Industry and Economic Empowerment: A case study of Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Panin, Anthony; Mthombo, Thabile T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which garment industry in Swaziland has contributed to the economic empowerment of the Swazi people through creation of new jobs and improvement in their overall welfare. In Swaziland as elsewhere in many African countries, unemployment has been and is still a major constraint to the country’s sluggish economic growth. In response to the unemployment situation in the country, Swaziland Investment Promotion Authority (SIPA) was established in 1977 under the Mi...

  8. Emergency care capabilities in the Kingdom of Swaziland, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Phindile Chowa

    2017-03-01

    Discussion: Swaziland ECs were predominantly contiguous and running at overcapacity, with high patient volumes and limited resources. The limited access to technology and specialists are major challenges. We believe that these data support greater resource allocation by the Swaziland government to the emergency care sector.

  9. Evidence of AIDS mortality from an alternative source: A Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores a way of measuring AIDS mortality in the absence of vital registration. It looks at the death notices in the major daily newspaper in Swaziland, The Times of Swaziland, and asks if this can be analysed to give a picture of changing mortality. It shows how clear trends can be discerned. Keywords: AIDS ...

  10. Child malnutrition and mortality in Swaziland: Situation analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child malnutrition and mortality in Swaziland: Situation analysis of the immediate, ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... care of children and women, insufficient health services and unhealthy environment), and ...

  11. Legal responses to HIV and AIDS: lessons from Swaziland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disproportionately affecting women, children and the poor (Ezer, 2007). For instance, women and children are particularly at risk ... empowers the people to assert or claim their rights. ..... that sex work still persists in Swaziland, there is need for.

  12. Youth Employment in Africa: New Evidence and Policies from Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Brixiova, Zuzana; Kangoye, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the 2007 and 2010 Swaziland Labor Force Surveys, this paper provides first systematic evidence on recent youth employment challenges in Swaziland, a small, land-locked, middle-income country with one of the highest youth unemployment rates in Africa. The paper first documents the various labor market disadvantages faced by the Swazi youth, such as high unemployment and discouragement, and how they changed from 2007 to 2010. A multinomial logit regression analysis is then carried ou...

  13. Financial sustainability of PV implementation in Swaziland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, C.A.; Van Roekel, G.M.; Lasschuit, P.E.

    2001-10-01

    During the past 10 years, more than 700 Solar Home Systems have been implemented by this project in Swaziland, southern Africa. The implementation process started with household energy surveys, the results of which showing significant energy needs for cooking, lighting and basic communication applications (i.e. radio/TV), particularly in rural areas. An implementation project of Solar Home Systems was set up to start rural electrification with solar PV and focused on lighting and small electrical demands. The national government, whose own resources were limited, supported the project as an important step towards addressing the country's range of energy needs. Together with a local company, Swazitronix, a joint venture was established to facilitate the implementation project. With a project loan from the Dutch social bank, the Triodosbank, standard Solar Home Systems were sold, assembled, installed and serviced. Customers paid the full cost of their PV systems and services. Awareness and education issues also formed key aspects of the project. During a later project phase, credit financing instruments were introduced providing a final element of experience crucial to future project implementation. The project's relative success and experiences (i.e. 82% loan repayment rate, detailed review of the causes behind loan defaults, and monitoring survey results) are detailed herein, providing valuable lessons regarding financial sustainability, the linchpin of successful PV implementation. 8 refs

  14. Primary School Nutrition and Tuck Shops in Hhoho, Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Elwan, Deena

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity and associated chronic diseases are increasing in frequency in African populations that also have a high burden of disease from infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Obesity and diabetes mellitus are common in Swaziland, Southern Africa, where >10% of children under the age of five are already obese.…

  15. Access for all: contextualising HIV treatment as prevention in Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, E.; Mehlo, M.; Hardon, A.; Reis, R.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how notions of the individual and population are evoked in two ongoing HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) implementation studies in Swaziland. By contrasting policy discourses with lived kinship experiences of people living with HIV, we seek to understand how TasP unfolds in

  16. Taiwan–Swaziland Relations: Interrogating an Enduring Bond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Any discussion of Taiwan–Swaziland relations must include China. Beijing and Taipei have been competing for international support for their respective courses since 1949: China or the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) sees Taiwan or the Republic of China (ROC) as its renegade province and opposes Taiwan's quest for ...

  17. Growth and yield models for Eucalyptus grandis grown in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a stand-level growth and yield model for short-rotationEucalyptus grandis grown for pulp wood production at Piggs Peak in Swaziland. The data were derived from a Nelder 1a spacing trial established with E. grandis clonal cuttings in 1998 and terminated in 2005. Planting density ...

  18. Men's and women's experiences with HIV and stigma in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamos, Sara; Hartwig, Kari A; Zindela, Nomsa

    2009-12-01

    To explore how gender differentially affects the stigma experiences of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Swaziland, the extent and dimensions of HIV-related felt and enacted stigma and social support were analyzed. Thirty-seven semistructured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with PLHIV in Swaziland between 2004 and 2006. Through the process of conceptual analysis, themes, including felt stigma, information management, enacted stigma, and social support, were explored, coded, and analyzed in the contexts of partner and familial relationships, and workplace and neighborhood settings. Findings revealed that there were high levels of felt stigma in all contexts, yet fewer than anticipated accounts of enacted stigma in family, work, and neighborhood contexts compared to their expressions of felt stigma. The amount and characteristics of felt and enacted stigma and social support differed based on gender, as women often experienced more felt and enacted stigma than men, and had less definite financial or emotional support.

  19. Towards an oral healthcare framework and policy analysis for Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Mndzebele, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Background and Rationale: A synopsis by the researcher suggested that caries was becoming a public health problem among the youth, hence there was a need for deeper investigations which would lead to possible oral health interventions. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess dental care practices and experiences among teenagers in the Northern region of Swaziland. Based on the outcomes and views from health professionals; develop a framework for oral healthcare delivery and ...

  20. Poverty and Economic Growth in Swaziland: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique G. Nindi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal relationship between poverty reduction and economic growth in Swaziland during the period 1980–2011. Unlike some of the previous studies, the current study uses the newly developed ARDL-bounds testing approach to co-integration, and the ECM-based Granger causality method to examine this linkage. The study also incorporates financial development as a third variable affecting both poverty reduction and economic growth – thereby leading to a trivariate model. The results of this study show that economic growth does not Granger cause poverty reduction in Swaziland – either in the short run or in the long run. Instead, the study finds a causal flow from poverty reduction to economic growth in the short run. These findings, however, are not surprising, given the high level of income inequality in Swaziland. Studies have shown that when the level of income inequality is too high, economic growth alone may not necessarily lead to poverty reduction.

  1. Discourses of Education, Protection, and Child Labor: Case Studies of Benin, Namibia and Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses discontinuities between local, national and international discourse in the fields of education, protection of children, and child labor, using Benin, Namibia and Swaziland as case studies. In Benin, child abuse and child labor are related to poverty, whereas in Namibia and Swaziland they are also interrelated with HIV/AIDS.…

  2. Public sector nurses in Swaziland: can the downturn be reversed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Damme Wim

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of human resources for health (HRH is increasingly being recognized as a major bottleneck to scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, whose societies and health systems are hardest hit by HIV/AIDS. In this case study of Swaziland, we describe the current HRH situation in the public sector. We identify major factors that contribute to the crisis, describe policy initiatives to tackle it and base on these a number of projections for the future. Finally, we suggest some areas for further research that may contribute to tackling the HRH crisis in Swaziland. Methods We visited Swaziland twice within 18 months in order to capture the HRH situation as well as the responses to it in 2004 and in 2005. Using semi-structured interviews with key informants and group interviews, we obtained qualitative and quantitative data on the HRH situation in the public and mission health sectors. We complemented this with an analysis of primary documents and a review of the available relevant reports and studies. Results The public health sector in Swaziland faces a serious shortage of health workers: 44% of posts for physicians, 19% of posts for nurses and 17% of nursing assistant posts were unfilled in 2004. We identified emigration and attrition due to HIV/AIDS as major factors depleting the health workforce. The annual training output of only 80 new nurses is not sufficient to compensate for these losses, and based on the situation in 2004 we estimated that the nursing workforce in the public sector would have been reduced by more than 40% by 2010. In 2005 we found that new initiatives by the Swazi government, such as the scale-up of ART, the introduction of retention measures to decrease emigration and the influx of foreign nurses could have the potential to improve the situation. A combination of such measures, together with the planned increase in the training capacity of the country's nursing

  3. Cultural Practices and the HIV Epidemic in Swaziland: Student\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Educational Research ... Cultural Practices and the HIV Epidemic in Swaziland: Student\\'s Perspectives and Challenges for School Counsellors ... Keywords: Cultural Practices, HIV Epidemic; Behaviour Change.

  4. the protective role of schooling in the HIV epidemic in Swaziland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While HIV prevalence rises rapidly among young women in Swaziland, as is the case across most of ... was available, this was the “best practice” for collecting .... Empowerment is critical for reducing all forms of GBV. ... enter the workforce.

  5. Working Paper 175 - Youth Employment in Africa: New Evidence and Policies from Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Brixiova; Thierry Kangoye

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the 2007 and 2010 Swaziland Labor Force Surveys, this paper provides first systematic evidence on recent youth employment challenges in Swaziland, a small, land-locked, middle-income country with one of the highest youth unemployment rates in Africa. The paper first documents the various labor market disadvantages faced by the Swazi youth, such as high unemployment and discouragement, and how they changed from 2007 to 2010. A multinomial logit regression analysis is carried out to ...

  6. Problems encountered by teenage mothers in the Southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovegirl S Dlamini

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed to study the problems experiencedby teenage mothers in the southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland. Opsomming ’n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsbenadering is gevolg tydens die studie van probleme wat deur tienermoeders in die suidelike Hho-Hho gebied van Swaziland ondervind is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  7. Problems encountered by teenage mothers in the Southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Lovegirl S Dlamini; Martie M van der Merwe; Valerie J Ehlers

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed to study the problems experiencedby teenage mothers in the southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland. Opsomming ’n Kwalitatiewe, eksploratiewe, beskrywende en kontekstuele navorsingsbenadering is gevolg tydens die studie van probleme wat deur tienermoeders in die suidelike Hho-Hho gebied van Swaziland ondervind is. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full t...

  8. Regional water resources assessments using an uncertain modelling approach: The example of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ndzabandzaba

    2017-04-01

    New hydrological insights for this region: The analysis of hydrological indices highlights the regional variations in hydrological processes and sub-basin response. The adopted modelling approach provides further insight into all of the uncertainties associated with quantifying the available water resources of Swaziland. The study has provided more insight into the spatial variability of the hydrological response and existing development impacts than was previously available. These new insights should provide an improved basis for future water management in Swaziland.

  9. Situating experiences of HIV-related stigma in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, R

    2010-01-01

    With the world's highest antenatal HIV prevalence rate (39.2%), Swaziland has also been described as among the most stigmatising. Yet, only recently was an anti-HIV stigma and discrimination (S&D) platform included in the government's National Multisectoral HIV and AIDS Policy. This study draws on a medical anthropological project in rural Swaziland to examine experiences of stigma among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). Qualitative methods included a semi-structured questionnaire and interviews (n=40) to identify patterns of stigma across three domains: verbal, physical and social. Key informant interviews (n=5) were conducted with health personnel and support group leaders. Descriptive statistics were situated within a thematic analysis of open-ended content. Among the findings, participants reported extensive HIV-related rumouring (36.4%) and pejorative name-calling (37.5%). Nearly one in five (18.2%) could no longer partake of family meals. Homesteads, which are an organising principle of Swazi life, were often markedly stigmatising environments. In contrast to documented discrimination in health care settings, the health centre emerged as a space where PLWH could share information and support. Given the UNAIDS call for national partners to 'know your epidemic' by tracking the prevalence of HIV-related S&D, results from this study suggested that unless 'knowing your epidemic' includes the lived experiences of HIV stigma that blister into discernible patterns, effectiveness of national initiatives is likely to be limited. Multidisciplinary and locale-specific studies are especially well suited in examining the cultural dynamics of HIV stigma and in providing grounded data that deepen the impact of comprehensive HIV/AIDS policies and programming.

  10. Knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathoma, Anikie M; Maripe-Perera, Dorcas B; Khumalo, Lindiwe P; Mbayi, Bagele L; Seloilwe, Esther S

    2006-02-01

    This study sought to explore the phenomenon of child sexual abuse by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding this problem in Botswana and Swaziland. Although there are no published studies on child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland, literature elsewhere has indicated that child abuse and prostitution prevail in Southern African Development Community countries and that children still continue to be rape victims within and outside the family structure [Muwanigwa, V. (1996). Child Abuse Demands More Preventive Measures. Harare: Zimbabwe. (Southern Africa News Features Southern African Research and Documentation Center)]. In Botswana in 1998, there were 300 cases of child abuse reported, of which 33 were sexual abuse cases. The same year in Swaziland, >50% of child abuse cases were sexual abuse related. In addition, the same year in Swaziland, >50% of sexual abuse case patients reporting for counseling were children younger than 21 years. Respondents of the study included 8 men (1 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) and 10 women (3 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) who were parents aged between 26 and 70 years; they were determined by way of purposive sampling. A focused interview guide with open-ended questions was used to collect data, and measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Analysis of data was facilitated by categorization of themes and concepts and coding systems. The results of the study showed that the respondents acknowledged the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland and further demonstrated their knowledge of the predisposing factors, perpetrators of the problem, and effects of sexual abuse on children. They placed major emphases on community involvement in fighting against the problem; appropriate education of children, parents, families, and community members about child sexual abuse; and improvement on the laws that protect children against sexual abuse to

  11. Scenes of change : visions on developments in Swaziland: papers presented at the seminar 'Social Sciences in Swaziland', Free University Amsterdam, February 1986

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    An introduction is followed by 13 papers, most of them contributions to the seminar, illustrating the variety in research programmes on Swaziland being in operation at present. Attention is paid to the national economy (H. COPPENS, M.POMMEE, A. VREMAN), the quest for Swazi labour (A. BOOTH), the

  12. The Dutch Reformed Church Mission in Swaziland - A dream come true

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnau van Wyngaard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the time from 1652 onwards when employees of the Dutch East India Company – most of whom were members of the Reformed Church in the Netherlands – arrived at the Cape of Good Hope in present South Africa. With time, a new church, the Dutch Reformed Church, was established in the Cape. In 1836, a number of pioneers moved from the Cape to the east of South Africa and some of them eventually made Swaziland their new home. Although most members of the white Dutch Reformed Church opposed any integration with Christians from other races, there was nevertheless a desire that they should join a Reformed Church. In 1922, the first Dutch Reformed congregation in Swaziland was established in Goedgegun in the southern region of the country, intended for the exclusive use of white, Afrikaans-speaking church members. In 1944, the first Reformed congregation for Swazi members was formed, which later became known as the Swaziland Reformed Church. This article documents the history of this church and concludes with a description of the Swaziland Reformed Church in 1985, with four missionaries from South Africa ministering in the four regions of Swaziland.

  13. Assessment of climate-driven variations in malaria incidence in Swaziland: toward malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Soble, Adam; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Mkhonta, Nomcebo; Seyama, Eric; Mthethwa, Steven; Pindolia, Deepa; Kunene, Simon

    2017-06-01

    Swaziland aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. However, imported cases from neighbouring endemic countries continue to sustain local parasite reservoirs and initiate transmission. As certain weather and climatic conditions may trigger or intensify malaria outbreaks, identification of areas prone to these conditions may aid decision-makers in deploying targeted malaria interventions more effectively. Malaria case-surveillance data for Swaziland were provided by Swaziland's National Malaria Control Programme. Climate data were derived from local weather stations and remote sensing images. Climate parameters and malaria cases between 2001 and 2015 were then analysed using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models and distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM). The incidence of malaria in Swaziland increased between 2005 and 2010, especially in the Lubombo and Hhohho regions. A time-series analysis indicated that warmer temperatures and higher precipitation in the Lubombo and Hhohho administrative regions are conducive to malaria transmission. DLNM showed that the risk of malaria increased in Lubombo when the maximum temperature was above 30 °C or monthly precipitation was above 5 in. In Hhohho, the minimum temperature remaining above 15 °C or precipitation being greater than 10 in. might be associated with malaria transmission. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the impact of short-term climate variations on malaria transmission in Swaziland. The geographic separation of imported and locally acquired malaria, as well as population behaviour, highlight the varying modes of transmission, part of which may be relevant to climate conditions. Thus, the impact of changing climate conditions should be noted as Swaziland moves toward malaria elimination.

  14. Targeting imported malaria through social networks: a potential strategy for malaria elimination in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koita, Kadiatou; Novotny, Joseph; Kunene, Simon; Zulu, Zulizile; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Gandhi, Monica; Gosling, Roland

    2013-06-27

    Swaziland has made great progress towards its goal of malaria elimination by 2015. However, malaria importation from neighbouring high-endemic Mozambique through Swaziland's eastern border remains a major factor that could prevent elimination from being achieved. In order to reach elimination, Swaziland must rapidly identify and treat imported malaria cases before onward transmission occurs. A nationwide formative assessment was conducted over eight weeks to determine if the imported cases of malaria identified by the Swaziland National Malaria Control Programme could be linked to broader social networks and to explore methods to access these networks. Using a structured format, interviews were carried out with malaria surveillance agents (6), health providers (10), previously identified imported malaria cases (19) and people belonging to the networks identified through these interviews (25). Most imported malaria cases were Mozambicans (63%, 12/19) making a living in Swaziland and sustaining their families in Mozambique. The majority of imported cases (73%, 14/19) were labourers and self-employed contractors who travelled frequently to Mozambique to visit their families and conduct business. Social networks of imported cases with similar travel patterns were identified through these interviews. Nearly all imported cases (89%, 17/19) were willing to share contact information to enable network members to be interviewed. Interviews of network members and key informants revealed common congregation points, such as the urban market places in Manzini and Malkerns, as well as certain bus stations, where people with similar travel patterns and malaria risk behaviours could be located and tested for malaria. This study demonstrated that imported cases of malaria belonged to networks of people with similar travel patterns. This study may provide novel methods for screening high-risk groups of travellers using both snowball sampling and time-location sampling of networks to

  15. Some characteristic features of Englishes in Lesotho, Malawi and Swaziland

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    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the function of the English and the local form it takes in three Southern African countries, namely Lesotho, Malawi and Swaziland. English was introduced in these countries as a result of contacts between the indigenous people and British traders and missionaries during the 19th century. English, which had initially been the language of trade, became the official language in colonial administration. Since then, English has had shifting but always important roles alongside the indigenous languages. As usually happens with languages in contact, there has been a fair amount of mutual influence. In this article, we examine some of the changes in English, concentrating on the usage of non-L1 speakers. Kachru (1982 speaks of this process as ‘indigenisation’: changing the language to suit the communicative needs of non-native users in new, un-English contexts. That explanation is only partly satisfactory. Languages influence one another in sophisticated sociolinguistic ways that require more penetrating analysis. In this article, we are concerned mainly with examining and describing the transfer of syntactic, phonological, lexical and semantic features from indigenous languages into English. From observation, most of the Africanisms that apply in the three countries discussed, particularly in Malawi, could well apply to Zambia and Zimbabwe as well. Finally, we reflect on some future possibilities.

  16. A Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Survey of Water and Sanitation in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward C.

    The terms of agreement of the Rural Water-Borne Disease Control Project called for a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study relating to water and sanitation in rural Swaziland. The purpose of the study was to provide: (1) baseline data for the design of a national health education strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of water-borne…

  17. Social security in developing countries : operation and dynamics of social security mechanisms in rural Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, A.H.M.

    1994-01-01

    This study, which is based on field research carried out in Swaziland from October 1989 to December 1990, starts with an introductory chapter followed by three theoretical chapters on social security in developing countries. The content of these chapters is illustrated with an extensive case study

  18. Forms and Practices of Slave Trade in Swaziland in the 19th Century

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trade in slaves was a response to market forces in the world. A culture that developed from trade in slaves extended to future generations whose lives were degraded. Cases of slaves who rose above their social stations in the slave trade era are non-existent. In Swaziland Mswati II used his military to raid for captives

  19. An Empirical Study of Stressors That Impinge on Teachers in Secondary Schools in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, C. I. O.; Dlamini, Ceasar C.

    2013-01-01

    This study employed the descriptive-correlation research design to determine whether secondary school teachers experience work-related stress. Participants included 239 teachers selected from schools in the Hhohho region of Swaziland. A questionnaire was used as the instrument to determine the level of work-related stress experienced by these…

  20. Longing for belonging: Adolescents' experiences of living with HIV in different types of families in Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabalala, F.S.

    2017-01-01

    This study illuminates adolescents’ everyday life experiences of living with HIV in different family contexts in the Manzini region in Swaziland, and the tactics they used to navigate the social and health system environments in their management of the HIV illness and disease. A significant

  1. Botswana and Swaziland: report links violations of women's rights to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Kate

    2007-12-01

    In May 2007, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) released a report investigating the links between discriminatory views against women in Botswana and Swaziland and sexual risk-taking and, in turn, extremely high HIV prevalence in those countries. The report also examines the role of women's lack of political and economic power in those countries, and the connection to HIV infection.

  2. HIV prevention needs for men who have sex with men in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV burden and also often face multiple other challenges accessing HIV services, including legal and social issues. Although Swaziland recently started responding with interventions for MSM, significant gaps still exist both in information and programming. This study aimed ...

  3. Effects on in-service education on improving science teaching in Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronkhorst, Robert; van den Akker, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of an evaluative and interpretive study into the potential of in-service education to improve science education in Swaziland. Short-term and long-term effects of an in-service intervention are evaluated in terms of changes in classroom processes. The teaching

  4. Poetics of the Epic and Survivals of the Genre in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to suggest that the ongoing and robust tradition of bringing together excerpts from legends, praise poems, songs and genealogical recitations during national ceremonies and festivals such as Incwala, vouch for an erstwhile epic culture in Swaziland. International Journal of Humanistic Studies Vol.3 2004: ...

  5. The changing role of the primary school teacher in Swaziland in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the era of HIV/AIDS, the teacher has become the emotional caretaker and economic provider .... and scope of work of the primary school teacher in. Swaziland in the context of ..... felt stress over the added responsibility16. In places such as.

  6. Reconceptualizing the HIV epidemiology and prevention needs of Female Sex Workers (FSW) in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan; Ketende, Sosthenes; Green, Jessie L; Chen, Ping-An; Grosso, Ashley; Sithole, Bhekie; Ntshangase, Cebisile; Yam, Eileen; Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Adams, Darrin

    2014-01-01

    HIV is hyperendemic in Swaziland with a prevalence of over 25% among those between the ages of 15 and 49 years old. The HIV response in Swaziland has traditionally focused on decreasing HIV acquisition and transmission risks in the general population through interventions such as male circumcision, increasing treatment uptake and adherence, and risk-reduction counseling. There is emerging data from Southern Africa that key populations such as female sex workers (FSW) carry a disproportionate burden of HIV even in generalized epidemics such as Swaziland. The burden of HIV and prevention needs among FSW remains unstudied in Swaziland. A respondent-driven-sampling survey was completed between August-October, 2011 of 328 FSW in Swaziland. Each participant completed a structured survey instrument and biological HIV and syphilis testing according to Swazi Guidelines. Unadjusted HIV prevalence was 70.3% (n = 223/317) among a sample of women predominantly from Swaziland (95.2%, n = 300/316) with a mean age of 21(median 25) which was significantly higher than the general population of women. Approximately one-half of the FSW(53.4%, n = 167/313) had received HIV prevention information related to sex work in the previous year, and about one-in-ten had been part of a previous research project(n = 38/313). Rape was common with nearly 40% (n = 123/314) reporting at least one rape; 17.4% (n = 23/314)reported being raped 6 or more times. Reporting blackmail (34.8%, n = 113/314) and torture(53.2%, n = 173/314) was prevalent. While Swaziland has a highly generalized HIV epidemic, reconceptualizing the needs of key populations such as FSW suggests that these women represent a distinct population with specific vulnerabilities and a high burden of HIV compared to other women. These women are understudied and underserved resulting in a limited characterization of their HIV prevention, treatment, and care needs and only sparse specific and competent

  7. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  8. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  9. Patterns of sexual behaviour among secondary school students in Swaziland, southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseh, Aaron G

    2004-07-01

    Among the many sub-Saharan African countries hardest hit by HIV/AIDS is the Kingdom of Swaziland. In an effort to reduce the spread of HIV, young people are an important group to reach with prevention messages. However, before developing such programmes, it is essential to understand young people's sexual risk behaviours. Students (n=941) from four coeducational secondary schools in Swaziland participated in a cross-sectional survey of sexual behaviours. Results indicate that considerable proportions of young people in this study were sexually experienced, irrespective of gender. Findings also suggest unacceptable high levels of sexual coercion, irrespective of age or gender. While boys may be less likely than girls to experience sexual coercion, being a male in this setting was not a protective factor. No significant differences were found on these variables in relation to location of the schools (rural vs. urban). Implications for developing and implementing HIV prevention programmes are suggested.

  10. Distribution and establishment of the alien Australian redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, in South Africa and Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Nunes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The Australian redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus, von Martens, is native to Australasia, but has been widely translocated around the world due to aquaculture and aquarium trade. Mostly as a result of escape from aquaculture facilities, this species has established extralimital populations in Australia and alien populations in Europe, Asia, Central America and Africa. In South Africa, C. quadricarinatus was first sampled from the wild in 2002 in the Komati River, following its escape from an aquaculture facility in Swaziland, but data on the current status of its populations are not available. Methods To establish a better understanding of its distribution, rate of spread and population status, we surveyed a total of 46 sites in various river systems in South Africa and Swaziland. Surveys were performed between September 2015 and August 2016 and involved visual observations and the use of collapsible crayfish traps. Results Cherax quadricarinatus is now present in the Komati, Lomati, Mbuluzi, Mlawula and Usutu rivers, and it was also detected in several off-channel irrigation impoundments. Where present, it was generally abundant, with populations having multiple size cohorts and containing ovigerous females. In the Komati River, it has spread more than 112 km downstream of the initial introduction point and 33 km upstream of a tributary, resulting in a mean spread rate of 8 km year−1 downstream and 4.7 km year−1 upstream. In Swaziland, estimated downstream spread rate might reach 14.6 km year−1. Individuals were generally larger and heavier closer to the introduction site, which might be linked to juvenile dispersal. Discussion These findings demonstrate that C. quadricarinatus is established in South Africa and Swaziland and that the species has spread, not only within the river where it was first introduced, but also between rivers. Considering the strong impacts that alien crayfish usually have on invaded ecosystems

  11. Money Ethic, Moral Conduct and Work Related Attitudes: Field Study From the Public Sector in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Joubert, P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose \\ud This study investigates perception of ethical and moral conduct in the public sector in Swaziland, specifically, the relationship among: money ethic, attitude towards business ethics, corruption perception, turnover intention, job performance, job satisfaction, and the demographic profile of respondents.\\ud Methodology/Approach\\ud The study was a survey using self-administered questionnaires. Using stratified sampling technique in selected organisations, usable data was collected ...

  12. Reactive case detection for malaria elimination: real-life experience from an ongoing program in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Hugh J W; Novotny, Joe M; Kunene, Simon; Dlamini, Sabelo; Zulu, Zulisile; Cohen, Justin M; Hsiang, Michelle S; Greenhouse, Bryan; Gosling, Roly D

    2013-01-01

    As countries move towards malaria elimination, methods to identify infections among populations who do not seek treatment are required. Reactive case detection, whereby individuals living in close proximity to passively detected cases are screened and treated, is one approach being used by a number of countries including Swaziland. An outstanding issue is establishing the epidemiologically and operationally optimal screening radius around each passively detected index case. Using data collected between December 2009 and June 2012 from reactive case detection (RACD) activities in Swaziland, we evaluated the effect of screening radius and other risk factors on the probability of detecting cases by reactive case detection. Using satellite imagery, we also evaluated the household coverage achieved during reactive case detection. Over the study period, 250 cases triggered RACD, which identified a further 74 cases, showing the value of RACD over passive surveillance alone. Results suggest that the odds of detecting a case within the household of the index case were significantly higher than in neighbouring households (odds ratio (OR) 13, 95% CI 3.1-54.4). Furthermore, cases were more likely to be detected when RACD was conducted within a week of the index presenting at a health facility (OR 8.7, 95% CI 1.1-66.4) and if the index household had not been sprayed with insecticide (OR sprayed vs not sprayed 0.11, 95% CI 0.03-0.46). The large number of households missed during RACD indicates that a 1 km screening radius may be impractical in such resource limited settings such as Swaziland. Future RACD in Swaziland could be made more effective by achieving high coverage amongst individuals located near to index cases and in areas where spraying has not been conducted. As well as allowing the programme to implement RACD more rapidly, this would help to more precisely define the optimal screening radius.

  13. HIV prevention needs for men who have sex with men in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithole, Bhekie

    2017-12-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV burden and also often face multiple other challenges accessing HIV services, including legal and social issues. Although Swaziland recently started responding with interventions for MSM, significant gaps still exist both in information and programming. This study aimed to explore the HIV prevention needs of MSM in Swaziland, including factors elevating their risks and vulnerabilities to HIV infection; to find out what HIV prevention strategies exist; and to determine how best to meet the prevention needs of MSM. A total of 50 men who reported anal sex with other men in the past 12 months were recruited through simple respondent driven sampling. They completed either a structured quantitative survey (n = 35) or participated in a semi-structured qualitative interview (n = 15). Both quantitative and qualitative findings indicated perceived and experienced stigma among MSM. This predominantly manifested as internalised stigma, which may lead to alcohol abuse and sexual risky behaviours. At least 83% (29/35) of the quantitative sample had been labelled with derogatory terms because of their sexual orientation, while 66% (23/35) had experienced being avoided. There was limited knowledge of risk practices: When asked, 54% (19/35) of quantitative respondents reported that vaginal and anal sex carry an equal risk of HIV infection. Participants also had little knowledge on new HIV prevention methods such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and rectal microbicides. MSM needs included safe spaces in form of drop-in centres and non-hostile HIV services. Although Swaziland recently started interventions for key populations, including MSM, there is still a general lack on information to inform managers and implementers on the HIV prevention needs of MSM in Swaziland. Such information is crucial for designers of official and HIV programmes. Research is needed to increase knowledge on the HIV prevention needs for key populations

  14. Travel patterns and demographic characteristics of malaria cases in Swaziland, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor-Garavito, Natalia; Dlamini, Nomcebo; Pindolia, Deepa; Soble, Adam; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Alegana, Victor; Le Menach, Arnaud; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Dlamini, Bongani; Smith, David L; Tatem, Andrew J; Kunene, Simon

    2017-09-08

    As Swaziland progresses towards national malaria elimination, the importation of parasites into receptive areas becomes increasingly important. Imported infections have the potential to instigate local transmission and sustain local parasite reservoirs. Travel histories from Swaziland's routine surveillance data from January 2010 to June 2014 were extracted and analysed. The travel patterns and demographics of rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-confirmed positive cases identified through passive and reactive case detection (RACD) were analysed and compared to those found to be negative through RACD. Of 1517 confirmed cases identified through passive surveillance, 67% reported travel history. A large proportion of positive cases reported domestic or international travel history (65%) compared to negative cases (10%). The primary risk factor for malaria infection in Swaziland was shown to be travel, more specifically international travel to Mozambique by 25- to 44-year old males, who spent on average 28 nights away. Maputo City, Inhambane and Gaza districts were the most likely travel destinations in Mozambique, and 96% of RDT-positive international travellers were either Swazi (52%) or Mozambican (44%) nationals, with Swazis being more likely to test negative. All international travellers were unlikely to have a bed net at home or use protection of any type while travelling. Additionally, paths of transmission, important border crossings and means of transport were identified. Results from this analysis can be used to direct national and well as cross-border targeting of interventions, over space, time and by sub-population. The results also highlight that collaboration between neighbouring countries is needed to tackle the importation of malaria at the regional level.

  15. Cost analysis of Human Papillomavirus-related cervical diseases and genital warts in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themba G Ginindza

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV has proven to be the cause of several severe clinical conditions on the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis. Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer (CC, and genital warts. However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland. Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden.A prevalence-based cost of illness (COI methodology was used to investigate the economic burden of HPV-related diseases. We used a top-down approach for the cost associated with hospital care and a bottom-up approach to estimate the cost associated with outpatient and primary care. The current study was conducted from a provider perspective since the state bears the majority of the costs of screening and treatment in Swaziland. All identifiable direct medical costs were considered for cervical lesions, cervical cancer and genital warts, which were primary diagnoses during 2015. A mix of bottom up micro-costing ingredients approach and top-down approaches was used to collect data on costs. All costs were computed at the price level of 2015 and converted to dollars ($.The total annual estimated direct medical cost associated with screening, managing and treating cervical lesions, CC and genital warts in Swaziland was $16 million. The largest cost in the analysis was estimated for treatment of high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer representing 80% of the total cost ($12.6 million. Costs for screening only represented 5% of the total cost ($0.9 million. Treatment of genital warts represented 6% of the total cost ($1million.According to the cost estimations in this study, the economic burden of HPV-related cervical diseases and genital warts represents a major public health issue in Swaziland. Prevention of HPV infection with a national HPV immunization

  16. Factors impacting on employee performance: A case study of the royal Swaziland police service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Dorasamy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal challenge for most organisations is to ensure that the performance of employees will result in the effectiveness and success of any organisation. The Royal Swaziland Police Service (RSPS, in order to differentiate itself from other organisations and ensure survival effectiveness and competitiveness, must render services of high quality. The key findings of the RSPS study suggest that the most positive factors of job satisfaction are receiving respect from the community and relations with colleagues, while the negative aspects are that salaries are not equal to effort put into the job and fear of victimization after voicing a personal opinion.

  17. Bridges to Swaziland: Using Task-Based Learning and Computer-Mediated Instruction to Improve English Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Susan Jacques

    2015-01-01

    One way to provide high quality instruction for underserved English Language Learners around the world is to combine Task-Based English Language Learning with Computer- Assisted Instruction. As part of an ongoing project, "Bridges to Swaziland," these approaches have been implemented in a determined effort to improve the ESL program for…

  18. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  19. Christians' cut: popular religion and the global health campaign for medical male circumcision in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomski, Casey; Nyawo, Sonene

    2017-08-01

    Swaziland faces one of the worst HIV epidemics in the world and is a site for the current global health campaign in sub-Saharan Africa to medically circumcise the majority of the male population. Given that Swaziland is also majority Christian, how does the most popular religion influence acceptance, rejection or understandings of medical male circumcision? This article considers interpretive differences by Christians across the Kingdom's three ecumenical organisations, showing how a diverse group people singly glossed as 'Christian' in most public health acceptability studies critically rejected the procedure in unity, but not uniformly. Participants saw medical male circumcision's promotion and messaging as offensive and circumspect, and medical male circumcision as confounding gendered expectations and sexualised ideas of the body in Swazi Culture. Pentecostal-charismatic churches were seen as more likely to accept medical male circumcision, while traditionalist African Independent Churches rejected the operation. The procedure was widely understood to be a personal choice, in line with New Testament-inspired commitments to metaphorical circumcision as a way of receiving God's grace.

  20. Cultural consensus modeling to measure transactional sex in Swaziland: Scale building and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Dunkle, Kristin L; Cooper, Hannah L F; Windle, Michael; Hadley, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV and gender based violence in southern Africa and around the world. However the typical quantitative operationalization, "the exchange of gifts or money for sex," can be at odds with a wide array of relationship types and motivations described in qualitative explorations. To build on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research streams, we used cultural consensus models to identify distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland. The process allowed us to build and validate emic scales of transactional sex, while identifying key informants for qualitative interviews within each model to contextualize women's experiences and risk perceptions. We used logistic and multinomial logistic regression models to measure associations with condom use and social status outcomes. Fieldwork was conducted between November 2013 and December 2014 in the Hhohho and Manzini regions. We identified three distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland based on 124 Swazi women's emic valuation of what they hoped to receive in exchange for sex with their partners. In a clinic-based survey (n = 406), consensus model scales were more sensitive to condom use than the etic definition. Model consonance had distinct effects on social status for the three different models. Transactional sex is better measured as an emic spectrum of expectations within a relationship, rather than an etic binary relationship type. Cultural consensus models allowed us to blend qualitative and quantitative approaches to create an emicly valid quantitative scale grounded in qualitative context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Is universal coverage via social health insurance financially feasible in Swaziland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathauer, Inke; Musango, Laurent; Sibandze, Sibusiso; Mthethwa, Khosi; Carrin, Guy

    2011-03-01

    The Government of Swaziland decided to explore the feasibility of social health insurance (SHI) in order to enhance universal access to health services. We assess the financial feasibility of a possible SHI scheme in Swaziland. The SHI scenario presented is one that mobilises resources additional to the maintained Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) budget. It is designed to increase prepayment, enhance overall health financing equity, finance quality improvements in health care, and eventually cover the entire population. The financial feasibility assessment consists of calculating and projecting revenues and expenditures of the SHI scheme from 2008 to 2018. SimIns, a health insurance simulation software, was used. Quantitative data from government and other sources and qualitative data from discussions with health financing stakeholders were gathered. Policy assumptions were jointly developed with and agreed upon by a MOHSW team. SHI would take up an increasing proportion of total health expenditure over the simulation period and become the dominant health financing mechanism. In principle, and on the basis of the assumed policy variables, universal coverage could be reached within 6 years through the implementation of an SHI scheme based on a mix of contributory and tax financing. Contribution rates for formal sector employees would amount to 7% of salaries and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare budget would need to be maintained. Government health expenditure including social health insurance would increase from 6% in 2008 to 11% in 2018.

  2. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP on malaria in Swaziland: A country earmarked for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender Dayanandan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP studies to malaria research and control has not received much attention in most southern African countries. This study investigated the local communities' understanding of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, perceptions of cause, treatment-seeking patterns, preventive measures and practices in order to inform the country's proposed malaria elimination programme in Swaziland. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative (LSDI sentinel sites in Swaziland. These sentinel sites share borders with Mozambique. A structured questionnaire was administered to 320 randomly selected households. Only one adult person was interviewed per household. The interviewees were the heads of households and in the absence of the heads of households responsible adults above 18 years were interviewed. Results A substantial number of research participants showed reasonable knowledge of malaria, including correct association between malaria and mosquito bites, its potential fatal consequences and correct treatment practices. Almost 90% (n = 320 of the respondents stated that they would seek treatment within 24 hours of onset of malaria symptoms, with health facilities as their first treatment option. Most people (78% perceived clinics and vector control practices as central to treating and preventing malaria disease. Indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage and bed net ownership were 87.2% and 38.8%, respectively. IRS coverage was in agreement with the World Health Organization's (WHO recommendation of more than 80% within the targeted communities. Conclusion Despite fair knowledge of malaria in Swaziland, there is a need for improving the availability of information through the preferred community channels, such as tinkhundlas (districts, as well as professional health routes. This recommendation

  3. An empirical study of stressors that impinge on teachers in secondary schools in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C I O Okeke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study employed the descriptive-correlation research design to determine whether secondary school teachers experience work-related stress. Participants included 239 teachers selected from schools in the Hhohho region of Swaziland. A questionnaire was used as the instrument to determine the level ofwork-related stress experienced by these teachers. Findings showed that teachers were moderately stressed by their work. Contractual problems and the nature of their work were two aspects that were reported to be the main stressors for the sample, while the work environment and work relationships were only mildly stressful. There was a weak relationship between the level of work-related stress and the demographic variables of gender, marital status, and qualifications. Age had a moderate significant relationship with the level of work-related stress for the sample. The study recommends that stress management programmes for teachers are imperative to deal with the consequences of stress.

  4. Leveraging tuberculosis case relative locations to enhance case detection and linkage to care in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Marie; Rajasekharan, Sathyanath; Ustero, Piluca; Ngo, Katherine; Sikhondze, Welile; Mzileni, Buli; Mandalakas, Anna; Kay, Alexander W

    2018-01-01

    In Swaziland, as in many high HIV/TB burden settings, there is not information available regarding the household location of TB cases for identifying areas of increased TB incidence, limiting the development of targeted interventions. Data from "Butimba", a TB REACH active case finding project, was re-analyzed to provide insight into the location of TB cases surrounding Mbabane, Swaziland. The project aimed to identify geographical areas with high TB burdens to inform active case finding efforts. Butimba implemented household contact tracing; obtaining landmark based, informal directions, to index case homes, defined here as relative locations. The relative locations were matched to census enumeration areas (known location reference areas) using the Microsoft Excel Fuzzy Lookup function. Of 403 relative locations, an enumeration area reference was detected in 388 (96%). TB cases in each census enumeration area and the active case finders in each Tinkhundla, a local governmental region, were mapped using the geographic information system, QGIS 2.16. Urban Tinkhundla predictably accounted for most cases; however, after adjusting for population, the highest density of cases was found in rural Tinkhundla. There was no correlation between the number of active case finders currently assigned to the 7 Tinkhundla surrounding Mbabane and the total number of TB cases (Spearman rho = -0.57, p  = 0.17) or the population adjusted TB cases (Spearman rho = 0.14, p  = 0.75) per Tinkhundla. Reducing TB incidence in high-burden settings demands novel analytic approaches to study TB case locations. We demonstrated the feasibility of linking relative locations to more precise geographical areas, enabling data-driven guidance for National Tuberculosis Programs' resource allocation. In collaboration with the Swazi National Tuberculosis Control Program, this analysis highlighted opportunities to better align the active case finding national strategy with the TB disease

  5. Food insufficiency is associated with high-risk sexual behavior among women in Botswana and Swaziland.

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    Sheri D Weiser

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Both food insufficiency and HIV infection are major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, yet the impact of food insufficiency on HIV risk behavior has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that food insufficiency is associated with HIV transmission behavior.We studied the association between food insufficiency (not having enough food to eat over the previous 12 months and inconsistent condom use, sex exchange, and other measures of risky sex in a cross-sectional population-based study of 1,255 adults in Botswana and 796 adults in Swaziland using a stratified two-stage probability design. Associations were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses, clustered by country and stratified by gender. Food insufficiency was reported by 32% of women and 22% of men over the previous 12 months. Among 1,050 women in both countries, after controlling for respondent characteristics including income and education, HIV knowledge, and alcohol use, food insufficiency was associated with inconsistent condom use with a nonprimary partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-2.36, sex exchange (AOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.74-1.93, intergenerational sexual relationships (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.08, and lack of control in sexual relationships (AOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.24-2.28. Associations between food insufficiency and risky sex were much attenuated among men.Food insufficiency is an important risk factor for increased sexual risk-taking among women in Botswana and Swaziland. Targeted food assistance and income generation programs in conjunction with efforts to enhance women's legal and social rights may play an important role in decreasing HIV transmission risk for women.

  6. Social cohesion, social participation, and HIV related risk among female sex workers in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia A Fonner

    Full Text Available Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317. Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90 and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03 and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51, and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91. Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.

  7. Social Cohesion, Social Participation, and HIV Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]  = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36–4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13–3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33–0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland. PMID:24498125

  8. Sexual behaviors and attitudes of high school students in the kingdom of Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclean, P E

    1995-07-01

    The author examined the sex behaviors and attitudes of 111 high school students with a steady partner in the Kingdom of Swaziland. Data were collected through participant observation during 1987-88, discussions with key informants during 1987-88 and 1990-91, and in-depth structured interviews with the adolescents from rural and urban government high schools. 78 of the students were coitally active, with 57.5% of boys and 68.4% of girls reporting first coitus at 16 years of age or younger. 15.0% of males and no females reported beginning coitus after 18 years of age. 45.0% of the boys and 68.4% of the girls reported never using contraception; 50% of males said they used condoms. Swaziland is largely polygynous. There were, however, modest gender differences on attitudes about multiple partners and demonstrating affection. The young women mainly expected financial support from a sex partner. Since many adolescent men cannot provide such support, many of the adolescent women pursue sexual relations with older, more financially capable men. The author notes that the parents of young Swazi women do not condone such relationships, especially if the man does not seem interested in marriage. No school policy exists on teaching family life education and both unplanned pregnancy and septic abortions are real problems. School policy demands the expulsion of pregnant girls for the duration of their pregnancy. Once delivered, the young mothers may attend a another school. Finally, although parental guidance is less influential than in the past, traditional values attached to gender roles remain intact among the adolescents interviewed for this study.

  9. The health and living conditions of children in child-headed households in Siteki, Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, S; Njongwe, P Z; English, B; Worku, Z

    2009-04-01

    The focus of the study reported on here was to determine the health and living conditions of children living in child-headed households (CHHs) in Swaziland, where it is estimated that approximately 10-15 percent of the entire population will be orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) by 2010 and that one in ten households in the country today are child-headed because of the impact of HIV and AIDS. The population comprised 41 heads of household, caring for 97 siblings among them. Data was collected in a single period between the months of February and April 2007 using the convenience sampling method and employing a semi-structured questionnaire as the data-collection instrument. Children were generally physically healthy, despite not receiving adequate food or balanced diets. Most had access to health facilities or at least to sources of medication. Education assistance exists but is limited and abuse was generally not reported for fear of reprisal. Children generally relied on family and community networks for assistance, but the strain this put on those offering assistance meant that the assistance was not always consistent. Some children also relied on NGOs for food donations, but many of the children were unaware of the services offered by these organisations. There is a dearth of information on adolescents in Swaziland, the primary caregivers in most child-headed households. Children are not actively consulted and encouraged to participate in helping to solve the problems they are affected by. There is a lack of coordination between caregiver organisations, leading to ineffective and inefficient service provision for this particular vulnerable group.

  10. Social cohesion, social participation, and HIV related risk among female sex workers in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonner, Virginia A; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.

  11. Marginalization and social change processes among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons in Swaziland: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H Logie, Carmen; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Jenkinson, Jesse; Madau, Veli; Nhlengethwa, Winnie; Baral, Stefan

    2018-05-30

    Swaziland has among the highest national adult HIV prevalence globally. There is limited knowledge of HIV vulnerabilities and prevention engagement among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons in the context of Swaziland's criminalization of consensual same-sex practices. This study explored social processes of marginalization to assess how they could potentiate HIV vulnerabilities and limit engagement in HIV prevention services. Additionally, we assessed positive change to better understand existing strategies employed by LGBT persons to challenge these HIV prevention barriers. Guided by community-based research methodology and conducted in Mbabane and Manzini, Swaziland, data were collected by LGBT peer-research assistants (PRA) in collaboration with an LGBT community organization in Manzini. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by trained PRAs and explored HIV prevention, including experiences of stigma and coping. Audio files were transcribed verbatim, translated to English, and analyzed using thematic techniques. Among participants (n = 51; mean age: 26.47, SD: 4.68), 40 self-identifed as gay or lesbian (78.4%), 11 bisexual (22.6%), and 12 (23.5%) identified as transgender. Findings highlighted three primary processes of marginalization and positive change in structural, community, and internal domains. First, structural marginalization, which included criminalization, healthcare discrimination, and a scarcity of LGBT tailored HIV prevention resources was challenged by grassroots networks created to access and share specific HIV resources with LGBT persons and the Ministry of Health. Second, community marginalization included stigma and multi-dimensional forms of violence, however, this was met with LGBT persons providing mutual peer support, including for accessing HIV testing services. Thirdly, internal marginalization comprised of self-stigma and associated sexual risk practices was contrasted with coping strategies focused on self

  12. Parliamentary role and relationship in effectively addressing climate change issues - Swaziland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R

    2011-01-15

    Climate change is defined as any long-term and significant change in the expected patterns of a specific region's average weather for an appropriately significant period of time. It is the result of several factors, including Earth?s dynamic processes, external forces, and more recently, human activity. External factors that shape climate include such processes as variations in solar radiation, deviations in Earth's orbit, and variations in the level of greenhouse gas concentrations. Evidence of climatic change taken from a variety of sources can, in turn, be used to reconstruct past climates. Most climate evidence is inferred from changes in key climate indicators, including vegetation, ice cores, dendrochronology, sea-level change, and glacial geology. Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social, and economic threats facing the planet today. In developing countries, Swaziland included, climate change will likely have a significant impact on the livelihoods and living conditions of the poor. It is a particular threat to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and progress in sustainable development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Increasing temperatures and shifting rain patterns across Africa reduce access to food and create effects that impact regions, farming systems, households, and individuals in varying ways. Additional global changes, including changed trade patterns and energy policies, have the potential to exacerbate the negative effects of climate change on some of these systems and groups.

  13. Narratives of Resilience among Learners in a Rural Primary School in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pholoho Justice Morojele

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the concepts of social constructionism, the article provides insights on how six purposively sampled Grade 6 vulnerable children, aged between 11‒15, from poverty-stricken families, child-headed households and those allegedly orphaned by AIDS, resiliently navigated their schooling spaces and places in one rural, primary school in Swaziland. The article uses qualitative data from semi-structured individual and focus group interviews and a participatory research method, photovoice, to foreground narrative accounts of the vulnerable children’s creative coping mechanisms aimed at overcoming the unfavourable circumstances of their schooling experiences. Despite facing some home- and school-based challenges, the vulnerable children were found to display deep-rooted resilience, with or without social support and aspiration for educational attainment, seen as a viable alternative for a better future. Creative coping mechanisms that vulnerable children adopted included calculated rebellion against abusive teachers and consignment to solitude or isolation when feeling overwhelmed by unpleasant experiences. It is recommended that support strategies should involve affirming vulnerable children’s voice and resilience, drawing on how these children already creatively navigate their challenges. 

  14. The promotion of mental health of adolescents in a township in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Siphepho

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of adolescents have been observed drinking alcohol, pushing and abusing drugs and also stealing cars. A lot of adolescents idle in the township streets, girls are falling pregnant and dropping out of school. No research has been done to elicit the opinions of families on the everyday life of the adolescents in this township. The objectives of this research were twofold, namely: To explore and describe the families’ opinions on the everyday life of adolescents in a specific township in Swaziland, and to describe guidelines for advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners to assist these families to mobilize resources in order to promote, maintain and restore mental health as integral part of health of adolescents in this township. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used where the research was conducted in two phases. Trustworthiness measures as well as ethical measures were applied throughout the research. Five categories were identified from the result of the focus group interviews with families: Adolescents presenting ineffective communication patterns due to lack of support from their families; adolescents engaging into risky lifestyles related to lack of support and healthy relationships with their parents; families unable to create a supportive and conducive environment for their adolescents due to their focus on own family stumbling blocks and non-availability of recreational centres related to lack of a supportive and conducive environment in the community and inadequate accommodation leading to overcrowding. Guidelines for advanced psychiatric nurse practitioners were deducted from identified themes and the literature control.

  15. Reckoning HIV/AIDS care: A longitudinal study of community home-based caregivers and clients in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Robin; Van Wyngaard, Arnau; Whiteside, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The article is a descriptive case study of a community home-based care (CHBC) organisation in Swaziland that depicts the convergence of CHBC expansion with substantially improved health outcomes. Comprised of 993 care supporters who tend to 3 839 clients in 37 communities across southern Swaziland, Shiselweni Home-based Care (SHBC) is illustrative of many resource-limited communities throughout Africa that have mobilised, at varying degrees of formality, to address the individual and household suffering associated with HIV/AIDS. To better understand the potential significance of global and national health policy/programming reliance on community health workers (task shifting), we analysed longitudinal data on both care supporter and client cohorts from 2008 to 2013. Most CHBC studies report data from only one cohort. Foremost, our analysis demonstrated a dramatic decline (71.4%) among SHBC clients in overall mortality from 32.2% to 9.2% between 2008 and 2013. Although the study was not designed to establish statistical significance or causality between SHBC expansion and health impact, our findings detail a compelling convergence among CHBC, improved HIV health practices, and declines in client mortality. Our analysis indicated (1) the potential contributions of community health workers to individual and community wellbeing, (2) the challenges of task-shifting agendas, above all comprehensive support of community health workers/care supporters, and (3) the importance of data collection to monitor and strengthen the critical health services assigned to CHBC. Detailed study of CHBC operations and practices is helpful also for advancing government and donor HIV/AIDS strategies, especially with respect to health services decentralisation, in Swaziland and similarly profiled settings.

  16. The effect of major income sources on rural household food (in)security: Evidence from Swaziland and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuza, Majola L; Ortmann, Gerald F; Wale, Edilegnaw; Mutenje, Munyaradzi J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the food (in)security effect of household income generated from major economic activities in rural Swaziland. From a sample of 979 households, the results of a multinomial treatment regression model indicated that gender of household head, labor endowment, education, size of arable land, and location significantly influenced the households' choice of primary economic activity. Further results suggested that off-farm-income-dependent households were less likely to be food insecure when compared with on-farm-income-dependent households. However, on-farm-income-dependent households had a better food security status than their counterparts who depended on remittances and nonfarm economic activities.

  17. The feminine ideal and transactional sex: Navigating respectability and risk in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Dunkle, Kristin L; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Windle, Michael; Hadley, Craig; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2016-06-01

    Women who engage in transactional sex are not only at increased risk of HIV and intimate partner violence, but also face social risks including gossip and ostracism. These social and physical risks may be dependent on both what a woman expects and needs from her partner and how her community perceives the relationship. Gender theory suggests that some of these social risks may hinge on whether or not a woman's relationship threatens dominant masculinity. We conducted a qualitative study in Swaziland from September 2013 to October 2014 to explore transactional sex and respectable femininity through the lens of hegemonic gender theory. Using cultural consensus modeling, we identified cultural models of transactional sex and conducted 16 in-depth interviews with model key informants and 3 focus group discussions, for a total of 41 participants. We identified 4 main models of transactional relationships: One typified by marriage and high social respectability, a second in which women aspire towards marriage, a third particular to University students, and a fourth "sugar daddy" model. Women in all models expected and received significant financial support from their male partners. However, women in less respectable relationships risked social censure and stigma if they were discovered, in part because aspects of their relationship threatened hegemonic masculinity. Conversely, women who received male support in respectable relationships had to carefully select HIV risk reduction strategies that did not threaten their relationship and associated social status. Research and programming efforts typically focus only on the less socially respectable forms of transactional sex. This risks reinforcing stigma for women in relationships that are already considered socially unacceptable while ignoring the unique HIV risks faced by women in more respectable relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The gendered experiences of children in child-headed households in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhatshwa, Nozipho

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the gender dynamics of living in child-headed households (CHHs) in a rural area in Swaziland that experiences high levels of drought, poverty and HIV and AIDS. Using a qualitative research methodology, the study examined ways in which children in CHHs meet their daily family needs and address their vulnerabilities according to their gender, focusing on the experiences of the children. The study sample consisted of 10 households, with 5 boy and 5 girl-headed households from the chiefdoms within the area. A semi-structured interview guide was used to conduct interviews in the respondents' own homes. The study focused on the gendered coping strategies used by the children to sustain their household welfare. Three factors were examined: leadership, food provision and education. The findings show that birth order conferred headship or leadership to the eldest sibling irrespective of their gender. Variations in the performance of the three factors, which were influenced by the gender of the household head, were observed. Generally, the children acted in accordance with their socio-cultural norms demanded in fulfilling the role of leadership and food provision. Boy-headed households become disadvantaged because of the boys' reluctance to take tasks which would contravene traditional Swazi notions of masculinity. This was exacerbated by societal expectations of the independence of boys. Hegemonic masculinity puts boys at a disadvantage when societal expectations require them to enact their masculinity through independence, rather than by drawing on the support of their neighbours/family/social networks. However, girls conformed to traditional Swazi norms. Societal compassion with the vulnerability of girls produced sustainable social arrangements and fostered resilience in girl-headed households.

  19. Feasibility and effectiveness of two community-based HIV testing models in rural Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lucy Anne; Jobanputra, Kiran; Rusike, Lorraine; Mazibuko, Sikhathele; Okello, Velephi; Kerschberger, Bernhard; Jouquet, Guillaume; Cyr, Joanne; Teck, Roger

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility (population reached, costs) and effectiveness (positivity rates, linkage to care) of two strategies of community-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in rural Swaziland. Strategies used were mobile HTC (MHTC) and home-based HTC (HBHTC). Information on age, sex, previous testing and HIV results was obtained from routine HTC records. A consecutive series of individuals testing HIV-positive were followed up for 6 months from the test date to assess linkage to care. A total of 9 060 people were tested: 2 034 through MHTC and 7 026 through HBHTC. A higher proportion of children and adolescents (<20 years) were tested through HBHTC than MHTC (57% vs. 17%; P < 0.001). MHTC reached a higher proportion of adult men than HBHTC (42% vs. 39%; P = 0.015). Of 398 HIV-positive individuals, only 135 (34%) were enrolled in HIV care within 6 months. Of 42 individuals eligible for antiretroviral therapy, 22 (52%) started treatment within 6 months. Linkage to care was lowest among people who had tested previously and those aged 20-40 years. HBHTC was 50% cheaper (US$11 per person tested; $797 per individual enrolled in HIV care) than MHTC ($24 and $1698, respectively). In this high HIV prevalence setting, a community-based testing programme achieved high uptake of testing and appears to be an effective and affordable way to encourage large numbers of people to learn their HIV status (particularly underserved populations such as men and young people). However, for community HTC to impact mortality and incidence, strategies need to be implemented to ensure people testing HIV-positive in the community are linked to HIV care. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Nurse led, primary care based antiretroviral treatment versus hospital care: a controlled prospective study in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Kerry A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral treatment services delivered in hospital settings in Africa increasingly lack capacity to meet demand and are difficult to access by patients. We evaluate the effectiveness of nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment by comparison with usual hospital care in a typical rural sub Saharan African setting. Methods We undertook a prospective, controlled evaluation of planned service change in Lubombo, Swaziland. Clinically stable adults with a CD4 count > 100 and on antiretroviral treatment for at least four weeks at the district hospital were assigned to either nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care or usual hospital care. Assignment depended on the location of the nearest primary care clinic. The main outcome measures were clinic attendance and patient experience. Results Those receiving primary care based treatment were less likely to miss an appointment compared with those continuing to receive hospital care (RR 0·37, p p = 0·001. Those receiving primary care based, nurse led care were more likely to be satisfied in the ability of staff to manage their condition (RR 1·23, p = 0·003. There was no significant difference in loss to follow-up or other health related outcomes in modified intention to treat analysis. Multilevel, multivariable regression identified little inter-cluster variation. Conclusions Clinic attendance and patient experience are better with nurse led primary care based antiretroviral treatment care than with hospital care; health related outcomes appear equally good. This evidence supports efforts of the WHO to scale-up universal access to antiretroviral treatment in sub Saharan Africa.

  1. Secondary Level Teachers: Supply and Demand in Swaziland. Report on the Supply of Secondary Level Teachers in English-Speaking Africa. Country Study No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John W.; Cammaerts, F. C. A.

    One of 14 studies on the supply of secondary level teachers in English-speaking Africa, this report begins with a survey of Swaziland's geography and economic potentials, and the financial viability of its economic growth. Despite its small size, the wide market areas available and the existence of non-agricultural opportunities give promise of…

  2. Behavior change communication and mobile populations: the evaluation of a cross-border HIV/AIDS communication strategy amongst migrants from Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Eva; Weiner, Renay; Hutchinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of being exposed to the Soul City Southern Africa Regional OneLove campaign, a behavior change communication program, on sexual behavior and condom use among a mobile population in Swaziland. Data for this study come from a nationally representative sample of 845 individuals who reported traveling to neighboring countries for at least two weeks at any time in the previous two years. Respondents were asked about exposure to the campaign through television, radio, booklets, posters, and advertisements both in Swaziland and in the other countries where they had traveled in the previous two years. Odds ratios were used to estimate the relationships between the HIV/AIDS outcomes of interest and program exposure for the full sample as well as separately for males and females. The program had no effect on reducing known risky behaviors such as having multiple sexual partners. However, men exposed in Swaziland only (AOR = 3.4, CI 1.2-9.4) and in Swaziland and another country (AOR = 2.8, CI 1.0-7.7) were more likely to report using a condom at last sex. In the full sample, those exposed in Swaziland were more likely to report using a condom at last sex (AOR = 2.6, CI 1.3-5.3) and a condom at last sex with a regular partner (AOR = 2.3, CI 1.1-4.8). Men who reported multiple sexual partnerships and who were exposed in Swaziland and another country were nine times as likely to report condom at last sex than men with no exposure. Respondents exposed in Swaziland and another country were more likely to have been tested for HIV; this was true for the total population (AOR = 2.9, CI 1.1-7.9) and for men separately (AOR = 3.3, CI 1.1-10.1). These findings provide support for more regional HIV prevention programs in Southern Africa as a way to increase positive behaviors among mobile populations.

  3. Love matters: exploring conceptions of love in Rwanda and Swaziland and relationship to HIV and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Allison; Stern, Erin; Dlamini-Simelane, Thandeka; Kakuze, Marie Fidele

    2017-12-01

    Health risks such as intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV infection often occur within intimate sexual relationships, yet the study of love and intimacy is largely absent from health research on African populations. This study explores how women and men in Rwanda and Swaziland understand and represent love in their intimate sexual partnerships. In Rwanda, 58 in-depth interviews with 15 couples, 12 interviews with activists, and 24 focus group discussions were carried out during formative and evaluative research of the Indashyikirwa programme, which aims to reduce IPV and support healthy couple relationships. In Swaziland, 117 in-depth, life-course interviews with 14 women and 14 men focused on understanding intimate sexual partnerships. We analysed these qualitative data thematically using a Grounded Theory approach. Participants described love as being foundational to their intimate sexual partnerships. Women and men emphasised that love is seen and expressed through actions and tangible evidence such as gifts and material support, acts of service, showing intentions for marriage, sexual faithfulness, and spending time together. Some participants expressed ambivalent narratives regarding love, gifts, and money, acknowledging that they desired partners who demonstrated love through material support while implying that true love should be untainted by desires for wealth. IPV characterised many relationships and was perceived as a threat to love, even as love was seen as a potential antidote to IPV. Careful scholarship of love is critical to better understand protective and risk factors for HIV and IPV and for interventions that seek to ameliorate these risks.

  4. A qualitative analysis of the barriers to antiretroviral therapy initiation among children 2 to 18 months of age in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Charisse V; Jolly, Pauline; Padilla, Luz; Malinga, Musa; Harris, Chantal; Mthethwa, Nobuhle; Ba, Inessa; Styles, Amy; Perry, Sarah; Brooks, Raina; Naluyinda-Kitabire, Florence; Mamba, Makhosini; Preko, Peter

    2017-12-01

    HIV/AIDS remains one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years old in Swaziland. Although studies have shown that early initiation of infants and children diagnosed with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly reduces mortality, many children do not initiate ART until the later stages of disease. This study was designed to collect qualitative data from mothers and caregivers of HIV-positive children to identify the barriers to ART initiation. Focus group discussion (FGD) sessions were conducted in siSwati between July and September 2014 among caregivers of aged children 2-18 months in Swaziland who did or did not initiate ART between January 2011 and December 2012 after HIV DNA PCR-positive diagnosis of the infants. Denial, guilt, lack of knowledge, tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infection, HIV-related stigma, lack of money, and distance to clinics were reported by the participants as barriers to ART initiation. The findings further revealed that non-initiation on ART was not linked to a negative perception of the treatment. Findings suggest a need to improve sensitivity among healthcare workers as well as education and counselling services that will facilitate the ART initiation process.

  5. Three parallel information systems for malaria elimination in Swaziland, 2010-2015: are the numbers the same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Z; Kunene, S; Mkhonta, N; Owiti, P; Sikhondze, W; Mhlanga, M; Simelane, Z; Geoffroy, E; Zachariah, R

    2018-04-25

    Background: To be able to eliminate malaria, accurate, timely reporting and tracking of all confirmed malaria cases is crucial. Swaziland, a country in the process of eliminating malaria, has three parallel health information systems. Design: This was a cross-sectional study using country-wide programme data from 2010 to 2015. Methods: The Malaria Surveillance Database System (MSDS) is a comprehensive malaria database, the Immediate Disease Notification System (IDNS) is meant to provide early warning and trigger case investigations to prevent onward malaria transmission and potential epidemics, and the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS) reports on all morbidity at health facility level. Discrepancies were stratified by health facility level and type. Results: Consistent over-reporting of 9-85% was noticed in the HMIS, principally at the primary health care level (clinic and/or health centre). In the IDNS, the discrepancy went from under-reporting (12%) to over-reporting (32%); this was also seen at the primary care level. At the hospital level, there was under-reporting in both the HMIS and IDNS. Conclusions: There are considerable discrepancies in the numbers of confirmed malaria cases in the HMIS and IDNS in Swaziland. This may misrepresent the malaria burden and delay case investigation, predisposing the population to potential epidemics. There is an urgent need to improve data integrity in order to guide and evaluate efforts toward elimination.

  6. 'Female condoms give women greater control': a qualitative assessment of the experiences of commercial sex workers in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenjwa, Thulile; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2012-10-01

    To explore commercial sex workers' experiences with the female condom in Swaziland. This is a qualitative study that draws on two focus group discussions and ten individual in-depth interviews with female commercial sex workers in Lavumisa, Swaziland. The findings suggest that the majority of female sex workers prefer to use the female condom with their clients because it offers them greater control over the sexual encounter. Other factors that facilitate its use include the absence of side effects, the enhancement of sexual pleasure and protection against the risk of STIs (including HIV). In addition, the women reported that the female condom is stronger and more resistant to breakage than the male condom. Moreover, the female condoms can be inserted well in advance of sexual intercourse. Difficulties of insertion, partner objection and limited product availability were some of the barriers to the use of the device. There was also a tendency to reuse the female condoms because of lack of product availability and privacy to insert it. Although female condom use involves negotiation with clients, the fact that it offers sex workers an independent method of protection gives them more power and also, increases their ability to control their sexual and reproductive health.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of truancy among adolescents in Swaziland: findings from the Global School-Based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educational attainment is an important determinant of diverse health outcomes. Truancy among adolescents jeopardizes chances of achieving their educational goals. Truant behaviors are also associated with various psychosocial problems. There is however limited data on the prevalence and factors associated with truancy among adolescents in Africa. Methods We used data from the Swaziland Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS conducted in 2003 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported truancy within the last 30 days among adolescents. We also assessed the association between self-reported truancy and a selected list of independent variables using logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 7341 students participated in the study. In analysis of available data, 2526 (36.2% and 4470 (63.8% were males and females respectively. The overall prevalence of truancy within the last 30 days preceding the study was 21.6%. Prevalence of truancy was 27.4% (605 and 17.9% (723 in males and females respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being a male, having been bullied, lower school grades, and alcohol use were positively associated with truancy. Adolescents who perceived themselves as having parental support were less likely to have reported being truant. Conclusion Truancy among adolescents in Swaziland should be regarded as an important social problem as it is relatively prevalent. The design and implementation of intervention programs aimed to reduce truant behaviours should incorporate our knowledge of the factors identified as associated with bullying.

  8. Outcomes and impact of HIV prevention, ART and TB programs in Swaziland--early evidence from public health triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Cari; Mndzebele, Sibongile; Hlophe, Thabo; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Korenromp, Eline L; Stoneburner, Rand; Pervilhac, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Swaziland's severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC), tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010), hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010) and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics) will require additional data from future household surveys, and improved routine (program, surveillance, and hospital) data at district level.

  9. Efficacy of Mobile Serious Games in Increasing HIV Risk Perception in Swaziland: A Randomized Control Trial (SGprev Trial) Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Musumari, Patou; El-Saaidi, Christina; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Ono Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-11-22

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) continue to be a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), particularly in Swaziland, which has the highest HIV prevalence in this region. A wide range of strategies and interventions have been used to promote behavior change, though almost all such interventions have involved mass media. Therefore, innovative behavior change strategies beyond mass media communication are urgently needed. Serious games have demonstrated effectiveness in advancing health in the developed world; however, no rigorous serious games interventions have been implemented in HIV prevention in SSA. We plan to test whether a serious game intervention delivered on mobile phones to increase HIV risk perception, increase intention to reduce sexual partnerships, and increase intention to know own and partners HIV status will be more effective compared with current prevention efforts. This is a two-arm randomized intervention trial. We will recruit 380 participants who meet the following eligibility criteria: 18-29 years of age, own a smartphone running an Android-based operating system, have the WhatsApp messaging app, live in Swaziland, and can adequately grant informed consent. Participants will be allocated into a smartphone interactive, educational story game, and a wait-list control group in a 1:1 allocation ratio. Subsequently, a self-administered Web-based questionnaire will be issued at baseline and after 4 weeks of exposure to the game. We hypothesize that the change in HIV risk perception between pre- and post-intervention assessment is greater in the intervention group compared with the change in the control group. Our primary hypothesis is based on the assumption that increased perceived risk of HIV provides cues to engage in protective behavior. Our primary outcome measure is HIV risk perceived mean change between pre- and post-intervention compared with the mean change in the wait

  10. Exploring the Potential of Participatory Theatre to Reduce Stigma and Promote Health Equity for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) People in Swaziland and Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Dias, Lisa V; Jenkinson, Jesse; Newman, Peter A; MacKenzie, Rachel K; Mothopeng, Tampose; Madau, Veli; Ranotsi, Amelia; Nhlengethwa, Winnie; Baral, Stefan D

    2018-03-01

    Stigma and discrimination affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people compromise health and human rights and exacerbate the HIV epidemic. Scant research has explored effective LGBT stigma reduction strategies in low- and middle-income countries. We developed and pilot-tested a participatory theatre intervention (PTI) to reduce LGBT stigma in Swaziland and Lesotho, countries with the world's highest HIV prevalence. We collected preliminary data from in-depth interviews with LGBT people in Lesotho and Swaziland to enhance understanding of LGBT stigma. Local LGBT and theatre groups worked with these data to create a 2-hour PTI composed of three skits on LGBT stigma in health care, family, and community settings in Swaziland (Manzini) and Lesotho (Maseru, Mapoteng). Participants ( n = 106; nursing students, health care providers, educators, community members) completed 12 focus groups following the PTI. We conducted thematic analysis to understand reactions to the PTI. Focus groups revealed the PTI increased understanding of LGBT persons and issues, increased empathy, and fostered self-reflection of personal biases. Increased understanding included enhanced awareness of the negative impacts of LGBT stigma, and of LGBT people's lived experiences and issues. Participants discussed changes in attitude and perspective through self-reflection and learning. The format of the theatre performance was described as conducive to learning and preferred over more conventional educational methods. Findings indicate changed attitudes and awareness toward LGBT persons and issues following a PTI in Swaziland and Lesotho. Stigma reduction interventions may help mitigate barriers to HIV prevention, treatment, and care in these settings with a high burden of HIV.

  11. Identification of recent HIV infections and of factors associated with virus acquisition among pregnant women in 2004 and 2006 in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Daniela; Tavoschi, Lara; Regine, Vincenza; Raimondo, Mariangela; Gama, Dan; Sulgencio, Leonides; Almaviva, Mauro; Galli, Claudio; Ensoli, Barbara; Suligoi, Barbara; Sukati, Hosea; Buttò, Stefano

    2010-07-01

    HIV continues to spread at high rates in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, Swaziland is one of the countries most affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Monitoring of HIV infection in Swaziland is being made by periodical investigations on HIV prevalence in pregnant women. However, knowledge of proportion of recent HIV infections is important for epidemiologic purposes to assess HIV transmission patterns. To evaluate the proportion of recent HIV infections among pregnant women and its change overtime and to analyze factors associated with recent HIV infection in Swaziland. HIV-positive sera from pregnant women were collected during the 2004 and 2006 National HIV Serosurveys conducted in Swaziland and tested for the HIV antibody avidity, in order to identify recent HIV infections. Socio-demographic and clinical information was also collected. A multivariate analysis was conducted to assess the association between recent HIV infection and socio-demographic and clinical factors. A total of 1636 serum samples were tested for HIV antibody avidity. The overall proportion of recent infections was 13.8%, with no significant difference between 2004 and 2006 (14.6% vs. 13.1%, P>0.05, respectively). At the multivariate analysis, the younger age [14-19 vs. >or=20 years; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.17, 95% CI: 1.45-3.24], as well as being at first pregnancy (1 vs. >or=2; aOR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.10-2.35) was independently associated with recent HIV infection. This study shows no significant difference in the proportion of recent infections between 2004 and 2006 and suggests that young women and women at their first pregnancy are currently high-risk groups for HIV acquisition, highlighting the importance of developing targeted youth programmes to reduce the spread of HIV infection in the country. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual stigma and discrimination as barriers to seeking appropriate healthcare among men who have sex with men in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risher, Kathryn; Adams, Darrin; Sithole, Bhekie; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin; Mnisi, Zandile; Mabusa, Xolile; Baral, Stefan D

    2013-11-13

    Same-sex practices and orientation are both stigmatized and criminalized in many countries across sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the relationship of fear of seeking healthcare and disclosure of same-sex practices among a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Swaziland with demographic, socio-economic and behavioural determinants. Three hundred and twenty-three men who reported having had anal sex with a man in the past year were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and administered a structured survey instrument. Asymptotically unbiased estimates of prevalence of stigma and human rights abuses generated using the RDSII estimator are reported with bootstrapped confidence intervals (CIs). Weighted simple and multiple logistic regressions of fear of seeking healthcare and disclosure of same-sex practices to a healthcare provider with demographic, social and behavioural variables are reported. Stigma was common, including 61.7% (95% CI=54.0-69.0%) reporting fear of seeking healthcare, 44.1% (95% CI=36.2-51.3%) any enacted stigma and 73.9% (95% CI=67.7-80.1%) any perceived social stigma (family, friends). Ever disclosing sexual practices with other men to healthcare providers was low (25.6%, 95% CI=19.2-32.1%). In multiple logistic regression, fear of seeking healthcare was significantly associated with: having experienced legal discrimination as a result of sexual orientation or practice (aOR=1.9, 95% CI=1.1-3.4), having felt like you wanted to end your life (aOR=2.0, 95% CI=1.2-3.4), having been raped (aOR=11.0, 95% CI=1.4-84.4), finding it very difficult to insist on condom use when a male partner does not want to use a condom (aOR=2.1, 95% CI=1.0-4.1) and having a non-Swazi nationality at birth (aOR=0.18, 95% CI=0.05-0.68). In multiple logistic regression, disclosure of same-sex practices to a healthcare provider was significantly associated with: having completed secondary education or more (aOR=5.1, 95% CI=2.5-10.3), having used a

  13. Efficacy of Mobile Serious Games in Increasing HIV Risk Perception in Swaziland: A Randomized Control Trial (SGprev Trial) Research Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumari, Patou; El-Saaidi, Christina; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S. Pilar; Ono Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) continue to be a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), particularly in Swaziland, which has the highest HIV prevalence in this region. A wide range of strategies and interventions have been used to promote behavior change, though almost all such interventions have involved mass media. Therefore, innovative behavior change strategies beyond mass media communication are urgently needed. Serious games have demonstrated effectiveness in advancing health in the developed world; however, no rigorous serious games interventions have been implemented in HIV prevention in SSA. Objective We plan to test whether a serious game intervention delivered on mobile phones to increase HIV risk perception, increase intention to reduce sexual partnerships, and increase intention to know own and partners HIV status will be more effective compared with current prevention efforts. Methods This is a two-arm randomized intervention trial. We will recruit 380 participants who meet the following eligibility criteria: 18-29 years of age, own a smartphone running an Android-based operating system, have the WhatsApp messaging app, live in Swaziland, and can adequately grant informed consent. Participants will be allocated into a smartphone interactive, educational story game, and a wait-list control group in a 1:1 allocation ratio. Subsequently, a self-administered Web-based questionnaire will be issued at baseline and after 4 weeks of exposure to the game. We hypothesize that the change in HIV risk perception between pre- and post-intervention assessment is greater in the intervention group compared with the change in the control group. Our primary hypothesis is based on the assumption that increased perceived risk of HIV provides cues to engage in protective behavior. Our primary outcome measure is HIV risk perceived mean change between pre- and post-intervention compared with

  14. Strengthening Health Systems for Chronic Care: Leveraging HIV Programs to Support Diabetes Services in Ethiopia and Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rabkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The scale-up of HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa has catalyzed the development of highly effective chronic care systems. The strategies, systems, and tools developed to support life-long HIV care and treatment are locally owned contextually appropriate resources, many of which could be adapted to support continuity care for noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCD, such as diabetes mellitus (DM. We conducted two proof-of-concept studies to further the understanding of the status of NCD programs and the feasibility and effectiveness of adapting HIV program-related tools and systems for patients with DM. In Swaziland, a rapid assessment illustrated gaps in the approaches used to support DM services at 15 health facilities, despite the existence of chronic care systems at HIV clinics in the same hospitals, health centers, and clinics. In Ethiopia, a pilot study found similar gaps in DM services at baseline and illustrated the potential to rapidly improve the quality of care and treatment for DM by adapting HIV-specific policies, systems, and tools.

  15. An assessment of sex work in Swaziland: barriers to and opportunities for HIV prevention among sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipamaunga, Shalote; Muula, Adamson S; Mataya, Ronald

    2010-10-01

    The HIV situation in virtually all southern African countries is a generalised epidemic. Despite the fact that almost all adult age and social groups have high HIV prevalence estimates, sex workers are disproportionally affected, with prevalence estimates higher than the general population. In a qualitative study of 61 male and female sex workers in Swaziland, we found that while poverty drove many into sex work, others reported motivations of pleasure or "sensation seeking", and freedoms from the burden of marriage as perceived benefits of sex work. We also found that penile-vaginal sex was not universal in male-female sexual encounters; and motivation by sex workers for non-condom use included intention to earn more money from unprotected sex, desire for sexual pleasure, and not having time to use condoms. Many sex workers expressed doubts over an alternative lifestyle, even if that change afforded them money to meet their daily necessities. The findings from this study suggest that treating sex workers as a homogenous group that is driven into, or maintain sex work only because of poverty may be problematic, and could hamper HIV-relevant interventions aimed at reducing their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections.

  16. “There is hunger in my community”: a qualitative study of food security as a cyclical force in sex work in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world – 32% of adults are currently living with HIV — and many Swazis are chronically food insecure — in 2011 one in four Swazis required food aid from the World Food Programme. In southern Africa, food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors, difficulty with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, higher rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission, and more rapid HIV progression. Sex workers in Swaziland are a population that is most at risk of HIV. Little is known about the context and needs of sex workers in Swaziland who are living with HIV, nor how food insecurity may affect these needs. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers who are living with HIV in Swaziland. Interviews took place in four different regions of the country, and were designed to learn about context, experiences, and health service needs of Swazi sex workers. Results Hunger was a major and consistent theme in our informants’ lives. Women cited their own hunger or that of their children as the impetus to begin sex work, and as a primary motivation to continue to sell sex. Informants used good nutrition and the ability to access “healthy” foods as a strategy to manage their HIV infection. Informants discussed difficulty in adhering to ART when faced with the prospect of taking pills on an empty stomach. Across interviews, discussions of CD4 counts and ART adherence intertwined with discussions of poverty, hunger and healthy foods. Some sex workers felt that they had greater trouble accessing food through social networks as result of both their HIV status and profession. Conclusions Informants described a risk cycle of hunger, sex work, and HIV infection. The two latter drive an increased need for ‘healthy foods’ and an alienation from social networks that offer material and emotional support against hunger. Services and interventions for sex workers which address the pathways

  17. "There is hunger in my community": a qualitative study of food security as a cyclical force in sex work in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Mnisi, Zandile; Adams, Darrin; Baral, Stefan; Kennedy, Caitlin

    2014-01-25

    Swaziland has the highest HIV prevalence in the world - 32% of adults are currently living with HIV - and many Swazis are chronically food insecure - in 2011 one in four Swazis required food aid from the World Food Programme. In southern Africa, food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors, difficulty with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, higher rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission, and more rapid HIV progression. Sex workers in Swaziland are a population that is most at risk of HIV. Little is known about the context and needs of sex workers in Swaziland who are living with HIV, nor how food insecurity may affect these needs. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 female sex workers who are living with HIV in Swaziland. Interviews took place in four different regions of the country, and were designed to learn about context, experiences, and health service needs of Swazi sex workers. Hunger was a major and consistent theme in our informants' lives. Women cited their own hunger or that of their children as the impetus to begin sex work, and as a primary motivation to continue to sell sex. Informants used good nutrition and the ability to access "healthy" foods as a strategy to manage their HIV infection. Informants discussed difficulty in adhering to ART when faced with the prospect of taking pills on an empty stomach. Across interviews, discussions of CD4 counts and ART adherence intertwined with discussions of poverty, hunger and healthy foods. Some sex workers felt that they had greater trouble accessing food through social networks as result of both their HIV status and profession. Informants described a risk cycle of hunger, sex work, and HIV infection. The two latter drive an increased need for 'healthy foods' and an alienation from social networks that offer material and emotional support against hunger. Services and interventions for sex workers which address the pathways through which food insecurity generates vulnerability

  18. Studies in the liverwort genus Fossombronia (Metzgeriales from southern Africa. 6. New species from Lesotho, Swaziland and Mpumalanga and new records from Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Perold

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Fossombronia are described: F. angulifolia Perold from Lesotho and F. swaziensis Perold from Swaziland and Mpumalanga. F. angulifolia is characterised by erect or semi-erect, 2-4-lobed, angular leaves, by mostly incompletely reticulate spores and by rather short elaters  F.  swaziensis can be recognised by large, rounded or sometimes shallowly notched leaves, which are rather stiff and bi- to multistratose basally, by quite large perigonial bracts in the male plants and by spores which have irregular areolae containing tubercular inclusions

  19. High risk sexual behaviors for HIV among the in-school youth in Swaziland: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacolo, Hlengiwe Nokuthula; Chung, Min-Huey; Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths.

  20. Introduction and evaluation of a ‘pre-ART care’ service in Swaziland: an operational research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtle, David; Elden, Susan; Mamvura, Canaan; Vandelanotte, Joris; Petherick, Emily; Walley, John; Wright, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective To implement and evaluate a formal pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) care service at a district hospital in Swaziland. Design Operational research. Setting District hospital in Southern Africa. Participants 1171 patients with a previous diagnosis of HIV. A baseline patient group consisted of the first 200 patients using the service. Two follow-up groups were defined: group 1 was all patients recruited from April to June 2009 and group 2 was 200 patients recruited in February 2010. Intervention Introduction of pre-ART care—a package of interventions, including counselling; regular review; clinical staging; timely initiation of ART; social and psychological support; and prevention and management of opportunistic infections, such as tuberculosis. Primary and secondary outcome measures Proportion of patients assessed for ART eligibility, proportion of eligible patients who were started on ART and proportion receiving defined evidence-based interventions (including prophylactic co-trimoxazole and tuberculosis screening). Results Following the implementation of the pre-ART service, the proportion of patients receiving defined interventions increased; the proportion of patient being assessed for ART eligibility significantly increased (baseline: 59%, group 1: 64%, group 2: 76%; p=0.001); the proportion of ART-eligible patients starting treatment increased (baseline: 53%, group 1: 81%, group: 2, 81%; pART and initiation of treatment significantly decreased (baseline: 61 days, group 1: 39 days, group 2: 14 days; pART was associated with significant improvements in the assessment, management and timeliness of initiation of treatment for patients with HIV. PMID:22422913

  1. Screening, prevalence, and risk factors for cervical lesions among HIV positive and HIV negative women in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E. Jolly

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical Cancer (CC is the number one cancer among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although CC is preventable, most women in developing countries do not have access to screening. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for cervical lesions using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA among 112 HIV positive and 161 negative women aged 18–69 years. Results The presence of cervical lesions was greater among HIV positive (22.9% than HIV negative women (5.7%; p < 0.0001. In logistic models, the risk of cervical lesions among HIV positive women was 5.24 times higher when adjusted by age (OR 5.24, CI 2.31–11.88, and 4.06 times higher in a full model (OR 4.06, CI 1.61–10.25, than among HIV negative women. In the age-adjusted model women who had ≥2 lifetime sexual partners were 3 times more likely (OR 3.00, CI 1.02–8.85 to have cervical lesions compared to women with one lifetime partner and the odds of cervical lesions among women with a history of STIs were 2.16 greater (OR 2.16, CI 1.04–4.50 than among women with no previous STI. In the fully adjusted model women who had a previous cervical exam were 2.5 times more likely (OR 2.53, CI 1.06–6.05 to have cervical lesions than women who had not. Conclusions The high prevalence of HIV infection and the strong association between HIV and cervical lesions highlight the need for substantial scale-up of cervical screening to decrease the rate of CC in Swaziland.

  2. High risk sexual behaviors for HIV among the in-school youth in Swaziland: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlengiwe Nokuthula Sacolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. RESULTS: The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths.

  3. High Risk Sexual Behaviors for HIV among the In-School Youth in Swaziland: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Background Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. Results The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Conclusions Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths. PMID:23861756

  4. A time-motion study of cardiovascular disease risk factor screening integrated into HIV clinic visits in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Anton M; Rabkin, Miriam; Simelane, Samkelo; Gachuhi, Averie B; McNairy, Margaret L; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Bongomin, Pido; Okello, Velephi N; Bitchong, Raymond A; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2018-03-01

    Screening of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is recommended but not routinely provided for HIV-infected patients, especially in low-resource settings. Potential concerns include limited staff time and low patient acceptability, but little empirical data exists. As part of a pilot study of screening in a large urban HIV clinic in Swaziland, we conducted a time-motion study to assess the impact of screening on patient flow and HIV service delivery and exit interviews to assess patient acceptability. A convenience sample of patients ≥40 years of age attending routine HIV clinic visits was screened for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and tobacco smoking. We observed HIV visits with and without screening and measured time spent on HIV and CVD risk factor screening activities. We compared screened and unscreened patients on total visit time and time spent receiving HIV services using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. A separate convenience sample of screened patients participated in exit interviews to assess their satisfaction with screening. We observed 172 patient visits (122 with CVD risk factor screening and 50 without). Screening increased total visit time from a median (range) of 4 minutes (2 to 11) to 15 minutes (9 to 30) (p < 0.01). Time spent on HIV care was not affected: 4 (2 to 10) versus 4 (2 to 11) (p = 0.57). We recruited 126 patients for exit interviews, all of whom indicated that they would recommend screening to others. Provision of CVD risk factor screening more than tripled the length of routine HIV clinic visits but did not reduce the time spent on HIV services. Programme managers need to take longer visit duration into account in order to effectively integrate CVD risk factor screening and counselling into HIV programmes. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  5. Agency as a mediator in the pathway from transactional sex to HIV among pregnant women in Swaziland: a multigroup path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Dunkle, Kristin L; Hadley, Craig; Cooper, Hannah Lf; Windle, Michael

    2017-07-18

    Transactional sex is a structural driver of HIV for women and girls in sub-Saharan Africa. In transactional relationships, sexual and economic obligations intertwine and may have positive and negative effects on women's financial standing and social status. We conducted a clinic-based survey with pregnant women in Swaziland using a locally validated transactional sex scale to measure the association between subjective social status, transactional sex, and HIV status, and to assess whether this association differed according to a woman's agency within her relationship. We recruited a convenience sample of 406 pregnant women at one rural and one urban public antenatal clinic in Swaziland and administered a behavioural survey that was linked to participant HIV status using clinic records. We then conducted a multigroup path analysis to test three hypotheses: (1) that more engagement in transactional sex is associated with decreased condom use and increased subjective social status; (2) that subjective social status mediates the relationship between transactional sex and HIV status; and (3) that these relationships are different across groups according to whether or not a woman reported any indicator of constrained agency within her relationship. The amount and value of material goods received from a sexual partner was significantly and positively associated with higher subjective social status among all participants. As the amount of material goods received from a partner increased, women who reported no indicators of constrained agency were less likely to use condoms. Conversely, there was no relationship between transactional sex and condom use among women who reported any indicator of constrained relationship agency. Among women who reported any indicator of constrained agency, HIV was significantly associated with lower subjective social status. Relationship agency likely plays a key role in determining which mechanisms create HIV risk for women in transactional

  6. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 4 March 2008. It was signed in Vienna on 23 July 2010

  7. The Text of the Agreement of 28 July 1975 between Swaziland and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-12-18

    The text of the Agreement of 28 July 1975, and of the Protocol thereto, between Swaziland and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 28 July 1975, pursuant to Article 24 thereof. The Protocol entered into force on the same date, pursuant to Article III thereof.

  8. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 4 March 2008. It was signed in Vienna on 23 July 2010

  9. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 4 March 2008. It was signed in Vienna on 23 July 2010 [es

  10. African Journals Online: Swaziland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes research papers, case studies, essays and review articles as well as first hand experiences in soil, plant, water and animal sciences, natural resources management, home economics and nutrition, and other related areas of relevance to the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region in ...

  11. Diabetic retinopathy in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Burn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that between 2010 and 2030 there will be a 98% increase in the number of adults in sub-Saharan Africa with diabetes.1 This is just one aspect of the epidemic of non-communicable diseases facing sub-Saharan Africa, driven by urbanisation, ageing, and changes to lifestyle and environment. The diabetes epidemic poses a significant challenge to health services, as non-communicable conditions should be managed by multi-disciplinary teams, with prevention as a primary aim.

  12. Informing the scaling up of voluntary medical male circumcision efforts through the use of theory of reasoned action: survey findings among uncircumcised young men in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A; Dhillon, Preeti; Greene, Jessica L; Makadzange, Panganai; Khumlao, Philisiwe; Shekhar, Navendu

    2015-04-01

    Assessing predictors of intention to circumcise can help to identify effective strategies for increasing uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Grounded in the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the current study of uncircumcised males ages 13-29 in Swaziland (N = 1,257) employed multivariate logistic regression to determine predictors of VMMC intention. The strongest predictors were strongly disagreeing/disagreeing that sex was more painful for a circumcised man (odds ratio [OR] = 4.37; p = < .007), a Christian man should not get circumcised (OR = 2.47; p < .001), and circumcision makes penetration more painful and difficult (OR = 2.44; p = .007). Several beliefs about enhanced sexual performance, normative beliefs (parents, sexual partner, and friends), and non-TRA-related factors (e.g., importance of plowing season to daily schedule) were also statistically significant predictors. TRA proved a useful theory to explore young men's intention to circumcise and can help inform interventions aimed at increasing uptake of VMMC.

  13. Improving AfriPop dataset with settlement extents extracted from RapidEye for the border region comprising South-Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Deleu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For modelling the spatial distribution of malaria incidence, accurate and detailed information on population size and distribution are of significant importance. Different, global, spatial, standard datasets of population distribution have been developed and are widely used. However, most of them are not up-to-date and the low spatial resolution of the input census data has limitations for contemporary, national- scale analyses. The AfriPop project, launched in July 2009, was initiated with the aim of producing detailed, contemporary and easily updatable population distribution datasets for the whole of Africa. High-resolution satellite sensors can help to further improve this dataset through the generation of high-resolution settlement layers at greater spatial details. In the present study, the settlement extents included in the MALAREO land use classification were used to generate an enhanced and updated version of the AfriPop dataset for the study area covering southern Mozambique, eastern Swaziland and the malarious part of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Results show that it is possible to easily produce a detailed and updated population distribution dataset applying the AfriPop modelling approach with the use of high-resolution settlement layers and population growth rates. The 2007 and 2011 population datasets are freely available as a product of the MALAREO project and can be downloaded from the project website.

  14. Structural and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in a Country with a Highly Generalized HIV Epidemic: A Cross-Sectional Study with a Probability Sample of Antenatal Care Facilities in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-Saaidi, Christina; Haumba, Samson; Tagutanazvo, Oslinah Buru; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    HIV disproportionately affects women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Swaziland bears the highest HIV prevalence of 41% among pregnant women in this region. This heightened HIV-epidemic reflects the importance of context-specific interventions. Apart from routine HIV surveillance, studies that examine structural and behavioral factors associated with HIV infection among women may facilitate the revitalization of existing programs and provide insights to inform context-specific HIV prevention interventions. This cross-sectional study employed a two-stage random cluster sampling in ten antenatal health care facilities in the Hhohho region of Swaziland in August and September 2015. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 18 years or older and had tested for HIV. Self-administered tablet-based questionnaires were used to assess HIV risk factors. Of all eligible pregnant women, 827 (92.4%) participated, out of which 297 (35.9%) were self-reportedly HIV positive. Among structural factors, family function was not significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status, while lower than high school educational attainment (AOR, 1.65; CI, 1.14-3.38; P = 0.008), and income below minimum wage (AOR, 1.81; CI, 1.09-3.01; P = 0.021) were significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status. Behavioral factors significantly associated with reporting a positive HIV status included; ≥2 lifetime sexual partners (AOR, 3.16; CI, 2.00-5.00; PHIV/AIDS-related knowledge level was high but not associated to self-reported HIV status (P = 0.319). Structural and behavioral factors showed significant association with self-reported HIV infection among pregnant women in Swaziland while HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and family function did not. This suggests that HIV interventions should be reinforced taking into consideration these findings. The findings also suggest the importance of future research sensitive to the Swazi and African sociocultural contexts, especially

  15. Lessons learned from the PMTCT program in Swaziland: challenges with accepting lifelong ART for pregnant and lactating women – a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Katirayi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swaziland has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in sub-Saharan Africa, 26 % of the adult population is infected with HIV. The prevalence is highest among pregnant women, at 41.1 %. According to Swaziland’s prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT guidelines, approximately 50 % of pregnant women are eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART by CD4 criteria (<350 cells/ml. Studies have shown that most mother-to-child transmission and postnatal deaths occur among women who are eligible for ART. Therefore, ensuring that ART eligible women are initiated on ART is critical for PMTCT and for mother and baby survival. This study provides insight into the challenges of lifelong ART initiation among pregnant women under Option A in Swaziland. We believe that these challenges and lessons learned from initiating women on lifelong ART under Option A are relevant and important to consider during implementation of Option B+. Methods HIV-positive, treatment-eligible, postpartum women and nurses were recruited within maternal and child health (MCH units using convenience and purposive sampling. Participants came from both urban and rural areas. Focus group discussions (FGDs and structured interviews using a short answer questionnaire were conducted to gain an understanding of the challenges experienced when initiating lifelong ART. Seven FGDs (of 5–11 participants were conducted, four FGDs with nurses, two FGDs with women who initiated ART, and one FGD with women who did not initiate ART. A total of 83 interviews were conducted; 50 with women who initiated ART and 33 with women who did not initiate. Data collection with the women was conducted in the local language of SiSwati and data collection with the nurses was done in English. FGDs were audio-recorded and simultaneously transcribed and translated into English. Analysis was conducted using thematic analysis. Transcripts were coded by two researchers in the qualitative

  16. LabPush: a pilot study of providing remote clinics with laboratory results via short message service (SMS in Swaziland, Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Jian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Turnaround time (TAT is an important indicator of laboratory performance. It is often difficult to achieve fast TAT for blood tests conducted at clinics in developing countries. This is because clinics where the patient is treated are often far away from the laboratory, and transporting blood samples and test results between the two locations creates significant delay. Recent efforts have sought to mitigate this problem by using Short Message Service (SMS to reduce TAT. Studies reporting the impact of this technique have not been published in scientific literature however. In this paper we present a study of LabPush, a system developed to test whether SMS delivery of HIV related laboratory results to clinics could shorten TAT time significantly. METHOD: LapPush was implemented in six clinics of the Kingdom of Swaziland. SMS results were sent out from the laboratory as a supplement to normal transport of paper results. Each clinic was equipped with a mobile phone to receive SMS results. The laboratory that processes the blood tests was equipped with a system for digital input of results, and transmission of results via SMS to the clinics. RESULTS: Laboratory results were received for 1041 different clinical cases. The total number of SMS records received (1032 was higher than that of paper records (965, indicating a higher loss rate for paper records. A statistical comparison of TAT for SMS and paper reports indicates a statistically significant improvement for SMS. Results were more positive for more rural clinics, and an urban clinic with high workload. CONCLUSION: SMS can be used to reduce TAT for blood tests taken at clinics in developing countries. Benefits are likely to be greater at clinics that are further away from laboratories, due to the difficulties this imposes on transport of paper records.

  17. The text of the amended Protocol to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the amended Protocol to the Agreement between the Kingdom of Swaziland and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  18. Study protocol for the Integra Initiative to assess the benefits and costs of integrating sexual and reproductive health and HIV services in Kenya and Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charlotte E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA there are strong arguments for the provision of integrated sexual and reproductive health (SRH and HIV services. Most HIV transmissions are sexually transmitted or associated with pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. Many of the behaviours that prevent HIV transmission also prevent sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. There is potential for integration to increase the coverage of HIV services, as individuals who use SRH services can benefit from HIV services and vice-versa, as well as increase cost-savings. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence on effective models for integrating HIV/SRH services. The need for robust evidence led a consortium of three organizations – International Planned Parenthood Federation, Population Council and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine – to design/implement the Integra Initiative. Integra seeks to generate rigorous evidence on the feasibility, effectiveness, cost and impact of different models for delivering integrated HIV/SRH services in high and medium HIV prevalence settings in SSA. Methods/design A quasi-experimental study will be conducted in government clinics in Kenya and Swaziland – assigned into intervention/comparison groups. Two models of service delivery are investigated: integrating HIV care/treatment into 1 family planning and 2 postnatal care. A full economic-costing will be used to assess the costs of different components of service provision, and the determinants of variations in unit costs across facilities/service models. Health facility assessments will be conducted at four time-periods to track changes in quality of care and utilization over time. A two-year cohort study of family planning/postnatal clients will assess the effect of integration on individual outcomes, including use of SRH services, HIV status (known/unknown and pregnancy (planned/unintended. Household surveys within some

  19. Structural and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in a Country with a Highly Generalized HIV Epidemic: A Cross-Sectional Study with a Probability Sample of Antenatal Care Facilities in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele

    Full Text Available HIV disproportionately affects women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Swaziland bears the highest HIV prevalence of 41% among pregnant women in this region. This heightened HIV-epidemic reflects the importance of context-specific interventions. Apart from routine HIV surveillance, studies that examine structural and behavioral factors associated with HIV infection among women may facilitate the revitalization of existing programs and provide insights to inform context-specific HIV prevention interventions.This cross-sectional study employed a two-stage random cluster sampling in ten antenatal health care facilities in the Hhohho region of Swaziland in August and September 2015. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 18 years or older and had tested for HIV. Self-administered tablet-based questionnaires were used to assess HIV risk factors. Of all eligible pregnant women, 827 (92.4% participated, out of which 297 (35.9% were self-reportedly HIV positive. Among structural factors, family function was not significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status, while lower than high school educational attainment (AOR, 1.65; CI, 1.14-3.38; P = 0.008, and income below minimum wage (AOR, 1.81; CI, 1.09-3.01; P = 0.021 were significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status. Behavioral factors significantly associated with reporting a positive HIV status included; ≥2 lifetime sexual partners (AOR, 3.16; CI, 2.00-5.00; P<0.001, and ever cohabited (AOR, 2.39; CI, 1.66-3.43; P = 0.00. The most cited reason for having multiple sexual partners was financial gain. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge level was high but not associated to self-reported HIV status (P = 0.319.Structural and behavioral factors showed significant association with self-reported HIV infection among pregnant women in Swaziland while HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and family function did not. This suggests that HIV interventions should be reinforced taking into

  20. Effectiveness of a combination strategy for linkage and retention in adult HIV care in Swaziland: The Link4Health cluster randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret L McNairy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gaps in the HIV care continuum contribute to poor health outcomes and increase HIV transmission. A combination of interventions targeting multiple steps in the continuum is needed to achieve the full beneficial impact of HIV treatment.Link4Health, a cluster-randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effectiveness of a combination intervention strategy (CIS versus the standard of care (SOC on the primary outcome of linkage to care within 1 month plus retention in care at 12 months after HIV-positive testing. Ten clusters of HIV clinics in Swaziland were randomized 1:1 to CIS versus SOC. The CIS included point-of-care CD4+ testing at the time of an HIV-positive test, accelerated antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation for treatment-eligible participants, mobile phone appointment reminders, health educational packages, and noncash financial incentives. Secondary outcomes included each component of the primary outcome, mean time to linkage, assessment for ART eligibility, ART initiation and time to ART initiation, viral suppression defined as HIV-1 RNA < 1,000 copies/mL at 12 months after HIV testing among patients on ART ≥6 months, and loss to follow-up and death at 12 months after HIV testing. A total of 2,197 adults aged ≥18 years, newly tested HIV positive, were enrolled from 19 August 2013 to 21 November 2014 (1,096 CIS arm; 1,101 SOC arm and followed for 12 months. The median participant age was 31 years (IQR 26-39, and 59% were women. In an intention-to-treat analysis, 64% (705/1,096 of participants at the CIS sites achieved the primary outcome versus 43% (477/1,101 at the SOC sites (adjusted relative risk [RR] 1.52, 95% CI 1.19-1.96, p = 0.002. Participants in the CIS arm versus the SOC arm had the following secondary outcomes: linkage to care regardless of retention at 12 months (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.97-1.21, p = 0.13, mean time to linkage (2.5 days versus 7.5 days, p = 0.189, retention in care at 12 months regardless of time to linkage (RR

  1. Does integration of HIV and sexual and reproductive health services improve technical efficiency in Kenya and Swaziland? An application of a two-stage semi parametric approach incorporating quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Jacobs, Rowena; Guinness, Lorna; Mayhew, Susannah; Vassall, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Theoretically, integration of vertically organized services is seen as an important approach to improving the efficiency of health service delivery. However, there is a dearth of evidence on the effect of integration on the technical efficiency of health service delivery. Furthermore, where technical efficiency has been assessed, there have been few attempts to incorporate quality measures within efficiency measurement models particularly in sub-Saharan African settings. This paper investigates the technical efficiency and the determinants of technical efficiency of integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services using data collected from 40 health facilities in Kenya and Swaziland for 2008/2009 and 2010/2011. Incorporating a measure of quality, we estimate the technical efficiency of health facilities and explore the effect of integration and other environmental factors on technical efficiency using a two-stage semi-parametric double bootstrap approach. The empirical results reveal a high degree of inefficiency in the health facilities studied. The mean bias corrected technical efficiency scores taking quality into consideration varied between 22% and 65% depending on the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model specification. The number of additional HIV services in the maternal and child health unit, public ownership and facility type, have a positive and significant effect on technical efficiency. However, number of additional HIV and STI services provided in the same clinical room, proportion of clinical staff to overall staff, proportion of HIV services provided, and rural location had a negative and significant effect on technical efficiency. The low estimates of technical efficiency and mixed effects of the measures of integration on efficiency challenge the notion that integration of HIV and SRH services may substantially improve the technical efficiency of health facilities. The analysis of quality and efficiency as separate dimensions of

  2. Environmental Policy, Practice and Education in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mandate while it adheres to environmental concerns if production is carried out in a ... 2000 Environmental Audit and Assessment Regulations (SEA, 2002a), the 2000 Waste ..... Development of a nature reserve within the plantation.

  3. Gendered childcare norms — evidence from rural Swaziland to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and support female caregivers (emotionally and financially through social support .... the community researchers through participatory mapping. The accuracy of the ... These capabilities are: full length life; bodily health; bodily integrity; senses.

  4. The pathways for small holder apiculture production in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apiculture production pathways were identified as training (pre-farming and during farming), production materials and equipment, apiary environmental requirements and business skills. The qualitative results were summarised into theft of bee-hives, absconding of bees, business management problems and financial ...

  5. History of the HIV epidemic and response in Swaziland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that self-stigma, multiple concurrent partnerships and short-term relationships, decision on condom use and ... This prevents MSM from seeking health services. To .... 90-90-90: An ambitious treatment target to help end the AIDS epidemic.

  6. exploring conceptions of love in Rwanda and Swaziland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    relationships, yet the study of love and intimacy is largely absent from health research on African populations. This study ..... were recruited in shopping centres or outdoor spaces in ... benefits of the research and gave informed written consent.

  7. Soil nutrients in agro-ecological zones of Swaziland | Haque ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 4 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. An assessment of sex work in Swaziland: barriers to and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The HIV situation in virtually all southern African countries is a generalised epidemic. Despite the fact that almost all adult age and social groups have high HIV prevalence estimates, sex workers are disproportionally affected, with prevalence estimates higher than the general population. In a qualitative study of 61 male and ...

  9. Tackling HIV/AIDS and Related Stigma in Swaziland through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central focus is to develop life styles which reduce risky behaviour and which also avoid risky situations. The central goals of the HIV/AIDS education strategy have been to prevent HIV infection, deal with impact mitigation and eliminate stigma. (Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: 2003 19 (2): 75-88) ...

  10. A phytosociological classification of the Hlane Wildlife Sanctuary, Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.P.D. Gertenbach

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available A phytosociological classification of the vegetation of the Hiane Wildlife Sanctuary was undertaken, with special reference to the vegetation structure and the correlation between plant communities and the biotic and abiotic environment. This study contributes to the drafting of a management plan for the sanctuary.

  11. Rangeland degradation in semi-arid Swaziland: effects of dip-tanks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated dip-tank use effects on herbaceous vegetation and soil, and relationships between environmental and species variables. Eight dip-tanks, three each in sandy (DPBS) and loamy (DYRL) soils, and two in stony (ROSG) soils were used. Data were collected at 50, 100, 150, 300, 500, 700 and 900 m from ...

  12. Analysis of nitrates and nitrites in subsoil and ground water samples in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Fadiran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen (NO3–N in mg/L and nitrite as nitrogen (NO2–N in µg/L were determined in water samples from 60 boreholes, 21 shallow wells and 7 springs located in the four regions of the country. For all the 88 sampling points nitrate levels vary within 0.05 plus or minus 0.00 – 28.44 plus or minus 0.80 mg/L NO3–N, out of which 10.22% have mg/L NO3–N ≥ MCL (maximum contaminant level of 10 mg/L NO3–N. Shallow wells recorded the highest NO3–N% ≥ MCL of 20.0% followed by boreholes with NO3–N % ≥ MCL of 8.33% while for springs, the NO3–N % ≥ MCL was zero. On the other hand, NO2–N (μg/L from all the sampling points vary within (ND/0.30 plus or minus 0.00 – 297.0 plus or minus 0.50 μg/L NO2–N, which were far below the recommended MCL of 1 mg/L (= 1000 μg/L.

  13. Care of HIV-positive orphans by elderly people in Swaziland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    covers the challenges that they face in providing such a crucial service, as well as the strategies ... care framework was used to analyse the process of caregiving and as a visionary to evaluate .... quick recovery of the sick children. Assisting.

  14. Social Cohesion, Social Participation, and HIV Related Risk among Female Sex Workers in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Fonner, Virginia A.; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E.; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social ...

  15. Global Value Chain Integration and Productivity : Evidence from Enterprise Surveys in Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Deborah; Farole, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In order to adequately measure a firm’s participation in GVCs in this context, it is important to first identify the different forms through which GVC integration can affect domestic firms’ productivity. Integrating a country’s domestic suppliers into GVCs increases the possibility for productivity gains through exporting to a buyer abroad or supplying to a multinational in the country. Bu...

  16. Narratives of Resilience among Learners in a Rural Primary School in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motsa, Ncamsile Daphne; Morojele, Pholoho Justice

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from the concepts of social constructionism, the article provides insights on how six purposively sampled Grade 6 vulnerable children, aged between 11-15, from poverty-stricken families, child-headed households and those allegedly orphaned by AIDS, resiliently navigated their schooling spaces and places in one rural, primary school in…

  17. Stomach contents of 19 species of small mammals from Swaziland A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-11-12

    Nov 12, 1996 ... HERRERA, CM. 1987. Vertebrate-dispersed plants of the Iberian. peninSUla: a study of fruit characteristics. Ecol. Monog. 57' ... in climate, geOlogy, altitude and plant community composi- tion ('lable I). Rainfall is highest, and ...

  18. Exploring science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the teaching of genetics in Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthethwa-Kunene, Khetsiwe Eunice Faith

    Recent trends show that learners' enrolment and performance in science at secondary school level is dwindling. Some science topics including genetics in biology are said to be difficult for learners to learn and thus they perform poorly in examinations. Teacher knowledge base, particularly topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), has been identified by many researchers as an important factor that is linked with learner understanding and achievement in science. This qualitative study was an attempt to explore the PCK of four successful biology teachers and how they developed it in the context of teaching genetics. The purposive sampling technique was employed to select the participating teachers based on their schools' performance in biology public examinations and recommendations by science specialists and school principals. Pedagogical content knowledge was used as a theoretical framework for the study, which guided the inquiry in data collection, analysis and discussion of the research findings. The study adopted the case study method and various sources of evidence including concept maps, lesson plans, pre-lesson interviews, lesson observations, post-teaching teacher questionnaire, post-lesson interviews and document analysis were used to collect data on teachers' PCK as well as how PCK was assumed to have developed. The data were analysed in an attempt to determine the individual teachers' school genetics' content knowledge, related knowledge of instructional strategies and knowledge of learners' preconceptions and learning difficulties. The analysis involved an iterative process of coding data into PCK categories of content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of learners' preconceptions and learning difficulties. The findings of the study indicate that the four successful biology teachers generally have the necessary content knowledge of school genetics, used certain topic-specific instructional strategies, but lacked knowledge of genetics-related learners' preconceptions and learning difficulties despite having taught the topic for many years. There were some instructional deficits in their approaches and techniques in teaching genetics. The teachers failed to use physical models, teacher demonstration and/or learner experimentation in their lessons (or include them in their lesson plans) to assist learners in visualizing or internalizing the genetics concepts or processes located at the sub-microscopic level. The teachers' PCK in genetics teaching was assumed to have developed mainly through formal university education programmes, classroom teaching experiences, peer support and participation in in-service workshops. The implications for biology teacher education are also discussed.

  19. Inter- and intra-laboratory variability of CD4 cell counts in Swaziland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-01

    Jun 1, 2012 ... The gold standard technique for CD4 enumeration is flow cytometry.3,4 Biological and analytical (laboratory) variations are known to affect CD4 enumeration; biological factors can that influence CD4 results include haemodilution in pregnancy, seasonal and diurnal variations (lowest at approximately 12: ...

  20. Implementation of Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool: a Case of Matsapha, Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makadzange, Kevin; Radebe, Zamahlubi; Maseko, Nokuthula; Lukhele, Voyivoyi; Masuku, Sabelo; Fakudze, Gciniwe; Mengestu, Tigest Ketsela; Prasad, Amit

    2018-04-03

    Equity in health implies that ideally everyone could attain their full health potential and that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of their social position or other socially determined circumstances. Making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable contributes towards ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages in dignity, equality and in a healthy environment. This paper illustrates a case of applying the Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (Urban HEART) in a small town in Africa. It describes the process followed, facilitating factors and challenges faced. A descriptive single-case study design using qualitative research methods was adopted to collect data from purposively selected respondents. The study revealed that residents of the Matsapha peri-urban informal settlements faced challenges with conditions of daily living which impacted negatively on their health. There were health equity gaps. The application of the tools was facilitated by the formation of an all-inclusive team, intersectoral collaboration and incorporating strategies for improving urban health equity into existing programmes and projects. Urban HEART is a simple and easy to use valuable tool for pursuing the goal of health equity towards attaining sustainable development through evidence-based approaches for intersectoral action and community involvement.

  1. Geomorphic provinces of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland: A physiographic subdivision for earth and environmental scientists

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Partridge, TC

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available , 65: 1, 1 — 47 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/00359191003652033 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00359191003652033 Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article may be used... for this project, termed the Freshwater Biodiversity Initiative (FBI), two are relevant here: • to identify those freshwater ecosystems best suited to receiv- ing a high protection status; and Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa Vol. 65...

  2. The need for leadership in gender justice: Advancing a missiological agenda for the church in Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chammah J. Kaunda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Underpinned by missiological thinking, the article argues that, in a context searching for gender justice, the mission of God should begin with making sensitive the consciousness of Swazi church leaders who, in turn, would act as agents for transforming social consciousness.In this process, the leaders become critically aware that they are called to act as prophetic example by adopting a gender-sensibility posture and calling the local church to account forits reluctance and slothfulness in teaching and practicing gender-justice values and ideals as one of the key social organs of the country. In addition, the leaders should become conscious of the fact that they have a wider prophetic missiological task to subversively challenge and wisely remind the State about its social responsibility to advance the socially shared agenda of radically promoting the rights, humanity and dignity of women in its domain.

  3. The changing role of the primary school teacher in Swaziland in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This qualitative study explored the experiences of Swazi teachers supporting learners living with ... Education curricula in HIV-burdened countries need to modify training programmes and support services available to teachers to accommodate the complex role that ... 75,000 orphans aged 0-17 years, as a result of the HIV/.

  4. HIV prevention needs for men who have sex with men in Swaziland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both quantitative and qualitative findings indicated perceived and ... lack on information to inform managers and implementers on the HIV .... As this was an exploratory study, the sample size of the quantitative part of the study was based on ... Data analysis .... information, condoms and lubricants; and get professional.

  5. Development of slopers for women with disproportionate figures: a case study of Swaziland

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zwane, PEL

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available women; to compare the fit of test garments sewn from developed slopers and standard slopers for four sizes; to propose a sizing category nomenclature for this stratum of consumers...

  6. On the age of the Onverwacht Group, Swaziland sequence, South Africa. [radioactive dating of stratified igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, B.-M.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1974-01-01

    Some rocks of the Onverwacht Group, South Africa, have been analyzed for Rb and Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition. These rocks include volcanic rocks, layered ultramafic differentiates and cherty sediments. Whole rock data indicate that the Rb-Sr isotopic systems in many samples were open and yield no reasonable isochron relationships. However, the data of mineral separates from a basaltic komatiite define a good isochron of 3.50 (plus or minus .2) b.y. with an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of 0.70048 plus or minus 5. The orthodox interpretation of this age is the time of the low grade metamorphism. It is reasonable to assume that the age of 3.50 b.y. might also represent the time of initial Onverwacht volcanism and deposition. The initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio obtained above is important to an understanding of the Sr isotopic composition of the Archean upper mantle.

  7. Gendered childcare norms - evidence from rural Swaziland to inform innovative structural HIV prevention approaches for young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabangu, Pinky N; Brear, Michelle R

    2017-12-01

    Addressing discriminatory gender norms is a prerequisite for preventing HIV in women, including young women. However, the gendered expectation that women will perform unpaid childcare-related labour is rarely conceptualised as influencing their HIV risk. Our aim was to learn from members of a rural Swazi community about how gendered childcare norms. We performed sequential, interpretive analysis of focus group discussion and demographic survey data, generated through participatory action research. The results showed that gendered childcare norms were firmly entrenched and intertwined with discriminatory norms regarding sexual behaviour. Participants perceived that caring for children constrained young women's educational opportunities and providing for children's material needs increased their economic requirements. Some young women were perceived to engage in "transactional sex" and depend financially on men, including "sugar daddies", to provide basic necessities like food for the children they cared for. Our results suggested that men were no longer fulfilling their traditional role of caring for children's material needs, despite women's traditional role of caring for their physical and emotional needs remaining firmly entrenched. The results indicate that innovative approaches to prevent HIV in young women should incorporate structural approaches that aim to transform gendered norms, economically empower women and implement policies guaranteeing women equal rights.

  8. Outcomes and Impact of HIV Prevention, ART and TB Programs in Swaziland – Early Evidence from Public Health Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Cari; Mndzebele, Sibongile; Hlophe, Thabo; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Korenromp, Eline L.; Stoneburner, Rand; Pervilhac, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Swaziland’s severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC), tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). Methods Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010), hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010) and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. Results By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4<350/mm3, with progressively improving patient retention and survival. As of 2010, 88% of health facilities providing antenatal care offered comprehensive PMTCT services. The HTC program recorded a halving in the proportion of adults tested who were HIV-infected; similarly HIV infection rates among HIV-exposed babies halved from 2007 to 2010. Case fatality rates among hospital patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS started to decrease from 2005–6 in adults and especially in children, contrasting with stable case fatality for other causes including TB. All-cause child in-patient case fatality rates started to decrease from 2005–6. TB case notifications as well as rates of HIV/TB co-infection among notified TB patients continued a steady increase through 2010, while coverage of HIV testing and CPT for co-infected patients increased to above 80%. Conclusion Against a background of high, but stable HIV prevalence and decreasing HIV incidence, we documented early evidence of a mortality decline associated with the expanded national HIV response since 2004. Attribution of impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics) will require additional data from future household surveys, and improved routine (program, surveillance, and hospital) data at district level. PMID:23922711

  9. High Risk Sexual Behaviors for HIV among the In-School Youth in Swaziland: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sacolo, Hlengiwe Nokuthula; Chung, Min-Huey; Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned be...

  10. Bioaccessibility and risk assessment of essential and non-essential elements in vegetables commonly consumed in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnisi, Robert Londi; Ndibewu, Peter P; Mafu, Lihle D; Bwembya, Gabriel C

    2017-10-01

    The green leafy vegetables (Mormodica involucrate, Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus spinosus) are economic; seasonal; locally grown and easily available; easy to propagate and store; highly nutritious food substances that form an important component of diets. This study applies a physiology based extraction technique (PBET) to mimic digestion of these vegetables to determine the fraction of essential (Fe and Zn) and non-essential elements (Cd, Cr and Pb) that are made available for absorption after ingestion. Prior to the application of the PBET, the vegetables were cooked adopting indigenous Swazi cooking methods. Cooking mobilized most of the metals out of the vegetable mass, and the final substrate concentrations are: raw > cooked > supernatant for all the metals, and the order of average metal leaching was: Pb (82.2%) >Cr (70.6%) >Zn (67.5%) >Fe (60.2%) >Cd (53.6%). This meant that the bioavailable concentrations are significantly lower than in the original vegetable mass, if only the solid mass is consumed. Bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric tract than in the intestinal phases of the PBET for all the metals in all the vegetables. Risk assessment protocols employed on the non-essential elements (Cr, Cd and Pb) showed that the associated risks of ingesting metal contaminated vegetables are higher for children, than they are for adults, based on the target hazard quotient (THQ) index. However, the overall health risk associated with ingestion of these metals is low, for both children and adults, based on the HR index. Conclusively, this study expounds on the nutritional and risk benefits associated with ingesting naturally grown vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping the potential ranges of major plant invaders in South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland using climatic suitability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rouget, M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Most national or regional initiatives aimed at managing biological invasions lack objective protocols for prioritizing invasive species and areas based on likely future dimensions of spread. South Africa has one of the most ambitious national...

  12. Schools as Agencies of Protection in Namibia and Swaziland: Can They Prevent Dropout and Child Labor in the Context of HIV/AIDS and Poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses a particular area of research in the field of education and child protection: the protective role of schools in the contexts of HIV/AIDS and poverty. Such adverse situations may lead children not to enroll in school or to drop out of school and subsequently to be subjected to abusive child labor and, in some cases, the worst…

  13. The effects of restrictive South African migrant labor policy on the survival of rural households in southern Africa : a case study from rural Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, A.H.M.

    1997-01-01

    Confronted with high unemployment figures and widespread poverty among the black population, one of the priorities of the first postapartheid government of South Africa has been to combat poverty among its population by enlarging employment opportunities. It is generally accepted that this policy

  14. Paleoarchean bedrock lithologies across the Makhonjwa Mountains of South Africa and Swaziland linked to geochemical, magnetic and tectonic data reveal early plate tectonic genes flanking subduction margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten de Wit

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Makhonjwa Mountains, traditionally referred to as the Barberton Greenstone Belt, retain an iconic Paleoarchean archive against which numerical models of early earth geodynamics can be tested. We present new geologic and structural maps, geochemical plots, geo- and thermo-chronology, and geophysical data from seven silicic, mafic to ultramafic complexes separated by major shear systems across the southern Makhonjwa Mountains. All reveal signs of modern oceanic back-arc crust and subduction-related processes. We compare the rates of processes determined from this data and balance these against plate tectonic and plume related models. Robust rates of both horizontal and vertical tectonic processes derived from the Makhonjwa Mountain complexes are similar, well within an order of magnitude, to those encountered across modern oceanic and orogenic terrains flanking Western Pacific-like subduction zones. We conclude that plate tectonics and linked plate-boundary processes were well established by 3.2–3.6 Ga. Our work provides new constraints for modellers with rates of a ‘basket’ of processes against which to test Paleoarchean geodynamic models over a time period close to the length of the Phanerozoic. Keywords: Paleoarchean, Barberton Greenstone Belt, Onverwacht Suite, Geologic bedrock and structural maps, Geochemistry and geophysics, Plate tectonics

  15. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This report on Sub-Saharan Africa, Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, South Africa, and Swaziland, contains...

  16. AFRREV STECH, Vol. 1 (3) August-December, 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    important for draught power used in crop production by small-scale farmer. ... areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America, small-scale livestock farming is parts of .... women in Swaziland and South Africa (%). Activities. Swaziland. South Africa. Livestock. Men (%) Women (%) Men (%) Women (%). Raising small animals. 15. 23.

  17. Suicidal ideation and associated factors among school going ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objective: Suicide among children has been a major issue and the statistics ... was high among adolescents in Swaziland and intervention considering violence, so- ... sidered as collaborative observation plan intended to aid.

  18. Examination of the Open Market Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Africa Peru Switzerland Romania The Gambia Swaziland Suriname Serbia- Montenegro Ghana Tanzania Uruguay Slovakia...support contingency requirements for its unique mission parameters to handle oversized and overweight airlift cargo requirements but lacking in

  19. Lithofacies and depositional environments study of the “B3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -3950) ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... of reservoir sandbodies helped to group the sandbodies into facies association that occur ... Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland ...

  20. EDITORIAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Environmental Education, no. 19, 1999. 1 ... cation and EEASA activities in their countries. Swaziland and, in Eastern ... approaches to curriculum, teaching and learning, and building new ... and Tourism, South Africa.

  1. Empirical Assessment of Agricultural Development in Manzini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review. Journal ... Journal Home > Vol 5, No 6 (2011) > ... Agricultural development strategy should be directed towards the shaping of the ... of both small-scale and large scale maize farmers in Manzini region, Swaziland.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 153 ... Issue, Title. Vol 9, No 2 (2006):, Effects of efficient water utilisation on water resources development in Swaziland under climate change, Abstract .... Ethical, Indigenous and Socio-Economic Perspectives, Abstract.

  3. IDRC in Botswana

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    HIV/AIDS control policies in Swaziland and Lesotho. ... of mobile banking services. ... The boundaries and names shown on the map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by IDRC. G ... research examines policy changes in money.

  4. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.1 (3) July, 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Abimbola

    can be no successful rural society in Swaziland until rural schools have been ... rural economic, social, and environmental well-being of the people ( ... cognitive habits including the necessary skills which unquestionably support ... Page 7 ...

  5. Demographic profile and perceived INSET needs of secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Keywords: in-service education and training (INSET); mathematics teachers; .... diagnosing and evaluating learning (3 items), (d) planning instruction (14 items), (e) delivering ..... The case of the non-specialist physics teacher in Swaziland.

  6. SAJOG 780.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methods comprised cost-effectiveness and budget-impact analyses from a healthcare ... but with success rates sometimes as low as 62% this approach faces the ... admission (based on Swaziland-specific costs of the hotel (hospital.

  7. Serological and molecular detection and prevalence of Cucurbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... P. O. Box, 98616-93511, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Sistan Iran. E-mail: .... Nepal, Taiwan, China, Reunion Island, Swaziland, Brazil, .... A 10-year survey (1993–2002) of cucurbit viruses in Sudan.

  8. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... 1007). On September 13, 2013, the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) announced the sugar program... & Nevis 7,258 Swaziland 16,849 Taiwan 12,636 Thailand 14,743 Trinidad & Tobago 7,371 Uruguay 7,258...

  9. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... FR 1007). On July 30, 2010, the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) announced the sugar program... & Nevis 7,258 Swaziland 16,849 Taiwan 12,636 Thailand 14,743 Trinidad & Tobago 7,371 Uruguay 7,258...

  10. A new servaline genet (Carnivora, Viverridae) from Zanzibar Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-09-23

    Sep 23, 1997 ... Adult of unknown sex: badly damaged skin with head + body length of 55 ..... Department of Biological Science, University of Swaziland,. Private Bag 4 ... ative brain sizes of some southern African myomorph rodents based on ...

  11. Directory of southern African conservation areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greyling, T

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available and Swaziland. The data sheets for each of the 155 areas described include details on date of proclamation, geographical features, vegetation, flora and fauna, infrastructure and principal reference material. A synthesis of the data examines the historical...

  12. 9 CFR 93.405 - Health certificate for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Spratly Islands, Sri Lanka, Surinam, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania... nearest city, or an equivalent method, approved by the Administrator, of identifying the location of the...

  13. Sociocultural predictors of motor development of athletes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociocultural predictors of motor development of athletes from Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. ... variables as they influenced the athletes' motor skill development. The social situations, family and the schools were found to significantly ...

  14. Methods of preparation of Swazi traditional fermented foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Simatende

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Umcombotsi, emahewu, buganu, and emasi were the fermented foods commonly prepared at a household level in the Hhohho region, Swaziland. The main ingredient used for preparing umcombotsi and emahewu was maize meal. Unmilled sorghum malt was also added during preparation of umcombotsi. However, typically no malt was added during the preparation of emahewu. Buganu and emasi also play an important role in the diet and socioeconomic activities of the population in Swaziland.

  15. Estimation of maternal mortality using the indirect sisterhood method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FinePrint

    is also useful for monitoring the trends of maternal mortality and evaluating the impact of safe motherhood initiative and improving maternal survival and achieving the MDGs. REFERENCES. 1. Lech M and Zwane A. Survey on maternal mortality in Swaziland using the Sisterhood method. Paedr Perinat Epidemiol; 2002: 16:.

  16. Molossid bats in an African agro-ecosystem select sugarcane fields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two coexisting species of African molossids, the little free-tailed bat, Chaerephon pumilus, and the Angolan free-tailed bat, Mops condylurus, were studied in the lowveld of Swaziland. Nine C. pumilus and five M. condylurus, all non-lactating females, were radio-tracked in order to investigate their habitat utilization.

  17. Small hydropower in Southern Africa – an overview of five countries in the region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker Klunne, Wim

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at the status of small hydropower in Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. For each country, an overview will be given of the electricity sector and the role of hydropower, the potential for small hydropower and the expected future of this technology. Small

  18. Retention of children under 18 months testing HIV positive in care in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retention of children under 18 months testing HIV positive in care in Swaziland: a retrospective study. ... children within the first two months of life and linking them into care. However, as time progresses the retention of children in care declines. Innovative strategies need to be developed to enhance patient retention.

  19. National library associations: websites and electronic discussion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the state of national library association websites in Africa based on an examination and analysis of the Botswana, Namibia, Nigeria, Swaziland, Tanzania and Zambia sites. Problems identified include lack of regular updates, technical errors, lack of funds to acquire quality website editing tools and ...

  20. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    investment, economic growth and environmental quality of the countries in Sub- ... literature that has generated a vast amount of empirical research and debate ... a threshold level of income above which FDI has positive effect on economic .... Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

  1. Casual relationship between gross domestic saving and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The empirical study confirmed that a significant relationship between domestic savings and ... and, which ultimately increases the country domestic saving level. ... which increase saving and investment into the country due to its dual effect. ... South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo ...

  2. Forest map of southern Africa with the aid of LANDSAT imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van der Zel, DW

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available satellite data. A project was initiated in 1981 to compile a forestry map of southern Africa (Republic of South-Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho, Ciskei, Venda, Transkei and Bophuthatswana). A portfolio of 31 maps on a scale of 1:250 000 has now been produced...

  3. Piloting a method to evaluate the implementation of integrated water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 41, No 5 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A methodology with a set of principles, change areas and measures was developed as a performance assessment tool. ... Keywords: Integrated water resource management, Inkomati River Basin, South Africa, Swaziland ...

  4. Review of worldwide occurrence of tornadoes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goliger, Adam M

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available of about 3]10~5/yr/km2. Tornado events were also reported in Holland, Spain, Switzerland and Malta. 6. Africa Tornado events have been recorded in several Southern African countries (Bot- swana, Swaziland and Namibia) and possibly over Liberia, Ivory Coast...

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.74) is Swaziland, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 15 February 2013. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 159 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  6. Publications | Page 428 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 4271 - 4280 of 6378 ... Community views of inter-generational sex : findings from focus groups in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland (restricted access). Inter-generational sex is an important driver of the AIDS epidemic in Southern Africa, contributing to the high incidence of HIV among young women. We conducted 12 ...

  7. Extrapolating population size from the occupancy-abundance relationship and the scaling pattern of occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hui, Cang; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Reyers, Belinda

    2009-01-01

    estimated as occurring in South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. SPO models outperformed the OAR models, due to OAR models assuming environmental homogeneity and yielding scale-dependent estimates. Therefore, OAR models should only be applied across small, homogenous areas. By contrast, SPO models...

  8. Multiple sexual partnerships and their correlates among Facebook ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have been suggested to facilitate risky sexual activities. However, it is unknown and of concern how SNSs such as Facebook shape risky sexual activities in developing settings such as Swaziland, the country hardest hit by HIV and AIDS. We conducted an online cross-sectional study in 2012 ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kihara, Masahiro. Vol 15, No 3 (2016) - Articles Multiple sexual partnerships and their correlates among Facebook users in Swaziland: an online cross-sectional study. Abstract. ISSN: 1608-5906. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  10. Unawareness to Production, Dropout to Innovator--Primary Teachers' Understanding and Use of a Science, Technology and Society Approach to Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnick, Marissa; Dlamini, Betty T.; Bradley, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the process of teacher change in a group of 8 primary school teachers during their exposure to a science, technology and society (STS) approach to teaching Science in Swaziland. The research aimed to establish the effect of support given to teachers in using the approach through a series of workshops, followed by a 5-week…

  11. Molossid bats in an African agro-ecosystem select sugarcane fields as foraging habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Dabelsteen, Torben; Bohmann, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Two coexisting species of African molossids, the little free-tailed bat, Chaerephon pumilus, and the Angolan free-tailed bat, Mops condylurus, were studied in the lowveld of Swaziland. Nine C. pumilus and five M. condylurus, all non-lactating females, were radio-tracked in order to investigate...

  12. From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From Research to Policy: Linking Climate Change Adaptation to Sustainable Agriculture. Research on climate change and its impact on the ... Outputs. Journal articles. Factors affecting households vulnerability to climate change in Swaziland : a case of Mpolonjeni Area Development Programme (ADP). Download PDF ...

  13. : tous les projets | Page 155 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, PRIVATE SECTOR, REGULATIONS, CRIME PREVENTION, SAFETY. Région: South of Sahara, Botswana, Namibia, Swaziland, South Africa. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 608,800.00. Promotion de partenariats entre des fournisseurs de services de ...

  14. Health Education Intervention. An Annotated Bibliography. Nutrition Education Series Issue 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This annotated bibliography contains 73 citations describing health education programs around the world. Countries represented include: Bangladesh, Egypt, Gambia, Gilbert Islands, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Indonesia, Nicaragua, Peru, Philippines, Swaziland, Thailand, Tunisia, Australia, Colombia, India, United Kingdom, Canada,…

  15. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are alternative molluscicides to Endod, but they come at a very high price. There are safe ... Health education and latrine building could help, but this .... and Swaziland as well as Brazil and the Philippines. .... and more recenty, the Philippines, are forming an Endod Technical Cooperation ... Lessons for the Future.

  16. Swazi Journalism and the 'Muslim Threat' | Rooney | Lwati: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Swaziland constitution; (ii) a report that Muslims were enticing university students to convert to Islam in return for scholarships; and (iii) a public symposium run on the subject of Islam. It concludes that Swazi newspapers frame Muslims as warlike people who are plotting against the kingdom and who pose a threat to Swazi ...

  17. The Members of the Agency (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.74) is Swaziland, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 15 February 2013. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 159 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  18. The Members of the Agency (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.74) is Swaziland, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 15 February 2013. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 159 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  19. Vulnerable children speak out: voices from one rural school in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study recommends some strategies by which the Swaziland Ministry of Education and Training, the community, and the school can make collaborative and coordinated efforts aimed at enhancing vulnerable children's quality of schooling experiences. Keywords: Children; Schooling; Rural; Vulnerability; Education; ...

  20. Mixed results: the protective role of schooling in the HIV epidemic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recognised that young women, especially adolescents, are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection and bear a disproportionate burden of HIV incidence. The HIV data from Swaziland show the ... although there are challenges. Keywords: dropouts, education, orphans and vulnerable children, repeaters, young women ...

  1. Publications | Page 429 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 4281 - 4290 of 6378 ... Local communities have developed indicators to forecast climatic events. For instance, the nesting of birds high on trees or of crocodiles on high ground near rivers, are signals of likely flooding in Swaziland, while the appearance of frequent and many spider webs are signs of good rainfall in.

  2. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Romania, 1. Russian Federation, 2. Saudi Arabia, 2. Singapore, 13. South Africa, 921. South Sudan, 1. Spain, 5. Sri Lanka, 2. Swaziland, 1. Sweden, 5. Switzerland, 3. Taiwan, 2. Tanzania, 2. Thailand, 1. Turkey, 1. Uganda, 5. Ukraine, 3. United Arab Emirates, 2. United Kingdom, 21. United States, 88. Zimbabwe, 23 ...

  3. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Romania, 1. Russian Federation, 1. Singapore, 9. Slovakia (Slovak Republic), 2. South Africa, 729. South Sudan, 2. Sri Lanka, 3. Swaziland, 2. Switzerland, 2. Taiwan, 1. Tanzania, 7. Thailand, 1. Trinidad and Tobago, 1. Uganda, 4. Ukraine, 2. United Kingdom, 22. United States, 64. Vietnam, 1. Zambia, 8. Zimbabwe, 16 ...

  4. UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology is a publication of the Faculties of Agriculture, Health Sciences and Science of the University of Swaziland. It publishes results of original research or continuations of previous studies that are reproducible. Review articles, short communications and ...

  5. Book Reviews | Mundy | Vulture News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2015) Ministry of Environment and Tourism, and Namibia Nature Foundation, Windhoek. 320pp. ISBN 978-9-9945-0082-6. Book Review 3. Book Title: The 2015 Eskom Red Data Book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Book Authors: M.R. Taylor, F Peacock & R.M. Wanless (Eds.) (2015) BirdLife South Africa, ...

  6. “I will take ARVs once my body deteriorates”: an analysis of Swazi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because evidence from randomised controlled trials has demonstrated a significant risk reduction in HIV transmission when HIV-positive people start antiretroviral therapy (ART) early, Swaziland aims to find these people and link them to treatment. This study presents findings regarding the perceptions of this promising ...

  7. The use of logistic regression in modelling the distributions of bird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method of logistic regression was used to model the observed geographical distribution patterns of bird species in Swaziland in relation to a set of environmental variables. Reporting rates derived from bird atlas data are used as an index of population densities. This is justified in part by the success of the modelling ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musumari, Patou Masika. Vol 15, No 3 (2016) - Articles Multiple sexual partnerships and their correlates among Facebook users in Swaziland: an online cross-sectional study. Abstract. ISSN: 1608-5906. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  9. Understanding the limitations to the right to strike in essential and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of the limitations to the right to strike in essential and public services in the nine sub-regional countries of Southern Africa – South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe – is examined in this contribution. While all of these countries share common influences ...

  10. Using Learning Sets to Support UK Delivery of Off-Shore Learning in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    This account of practice focuses on the delivery of Action Learning Sets in Swaziland and Malawi as part of a UK university's remote Master's degree teaching programme. It draws upon the experience of an Academic delivering the programme and the efforts made to refine the approach to action learning given time, understanding and resource…

  11. Information from 2006, 2010 and 2011 for the Karnmelkspruit Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-05

    Aug 5, 2006 ... The Mazda Wildlife Fund is thanked for providing assistance with transport. Two reviewers are thanked for feedback on an earlier draft of this article. References. Barnes KN (ed.). 2000. The Eskom Red Data Book of Birds of South Africa, Lesotho and. Swaziland. BirdLife South Africa: Johannesburg.

  12. Notes on the occurrence of Trypanosoma sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae in freshwater fishes from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryke L. Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 257 fishes from four families, Clariidae, Cichlidae, Cyprinidae and Schilbeidae were collected from three localities: the Sand River Dam, Swaziland; the Nylsvlei Nature Reserve, South Africa and the Vaal Dam and Vaal River Barrage, South Africa. Only fishes (n= 154 from Clariidae and Cichlidae were found to be infected with trypanosomes. A total of 221 Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822 were collected from the Vaal Dam and Vaal Barrage area, South Africa. Of these, 74%(89/121 were infected with trypanosomes from the Vaal Dam and 63%(63/100 from the Vaal River Barrage, with no seasonal infection pattern. A prevalence of 25%(1/4 was found in C. gariepinus from the Sand River Dam, Swaziland, and a 50% (1/2 prevalence was found in Tilapia sparrmanii from the Nylsvlei Nature Reserve, South Africa. Standard measurements conformed closely to the morphometric and morphological descriptions of Trypanosoma mukasai. This article provides new locality records for T. mukasai from the Vaal Dam, Vaal River Barrage and Nylsvlei Nature Reserve (South Africa and the Sand River Dam (Swaziland. Tilapia sparrmanii collected in the Sand River Dam in Swaziland is also noted as a new host record.

  13. African Journal of AIDS Research - Vol 1, No 1 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence of AIDS mortality from an alternative source: A Swaziland case study · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Alan Whiteside, Chris Desmond, John King, Jane Tomlinson, Conway Sithungo, 35-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16085906.2002.9626542 ...

  14. Reasons for the low uptake of adult male circumcision for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swaziland is currently experiencing the worst impact of HIV and AIDS of any country in the world. In an effort to curb further spread of the virus, the country adopted mass male circumcision (MC) as recommended by the World Health Organization in 2007. Despite intense campaigns to promote the procedure over the past ...

  15. Roost use by two sympatric species of Scotophilus in a natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara Monadjem; Tara Raabe; Brian Dickerson; Nova Silvy; Robert McCleery

    2010-01-01

    Roost use by African bats is poorly known, particularly for those using cavities in trees. Two sympatric species of Scotophilus were fitted with transmitters and tracked to their respective roosts in a natural savanna site in Swaziland. Both species roosted exclusively in trees, apparently preferring Combretum imberbe trees with large girths. The conservation of such...

  16. Comparison of extent and transformation of South Africa's woodland biome from two national databases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thompson, MW

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent completion of the South African National Land-Cover Database and the Vegetation Map of South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho, allows for the first time a comparison to be made on a national scale between the current and potential...

  17. The Audio-Visual Services in Fifteen African Countries. Comparative Study on the Administration of Audio-Visual Services in Advanced and Developing Countries. Part Four. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, Harry J. L.

    As the fourth part of a comparative study on the administration of audiovisual services in advanced and developing countries, this UNESCO-funded study reports on the African countries of Cameroun, Republic of Central Africa, Dahomey, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Swaziland, Tunisia, Upper Volta and Zambia. Information…

  18. AIDS Prevention for the Underserved Majority : the Choice Disabled ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Download PDF. Journal articles. Gender-specific patterns of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships : a national cross sectional survey in Botswana. Download PDF. Journal articles. Community views of inter-generational sex : findings from focus groups in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland. Download PDF. Journal articles.

  19. The Malaria Season Is Upon Us

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imported or Odyssean malaria from countries such as Swaziland,. Mozambique ... can be administered.⁵ The only .... Treatment. With the introduction of an effective vaccine for Southern Africa .... Being prepared for a malaria infection by packing ... sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine against Plasmodium falciparum in Yemen and.

  20. Mwaka Kogwa Na Changamoto Zake | Mohamed | Kiswahili

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  1. Ufundishaji wa Fasihi ya Watoto katika Shule za Msingi Nchini Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  2. Kiswahili - Vol 76, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riwaya ya Kiswahili katika ufundishaji wa historia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2); Zimbabwe (12)

  3. Changamoto Za Mawasiliano Kwa Viziwi Katika Tanzania | Muzale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  4. Fasihi ya Kiswahili ya Majaribio: Makutano ya Fasihi Simulizi na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  5. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19); Togo (1); Tunisia (2); Uganda (12); Zambia (2) ...

  6. Language Policy and Practice in the Multilingual Southern African Development Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooko, Theophilus

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the language policy and practice of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), an African regional economic organisation made up of 14 member states (Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia…

  7. Monitoring land degradation with long-term satellite data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available .J., Matthews, W.S., Burrows, J.E., Dobson, L.N., Schmidt, E., Winter, P.J.D., Ward, R.A., Williamson, S. & Hurter, P.J. (2006) Savanna biome. In: The Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland, ed. L. Mucina & M.C. Rutherford, pp. 439?539. Strelitzia...

  8. Trade liberalisation and financial compensation : the BLNS states in the wake of the EU-South African trade and development agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staak, van der S.

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the fate of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland (BLNS) following the 1999 free trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. As members - with South Africa - of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the BLNS countries are now effectively locked into

  9. A qualitative analysis of the barriers to antiretroviral therapy initiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative analysis of the barriers to antiretroviral therapy initiation among children 2 to 18 months of age in Swaziland. Charisse V Ahmed, Pauline Jolly, Luz Padilla, Musa Malinga, Chantal Harris, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Inessa Ba, Amy Styles, Sarah Perry, Raina Brooks, Florence Naluyinda-Kitabire, Makhosini Mamba, ...

  10. The operational challenges of community-based tourism ventures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based tourism is increasingly being developed and promoted as a means of reducing poverty in developing countries, assisting local communities to meet their needs through the offering of a tourism product. The Swaziland Tourism Authority with the support of the European Union Fund has made significant ...

  11. 2018-03-20T13:33:41Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/index/oai oai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given 39.2% antenatal HIV prevalence in Swaziland — the highest in the world — and an estimated 6 500 local congregations, this article draws on a medical ... The data were derived from semi-structured interviews with 28 HIV-positive individuals across three domains: 1) pre- and post-diagnosis religiosity; 2) HIV stigma ...

  12. ‘Lost to follow up’ : Rethinking delayed and interrupted HIV treatment among married Swazi women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dlamini-Simelane, T.T.T.; Moyer, E.

    2017-01-01

    Through various campaigns and strategies, more women are being tested for HIV in countries with a high prevalence of the virus. Despite the ready availability of treatment at government clinics in sub-Saharan African countries like Swaziland, women consistently report difficulty in maintaining

  13. UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UNISWA Research Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology is a publication of the Faculties of Agriculture, Health Sciences and Science of the University of Swaziland. It publishes results of original research or continuations of previous studies that are reproducible. Review articles, short communications and ...

  14. Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Resources: Management and Strategies in Nigeria. ... the rational use of water resources poses a great problem and challenge to the nation. ... Suggestions were made on ways of planning sustainable water supply systems for Nigeria ... South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3); Swaziland (3); Tanzania (19) ...

  15. Crop model usefulness in drylands of southern Africa: an application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data limitations in southern Africa frequently hinder adequate assessment of crop models before application. ... three locations to represent varying cropping and physical conditions in southern Africa, i.e. maize and sorghum (Mohale's Hoek, Lesotho and Big Bend, Swaziland) and maize and groundnut (Lilongwe, Malawi).

  16. CIFSRF Call 6 Eligible Country List January 5.2015

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    wmanchur

    Saint Lucia. Sao Tome and Principe. Senegal. Seychelles. Sierra Leoneℓ. Somaliaℓ. South Africa. South Sudanℓ. Sri Lanka. St. Kitts and Nevis. Sudan. Swaziland. Tanzania. Togo. Trinidad and Tobago. Tunisia. Uganda†. Vietnam. Zambia. Zimbabwe. *Countries for which projects will have to address a research problem of ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dlamini, DK. Vol 5, No 6 (2011) - Articles Empirical Assessment of Agricultural Development in Manzini Region, Swaziland Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2070-0083. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  18. « J'aurais préféré ne pas le savoir » : pourquoi les femmes au ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 août 2017 ... Tout au long de mon enfance et de ma jeunesse, le VIH était la crainte à avoir, synonyme d'une condamnation à mort. Malheureusement, malgré les défis et les préjugés qui demeurent, le Swaziland a fait des progrès importants. Le dépistage du VIH et les programmes de counseling sont largement ...

  19. Autonomisation des femmes | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 mars 2018 ... J'aurais préféré ne pas le savoir » : pourquoi les femmes au Swaziland évitent de subir des tests de dépistage du cancer. par Nomthandazo Malambo. Une mère avec son enfant. L'enregistrement des naissances représente le fondement de la progression de l'égalité entre les sexes et des droits des ...

  20. HIV Stigma and Nurse Job Satisfaction in Five African Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Chirwa, Maureen L.; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W.; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Makoae, Lucy N.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P.; Uys, Leana R.; Holzemer, William L.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The subscale, Personal Satisfaction, was the highest in this ...

  1. HIV Stigma and Nurse Job Satisfaction in Five African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Greeff, Minrie; Chirwa, Maureen L; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzermer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sa...

  2. Associations Between Orphan and Vulnerable Child Caregiving, Household Wealth Disparities, and Women's Overweight Status in Three Southern African Countries Participating in Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano J; Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Lee, Sunmin; He, Xin; Feldman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    This study examines whether orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) primary caregivers are facing absolute household wealth (AWI) disparities, the association between AWI and women's overweight status, and the modifying role of OVC primary caregiving status on this relationship. Demographic Health Surveys data (2006-2007) from 20 to 49 year old women in Namibia (n = 6,305), Swaziland (n = 2,786), and Zambia (n = 4,389) were analyzed using weighted marginal means and logistic regressions. OVC primary caregivers in Namibia and Swaziland had a lower mean AWI than other women in the same country. In Zambia, OVC primary caregivers had a lower mean AWI score than non-primary caregivers living with an OVC but a higher mean AWI score than non-OVC primary caregivers. In Swaziland and Zambia, even small increases in household wealth were associated with higher odds for being overweight regardless of women's caregiving status. Only in Namibia, OVC primary caregiving modified the effect of the previous association. Among Namibian OVC primary caregivers, women who had at least medium household wealth (4 or more AWI items) were more likely to be overweight than their poorest counterparts (0 or 1 AWI items). OVC primary caregivers are facing household wealth disparities as compared to other women from their communities. Future studies/interventions should consider using population-based approaches to reach women from every household wealth level to curb overweight in Swaziland and Zambia and to focus on specific household wealth characteristics that are associated with OVC primary caregivers' overweight status in Namibia.

  3. The applicability of the South African census 2011 data for evidence-based urban planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse-Makhanya, Sibusisiwe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available us? , - Volume 17 (1) June 2016 Southern African Journal of Demography Southern African Journal of Demography Volume 17(1) June 2016 CONTENTS Estimation of Swaziland fertility: What do the methods tell.... Quantitative and qualitative articles that enhance knowledge of the demography and its interaction with population issues in the Southern Africa region are considered. Articles may cover pure demography (fertility, mortality and migration...

  4. Options for suitable biofuel farming: Experience from Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available sugarcane-based ethanol project that has been operational since 1982. Furthermore, sugarcane for sugar production is a well established crop in the region, with projects operational in South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Biofuel... in the sugar industry where sugarcane is grown was also investigated. Data were obtained from detailed case studies undertaken previously by the author. Further data were gathered from a wide selection of Southern African sugar projects using key informant...

  5. Ungusobaba [you are our father]: The life of an Anglican bishop, Lawrence Bekisisa Zulu (1937-2013†)

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaya, Henry

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to document the role that Lawrence Bekisisa Zulu played in the Anglican Church in South Africa (ACSA), particularly in the dioceses of Zululand and Swaziland, as a bishop. It records the life story of Zulu as a leader whose gifts as a pastor, teacher and priest enriched the lives of many clergy and lay people. That Zulu was entrusted with leadership positions in three dioceses, also suggests the strength of his moral authority and spirituality. The study demonstrates how the ...

  6. National Food Strategy: Kenya’s Approach to the Problem of Feeding the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    UK Malawi Unilever , UK Nigeria *This may only indicate basic processing necessary to preserve the crop. OILS, FATS, MARGARINE, COOKING OILS: East...Asiatic Co., Denmark N/A Lesieur, France Senegal Lonrho, UK Nigeria Unilever , UK/Nld Cameroon, Ghana, Gabon, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Zaire, Zimbabwe FRUIT...Senegal Unilever , UK/Nid Kenya, Zimbabwe SUGAR: Tate & Lyle, UK Nigeria, Zambia, Zimbabwe Lonrho, UK** Malawi, Mauritius, Swaziland Booker McConnell, UK

  7. Sampling Key Populations for HIV Surveillance: Results From Eight Cross-Sectional Studies Using Respondent-Driven Sampling and Venue-Based Snowball Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrita; Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James; Weir, Sharon; Edwards, Jessie; Rice, Brian; Kochelani, Duncan; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo; Baral, Stefan

    2017-10-20

    In using regularly collected or existing surveillance data to characterize engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services among marginalized populations, differences in sampling methods may produce different pictures of the target population and may therefore result in different priorities for response. The objective of this study was to use existing data to evaluate the sample distribution of eight studies of female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM), who were recruited using different sampling approaches in two locations within Sub-Saharan Africa: Manzini, Swaziland and Yaoundé, Cameroon. MSM and FSW participants were recruited using either respondent-driven sampling (RDS) or venue-based snowball sampling. Recruitment took place between 2011 and 2016. Participants at each study site were administered a face-to-face survey to assess sociodemographics, along with the prevalence of self-reported HIV status, frequency of HIV testing, stigma, and other HIV-related characteristics. Crude and RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates were calculated. Crude prevalence estimates from the venue-based snowball samples were compared with the overlap of the RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates, between both FSW and MSM in Cameroon and Swaziland. RDS samples tended to be younger (MSM aged 18-21 years in Swaziland: 47.6% [139/310] in RDS vs 24.3% [42/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon: 47.9% [99/306] in RDS vs 20.1% [52/259] in Snowball; FSW aged 18-21 years in Swaziland 42.5% [82/325] in RDS vs 8.0% [20/249] in Snowball; in Cameroon 15.6% [75/576] in RDS vs 8.1% [25/306] in Snowball). They were less educated (MSM: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 42.6% [109/310] in RDS vs 4.0% [7/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon 46.2% [138/306] in RDS vs 14.3% [37/259] in Snowball; FSW: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 86.6% [281/325] in RDS vs 23.9% [59/247] in Snowball, in Cameroon 87.4% [520/576] in RDS vs 77.5% [238/307] in Snowball) than the snowball

  8. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica M. Ngole-Jeme

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having <20% clay content. The soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t. These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils.

  9. Innovation in Evaluating the Impact of Integrated Service-Delivery: The Integra Indexes of HIV and Reproductive Health Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Susannah H; Ploubidis, George B; Sloggett, Andy; Church, Kathryn; Obure, Carol D; Birdthistle, Isolde; Sweeney, Sedona; Warren, Charlotte E; Watts, Charlotte; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The body of knowledge on evaluating complex interventions for integrated healthcare lacks both common definitions of 'integrated service delivery' and standard measures of impact. Using multiple data sources in combination with statistical modelling the aim of this study is to develop a measure of HIV-reproductive health (HIV-RH) service integration that can be used to assess the degree of service integration, and the degree to which integration may have health benefits to clients, or reduce service costs. Data were drawn from the Integra Initiative's client flow (8,263 clients in Swaziland and 25,539 in Kenya) and costing tools implemented between 2008-2012 in 40 clinics providing RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. We used latent variable measurement models to derive dimensions of HIV-RH integration using these data, which quantified the extent and type of integration between HIV and RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. The modelling produced two clear and uncorrelated dimensions of integration at facility level leading to the development of two sub-indexes: a Structural Integration Index (integrated physical and human resource infrastructure) and a Functional Integration Index (integrated delivery of services to clients). The findings highlight the importance of multi-dimensional assessments of integration, suggesting that structural integration is not sufficient to achieve the integrated delivery of care to clients--i.e. "functional integration". These Indexes are an important methodological contribution for evaluating complex multi-service interventions. They help address the need to broaden traditional evaluations of integrated HIV-RH care through the incorporation of a functional integration measure, to avoid misleading conclusions on its 'impact' on health outcomes. This is particularly important for decision-makers seeking to promote integration in resource constrained environments.

  10. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M.; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil) collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)) and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t). These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils. PMID:26264010

  11. Innovation in Evaluating the Impact of Integrated Service-Delivery: The Integra Indexes of HIV and Reproductive Health Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah H Mayhew

    Full Text Available The body of knowledge on evaluating complex interventions for integrated healthcare lacks both common definitions of 'integrated service delivery' and standard measures of impact. Using multiple data sources in combination with statistical modelling the aim of this study is to develop a measure of HIV-reproductive health (HIV-RH service integration that can be used to assess the degree of service integration, and the degree to which integration may have health benefits to clients, or reduce service costs.Data were drawn from the Integra Initiative's client flow (8,263 clients in Swaziland and 25,539 in Kenya and costing tools implemented between 2008-2012 in 40 clinics providing RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. We used latent variable measurement models to derive dimensions of HIV-RH integration using these data, which quantified the extent and type of integration between HIV and RH services in Kenya and Swaziland. The modelling produced two clear and uncorrelated dimensions of integration at facility level leading to the development of two sub-indexes: a Structural Integration Index (integrated physical and human resource infrastructure and a Functional Integration Index (integrated delivery of services to clients. The findings highlight the importance of multi-dimensional assessments of integration, suggesting that structural integration is not sufficient to achieve the integrated delivery of care to clients--i.e. "functional integration".These Indexes are an important methodological contribution for evaluating complex multi-service interventions. They help address the need to broaden traditional evaluations of integrated HIV-RH care through the incorporation of a functional integration measure, to avoid misleading conclusions on its 'impact' on health outcomes. This is particularly important for decision-makers seeking to promote integration in resource constrained environments.

  12. Three strategic water quality challenges that decision-makers need to know about and how the CSIR should respond

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turton, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available steep gradient from north to south and from east to west. A more subtle feature is the global average of 860 mm/yr, shown as a thick red line on Map 1. Significantly, CSIR Report No. CSIR/NRE/WR/EXP/2008/0160/A 1 three of the most economically...,050) D. R. C. (1,534) TANZANIA (937) MOZAMBIQUE (969) SWAZILAND (788) LESOTHO (760) MALAWI (1,014) N 500 km © P.J. Ashton CSIR Report No. CSIR/NRE/WR/EXP/2008/0160/A 1 higher standards before being discharged into communal waters...

  13. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Logistics, Commodities, and Waste Management Requirements for Scale-Up of Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgil, Dianna; Stankard, Petra; Forsythe, Steven; Rech, Dino; Chrouser, Kristin; Adamu, Tigistu; Sakallah, Sameer; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Albertini, Jennifer; Stanton, David; Dickson, Kim Eva; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Background The global HIV prevention community is implementing voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs across eastern and southern Africa, with a goal of reaching 80% coverage in adult males by 2015. Successful implementation will depend on the accessibility of commodities essential for VMMC programming and the appropriate allocation of resources to support the VMMC supply chain. For this, the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, has developed a standard list of commodities for VMMC programs. Methods and Findings This list of commodities was used to inform program planning for a 1-y program to circumcise 152,000 adult men in Swaziland. During this process, additional key commodities were identified, expanding the standard list to include commodities for waste management, HIV counseling and testing, and the treatment of sexually transmitted infections. The approximate costs for the procurement of commodities, management of a supply chain, and waste disposal, were determined for the VMMC program in Swaziland using current market prices of goods and services. Previous costing studies of VMMC programs did not capture supply chain costs, nor the full range of commodities needed for VMMC program implementation or waste management. Our calculations indicate that depending upon the volume of services provided, supply chain and waste management, including commodities and associated labor, contribute between US$58.92 and US$73.57 to the cost of performing one adult male circumcision in Swaziland. Conclusions Experience with the VMMC program in Swaziland indicates that supply chain and waste management add approximately US$60 per circumcision, nearly doubling the total per procedure cost estimated previously; these additional costs are used to inform the estimate of per procedure costs modeled by Njeuhmeli et al. in “Voluntary Medical

  14. Exotic minerals in 3500 million year old rocks: evidence for large meteorite impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byerly, G.R.; Lowe, D.R.; Asaro, F.

    1988-01-01

    A relatively small area of mountainous terrain in southern Africa provides scientists from all over the world a look at what the surface of the earth was like three and a half billion years ago. The Barberton Mountains lie astride the borders of the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique, and the Kingdom of Swaziland. The discovery of several widely distributed deposits that were likely formed by major terrestrial impacts of large extraterrestrial bodies during this early period of earth's history is reported. The Barberton impact deposits are being studied by electron microscopy. The impact deposits were examined for minerals that show the effects of shock metamorphism or compositions unusual in terrestrial rocks

  15. Voluntary medical male circumcision: logistics, commodities, and waste management requirements for scale-up of services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna Edgil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global HIV prevention community is implementing voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs across eastern and southern Africa, with a goal of reaching 80% coverage in adult males by 2015. Successful implementation will depend on the accessibility of commodities essential for VMMC programming and the appropriate allocation of resources to support the VMMC supply chain. For this, the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, has developed a standard list of commodities for VMMC programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This list of commodities was used to inform program planning for a 1-y program to circumcise 152,000 adult men in Swaziland. During this process, additional key commodities were identified, expanding the standard list to include commodities for waste management, HIV counseling and testing, and the treatment of sexually transmitted infections. The approximate costs for the procurement of commodities, management of a supply chain, and waste disposal, were determined for the VMMC program in Swaziland using current market prices of goods and services. Previous costing studies of VMMC programs did not capture supply chain costs, nor the full range of commodities needed for VMMC program implementation or waste management. Our calculations indicate that depending upon the volume of services provided, supply chain and waste management, including commodities and associated labor, contribute between US$58.92 and US$73.57 to the cost of performing one adult male circumcision in Swaziland. CONCLUSIONS: Experience with the VMMC program in Swaziland indicates that supply chain and waste management add approximately US$60 per circumcision, nearly doubling the total per procedure cost estimated previously; these additional costs are used to inform the estimate of per procedure costs modeled by Njeuhmeli et al. in

  16. Voluntary medical male circumcision: logistics, commodities, and waste management requirements for scale-up of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgil, Dianna; Stankard, Petra; Forsythe, Steven; Rech, Dino; Chrouser, Kristin; Adamu, Tigistu; Sakallah, Sameer; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Albertini, Jennifer; Stanton, David; Dickson, Kim Eva; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2011-11-01

    The global HIV prevention community is implementing voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs across eastern and southern Africa, with a goal of reaching 80% coverage in adult males by 2015. Successful implementation will depend on the accessibility of commodities essential for VMMC programming and the appropriate allocation of resources to support the VMMC supply chain. For this, the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, has developed a standard list of commodities for VMMC programs. This list of commodities was used to inform program planning for a 1-y program to circumcise 152,000 adult men in Swaziland. During this process, additional key commodities were identified, expanding the standard list to include commodities for waste management, HIV counseling and testing, and the treatment of sexually transmitted infections. The approximate costs for the procurement of commodities, management of a supply chain, and waste disposal, were determined for the VMMC program in Swaziland using current market prices of goods and services. Previous costing studies of VMMC programs did not capture supply chain costs, nor the full range of commodities needed for VMMC program implementation or waste management. Our calculations indicate that depending upon the volume of services provided, supply chain and waste management, including commodities and associated labor, contribute between US$58.92 and US$73.57 to the cost of performing one adult male circumcision in Swaziland. Experience with the VMMC program in Swaziland indicates that supply chain and waste management add approximately US$60 per circumcision, nearly doubling the total per procedure cost estimated previously; these additional costs are used to inform the estimate of per procedure costs modeled by Njeuhmeli et al. in "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Modeling the Impact and Cost of

  17. Violence in Brazil and Its Connection with Transnational Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    for the worst distribution of income, after Swaziland, Nicaragua and South Africa. According to data published by Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e...the deaths. 18 For more details see www.ibge.org.br. 19 Data from Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE (Brazilian Institute of...Edinilsa R. de Souza, “Homicídios no Brasil: O Grande Vilão da Saúde Pública na Década de 80”, Cadernos de Saúde Pública do Rio de Janeiro, volume 10

  18. A Small Part of Which Empire?: Swaziland’s Combatants in the First World War, 1914- 1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estella Musiiwa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on archival material, this study explores the participation of Swaziland’s combatants in the First World War between 1914 and 1918. At the outbreak of the war it was imperative that Swaziland, as part of the British Empire, supports the British War effort. Caught up in South Africa’s long standing imperial motives, most of the combatants from Swaziland served in the war through the South African Overseas Expeditionary Force. Except for a few individuals who joined the war front in Europe on their own, the rest of the participants had to prove that they had participated in German South West Africa in order to qualify to serve on the war front in Europe. Most of them therefore served in German West Africa and Europe, or in German East Africa and Europe because South Africa had imperial interests in German West Africa and German East Africa. In serving the British Empire, Swaziland’s white combatants implicitly served South Africa’s conceptual or anticipated empire.

  19. 'Lost to follow up': rethinking delayed and interrupted HIV treatment among married Swazi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini-Simelane, Thandeka T T; Moyer, Eileen

    2017-03-01

    Through various campaigns and strategies, more women are being tested for HIV in countries with a high prevalence of the virus. Despite the ready availability of treatment at government clinics in sub-Saharan African countries like Swaziland, women consistently report difficulty in maintaining access to treatment. Drawing on two individual case studies selected from a larger study of the so-called leaky cascade in Swaziland, we illustrate the protracted journeys married women undertake to initiate treatment. We demonstrate how women manoeuvre tactically after diagnosis, highlight factors that influence their decisions related to initiating treatment, and detail the actors involved in the decision-making process. Our research shows the persistence of structural factors that inhibit access, including economic constraints, gender inequality and patriarchal social norms. Patients referred as ‘lost to follow up’ are in many cases actively pursuing treatment within a context that includes the biomedical health system, but also extends well beyond it. We argue that the phrase ‘lost to follow up’ conceals the complex social navigation required by women to initiate and maintain access to treatment. Further, we suggest that many of the logistical challenges of monitoring and tracking people with HIV can be better addressed by taking into account the structural and social aspects of delayed treatment initiative.

  20. Adversity, emotion recognition, and empathic concern in high-risk youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi A Quas

    Full Text Available Little is known about how emotion recognition and empathy jointly operate in youth growing up in contexts defined by persistent adversity. We investigated whether adversity exposure in two groups of youth was associated with reduced empathy and whether deficits in emotion recognition mediated this association. Foster, rural poor, and comparison youth from Swaziland, Africa identified emotional expressions and rated their empathic concern for characters depicted in images showing positive, ambiguous, and negative scenes. Rural and foster youth perceived greater anger and happiness in the main characters in ambiguous and negative images than did comparison youth. Rural children also perceived less sadness. Youth's perceptions of sadness in the negative and ambiguous expressions mediated the relation between adversity and empathic concern, but only for the rural youth, who perceived less sadness, which then predicted less empathy. Findings provide new insight into processes that underlie empathic tendencies in adversity-exposed youth and highlight potential directions for interventions to increase empathy.

  1. HIV Stigma and Nurse Job Satisfaction in Five African Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Maureen L.; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W.; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Makoae, Lucy N.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P.; Uys, Leana R.; Holzemer, William L.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The subscale, Personal Satisfaction, was the highest in this sample as in the other 2. Job Satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression demonstrated that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influences on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These findings provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries. PMID:19118767

  2. HIV stigma and nurse job satisfaction in five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Maureen L; Greeff, Minrie; Kohi, Thecla W; Naidoo, Joanne R; Makoae, Lucy N; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Kaszubski, Christopher; Cuca, Yvette P; Uys, Leana R; Holzemer, William L

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the demographic and social factors, including perceived HIV stigma, that influence job satisfaction in nurses from 5 African countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses (n = 1,384) caring for patients living with HIV infection in Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. Total job satisfaction in this sample was lower than 2 comparable studies in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The Personal Satisfaction subscale was the highest in this sample, as in the other 2. Job satisfaction scores differed significantly among the 5 countries, and these differences were consistent across all subscales. A hierarchical regression showed that mental and physical health, marital status, education level, urban/rural setting, and perceived HIV stigma had significant influence on job satisfaction. Perceived HIV stigma was the strongest predictor of job dissatisfaction. These results provide new areas for intervention strategies that might enhance the work environment for nurses in these countries.

  3. Africa's contribution to putting an end to nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    African States play an important role in worldwide efforts towards nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. All 53 African States are parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which aims at preventing the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, advancing nuclear disarmament, and facilitating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Of Africa's 53 States, 51 have signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) and 38 have also ratified it as of September 2010. Mauritius and Somalia are the only two States still to sign the Treaty. The States that have signed but not yet ratified are: Angola, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, Swaziland and Zimbabwe. Egypt's ratification is of particular importance as it is one of those States whose ratification is required for the Treaty's entry into force.

  4. Modelling the canopy development of bambara groundnut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunaratne, A.S.; Azam-Ali, S.N.; Al-Shareef, I.

    2010-01-01

    Canopy development of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc) is affected by temperature stress, drought stress and photoperiod. The quantification of these documented effects by means of a suitable crop model, BAMGRO is presented in this paper. Data on canopy development from five growth...... chamber, four glasshouse and three field experiments were analyzed to calibrate and validate the BAMGRO model to produce simulations for temperature stress, drought stress and photoperiodic effect on two contrasting landraces; Uniswa Red (Swaziland) and S19-3 (Namibia). The daily initiation rate of new...... leaves is calculated by means of a Gaussian function and is altered by temperature stress, drought stress, photoperiod and plant density. The rate in dead leaf number is dependent upon the maximum senescence fraction which can be explained by physiological maturity, mutual shading, temperature stress...

  5. THE WEIGHT OF SUCCESS: THE BODY MASS INDEX AND ECONOMIC WELL-BEING IN SOUTHERN AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Martin

    2013-10-01

    We show that body mass increases with economic resources among most Southern Africans, although not all. Among Black South Africans the relationship is non-decreasing over virtually the entire range of incomes/wealth. Furthermore in this group other measures of "success" (e.g., employment and education) are also associated with increases in body mass. This is true in both 1998 (the Demographic and Health Survey) and 2008 (National Income Dynamics Survey). A similar relationship holds among residents of Lesotho, Swaziland, Mozambique, Malawi, and Namibia. This suggests that body mass can be used as a crude measure of well-being. This allows us to examine the vexed question in South African labor economics whether there is involuntary unemployment. The fact that the unemployed are lighter than the employed, even when we control for household fixed effects, suggests that they are not choosing this state.

  6. Health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Uchechukwu K A; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Mensah, George A

    2013-01-01

    Recent population studies demonstrate an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The mitigation or reversal of this trend calls for effective health promotion and preventive interventions. In this article, we review the core principles, challenges, and progress in promoting cardiovascular health with special emphasis on interventions to address physical inactivity, poor diet, tobacco use, and adverse cardiometabolic risk factor trends in SSA. We focus on the five essential strategies of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Successes highlighted include community-based interventions in Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, and Mauritius and school-based programs in Kenya, Namibia, and Swaziland. We address the major challenge of developing integrated interventions, and showcase partnerships opportunities. We conclude by calling for intersectoral partnerships for effective and sustainable intervention strategies to advance cardiovascular health promotion and close the implementation gap in accordance with the 2009 Nairobi Call to Action on Health Promotion. © 2013.

  7. Improving leadership on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala

    2011-03-15

    The upcoming UN conference on climate change in Durban, South Africa throws a spotlight on African climate policy. As part of a knowledge-sharing initiative in Southern Africa, we assessed parliamentarians' needs for more information on climate threats and responses, and ways to improve their capabilities as key stakeholders influencing national and global decisionmaking. Funded by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office and partnered with the Association of European Parliamentarians with Africa (AWEPA), IIED worked with parliamentarians in the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) — Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland — through interviews, literature surveys, field trips and workshops. Similar studies in Malawi and Scotland also fed into this project.

  8. Africa takes a more male-friendly approach to family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuodo, D O

    1996-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that men are more likely to support family planning (FP) and to use a method themselves if services and educational programs are targeted to them. Because men fear that contraception reduces their control over their wives' sexuality, male-friendly approaches can enhance gender equality in reproductive health decisions. In Togo, the media is being used to encourage positive attitudes towards FP in specific male groups. In Ghana, FP services targeted to men have resulted in increased male involvement. In Swaziland, male audiences are targeted with FP education. In Sierra Leone, men have met in groups to learn about how to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and about the benefits of FP, and in Kenya, three male-only clinics exist to provide FP services to men.

  9. Thinking outside the box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksen, Peter; Magid, Jakob; de Neergaard, Torben Andreas Flach

    2009-01-01

    are still accorded greatest scientific recognition. This article illustrates how interdisciplinarity has been approached on an international education and research programme. A major challenge was how to strike a balance between interdisciplinarity and specialization, and a specific model based on problem......-oriented group work and specialized research teams was developed which successfully negotiated this divide, according to a comprehensive student evaluation. International co-operation among Denmark, Thailand, Malaysia, South Africa, Swaziland, and Botswana has revealed structural and cultural barriers...... to the implementation of interdisciplinary programmes. Successful negotiation of these barriers requires personal relations based on long-term commitment which was achieved in this case through the study programme and annual joint student field courses....

  10. Dismantling Ruins. Appropriations of Johannesburg’s mining past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Vandemoortel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Between two and three hundred thousand black men a year have worked the mines of Johannesburg. They always far outnumbered the twenty to forty-two thousand white miners, technicians and administrators. In short, they all, formed a company of strangers in a place without a past. Stemming from the fields of Tanzania, Rhodesia, Mozambique, Malawi, Swaziland, Lesotho, Botswana or the industries of England, Ireland, Scotland, Australia and Brazil, everyone was foreign and all were incited to sculpt their own identity out of the richness of the earth. In a peculiar way, the landscape came to express this, just as it did the demands of the work that was being done.

  11. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based analysis of modern South African rodent distributions, habitat use, and environmental tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy L; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L; Williams, Justin K

    2012-11-01

    GOALS OF THIS STUDY WERE TO: (1) develop distributional maps of modern rodent genera throughout the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland by georeferencing museum specimens; (2) assess habitat preferences for genera by cross-referencing locality position with South African vegetation; and (3) identify mean annual precipitation and temperature range where the genera are located. Conterminous South Africa including the countries of Lesotho and Swaziland Digital databases of rodent museum specimens housed in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, South Africa (DM), and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, United States (NMNH), were acquired and then sorted into a subset of specimens with associated coordinate data. The coordinate data were then used to develop distributional maps for the rodent genera present within the study area. Percent habitat occupation and descriptive statistics for six climatic variables were then determined for each genus by cross-referencing locality positions with vegetation and climatic maps. This report presents a series of maps illustrating the distribution of 35 rodent genera based on 19,471 geo-referenced specimens obtained from two major collections. Inferred habitat use by taxon is provided for both locality and specimen percent occurrence at three hierarchical habitat levels: biome, bioregion, and vegetation unit. Descriptive statistics for six climatic variables are also provided for each genus based on locality and specimen percent incidence. As rodent faunas are commonly used in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, an accurate assessment of rodent environmental tolerance ranges is necessary before confidence can be placed in an actualistic model. While the data presented here represent only a subset of the modern geographic distributions for many of the taxa examined, a wide range of environmental regimes are observed, suggesting that more research is necessary

  12. IBFAN Africa training initiatives: code implementation and lactation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuli, A

    1994-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to halt the decline of breast feeding rates in Africa, 35 representatives of 12 different African countries met in Mangochi, Malawi, in February 1994. The Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes was scrutinized. National codes were drafted based on the "Model Law" of the IBFAN Code Documentation Centre (ICDC), Penang. Mechanisms of implementation, specific to each country, were developed. Strategies for the promotion, protection, and support of breast feeding, which is very important to child survival in Africa, were discussed. The training course was organized by ICDC, in conjunction with IBFAN Africa, and with the support of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Countries in eastern, central, and southern Africa were invited to send participants, who included professors, pediatricians, nutritionists, MCH personnel, nurses, and lawyers. IBFAN Africa has also been conducting lactation management workshops for a number of years in African countries. 26 health personnel (pediatricians, nutritionists, senior nursing personnel, and MCH workers), representing 7 countries in the southern African region, attended a training of trainers lactation management workshop in Swaziland in August, 1993 with the support of their UNICEF country offices. The workshop included lectures, working sessions, discussions, and slide and video presentations. Topics covered included national nutrition statuses, the importance of breast feeding, the anatomy and physiology of breast feeding, breast feeding problems, the International Code of Marketing, counseling skills, and training methods. The field trip to a training course covering primary health care that was run by the Traditional Healers Organization (THO) in Swaziland was of particular interest because of the strong traditional medicine sector in many African countries. IBFAN Africa encourages use of community workers (traditional healers, Rural Health

  13. The macroeconomic consequences of renouncing to universal access to antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Africa: a micro-simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventelou, Bruno; Arrighi, Yves; Greener, Robert; Lamontagne, Erik; Carrieri, Patrizia; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Previous economic literature on the cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs has been mainly focused on the microeconomic consequences of alternative use of resources devoted to the fight against the HIV pandemic. We rather aim at forecasting the consequences of alternative scenarios for the macroeconomic performance of countries. We used a micro-simulation model based on individuals aged 15-49 selected from nationally representative surveys (DHS for Cameroon, Tanzania and Swaziland) to compare alternative scenarios : 1-freezing of ART programs to current levels of access, 2- universal access (scaling up to 100% coverage by 2015, with two variants defining ART eligibility according to previous or current WHO guidelines). We introduced an "artificial" ageing process by programming methods. Individuals could evolve through different health states: HIV negative, HIV positive (with different stages of the syndrome). Scenarios of ART procurement determine this dynamics. The macroeconomic impact is obtained using sample weights that take into account the resulting age-structure of the population in each scenario and modeling of the consequences on total growth of the economy. Increased levels of ART coverage result in decreasing HIV incidence and related mortality. Universal access to ART has a positive impact on workers' productivity; the evaluations performed for Swaziland and Cameroon show that universal access would imply net cost-savings at the scale of the society, when the full macroeconomic consequences are introduced in the calculations. In Tanzania, ART access programs imply a net cost for the economy, but 70% of costs are covered by GDP gains at the 2034 horizon, even in the extended coverage option promoted by WHO guidelines initiating ART at levels of 350 cc/mm(3) CD4 cell counts. Universal Access ART scaling-up strategies, which are more costly in the short term, remain the best economic choice in the long term. Renouncing or

  14. Forging the frontiers: Travellers and documents on the South Africa-Mozambique border, 1890s-1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MacDonald

    Full Text Available It is well known that the Union of South Africa started to build an onerous border regime at the turn of the twentieth century in order to secure a White Man's Country in southern Africa. Newly formed, ambitious Immigration Departments consequently targeted 'Asiatics', poor whites and finally 'surplus' Africans from the 1920s onwards. An infrastructure of exclusion (detention and deportation compounds, police patrols, fingerprint offices and so on soon emerged at the region's maritime gateways as the colonial states sought to undermine decentralised indigenous societies characterised by long-term mobility. This article shows that the Union remained vulnerable on its eastern frontier with Mozambique and Swaziland, where 'undesirables' continued to arrive in numbers. Long-distance movement had a long precedent in these borderlands, and it proved difficult for colonial states to forge effective border controls until deep into the twentieth century. Based on extensive and critical engagement with multiple border control archives, the article traces the gradual 'paperisation of the border, and follows a thriving market in identity permits in southern Mozambique and Swaziland, which became important backdoor entry points to the Union. The main people to exploit corrupt local officials and entrepreneurial headmen on either side of the border were those associated with the merchant houses of coastal west India, syndicates from the Portuguese Atlantic island of Madeira, and long-distance, so-called 'tropical', African migrants. Together they forged sophisticated networks that moved permits, people and money across the region and gave south-east Africa's border builders hard and often thankless paperwork.

  15. MALAREO: a user-driven project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Gebreslasie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the capacity gaps and requirements of Earth observation (EO and related technologies for malaria vector control and management in the Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative regions of South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. In order to achieve the core objective of this study, available EO data (including main characteristics and resources required to utilize them and their potential applications for malaria epidemiology are reviewed. In addition, a survey was conducted to assess the availability of human and facility resources to operate EO and related technologies for control and management of the malaria control programs in these countries resulting in an analysis of capacity gaps, priorities and requirements. Earth observation in malaria vector control and management has two different applications: i collection of relevant remotely sensed data for epidemiological use; and ii direct support of ongoing malaria vector control activities. All malaria control programs and institutions recognize the significance of EO products to detect mosquito vector habitats, to monitor environmental parameters affecting mosquito vector populations as well as house mapping and distribution of information supporting residual spray planning and monitoring. It was found that only the malaria research unit (MRU of the medical research council (MRC in South Africa and the national malaria control program (MCP in Swaziland currently have a fully functional geographic information systems (GIS, whereas the other surveyed MCPs in South Africa and Mozambique currently do not have this in place. Earth observation skills only exist in MRU of MRC, while spatial epidemiology is scarce in all institutions, which was identified as major gap. The survey has also confirmed that EO and GIS technologies have enormous potential as sources of spatial data and as analytical frameworks for malaria vector control. It is therefore evident that planning

  16. Price, availability and affordability of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda S. Mhlanga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability.Aim: To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland.Setting: Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland.Methods: The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs. Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker.Results: Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%. Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day’s wage.Conclusion: Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.

  17. Price, availability and affordability of medicines

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    Brenda S. Mhlanga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability. Aim: To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland. Setting: Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland. Methods: The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs. Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker. Results: Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%. Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day’s wage. Conclusion: Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.

  18. Reliance on condoms for contraceptive protection among HIV care and treatment clients: a mixed methods study on contraceptive choice and motivation within a generalised epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Kathryn; Wringe, Alison; Fakudze, Phelele; Kikuvi, Joshua; Nhlabatsi, Zelda; Masuku, Rachel; Initiative, Integra; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To (i) describe the contraceptive practices of HIV care and treatment (HCTx) clients in Manzini, Swaziland, including their unmet needs for family planning (FP), and compare these with population-level estimates; and (ii) qualitatively explore the causal factors influencing contraceptive choice and use. Methods Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A cross-sectional survey conducted among HCTx clients (N=611) investigated FP and condom use patterns. Using descriptive statistics, findings were compared with population-level estimates derived from Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey data, weighted for clustering. In-depth interviews were conducted with HCTx providers (n=16) and clients (n=22) and analysed thematically. Results 64% of HCTx clients reported current contraceptive use; most relied on condoms alone, few practiced dual method use. Rates of condom use for FP among female HCTx clients (77%, 95% CI 71% to 82%) were higher than population-level estimates in the study region (50% HIV-positive, 95% CI 43% to 57%; 37% HIV-negative, 95% CI 31% to 43%); rates of unmet FP needs were similar when condom use consistency was accounted for (32% HCTx, 95% CI 26% to 37%; vs 35% HIV-positive, 95% CI 28% to 43%; 29% HIV-negative, 95% CI 24% to 35%). Qualitative analysis identified motivational factors influencing FP choice: fears of reinfection; a programmatic focus on condoms for people living with HIV; changing sexual behaviours before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation; failure to disclose to partners; and contraceptive side effect fears. Conclusions Fears of reinfection prevailed over consideration of pregnancy risk. Given current evidence on reinfection, HCTx services must move beyond a narrow focus on condom promotion, particularly for those in seroconcordant relationships, and consider diverse strategies to meet reproductive needs. PMID:24695990

  19. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based analysis of modern South African rodent distributions, habitat use, and environmental tolerances

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    Campbell, Timothy L; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L; Williams, Justin K

    2012-01-01

    Goals of this study were to: (1) develop distributional maps of modern rodent genera throughout the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland by georeferencing museum specimens; (2) assess habitat preferences for genera by cross-referencing locality position with South African vegetation; and (3) identify mean annual precipitation and temperature range where the genera are located. Conterminous South Africa including the countries of Lesotho and Swaziland Digital databases of rodent museum specimens housed in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, South Africa (DM), and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, United States (NMNH), were acquired and then sorted into a subset of specimens with associated coordinate data. The coordinate data were then used to develop distributional maps for the rodent genera present within the study area. Percent habitat occupation and descriptive statistics for six climatic variables were then determined for each genus by cross-referencing locality positions with vegetation and climatic maps. This report presents a series of maps illustrating the distribution of 35 rodent genera based on 19,471 geo-referenced specimens obtained from two major collections. Inferred habitat use by taxon is provided for both locality and specimen percent occurrence at three hierarchical habitat levels: biome, bioregion, and vegetation unit. Descriptive statistics for six climatic variables are also provided for each genus based on locality and specimen percent incidence. As rodent faunas are commonly used in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, an accurate assessment of rodent environmental tolerance ranges is necessary before confidence can be placed in an actualistic model. While the data presented here represent only a subset of the modern geographic distributions for many of the taxa examined, a wide range of environmental regimes are observed, suggesting that more research is necessary

  20. Reliance on condoms for contraceptive protection among HIV care and treatment clients: a mixed methods study on contraceptive choice and motivation within a generalised epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Kathryn; Wringe, Alison; Fakudze, Phelele; Kikuvi, Joshua; Nhlabatsi, Zelda; Masuku, Rachel; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2014-08-01

    To (i) describe the contraceptive practices of HIV care and treatment (HCTx) clients in Manzini, Swaziland, including their unmet needs for family planning (FP), and compare these with population-level estimates; and (ii) qualitatively explore the causal factors influencing contraceptive choice and use. Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A cross-sectional survey conducted among HCTx clients (N=611) investigated FP and condom use patterns. Using descriptive statistics, findings were compared with population-level estimates derived from Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey data, weighted for clustering. In-depth interviews were conducted with HCTx providers (n=16) and clients (n=22) and analysed thematically. 64% of HCTx clients reported current contraceptive use; most relied on condoms alone, few practiced dual method use. Rates of condom use for FP among female HCTx clients (77%, 95% CI 71% to 82%) were higher than population-level estimates in the study region (50% HIV-positive, 95% CI 43% to 57%; 37% HIV-negative, 95% CI 31% to 43%); rates of unmet FP needs were similar when condom use consistency was accounted for (32% HCTx, 95% CI 26% to 37%; vs 35% HIV-positive, 95% CI 28% to 43%; 29% HIV-negative, 95% CI 24% to 35%). Qualitative analysis identified motivational factors influencing FP choice: fears of reinfection; a programmatic focus on condoms for people living with HIV; changing sexual behaviours before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation; failure to disclose to partners; and contraceptive side effect fears. Fears of reinfection prevailed over consideration of pregnancy risk. Given current evidence on reinfection, HCTx services must move beyond a narrow focus on condom promotion, particularly for those in seroconcordant relationships, and consider diverse strategies to meet reproductive needs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Effects of irrigation moisture regimes on yield and quality of paprika ( Capsicum annuum L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shongwe, Victor D.; Magongo, Bekani N.; Masarirambi, Michael T.; Manyatsi, Absalom M.

    Although paprika ( Capsicum annuum L) is not widely grown in Swaziland it is becoming increasingly popular as a spice and food colourant. It is a crop that requires irrigation at specific stages of growth as this affects not only the yield but most importantly the quality of the crop. Yield of paprika has been found to increase with relative increase in moisture whereas the quality of fruits has not followed the same trend. The objective of this study was to find the effect of varying irrigation water regimes on the yield and quality of paprika at uniform fertiliser levels. The study was carried out in the 2006/2007 cropping season at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland in a greenhouse. A randomised complete block design was used with four water treatments (0.40, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.00 × Field Capacity). Parameters measured included leaf number per plant, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, leaf width, leaf length, stem girth, dry mass, fresh mass, fruit length, and brix content. There were significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, fresh and dry mass tops and fruit length at the highest moisture level (1.00 × FC) followed by the second highest regime (0.80 × FC) whilst the lower water regimes resulted in lower increases in each of the parameters. Leaf area index did not differ significantly across all treatments. In increasing order the treatments 0.80 × FC and 1.00 × FC gave higher yields but in decreasing order lower brix and thus subsequent lower paprika quality. It is recommended that growers who are aiming for optimum yield and high quality of paprika may use the 0.8 × FC treatment when irrigating.

  2. Correlates of male circumcision in Eastern and Southern African countries: establishing a baseline prior to VMMC Scale-up.

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    Khai Hoan Tram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of male circumcision (MC prevalence to HIV prevention efforts in Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been no systematic analysis on the correlates of male circumcision. This analysis identifies correlates of MC in 12 countries in the region with available data. METHODS: Data from the male questionnaire of DHS surveys collected between 2006-2011 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-reported male circumcision status. Independent variables included age, education, wealth quintile, place of residence, ethnicity, religion and region. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each country. RESULTS: MC prevalence ranged from 8.2 percent in Swaziland to 92.2 percent in Ethiopia. Bivariate analyses showed a consistent positive association between age (being older and male circumcision. Education, wealth quintile, and place of residence were either not significantly related or differed in the direction of the relationship by country. Multivariate logistic regression showed three variables consistently associated with MC status: age (being older, religion (being Muslim and ethnicity. DISCUSSION: These data were collected prior to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs in 11 of the 12 countries. As the VMMC scale-up intensifies in countries across Eastern and Southern Africa, the correlates of VMMC are likely to change, with (younger age and education emerging as key correlates of VMMC performed in medical settings. The centuries-long tradition among Muslims to circumcise should continue to favor MC among this group. Non-circumcising ethnicities may become more open to MC if promoted as a health practice for decreasing HIV risk.

  3. Orphan/vulnerable child caregiving moderates the association between women's autonomy and their BMI in three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Feldman, Robert; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of women's autonomy is a key factor for improving women's health and nutrition. With nearly 12 million orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) in Africa due to HIV/AIDS, the study of OVC primary caregivers' nutrition is fundamental. We investigated the association between married women's autonomy and their nutritional status; explored whether this relationship was modified by OVC primary caregiving; and analyzed whether decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional study used the data from Demographic Health Surveys collected during 2006-2007 from 20- to 49-year-old women in Namibia (n = 2633), Swaziland (n = 1395), and Zambia (n = 2920). Analyses included logistic regression, Sobel, and Goodman tests. Our results indicated that women's educational attainment increased the odds for being overweight (Swaziland and Zambia) and decreased the odds for being underweight (Namibia). In Zambia, having at least primary education increased the odds for being overweight only among child primary caregivers regardless of the OVC status of the child, and having autonomy for buying everyday household items increased the odds for being overweight only among OVC primary caregivers. Decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and OVC primary caregivers' BMI in Zambia (Z = 2.13, p value = 0.03). We concluded that depending on each country's contextual characteristics, having education can decrease the odds for being an underweight woman or increase the odds for being an overweight woman. Further studies should explore why in Namibia education has an effect on women's overweight status only among women who are caring for a child.

  4. Orphan/vulnerable child caregiving moderates the association between women’s autonomy and their BMI in three African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Madhavan, Sangeetha; Feldman, Robert; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of women’s autonomy is a key factor for improving women’s health and nutrition. With nearly 12 million orphan and vulnerable children (OVC) in Africa due to HIV/AIDS, the study of OVC primary caregivers’ nutrition is fundamental. We investigated the association between married women’s autonomy and their nutritional status; explored whether this relationship was modified by OVC primary caregiving; and, analyzed whether decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and body mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional study used data from Demographic Health Surveys collected during 2006–2007 from 20–49 year old women in Namibia (n=2,633), Swaziland (n=1,395), and Zambia (n=2,920). Analyses included logistic regression, Sobel and Goodman tests. Our results indicated that women’s educational attainment increased the odds for being overweight (Swaziland and Zambia) and decreased the odds for being underweight (Namibia). In Zambia, having at least primary education increased the odds for being overweight only among child primary caregivers regardless of the OVC status of the child, and having autonomy for buying everyday household items increased the odds for being overweight only among OVC primary caregivers. Decision-making autonomy mediated the association between household wealth and OVC primary caregivers’ BMI in Zambia (Z=2.13, p-value0.03). We concluded that depending on each country’s contextual characteristics, having education can decrease the odds for being an underweight woman or increase the odds for being an overweight woman. Further studies should explore why in Namibia, education has an effect on women’s overweight status only among women who are caring for a child. PMID:24888977

  5. Keep Talking & Monitoring: the importance of longitudinal research & community-based monitoring to support sustainable land management in southern Africa

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    Dougill, Andrew; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Projects come and go with researchers, development practioners and government staff initiating new forms of community engagement in environmental monitoring and land management practices. We analyse interventions from Botswana and Swaziland and highlight that for benefits to be long-lived and lead to sustainable land management, requires community engagement in project design, implementation and for project outputs to be used in developing community-led environmental monitoring tools that can then help to guide local decision-making systems. We stress the vital importance of continued participatory engagement of researchers with community leaders and key government staff beyond the timeframe of their initial research such that longitudinal research approaches can realise significant benefits to all concerned. In dynamic (non-equilibrium) dryland environments, it is vitally important that research approaches address temporal and spatial variability by mapping patterns of change, using a range of participatory tools to enhance understandings of the causes of land degradation and the opportunities for shifts towards more sustainable land management. Decision-support tools, such as rangeland assessment guides produced for various Kalahari rangeland settings in Botswana (via a UNEP project and affiliated research), provide opportunities to support more sustainable land management. However, at present benefits are not being fully realised as project and research staff move on after projects end. Similarly, findings from mixed farming systems in Swaziland (assessing a JICA-funded project) show problems in maintaining new institutional structures to manage rangeland degradation, whilst issues on arable areas associated with parasitic weeds (Striga asiatica) remain problematic. Findings from longitudinal research in Swaziland also show that community understandings of environmental problems have evolved over 10 years and identify new problems associated with intensified

  6. The Incidence Patterns Model to Estimate the Distribution of New HIV Infections in Sub-Saharan Africa: Development and Validation of a Mathematical Model.

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    Annick Bórquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Programmatic planning in HIV requires estimates of the distribution of new HIV infections according to identifiable characteristics of individuals. In sub-Saharan Africa, robust routine data sources and historical epidemiological observations are available to inform and validate such estimates.We developed a predictive model, the Incidence Patterns Model (IPM, representing populations according to factors that have been demonstrated to be strongly associated with HIV acquisition risk: gender, marital/sexual activity status, geographic location, "key populations" based on risk behaviours (sex work, injecting drug use, and male-to-male sex, HIV and ART status within married or cohabiting unions, and circumcision status. The IPM estimates the distribution of new infections acquired by group based on these factors within a Bayesian framework accounting for regional prior information on demographic and epidemiological characteristics from trials or observational studies. We validated and trained the model against direct observations of HIV incidence by group in seven rounds of cohort data from four studies ("sites" conducted in Manicaland, Zimbabwe; Rakai, Uganda; Karonga, Malawi; and Kisesa, Tanzania. The IPM performed well, with the projections' credible intervals for the proportion of new infections per group overlapping the data's confidence intervals for all groups in all rounds of data. In terms of geographical distribution, the projections' credible intervals overlapped the confidence intervals for four out of seven rounds, which were used as proxies for administrative divisions in a country. We assessed model performance after internal training (within one site and external training (between sites by comparing mean posterior log-likelihoods and used the best model to estimate the distribution of HIV incidence in six countries (Gabon, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Swaziland, and Zambia in the region. We subsequently inferred the potential

  7. The Incidence Patterns Model to Estimate the Distribution of New HIV Infections in Sub-Saharan Africa: Development and Validation of a Mathematical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bórquez, Annick; Cori, Anne; Pufall, Erica L; Kasule, Jingo; Slaymaker, Emma; Price, Alison; Elmes, Jocelyn; Zaba, Basia; Crampin, Amelia C; Kagaayi, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Urassa, Mark; Gregson, Simon; Hallett, Timothy B

    2016-09-01

    Programmatic planning in HIV requires estimates of the distribution of new HIV infections according to identifiable characteristics of individuals. In sub-Saharan Africa, robust routine data sources and historical epidemiological observations are available to inform and validate such estimates. We developed a predictive model, the Incidence Patterns Model (IPM), representing populations according to factors that have been demonstrated to be strongly associated with HIV acquisition risk: gender, marital/sexual activity status, geographic location, "key populations" based on risk behaviours (sex work, injecting drug use, and male-to-male sex), HIV and ART status within married or cohabiting unions, and circumcision status. The IPM estimates the distribution of new infections acquired by group based on these factors within a Bayesian framework accounting for regional prior information on demographic and epidemiological characteristics from trials or observational studies. We validated and trained the model against direct observations of HIV incidence by group in seven rounds of cohort data from four studies ("sites") conducted in Manicaland, Zimbabwe; Rakai, Uganda; Karonga, Malawi; and Kisesa, Tanzania. The IPM performed well, with the projections' credible intervals for the proportion of new infections per group overlapping the data's confidence intervals for all groups in all rounds of data. In terms of geographical distribution, the projections' credible intervals overlapped the confidence intervals for four out of seven rounds, which were used as proxies for administrative divisions in a country. We assessed model performance after internal training (within one site) and external training (between sites) by comparing mean posterior log-likelihoods and used the best model to estimate the distribution of HIV incidence in six countries (Gabon, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Swaziland, and Zambia) in the region. We subsequently inferred the potential contribution of each

  8. A Tripartite Frontier: Funding the Church of the Nazarene Medical Mission, 1911- 1939

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    Bonsile Rachel Ndlangamandla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract

    Couched within the context of social history of medicine, this study explores the trajectory of the Church of the Nazarene medical mission from 1911, when the Nazarene missionaries experienced their first ‘surgical’ service, to 1939 when the Church of the Nazarene had established a medical unit. The absence of large- scale biomedical facilities for the Swazi gave the Nazarene Christian missionaries the impression that they had a health burden to carry. How to fund the Nazarene frontier medical mission was the question that brought the church, the state, and the Swazi together. The study purports to discuss the tripartite funding of the Nazarene biomedical mission using information obtained from the Church of the Nazarene documents and government annual reports housed in the Swaziland National Archives. The significance of this ground- breaking study lies in its ability to evince the subtle nuances of the trajectory of multiple Christian medical mission encounters through the prism of multi- sectoral funding.

     

    Encadrée dans le domaine de l'histoire sociale de la médecine, cette étude explore la trajectoire de l'Église de la mission médicale Nazaréen de 1911, quand les missionnaires nazaréens expérimentés ont entrepris leur première intervention «chirurgicale », jusqu’à 1939, année au cours de laquelle l'Église des Nazaréens a installé   une unité médicale. Les missionnaires chrétiens nazaréens estimaient qu'ils avaient un devoir médical à assurer à l’égard des Swazi qui étaient dépourvus de toutes infrastructures  biomédicales. La question de savoir comment financer la mission médicale nazaréenne outre-mer a été la principale préoccupation de cette église, de l’État et des Swazi eux-mêmes.   La présente étude examine le financement tripartite de la mission biomédicale nazaréenne, en

  9. Gender roles and relationships: Implications for water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, G.

    This study mainstreams gender at household level by showing how the gendered roles and relations between women and men influence access, allocation and use of resources in a rural community, Makhosini, in Swaziland. Implications of the identified gender roles and relationships for water management in Swaziland are highlighted. The working hypotheses of this study are (i) that gender-neutral development initiatives will benefit equally women and men at household level; and (ii) in Swaziland the trend toward irrigated agriculture for food security will have unequal impacts on men and women as access, allocation and use of key resources is highly gendered, privileging men as the value of the resource increases. In this study, a questionnaire was administered to sampled male and female heads of household as well as women under male heads. The heads were asked to indicate the roles they play and key decisions they make in resource use as heads of households. The women under male heads were also asked to indicate their roles and key decision responsibilities. The key resources considered were land and crops produced. Comparative analysis on roles and decisions made as well as access and use of resources and production was done by gender and between the women groups. The results show marked gender differences within households and across resources. Men were overwhelmingly involved in productive roles, giving low priority to reproductive roles. In contrast, priority of women’s roles were reproductive in nature. The key findings are that there were no significant differences in the roles of men and women as heads of households. Women as heads of households assume the same roles as those of men heads suggesting relative gender-neutrality. Also all women played “double-day” roles. However, the data reveals that men dominate decisions on crops to be grown, inputs to be used, disposal of the products and use of income obtained. Only a small percentage of women claimed

  10. A greenhouse trial to investigate the ameliorative properties of biosolids and plants on physicochemical conditions of iron ore tailings: Implications for an iron ore mine site remediation.

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    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An iron ore mine site in Swaziland is currently (2015) in a derelict state as a consequence of past (1964-1988) and present (2011 - current) iron ore mining operations. In order to control problems associated with mine wastes, the Swaziland Water Services Corporation (SWSC) recently (2013) proposed the application of biosolids in sites degraded by mining operations. It is thought that this practice could generally improve soil conditions and enhance plant reestablishment. More importantly, the SWSC foresees this as a potential solution to the biosolids disposal problems. In order to investigate the effects of biosolids and plants in soil physicochemical conditions of iron mine soils, we conducted two plant growth trials. Trial 1 consisted of tailings that received biosolids and topsoil (TUSB mix) while in trial 2, tailings received biosolids only (TB mix). In the two trials, the application rates of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 t ha(-1) were used. After 30 days of equilibration, 25 seeds of Cynodon dactylon were sown in each pot and thinned to 10 plants after 4 weeks. Plants were watered twice weekly and remained under greenhouse conditions for 12 weeks, subsequent to which soils were subjected to chemical analysis. According to the results obtained, there were significant improvements in soil parameters related to fertility such as organic matter (OM), water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), ammonium [Formula: see text] , magnesium (Mg(2+)), calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphorus ( [Formula: see text] ). With regard to heavy metals, biosolids led to significant increases in soil total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb. The higher concentrations of Zn and Cu in treated tailings compared to undisturbed adjacent soils are a cause for concern because in the field, this might work against the broader objectives of mine soil remediation, which include the recolonization of reclaimed sites by soil-dwelling organisms. Therefore, while

  11. What explains gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from the demographic and health surveys

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    Drissa Sia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary across countries and require country-specific interventions to address them. This study aimed to identify the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in 21 SSA countries. Methods We applied an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to data from Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to quantify the differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men attributable to socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. We decomposed gender inequalities into two components: the percentage attributable to different levels of the risk factors between women and men (the “composition effect” and the percentage attributable to risk factors having differential effects on HIV/AIDS prevalence in women and men (the “response effect”. Results Descriptive analyses showed that the difference between women and men in HIV/AIDS prevalence varied from a low of 0.68 % (P = 0.008 in Liberia to a high of 11.5 % (P < 0.001 in Swaziland. The decomposition analysis showed that 84 % (P < 0.001 and 92 % (P < 0.001 of the higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS among women in Uganda and Ghana, respectively, was explained by the different distributions of HIV/AIDS risk factors, particularly age at first sex between women and men. In the majority of countries, however, observed gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS were chiefly explained by differences in the responses to risk factors; the differential effects of age, marital status and occupation on prevalence of HIV/AIDS for women and men were among the significant contributors to this component. In Cameroon, Guinea, Malawi and Swaziland, a combination of the composition and response

  12. Productivity effects of higher education human capital in selected countries of Sub-Saharan Africa

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    Koye Gerry Bokana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the productivity effects of higher education enrolment (HEE, higher education output (HEO and the associated productivity gap (GP on selected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA over the period between 1981 and 2014. It was hypothesized in the study that HEE and HEO had statistically significant positive impact on productivity in the selected sub-Saharan Africa countries over the stated period. Fixed effect Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV and a robust version of System Generalized Methods of Moment (SYSGMM were adopted as model estimating techniques. Results from the LSDV model indicated that HEE had no statistically significant positive impact on productivity growth in the twenty-one SSA countries. This non-significance was corrected in the dynamic model, but with negative effects on the growth rate of total factor productivity (TFP. The study further compared the worldwide technological frontier with those of the SSA countries under investigation and discovered that countries like Gabon, Mauritius and Swaziland ranked high, while Burundi needs to improve on its productivity determinants. The major conclusion of this study is therefore that higher education human capital should be supported with strong policy implementation, as this can have a positive impact on productivity growth.

  13. Understanding the Limitations to the Right to Strike in Essential and Public Services in the SADC Region

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    Rochelle le Roux

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the limitations to the right to strike in essential and public services in the nine sub-regional countries of Southern Africa – South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe – is examined in this contribution. While all of these countries share common influences and face common challenges, there appears to be a vast disparity in the approaches taken to the right to strike in public and essential services in the region. A brief overview of the demographics and labour markets in the countries under discussion is sketched, the salient features of the ILO's approach to strike in essential and public services is highlighted, and a broad overview of the contrasting and disparate approaches to essential and public services in the region is provided. The focus is, however, on the legislative approach taken to essential service employees in South Africa. It is concluded that – with the exception of South Africa and Namibia – the limitations to the right to strike of public sector employees exceed those endorsed by international conventions, and the broad definition of essential services generally relied upon effectively

  14. A historical-archaeological investigation of an Anglo-Boer War British outpost in the Kruger National Park

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    Anton C. Van Vollenhoven

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available During the Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902 a voluntary British military unit called Steinaecker's Horse, operated in the Lowveld and Swaziland. The commander of the unit, colonel Ludwig von Steinaecker, was an important historical figure in this area. The unit established a number of outposts in an area today known as the Kruger National Park. One of these outposts was archaeologically investigated in order to recover any remains that may be associated with this unit and to form some idea of their lifestyle. Although no historical information on this particular outpost was found, the archaeological excavations revealed some interesting evidence. The disturbance of the site and the number of visible cultural material, indicated that it was used in recent times. The large refuse middens show that a reasonably large number of people occupied the site. Most of the artifacts found can be linked to the diet and articles of everyday use of the inhabitants. The conclusion is that the site was probably occupied by both a garrison of the Steinaecker's Horse military unit and some troops of the Native Police unit. Based on the distribution of different types of artifacts on the site a social differ- entiation between the members of these two units is assumed.

  15. Preventing Sexual Violence and HIV in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.

    2018-01-01

    Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598

  16. Invasive, naturalized and casual alien plants in southern Africa: a sum­mary based on the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this publication is to provide an overview of the species identity, invasion status, geographical extent, and abundance of alien plants in South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho, based on field records from 1979 to the end of 2000. The dataset is all the species records for the study area in the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA database during this time period. A total of 548 naturalized and casual alien plant species were catalogued and invasion was recorded almost throughout the study area. Most invasion, in terms of both species numbers and total species abundance, was recorded along the southern, southwestern and eastern coastal belts and in the adjacent interior. This area includes the whole of the Fynbos and Forest Biomes, and the moister eastern parts of the Grassland and Savanna Biomes. This study reinforces previous studies that the Fynbos Biome is the most extensively invaded vegetation type in South Africa but it also shows that parts of Savanna and Grassland are as heavily invaded as parts of the Fynbos. The Fabaceae is prominent in all biomes and Acacia with 17 listed species, accounts for a very large proportion of all invasion. Acacia mearmii was by far the most prominent invasive species in the study area, followed by A. saligna, Lantana camara, A. cyclops, Opuntia ficus-indica. Solarium mauritianum, Populus alba/xcanescens, Melia azedarach, A. dealbata and species of Prosopis.

  17. Mobilising indigenous resources for anthropologically designed HIV-prevention and behaviour-change interventions in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Edward C; Dlamini, Cedza; D'Errico, Nicole C; Ruark, Allison; Duby, Zoe

    2009-12-01

    HIV prevention is often implemented as if African culture were either nonexistent or a series of obstacles to overcome in order to achieve an effective, gender-equitable, human rights-based set of interventions. Similarly, traditional or indigenous leaders, such as chiefs and members of royal families, have been largely excluded from HIV/AIDS responses in Africa. This qualitative study used focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with traditional leaders and 'ritual specialists' to better understand cultural patterns and ways of working with, rather than against, culture and traditional leaders in HIV-prevention efforts. The research was carried out in four southern African countries (Botswana, Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland). The purpose was to discover what aspects of indigenous leadership and cultural resources might be accessed and developed to influence individual behaviour as well as the prevailing community norms, values, sanctions and social controls that are related to sexual behaviour. The indigenous leaders participating in the research largely felt bypassed and marginalised by organised efforts to prevent HIV infections and also believed that HIV-prevention programmes typically confronted, circumvented, criticised or condemned traditional culture. However, indigenous leaders may possess innovative ideas about ways to change individuals' sexual behaviour in general. The participants discussed ways to revive traditional social structures and cultural mechanisms as a means to incorporate HIV-prevention and gender-sensitivity training into existing cultural platforms, such as rites of passage, chiefs' councils and traditional courts.

  18. Investigation of the Practices, Legislation, Supply Chain, and Regulation of Opioids for Clinical Pain Management in Southern Africa: A Multi-sectoral, Cross-National, Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namisango, Eve; Allsop, Matthew J; Powell, Richard A; Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J; Luyirika, Emmanuel B K; Kiyange, Fatia; Mukooza, Edward; Ntege, Chris; Garanganga, Eunice; Ginindza-Mdluli, Mavis Ntombifuthi; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Mondlane, Lidia Justino; Harding, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces an increasing incidence and prevalence of life-limiting and life-threatening conditions. These conditions are associated with a significant burden of pain linked to high morbidity and disability that is poorly assessed and undertreated. Barriers to effective pain management partly relate to lack of access to opioid analgesia and challenges in their administration. To identify country-specific and broader regional barriers to access, as well as the administration of opioids, and generate recommendations for advancing pain management in Southern Africa. A parallel mixed methods design was used across three countries: Mozambique, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. Three activities were undertaken: 1) a review of regulatory and policy documentation, 2) group interviews, and 3) a self-administered key informant survey. Barriers to accessing opioid analgesics for medical use include overly restrictive controlled medicines' laws; use of stigmatizing language in key documents; inaccurate actual opioid consumption estimation practices; knowledge gaps in the distribution, storage, and prescription of opioids; critical shortage of prescribers; and high out-of-pocket financial expenditures for patients against a backdrop of high levels of poverty. Policies and relevant laws should be updated to ensure that the legislative environment supports opioid access for pain management. Action plans for improving pain treatment for patients suffering from HIV or non-communicable diseases should address barriers at the different levels of the supply chain that involve policymakers, administrators, and service providers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the modern distribution of South African Gerbilliscus (Rodentia: Gerbillinae with implications for Plio-Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin K. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are four extant species of Gerbilliscus, formally classified as Tatera, native to the southern African subregion, each exhibiting varying degrees of environmental tolerance. These species are also routinely reported from many of the palaeontological and archaeological sites in the region. We used a geographic information systems analysis to examine the distribution of modern Gerbilliscus by georeferencing museum specimens. The distribution of Gerbilliscus was then compared to the latest treatment of the vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland in order to quantify the genus’s environmental tolerances and propose a new niche model for this taxon. Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are made possible by defining the tolerance limits of modern taxa that have persisted relatively unchanged throughout the Plio-Pleistocene. Tolerance limits can then be applied to fossil-bearing localities where these taxa are known to have occurred in the past. Results from our analysis indicated that Gerbilliscus exhibits a wide range of environmental tolerances that must be considered when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  20. Potential of Sugarcane in Modern Energy Development in Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Simone P., E-mail: sp.souza@yahoo.com.br; Horta Nogueira, Luiz A. [Interdisciplinary Center for Energy Planning, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Watson, Helen K. [School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KZN (South Africa); Lynd, Lee Rybeck [Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth, NH (United States); Elmissiry, Mosad [New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), Johannesburg, GT (South Africa); Cortez, Luís A. B. [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-12-26

    For more than half of the Southern African population, human development is limited by a lack of access to electricity and modern energy for cooking. Modern bioenergy merits consideration as one means to address this situation in areas where sufficient arable land is available. While numerous studies have concluded that Africa has significant biomass potential, they do not indicate by how much it can effectively reduce the use of traditional biomass and provide more accessible energy, especially at a country level. Here, we evaluate the potential of sugarcane to replace traditional biomass and fossil fuel and enlarge the access to electricity in Southern Africa. By using its current molasses for ethanol production, Swaziland could increase electricity generation by 40% using bagasse and replace 60% of cooking fuel or 30% of liquid fossil fuel. Sugarcane expansion over 1% of the pasture land in Angola, Mozambique, and Zambia could replace greater than 70% of cooking fuel. Bioelectricity generation from modest sugarcane expansion could be increased by 10% in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia and by 20% in Angola. Our results support the potential of sugarcane as a modern energy alternative for Southern Africa.

  1. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Grace C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Deshmukh, Ranjit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Radojicic, Tijana [International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Reilly, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  2. Potential of Sugarcane in Modern Energy Development in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone P.; Horta Nogueira, Luiz A.; Watson, Helen K.; Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Elmissiry, Mosad; Cortez, Luís A. B.

    2016-01-01

    For more than half of the Southern African population, human development is limited by a lack of access to electricity and modern energy for cooking. Modern bioenergy merits consideration as one means to address this situation in areas where sufficient arable land is available. While numerous studies have concluded that Africa has significant biomass potential, they do not indicate by how much it can effectively reduce the use of traditional biomass and provide more accessible energy, especially at a country level. Here, we evaluate the potential of sugarcane to replace traditional biomass and fossil fuel and enlarge the access to electricity in Southern Africa. By using its current molasses for ethanol production, Swaziland could increase electricity generation by 40% using bagasse and replace 60% of cooking fuel or 30% of liquid fossil fuel. Sugarcane expansion over 1% of the pasture land in Angola, Mozambique, and Zambia could replace greater than 70% of cooking fuel. Bioelectricity generation from modest sugarcane expansion could be increased by 10% in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia and by 20% in Angola. Our results support the potential of sugarcane as a modern energy alternative for Southern Africa.

  3. Poverty and human immunodeficiency virus in children: a view from the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Barend Jacobus; Esser, Monika; Godwin, Sarah; Rabie, Helena; Cotton, Mark Fredric

    2008-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the region affected worst by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with the most southern countries, including Botswana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, and South Africa, carrying the highest disease burden. This geographic distribution represents a complex interaction among virological, political, social, cultural, and economic forces. In South Africa the HIV epidemic is seemingly unchecked, with 18% of the adult population infected. Although South Africa is a mid-developed country, there is a large chasm between the wealthy and the poor, with many living in moderate to extreme poverty. Poverty creates conditions that fuel the HIV epidemic while HIV exacerbates the multiple interlinking causes of poverty. Children are the most vulnerable members of society, severely affected by all components of the poverty cycle. Although improved health education and access to care will alleviate many problems, sustainable poverty alleviation should form an essential component of the response to AIDS. The formulation of the United Nations Millennium Developmental Goals is an important step in the right direction, but global and local political commitment is essential for success.

  4. Contributing to the ICNP®: validating the term cultural diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Geyer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aims of this study were to: • Propose a definition of the term cultural diversity; • Validate the term cultural diversity; and • Submit a term and definition for international utilisation to the International Council of Nurses (ICN for consideration for inclusion in the ICNP®. Background South Africa was one of four African countries (Botswana, South Africa. Swaziland, and Zimbabwe funded by the WK Kellogg Foundation to participate in the ICNP® project. South Africa had 2 research groups. One of the research groups identified the term cultural diversity to define. Method This was a qualitative study where a philosophical perspective was used to explore, explain and describe nursing practice. The combined method proposed by the International Council of Nurses (ICN was utilised to define and validate the term cultural diversity. Findings Validation and literature review provided sufficient support for the defined characteristics and the term was finally defined and submitted to ICN in November 2002 as: CULTURAL DIVERSITY is a type of CULTURE with the specific characteristics: co-existence of different groups, e.g. ethnic, religious, linguistic and other groups each with their own values and belief systems, traditions and different lifestyles. Conclusion The research group was informed in December 2003 of the ICNP® Evaluation Committee recommendation that the term cultural diversity will be included in the ICNP®.

  5. Nations of the earth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    These books contain summaries of the national reports prepared for the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. Summary reports of the following countries are included: V. 1) Algeria, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Canada, Chad, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Guinea, Jordan, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Netherlands, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Paraguay, Romania, Senegal, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Tokelau, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Republic of Tanzania, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen Arab Republic, Yugoslavia. V. 2) Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Bulgaria, Central African Republic, Colombia, Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Japan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Lebanon, Lesotho, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Morocco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Oman, Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, Pacific Islands Developing Countries, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sudan, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Zimbabwe

  6. Effects of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicountry analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Anamaale Tuoyire, Derek

    2016-12-01

    We analysed the extent of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and how they predict optimal use of prenatal (timing and number of antenatal) care services in 30 African countries. We pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 30 African countries between 2006 and 2015. We described the extent of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies and further used mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression estimation techniques to examine the impacts of planned, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies on the use of prenatal health services. In total, 73.65% of pregnancies in all countries were planned. Mistimed pregnancy ranged from 7.43% in Burkina Faso to 41.33% in Namibia. Unwanted pregnancies were most common in Swaziland (39.54%) and least common in Niger (0.74%). Timely (first trimester) initiation of ANC was 37% overall in all countries; the multicountry average number of ANC visits was optimal [4.1; 95% CI: 4.1-4.2] but with notable disparities between countries. Overall, mistimed and unwanted pregnancies were strongly associated with late ANC attendance and fewer visits women made in the pooled analysis. Unintended pregnancies are critical risks to achieving improved maternal health in respect of early and optimal ANC coverage for women in Africa. Programmes targeted at advancing coverage of ANC in Africa need to deploy contextually appropriate mechanisms to prevent unintended pregnancies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Corporate social disclosure by public enterprises: Evidence from a less developing African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humayun Kabir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR information disclosure practices of a sample of public enterprises operating in a less developing African country (i.e. Swaziland over the years 2008 and 2010. Corporate annual reports and other relevant documents were used to extract CSR disclosure information. The study used content analysis of CSR information appearing in the corporate reports. Content analysis was measured in accordance with number of words. The paper examines five major categories of CSR disclosure such as environmental performance and policies, human resources, community activities, fair business practices, and human rights. Findings show that the trend of increasing amounts of corporate social information disclosure amongst the enterprises from 2008 to 2010 has not increased significantly. Results show that human resources disclosure issues were greatest followed by community involvement and then by environmental related issues. There was no attempt to disclose human rights issues by the enterprises. This study contributes to the literature on CSR reporting practices by public enterprises in the context of less developing African countries.

  8. Not just minor wild edible forest products: consumption of pteridophytes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroyi, Alfred

    2014-12-22

    Gathering of wild edible plant resources by people in sub-Saharan Africa is discussed with reference to pteridophytes, which is an ancient plant group. Pteridophytes are crucial to food diversity and security in sub-Saharan Africa, although they are notably neglected as a result of inadequate research and agricultural development. Current research and agricultural development agenda still appear to focus on the popular and commonly used food crops, vegetables and fruits; ignoring minor and underutilized plant species such as pteridophytes which have shown significant potential as sources of macro and micro nutrients required to improve the diet of children and other vulnerable groups in sub-Saharan Africa. Documentation of edible pteridophytes is needed to reveal the importance of this plant group in the region and the associated indigenous knowledge about them; so that this knowledge can be preserved and utilized species used to combat dietary deficiencies as well as improve food security in the region. The aim of this study is to present an overview of food value of pteridophytes in sub-Saharan Africa using available literature and to highlight their potential in addressing dietary deficiencies in impoverished communities in the region. This study is based on review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, regional and international organizations, theses, conference papers and other grey materials obtained from libraries and electronic search of Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science and Scopus. A total of 24 taxa belonging to 14 genera and 11 families are used in sub-Saharan Africa as fodder and human food. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn is the most common edible pteridophyte in sub-Saharan Africa, used as human food in Angola, Cameroon, DRC, Gabon, Madagascar, Nigeria and South Africa, followed by Ophioglossum reticulatum L. (South Africa, Swaziland and Zanzibar), Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. (Madagascar and

  9. Setting the agenda in emergency medicine in the southern African region: Conference assumptions and recommendations, Emergency Medicine Conference 2014: Gaborone, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd D. Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The first international emergency medicine (EM conference in Botswana was held on 15th and 16th May 2014 at the Gaborone International Convention Centre. The support from key stakeholders positioned the conference, from its conception, to deliver expert guidance on emergency medicine relevance, education and systems implementation. The conference theme was aptly: “Setting the Agenda in Emergency Medicine in the Southern African Region.” Over 300 local, regional and international delegates convened to participate in this landmark event. Country representation included Botswana, South Africa, Zambia, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Lesotho, Nigeria and the United States of America. Conference assumptions intersected emergency care, African burden of injury and illness and the role of the state; the public protection ethic of emergency care, and the developmental, economic and health interest in promoting EM. The recommendations addressed emergency care relevance; health systems research as an imperative for emergency systems development in southern Africa; community agency as a requisite for emergency care resilience; emergency care workers as pivotal to the emergency medical system, and support of EM system implementation. The conference recommendations – by way of setting an agenda, augur well for emergency care development and implementation in the southern African region and are likely to prove useful to the southern African countries seeking to address health service quality, EM advocacy support and implementation guidance. Emergency medicine is the only discipline with ‘universality’ and ‘responsivity’ at the point of need. This implies the widespread potential for facilitation of access to health care: a public health goal nuanced by the African development agenda.

  10. Tropical Africa: Land use, biomass, and carbon estimates for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). Western Ecology Division; Gaston, G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). National Research Council; Daniels, R.C. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980 and describes a methodology that may be used to extend this data set to 1990 and beyond based on population and land cover data. The biomass data and carbon estimates are for woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible magnitude of historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth`s land surface and includes those countries that for the most part are located in Tropical Africa. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in southern Africa (i.e., Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Western Sahara) have maximum potential biomass and land cover information but do not have biomass or carbon estimate. The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{sup TM} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass-carbon values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  11. 10 Best resources on… intersectionality with an emphasis on low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elizabeth; George, Asha; Morgan, Rosemary; Poteat, Tonia

    2016-10-01

    Intersectionality has emerged as an important framework for understanding and responding to health inequities by making visible the fluid and interconnected structures of power that create them. It promotes an understanding of the dynamic nature of the privileges and disadvantages that permeate health systems and affect health. It considers the interaction of different social stratifiers (e.g. 'race'/ethnicity, indigeneity, gender, class, sexuality, geography, age, disability/ability, migration status, religion) and the power structures that underpin them at multiple levels. In doing so, it is a departure from previous health inequalities research that looked at these forms of social stratification in isolation from one another or in an additive manner. Despite its potential use and long history in other disciplines, intersectionality is uncommonly used in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To orient readers to intersectionality theory and research, we first define intersectionality and describe its role in public health, and then we review resources on intersectionality. We found that applications in public health mostly increased after 2009, with only 14 out of 86 articles focused on LMICs. To arrive at 10 best resources, we selected articles based on the proportion of the article that was devoted to intersectionality, the strength of the intersectionality analysis, and its relevance to LMICs. The first four resources explain intersectionality as a methodology. The subsequent six articles apply intersectionality to research in LMIC with quantitative and qualitative analysis. We provide examples from India, Swaziland, Uganda and Mexico. Topics for the studies range from HIV, violence and sexual abuse to immunization and the use of health entitlements. Through these 10 resources, we hope to spark interest and open a needed conversation on the importance and use of intersectional analysis in LMICs as part of understanding people

  12. The organized sector mobilizes against AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra-kerpelman, K

    1995-01-01

    Representatives of English speaking African countries attended the International Labor Organization Tripartite Workshop on the Role of the Organized Sector in Reproductive Health and the Prevention of AIDS held in Uganda. AIDS has robbed these countries of lawyers, physicians, teachers, managers, and other skilled professionals, all of whom are difficult to replace. HIV/AIDS mainly affects persons in their most productive years (20-40 years) and in the higher socioeconomic groups. Professionals with AIDS become ill and die at a faster rate than their replacements can be trained. The young, less experienced work force translates into an increase in breakdowns, accidents, delays, and misjudgments. International and national efforts to control HIV/AIDS have not stopped the spread of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). More than 8 million persons in SSA are HIV infected. 1.5 million in Uganda are HIV infected. As of October 1994, 30,000 persons in Zambia and 33,000 in Zimbabwe had AIDS. These numbers are just the tip of the iceberg due to underreporting. HIV/AIDS increases absenteeism among infected and healthy workers alike. It burdens the already existing scarce health care resources and equipment (e.g., in 1992, AIDS cases occupied 70% of hospital beds in Kigali, Rwanda). Unions, workers, and families must share knowledge about safer sex. The Zimbabwe Confederation of Trade Unions has had an HIV/AIDS education program since 1992. The Zambia Congress of Trade Unions strongly supports government efforts to sensitize the labor force and society to the effects of HIV/AIDS. The Federation of Uganda Employers has reached about 150,000 workers and more than 200 top executives through its AIDS prevention activities. Some company programs provide medical facilities for employees and their families. The Ubombo Ranches, Ltd. in Swaziland, a producer and processor of sugar cane, has a training-of-trainers program on HIV/AIDS and family planning for all village health workers and

  13. Evidence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnyepi, Maria S; Gwisai, Namo; Lekgoa, Malebogo; Seru, Tumelo

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition transition is characterised by shift to highly refined diets high in fat, salt and caloric sweeteners and low in fibre in rapidly growing economies. Dietary shifts occur almost concurrently with demographic and epidemiologic shifts, urbanisation and industrialisation and together contribute to increased prevalence of nutrition related (NR)-non-communicable disease (NCR). The emergence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa countries (SAC) was examined using anthropometric, NCD prevalence, and food consumption data. The findings reveal growing prevalence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) across SAC, with national prevalence estimated between 30 and 60 % in all but two SAC. Overweight prevalence in excess of 60 % has been reported in some sub-population groups. Hypertension prevalence of at least 30 % has also been reported. Further, the prevalence of OWOB and hypertension in many SAC exceeds that of HIV and is often at par with stunting in children. NCD are equally serious public health problems as stunting and HIV. Collectively, NR-NCD explain 20-31 % of mortality for Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Zambia. At least 72 % of adults in SAC have fewer servings of fruit and vegetable servings daily than recommended. Additionally, adults in SAC do poorly in physical activity; 31-75 % do not exercise regularly. Not surprisingly, 15-40 % of adults in SAC have at least three risk factors of CVD. SAC are grappling with NR-NCD which threaten to surpass infectious diseases burden. SAC are at various levels in interventions for moving their populations to stage 5, but there is room for much improvement.

  14. Does integration of HIV and SRH services achieve economies of scale and scope in practice? A cost function analysis of the Integra Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Guinness, Lorna; Sweeney, Sedona; Initiative, Integra; Vassall, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Policy-makers have long argued about the potential efficiency gains and cost savings from integrating HIV and sexual reproductive health (SRH) services, particularly in resource-constrained settings with generalised HIV epidemics. However, until now, little empirical evidence exists on whether the hypothesised efficiency gains associated with such integration can be achieved in practice. We estimated a quadratic cost function using data obtained from 40 health facilities, over a 2-year-period, in Kenya and Swaziland. The quadratic specification enables us to determine the existence of economies of scale and scope. The empirical results reveal that at the current output levels, only HIV counselling and testing services are characterised by service-specific economies of scale. However, no overall economies of scale exist as all outputs are increased. The results also indicate cost complementarities between cervical cancer screening and HIV care; post-natal care and HIV care and family planning and sexually transmitted infection treatment combinations only. The results from this analysis reveal that contrary to expectation, efficiency gains from the integration of HIV and SRH services, if any, are likely to be modest. Efficiency gains are likely to be most achievable in settings that are currently delivering HIV and SRH services at a low scale with high levels of fixed costs. The presence of cost complementarities for only three service combinations implies that careful consideration of setting-specific clinical practices and the extent to which they can be combined should be made when deciding which services to integrate. NCT01694862. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Modelling Bambara Groundnut Yield in Southern Africa: Towards a Climate-Resilient Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, A. S.; Walker, S.; Ruane, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Current agriculture depends on a few major species grown as monocultures that are supported by global research underpinning current productivity. However, many hundreds of alternative crops have the potential to meet real world challenges by sustaining humanity, diversifying agricultural systems for food and nutritional security, and especially responding to climate change through their resilience to certain climate conditions. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilised African legume, is an exemplar crop for climate resilience. Predicted yield performances of Bambara groundnut by AquaCrop (a crop-water productivity model) were evaluated for baseline (1980-2009) and mid-century climates (2040-2069) under 20 downscaled Global Climate Models (CMIP5-RCP8.5), as well as for climate sensitivities (AgMIPC3MP) across 3 locations in Southern Africa (Botswana, South Africa, Namibia). Different land - races of Bambara groundnut originating from various semi-arid African locations showed diverse yield performances with diverse sensitivities to climate. S19 originating from hot-dry conditions in Namibia has greater future yield potential compared to the Swaziland landrace Uniswa Red-UN across study sites. South Africa has the lowest yield under the current climate, indicating positive future yield trends. Namibia reported the highest baseline yield at optimum current temperatures, indicating less yield potential in future climates. Bambara groundnut shows positive yield potential at temperatures of up to 31degC, with further warming pushing yields down. Thus, many regions in Southern Africa can utilize Bambara groundnut successfully in the coming decades. This modelling exercise supports decisions on genotypic suitability for present and future climates at specific locations.

  16. Demotivating infant feeding counselling encounters in southern Africa: do counsellors need more or different training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskens, I; Jaffe, A

    2008-03-01

    Ethnographic research was conducted in eleven low-resource settings across Swaziland, Namibia and South Africa to explore how the perceptions and experiences of counselling health workers, pregnant women and recent mothers could be used to improve infant feeding counselling in the context of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. We found many counselling encounters to be demotivating. Mothers often reported feeling judged, stigmatised and shamed. Counsellors complained of mothers' poor compliance and passive resistance and reported suffering from stress, depression and burnout. We observed a rift between the mothers and counselling nurses, with both parties holding opposing agendas grounded in conflicting realities, expectations, experiences and needs. While the clients framed the visit as a consultation, counsellors framed it as health education, towards one exclusive purpose; to save the baby. Two communication modes prevailed in the counselling encounter: in theory, the counselling format was non-directive and client-centred but, in practice, most encounters reverted to information-based health education. Neither counselling format enabled the counsellors to acknowledge the reality of the two opposing agendas in the conversation and manage its dynamics. In order to achieve success - which, for the health service, is framed as persuading mothers to test for HIV and disclose the result - counsellors often felt compelled to be prescriptive and authoritative and reverted at times to confronting, judging and shaming mothers. Yet to adhere to their feeding choice consistently, mothers need to be motivated towards the significant behaviour change that this implies: to change their traditional roles and identities as women. For infant feeding counselling in the context of HIV/AIDS to become effective in southern Africa, a different format is therefore required; one that can acknowledge and manage these opposing agendas and conflicting realities and also enable

  17. HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; Ackerman, Benjamin; Diouf, Daouda; Ceesay, Nuha; Mothopeng, Tampose; Odette, Ky-Zerbo; Kouanda, Seni; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Simplice, Anato; Kouame, Abo; Mnisi, Zandile; Trapence, Gift; van der Merwe, L Leigh Ann; Jumbe, Vicente; Baral, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment. Data collection took place at 14 sites across 8 countries: Burkina Faso (January-August 2013), Côte d'Ivoire (March 2015-February 2016), The Gambia (July-December 2011), Lesotho (February-September 2014), Malawi (July 2011-March 2012), Senegal (February-November 2015), Swaziland (August-December 2011), and Togo (January-June 2013). Surveys gathered information on sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, mental health, sexual behavior, and HIV testing. Rapid tests for HIV were conducted. Data were merged, and mixed effects logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between gender identity and HIV infection. Among 4,586 participants assigned male sex at birth, 937 (20%) identified as transgender or female, and 3,649 were cis-MSM. The mean age of study participants was approximately 24 years, with no difference between transgender participants and cis-MSM. Compared to cis-MSM participants, transgender women were more likely to experience family exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.16, p gender with condomless receptive anal sex, the odds of HIV infection for transgender women were 2.2 times greater than the odds for cis-MSM (95% CI 1.65-2.87, p gender diversity within HIV research and programs.

  18. Harmonization of community health worker programs for HIV: A four-country qualitative study in Southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Walter De Neve

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Community health worker (CHW programs are believed to be poorly coordinated, poorly integrated into national health systems, and lacking long-term support. Duplication of services, fragmentation, and resource limitations may have impeded the potential impact of CHWs for achieving HIV goals. This study assesses mediators of a more harmonized approach to implementing large-scale CHW programs for HIV in the context of complex health systems and multiple donors.We undertook four country case studies in Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland between August 2015 and May 2016. We conducted 60 semistructured interviews with donors, government officials, and expert observers involved in CHW programs delivering HIV services. Interviews were triangulated with published literature, country reports, national health plans, and policies. Data were analyzed based on 3 priority areas of harmonization (coordination, integration, and sustainability and 5 components of a conceptual framework (the health issue, intervention, stakeholders, health system, and context to assess facilitators and barriers to harmonization of CHW programs. CHWs supporting HIV programs were found to be highly fragmented and poorly integrated into national health systems. Stakeholders generally supported increasing harmonization, although they recognized several challenges and disadvantages to harmonization. Key facilitators to harmonization included (i a large existing national CHW program and recognition of nongovernmental CHW programs, (ii use of common incentives and training processes for CHWs, (iii existence of an organizational structure dedicated to community health initiatives, and (iv involvement of community leaders in decision-making. Key barriers included a wide range of stakeholders and lack of ownership and accountability of non-governmental CHW programs. Limitations of our study include subjectively selected case studies, our focus on decision-makers, and limited

  19. Reflections on the maternal mortality millennium goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Gerald W; Keirse, Marc J N C

    2013-06-01

    Nearly every 2 minutes, somewhere in the world, a woman dies because of complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Every such death is an overwhelming catastrophe for everyone confronted with it. Most deaths occur in developing countries, especially in Africa and southern Asia, but a significant number also occur in the developed world. We examined the available data on the progress and the challenges to the United Nations' fifth Millennium Development Goal of achieving a 75 percent worldwide reduction in the maternal mortality by 2015 from what it was in 1990. Some countries, such as Belarus, Egypt, Estonia, Honduras, Iran, Lithuania, Malaysia, Romania, Sri Lanka and Thailand, are likely to meet the target by 2015. Many poor countries with weak health infrastructures and high fertility rates are unlikely to meet the goal. Some, such as Botswana, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Guyana, Lesotho, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, had worse maternal mortality ratios in 2010 than in 1990, partially because of wars and civil strife. Worldwide, the leading causes of maternal death are still hemorrhage, hypertension, sepsis, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortions, while indirect causes are gaining in importance in developed countries. Maternal death is especially distressing if it was potentially preventable. However, as there is no single cause, there is no silver bullet to correct the problem. Many countries also face new challenges as their childbearing population is growing in age and in weight. Much remains to be done to make safe motherhood a reality. © 2013, Copyright the Authors, Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Validation of the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument - PLWA (HASI-P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzemer, William L; Uys, Leana R; Chirwa, Maureen L; Greeff, Minrie; Makoae, Lucia N; Kohi, Thecla W; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Stewart, Anita L; Mullan, Joseph; Phetlhu, René D; Wantland, Dean; Durrheim, Kevin

    2007-09-01

    This article describes the development and testing of a quantitative measure of HIV/AIDS stigma as experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS. This instrument is designed to measure perceived stigma, create a baseline from which to measure changes in stigma over time, and track potential progress towards reducing stigma. It was developed in three phases from 2003-2006: generating items based on results of focus group discussions; pilot testing and reducing the original list of items; and validating the instrument. Data for all phases were collected from five African countries: Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Tanzania. The instrument was validated with a sample of 1,477 persons living with HIV/AIDS from all of the five countries. The sample had a mean age of 36.1 years and 74.1% was female. The participants reported they knew they were HIV positive for an average of 3.4 years and 46% of the sample was taking antiretroviral medications. A six factor solution with 33 items explained 60.72% of the variance. Scale alpha reliabilities were examined and items that did not contribute to scale reliability were dropped. The factors included: Verbal Abuse (8 items, alpha=0.886); Negative Self-Perception (5 items, alpha=0.906); Health Care Neglect (7 items, alpha=0.832); Social Isolation (5 items, alpha=0.890); Fear of Contagion (6 items, alpha=0.795); and Workplace Stigma (2 items, alpha=0.758). This article reports on the development and validation of a new measure of stigma, HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument - PLWA (HASI-P) providing evidence that supports adequate content and construct validity, modest concurrent validity, and acceptable internal consistency reliability for each of the six subscales and total score. The scale is available is several African languages.

  1. Urbanization in Africa since independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, J D

    1994-01-01

    Over 185 million inhabitants were added to the urban areas of Africa between 1950 and 1990. Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland is the most highly urbanized, with 55% in 1990; while less than a quarter of Eastern Africa's population is living in urban centers. By the year 2015 more than half of Africa's population will be living in urban areas. Many parts of Africa have suffered prolonged droughts, overgrazing, locust infestations, and desertification. Millions have become refugees from natural disasters, political oppression, and rural poverty. The large exodus from Africa's rural areas has gone to cities but the large cities have attracted disproportionately large numbers of destitute migrants. Alexandria (1 million), Cairo (2.4 million) and the Witwatersrand in South Africa were the only African urban agglomerations with at least one million inhabitants in 1950. By 1990 the two Egyptian cities together had 12.7 million inhabitants and the Witwatersrand some 5 million, whereas the other 25 urban agglomerations with a million inhabitants each in 1990 had a total population of about 51 million. Lagos, Kinshasa, and Algiers ranged from 3 to 7.7 million. The capitals are the largest cities in at least 54 of the 59 countries and territories. Lagos, Nairobi, and Dar es Salaam are disproportionately larger than the next most populous cities in their countries. The 28 urban agglomerations with at least one million inhabitants had a total population of 70 million in 1990, and are projected to reach 100 million in the year 2000. Overall, Africa's urban population is projected to increase by approximately 135 million in the 1990-2000 decade (from 217 million to 352 million). About 105 million of the growth probably will occur in the smaller urban centers. The total African urban population is likely to reach one billion inhabitants within the next 50 years. It stood at 32 million in 1950. Presently, the United Nations projects 912 million urban residents

  2. Oncoidal granular iron formation in the Mesoarchaean Pongola Supergroup, southern Africa: Textural and geochemical evidence for biological activity during iron deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A J B; Beukes, N J; Gutzmer, J; Czaja, A D; Johnson, C M; Nhleko, N

    2017-11-01

    We document the discovery of the first granular iron formation (GIF) of Archaean age and present textural and geochemical results that suggest these formed through microbial iron oxidation. The GIF occurs in the Nconga Formation of the ca. 3.0-2.8 Ga Pongola Supergroup in South Africa and Swaziland. It is interbedded with oxide and silicate facies micritic iron formation (MIF). There is a strong textural control on iron mineralization in the GIF not observed in the associated MIF. The GIF is marked by oncoids with chert cores surrounded by magnetite and calcite rims. These rims show laminated domal textures, similar in appearance to microstromatolites. The GIF is enriched in silica and depleted in Fe relative to the interbedded MIF. Very low Al and trace element contents in the GIF indicate that chemically precipitated chert was reworked above wave base into granules in an environment devoid of siliciclastic input. Microbially mediated iron precipitation resulted in the formation of irregular, domal rims around the chert granules. During storm surges, oncoids were transported and deposited in deeper water environments. Textural features, along with positive δ 56 Fe values in magnetite, suggest that iron precipitation occurred through incomplete oxidation of hydrothermal Fe 2+ by iron-oxidizing bacteria. The initial Fe 3+ -oxyhydroxide precipitates were then post-depositionally transformed to magnetite. Comparison of the Fe isotope compositions of the oncoidal GIF with those reported for the interbedded deeper water iron formation (IF) illustrates that the Fe 2+ pathways and sources for these units were distinct. It is suggested that the deeper water IF was deposited from the evolved margin of a buoyant Fe 2+ aq -rich hydrothermal plume distal to its source. In contrast, oncolitic magnetite rims of chert granules were sourced from ambient Fe 2+ aq -depleted shallow ocean water beyond the plume. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Does the distribution of healthcare utilization match needs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfrer, Igna; van de Poel, Ellen; Grimm, Michael; Van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2014-10-01

    An equitable distribution of healthcare use, distributed according to people's needs instead of ability to pay, is an important goal featuring on many health policy agendas worldwide. However, relatively little is known about the extent to which this principle is violated across socio-economic groups in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We examine cross-country comparative micro-data from 18 SSA countries and find that considerable inequalities in healthcare use exist and vary across countries. For almost all countries studied, healthcare utilization is considerably higher among the rich. When decomposing these inequalities we find that wealth is the single most important driver. In 12 of the 18 countries wealth is responsible for more than half of total inequality in the use of care, and in 8 countries wealth even explains more of the inequality than need, education, employment, marital status and urbanicity together. For the richer countries, notably Mauritius, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland, the contribution of wealth is typically less important. As the bulk of inequality is not related to need for care and poor people use less care because they do not have the ability to pay, healthcare utilization in these countries is to a large extent unfairly distributed. The weak average relationship between need for and use of health care and the potential reporting heterogeneity in self-reported health across socio-economic groups imply that our findings are likely to even underestimate actual inequities in health care. At a macro level, we find that a better match of needs and use is realized in those countries with better governance and more physicians. Given the absence of social health insurance in most of these countries, policies that aim to reduce inequities in access to and use of health care must include an enhanced capacity of the poor to generate income. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

  4. Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steve

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The baseline to assess impact of a mass education-entertainment programme offered an opportunity to identify risk factors for domestic physical violence. Methods In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence. Results 14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113 and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063 reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape. Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection. Conclusion Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.

  5. Earth observation in support of malaria control and epidemiology: MALAREO monitoring approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Jonas; Gebreslasie, Michael; Bauwens, Ides; Deleu, Julie; Siegert, Florian

    2015-06-03

    Malaria affects about half of the world's population, with the vast majority of cases occuring in Africa. National malaria control programmes aim to reduce the burden of malaria and its negative, socioeconomic effects by using various control strategies (e.g. vector control, environmental management and case tracking). Vector control is the most effective transmission prevention strategy, while environmental factors are the key parameters affecting transmission. Geographic information systems (GIS), earth observation (EO) and spatial modelling are increasingly being recognised as valuable tools for effective management and malaria vector control. Issues previously inhibiting the use of EO in epidemiology and malaria control such as poor satellite sensor performance, high costs and long turnaround times, have since been resolved through modern technology. The core goal of this study was to develop and implement the capabilities of EO data for national malaria control programmes in South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. High- and very high resolution (HR and VHR) land cover and wetland maps were generated for the identification of potential vector habitats and human activities, as well as geoinformation on distance to wetlands for malaria risk modelling, population density maps, habitat foci maps and VHR household maps. These products were further used for modelling malaria incidence and the analysis of environmental factors that favour vector breeding. Geoproducts were also transferred to the staff of national malaria control programmes in seven African countries to demonstrate how EO data and GIS can support vector control strategy planning and monitoring. The transferred EO products support better epidemiological understanding of environmental factors related to malaria transmission, and allow for spatio-temporal targeting of malaria control interventions, thereby improving the cost-effectiveness of interventions.

  6. Earth observation in support of malaria control and epidemiology: MALAREO monitoring approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Franke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria affects about half of the world’s population, with the vast majority of cases occuring in Africa. National malaria control programmes aim to reduce the burden of malaria and its negative, socioeconomic effects by using various control strategies (e.g. vector control, environmental management and case tracking. Vector control is the most effective transmission prevention strategy, while environmental factors are the key parameters affecting transmission. Geographic information systems (GIS, earth observation (EO and spatial modelling are increasingly being recognised as valuable tools for effective management and malaria vector control. Issues previously inhibiting the use of EO in epidemiology and malaria control such as poor satellite sensor performance, high costs and long turnaround times, have since been resolved through modern technology. The core goal of this study was to develop and implement the capabilities of EO data for national malaria control programmes in South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. High- and very high resolution (HR and VHR land cover and wetland maps were generated for the identification of potential vector habitats and human activities, as well as geoinformation on distance to wetlands for malaria risk modelling, population density maps, habitat foci maps and VHR household maps. These products were further used for modelling malaria incidence and the analysis of environmental factors that favour vector breeding. Geoproducts were also transferred to the staff of national malaria control programmes in seven African countries to demonstrate how EO data and GIS can support vector control strategy planning and monitoring. The transferred EO products support better epidemiological understanding of environmental factors related to malaria transmission, and allow for spatio-temporal targeting of malaria control interventions, thereby improving the cost-effectiveness of interventions.

  7. Bibliometric trends of health economic evaluation in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Villafuerte, Karla; Li, Ryan; Hofman, Karen J

    2016-08-24

    Collaboration between Sub-Saharan African researchers is important for the generation and transfer of health technology assessment (HTA) evidence, in order to support priority-setting in health. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate collaboration patterns between countries. We conducted a rapid evidence assessment that included a random sample of health economic evaluations carried out in 20 countries (Angola, Botswana, Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Uganda). We conducted bibliometric network analysis based on all first authors with a Sub-Saharan African academic affiliation and their co-authored publications ("network-articles"). Then we produced a connection map of collaboration patterns among Sub-Saharan African researchers, reflecting the number of network-articles and the country of affiliation of the main co-authors. The sample of 119 economic evaluations mostly related to treatments of communicable diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS (42/119, 35.29 %) and malaria (26/119, 21.85 %). The 39 first authors from Sub-Saharan African institutions together co-authored 729 network-articles. The network analysis showed weak collaboration between health economic researchers in Sub-Saharan Africa, with researchers being more likely to collaborate with Europe and North America than with other African countries. South Africa stood out as producing the highest number of health economic evaluations and collaborations. The development and evaluation of HTA research networks in Sub-Saharan Africa should be supported, with South Africa central to any such efforts. Organizations and institutions from high income countries interested in supporting priority setting in Sub-Saharan Africa should include promoting collaboration as part of their agendas, in order to take advantage of the potential transferability of results and methods of the

  8. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa: past, present and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Taha E

    2011-05-23

    HIV prevalence continues to be high among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2007 the HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics was >20% in the southern African counties of Botswana, Swaziland, South Africa and Lesotho. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV can occur in-utero, intrapartum or postnatally. Without any preventive measure the overall rate of the MTCT of HIV in breastfeeding women could be 25-45%. Prior to the discovery of successful antiretroviral interventions to prevent the MTCT of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (before 1999), innovative research determined the magnitude of the problem, the impact of the HIV epidemic on mothers and children, and the main risk factors associated with MTCT. Non-antiretroviral interventions conducted before 1999 such as washing the birth canal with antiseptics and antenatal supplementation with vitamin A did not reduce the MTCT of HIV. However, during the period 1999 to present, major successes were made in the prevention of the MTCT of HIV. The use of single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis to the mother and infant reduced the MTCT of HIV to ~12%. Subsequently, longer prophylaxis and combined antiretroviral regimens were shown to be highly effective and very low HIV transmission rates comparable to those in developed countries were reported in some clinical trial settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The future is promising but challenges remain. The current successful intervention modalities are entirely dependent on antiretrovirals and breastfeeding continues to be vital for the survival of the child in the African setting. Reviewing past and present achievements assists in focusing future research and development of prevention programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Practice of Transboundary Decision Making on the Incomati River: Elucidating Underlying Factors and their Implications for Institutional Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill H. Slinger

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Incomati River Basin is shared by Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland. In August 2002, the groundbreaking "Tripartite Interim Agreement on Water Sharing of the Maputo and Incomati Rivers" (the IncoMaputo agreement was signed. Following reports that the use, availability, and adequacy of information posed problems for future decision making on this transboundary river, the Delft University of Technology initiated a 6-month study in 2003 in which 25 southern African researchers and officials were interviewed. The Joint Incomati Basin Study (Phase I from 1992-1995, and Phase II from 2000-2001 formed a central component in the investigation, because it was viewed by the parties involved as a successful experience that paved the way for the IncoMaputo agreement. Knowledge of the role that information played in this process and how decision making occurred was collated and analyzed. Network theory provided the guiding theoretical framework in interpreting the results. A number of problems related to information use in decision making were identified. More importantly, a web of underlying causes was identified, such as cultural and language differences, differences in perception, inadequacy of stakeholder involvement, variability in political commitment, lack of capacity, absence of operational experience, the weak mandate of the international decision-making body, and the paradoxical South African-Mozambican relationship. Two groups of factors in this web were identified as needing to change if the management of this transboundary river is to comply with the IncoMaputo agreement, namely the situational or institutional factors and the cognitive factors (particularly the perceptions each country holds of the other and the way they treat one another. Our analysis shows that, contrary to current international practice, when designing international institutional arrangements for water management, the sociopolitical interface should be considered

  10. Using Nanomaterials to Solve Environmental Problems: Advancing the Science and Engineering of Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brame, Jonathon Andrew

    Photocatalysis is a process by which materials can transfer light energy into chemical energy in the form of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can then oxidize chemical and biological contaminants in water. Whereas photocatalysis offers the potential to treat many recalcitrant priority pollutants in a cost-effective manner, it has yet to become a viable, wide-spread treatment option due to implementation barriers that include limitations in treatment efficiency and relatively high costs of some photocatalytic material. This thesis seeks to increase the applicability and understanding of nanomaterial-enhanced photocatalytic oxidation processes to help overcome these barriers. Increased photocatalytic efficiency can be accomplished through informed choice of ROS-producing materials. For example, hydroxyl radicals are shown to be much more susceptible to hindrance by natural organic matter (NOM), phosphate and wastewater treatment plant effluent than 1O 2, which is only slightly inhibited by NOM and not by phosphate or wastewater effluent. Additionally, a novel crystallization mechanism for photocatalytic TiO2 nanotubes enabled photo-production of multiple ROS types. This "cocktail" of reactive oxygen species contributed to increased efficiency. Novel applications for nanotechnology-enhanced photocatalysis were demonstrated at the lab scale. These include (1) photocatalytic pre-treatment of weathered oil from the 2010 Gulf oil spill, which increased soluble organic carbon content (indicative of increased bioavailability) by 60% and enhanced subsequent biodegradation by 37%; and (2) a water disinfection case study in rural Swaziland, which produced a prototype fluidized bed photoreactor capable of removing 99.9% of bacteria and viruses in 60 cycles), and utilization of less-purified starting materials (>90% cost reduction) highlight possible ways to reduce the cost of nanomaterial photocatalysis. By reducing financial implementation barriers, defining niches where

  11. Alien plant invasions--incorporating emerging invaders in regional prioritization: a pragmatic approach for Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgidi, Theresa N; Le Maitre, David C; Schonegevel, Lucille; Nel, Jeanne L; Rouget, Mathieu; Richardson, David M

    2007-07-01

    Plant invasions are a serious threat to natural and semi-natural ecosystems worldwide. Most management-orientated research on invasions focuses on invaders that are already widespread and often have major impacts. This paper deals with "emerging" invaders-those alien species with the potential to become important problems without timely intervention. A climate matching procedure was developed to define areas of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland that could be invaded by 28 plant species that had previously been classified as emerging invaders. Information on the location of populations of these species in the study area was combined with information on their distributions (as native or alien) in parts of Australia and the United States of America. These two countries had the best available distribution data for this study. They also share many invasive alien plant species with South Africa. Climatic data obtained for weather stations near points of known occurrence in these countries were used to define the climatically suitable areas for each species in the study area. Almost 80% of the remaining natural environment in southern Africa was found to be vulnerable to invasion by at least one of these species, 50% by six or more and 24% by 16 or more species. The most vulnerable areas are the highveld grasslands and the eastern escarpment. The emerging invaders with the greatest potential range included Acacia podalyriifolia and Cortaderia selloana. The globally important invaders Ulex europaeus and Lythrum salicaria had a more limited invasion potential but could still become major invaders. There was no relationship between the extent of the climatically suitable areas for the different species and an expert ranking of their invasion potential, emphasising the uncertainties inherent in making expert assessments based on very little information. The methods used in this analysis establish a protocol for future modelling exercises to assess the invasion potential of

  12. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  13. A molecular phylogeny of Afromontane dwarf geckos (Lygodactylus) reveals a single radiation and increased species diversity in a South African montane center of endemism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Scott L; Jackman, Todd R; Bauer, Aaron M

    2014-11-01

    Afromontane habitats throughout eastern sub-Saharan Africa support remarkable levels of microendemism. However, despite being the subject of decades of research interest, biogeographical patterns of diversification throughout this disjunct montane system still remain largely unknown. We examined the evolutionary relationships of diurnal dwarf geckos (Lygodactylus) from several Afromontane regions throughout southeastern Africa, focusing primarily on two species groups (rex and bonsi groups). Using both mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we generate a molecular phylogeny containing all members of the rex and bonsi groups, to evaluate the monophyly of these groups along with previous biogeographic hypotheses suggesting independent southward invasions into the greater Drakensberg Afromontane center of endemism in northeastern South Africa by each group. Our results provide no support for these taxonomic and biogeographic hypotheses, and instead reveal geographically circumscribed patterns of diversification. One clade is restricted to the highlands of southern Malawi and northern Mozambique and the other to the greater Drakensberg region of northeastern South Africa and Swaziland. Interestingly, L. bernardi from the Nyanga Highlands of eastern Zimbabwe is nested within the primarily savanna-dwelling capensis group. We use Bayesian species delimitation methods to evaluate species limits within the greater Drakensberg clade, which support the elevation of the subspecies of L. ocellatus and L. nigropunctatus, thus bringing the total to eight species within a relatively confined geographic area. These results further highlight the greater Drakensberg Afromontane region as both an important center of endemism, as well as a center of diversification contributing to the accumulation of southern Africa's rich species diversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Amelioration of iron mine soils with biosolids: Effects on plant tissue metal content and earthworms.

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    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The achievement of environmentally sound and economically feasible disposal strategies for biosolids is a major issue in the wastewater treatment industry around the world, including Swaziland. Currently, an iron ore mine site, which is located within a wildlife sanctuary, is being considered as a suitable place where controlled disposal of biosolids may be practiced. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of urban biosolids on iron mine soils with regard to plant metal content and ecotoxicological effects on earthworms. This was done through chemical analysis of plants grown in biosolid-amended mine soil. Earthworm behaviour, reproduction and bioaccumulation tests were also conducted on biosolid-amended mine soil. According to the results obtained, the use of biosolids led to creation of soil conditions that were generally favourable to earthworms. However, plants were found to have accumulated Zn up to 346 mg kg -1 (in shoots) and 462 mg kg -1 (in roots). This was more than double the normal Zn content of plants. It was concluded that while biosolids can be beneficial to mine soils and earthworms, they can also lead to elevated metal content in plant tissues, which might be a concern to plant-dependant wildlife species. Nonetheless, it was not possible to satisfactorily estimate risks to forage quality since animal feeding tests with hyperaccumulator plants have not been reported. Quite possibly, there may be no cause for alarm since the uptake of metals from soil is greater in plants grown in pots in the greenhouse than from the same soil in the field since pot studies fail to mimic field conditions where the soil is heterogeneous and where the root system possesses a complex topology. It was thought that further field trials might assist in arriving at more satisfactory conclusions.

  15. South-South Cooperation in health professional education: A literature review

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    L du toit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the literature on the evolution of funding approaches there is criticism of traditional funding strategies and the promotion of inclusive models, such as South-South Cooperation (SSC and triangular models. The latter are felt to have a number of advantages. This article has four broad objectives: (i to present a literature review on the evolution of Southern approaches to development co-operation; (ii to indicate examples of current co-operative programmes in health and health professional education in Africa; (iii to assess the advantages and disadvantages of these models; and (iv to mention some emerging issues in monitoring and evaluation. The Boolean logic approach was used to search for applicable literature within three topic layers. Searches were conducted using PubMed, PLoS and other accessible databases. An initial draft of the article was presented to a group of academics and researchers at the Flemish Inter-University Council (VLIR-UOS-Primafamed annual workshop held in August 2010 in Swaziland. Comments and suggestions from the group were included in later versions of the article. It is important to note that the existence of various funding models implemented by a variety of actors makes it difficult to measure their effects. In health and health professional education, however, SSC and triangular models of aid provide conditions for more effective programming through their focus on participation and long-term involvement. With an eye towards evaluating programmes, a number of salient issues are emerging. The importance of context is highlighted.

  16. The second Southern African Bird Atlas Project: Causes and consequences of geographical sampling bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Sanet; Altwegg, Res

    2017-09-01

    Using the Southern African Bird Atlas Project (SABAP2) as a case study, we examine the possible determinants of spatial bias in volunteer sampling effort and how well such biased data represent environmental gradients across the area covered by the atlas. For each province in South Africa, we used generalized linear mixed models to determine the combination of variables that explain spatial variation in sampling effort (number of visits per 5' × 5' grid cell, or "pentad"). The explanatory variables were distance to major road and exceptional birding locations or "sampling hubs," percentage cover of protected, urban, and cultivated area, and the climate variables mean annual precipitation, winter temperatures, and summer temperatures. Further, we used the climate variables and plant biomes to define subsets of pentads representing environmental zones across South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. For each environmental zone, we quantified sampling intensity, and we assessed sampling completeness with species accumulation curves fitted to the asymptotic Lomolino model. Sampling effort was highest close to sampling hubs, major roads, urban areas, and protected areas. Cultivated area and the climate variables were less important. Further, environmental zones were not evenly represented by current data and the zones varied in the amount of sampling required representing the species that are present. SABAP2 volunteers' preferences in birding locations cause spatial bias in the dataset that should be taken into account when analyzing these data. Large parts of South Africa remain underrepresented, which may restrict the kind of ecological questions that may be addressed. However, sampling bias may be improved by directing volunteers toward undersampled regions while taking into account volunteer preferences.

  17. Lessons from Africa: developing a global human rights framework for tuberculosis control and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, Tracy; Ben Youssef, Mehdi; Calonge, Golda; Ben Amor, Yanis

    2014-12-03

    Tuberculosis is a highly contagious disease, and there has been a rise in recent years of drug-resistant cases no longer responding to standard treatment. In order to address this threat and contain possible transmission of drug-resistant cases, some countries have taken strong action, including the compulsory detention of non-adherent drug-resistant patients. These measures have been strongly criticized by human rights advocates, and they raise the question of how to legally protect both citizens and the community. Following discussions with National Tuberculosis Programs in Africa (the continent with the highest incidence rates of tuberculosis worldwide), we show that of all the countries surveyed, all but one (Swaziland) had either no specific policy addressing tuberculosis, or only general policies regarding public health applicable to tuberculosis. Six countries also reported having policies that address non-adherence to treatment with containment (isolation in health facilities or incarceration), but laws are not adequately enforced. If the international community wants to effectively respond to the threat of tuberculosis transmission, there is a need to go beyond national tuberculosis policies and to implement an international framework for tuberculosis control, inspired by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, a key model for future public health treaties that address global burdens of disease. The framework, for which we clarify the conditions and procedures in this piece, would define the rights and responsibilities of the different stakeholders involved: patients, doctors, pharmaceutical firms and public authorities. To facilitate the governance of the national obligations under the Convention, a coordinating body should be set up, under the leadership of the World Health Organization and the Stop TB Partnership. Successfully implementing policies for tuberculosis that simultaneously address patients' rights and communities' wellbeing will have

  18. Comparative analysis of old-age mortality estimations in Africa.

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    Eran Bendavid

    Full Text Available Survival to old ages is increasing in many African countries. While demographic tools for estimating mortality up to age 60 have improved greatly, mortality patterns above age 60 rely on models based on little or no demographic data. These estimates are important for social planning and demographic projections. We provide direct estimations of older-age mortality using survey data.Since 2005, nationally representative household surveys in ten sub-Saharan countries record counts of living and recently deceased household members: Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Namibia, Nigeria, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. After accounting for age heaping using multiple imputation, we use this information to estimate probability of death in 5-year intervals ((5q(x. We then compare our (5q(x estimates to those provided by the World Health Organization (WHO and the United Nations Population Division (UNPD to estimate the differences in mortality estimates, especially among individuals older than 60 years old.We obtained information on 505,827 individuals (18.4% over age 60, 1.64% deceased. WHO and UNPD mortality models match our estimates closely up to age 60 (mean difference in probability of death -1.1%. However, mortality probabilities above age 60 are lower using our estimations than either WHO or UNPD. The mean difference between our sample and the WHO is 5.9% (95% CI 3.8-7.9% and between our sample is UNPD is 13.5% (95% CI 11.6-15.5%. Regardless of the comparator, the difference in mortality estimations rises monotonically above age 60.Mortality estimations above age 60 in ten African countries exhibit large variations depending on the method of estimation. The observed patterns suggest the possibility that survival in some African countries among adults older than age 60 is better than previously thought. Improving the quality and coverage of vital information in developing countries will become increasingly important with

  19. HIV prevention in favour of the choice-disabled in southern Africa: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

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    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Thabane, Lehana; Marokoane, Nobantu; Laetsang, Ditiro; Masisi, Mokgweetsi

    2013-08-29

    Most HIV prevention strategies assume beneficiaries can act on their prevention decisions. But some people are unable to do so. They are 'choice-disabled'. Economic and educational interventions can reduce sexual violence, but there is less evidence that they can reduce HIV. There is little research on complex interventions in HIV prevention, yet all countries in southern Africa implement combination prevention programmes. The primary objective is to reduce HIV infections among women aged 15 to 29 years. Secondary objectives are reduction in gender violence and improvement in HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices among youth aged 15 to 29 years.A random sample of 77 census enumeration areas in three countries (Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland) was allocated randomly to three interventions, alone or in combination, in a factorial design stratified by country, HIV rates (above or below average for country), and urban/rural location. A baseline survey of youth aged 15 to 29 years provided cluster specific rates of HIV. All clusters continue existing prevention efforts and have a baseline and follow-up survey. Cluster is the unit of allocation, intervention and analysis, using generalised estimating equations, on an intention-to-treat basis.One intervention discusses evidence about choice disability with local HIV prevention services, to help them to serve the choice-disabled. Another discusses an eight-episode audio-docudrama with community groups, of all ages and both sexes, to generate endogenous strategies to reduce gender violence and develop an enabling environment. A third supports groups of women aged 18 to 25 years to build self-esteem and life skills and to set up small enterprises to generate income.A survey in all clusters after 3 years will measure outcomes, with interviewers unaware of group assignment of the clusters. The primary outcome is HIV infection in women aged 15 to 29 years. Secondary outcomes in youth aged 15 to 29 years are gender

  20. Groundwater quality characterization to protect biodiversity in SADC region (Southern African Development Community

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    Stefania Vitale

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The following paper describes the first phase of a study held in the context of the SECOSUD Phase II project, called “Conservation and equitable use of biological diversity in the SADC region (Southern African Development Community, which aims at promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable economic development in the SADC [1]. The Southern African Development Community (SADC is an inter-governmental organization, with 15 member states: Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Mauritius, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Madagascar, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Its aim is to increase socio-economic cooperation and integration among the community. It is one of the richest area in terms of biodiversity. The main goal of the Project is to contribute to stop biodiversity loss by supporting the development of conservation strategies. Biodiversity or biological diversity is formally defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD as: “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, among others, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems” (UN 1992 Article 2 [2]. Biodiversity is affected by the interaction of multiple drivers and pressures including demographic, economic, socio-political, scientific and technological ones, which are leading to further decline, degradation and loss. The principal pressures on biodiversity include habitat loss and degradation, overexploitation, alien invasive species, climate change and pollution. These pressures are continuing to increase. To use biodiversity and to keep it in a sustainable way, it is necessary to study it, assess its economic value, develop a global strategy and a global network to monitor its status in the biosphere. An important step in developing conservation of biodiversity

  1. Women, customary law and equality: lessons from research in southern Africa.

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    Armstrong, A

    1994-03-01

    The Women and Law in Southern Africa Research Project (WSLA) has concluded, after 6 years of study in Zimbabwe, Zambia, Swaziland, Mozambique, Lesotho, and Botswana, that the deconstruction of customary law rather than an emphasis on the concept of equality represents the most promising strategy for producing justice for women. An historical analysis indicates that customary law was, before colonialism, a family-centered, flexible system of law that favored the negotiation and settlement of disputes rather than a rigid state-centered application of a rule. Traditionally, the unifying value base of customary law was preservation of the family and protection of women and children. Marriage was viewed as a joint partnership rather than a guardian-minor relationship. Polygyny, which today constitutes a source of female subordination, was originally developed to provide the protection of marriage to women at a time when there were not enough men to go around and an unmarried woman was vulnerable. Moreover, under true customary law, family property was the norm and widows remained on the land. The responsiveness of true customary law to changing socioeconomic conditions is illustrated by the newly developed practice of Chiefs in Botswana to allow women to speak and represent themselves in court; another example is the Chief's modification of seduction damages law to stipulate payment directly to the young mother rather than to her parents. After the introduction of colonialism, customary law was reconstructed to serve the political interests of capital; even now, post-independence governments use the law as a tool to oppress women. WLSA research suggests that an emphasis on gender-neutral, equality-based laws and statutes can lead to the further oppression of women. For example, such laws have made unemployed divorced women responsible for the maintenance of their ex-husband, and could be used to promote women, as well as men, having several spouses. Needed instead is an

  2. Improving skills and institutional capacity to strengthen adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in African countries through HPV vaccine introduction

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    Carine Dochez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several African countries have recently introduced or are currently introducing the HPV vaccine, either nationwide or through demonstration projects, while some countries are planning for introduction. A collaborative project was developed to strengthen country adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in the African Region, addressing unique public health considerations of HPV vaccination: adolescents as the primary target group, delivery platforms (e.g. school-based and facility based, socio-behavioural issues, and the opportunity to deliver other health interventions alongside HPV vaccination.Following a successful “taking-stock” meeting, a training programme was drafted to assist countries to strengthen the integration of adolescent health interventions using HPV vaccination as an entry point. Two workshops were conducted in the Eastern and Southern African Regions. All countries reported on progress made during a final joint symposium.Of the 20 countries invited to participate in either of the workshops and/or final symposium, 17 countries participated: Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Countries that are currently implementing HPV vaccination programmes, either nationally or through demonstration projects, reported varying degrees of integration with other adolescent health interventions. The most commonly reported adolescent health interventions alongside HPV vaccination include health education (including sexually transmitted infections, deworming and delivering of other vaccines like tetanus toxoid (TT or tetanus diphtheria (Td.The project has successfully (a established an African-based network that will advocate for incorporating the HPV vaccine into national immunisation programmes; (b created a platform for experience exchange and thereby contributed to novel ideas of

  3. Systematic review of strategies to increase access to health services among children over five in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Tess; Felix, Lambert; Kuper, Hannah; Polack, Sarah

    2018-05-01

    The populations of many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are young. Despite progress made towards achieving Universal Health Coverage and remarkable health gains, evidence suggests that many children in LMIC are still not accessing needed healthcare services. Delayed or lack of access to health services can lead to a worsening of health and can in turn negatively impact a child's ability to attend school, and future employment opportunities. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at increasing access to health services for children over 5 years in LMIC settings. Four electronic databases were searched in March 2017. Studies were included if they evaluated interventions that aimed to increase: healthcare utilisation, immunisation uptake and compliance with medication/referral. Randomised controlled trials and non-randomised study designs were included in the review. Data extraction included study characteristics, intervention type and measures of access to health services for children above 5 years of age. Study outcomes were classified as positive, negative, mixed or null in terms of their impact on access outcomes. Ten studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Interventions were evaluated in Nicaragua (1), Brazil (1), Turkey (1), India (1), China (1), Uganda (1), Ghana (1), Nigeria (1), South Africa (1) and Swaziland (1). Intervention types included education (2), incentives (1), outreach (1), SMS/phone call reminders (2) and multicomponent interventions (4). All evaluations reported positive findings on measured health access outcomes; however, the quality and strength of evidence were mixed. This review provides evidence of the range of interventions that were used to increase healthcare access for children above 5 years old in LMIC. Nevertheless, further research is needed to examine each of the identified intervention types and the influence of contextual factors, with robust study designs. There

  4. What explains gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

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    Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Heymann, S Jody; Brewer, Timothy F; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-11-03

    Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary across countries and require country-specific interventions to address them. This study aimed to identify the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in 21 SSA countries. We applied an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to data from Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to quantify the differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men attributable to socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. We decomposed gender inequalities into two components: the percentage attributable to different levels of the risk factors between women and men (the "composition effect") and the percentage attributable to risk factors having differential effects on HIV/AIDS prevalence in women and men (the "response effect"). Descriptive analyses showed that the difference between women and men in HIV/AIDS prevalence varied from a low of 0.68 % (P = 0.008) in Liberia to a high of 11.5 % (P distributions of HIV/AIDS risk factors, particularly age at first sex between women and men. In the majority of countries, however, observed gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS were chiefly explained by differences in the responses to risk factors; the differential effects of age, marital status and occupation on prevalence of HIV/AIDS for women and men were among the significant contributors to this component. In Cameroon, Guinea, Malawi and Swaziland, a combination of the composition and response effects explained gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The factors that explain gender inequality in HIV/AIDS in SSA vary by country, suggesting that country-specific interventions are needed. Unmeasured factors also contributed substantially to the difference in HIV

  5. Financing the HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa from domestic sources: Moving beyond a normative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remme, Michelle; Siapka, Mariana; Sterck, Olivier; Ncube, Mthuli; Watts, Charlotte; Vassall, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Despite optimism about the end of AIDS, the HIV response requires sustained financing into the future. Given flat-lining international aid, countries' willingness and ability to shoulder this responsibility will be central to access to HIV care. This paper examines the potential to expand public HIV financing, and the extent to which governments have been utilising these options. We develop and compare a normative and empirical approach. First, with data from the 14 most HIV-affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa, we estimate the potential increase in public HIV financing from economic growth, increased general revenue generation, greater health and HIV prioritisation, as well as from more unconventional and innovative sources, including borrowing, health-earmarked resources, efficiency gains, and complementary non-HIV investments. We then adopt a novel empirical approach to explore which options are most likely to translate into tangible public financing, based on cross-sectional econometric analyses of 92 low and middle-income country governments' most recent HIV expenditure between 2008 and 2012. If all fiscal sources were simultaneously leveraged in the next five years, public HIV spending in these 14 countries could increase from US$3.04 to US$10.84 billion per year. This could cover resource requirements in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Kenya, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Swaziland, but not even half the requirements in the remaining countries. Our empirical results suggest that, in reality, even less fiscal space could be created (a reduction by over half) and only from more conventional sources. International financing may also crowd in public financing. Most HIV-affected lower-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa will not be able to generate sufficient public resources for HIV in the medium-term, even if they take very bold measures. Considerable international financing will be required for years to come. HIV funders will need to engage with broader

  6. Pioneering new approaches. Educating girls in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namuddu, K

    1993-01-01

    In Africa, the education of girls has varied with the history and development of countries. For instance, botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have higher enrollment of girls than boys, and in Nigeria the dropout rate for boys is higher than for girls. In Mozambique, girl's education is dependent on matrilineal or patrilineal family structure, urban or rural location, or religious preference. These and many other factors interfere with girl's access, survival, performance, and achievement in school. Strategies generally involve 1) improving access and increasing enrollment, 2) increasing survival in the school system, and 3) improving the quality of the learning environment. Most African countries are involved with the first strategy, but problems remain in selecting the appropriate age to begin school, retaining students and teachers, lowering absenteeism, providing adequate and appropriate teaching materials for students, and other factors that discourage female attendance. Solutions have involved establishing book banks and cardboard box libraries as a supplement to classroom learning. Gender stereotypes in curriculum materials are being introduced which show females in a positive and prominent way. In Zambia, an in-service training program aims to develop positive teacher attitudes toward girls, toward their work, and toward pupil's work. Program efforts in Kenya are attempting to educate parents about the importance of keeping their daughters in school, and about issues related to population, health, education, and a healthy environment. Traditional practices such as female circumcision, childhood marriages, early pregnancy, and nutritional taboos are discouraged. There are 43 district coordinators who conduct seminars and workshops to spread information to communities and households. Other countries are engaged in village meetings and workshops to persuade parents to examine their own interpersonal interaction with their daughters and the impact on their

  7. Coexistence of enriched and modern-like 142Nd signatures in Archean igneous rocks of the eastern Kaapvaal Craton, southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kathrin P.; Hoffmann, J. Elis; Boyet, Maud; Münker, Carsten; Kröner, Alfred

    2018-04-01

    The short-lived 146Sm-142Nd isotope system is an important tool for tracing Hadean crust-mantle differentiation processes and constraining their imprint on much younger rocks from Archean cratons. We report the first comprehensive set of high-precision 142Nd analyses for granitoids and amphibolites of the Ancient Gneiss Complex (AGC; Swaziland) and the oldest metavolcanic units of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB; South Africa). The investigated samples span an age range from 3.66 Ga to 3.22 Ga and are representative of major geological units of the AGC and the lower Onverwacht Group of the BGB. Measured samples yielded μ142Nd values in the range from -8 ppm to +3 ppm relative to the JNdi-1 terrestrial standard, with typical errors smaller than 4.4 ppm. The distribution of the μ142Nd values for these 17 measured samples is bimodal with ten samples showing a tendency towards slightly negative μ142Nd anomalies, whereas seven samples have 142Nd similar to the terrestrial reference. The only confidently resolvable μ142Nd anomalies were found in a 3.44 Ga Ngwane Gneiss sample and in amphibolites of the ca. 3.45 Ga Dwalile Greenstone Remnant, revealing μ142Nd values ranging from - 7.9 ± 4.4 to - 6.1 ± 4.3 ppm. The μ142Nd deficits do not correlate with age, lithological unit, or sample locality. Instead, our results reveal that two distinct mantle domains were involved in the formation of the AGC crust. The two reservoirs can be distinguished by their μ142Nd signatures. Mantle-derived rocks tapped the enriched reservoir with negative μ142Nd at least until 3.46 Ga, whereas the granitoids preserved a negative μ142Nd signature that formed by incorporation of older AGC crust at least until 3.22 Ga. The oldest gneisses with no μ142Nd anomaly are up to 3.64 Ga in age, indicating that a modern terrestrial 142Nd reservoir was already present by early Archean times.

  8. A circulação interna de mercadorias no território moçambicano: um país sobre rodas

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    Antonio Gomes de Jesus Neto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Moçambique é historicamente conhecido por ser um território voltado ao seu exterior, tanto por escoar a produção da hinterland da África Austral (como seus vizinhos África do Sul, Suazilândia, Zimbabwe e Malawi, como pelo antigo direcionamento da economia do país para a exportação da produção interna. Ainda que o atual modelo dos chamados “mega projetos” continue a estimular essa lógica extravertida, desde a independência do país, em 1975, o governo moçambicano vem reunindo esforços na tentativa de integrar seu território e configurar uma economia eminentemente nacional. Tal tarefa cabe, no que tange à circulação de mercadorias, ao modal rodoviário, através de inúmeras rodovias (quase nunca pavimentadas, de instrumentos normativos e instituições regulatórias voltados ao transporte rodoviário de cargas, e de diferentes operadores de transporte (desde empresas até motoristas autônomos e transportadores informais. Assim, com base na proposta de Milton Santos de compreender o espaço geográfico a partir de suas dimensões técnicas e político-normativas, este artigo busca fornecer um quadro atualizado da circulação interna de mercadorias em Moçambique. Abstract THE INTERNAL CIRCULATION OF GOODS IN MOZAMBICAN TERRITORY: A COUNTRY ON WHEELS Mozambique is historically known for being a territory turned to its exterior, both because it drains the Southern African inner production (especially its neighbors South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe and Malawi and because its economy has long been directed to the exportation of its domestic production. Even though the current “megaprojects” model stills follows this extraverted logic, since the country’s independence in 1975 the Mozambican government has been making an effort to integrate the territory and set up a national economy. When it comes to the circulation of goods, this task depends on road transport by means of numerous roads (mostly unpaved, normative

  9. Religious and cultural traits in HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

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    Velayati, Ali-Akbar; Bakayev, Valerii; Bahadori, Moslem; Tabatabaei, Seyed-Javad; Alaei, Arash; Farahbood, Amir; Masjedi, Mohammad-Reza

    2007-10-01

    prevalence range from 1.9% to 7%. Albeit being traced by origin to the central part of the continent, HIV has reached the highest rates in the South, particularly Malawi (14.2%), Zambia (16.5%), South Africa (21.5%), Zimbabwe (24.6%), Lesotho (28.9%), Botswana (37.3%), and Swaziland (38.8%)-all former British colonies with dominating Christian population. In the group ranking list, a distinct North to South oriented incline in HIV rates related to prevailing religion and previous colonial history of the country was found, endorsing the preventive role of the Islam against rising HIV and the increased vulnerability to menace in states with particular colonial record.

  10. Global oral inequalities in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challacombe, S J

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection globally reveal striking variances with regard to continent, country, region and gender. Of the global total of 33 million people infected with HIV, approximately 65% are in sub-Saharan African countries and 15% in South and South-East Asia with the remaining 20% spread over the rest of the world. As a percentage of the population, the Caribbean at 1.1% is second only to sub-Saharan Africa (5.5%). The majority of the world's HIV is in women. Deaths from HIV are twenty-fold greater in Africa than in Europe or the USA. Individual countries in sub-Saharan Africa show huge variances in the HIV+ prevalence with most West African countries having a rate of less than 2% whilst southern African countries including Swaziland and Botswana have rates of around 25%. Environment, education and social habits all contribute to the HIV infection rates. Similar variations between countries are seen in SE Asia with Cambodia and Papua New Guinea having rates three times greater than Pakistan. One of the most striking examples of inequality is in life years added to HIV populations as a result of antiretroviral therapy. UN AIDS figures over 1996-2008 suggest an average of 2.88 added years in the USA and Europe, but only 0.1 in sub-Saharan Africa, a thirty-fold difference largely due to accessibility to ART. ART leads to a reduction in oral lesions but it is estimated that some 10 million HIV+ subjects do not have access to oral care. Thus, inequalities exist both for HIV infection and for the associated oral lesions, mainly related to ART access. HIV infection and oral mucosal lesions both appear to be related to general social determinants of health. Oral HCW must be part of mainstream healthcare teams to address these inequalities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genetic monitoring detects an overlooked cryptic species and reveals the diversity and distribution of three invasive Rattus congeners in south Africa

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    van Hooft Pim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa's long and extensive trade activity has ensured ample opportunities for exotic species introduction. Whereas the rich biodiversity of endemic southern African fauna has been the focus of many studies, invasive vertebrates are generally overlooked despite potential impacts on biodiversity, health and agriculture. Genetic monitoring of commensal rodents in South Africa which uncovered the presence of Rattus tanezumi, a South-East Asian endemic not previously known to occur in Africa, provided the impetus for expanded studies on all invasive Rattus species present. Results To this end, intensified sampling at 28 South African localities and at one site in Swaziland, identified 149 Rattus specimens. Cytochrome b gene sequencing revealed the presence of two R. tanezumi, seven Rattus rattus and five Rattus norvegicus haplotypes in south Africa. Phylogenetic results were consistent with a single, recent R. tanezumi introduction and indicated that R. norvegicus and R. rattus probably became established following at least two and three independent introductions, respectively. Intra- and inter-specific diversity was highest in informal human settlements, with all three species occurring at a single metropolitan township site. Rattus norvegicus and R. rattus each occurred sympatrically with Rattus tanezumi at one and five sites, respectively. Karyotyping of selected R. rattus and R. tanezumi individuals identified diploid numbers consistent with those reported previously for these cryptic species. Ordination of bioclimatic variables and MaxEnt ecological niche modelling confirmed that the bioclimatic niche occupied by R. tanezumi in south Africa was distinct from that occupied in its naturalised range in south-east Asia suggesting that factors other than climate may influence the distribution of this species. Conclusions This study has highlighted the value of genetic typing for detecting cryptic invasive species, providing

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from the Demographic Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extant studies universally document a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. A notable exception is the apparent concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals. This paper uses data from the Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 24 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the region that accounts for two-thirds of the global HIV/AIDS burden. Methods The relative and generalized concentration indices (RC and GC) were used to quantify wealth-based socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence for the total adult population (aged 15-49), for men and women, and in urban and rural areas in each country. Further, we decomposed the RC and GC indices to identify the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in each country. Results Our findings demonstrated that HIV/AIDS was concentrated among higher SES individuals in the majority of SSA countries. Swaziland and Senegal were the only countries in the region where HIV/AIDS was concentrated among individuals living in poorer households. Stratified analyses by gender showed HIV/AIDS was generally concentrated among wealthier men and women. In some countries, including Kenya, Lesotho Uganda, and Zambia, HIV/AIDS was concentrated among the poor in urban areas but among wealthier adults in rural areas. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides wealth itself (median = 49%, interquartile range [IQR] = 90%), urban residence (median = 54%, IQR = 81%) was the most important factor contributing to the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier participants in SSA countries. Conclusions Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms explaining the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals and urban residents in SSA. Higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be indicative of better care and survival among wealthier individuals and urban adults, or reflect

  13. HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Benjamin; Diouf, Daouda; Ceesay, Nuha; Mothopeng, Tampose; Odette, Ky-Zerbo; Kouanda, Seni; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Simplice, Anato; Kouame, Abo; Trapence, Gift; van der Merwe, L. Leigh Ann; Jumbe, Vicente; Baral, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. Methods and findings Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment. Data collection took place at 14 sites across 8 countries: Burkina Faso (January–August 2013), Côte d’Ivoire (March 2015–February 2016), The Gambia (July–December 2011), Lesotho (February–September 2014), Malawi (July 2011–March 2012), Senegal (February–November 2015), Swaziland (August–December 2011), and Togo (January–June 2013). Surveys gathered information on sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, mental health, sexual behavior, and HIV testing. Rapid tests for HIV were conducted. Data were merged, and mixed effects logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between gender identity and HIV infection. Among 4,586 participants assigned male sex at birth, 937 (20%) identified as transgender or female, and 3,649 were cis-MSM. The mean age of study participants was approximately 24 years, with no difference between transgender participants and cis-MSM. Compared to cis-MSM participants, transgender women were more likely to experience family exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.42–2.16, p HIV (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.49–2.19, p HIV prevalence was 25% (235/926) in transgender women and 14% (505/3,594) in cis-MSM. When adjusted for age, condomless receptive anal sex, depression, interpersonal stigma, law enforcement stigma, and violence, and the interaction of gender with condomless receptive anal sex, the odds of HIV infection for transgender women were 2.2 times greater

  14. Systematics of Old World Odontacolus Kieffer s.l. (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l.: parasitoids of spider eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Valerio

    2013-07-01

    . (Madagascar, O. mayri Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Indonesia, Thailand, O. mot Valerio & Austin sp. n. (India, O. noyesi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (India, Indonesia, O. pintoi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, O. schlingeri Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Fiji, O. sharkeyi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Thailand, O. veroae Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Fiji, O. wallacei Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia, Indonesia, Malawi, Papua New Guinea, O. whitfieldi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (China, India, Indonesia, Sulawesi, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, O. zborowskii Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Australia, and O. zimi Valerio & Austin sp. n. (Madagascar. In addition, all species of Cyphacolus are here transferred to Odontacolus: O. asheri (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (Sri Lanka, O. axfordi (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (Australia, O. bhowaliensis (Mani & Mukerjee comb. n. (India, O. bouceki (Austin & Iqbal comb. n. (Australia, O. copelandi (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (Kenya, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Thailand, O. diazae (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (Kenya, O. harteni (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (Yemen, Ivory Coast, Paskistan, O. jenningsi (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (Australia, O. leblanci (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (Guinea, O. lucianae (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (Ivory Coast, Madagascar, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, O. normani (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (India, United Arab Emirates, O. sallyae (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (Australia, O. tessae (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (Australia, O. tullyae (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (Australia, O. veniprivus (Priesner comb. n. (Egypt, and O. watshami (Valerio, Masner & Austin comb. n. (Africa, Madagascar. Two species of Odontacolus are transferred to the genus Idris Förster: I. longispinosus (Girault comb. n. and I. amoenus (Kononova comb. n., and O. doddi Austin syn. n. is placed as a junior synonym of O. spinosus (Dodd. Odontacolus markadicus, previously only

  15. South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  16. EKONOMİK ÖZGÜRLÜKLERDEKİ YAKINSAMANIN HALDANE-HALL YAKLAŞIMI İLE ÖLÇÜMÜ (THE MEASUREMENT OF CONVERGENCE OF ECONOMIC FREEDOMS WITH HALDANE-HALL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merter AKINCI

    2014-04-01

    developing and underdeveloped countries came closer to developed countries in terms of economic freedom is analysed with a new method that is Haldane-Hall Convergence Analysis. The outcomes of Haldane-Hall Convergence Analysis revealed that the economic liberation processes of Argentina, Belarus, Bolivia, Bulgaria, China, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, India, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Romania, Senegal, Thailand and Turkey converged to developed countries, on the other hand, in Republic of Congo, Ghana, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Moldova, Morocco, Sudan, Swaziland, Vietnam, Yemen, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Guinea, Madagascar, Mali, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Uganda, the concept of divergence in terms of economic freedom became a current issue. Keywords: Economic Freedom, Convergence, Haldane-Hall Approach.

  17. Magmatism and Tectonics in the Meso-Archean Pongola Supergroup, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Allan

    2013-04-01

    The Pongola Supergroup is one of the most extensive and well preserved volcano-sedimentary successions emplaced in a continental setting in the Meso-Archean (c. 2.95 Ga). It contrasts with both the older (Barberton type c.3.5 Ga) and younger (Belingwe type c.2.7 Ga) greenstone belts in southern Africa in that the sequence has not undergone the strong horizontal compressional tectonics typically related to greenstone belt-TTG environments. However, it is appropriate to compare this sequence with rocks of the Barberton greenstone belt by which the final phase of deposition preceded that of the juxtaposed Pongola basin with a relatively small time interval. The Pongola succession, which commenced with the first major magmatic event after the Barberton greenstone belt, overlies granitoids and remnants of greenstone belts in SE South Africa and in SW Swaziland. Formation was not in a continental rift environment but most likely in a marginal epicontinental basin with syn-depositional subsidence in a half-graben fault system in the type area. The Pongola rocks occur in two domains related to a NW-trending central basement high in the Kaapvaal Craton and achieving a maximum thickness of 8 km in the northern areas. The lower section (Nsuze group 3.7 km thick) is made up mainly of lavas and pyroclastic rocks and the upper section (Mozaan Group 4.3 km thick) is aranaceous sediments and argillites with a thick volcanic unit observed in the south-eastern facies. Chemical affinities of the lavas include tholeiite and calc-alkaline over the compositional range of basalt to rhyolite. There is a preponderance of andesites in the compositional array. The preservation of these rocks gives insight into the range of volcanic processes that took place at this stage of Earth history and in some areas it is possible to identify eruptions from a single source over several kilometres, as well as feeder-dyke systems to the lava flows. Simultaneous eruption of contrasting magmas from several

  18. Prevalence of Body Mass Index Lower Than 16 Among Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Fahad; Corsi, Daniel J; Slutsky, Arthur S; Kurpad, Anura; Berkman, Lisa; Laupacis, Andreas; Subramanian, S V

    2015-11-24

    Body mass index (BMI) lower than 16 is the most severe category of adult undernutrition and is associated with substantial morbidity, increased mortality, and poor maternal-fetal outcomes such as low-birth-weight newborns. Little is known about the prevalence and distribution of BMI lower than 16 in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). To determine the prevalence and distribution of BMI lower than 16 and its change in prevalence over time in women in LMIC. Cross-sectional data analysis composed of nationally representative surveys from 1993 through 2012 from the Demographic and Health Surveys Program. Women aged 20 through 49 years from 60 LMIC (N = 500,761) and a subset of 40 countries with repeated surveys (N = 604,144) were examined. Wealth was measured using a validated asset index, age was categorized in deciles, education by highest completed level (none, primary, secondary, or greater), and place of residence as urban vs rural. The primary outcome was BMI lower than 16. Analyses assessed the prevalence of BMI lower than 16, its association with sociodemographic factors, and change in prevalence. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), adjusting for survey design and age structure. Among countries examined, the pooled, weighted, and age-standardized prevalence of BMI lower than 16 was 1.8% (95% CI, 1.7% to 1.8%) with the highest prevalence in India (6.2% [95% CI, 5.9% to 6.5%]), followed by Bangladesh (3.9% [95% CI, 3.4% to 4.3%]), Madagascar (3.4% [95% CI, 2.8% to 4.0%], Timor-Leste (2.9% [95% CI, 2.4% to 3.2%]), Senegal (2.5% [95% CI, 1.9% to 3.2%]), and Sierra Leone (2.2% [95% CI, 1.3% to 3.0%]); and 6 countries had prevalences lower than 0.1% (Albania, Bolivia, Egypt, Peru, Swaziland, and Turkey). The prevalence of BMI lower than 16 in women with a secondary or higher education level was 0.51% (95% CI, 0.47% to 0.55%), and in mutually adjusted models, a less than primary education level was associated with an OR of

  19. Access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: a geocoded inventory and spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Paul O; Maina, Joseph; Thuranira, Pamela N; Macharia, Peter M; Alegana, Victor A; English, Mike; Okiro, Emelda A; Snow, Robert W

    2018-03-01

    %) women of child bearing age are located more than 2-h travel time from the nearest hospital. Marked differences were observed within and between countries, ranging from less than 25% of the population within 2-h travel time of a public hospital in South Sudan to more than 90% in Nigeria, Kenya, Cape Verde, Swaziland, South Africa, Burundi, Comoros, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Zanzibar. Only 16 countries reached the international benchmark of more than 80% of their populations living within a 2-h travel time of the nearest hospital. Physical access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in Africa remains poor and varies substantially within and between countries. Innovative targeting of emergency care services is necessary to reduce these inequities. This study provides the first spatial census of public hospital services in Africa. Wellcome Trust and the UK Department for International Development. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: a geocoded inventory and spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O Ouma, MSc

    2018-03-01

     282 013 (29·0% people and 64 495 526 (28·2% women of child bearing age are located more than 2-h travel time from the nearest hospital. Marked differences were observed within and between countries, ranging from less than 25% of the population within 2-h travel time of a public hospital in South Sudan to more than 90% in Nigeria, Kenya, Cape Verde, Swaziland, South Africa, Burundi, Comoros, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Zanzibar. Only 16 countries reached the international benchmark of more than 80% of their populations living within a 2-h travel time of the nearest hospital. Interpretation: Physical access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in Africa remains poor and varies substantially within and between countries. Innovative targeting of emergency care services is necessary to reduce these inequities. This study provides the first spatial census of public hospital services in Africa. Funding: Wellcome Trust and the UK Department for International Development.

  1. HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonia Poteat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender men who have sex with men (cis-MSM in 8 sub-Saharan African countries.Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment. Data collection took place at 14 sites across 8 countries: Burkina Faso (January-August 2013, Côte d'Ivoire (March 2015-February 2016, The Gambia (July-December 2011, Lesotho (February-September 2014, Malawi (July 2011-March 2012, Senegal (February-November 2015, Swaziland (August-December 2011, and Togo (January-June 2013. Surveys gathered information on sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, mental health, sexual behavior, and HIV testing. Rapid tests for HIV were conducted. Data were merged, and mixed effects logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between gender identity and HIV infection. Among 4,586 participants assigned male sex at birth, 937 (20% identified as transgender or female, and 3,649 were cis-MSM. The mean age of study participants was approximately 24 years, with no difference between transgender participants and cis-MSM. Compared to cis-MSM participants, transgender women were more likely to experience family exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.16, p < 0.001, rape (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.63-2.36, p < 0.001, and depressive symptoms (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.12-1.52, p < 0.001. Transgender women were more likely to report condomless receptive anal sex in the prior 12 months (OR 2.44, 95% CI 2.05-2.90, p < 0.001 and to be currently living with HIV (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.49-2.19, p < 0.001. Overall HIV prevalence was 25% (235/926 in transgender women and 14% (505/3,594 in cis-MSM. When adjusted

  2. Evaluating the effectiveness of selected community-level interventions on key maternal, child health, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV outcomes in three countries (the ACCLAIM Project): a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Godfrey B; Kieffer, Mary Pat; Walker, Damilola; Mpofu, Daphne; Machekano, Rhoderick

    2016-02-16

    Efforts to scale up and improve programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) have focused primarily at the health facility level, and limited attention has been paid to defining an effective set of community interventions to improve demand and uptake of services and retention. Many barriers to PMTCT are also barriers to pregnancy, childbirth, and postnatal care faced by mothers regardless of HIV status. Demand for maternal and child health (MCH) and PMTCT services can be limited by critical social, cultural, and structural barriers. Yet, rigorous evaluation has shown limited evidence of effectiveness of multilevel community-wide interventions aimed at improving MCH and HIV outcomes for pregnant women living with HIV. We propose to assess the effect of a package of multilevel community interventions: a social learning and action component, community dialogues, and peer-led discussion groups, on the demand for, uptake of, and retention of HIV positive pregnant/postpartum women in MCH/PMTCT services. This study will undertake a three-arm randomized trial in Swaziland, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Districts/regions (n = 9) with 45 PMTCT-implementing health facilities and their catchment areas (populations 7,300-27,500) will be randomly allocated to three intervention arms: 1) community leader engagement, 2) community leader engagement with community days, or 3) community leader engagement with community days and male and female community peer groups. The primary study outcome is HIV exposed infants (HEIs) returning to the health facility within 2 months for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV. Secondary study outcomes include gestational age of women attending for first antenatal care, male partners tested for HIV, and HEIs receiving nevirapine prophylaxis at birth. Changes in community knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs on MCH/PMTCT will be assessed through household surveys. Implementation of the protocol necessitated changes in the

  3. BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDE Educational Technology for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Ozlem OZAN,

    2009-10-01

    :Flexible Education and Community Development, Flexible Learning for Community Economic Development, Contribution of the IDE in Promoting Gender Equality and in Empowering Women in Swaziland, A Virtual Wheel of Fortune?: Enablers and Constraints of ICTs in Higher Education in South Africa, Delivering Distance Education for the Civil Service in the UK: The University of Chester’s Foundation for Government Program, Knowledge Management Strategies for Distance Education, The Effectiveness of Mobile Short Messaging Service (SMS Technologies in the Support of Selected Distance Education Students of Makerere University, Uganda, The Impact of Video Conferencing on Distance Education Courses: A University of Namibia Case Study, Open Resources for Open Learning in Developing Countries: Deciphering Trends for Policies, Quality, and Standards Considerations, Freedom, Innovation, and Equity with Open Source Software, Copyright Issues and their Impact on Flexible Education in Africa, University Education for National Development: Makerere University’s Dual Mode Experience, Considerations for Higher Education Distance Education Policy for Development: A Case of the University of Botswana,Blended Online and Face-to-Face Learning: A Pilot Project in the Faculty of Education, Eduardo Mondlane University, Evaluating the Impact of CABLE: A Cognitive Apprenticeship-Based Learning Environment, From Distance Learning to E-learning in Central and Northern Mozambique, A Framework for the Delivery of Cross-Regional Distance Education to Professionals in Developing Countries, Distance Learning—Challenges and Opportunities for Postgraduate Medical Education: A Case Study of Postgraduate Training in Family Medicine Using Distance Learning at the University of the West Indies (2001–2006, Pre-service Teacher Preparation and Effective eLearning, Distance Teacher Training in Rwanda: Comparing the Costs, Beckoning E-Learners through Exploration of Computer Technology, Educational Technology and Flexible

  4. Perception as a key component in the development of fire affected land in Eastern Spain. El Massís del Caroig study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Borja, Manuel Estaban Lucas; Keesstra, Saskia; Úbeda, Xavier; Francisco Martínez Murillo, Juan; Muñoz Rojas, Miriam; Oliva, Marc; Novara, Agata

    2017-04-01

    sustainable land management in central spain. Land Degradation and Development, 26(5), 458-467. doi:10.1002/ldr.2355 Martínez-Murillo, J. F., Hueso-González, P., Ruiz-Sinoga, J. D., & Lavee, H. (2016). Short-term experimental fire effects in soil and water losses in southern of spain. Land Degradation and Development, 27(5), 1513-1522. doi:10.1002/ldr.2504 Muñoz-Rojas, M., Erickson, T.E., Martini, D., Dixon, K.D., Merritt, D.J (2016) Soil physicochemical and microbiological indicators of short, medium and long term post-fire recovery in semi-arid ecosystems. Ecological indicators 63, 14-22, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.11.038 Orchard, S. E., Stringer, L. C., & Manyatsi, A. M. (2016). Farmer perceptions and responses to soil degradation in swaziland. Land Degradation and Development, doi:10.1002/ldr.2595 Pereira, P., Mierauskas, P., & Novara, A. (2016). Stakeholders' perceptions about fire impacts on lithuanian protected areas. Land Degradation and Development, 27(4), 871-883. doi:10.1002/ldr.2290 Ruiz-Fernández, J.; Nieuwendam, A.; Oliva, M.; Lopes, V.; Cruces, A. Janeiro, A.; Freitas, C. & López-Sáez, J.A (2016). Cryogenic processes and fire activity in a high Atlantic mountain area in NW Iberia (Picos de Europa) during the Mid-Late Holocene. Science of the Total Environment, doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.022.