Sample records for swayback


    Mahdavie, Elnaz; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Simorgh, Leila


    The prevalence of sway back posture (SBP) is very high among elite gymnasts. This posture may be partly due to the improper function of lumbar multifidus muscles (LMM) as lumbar stabilizers muscles. The aim of this study was to compare the thicknesses of LMM measured at rest and during the contraction elicited during an arm lift between elite gymnasts with SBP and normal posture. Observational, descriptive, comparative. The participants consist of twenty gymnasts between the ages of 17 and 30 who had trained in gymnastics for more than ten years. They were assigned to two groups: SBP (n=10) and control (n=10). Posture analysis with grid paper and plumb line was performed for all subjects. The thickness of LMM on dominant side of spinal column was measured by a real-time ultrasound at five lumbar levels. The thickness of the LMM was measured both at rest and during the contraction elicited during an arm lift. The variation between the LMM thickness between the muscle at rest and muscle at the peak of contraction was regarded as LMM muscle function. The thickness of LMM was less in SBP group than the control group at all lumbar segments. The variation in LMM thickness between the state of rest and muscle contraction was significantly less in athletes with SBP than controls when compared at all levels of the lumbar spine (p antigravity and stabilizing muscle group was decreased during arm raising in gymnasts with SBP. 3a.

  2. بررسی تغییرات ساختاری و رفتاری عضلات ثبات دهنده ستون مهره ای با استفاده از روش‌های تصویربرداری اولتراسوند، MRI و الکترومیوگرافی در افراد دارای اختلال پاسچر Sway-Back"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    الناز مهدوی


    Full Text Available مقدمه و اهداف اختلال پاسچر sway-back (SB یکی از شایعترین اختلالات ستون مهره ها درمیان افراد جامعه بخصوص خانم های جوان می باشد. با وجود شیوع این اختلال پاسچر، در مورد نحوه تغییر راستای اسکلتی در ناحیه کمر و لگن و تغییرات عضلانی حاصله اتفاق نظری بین محققان وجود ندارد. هدف از مطالعه حاضر، جمع آوری تغییرات گزارش شده در ابعاد، تولید تنشن و ساختار عضلات ثبات دهنده ستون مهره ای در پاسچر SB، با استفاده از روش های دقیق تصویربرداری اولتراسوند، الکترومیوگرافی و MRI می باشد. مواد و روش ها با جستجو در پایگاههای اطلاعاتی Google scholar, Pubmed, Embase در ابتدا 102 مقاله که در بازه ی زمانی 2002-2016 بودند بدست آمد که بعد از تطابق با معیارهای ورود و خروج، تعداد 97 مقاله حذف شد و 5 مقاله باقی مانده به صورت تمام متن مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. در این مرور از مقالاتی استفاده شد که تغییرات عضلانی در پاسچر SB را با استفاده ار روشهای USI ,MRI و EMG مورد بررسی قرار داده بودند. یافته ها با استفاده از الکترومیوگرافی سطحی کاهش فعالیت عضلات اینترنال ابلیک، مولتی فیدوس کمری و ارکتوراسپاین و افزایش فعالیت عضله ی رکتوس ابدومینوس را نشان داده شد. بررسی ضخامت عضله ی ترانسورس ابدومینوس با استفاده از اولتراسونوگرافی نیز نشان داد که ضخامت این عضله در

  3. Copper imbalances in ruminants and humans: unexpected common ground. (United States)

    Suttle, Neville F


    Ruminants are more vulnerable to copper deficiency than humans because rumen sulfide generation lowers copper availability from forage, increasing the risk of conditions such as swayback in lambs. Molybdenum-rich pastures promote thiomolybdate (TM) synthesis and formation of unabsorbable Cu-TM complexes, turning risk to clinical reality (hypocuprosis). Selection pressures created ruminant species with tolerance of deficiency but vulnerability to copper toxicity in alien environments, such as specific pathogen-free units. By contrast, cases of copper imbalance in humans seemed confined to rare genetic aberrations of copper metabolism. Recent descriptions of human swayback and the exploratory use of TM for the treatment of Wilson's disease, tumor growth, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer's disease have created unexpected common ground. The incidence of pre-hemolytic copper poisoning in specific pathogen-free lambs was reduced by an infection with Mycobacterium avium that left them more responsive to treatment with TM but vulnerable to long-term copper depletion. Copper requirements in ruminants and humans may need an extra allowance for the "copper cost" of immunity to infection. Residual cuproenzyme inhibition in TM-treated lambs and anomalies in plasma copper composition that appeared to depend on liver copper status raise this question "can chelating capacity be harnessed without inducing copper-deficiency in ruminants or humans?" A model of equilibria between exogenous (TM) and endogenous chelators (e.g., albumin, metallothionein) is used to predict risk of exposure and hypocuprosis; although risk of natural exposure in humans is remote, vulnerability to TM-induced copper deficiency may be high. Biomarkers of TM impact are needed, and copper chaperones for inhibited cuproenzymes are prime candidates.

  4. Environmental lead: a survey of its possible physiological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, H.V.


    Sources of environmental lead are discussed in a survey of diseases of the nervous system. Only 5-10 percent of the Pb ingested in food and water is absorbed, while 40-50 percent of the Pb present in inhaled air is absorbed. Air, dust, and leaded gasoline are among the sources of Pb. Normal rural air in the United States may contain 0.05 micrograms of Pb/cu m, while 0.3-2.5 may be representative of general urban areas. An urban dweller can inhale daily 60-120 micrograms of Pb, but it is not known whether 25 or 50 percent of this Pb is absorbed. Values from 0.5 to 6 percent Pb in dust are common in many large cities in Great Britain, Canada, and the United States. Evidence exists in the United States and Great Britain to show the significance of atmosphere and vegetative pollution by tetraethyl Pb discharged in the exhaust fumes of motor vehicles. It not only is a major contribution to the Pb occurring in urban air and dust but also adds indirectly, and significantly, to the Pb content of the food grown in some localities. Many diseases of the nervous system as multiple sclerosis, swayback, kuru, motor neurone disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis frequently have an unexplained association with Pb or mercury. (Author abstract modified)